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Sample records for brain areas dedicated

  1. Dedication

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This work is dedicated, to my mom, Bridget, and my dad, (the late) Daniel Enwerem, who taught me to respect people but not fear them; and to those who are engaged or have been victims in the struggle for an egalitarian society in Nigeria.

  2. Dedicated brain PET system of PET/MR for brain research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Li; Liu, Yaqiang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Wei, Qingyang; Xu, Tianpeng

    2015-01-01

    This work is to replace PET ring in human brain PET/MR system with a dedicated wearable PET insert, aimed at improving both patient feasibility and system performance for brain imaging. The designed PET/MR system includes two parts: the inside parts, including a radio frequency (RF) coil and PET ring, are mounted on patient’s head, and the outside part, a MR imager, is dependent of patient. The RF coil is the innermost layer, surrounded by an outer PET-ring layer. They are supported by a MRcompatible structure. And both RF coil and PET detectors are placed inside a standard clinical 3-T MR imager. From the design of the system we can infer that some advantages can be achieved. First, high sensitivity will be achieved with the same amount crystals as the PET ring is more close to region-of-interest area, at a reduced cost. Second, by using a 2-layer depth of interaction (DOI) detector, the parallax effect can be minimized. The resolution will benefit from short positron range caused by magnetic field and smaller ring diameter will also reduce the effect of non-collinearity. Thirdly, as the PET ring is mounted on head, impact of patient motion will be reduced.

  3. Dedicated brain PET system of PET/MR for brain research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li; Liu, Yaqiang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Wei, Qingyang; Xu, Tianpeng [Institute of Medical Physics, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-18

    This work is to replace PET ring in human brain PET/MR system with a dedicated wearable PET insert, aimed at improving both patient feasibility and system performance for brain imaging. The designed PET/MR system includes two parts: the inside parts, including a radio frequency (RF) coil and PET ring, are mounted on patient’s head, and the outside part, a MR imager, is dependent of patient. The RF coil is the innermost layer, surrounded by an outer PET-ring layer. They are supported by a MRcompatible structure. And both RF coil and PET detectors are placed inside a standard clinical 3-T MR imager. From the design of the system we can infer that some advantages can be achieved. First, high sensitivity will be achieved with the same amount crystals as the PET ring is more close to region-of-interest area, at a reduced cost. Second, by using a 2-layer depth of interaction (DOI) detector, the parallax effect can be minimized. The resolution will benefit from short positron range caused by magnetic field and smaller ring diameter will also reduce the effect of non-collinearity. Thirdly, as the PET ring is mounted on head, impact of patient motion will be reduced.

  4. On Data Transfers Over Wide-Area Dedicated Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    Dedicated wide-area network connections are employed in big data and high-performance computing scenarios, since the absence of cross-traffic promises to make it easier to analyze and optimize data transfers over them. However, nonlinear transport dynamics and end-system complexity due to multi-core hosts and distributed file systems make these tasks surprisingly challenging. We present an overview of methods to analyze memory and disk file transfers using extensive measurements over 10 Gbps physical and emulated connections with 0–366 ms round trip times (RTTs). For memory transfers, we derive performance profiles of TCP and UDT throughput as a function of RTT, which show concave regions in contrast to entirely convex regions predicted by previous models. These highly desirable concave regions can be expanded by utilizing large buffers and more parallel flows. We also present Poincar´e maps and Lyapunov exponents of TCP and UDT throughputtraces that indicate complex throughput dynamics. For disk file transfers, we show that throughput can be optimized using a combination of parallel I/O and network threads under direct I/O mode. Our initial throughput measurements of Lustre filesystems mounted over long-haul connections using LNet routers show convex profiles indicative of I/O limits.

  5. Amplifiers dedicated for large area SiC photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroz, P.; Duk, M.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Borecki, M.

    2016-09-01

    Large area SiC photodiodes find applications in optoelectronic sensors working at special conditions. These conditions include detection of UV radiation in harsh environment. Moreover, the mentioned sensors have to be selective and resistant to unwanted signals. For this purpose, the modulation of light at source unit and the rejection of constant current and low frequency component of signal at detector unit are used. The popular frequency used for modulation in such sensor is 1kHz. The large area photodiodes are characterized by a large capacitance and low shunt resistance that varies with polarization of the photodiode and can significantly modify the conditions of signal pre-amplification. In this paper two pre-amplifiers topology are analyzed: the transimpedance amplifier and the non-inverting voltage to voltage amplifier with negative feedback. The feedback loops of both pre-amplifiers are equipped with elements used for initial constant current and low frequency signals rejections. Both circuits are analyzed and compared using simulation and experimental approaches.

  6. Dedicated mobile volumetric cone-beam computed tomography for human brain imaging: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jeong, Chang-Won; Jun, Hong-Young; Heo, Dong-Woon; Lee, Jinseok; Kim, Kyong-Woo; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Mobile computed tomography (CT) with a cone-beam source is increasingly used in the clinical field. Mobile cone-beam CT (CBCT) has great merits; however, its clinical utility for brain imaging has been limited due to problems including scan time and image quality. The aim of this study was to develop a dedicated mobile volumetric CBCT for obtaining brain images, and to optimize the imaging protocol using a brain phantom. The mobile volumetric CBCT system was evaluated with regards to scan time and image quality, measured as signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR), spatial resolution (10% MTF), and effective dose. Brain images were obtained using a CT phantom. The CT scan took 5.14 s at 360 projection views. SNR and CNR were 5.67 and 14.5 at 120 kV/10 mA. SNR and CNR values showed slight improvement as the x-ray voltage and current increased (p < 0.001). Effective dose and 10% MTF were 0.92 mSv and 360 μ m at 120 kV/10 mA. Various intracranial structures were clearly visible in the brain phantom images. Using this CBCT under optimal imaging acquisition conditions, it is possible to obtain human brain images with low radiation dose, reproducible image quality, and fast scan time.

  7. Evaluation of a video-based head motion tracking system for dedicated brain PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, S.; Beylin, D.; Stepanov, P.; Stepanov, A.; Weinberg, I. N.; Schaeffer, S.; Zavarzin, V.; Shaposhnikov, D.; Smith, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional head motion during Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data acquisition can degrade PET image quality and lead to artifacts. Poor patient compliance, head tremor, and coughing are examples of movement sources. Head motion due to patient non-compliance can be an issue with the rise of amyloid brain PET in dementia patients. To preserve PET image resolution and quantitative accuracy, head motion can be tracked and corrected in the image reconstruction algorithm. While fiducial markers can be used, a contactless approach is preferable. A video-based head motion tracking system for a dedicated portable brain PET scanner was developed. Four wide-angle cameras organized in two stereo pairs are used for capturing video of the patient's head during the PET data acquisition. Facial points are automatically tracked and used to determine the six degree of freedom head pose as a function of time. The presented work evaluated the newly designed tracking system using a head phantom and a moving American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. The mean video-tracking error was 0.99±0.90 mm relative to the magnetic tracking device used as ground truth. Qualitative evaluation with the ACR phantom shows the advantage of the motion tracking application. The developed system is able to perform tracking with accuracy close to millimeter and can help to preserve resolution of brain PET images in presence of movements.

  8. Towards Effective Non-Invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces Dedicated to Gait Rehabilitation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Castermans

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, significant progress has been made in the field of walk rehabilitation. Motor cortex signals in bipedal monkeys have been interpreted to predict walk kinematics. Epidural electrical stimulation in rats and in one young paraplegic has been realized to partially restore motor control after spinal cord injury. However, these experimental trials are far from being applicable to all patients suffering from motor impairments. Therefore, it is thought that more simple rehabilitation systems are desirable in the meanwhile. The goal of this review is to describe and summarize the progress made in the development of non-invasive brain-computer interfaces dedicated to motor rehabilitation systems. In the first part, the main principles of human locomotion control are presented. The paper then focuses on the mechanisms of supra-spinal centers active during gait, including results from electroencephalography, functional brain imaging technologies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron-emission tomography (PET, single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT] and invasive studies. The first brain-computer interface (BCI applications to gait rehabilitation are then presented, with a discussion about the different strategies developed in the field. The challenges to raise for future systems are identified and discussed. Finally, we present some proposals to address these challenges, in order to contribute to the improvement of BCI for gait rehabilitation.

  9. Experiments and Analyses of Data Transfers Over Wide-Area Dedicated Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Hanley, Jesse A. [ORNL; Foster, Ian [University of Chicago; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wu, Qishi [University of Memphis; Yun, Daqing [Harrisburg University; Towsley, Don [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Vardoyan, Gayane [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2017-08-01

    Dedicated wide-area network connections are increasingly employed in high-performance computing and big data scenarios. One might expect the performance and dynamics of data transfers over such connections to be easy to analyze due to the lack of competing traffic. However, non-linear transport dynamics and end-system complexities (e.g., multi-core hosts and distributed filesystems) can in fact make analysis surprisingly challenging. We present extensive measurements of memory-to-memory and disk-to-disk file transfers over 10 Gbps physical and emulated connections with 0–366 ms round trip times (RTTs). For memory-to-memory transfers, profiles of both TCP and UDT throughput as a function of RTT show concave and convex regions; large buffer sizes and more parallel flows lead to wider concave regions, which are highly desirable. TCP and UDT both also display complex throughput dynamics, as indicated by their Poincare maps and Lyapunov exponents. For disk-to-disk transfers, we determine that high throughput can be achieved via a combination of parallel I/O threads, parallel network threads, and direct I/O mode. Our measurements also show that Lustre filesystems can be mounted over long-haul connections using LNet routers, although challenges remain in jointly optimizing file I/O and transport method parameters to achieve peak throughput.

  10. Safety of a dedicated brain MRI protocol in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jeroen C; Melis, Gerrit I; Gebbink, Tineke A; de Kort, Gérard A P; Leijten, Frans S S

    2014-11-01

    Although implanted metallic devices constitute a relative contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, the safety of brain imaging in a patient with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is classified as "conditional," provided that specific manufacturer guidelines are followed when a transmit and receive head coil is used at 1.5 or 3.0 Tesla. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of performing brain MRI scans in patients with the VNS. From September 2009 until November 2011, 101 scans were requested in 73 patients with the VNS in The Netherlands. Patients were scanned according to the manufacturer's guidelines. No patient reported any side effect, discomfort, or pain during or after the MRI scan. In one patient, a lead break was detected based on device diagnostics after the MRI-scan. However, because no system diagnostics had been performed prior to MR scanning in this patient, it is unclear whether MR scanning was responsible for the lead break. The indication for most scans was epilepsy related. Twenty-six scans (26%) were part of a (new) presurgical evaluation and could probably better have been performed prior to VNS implantation. Performing brain MRI scans in patients with an implanted VNS is safe when a modified MRI protocol is followed. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Experimental Analysis of File Transfer Rates over Wide-Area Dedicated Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Hinkel, Gregory Carl [ORNL; Imam, Neena [ORNL; Foster, Ian [University of Chicago; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Settlemyer, Bradley [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wu, Qishi [University of Memphis; Yun, Daqing [Harrisburg University

    2016-12-01

    File transfers over dedicated connections, supported by large parallel file systems, have become increasingly important in high-performance computing and big data workflows. It remains a challenge to achieve peak rates for such transfers due to the complexities of file I/O, host, and network transport subsystems, and equally importantly, their interactions. We present extensive measurements of disk-to-disk file transfers using Lustre and XFS file systems mounted on multi-core servers over a suite of 10 Gbps emulated connections with 0-366 ms round trip times. Our results indicate that large buffer sizes and many parallel flows do not always guarantee high transfer rates. Furthermore, large variations in the measured rates necessitate repeated measurements to ensure confidence in inferences based on them. We propose a new method to efficiently identify the optimal joint file I/O and network transport parameters using a small number of measurements. We show that for XFS and Lustre with direct I/O, this method identifies configurations achieving 97% of the peak transfer rate while probing only 12% of the parameter space.

  12. Effects of a dedicated regional psychiatric emergency service on boarding of psychiatric patients in area emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Scott; Calma, Nicole; Stone, Ashley

    2014-02-01

    Mental health patients boarding for long hours, even days, in United States emergency departments (EDs) awaiting transfer for psychiatric services has become a considerable and widespread problem. Past studies have shown average boarding times ranging from 6.8 hours to 34 hours. Most proposed solutions to this issue have focused solely on increasing available inpatient psychiatric hospital beds, rather than considering alternative emergency care designs that could provide prompt access to treatment and might reduce the need for many hospitalizations. One suggested option has been the "regional dedicated emergency psychiatric facility," which serves to evaluate and treat all mental health patients for a given area, and can accept direct transfers from other EDs. This study sought to assess the effects of a regional dedicated emergency psychiatric facility design known at the "Alameda Model" on boarding times and hospitalization rates for psychiatric patients in area EDs. Over a 30-day period beginning in January 2013, 5 community hospitals in Alameda County, California, tracked all ED patients on involuntary mental health holds to determine boarding time, defined as the difference between when they were deemed stable for psychiatric disposition and the time they were discharged from the ED for transfer to the regional psychiatric emergency service. Patients were also followed to determine the percentage admitted to inpatient psychiatric units after evaluation and treatment in the psychiatric emergency service. In a total sample of 144 patients, the average boarding time was approximately 1 hour and 48 minutes. Only 24.8% were admitted for inpatient psychiatric hospitalization from the psychiatric emergency service. The results of this study indicate that the Alameda Model of transferring patients from general hospital EDs to a regional psychiatric emergency service reduced the length of boarding times for patients awaiting psychiatric care by over 80% versus

  13. Comparison between a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system in the measurement of the loss of dopamine transporters with [123I]FP-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrone, Andrea; Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco; Pellecchia, Maria T.; Salvatore, Elena; de Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo; Amboni, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Dual-head SPECT systems are used by many clinical departments for [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging, while triple-head or brain-dedicated systems with better imaging performance are more commonly used by research institutions. There are limited data comparing the capability of the two types of system to measure dopamine transporter (DAT) loss in vivo. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system to estimate the degree of DAT loss in different movement disorders with variable nigrostriatal impairment, with [ 123 I]FP-CIT. Four patients with essential tremor, 24 with Parkinson's disease (PD), six with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 and six controls were studied with [ 123 I]FP-CIT. SPECT scans were performed on a dual-head (E.CAM - Siemens) and subsequently on a brain-dedicated system (Ceraspect - DSI). Striatal DAT outcome measures on the E.CAM and the Ceraspect were strongly correlated and the putamen-to-caudate ratios were almost identical. Although the measured values were lower by 52 ± 25% in caudate and by 51 ± 31% in putamen on the E.CAM (p < 0.0001), the average striatal DAT decrease in each patient group compared with controls was similar for both systems. In PD patients, similar correlations (p < 0.05) were found between motor UPDRS or Hoehn and Yahr stage and striatal DAT density. Despite underestimation of striatal DAT outcome measures, the E.CAM showed similar capability as the Ceraspect in measuring the degree of nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit and assessing the correlation between DAT outcome measures and clinical variables of PD severity and stage. (orig.)

  14. The QUANTUM I project: Parallel processing in a local area network work dedicated to ab initio calculation of potential hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenir, E.; Pic, J.M.; Alibran, P.; Leclercq, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The QUANTUM I project is a three-stage device. The stages are respectively dedicated to particular steps of the ab initio determination of a point on the hypersurface. The first stage deals with the computation of the integrals between the basis functions, the second with the S.C.F. (or M.C.S.C.F.) process and the third with the C.I treatment. Each step is developed in terms of parallel mode (M.I.M.D.), the whole device working following a pipeline mode: the three stages works simultaneously for different points

  15. Characterization and performance of monolithic detector blocks with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout for PET imaging of the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rato Mendes, Pedro; Sarasola Martin, Iciar; Canadas, Mario; Garcia de Acilu, Paz; Cuypers, Robin; Perez, Jose Manuel; Willmott, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a human brain PET scanner prototype compatible with MRI based on monolithic scintillator crystals, APD matrices and a dedicated ASIC front-end readout. In this work we report on the performance of individual detector modules and on the operation of such modules in PET coincidence. Results will be presented on the individual characterization of detector blocks and its ASIC front-end readout, with measured energy resolutions of 13% full-width half-maximum (FWHM) at 511 keV and spatial resolutions of the order of 2 mm FWHM. First results on PET coincidence performance indicate spatial resolutions as good as 2.1 mm FWHM for SSRB/FBP reconstruction of tomographic data obtained using a simple PET demonstrator based on a pair of monolithic detector blocks with ASIC readout.

  16. A network of genes, genetic disorders, and brain areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Hayasaka

    Full Text Available The network-based approach has been used to describe the relationship among genes and various phenotypes, producing a network describing complex biological relationships. Such networks can be constructed by aggregating previously reported associations in the literature from various databases. In this work, we applied the network-based approach to investigate how different brain areas are associated to genetic disorders and genes. In particular, a tripartite network with genes, genetic diseases, and brain areas was constructed based on the associations among them reported in the literature through text mining. In the resulting network, a disproportionately large number of gene-disease and disease-brain associations were attributed to a small subset of genes, diseases, and brain areas. Furthermore, a small number of brain areas were found to be associated with a large number of the same genes and diseases. These core brain regions encompassed the areas identified by the previous genome-wide association studies, and suggest potential areas of focus in the future imaging genetics research. The approach outlined in this work demonstrates the utility of the network-based approach in studying genetic effects on the brain.

  17. Inclusion of brain in FDG PET/CT scanning techniques in cancer patients: Does it obviate the need for dedicated brain imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purandare, Nilendu C.

    2011-01-01

    Metastases to the brain can affect about 10-20% cancer patients. Rising incidence of brain metastases in recent years is related to improved survival rates as a result of advances in cancer therapy and development of more sensitive diagnostic imaging techniques. In patients with extracranial malignancies detection of brain metastases is very important in deciding further diagnostic procedures, planning therapeutic strategies and also to ascertain prognosis. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities which have been traditionally used to assess metastatic disease to the central nervous system. It is generally accepted that MRI (contrast enhanced) is superior to CT scan (contrast enhanced) in the diagnosis of brain metastases. An inherently better soft tissue contrast resolution, stronger contrast enhancement, lack of bone artifacts and partial volume effects and direct multiplanar imaging enables MRI to pick up smaller sized as well as more number of metastases than a CT scan

  18. Feasibility of a novel design of high resolution parallax-free Compton enhanced PET scanner dedicated to brain research

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Correia, J G; Garibaldi, F; Joram, C; Mathot, S; Nappi, E; Ribeiro da Silva, M; Schoenahl, F; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; Zaidi, H

    2004-01-01

    A novel concept for a positron emission tomography (PET) camera module is proposed, which provides full 3D reconstruction with high resolution over the total detector volume, free of parallax errors. The key components are a matrix of long scintillator crystals and hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) with matched segmentation and integrated readout electronics. The HPDs read out the two ends of the scintillator package. Both excellent spatial (x, y, z) and energy resolution are obtained. The concept allows enhancing the detection efficiency by reconstructing a significant fraction of events which underwent Compton scattering in the crystals. The proof of concept will first be demonstrated with yttrium orthoaluminate perovskite (YAP):Ce crystals, but the final design will rely on other scintillators more adequate for PET applications (e.g. LSO:Ce or LaBr /sub 3/:Ce). A promising application of the proposed camera module, which is currently under development, is a high resolution 3D brain PET camera with an axial fi...

  19. Stereotactically Standard Areas: Applied Mathematics in the Service of Brain Targeting in Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding SSAs. A mathematical formula of SSAs was recently invented, allowing for their robust, reproducible, and accurate application to laboratory studies and clinical practice. Thus, SSAs open new doors for the application of stereotactic microanatomy to highly accurate brain targeting, which is mainly useful for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation.

  20. Stereotactically Standard Areas: Applied Mathematics in the Service of Brain Targeting in Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2017-12-11

    The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs) within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding SSAs. A mathematical formula of SSAs was recently invented, allowing for their robust, reproducible, and accurate application to laboratory studies and clinical practice. Thus, SSAs open new doors for the application of stereotactic microanatomy to highly accurate brain targeting, which is mainly useful for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation.

  1. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Sorokowska; Agnieszka Sorokowska; Katherina Schoen; Cornelia Hummel; Pengfei Han; Jonathan Warr; Thomas Hummel

    2017-01-01

    Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving careful...

  2. Diagnostic work up for language testing in patients undergoing awake craniotomy for brain lesions in language areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, Federico; Stazi, Elisabetta; Titi, Luca; Lalli, Diana; Delfini, Roberto; Santoro, Antonio; Rosa, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    Awake craniotomy is the technique of choice in patients with brain tumours adjacent to primary and accessory language areas (Broca's and Wernicke's areas). Language testing should be aimed to detect preoperative deficits, to promptly identify the occurrence of new intraoperative impairments and to establish the course of postoperative language status. Aim of this case series is to describe our experience with a dedicated language testing work up to evaluate patients with or at risk for language disturbances undergoing awake craniotomy for brain tumour resection. Pre- and intra operative testing was accomplished with 8 tests. Intraoperative evaluation was accomplished when patients were fully cooperative (Ramsey awake craniotomy for brain tumour resection with preoperative language disturbances or at risk for postoperative language deficits. This approach allows a systematic evaluation and recording of language function status and can be accomplished even when a neuropsychologist or speech therapist are not involved in the operation crew.

  3. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving carefully preselected odors of edible and non-edible substances. We compared activations generated by three food and three non-food odorants matching in terms of intensity, pleasantness and trigeminal qualities. We observed that for our mixed sample of 30 hungry and satiated participants, food odors generated significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (right and left, insula (right, and putamen (right than non-food odors. Among hungry subjects, regardless of the odor type, we found significant activation in the ventral tegmental area in response to olfactory stimulation. As our stimuli were matched in terms of various perceptual qualities, this result suggests that edibility of an odor source indeed generates specific activation in dopaminergic brain areas.

  4. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  5. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, th...

  6. How Localized are Language Brain Areas? A Review of Brodmann Areas Involvement in Oral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The interest in understanding how language is "localized" in the brain has existed for centuries. Departing from seven meta-analytic studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity during the performance of different language activities, it is proposed here that there are two different language networks in the brain: first, a language reception/understanding system, including a "core Wernicke's area" involved in word recognition (BA21, BA22, BA41, and BA42), and a fringe or peripheral area ("extended Wernicke's area:" BA20, BA37, BA38, BA39, and BA40) involved in language associations (associating words with other information); second, a language production system ("Broca's complex:" BA44, BA45, and also BA46, BA47, partially BA6-mainly its mesial supplementary motor area-and extending toward the basal ganglia and the thalamus). This paper additionally proposes that the insula (BA13) plays a certain coordinating role in interconnecting these two brain language systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Disrupted modular organization of primary sensory brain areas in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Bordier

    Full Text Available Abnormal brain resting-state functional connectivity has been consistently observed in patients affected by schizophrenia (SCZ using functional MRI and other neuroimaging techniques. Graph theoretical methods provide a framework to investigate these defective functional interactions and their effects on the organization of brain connectivity networks. A few studies have shown altered distribution of connectivity within and between functional modules in SCZ patients, an indication of imbalanced functional segregation ad integration. However, no major alterations of modular organization have been reported in patients, and unambiguous identification of the neural substrates affected remains elusive. Recently, it has been demonstrated that current modularity analysis methods suffer from a fundamental and severe resolution limit, as they fail to detect features that are smaller than a scale determined by the size of the entire connectivity network. This resolution limit is likely to have hampered the ability to resolve differences between patients and controls in previous studies. Here, we apply Surprise, a novel resolution limit-free approach, to study the modular organization of resting state functional connectivity networks in a large cohort of SCZ patients and in matched healthy controls. Leveraging these important methodological advances we find new evidence of substantial fragmentation and reorganization involving primary sensory, auditory and visual areas in SCZ patients. Conversely, frontal and prefrontal areas, typically associated with higher cognitive functions, appear to be largely unaffected, with changes selectively involving language and speech processing areas. Our findings support the hypothesis that cognitive dysfunction in SCZ may involve deficits occurring already at early stages of sensory processing. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Surprise, Asymptotical surprise, Functional connectivity, Community detection, Modularity, Graph theory

  8. Musculoskeletal MRI: dedicated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masciocchi, C.; Barile, A.; Satragno, L.

    2000-01-01

    The ''dedicated'' MRI units have characteristics of high diagnostic accuracy and lower installation and management costs as compared with whole-body systems. The dedicated MRI units are easy to install. The low weight allows their installation also under unfavorable circumstances. In a dedicated system cost-effectiveness and ease of installation must be accompanied by the capability of providing high-quality images. In our experience, the high number of examinations performed, the most part of which provided with the surgical controls, allowed an accurate evaluation of the diagnostic potentialities of the dedicated magnet. We were not able to perform the examinations in only 3 % of cases due to the physical shape of the patient and the clinical condition of the patient which may hinder the correct positioning of the limb. The overlapping of the diagnostic accuracy of the E-scan and Artoscan units in the study of the lower limbs, compared with whole-body units and surgery, prompted us to exploit the potentialities of the E-Scan in the study of the shoulder. We had a good correlation between E-Scan, whole-body units, and surgical findings, which confirmed the high diagnostic accuracy of the dedicated system. In conclusion, in our experience carried out in the musculoskeletal system, the dedicated magnets showed promising results. Their diagnostic reliability and utility was comparable to that obtained from conventional units operating at higher magnetic fields. (orig.)

  9. Pathological Area Detection in MR Images of Brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, P.; Kropatsch, W.G.; Bartušek, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2013), s. 17-21 ISSN 1213-1539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/1104; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Brain * Brain tumor detection * MR * Symmetry analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Dedicated bifurcation stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Ananthakrishna Pillai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bifurcation percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is still a difficult call for the interventionist despite advancements in the instrumentation, technical skill and the imaging modalities. With major cardiac events relate to the side-branch (SB compromise, the concept and practice of dedicated bifurcation stents seems exciting. Several designs of such dedicated stents are currently undergoing trials. This novel concept and pristine technology offers new hope notwithstanding the fact that we need to go a long way in widespread acceptance and practice of these gadgets. Some of these designs even though looks enterprising, the mere complex delivering technique and the demanding knowledge of the exact coronary anatomy makes their routine use challenging.

  11. Feasibility of a brain-dedicated PET-MRI system using four-layer DOI detectors integrated with an RF head coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikido, F.; Obata, T.; Shimizu, K.; Suga, M.; Inadama, N.; Tachibana, A.; Yoshida, E.; Ito, H.; Yamaya, T.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a PET-MRI system which consists of PET detectors integrated with the head coil of the MRI in order to realize high spatial resolution and high sensitivity in simultaneous measurements. In the PET-MRI system, the PET detectors which consist of a scintillator block, photo-detectors and front-end circuits with four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding capability are placed close to the measured object. Therefore, the proposed system can achieve high sensitivity without degradation of spatial resolution at the edge of the field-of-view due to parallax error thanks to the four-layer DOI capability. In this paper, we fabricated a prototype system which consists of a prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector, a dummy PET detector and a prototype birdcage type head coil. Then we used the prototype system to evaluate the performance of the four-layer DOI-PET detector and the reciprocal influence between the PET detectors and MRI images. The prototype DOI-PET detector consists of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays (S11064-050P), a readout circuit board, two scintillator blocks and a copper shielding box. Each scintillator block consists of four layers of Lu 1.8 Gd 0.2 SiO 5 :Ce (LGSO) scintillators and reflectors are inserted between the scintillation crystals. The dummy detector has all these components except the two scintillator blocks. The head coil is dedicated to a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio, Siemens) and the two detectors are mounted in gaps between head coil elements. Energy resolution and crystal identification performance of the prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector were evaluated with and without MRI measurements by the gradient echo and spin echo methods. We identified crystal elements in all four layers from a 2D flood histogram and energy resolution of 15–18% was obtained for single crystal elements in simultaneous measurements. The difference between the average energy resolutions and photo-peak positions with and

  12. Dedicating Fermilab's Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-01-15

    It was a bold move to have a fullscale dedication ceremony for the new proton-antiproton Collider at the Fermilab Tevatron on 13 October, two days before the first collisions were seen. However the particles dutifully behaved as required, and over the following weekend the Collider delivered its goods at a total energy of 1600 GeV, significantly boosting the world record for laboratory collisions.

  13. Brain areas and pathways in the regulation of glucose metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; Serlie, Mireille J.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose is the most important source of fuel for the brain and its concentration must be kept within strict boundaries to ensure the organism's optimal fitness. To maintain glucose homeostasis, an optimal balance between glucose uptake and glucose output is required. Besides managing acute changes

  14. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Kwang Ki; Yoon, Yup Yoon; Seo, Hyung Suk

    2009-01-01

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p 2 , 715.4 ± 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 ± 108, 844.1 ± 85) and the HCs (563.2 ± 75, 818.9 ± 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  15. Editors note, and Dedication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mugnai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This Supplement to volume 50 of Phytopathologia Mediterranea contains original, peer reviewed research papers, prepared from presentations at the 7th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases (IWGTD. This Workshop was held in Santa Cruz, Chile, 17–21 January 2010, and was organized by the International Council on Grapevine Trunk Diseases (ICGTD.  Publication of this Supplement has been financially assisted by the International Society for Plant Pathology (ISPP.This Supplementary Issue of Phytopathologia Mediterranea is dedicated to the memory of Dr Luigi Chiarappa, the founder and inspiration of the ICGTD.  

  16. Brain size and white matter content of cerebrospinal tracts determine the upper cervical cord area: evidence from structural brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Christina; Arsic, Milan; Boucard, Christine C.; Biberacher, Viola; Nunnemann, Sabine; Muehlau, Mark [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM-Neuroimaging Center, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schmidt, Paul [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Muenchen, Department of Statistics, Munich (Germany); Roettinger, Michael [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Muenchner Institut fuer Neuroradiologie, Munich (Germany); Etgen, Thorleif [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Klinikum Traunstein, Department of Neurology, Traunstein (Germany); Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Meisenzahl, Eva M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Measurement of the upper cervical cord area (UCCA) from brain MRI may be an effective way to quantify spinal cord involvement in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. However, knowledge on the determinants of UCCA in healthy controls (HCs) is limited. In two cohorts of 133 and 285 HCs, we studied the influence of different demographic, body-related, and brain-related parameters on UCCA by simple and partial correlation analyses as well as by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) across both cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). First, we confirmed the known but moderate effect of age on UCCA in the older cohort. Second, we studied the correlation of UCCA with sex, body height, and total intracranial volume (TIV). TIV was the only variable that correlated significantly with UCCA after correction for the other variables. Third, we studied the correlation of UCCA with brain-related parameters. Brain volume correlated stronger with UCCA than TIV. Both volumes of the brain tissue compartments GM and WM correlated with UCCA significantly. WM volume explained variance of UCCA after correction for GM volume, whilst the opposite was not observed. Correspondingly, VBM did not yield any brain region, whose GM content correlated significantly with UCCA, whilst cerebral WM content of cerebrospinal tracts strongly correlated with UCCA. This latter effect increased along a craniocaudal gradient. UCCA is mainly determined by brain volume as well as by WM content of cerebrospinal tracts. (orig.)

  17. Dedicated accelerator and microprobe line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmqvist, K.G.; Hylten, G.; Hult, M.; Haakansson, K.; Knox, J.M.; Larsson, N.P.O.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Schofield, R.; Swietlicki, E.; Tapper, U.A.S.; Yang Changyi

    1993-01-01

    The development of a dedicated facility for nuclear microprobe analysis and the experiences from using it are discussed. The general properties of the present Lund nuclear microprobe will be described and the advantages of using a dedicated accelerator discussed. (orig.)

  18. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  19. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Land Use and Habitat Fragmentation within a Protected Area Dedicated to Tourism in a Sudanian Savanna of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimobe Kangbéni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nazinga Game Ranch (NGR is a reserve in Burkina Faso involving local communities for securing biodiversity through sustainable management. Yet, its ecosystems are threatened by increasing number of elephants and illegal human activities. Renowned as a model of wildlife participatory management, NGR has mainly been studied for its animal wildlife only. The aim of this study was to uncover ecological effects of recent land management on savanna habitats including tourism, and to conclude on more sustainable options, land use/land cover (LULC changes and vegetation dynamics in NGR were analyzed. This was accomplished with multi-temporal change detection using Landsat images of 1984, 2002 and 2013 to map seven representative LULC classification categories, and quantitative indices of landscape metrics. The results showed that the LULC dynamics in NGR from 1984 to 2013 was mainly characterized by an expansion of gallery forest, tree savanna and agricultural area and a reduction of shrub savanna, woodland and bare soils. From 2002 to 2013, fragmentation in all land cover types increased at the landscape level, whereas at the class level, it decreased for woodland. Our findings provided evidence of habitat degradation in NGR, due to extensive agriculture, tourism and growing of elephants’ population. According to the original management goals and the purposes of the reserve, both fauna and tourism are to be maintained and sustained in a sustainable way. Adaptation of land use and targeted wildlife management are the main requirements for avoiding further degradation of vegetation and thus of the existence basis of local inhabitants, animals and tourism.

  20. Deep brain stimulation affects conditioned and unconditioned anxiety in different brain areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.; Klanker, M.; van Oorschot, N.; Post, R.; Hamelink, R.; Feenstra, M. G. P.; Denys, D.

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has proven to be an effective treatment for therapy refractory obsessive compulsive disorder. Clinical observations show that anxiety symptoms decrease rapidly following DBS. As in clinical studies different regions are targeted, it is of

  1. A study of perifocal low-density area in metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryuta; Okada, Kodai; Hiratsuka, Hideo; Inaba, Yutaka; Tsuyumu, Matsutaira.

    1980-01-01

    It is well known that vasogenic brain edema often develops in brain tumors, head injuries, and inflammatory brain lesions. In order to investigate the development and resolution of vasogenic brain edema, some CT findings of metastatic brain tumors were studied in detail. 20 cases of metastatic brain tumors of the past three years were examined by means of a CT scan. In almost all the cases there was a perifocal low-density area (PFL) in the CT findings. In the tumors which were cystic and/or located in the infratentorial space, PFL was not present or, if present, only slightly so. On the contrary, in the tumors which were nodular and/or in the supratentorial space, PFL was present extensively. In the supratentorial metastasis, PFL seemed to be restricted within the white matter and not to involve the gray matter nor such midline structures as basal ganglia and corpus callosum. Besides, PFL was always in contact with the lateral ventricular wall. These results show that PFL in the metastatic tumors resembles in shape the experimental cold-induced brain edema in cats. PFL is presumed to represent vasogenic brain edema; these findings support the hypothesis that the main mechanism of the resolution of vasogenic brain edema is the drainage of the edema fluid into the ventricular CSF. (author)

  2. Study of perifocal low-density area in metastatic brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, R; Okada, K; Hiratsuka, H; Inaba, Y [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tsuyumu, M

    1980-04-01

    It is well known that vasogenic brain edema often develops in brain tumors, head injuries, and inflammatory brain lesions. In order to investigate the development and resolution of vasogenic brain edema, some CT findings of metastatic brain tumors were studied in detail. 20 cases of metastatic brain tumors of the past three years were examined by means of a CT scan. In almost all the cases there was a perifocal low-density area (PFL) in the CT findings. In the tumors which were cystic and/or located in the infratentorial space, PFL was not present or, if present, only slightly so. On the contrary, in the tumors which were nodular and/or in the supratentorial space, PFL was present extensively. In the supratentorial metastasis, PFL seemed to be restricted within the white matter and not to involve the gray matter nor such midline structures as basal ganglia and corpus callosum. Besides, PFL was always in contact with the lateral ventricular wall. These results show that PFL in the metastatic tumors resembles in shape the experimental cold-induced brain edema in cats. PFL is presumed to represent vasogenic brain edema; these findings support the hypothesis that the main mechanism of the resolution of vasogenic brain edema is the drainage of the edema fluid into the ventricular CSF.

  3. One century of brain mapping using Brodmann areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotzer, Michael

    2009-08-01

    100 years after their publication, Brodmann's maps of the cerebral cortex are universally used to locate neuropsychological functions. On the occasion of this jubilee the life and work of Korbinian Brodmann are reported. The core functions of each single Brodmann area are described and Brodmann's views on neuropsychological processes are depicted.

  4. Naturalizing aesthetics: brain areas for aesthetic appraisal across sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Gao, Xiaoqing; Tisdelle, Loren; Eickhoff, Simon B; Liotti, Mario

    2011-09-01

    We present here the most comprehensive analysis to date of neuroaesthetic processing by reporting the results of voxel-based meta-analyses of 93 neuroimaging studies of positive-valence aesthetic appraisal across four sensory modalities. The results demonstrate that the most concordant area of activation across all four modalities is the right anterior insula, an area typically associated with visceral perception, especially of negative valence (disgust, pain, etc.). We argue that aesthetic processing is, at its core, the appraisal of the valence of perceived objects. This appraisal is in no way limited to artworks but is instead applicable to all types of perceived objects. Therefore, one way to naturalize aesthetics is to argue that such a system evolved first for the appraisal of objects of survival advantage, such as food sources, and was later co-opted in humans for the experience of artworks for the satisfaction of social needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Brodmann Areas 17, 18, and 19 in the Human Brain: An Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Juro

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 17, 18, and 19 in the human brain are visual cortices of the occipital lobe. Each area has its own retinotopic representations, particulary area 19, which has many small retinotopic areas representing half or all of the contralateral visual field, several functional areas, and nine cytoarchitectonic areas. Several fasciculi are known as occipital fiber connections, but their precise endpoints are not clear. Lesions in the visual cortices cause several visual disorders including visual field defect, visual hallucinations, metamorphopsia, and different kinds of visual agnosia.

  6. Alterations of whole-brain cortical area and thickness in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanming; Wang, Jian; Gui, Li; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Chen; Du, Hanjian

    2011-01-01

    Gray matter volume and density of several brain regions, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animal studies have indicated that changes in cortical area size is relevant to thinking and behavior, but alterations of cortical area and thickness in the brains of individuals with AD or its likely precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), have not been reported. In this study, 25 MCI subjects, 30 AD subjects, and 30 age-matched normal controls were recruited for brain MRI scans and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessments. Based on the model using FreeSurfer software, two brain lobes were divided into various regions according to the Desikan-Killiany atlas and the cortical area and thickness of every region was compared and analyzed. We found a significant increase in cortical area of several regions in the frontal and temporal cortices, which correlated negatively with MMSE scores, and a significant decrease in cortical area of several regions in the parietal cortex and the cingulate gyrus in AD subjects. Increased cortical area was also seen in some regions of the frontal and temporal cortices in MCI subjects, whereas the cortical thickness of the same regions was decreased. Our observations suggest characteristic differences of the cortical area and thickness in MCI, AD, and normal control subjects, and these changes may help diagnose both MCI and AD.

  7. Diffusion tensor tractography of language functional areas and fiber pathways in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuejin; Dai Jianping; Chen Hongyan; Gao Peiyi; Ai Lin; Tian Shengyong; Pang Ruilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the fiber pathways of Broca area to the other functional brain areas with diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking. Methods: Conventionality MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking were performed using 3.0 T MRI in 20 healthy person. The fiber bundles and tracts were analyzed in Broca area and contralateral normal area. Results: The left-side fiber bundles were 428 and the right-side were 416 in B45 area, there were no statistically significant differences between both sides (t=0.216, P>0.05). The left-side fiber bundles were 432 and the right-side were 344 in B44 area,there were statistically significant (t=2.314, P 0.05). Differences of the arcuate fascicule between both sides were not statistically significant (t=-0.465, P>0.05), the mean FA on the left was higher than the right (t=1.912, P<0.05). DTI and fiber tracking exhibited that the fiber bundles from Broca area were distributed superoanteriorly to the lateral foreside of the frontal lobe, lateroinferiorly to the occipital lobe through external capsule, and went down through globus pallidus and internal capsule. Conclusion: The fiber tracts bewteen Broca area and other brain areas were the fundamental structures for performing language function of the human brain. (authors)

  8. Determination of hyperactive areas of Cortex Cerebri with using brain SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of the ability to apply of SPECT technique to determination of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. Analysis included 50 patients (mean aged 44 - 58). Brain SPECT scanning was performed after 1 hour after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq of ethylcisteinate dimmer labeled 99m Technetium (99mTc-ECD) with the use one-head gamma camera with a low-energy, ultra-high resolution collimator. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed using specialised software. In 20 cases normal biodistribution of the radiotracer was observed (hyperactive areas in cerebellum and occiput). In patients with psychiatric and neurological disturbances hyperactive areas were visualized in 25 cases in temporal lobes, in 4 cases in parietal lobes and in 1 patient in frontal area and basal ganglia. It is concluded that a number of factors limit the wide-scale use of SPECT, including the sophistication of imaging equipment (single-head cameras are inferior to the newer multihead units) and the experience of the physicians interpreting the scans and utilizing the data. In many diseases physicians do not know which areas of the patient's brain according disorders. Brain SPECT study can be a very useful tool to evaluation of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. This technique visualization of cortex cerebri completes standard analysis of disorders of brain activity

  9. [Study on corresponding areas the liver and lung channels in brain with fMRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Ming; Xie, Peng; Lü, Fa-Jin; Mou, Jun; Li, Yong-Mei; Zhao, Jian-Nong; Chen, Wei-Juan; Gong, Qi-Yong; Zhao, Li-Bo; Liu, Qing-Jun; Shen, Lin; Zhai, Hong; Yang, De-Yu

    2007-10-01

    To explore distribution of the Liver and Lung Channels in the brain so as to provide imaging basis for construction of channel theory in the brain. Sixty healthy student volunteers were randomly divided into a Liver Channel group (I) and a Lung Channel group (II), and the each group was further divided into five subgroups with 6 volunteers in each subgroup, based on five-shu-point principles which, were Dadun (LR 1, I 1), Xingjian (LR 2, I 2), Taichong (LR 3, I 3), Zhongfeng (LR 4, I 4), Ququan (LR 8, I 5), Shaoshang (LU 11, II 1), Yuji (LU 10, II 2), Taiyuan (LU 9, II 3), Jingqu (LU 8, II 4), and Chize (LU 5, II 5), respectively. In order to observe the brain activating patterns during acupuncture at the different acupoints, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique was adopted. All image data were then analyzed with SPM 2 software. The statistical parameter gram was composed of the pixel P areas, and the commonly activated area of five-shu-point of each channel was considered as the brain distribution of the Liver and Lung Channels. The common areas activated by the five-shu-points of the Liver Channel were homolateral Brodmann area (BA) 34, BA 47, red nucleus, contralateral BA 19, BA 30, BA 39, the superior parietal lobule, cerebellum decline, and bilateral BA 3 and culmen. The common areas activated by the five-shu-points of the Lung Channels included homolateral BA 2, BA 18, BA 35, and contralateral BA 9 and substania nigra. There are relatively specific corresponding brain areas for the Liver and Lung Channels, indicating that there is possible relatively specific connection between channels and the brain.

  10. Progress on dedicated animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography, as the leading technology providing molecular imaging of biological processes, is widely used on living laboratory animals. High-resolution dedicated animal PET scanners have been developed. Although the dedicated animal PET faces obstacles and challenges, this advanced technology would play an important role in molecular biomedicine researches, such as diseases study, medicine development, and gene therapy

  11. Dedicated Space | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three-story, 330,000-square-foot Advanced Technology Research Facility has nearly 40,000 square feet designated as partnership space (shown in blue) for co-location of collaborators from industry, academia, nonprofit sectors, and other government agencies. The partnership space, combined with multiple conference rooms and meeting areas, encourages both internal and

  12. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxu Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top–down and bottom–up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  13. The CLAIR model: Extension of Brodmann areas based on brain oscillations and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, Erol; Düzgün, Aysel

    2016-05-01

    Since the beginning of the last century, the localization of brain function has been represented by Brodmann areas, maps of the anatomic organization of the brain. They are used to broadly represent cortical structures with their given sensory-cognitive functions. In recent decades, the analysis of brain oscillations has become important in the correlation of brain functions. Moreover, spectral connectivity can provide further information on the dynamic connectivity between various structures. In addition, brain responses are dynamic in nature and structural localization is almost impossible, according to Luria (1966). Therefore, brain functions are very difficult to localize; hence, a combined analysis of oscillation and event-related coherences is required. In this study, a model termed as "CLAIR" is described to enrich and possibly replace the concept of the Brodmann areas. A CLAIR model with optimum function may take several years to develop, but this study sets out to lay its foundation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Zhang, Zuting; Lv, Zeping; Jing, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR) scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top-down and bottom-up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  15. Loud Noise Exposure Produces DNA, Neurotransmitter and Morphological Damage within Specific Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Frenzilli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to loud noise is a major environmental threat to public health. Loud noise exposure, apart from affecting the inner ear, is deleterious for cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems and it is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated DNA, neurotransmitters and immune-histochemical alterations induced by exposure to loud noise in three major brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum of Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to loud noise (100 dBA for 12 h. The effects of noise on DNA integrity in all three brain areas were evaluated by using Comet assay. In parallel studies, brain monoamine levels and morphology of nigrostriatal pathways, hippocampus and cerebellum were analyzed at different time intervals (24 h and 7 days after noise exposure. Loud noise produced a sudden increase in DNA damage in all the brain areas under investigation. Monoamine levels detected at 7 days following exposure were differently affected depending on the specific brain area. Namely, striatal but not hippocampal dopamine (DA significantly decreased, whereas hippocampal and cerebellar noradrenaline (NA was significantly reduced. This is in line with pathological findings within striatum and hippocampus consisting of a decrease in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH combined with increased Bax and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Loud noise exposure lasting 12 h causes immediate DNA, and long-lasting neurotransmitter and immune-histochemical alterations within specific brain areas of the rat. These alterations may suggest an anatomical and functional link to explain the neurobiology of diseases which prevail in human subjects exposed to environmental noise.

  16. Area-specific migration and recruitment of new neurons in the adult songbird brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellema, Michiel; Van der Linden, Annemie; Gahr, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    sensitive to plastic changes, such as nucleus higher vocal center (HVC) and area X, recruited similar numbers of new neurons as their surrounding brain tissues, employing no specific directional mechanisms. The distribution pattern in and around HVC could best be described by a random displacement model......Neuron recruitment has been implicated in morphological and functional plasticity in the adult brain. Whereas mammals restrict neuron recruitment specifically to two regions of known plasticity, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, newborn neurons are found throughout the forebrain of adult...... songbirds. In order to study the area-specificity of the widespread proliferation and recruitment in the songbird brain, six adult male canaries received repetitive intraperitoneal injections of the mitotic marker BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine) and were sacrificed after 24 hours to study proliferation...

  17. Optimal staining methods for delineation of cortical areas and neuron counts in human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylings, H B; Zilles, K; Rajkowska, G

    1999-04-01

    For cytoarchitectonic delineation of cortical areas in human brain, the Gallyas staining for somata with its sharp contrast between cell bodies and neuropil is preferable to the classical Nissl staining, the more so when an image analysis system is used. This Gallyas staining, however, does not appear to be appropriate for counting neuron numbers in pertinent brain areas, due to the lack of distinct cytological features between small neurons and glial cells. For cell counting Nissl is preferable. In an optimal design for cell counting at least both the Gallyas and the Nissl staining must be applied, the former staining for cytoarchitectural delineaton of cortical areas and the latter for counting the number of neurons in the pertinent cortical areas. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Inter-species activity correlations reveal functional correspondences between monkey and human brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G.; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. In cases where functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assess similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by means of temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we reveal regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This novel framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models. PMID:22306809

  19. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  20. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on the question of whether inter- and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while subjects were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to

  1. Short- and long-term modulation of synaptic inputs to brain reward areas by nicotine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagen, Z.M.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Keath, R.; McGehee, D.S.

    2003-01-01

    Dopamine signaling in brain reward areas is a key element in the development of drug abuse and dependence. Recent anatomical and electrophysiological research has begun to elucidate both complexity and specificity In synaptic connections between ventral tegmental neurons and their inputs.

  2. The Safe Area in the Parieto-Occipital Lobe in the Human Brain: Diffusion Tensor Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kim, Seong Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2015-06-01

    A recent study reported on the relatively safe area in the frontal lobe for performance of neurological interventions; however, no study on the posterior safe area has been reported. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography, we attempted to identify the safe area in the parieto-occipital lobe in healthy subjects. A total of 47 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Eleven neural tracts were reconstructed in and around the parieto-occipital area of the brain using diffusion tensor tractography. The safe area, which is free from any trajectory of 10 neural tracts, was measured anteriorly and medially from the line of the most posterior and lateral margin of the brain at 5 axial levels (from the cerebral cortex to the corona radiata). The anterior boundaries of the safe area in the upper cerebral cortex, lower cerebral cortex, centrum semiovale, upper corona radiata, and lower corona radiata levels were located at 31.0, 32.6, 32.7, 35.1, and 35.2 mm anteriorly from the line of the most posterior margin of the brain, respectively, and the medial boundaries were located at an average of 34.7, 38.1, 39.2, 36.1, and 33.6 mm medially from the line of the most lateral margin of the brain, respectively. According to our findings, the safe area was located in the posterolateral portion of the parieto-occipital lobe in the shape of a triangle. However, we found no safe area in the deep white matter around the lateral ventricle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A split microdrive for simultaneous multi-electrode recordings from two brain areas in awake small animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, C.S.; Bakker, M.; Buster, W.; Lankelma, J.; van der Blom, R.; Westdorp, R.; Joosten, R.N.J.M.A.; Mc.Naughton, B.L.; Pennartz, C.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Complex cognitive operations such as memory formation and decision-making are thought to be mediated not by single, isolated brain structures but by multiple, connected brain areas. To facilitate studies on the neural communication between connected brain structures, we developed a multi-electrode

  4. Low-grade astrocytoma: surgical outcomes in eloquent versus non-eloquent brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Macedo Bianco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 81 patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA comparing the efficacy of aggressive versus less aggressive surgery in eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas was conducted. Extent of surgical resection was analyzed to assess overall survival (OS and progression- free survival (PFS. Degree of tumor resection was classified as gross total resection (GTR, subtotal resection (STR or biopsy. GTR, STR and biopsy in patients with tumors in non-eloquent areas were performed in 31, 48 and 21% subjects, whereas in patients with tumors in eloquent areas resections were 22.5, 35 and 42.5%. Overall survival was 4.7 and 1.9 years in patients with tumors in non-eloquent brain areas submitted to GTR/STR and biopsy (p=0.013, whereas overall survival among patients with tumors in eloquent area was 4.5 and 2.1 years (p=0.33. Improved outcome for adult patients with LGA is predicted by more aggressive surgery in both eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas.

  5. Eloquent area in the gamma knife treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazuo; Mori, Yoshimasa; Ohsuga, Koji; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Kondo, Toshiki [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    It has been long since cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) could be cured by gamma radiosurgery. In this study, it has been found that the complete obliteration of AVM by radiosurgery is depended on the factors such as the size of the nidus, the marginal dose, the location and the age of patients. It is also true that higher the marginal dose, higher the obliteration rate and also higher the risk of radiation injury. Therefore the marginal dose has to be limited by the radiosensitivity (tolerance) of surrounding brain, which means the obliteration rate is largely depended on the location of AVM. The definition of the eloquent area of AVM by microsurgery is based upon the anatomical and functional importance of the brain. However, the eloquency in radiosurgery is different in that it depends upon radiosensitivity of the surrounding brain around AVM. From this definition, the most eloquent area by radiosurgery is brain around the optic pathway, followed by cochlear nerve, other cranial nerves, brain stem and basal ganglia-thalamus. (author)

  6. Not single brain areas but a network is involved in language: Applications in presurgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Razieh; Batouli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Behzad, Ebrahim; Ebrahimpoor, Mitra; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Language is an important human function, and is a determinant of the quality of life. In conditions such as brain lesions, disruption of the language function may occur, and lesion resection is a solution for that. Presurgical planning to determine the language-related brain areas would enhance the chances of language preservation after the operation; however, availability of a normative language template is essential. In this study, using data from 60 young individuals who were meticulously checked for mental and physical health, and using fMRI and robust imaging and data analysis methods, functional brain maps for the language production, perception and semantic were produced. The obtained templates showed that the language function should be considered as the product of the collaboration of a network of brain regions, instead of considering only few brain areas to be involved in that. This study has important clinical applications, and extends our knowledge on the neuroanatomy of the language function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Automatic extraction analysis of the anatomical functional area for normal brain 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanhua; Jiang Xufeng; Zhang Liying; Lu Zhongwei; Li Peiyong; Zhu Chengmo; Zhang Jiange; Pan Jiapu

    2003-01-01

    Using self-designed automatic extraction software of brain functional area, the grey scale distribution of 18 F-FDG imaging and the relationship between the 18 F-FDG accumulation of brain anatomic function area and the 18 F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose, the age, etc., were studied. According to the Talairach coordinate system, after rotation, drift and plastic deformation, the 18 F-FDG PET imaging was registered into the Talairach coordinate atlas, and then the average gray value scale ratios between individual brain anatomic functional area and whole brain area was calculated. Further more the statistics of the relationship between the 18 F-FDG accumulation of every brain anatomic function area and the 18 F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose and the age were tested by using multiple stepwise regression model. After images' registration, smoothing and extraction, main cerebral cortex of the 18 F-FDG PET brain imaging can be successfully localized and extracted, such as frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain ventricle, thalamus and hippocampus. The average ratios to the inner reference of every brain anatomic functional area were 1.01 ± 0.15. By multiple stepwise regression with the exception of thalamus and hippocampus, the grey scale of all the brain functional area was negatively correlated to the ages, but with no correlation to blood sugar and dose in all areas. To the 18 F-FDG PET imaging, the brain functional area extraction program could automatically delineate most of the cerebral cortical area, and also successfully reflect the brain blood and metabolic study, but extraction of the more detailed area needs further investigation

  8. Brain pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation after acute amphetamine administration: its relationship to brain c-fos induction is strongly dependent on the particular brain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotllant, David; Armario, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests a critical role of chromatin remodelling in the acute and chronic effects of addictive drugs. We reasoned that Immunohistochemical detection of certain histone modifications may be a more specific tool than induction of immediate early genes (i.e. c-fos) to detect brain areas and neurons that are critical for the action of addictive drugs. Thus, in the present work we studied in adult male rats the effects of a high dose of amphetamine on brain pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation in serine 10 (pH3S(10)) and c-fos expression. We firstly observed that amphetamine-induced an increase in the number of pH3S(10) positive neurons in a restricted number of brain areas, with maximum levels at 30 min after the drug administration that declined at 90 min in most areas. In a second experiment we studied colocalization of pH3S(10) immunoreactivity (pH3S(10)-IR) and c-fos expression. Amphetamine increased c-fos expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens (Acb), major Island of Calleja (ICjM), central amygdala (CeA), bed nucleus of stria terminalis lateral dorsal (BSTld) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Whereas no evidence for increase in pH3S(10) positive neurons was found in the mPFC and the PVN, in the striatum and the Acb basically all pH3S(10) positive neurons showed colocalization with c-fos. In ICjM, CeA and BSTld a notable degree of colocalization was found, but an important number of neurons expressing c-fos were negative for pH3S(10). The present results give support to the hypothesis that amphetamine-induced pH3S(10)-IR showed a more restricted pattern than brain c-fos induction, being this difference strongly dependent on the particular brain area studied. It is likely that those nuclei and neurons showing pH3S(10)-IR are more specifically associated to important effects of the drug, including neural plasticity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post

  9. On the calculation of brain area shifts due to cerebral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labudde, D.; Hartmann, S.; Synowitz, M.

    2002-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the localization of an intracerebral mass is a basic requirement for the planning of neurosurgical operations. Stereotactic atlases offer the possibility to adapt pre-operative imaging data onto normal anatomical conditions in the CNS. These atlases, however, reflect the standard variants of the CNS and do not allow to draw conclusions on local and secondary changes of the anatomy caused by the presence of pathological processes. The physical model proposed in this paper provides an estimate of the displacement of brain areas by an intracerebral mass. The modeling of brain parenchyma deformation is based on the mechanics of deformed media. The implementation of the model is successful in the group of primary brain tumors and meningiomas, and uses empirically-obtained data of a prospectively-selected patient population. The aim of the proposed model is, as further step, the integration and adaptation in apposite software solutions for the stereotactic orientation in the CNS. (orig.) [de

  10. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  11. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Kwang Ki; Yoon, Yup Yoon [Dongguk University Medical Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p < 0.01). The CC area and brain volume in AD patients (498.7 +- 72 mm{sup 2}, 715.4 +- 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 +- 108, 844.1 +- 85) and the HCs (563.2 +- 75, 818.9 +- 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  12. Motor areas of the frontal cortex in patients with motor eloquent brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulubas, Lucia; Sabih, Jamil; Wohlschlaeger, Afra; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of its huge clinical potential, the importance of premotor areas for motor function itself and plastic reshaping due to tumors or ischemic brain lesions has received increased attention. Thus, in this study the authors used navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) to investigate whether tumorous brain lesions induce a change in motor cortex localization in the human brain. METHODS Between 2010 and 2013, nTMS motor mapping was performed in a prospective cohort of 100 patients with brain tumors in or adjacent to the rolandic cortex. Spatial data analysis was performed by normalization of the individual motor maps and creation of overlays according to tumor location. Analysis of motor evoked potential (MEP) latencies was performed regarding mean overall latencies and potentially polysynaptic latencies, defined as latencies longer than 1 SD above the mean value. Hemispheric dominance, lesion location, and motor-function deficits were also considered. RESULTS Graphical analysis showed that motor areas were not restricted to the precentral gyrus. Instead, they spread widely in the anterior-posterior direction. An analysis of MEP latency showed that mean MEP latencies were shortest in the precentral gyrus and longest in the superior and middle frontal gyri. The percentage of latencies longer than 1 SD differed widely across gyri. The dominant hemisphere showed a greater number of longer latencies than the nondominant hemisphere (p < 0.0001). Moreover, tumor location-dependent changes in distribution of polysynaptic latencies were observed (p = 0.0002). Motor-function deficit did not show any statistically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS The distribution of primary and polysynaptic motor areas changes in patients with brain tumors and highly depends on tumor location. Thus, these data should be considered for resection planning.

  13. Dedication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van den C.

    1967-01-01

    Joséphine Th. Koster entered her service at the Rijksherbarium as an assistant, April 1930, in the midst of the economic crisis. She was engaged as an, unsalaried collaborator, the then current type of position the Netherlands’ State could offer its scientific offspring. When Prof. Dr. H. J. Lam,

  14. Dedication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1948-01-01

    It is not without some pride and much satisfaction that the present volume, fourth planned in the series, second in sequence of publication, is brought to a successful end. Satisfaction I feel through the fact that the scheme and aim of this work is not only understood by the scientific-botanical

  15. Dedication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1959-01-01

    CARL FREDRICK ALBERT CHRISTENSEN (1872-1942) was the founder of modern fern taxonomy. To appreciate the scope of his work, it is necessary to understand the confusions of thought on the subject which persisted through the 19th century and were still evident in the summary prepared (by DIELS) for

  16. Molecular mechanisms of aluminium ions neurotoxicity in brain cells of fish from various pelagic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sukharenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic effects of aluminum chloride in higher than usual environment concentration (10 mg/L were studied in brains of fishes from various pelagic areas, especially in sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819, roach (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758, crucian carp (Carasius carasius Linnaeus, 1758, goby (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas, 1811. The intensity of oxidative stress and the content of both cytoskeleton protein GFAP and cytosol Ca-binding protein S100β were determined. The differences in oxidative stress data were observed in the liver and brain of fish during 45 days of treatment with aluminum chloride. The data indicated that in the modeling of aluminum intoxication in mature adult fishes the level of oxidative stress was noticeably higher in the brain than in the liver. This index was lower by1.5–2.0 times on average in the liver cells than in the brain. The obtained data evidently demonstrate high sensitivity to aluminum ions in neural tissue cells of fish from various pelagic areas. Chronic intoxication with aluminum ions induced intense astrogliosis in the fish brain. Astrogliosis was determined as result of overexpression of both cytoskeleton and cytosole markers of astrocytes – GFAP and protein S100β (on 75–112% and 67–105% accordingly. Moreover, it was shown that the neurotixic effect of aluminum ions is closely related to metabolism of astroglial intermediate filaments. The results of western blotting showed a considerable increase in the content of the lysis protein products of GFAP with a range of molecular weight from 40–49 kDa. A similar metabolic disturbance was determined for the upregulation protein S100β expression and particularly in the increase in the content of polypeptide fragments of this protein with molecular weight 24–37 kDa. Thus, the obtained results allow one to presume that aluminum ions activate in the fish brain intracellular proteases which have a capacity to destroy the proteins of

  17. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback in neuronal activation of the temporal lobe area in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Furtado da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study focused upon the functional capacity of mirror neurons in autistic children. 30 individuals, 10 carriers of the autistic syndrome (GCA, 10 with intellectual impairments (GDI, and 10 non-autistics (GCN had registered eletroencephalogram from the brain area theoretically related to mirror neurons. Data collection procedure occurred prior to brain stimulation and after the stimulation session. During the second session, participants had to alternately process figures evoking neutral, happy, and/or sorrowful feelings. Results proved that, for all groups, the stimulation process in fact produced additional activation in the neural area under study. The level of activation was related to the format of emotional stimuli and the likelihood of boosting such stimuli. Since the increase of activation occurred in a model similar to the one observed for the control group, we may suggest that the difficulty people with autism have at expressing emotions is not due to nonexistence of mirror neurons.

  18. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback in neuronal activation of the temporal lobe area in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vernon Furtado da; Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Nunes, Rodolfo Alkmim Moreira; Pimentel, Carlos Elias; Martins, Gabriela Paes; Oliveira, Patrícia da Cruz Araruna; Silva, Patrícia Bagno; Silva, Alair Pedro Ribeiro de Souza E

    2016-08-01

    This study focused upon the functional capacity of mirror neurons in autistic children. 30 individuals, 10 carriers of the autistic syndrome (GCA), 10 with intellectual impairments (GDI), and 10 non-autistics (GCN) had registered eletroencephalogram from the brain area theoretically related to mirror neurons. Data collection procedure occurred prior to brain stimulation and after the stimulation session. During the second session, participants had to alternately process figures evoking neutral, happy, and/or sorrowful feelings. Results proved that, for all groups, the stimulation process in fact produced additional activation in the neural area under study. The level of activation was related to the format of emotional stimuli and the likelihood of boosting such stimuli. Since the increase of activation occurred in a model similar to the one observed for the control group, we may suggest that the difficulty people with autism have at expressing emotions is not due to nonexistence of mirror neurons.

  19. Dedicated radial ventriculography pigtail catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu

    2013-05-15

    A new dedicated cardiac ventriculography catheter was specifically designed for radial and upper arm arterial access approach. Two catheter configurations have been developed to facilitate retrograde crossing of the aortic valve and to conform to various subclavian, ascending aortic and left ventricular anatomies. The “short” dedicated radial ventriculography catheter is suited for horizontal ascending aortas, obese body habitus, short stature and small ventricular cavities. The “long” dedicated radial ventriculography catheter is suited for vertical ascending aortas, thin body habitus, tall stature and larger ventricular cavities. This new design allows for improved performance, faster and simpler insertion in the left ventricle which can reduce procedure time, radiation exposure and propensity for radial artery spasm due to excessive catheter manipulation. Two different catheter configurations allow for optimal catheter selection in a broad range of patient anatomies. The catheter is exceptionally stable during contrast power injection and provides equivalent cavity opacification to traditional femoral ventriculography catheter designs.

  20. Scalable cloud without dedicated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkovich, D. V.; Kompaniets, M. V.; Zarochentsev, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a prototype of a scalable computing cloud. It is intended to be deployed on the basis of a cluster without the separate dedicated storage. The dedicated storage is replaced by the distributed software storage. In addition, all cluster nodes are used both as computing nodes and as storage nodes. This solution increases utilization of the cluster resources as well as improves fault tolerance and performance of the distributed storage. Another advantage of this solution is high scalability with a relatively low initial and maintenance cost. The solution is built on the basis of the open source components like OpenStack, CEPH, etc.

  1. Uni- and Multisensory Brain Areas are Synchronised across Spectators When Watching Unedited Dance Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Jola

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The superior temporal sulcus (STS and gyrus (STG are commonly identified to be functionally relevant for multisensory integration of audiovisual (AV stimuli. However, most neuroimaging studies on AV integration used stimuli of short duration in explicit evaluative tasks. Importantly though, many of our AV experiences are of a long duration and ambiguous. It is unclear if the enhanced activity in audio, visual, and AV brain areas would also be synchronised over time across subjects when they are exposed to such multisensory stimuli. We used intersubject correlation to investigate which brain areas are synchronised across novices for uni- and multisensory versions of a 6-min 26-s recording of an unfamiliar, unedited Indian dance recording (Bharatanatyam. In Bharatanatyam, music and dance are choreographed together in a highly intermodal-dependent manner. Activity in the middle and posterior STG was significantly correlated between subjects and showed also significant enhancement for AV integration when the functional magnetic resonance signals were contrasted against each other using a general linear model conjunction analysis. These results extend previous studies by showing an intermediate step of synchronisation for novices: while there was a consensus across subjects' brain activity in areas relevant for unisensory processing and AV integration of related audio and visual stimuli, we found no evidence for synchronisation of higher level cognitive processes, suggesting these were idiosyncratic.

  2. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-10-25

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus and red nucleus. True needling also deactivated Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, 24, 31, 40 and 46.

  3. Altered intraoperative cerebrovascular reactivity in brain areas of high-grade glioma recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstra, Jorn; van Niftrik, Bas; Piccirelli, Marco; Burkhardt, Jan Karl; Pangalu, Athina; Kocian, Roman; Valavanis, Antonios; Weller, Michael; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Current MRI sequences are limited in identifying brain areas at risk for high grade glioma recurrence. We employed intraoperative 3-Tesla functional MRI to assess cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) after high-grade glioma resection and analyzed regional CVR responses in areas of tumor recurrence on clinical follow-up imaging. Five subjects with high-grade glioma that underwent an intraoperative Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI CVR examination and had a clinical follow-up of at least 18months were selected from a prospective database. For this study, location of tumor recurrence was spatially matched to the intraoperative imaging to assess CVR response in that particular area. CVR is defined as the percent BOLD signal change during repeated cycles of apnea. Of the 5 subjects (mean age 44, 2 females), 4 were diagnosed with a WHO grade III and 1 subject with a WHO grade IV glioma. Three subjects exhibited a tumor recurrence on clinical follow-up MRI (mean: 15months). BOLD CVR measured in the spatially matched area of tumor recurrence was on average 94% increased (range-32% to 183%) as compared to contralateral hemisphere CVR response, 1.50±0.81 versus 1.03±0.46 respectively (p=0.31). For this first analysis in a small cohort, we found altered intraoperative CVR in brain areas exhibiting high grade glioma recurrence on clinical follow-up imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Surgical treatment of eloquent brain area tumors using neurophysiological mapping of the speech and motor areas and conduction tracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, A A; Korotchenko, E N; Ivanova, D S; Pedyash, N V; Teplykh, B A

    To evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative neurophysiological mapping in removing eloquent brain area tumors (EBATs). Sixty five EBAT patients underwent surgical treatment using intraoperative neurophysiological mapping at the Pirogov National Medical and Surgical Center in the period from 2014 to 2015. On primary neurological examination, 46 (71%) patients were detected with motor deficits of varying severity. Speech disorders were diagnosed in 17 (26%) patients. Sixteen patients with concomitant or isolated lesions of the speech centers underwent awake surgery using the asleep-awake-asleep protocol. Standard neurophysiological monitoring included transcranial stimulation as well as motor and, if necessary, speech mapping. The motor and speech areas were mapped with allowance for the preoperative planning data (obtained with a navigation station) synchronized with functional MRI. In this case, a broader representation of the motor and speech centers was revealed in 12 (19%) patients. During speech mapping, no speech disorders were detected in 7 patients; in 9 patients, stimulation of the cerebral cortex in the intended surgical area induced motor (3 patients), sensory (4), and amnesic (2) aphasia. In the total group, we identified 11 patients in whom the tumor was located near the internal capsule. Upon mapping of the conduction tracts in the internal capsule area, the stimulus strength during tumor resection was gradually decreased from 10 mA to 5 mA. Tumor resection was stopped when responses retained at a stimulus strength of 5 mA, which, when compared to the navigation data, corresponded to a distance of about 5 mm to the internal capsule. Completeness of tumor resection was evaluated (contrast-enhanced MRI) in all patients on the first postoperative day. According to the control MRI data, the tumor was resected totally in 60% of patients, subtotally in 24% of patients, and partially in 16% of patients. In the early postoperative period, the development or

  5. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  6. Musical structure is processed in "language" areas of the brain: a possible role for Brodmann Area 47 in temporal coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2003-12-01

    The neuroanatomical correlates of musical structure were investigated using functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) and a unique stimulus manipulation involving scrambled music. The experiment compared brain responses while participants listened to classical music and scrambled versions of that same music. Specifically, the scrambled versions disrupted musical structure while holding low-level musical attributes constant, including the psychoacoustic features of the music such as pitch, loudness, and timbre. Comparing music to its scrambled counterpart, we found focal activation in the pars orbitalis region (Brodmann Area 47) of the left inferior frontal cortex, a region that has been previously closely associated with the processing of linguistic structure in spoken and signed language, and its right hemisphere homologue. We speculate that this particular region of inferior frontal cortex may be more generally responsible for processing fine-structured stimuli that evolve over time, not merely those that are linguistic.

  7. Brain functional network changes following Prelimbic area inactivation in a spatial memory extinction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; Conejo, Nélida M; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest a prefrontal cortex involvement during the acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory, suggesting an active modulating role at late stages of acquisition processes. Recently, we have reported that the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the prefrontal cortex, among other structures, are also specifically involved in the late phases of spatial memory extinction. This study aimed to evaluate whether the inactivation of the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex impaired spatial memory extinction. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae into the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Animals were trained during 5 consecutive days in a hidden platform task and tested for reference spatial memory immediately after the last training session. One day after completing the training task, bilateral infusion of the GABAA receptor agonist Muscimol was performed before the extinction protocol was carried out. Additionally, cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied to map the metabolic brain activity related to the spatial memory extinction under prelimbic cortex inactivation. Results show that animals acquired the reference memory task in the water maze, and the extinction task was successfully completed without significant impairment. However, analysis of the functional brain networks involved by cytochrome oxidase activity interregional correlations showed changes in brain networks between the group treated with Muscimol as compared to the saline-treated group, supporting the involvement of the mammillary bodies at a the late stage in the memory extinction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes of brain and cerebrospinal fluid area with development in childhood on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Chizuru; Hiraiwa, Mikio; Abe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Ryochi; Ohmi, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    There have been reported about changes of the brain CT (Computed Tomography) findings with development in childhood. These reports have been applied with one dimensional measurement, and we previously reported that one dimensional measurement was insufficient for objective judgement of CT findings, compared with our two dimensional measurement. Brain CT were performed in sixty-six children (thirty-four males and thirty-two females, aged from ten-day-old to twelve-year-old). Two dimensional measurement were played on the slice through foramen of Monro. We measured intracranial area (IC), brain area (BA), ventricular area (VA), and bifrontal fluid collection area (BFC). IC and BA were increased with development, but VA had no obvious change. Increase of IC and BA were disclosed significantly in infancy and toddling period. BFC was decreased with development on the average, and invisible in many cases over three-year-old. Thus, in the cases under three-year-old there lay massive variation of BFC in size. About the relationship between large BFC and central coordination difficulty in infancy, we reported in the last number of this journal. Variation of BFC in the cases under three-year-old might be due to selection of our subjects, those including eighteen infants with central coordination difficulty. Index of BA (BA x 100/IC), VA (VA x 100/IC), and BFC (BFC x 100/IC) were well matched to changes of BA, VA, and BFC with development. This is the first report for application of two dimensional measurement in CT findings of children with development. (author)

  9. SPECT assessment of brain activation induced by caffeine: no effect on areas involved in dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Astrid; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Namer, Izzie J

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is not considered addictive, and in animals it does not trigger metabolic increases or dopamine release in brain areas involved in reinforcement and reward. Our objective was to measure caffeine effects on cerebral perfusion in humans using single photon emission computed tomography with a specific focus on areas of reinforcement and reward. Two groups of nonsmoking subjects were studied, one with a low (8 subjects) and one with a high (6 subjects) daily coffee consumption. The subjects ingested 3 mg/kg caffeine or placebo in a raspberry-tasting drink, and scans were performed 45 min after ingestion. A control group of 12 healthy volunteers receiving no drink was also studied. Caffeine consumption led to a generalized, statistically nonsignificant perfusion decrease of 6% to 8%, comparable in low and high consumers. Compared with controls, low consumers displayed neuronal activation bilaterally in inferior frontal gyrus-anterior insular cortex and uncus, left internal parietal cortex, right lingual gyrus, and cerebellum. In high consumers, brain activation occurred bilaterally only in hypothalamus. Thus, on a background of widespread low-amplitude perfusion decrease, caffeine activates a few regions mainly involved in the control of vigilance, anxiety, and cardiovascular regulation, but does not affect areas involved in reinforcing and reward.

  10. Combining Functional Neuroimaging with Off-Line Brain Stimulation: Modulation of Task-Related Activity in Language Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Jamila; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive TMS (rTMS) provides a noninvasive tool for modulating neural activity in the human brain. In healthy participants, rTMS applied over the language-related areas in the left hemisphere, including the left posterior temporal area of Wernicke (LTMP) and inferior frontal area of Broca, have been shown to affect performance on word…

  11. CRMP5 regulates generation and survival of newborn neurons in olfactory and hippocampal neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Veyrac

    Full Text Available The Collapsin Response Mediator Proteins (CRMPS are highly expressed in the developing brain, and in adult brain areas that retain neurogenesis, ie: the olfactory bulb (OB and the dentate gyrus (DG. During brain development, CRMPs are essentially involved in signaling of axon guidance and neurite outgrowth, but their functions in the adult brain remain largely unknown. CRMP5 has been initially identified as the target of auto-antibodies involved in paraneoplasic neurological diseases and further implicated in a neurite outgrowth inhibition mediated by tubulin binding. Interestingly, CRMP5 is also highly expressed in adult brain neurogenic areas where its functions have not yet been elucidated. Here we observed in both neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain that CRMP5 was present in proliferating and post-mitotic neuroblasts, while they migrate and differentiate into mature neurons. In CRMP5(-/- mice, the lack of CRMP5 resulted in a significant increase of proliferation and neurogenesis, but also in an excess of apoptotic death of granule cells in the OB and DG. These findings provide the first evidence that CRMP5 is involved in the generation and survival of newly generated neurons in areas of the adult brain with a high level of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity.

  12. Brain perfusion SPECT with Brodmann areas analysis in differentiating frontotemporal dementia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the known validity of clinical diagnostic criteria, significant overlap of clinical symptoms between Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subtypes exists in several cases, resulting in great uncertainty of the diagnostic boundaries. We evaluated the perfusion between FTD subtypes using brain perfusion (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT with Brodmann areas (BA) mapping. NeuroGam software was applied on single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) studies for the semi-quantitative evaluation of perfusion in BA and the comparison with the software's normal database. We studied 91 consecutive FTD patients: 21 with behavioural variants (bvFTD), 39 with language variants (lvFTD) [12 with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), 27 with semantic dementia (SD)], and 31 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)/corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Stepwise logistic regression analyses showed that the BA 28L and 32R could independently differentiate bvFTD from lvFTD, while the BA 8R and 25R could discriminate bvFTD from SD and PNFA, respectively. Additionally, BA 7R and 32R were found to discriminate bvFTD from CBD/PSP. The only BA that could differentiate SD from PNFA was 6L. BA 6R and 20L were found to independently differentiate CBD/PSP from lvFTD. Moreover, BA 20L and 22R could discriminate CBD/PSP from PNFA, while BA 6R, 20L and 45R were found to independently discriminate CBD/PSP from SD. Brain perfusion SPECT with BA mapping can be a useful additional tool in differentiating FTD variants by improving the definition of brain areas that are specifically implicated, resulting in a more accurate differential diagnosis in atypical or uncertain forms of FTD.

  13. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lehne

    Full Text Available Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc. is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman" subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus, lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  14. Dedicated Linac for Radioneurosurgery at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-López, Miguel A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José M.

    2003-09-01

    The objective is to present a description and the main clinical applications of this dedicated Linac for benign and malignant tumors in the central nervous system. The Novalis (BrainLab, Germany) is a 6 MV dedicated linac for a single high dose Radiosurgery (RS) and for fractionated doses in Stereotactic Radiotherapy with a high level of precision at the isocenter.

  15. Dedicated Linac for Radioneurosurgery at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celis-Lopez, Miguel A.; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective is to present a description and the main clinical applications of this dedicated Linac for benign and malignant tumors in the central nervous system. The Novalis (BrainLab, Germany) is a 6 MV dedicated linac for a single high dose Radiosurgery (RS) and for fractionated doses in Stereotactic Radiotherapy with a high level of precision at the isocenter

  16. Area, age and gender dependence of the nucleoside system in the brain: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsolt; Juhász, Gábor; Palkovits, Miklós; Dobolyi, Arpád; Kékesi, Katalin A

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosides, such as uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine, may participate in the regulation of sleep, cognition, memory and nociception, the suppression of seizures, and have also been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of some neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Under pathological conditions, levels of nucleosides change extremely in the brain, indicating their participation in the pathophysiology of disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. These findings have resulted in an increasing attention to the roles of nucleosides in the central nervous system. The specific effects of nucleosides depend on the expression of their receptors and transporters in neuronal and glial cells, as well as their extracellular concentrations in the brain. A complex interlinked metabolic network and transporters of nucleosides may balance nucleoside levels in the brain tissue under normal conditions and enable the fine modulation of neuronal and glial processes via nucleoside receptor signaling mechanisms. Brain levels of nucleosides were found to vary when measured in a variety of different brain regions. In addition, nucleoside levels also depend on age and gender. Furthermore, distributions of nucleoside transporters and receptors as well as nucleoside metabolic enzyme activities demonstrate the area, age and gender dependence of the nucleoside system, suggesting different roles of nucleosides in functionally different brain areas. The aim of this review article is to summarize our present knowledge of the area-, age- and gender-dependent distribution of nucleoside levels, nucleoside metabolic enzyme activity, nucleoside receptors and nucleoside transporters in the brain.

  17. Dorsal and ventral working memory-related brain areas support distinct processes in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginelli, Angela A; Baumgartner, Florian; Pollmann, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    Behavioral evidence suggests that the use of implicitly learned spatial contexts for improved visual search may depend on visual working memory resources. Working memory may be involved in contextual cueing in different ways: (1) for keeping implicitly learned working memory contents available during search or (2) for the capture of attention by contexts retrieved from memory. We mapped brain areas that were modulated by working memory capacity. Within these areas, activation was modulated by contextual cueing along the descending segment of the intraparietal sulcus, an area that has previously been related to maintenance of explicit memories. Increased activation for learned displays, but not modulated by the size of contextual cueing, was observed in the temporo-parietal junction area, previously associated with the capture of attention by explicitly retrieved memory items, and in the ventral visual cortex. This pattern of activation extends previous research on dorsal versus ventral stream functions in memory guidance of attention to the realm of attentional guidance by implicit memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensory competition in the face processing areas of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Nagy

    Full Text Available The concurrent presentation of multiple stimuli in the visual field may trigger mutually suppressive interactions throughout the ventral visual stream. While several studies have been performed on sensory competition effects among non-face stimuli relatively little is known about the interactions in the human brain for multiple face stimuli. In the present study we analyzed the neuronal basis of sensory competition in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study using multiple face stimuli. We varied the ratio of faces and phase-noise images within a composite display with a constant number of peripheral stimuli, thereby manipulating the competitive interactions between faces. For contralaterally presented stimuli we observed strong competition effects in the fusiform face area (FFA bilaterally and in the right lateral occipital area (LOC, but not in the occipital face area (OFA, suggesting their different roles in sensory competition. When we increased the spatial distance among pairs of faces the magnitude of suppressive interactions was reduced in the FFA. Surprisingly, the magnitude of competition depended on the visual hemifield of the stimuli: ipsilateral stimulation reduced the competition effects somewhat in the right LOC while it increased them in the left LOC. This suggests a left hemifield dominance of sensory competition. Our results support the sensory competition theory in the processing of multiple faces and suggests that sensory competition occurs in several cortical areas in both cerebral hemispheres.

  19. The relationship between reproductive state and "sexually" dimorphic brain areas in sexually reproducing and parthenogenetic whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J; Crews, D

    1991-07-22

    The anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus are sexually dimorphic in the reproductively active whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus inornatus. The anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area, which is involved in the control of male-typical copulatory behaviors, is larger in males, whereas the ventromedial hypothalamus, which is involved in the control of female-typical receptivity, is larger in females. In the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard C. uniparens, which is a direct descendant of C. inornatus and exhibits both male-like and female-like pseudosexual behaviors, both brain areas are comparable in size to those of female C. inornatus. This study was conducted to determine whether these brain areas change in size in either species or sex during a time of year when these animals are reproductively inactive, or after removal of the gonads. In male C. inornatus both brain areas changed during reproductive inactivity (either seasonally or surgically induced) and became equivalent to the size characteristic of reproductively active female C. inornatus. When corrected for brain size, the anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area was significantly smaller in intact hibernating and castrated males than in intact males from the summer breeding season. Conversely, the ventromedial hypothalamus was significantly larger in intact hibernating and castrated males than in intact males from the summer breeding season. The two brain areas were not significantly different among the groups of female C. inornatus or parthenogenetic C. uniparens. These results suggest that 1) the brain of whiptail lizards may differentiate seasonally and 2) the female state may be a neutral one to which the male brain reverts during reproductive inactivity.

  20. Selective insulin resistance in homeostatic and cognitive control brain areas in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Impaired brain insulin action has been linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, the central nervous effects of insulin in obese humans still remain ill defined, and no study thus far has evaluated the specific brain areas affected by insulin resistance. In 25 healthy lean and 23 overweight/obese participants, we performed magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and 15 and 30 min after application of intranasal insulin or placebo. Additionally, participants explicitly rated pictures of high-caloric savory and sweet food 60 min after the spray for wanting and liking. In response to insulin compared with placebo, we found a significant CBF decrease in the hypothalamus in both lean and overweight/obese participants. The magnitude of this response correlated with visceral adipose tissue independent of other fat compartments. Furthermore, we observed a differential response in the lean compared with the overweight/obese group in the prefrontal cortex, resulting in an insulin-induced CBF reduction in lean participants only. This prefrontal cortex response significantly correlated with peripheral insulin sensitivity and eating behavior measures such as disinhibition and food craving. Behaviorally, we were able to observe a significant reduction for the wanting of sweet foods after insulin application in lean men only. Brain insulin action was selectively impaired in the prefrontal cortex in overweight and obese adults and in the hypothalamus in participants with high visceral adipose tissue, potentially promoting an altered homeostatic set point and reduced inhibitory control contributing to overeating behavior. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  1. Cyto- and receptor architecture of area 32 in human and macaque brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Zilles, Karl; Schleicher, Axel; Vogt, Brent A

    2013-10-01

    Human area 32 plays crucial roles in emotion and memory consolidation. It has subgenual (s32), pregenual (p32), dorsal, and midcingulate components. We seek to determine whether macaque area 32 has subgenual and pregenual subdivisions and the extent to which they are comparable to those in humans by means of NeuN immunohistochemistry and multireceptor analysis of laminar profiles. The macaque has areas s32 and p32. In s32, layer IIIa/b neurons are larger than those of layer IIIc. This relationship is reversed in p32. Layer Va is thicker and Vb thinner in s32. Area p32 contains higher kainate, benzodiazepine (BZ), and serotonin (5-HT)1A but lower N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α2 receptor densities. Most differences were found in layers I, II, and VI. Together, these differences support the dual nature of macaque area 32. Comparative analysis of human and macaque s32 and p32 supports equivalences in cyto- and receptor architecture. Although there are differences in mean areal receptor densities, there are considerable similarities at the layer level. Laminar receptor distribution patterns in each area are comparable in the two species in layers III-Va for kainate, NMDA, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B , BZ, and 5-HT1A receptors. Multivariate statistical analysis of laminar receptor densities revealed that human s32 is more similar to macaque s32 and p32 than to human p32. Thus, macaque 32 is more complex than hitherto known. Our data suggest a homologous neural architecture in anterior cingulate s32 and p32 in human and macaque brains. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Parkin Isoforms Expression in Different Rat Brain Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Maugeri, Grazia; Reitano, Rita; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; D'Agata, Velia

    2016-10-01

    PARK2 gene's mutations are related to the familial form of juvenile Parkinsonism, also known as the autosomic recessive juvenile Parkinsonism. This gene encodes for parkin, a 465-amino acid protein. To date, a large number of parkin isoforms, generated by an alternative splicing mechanism, have been described. Currently, Gene Bank lists 27 rat PARK2 transcripts, which matches to 20 exclusive parkin alternative splice variants. Despite the existence of these isoforms, most of the studies carried out so far, have been focused only on the originally cloned parkin. In this work we have analyzed the expression profile of parkin isoforms in some rat brain areas including prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and cerebellum. To discriminate among these isoforms, we detected their localization through the use of two antibodies that are able to identify different domains of the parkin canonical sequence. Our analysis has revealed that at least fourteen parkin isoforms are expressed in rat brain with a various distribution in the regions analyzed. Our study might help to elucidate the pathophysiological role of these proteins in the central nervous system.

  3. Rapid geodesic mapping of brain functional connectivity: implementation of a dedicated co-processor in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and application to resting state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Cercignani, Mara; Chan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Graph theory-based analyses of brain network topology can be used to model the spatiotemporal correlations in neural activity detected through fMRI, and such approaches have wide-ranging potential, from detection of alterations in preclinical Alzheimer's disease through to command identification in brain-machine interfaces. However, due to prohibitive computational costs, graph-based analyses to date have principally focused on measuring connection density rather than mapping the topological architecture in full by exhaustive shortest-path determination. This paper outlines a solution to this problem through parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm in programmable logic. The processor design is optimized for large, sparse graphs and provided in full as synthesizable VHDL code. An acceleration factor between 15 and 18 is obtained on a representative resting-state fMRI dataset, and maps of Euclidean path length reveal the anticipated heterogeneous cortical involvement in long-range integrative processing. These results enable high-resolution geodesic connectivity mapping for resting-state fMRI in patient populations and real-time geodesic mapping to support identification of imagined actions for fMRI-based brain-machine interfaces. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dedicated education unit: student perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Vicki M; Coe, Michael T; Hanita, Makoto; Moscato, Susan R

    2014-01-01

    The study compared students' perceptions of their clinical learning experiences in a dedicated education unit (DEU) with their experiences in traditional clinical education. Unlike traditional academic-instructor models, expert nurses in the DEU provide clinical education to students with faculty support. This repeated measures design used student surveys, supplemented by focus group data. Students were more likely to agree that their clinical learning experience was high quality and they had a consistent mentoring relationship during DEU rotations. Students also reported the quality of the unit's learning environment, the leadership style of the nurse manager, and the nursing care on the unit was more favorable in DEUs than traditional units. Consistent with their changed role in DEUs, faculty members were less active in helping students integrate theory and practice. These findings provide additional evidence of the value that the DEU model contributes to high-quality clinical education.

  5. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n = 30) tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin) during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n = 18) (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013). First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaire. When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate), right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally) correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per se may be

  6. Neural processing of calories in brain reward areas can be modulated by reward sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVan Rijn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A food’s reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food’s acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity, however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015, in which participants (n=30 tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n=18 (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013. First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS questionnaire.When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate, right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per

  7. Exenatide Regulates Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Brain Areas Associated With Glucose Homeostasis and Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Iozzo, Patricia; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Lancaster, Jack; Ciociaro, Demetrio; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Tripathy, Devjit; Triplitt, Curtis; Fox, Peter; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) have been found in the brain, but whether GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) influence brain glucose metabolism is currently unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a single injection of the GLP-1RA exenatide on cerebral and peripheral glucose metabolism in response to a glucose load. In 15 male subjects with HbA1c of 5.7 ± 0.1%, fasting glucose of 114 ± 3 mg/dL, and 2-h glucose of 177 ± 11 mg/dL, exenatide (5 μg) or placebo was injected in double-blind, randomized fashion subcutaneously 30 min before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglu) was measured by positron emission tomography after an injection of [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose before the OGTT, and the rate of glucose absorption (RaO) and disposal was assessed using stable isotope tracers. Exenatide reduced RaO0-60 min (4.6 ± 1.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.7 μmol/min ⋅ kg) and decreased the rise in mean glucose0-60 min (107 ± 6 vs. 138 ± 8 mg/dL) and insulin0-60 min (17.3 ± 3.1 vs. 24.7 ± 3.8 mU/L). Exenatide increased CMRglu in areas of the brain related to glucose homeostasis, appetite, and food reward, despite lower plasma insulin concentrations, but reduced glucose uptake in the hypothalamus. Decreased RaO0-60 min after exenatide was inversely correlated to CMRglu. In conclusion, these results demonstrate, for the first time in man, a major effect of a GLP-1RA on regulation of brain glucose metabolism in the absorptive state. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-07-21

    The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  9. Semantic brain areas are involved in gesture comprehension: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Gabaro, Veronica; Orlandi, Andrea; Zani, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    While the mechanism of sign language comprehension in deaf people has been widely investigated, little is known about the neural underpinnings of spontaneous gesture comprehension in healthy speakers. Bioelectrical responses to 800 pictures of actors showing common Italian gestures (e.g., emblems, deictic or iconic gestures) were recorded in 14 persons. Stimuli were selected from a wider corpus of 1122 gestures. Half of the pictures were preceded by an incongruent description. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites while participants decided whether the stimulus was congruent. Congruent pictures elicited a posterior P300 followed by late positivity, while incongruent gestures elicited an anterior N400 response. N400 generators were investigated with swLORETA reconstruction. Processing of congruent gestures activated face- and body-related visual areas (e.g., BA19, BA37, BA22), the left angular gyrus, mirror fronto/parietal areas. The incongruent-congruent contrast particularly stimulated linguistic and semantic brain areas, such as the left medial and the superior temporal lobe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ventral medullary neurones excited from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S M; Smith, P R

    1984-07-01

    In cats anaesthetised with chloralose, the ventral medulla was explored in and around the strip previously identified as the location of the efferent pathway from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas to the spinal cord, in a search for neurones excited by electrical stimulation of the defence areas. Such units were found mostly in the caudal part of this strip, at a depth of not more than 500 microns from the surface. Nearly all were located in the ventral part of nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL) at the level of the rostral pole of the inferior olive. There was evidence of temporal and spatial facilitation, indicating a convergent excitatory input from the defence areas onto neurones in PGL. This is consistent with earlier evidence of a synaptic relay in the efferent pathway at this site. When the pathway is blocked at this site, arterial blood pressure falls profoundly, so activity in these neurones may be essential for the normal level of sympathetic nerve activity.

  11. Dedicated Filter for Robust Occupancy Grid Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KS Nagla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor based perception of the environment is an emerging area of the mobile robot research where sensors play a pivotal role. For autonomous mobile robots, the fundamental requirement is the convergent of the range information in to high level internal representation. Internal representation in the form of occupancy grid is commonly used in autonomous mobile robots due to its various advantages. There are several sensors such as vision sensor, laser rage finder, and ultrasonic and infrared sensors etc. play roles in mapping. However the sensor information failure, sensor inaccuracies, noise, and slow response are the major causes of an error in the mapping. To improve the reliability of the mobile robot mapping multisensory data fusion is considered as an optimal solution. This paper presents a novel architecture of sensor fusion frame work in which a dedicated filter (DF is proposed to increase the robustness of the occupancy grid for indoor environment. The technique has been experimentally verified for different indoor test environments. The proposed configuration shows improvement in the occupancy grid with the implementation of dedicated filters.

  12. Synaesthetic Colour in the Brain: Beyond Colour Areas. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Synaesthetes and Matched Controls

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our q...

  13. Biogenic amines in brain areas of rats and response to varying dose levels of whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, F.M.; Elmossalamy, N.; Othman, S.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdelraheem, K.

    1994-01-01

    The levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were examined in the brain areas:cortex,: cerebellum, striatum and pons in rats exposed to whole body gamma-irradiation at the dose levels 6.5 and 10 Gy. The data obtained indicated that: 6.5 Gy induced in all brain areas, a slight increase in 5-HT concomitant with significant decrease in NE, DA levels, besides a significant increase in 5-HTAA in cerebellum and pons. After the dose 10 Gy the maximum excitation of 5-HT level was in striatum whereas declines in NE, DA were recorded in all brain areas. 5-HIAA displayed significant increase in cerebellum and pons and maximum decline in the cortex. 4 tab

  14. Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggas, Abeer M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L .) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats .The daily intraperitoneal ( i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg body wt valerian for 30 days caused a significant increase in epinephrine ( E ) content in pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and in midbrain . Norepinephrine (NE ) content was significantly increased in all brain areas tested except in cerebellum and cerebral cortex . Dopamine (DA) content was significantly increased in all tested brain areas except in cerebral cortex and hippocampus . moreover , there was also a significant increase in serotonin (5-HT ) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in all tested brain areas . However, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was significantly decreased in all tested brain areas . After the extract withdrawal, the increase in ( E, NE, DA , 5-HT ) contents and the decrease in GABA content persisted in pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , midbrain and hippocampus , and this might be due to regional differences toward the effect. The increase in E, NE, DA , 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)

  15. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n=21), to a matched group of typically-developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs pediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indexes assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke’s area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this specific subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas. PMID:21719430

  16. Early auditory processing in area V5/MT+ of the congenitally blind brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Kate E; Shakespeare, Timothy J; O'Donoghue, M Clare; Alexander, Iona; Ragge, Nicola; Cowey, Alan; Bridge, Holly

    2013-11-13

    Previous imaging studies of congenital blindness have studied individuals with heterogeneous causes of blindness, which may influence the nature and extent of cross-modal plasticity. Here, we scanned a homogeneous group of blind people with bilateral congenital anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop, and, as a result, the visual pathway is not stimulated by either light or retinal waves. This model of congenital blindness presents an opportunity to investigate the effects of very early visual deafferentation on the functional organization of the brain. In anophthalmic animals, the occipital cortex receives direct subcortical auditory input. We hypothesized that this pattern of subcortical reorganization ought to result in a topographic mapping of auditory frequency information in the occipital cortex of anophthalmic people. Using functional MRI, we examined auditory-evoked activity to pure tones of high, medium, and low frequencies. Activity in the superior temporal cortex was significantly reduced in anophthalmic compared with sighted participants. In the occipital cortex, a region corresponding to the cytoarchitectural area V5/MT+ was activated in the anophthalmic participants but not in sighted controls. Whereas previous studies in the blind indicate that this cortical area is activated to auditory motion, our data show it is also active for trains of pure tone stimuli and in some anophthalmic participants shows a topographic mapping (tonotopy). Therefore, this region appears to be performing early sensory processing, possibly served by direct subcortical input from the pulvinar to V5/MT+.

  17. [Measurement of the blood flow in various areas of the rat brain by means of microspheres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroo, J; Gerber, G B

    1976-01-01

    A method is described to measure regional blood flow in different structures of the rat brain. Microspheres (15 micron) are injected, the brain is sectioned, stained for myeline, radioautographs are prepared and the microspheres in the different structures are counted. The values obtained for different brain structures are counted. The values obtained for different brain regions (cortex, corpus callosum, thalamus hipocampus, hypothalamic region, colliculi, cerebellum, pons, medulla) compare well with those published by others on larger animals. In rats fed 1% of lead from birth, higher blood flow is found in the cortex and a lower one in the interior part of the brain compared to controls.

  18. Opposite modulation of brain stimulation reward by NMDA and AMPA receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Charles; Fortier, Emmanuel; Bouchard, Claude; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that blockade of ventral tegmental area (VTA) glutamate N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors induces reward, stimulates forward locomotion and enhances brain stimulation reward. Glutamate induces two types of excitatory response on VTA neurons, a fast and short lasting depolarization mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors and a longer lasting depolarization mediated by NMDA receptors. A role for the two glutamate receptors in modulation of VTA neuronal activity is evidenced by the functional change in AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses that result from repeated exposure to reward. Since both receptors contribute to the action of glutamate on VTA neuronal activity, we studied the effects of VTA AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade on reward induced by electrical brain stimulation. Experiments were performed on rats trained to self-administer electrical pulses in the medial posterior mesencephalon. Reward thresholds were measured with the curve-shift paradigm before and for 2 h after bilateral VTA microinjections of the AMPA antagonist, NBQX (2,3,-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo(f)quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, 0, 80, and 800 pmol/0.5 μl/side) and of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDA antagonist, PPPA (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphonopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid). NBQX produced a dose-dependent increase in reward threshold with no significant change in maximum rate of responding. Whereas PPPA injected at the same VTA sites produced a significant time dependent decrease in reward threshold and increase in maximum rate of responding. We found a negative correlation between the magnitude of the attenuation effect of NBQX and the enhancement effect of PPPA; moreover, NBQX and PPPA were most effective when injected, respectively, into the anterior and posterior VTA. These results suggest that glutamate acts on different receptor sub-types, most likely located on different VTA neurons, to

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Brain Perfusion SPECT with Brodmann Areas Mapping in Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on clinical criteria alone may be problematic, while current and future treatments should be administered earlier in order to be more effective. Thus, various disease biomarkers could be used for early detection of AD. We evaluated brain perfusion with 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Brodmann areas (BAs) mapping in mild AD using an automated software (NeuroGam) for the semi-quantitative evaluation of perfusion in BAs and the comparison with the software's normal database. We studied 34 consecutive patients with mild AD: 9 men, 25 women, mean age 70.9 ± 8.1 years, mean Mini-Mental State Examination 22.6 ± 2.5. BAs 25L, 25R, 38L, 38R, 28L, 28R, 36L, and 36R had the lower mean perfusion values, while BAs 31L, 31R, 19R, 18L, 18R, 17L, and 17R had the higher mean values. Compared with healthy subjects of the same age, perfusion values in BAs 25L, 25R, 28R, 28L, 36L, and 36R had the greatest deviations from the healthy sample, while the lowest deviations were found in BAs 32L, 32R, 19R, 24L, 17L, 17R, 18L, and 18R. A percentage of ≥94% of patients had perfusion values more than -2SDs below the mean of healthy subjects in BAs 38R, 38L, 36L, 36R, 23L, 23R, 22L, 44L, 28L, 28R, 25L, and 25R. The corresponding proportion was less than 38% for BAs 11L, 19R, 32L, 32R, 18L, 18R, 24L, and 17R. In conclusion, brain SPECT studies with automated perfusion mapping could be useful as an ancillary tool in daily practice, revealing perfusion impairments in early AD.

  20. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Chaminade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents.Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted.Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance.Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions.Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  1. Prolonged Repeated Acupuncture Stimulation Induces Habituation Effects in Pain-Related Brain Areas: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. PMID:24821143

  2. Linguistic processing in visual and modality-nonspecific brain areas: PET recordings during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, Victor A; Alho, Kimmo; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V; Pakhomov, Sergey V; Roudas, Marina S; Rutkovskaya, Julia M; Tervaniemi, Mari; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate the neural basis of selective processing of linguistic material during concurrent presentation of multiple stimulus streams ("cocktail-party effect"). Fifteen healthy right-handed adult males were to attend to one of three simultaneously presented messages: one presented visually, one to the left ear, and one to the right ear. During the control condition, subjects attended to visually presented consonant letter strings and ignored auditory messages. This paper reports the modality-nonspecific language processing and visual word-form processing, whereas the auditory attention effects have been reported elsewhere [Cogn. Brain Res. 17 (2003) 201]. The left-hemisphere areas activated by both the selective processing of text and speech were as follows: the inferior prefrontal (Brodmann's area, BA 45, 47), anterior temporal (BA 38), posterior insular (BA 13), inferior (BA 20) and middle temporal (BA 21), occipital (BA 18/30) cortices, the caudate nucleus, and the amygdala. In addition, bilateral activations were observed in the medial occipito-temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Decreases of activation during both text and speech processing were found in the parietal (BA 7, 40), frontal (BA 6, 8, 44) and occipito-temporal (BA 37) regions of the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the present data suggest that the left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 18, 20, 37, 21) can be subdivided into three functionally distinct regions in the posterior-anterior direction on the basis of their activation during attentive processing of sublexical orthography, visual word form, and supramodal higher-level aspects of language.

  3. Neuropsychological significance of areas of high signal intensity on brain MRIs of children with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B D; Slopis, J M; Schomer, D; Jackson, E F; Levy, B M

    1996-06-01

    Of children with neurofibromatosis (NF), 40% have a cognitive or learning impairment. Approximately 60% also have anomalous areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted brain MRIs. The association of these hyperintensities and neuropsychological status is not fully understood. We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and a standard clinical MRI to determine the impact of hyperintensity presence, number, and location on cognitive status in 84 children (8 to 16 years) with NF type 1. These children underwent standard clinical MRI using a GE 1.5-tesla scanner (except one child who was examined with a 1.0-tesla scanner). We conducted three types of analyses: Hyperintensity presence or absence.-Scores of children with (55%) and without hyperintensities (45%) were compared using t tests. No statistically significant differences between groups in intellectual functioning or any neuropsychological variable were found. Number of hyperintensities-The number of hyperintensity locations per child ranged from one to five (mean = 2.22). Pearson correlations revealed no significant association between the number of hyperintensities and neuropsychological performance. Location of hyperintensities-In four of the five locations studied, no statistically significant differences were found between scores of children with a hyperintensity in an area and those with one elsewhere. However, mean scores for IQ, Memory, Motor, Distractibility, and Attention domains for children with hyperintensities in the thalamus were significantly lower than scores for those with hyperintensities elsewhere. These results suggest that the simple presence or absence of hyperintensities, or their total number, is not as important as their anatomic location for detecting their relationship with neuropsychological status. Taking location into account, hyperintensities in the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, brainstem, or cerebellum seem to have no impact on neuropsychological functioning

  4. HTLV-I associated myelopathy with multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuo; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Shirou; Tarui, Seiichiro

    1988-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of urinary incontinence and gait disturbance, both of which had progressed slowly without any sign of remission. Family history was not contributory. Neurologically, extreme spasticity was recoginized in the lower limbs. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally. Flower-like atypical lymphocytes were seen in blood. Positive anti-HTLV-I antibody was confirmed in serum and spinal fluid by western blot. She was diagnosed as having HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). CT reveald calcification in bilateral globus pallidus, and MRI revealed multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem, but no spinal cord lesion was detectable. Electrophysiologically, brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) suggested the presence of bilateral brain stem lesions. Neither median nor posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked, a finding suggesting the existence of spinal cord lesion. In this case, the lesion was not confined to spinal cord, it was also observed in brain stem and cerebral white matter. Such distinct lesions in cerebral white matter and brain stem have not been reported in patients with HAM. It is suggested that HTLV-I is probably associated with cerebral white matter and brain stem.

  5. Specificities of Awake Craniotomy and Brain Mapping in Children for Resection of Supratentorial Tumors in the Language Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delion, Matthieu; Terminassian, Aram; Lehousse, Thierry; Aubin, Ghislaine; Malka, Jean; N'Guyen, Sylvie; Mercier, Philippe; Menei, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    In the pediatric population, awake craniotomy began to be used for the resection of brain tumor located close to eloquent areas. Some specificities must be taken into account to adapt this method to children. The aim of this clinical study is to not only confirm the feasibility of awake craniotomy and language brain mapping in the pediatric population but also identify the specificities and necessary adaptations of the procedure. Six children aged 11 to 16 were operated on while awake under local anesthesia with language brain mapping for supratentorial brain lesions (tumor and cavernoma). The preoperative planning comprised functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychologic and psychologic assessment. The specific preoperative preparation is clearly explained including hypnosis conditioning and psychiatric evaluation. The success of the procedure was based on the ability to perform the language brain mapping and the tumor removal without putting the patient to sleep. We investigated the pediatric specificities, psychological experience, and neuropsychologic follow-up. The children experienced little anxiety, probably in large part due to the use of hypnosis. We succeeded in doing the cortical-subcortical mapping and removing the tumor without putting the patient to sleep in all cases. The psychological experience was good, and the neuropsychologic follow-up showed a favorable evolution. Preoperative preparation and hypnosis in children seemed important for performing awake craniotomy and contributing language brain mapping with the best possible psychological experience. The pediatrics specificities are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Automated Multi-Contrast Brain Pathological Area Extraction from 2D MR Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Pavel; Bartušek, Karel; Kropatsch, W.G.; Smékal, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2015), s. 58-69 ISSN 1665-6423 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Brain Pathology * Brain Tumor * MRI * Multi-contrast MRI * Symmetry Analysis Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2013

  7. Metabolic rate in different rat brain areas during seizures induced by a specific delta opiate receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffmans, J; De Kloet, R; Dzoljic, M R

    1984-06-04

    The glucose utilization during specific delta opiate agonist-induced epileptiform phenomena, determined by the [14C]2-deoxyglucose technique (2-DG), was examined in various rat brain areas at different time intervals. The peak in EEG spiking response and the most intensive 2-DG uptake occurred 5 min after intraventricular (i.v.t.) administration of the delta opiate receptor agonist. The most pronounced 2-DG uptake at this time interval can be observed in the subiculum, including the CA1 hippocampal area, frontal cortex and central amygdala. A general decrease of glucose consumption, compared to control values, is observed after 10 min, in all regions, with exception of the subiculum. Since functional activity and 2-DG uptake are correlated, we suggest that the subiculum and/or CA1 area, are probably the brain regions most involved in the enkephalin-induced epileptic phenomena.

  8. Brain SPECT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Baulieu, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author)

  9. Radioimmunoassay of met-enkephalin in microdissected areas of paraformaldehyde-fixed rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, F.M.A.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effects were studied of various sample preparation procedures on rat brain met-enkephalin content, measured by radioimmunoassay. Whole brain met-enkephalin content of rats killed by decapitation followed by immediate tissue freezing was similar to that of rats killed by microwave irradiation and to those of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital or halothane before killing, whether previously perfused with paraformaldehyde or not. In contrast, a decrease (up to 80%) in met-enkephalin concentrations was observed when brain samples were frozen and thawed to mimic the procedure utilized in the ''punch'' technique for analysis of discrete brain nuclei. This decrease was totally prevented by paraformaldehyde perfusion of the brain prior to sacrifice. Brain perfusion did not alter the amount of immunoassayable met-enkephalin extracted from tissue or its profile after Sephadex chromatography. Paraformaldehyde perfusion results in better morphological tissue preservation and facilitates the ''punch'' dissecting technique. Paraformaldehyde perfusion may be the procedure of choice for the measurement of neuropeptides in specific brain nuclei dissected by the ''punch'' technique

  10. Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Philipp T.; Sturz, Laszlo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Setani, Keyvan S.; Buell, Udalrich; Spetzger, Uwe; Meyer, Georg F.; Sabri, Osama

    2003-01-01

    In patients scheduled for the resection of perisylvian brain tumours, knowledge of the cortical topography of language functions is crucial in order to avoid neurological deficits. We investigated the applicability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without stereotactic normalisation for individual preoperative language function brain mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). Seven right-handed adult patients with left-sided brain tumours (six frontal and one temporal) underwent 12 oxygen-15 labelled water PET scans during overt verb generation and rest. Individual activation maps were calculated for P<0.005 and P<0.001 without anatomical normalisation and overlaid onto the individuals' magnetic resonance images for preoperative planning. Activations corresponding to Broca's and Wernicke's areas were found in five and six cases, respectively, for P<0.005 and in three and six cases, respectively, for P<0.001. One patient with a glioma located in the classical Broca's area without aphasic symptoms presented an activation of the adjacent inferior frontal cortex and of a right-sided area homologous to Broca's area. Four additional patients with left frontal tumours also presented activations of the right-sided Broca's homologue; two of these showed aphasic symptoms and two only a weak or no activation of Broca's area. Other frequently observed activations included bilaterally the superior temporal gyri, prefrontal cortices, anterior insulae, motor areas and the cerebellum. The middle and inferior temporal gyri were activated predominantly on the left. An SPM group analysis (P<0.05, corrected) in patients with left frontal tumours confirmed the activation pattern shown by the individual analyses. We conclude that SPM analyses without stereotactic normalisation offer a promising alternative for analysing individual preoperative language function brain mapping studies. The observed right frontal activations agree with proposed reorganisation processes, but

  11. Vertical displacement of the brain and the target area during open stereotaxic neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, K.; Kraekenes, J.

    2001-01-01

    During stereotaxic thalamotomies, we observed that the brain surface was sinking. The study was carried out to investigate to what extent the target area also was displaced and how this would affect the accuracy of the stereotaxic procedure. In 12 thalamotomies, with the patients operated on in the sitting position, we found that the cortical surface sank 0-9 (mean 5) mm during the operation. The vertical co-ordinate of the thalamic target was consequently adjusted per-operatively, and the electrodes were advanced on additional distance of 1-5.5 (mean 3.5) mm in an attempt to compensate for the assumed sinking of the target. This per-operative adjustment was based on the surgeon's experience and the results of macro-stimulation studies. The exact location of the thalamotomy lesion, and thereby the accuracy of the adjustment, was evaluated on 3 months postoperative CT scans. These showed that the intended target was hit with a sufficient degree of accuracy in all the patients, although the vertical co-ordinate had been slightly over-adjusted, as the center of the lesion on the average was located 1 mm below the intended location. Thus, if the vertical position had not been adjusted, the lesion would on the average have been located 2.5 mm too high compared with the intended target. Patients undergoing thalamotomy and other stereotaxic procedures, where a high degree of accuracy is needed, should be operated on in the sitting position. At the thalamic level, the vertical displacement of the target should be adjusted for by additional advancement of the stereotaxic probe. On average, this compensatory adjustment should be about half the per-operative sinking of the cortical surface. (author)

  12. Hand posture classification using electrocorticography signals in the gamma band over human sensorimotor brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Blabe, Christine H.; Foster, Brett L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Parvizi, Josef; Henderson, Jaimie M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface systems translate recorded neural signals into command signals for assistive technology. In individuals with upper limb amputation or cervical spinal cord injury, the restoration of a useful hand grasp could significantly improve daily function. We sought to determine if electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals contain sufficient information to select among multiple hand postures for a prosthetic hand, orthotic, or functional electrical stimulation system.Approach. We recorded ECoG signals from subdural macro- and microelectrodes implanted in motor areas of three participants who were undergoing inpatient monitoring for diagnosis and treatment of intractable epilepsy. Participants performed five distinct isometric hand postures, as well as four distinct finger movements. Several control experiments were attempted in order to remove sensory information from the classification results. Online experiments were performed with two participants. Main results. Classification rates were 68%, 84% and 81% for correct identification of 5 isometric hand postures offline. Using 3 potential controls for removing sensory signals, error rates were approximately doubled on average (2.1×). A similar increase in errors (2.6×) was noted when the participant was asked to make simultaneous wrist movements along with the hand postures. In online experiments, fist versus rest was successfully classified on 97% of trials; the classification output drove a prosthetic hand. Online classification performance for a larger number of hand postures remained above chance, but substantially below offline performance. In addition, the long integration windows used would preclude the use of decoded signals for control of a BCI system. Significance. These results suggest that ECoG is a plausible source of command signals for prosthetic grasp selection. Overall, avenues remain for improvement through better electrode designs and placement, better participant training

  13. Cortical thinning in cognitively normal elderly cohort of 60 to 89 year old from AIBL database and vulnerable brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongmin S.; Avinash, Gopal; Yan, Litao; McMillan, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Age-related cortical thinning has been studied by many researchers using quantitative MR images for the past three decades and vastly differing results have been reported. Although results have shown age-related cortical thickening in elderly cohort statistically in some brain regions under certain conditions, cortical thinning in elderly cohort requires further systematic investigation. This paper leverages our previously reported brain surface intensity model (BSIM)1 based technique to measure cortical thickness to study cortical changes due to normal aging. We measured cortical thickness of cognitively normal persons from 60 to 89 years old using Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study (AIBL) data. MRI brains of 56 healthy people including 29 women and 27 men were selected. We measured average cortical thickness of each individual in eight brain regions: parietal, frontal, temporal, occipital, visual, sensory motor, medial frontal and medial parietal. Unlike the previous published studies, our results showed consistent age-related thinning of cerebral cortex in all brain regions. The parietal, medial frontal and medial parietal showed fastest thinning rates of 0.14, 0.12 and 0.10 mm/decade respectively while the visual region showed the slowest thinning rate of 0.05 mm/decade. In sensorimotor and parietal areas, women showed higher thinning (0.09 and 0.16 mm/decade) than men while in all other regions men showed higher thinning than women. We also created high resolution cortical thinning rate maps of the cohort and compared them to typical patterns of PET metabolic reduction of moderate AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The results seemed to indicate vulnerable areas of cortical deterioration that may lead to brain dementia. These results validate our cortical thickness measurement technique by demonstrating the consistency of the cortical thinning and prediction of cortical deterioration trend with AIBL database.

  14. Quantitative pharmacological analysis of 2-125I-iodomelatonin binding sites in discrete areas of the chicken brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siuciak, J.A.; Krause, D.N.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have localized and characterized 2-125I-iodomelatonin binding sites in the chicken brain using in vitro quantitative autoradiography. Binding sites were widely distributed throughout the chicken brain, predominantly in regions associated with the visual system. The specific binding of 2-125I-iodomelatonin to discrete chicken brain areas was found to be saturable, reversible, and of high affinity. The specific binding of 2-125I-iodomelatonin (75 pm) was quantitated for 40 identifiable brain regions. Eight brain regions were chosen for binding characterization and pharmacological analysis: optic tectum, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, oculomotor nucleus, nucleus rotundus, ventral supraoptic decussation, ventrolateral geniculate nucleus, neostriatum, and ectostriatum. These regions showed no rostral-caudal gradient in 2-125I-iodomelatonin specific binding, and saturation analysis revealed a single class of high-affinity sites with KD values in the range of 33-48 pM and receptor site density (Bmax) ranging from 31 to 58 fmol/mg protein. Competition experiments carried out with various indoles revealed a similar order of pharmacological affinities in these areas: melatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than methoxyluzindole greater than N-acetylserotonin greater than luzindole much greater than 5-HT greater than 5-methoxytryptamine. The affinity constants determined by quantitative autoradiography for these compounds to compete for 2-125I-iodomelatonin binding in the optic tectum correlated well with the affinities in chicken brain membranes at 25 degrees C (r = 0.966; slope = 0.845; n = 7) and 0 degree C (r = 0.946; slope = 0.379; n = 7), chicken retinal membranes (r = 0.973; slope = 0.759; n = 7), and the potency or affinity of these compounds to affect the calcium-dependent release of 3H-dopamine from the rabbit retina (r = 0.902; slope = 0.506; n = 6)

  15. Hypometabolism in Posterior and Temporal Areas of the Brain is Associated with Cognitive Decline in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tard, Céline; Demailly, Franck; Delval, Arnaud; Semah, Franck; Defebvre, Luc; Dujardin, Kathy; Moreau, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Brain metabolic profiles of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and cognitive impairment or dementia are now available. It would be useful if data on brain metabolism were also predictive of the risk of a pejorative cognitive evolution - especially in the multidisciplinary management of advanced PD patients. The primary objective was to determine whether a specific brain metabolic pattern is associated with cognitive decline in PD. Sixteen advanced PD patients were screened for the absence of cognitive impairment (according to the Mattis dementia rating scale, MDRS) and underwent [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain imaging in the "off drug" state. The MDRS was scored again about two years later, categorizing patients as having significant cognitive decline (decliners) or not (stables). The two groups were then compared in terms of their brain metabolism at inclusion. There were six decliners and ten stables. Significant hypometabolism in the two precunei (Brodmann area (BA) 31), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA21) and the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) was found in the decliner group compared withthe stables. In advanced PD, a particular metabolic pattern may be associated with the onset of significant cognitive decline.

  16. Brain areas associated with numbers and calculations in children: Meta-analyses of fMRI studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Arsalidou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Children use numbers every day and typically receive formal mathematical training from an early age, as it is a main subject in school curricula. Despite an increase in children neuroimaging studies, a comprehensive neuropsychological model of mathematical functions in children is lacking. Using quantitative meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies, we identify concordant brain areas across articles that adhere to a set of selection criteria (e.g., whole-brain analysis, coordinate reports and report brain activity to tasks that involve processing symbolic and non-symbolic numbers with and without formal mathematical operations, which we called respectively number tasks and calculation tasks. We present data on children 14 years and younger, who solved these tasks. Results show activity in parietal (e.g., inferior parietal lobule and precuneus and frontal (e.g., superior and medial frontal gyri cortices, core areas related to mental-arithmetic, as well as brain regions such as the insula and claustrum, which are not typically discussed as part of mathematical problem solving models. We propose a topographical atlas of mathematical processes in children, discuss findings within a developmental constructivist theoretical model, and suggest practical methodological considerations for future studies. Keywords: Mathematical cognition, Meta-analyses, fMRI, Children, Development, Insula

  17. Common brain areas engaged in false belief reasoning and visual perspective taking: A meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eSchurz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We performed a quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to identify brain areas which are commonly engaged in social and visuo-spatial perspective taking. Specifically, we compared brain activation found for visual-perspective taking to activation for false belief reasoning, a task which requires awareness of perspective to understand someone’s mistaken belief about the world which contrasts with reality. In support of a previous account by Perner & Leekam (2008, a meta-analytic conjunction analysis found activation for false belief reasoning and visual perspective taking in the left but not the right dorsal temporo-parietal junction. This fits with the idea that the left dorsal TPJ is responsible for representing different perspectives in a domain-general fashion. Moreover, the conjunction found activation in the precuneus and the left middle occipital gyrus close to the putative Extrastriate Body Area. The precuneus is linked to mental-imagery processes, which may aid in the construction of a different perspective. The Extrastriate Body Area may be engaged due to imagined body-transformations when another’s viewpoint is adopted.

  18. An HPLC tracing of the enhancer regulation in selected discrete brain areas of food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Knoll, J

    2003-05-09

    The recent discovery of the enhancer regulation in the mammalian brain brought a different perspective to the brain-organized realization of goal-oriented behavior, which is the quintessence of plastic behavioral descriptions such as drive or motivation. According to this new approach, 'drive' means that special endogenous enhancer substances enhance the impulse-propagation-mediated release of transmitters in a proper population of enhancer-sensitive neurons, and keep these neurons in the state of enhanced excitability until the goal is reached. However, to reach any goal needs the participation of the catecholaminergic machinery, the engine of the brain. We developed a method to detect the specific enhancer effect of synthetic enhancer substances [(-)-deprenyl, (-)-PPAP, (-)-BPAP] by measuring the release of transmitters from freshly isolated selected discrete brain areas (striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium, locus coeruleus, raphe) by the aid of HPLC with electrochemical detection. To test the validity of the working hypothesis that in any form of goal-seeking behavior the catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons work on a higher activity level, we compared the amount of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin released from selected discrete brain areas isolated from the brain of sated and food-deprived rats. Rats were deprived of food for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, and the state of excitability of their catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in comparison to that of sated rats was measured. We tested the orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats in a special open field, isolated thereafter selected discrete brain areas and measured the release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin from the proper tissue samples into the organ bath. The orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats increased proportionally to the time elapsed from the last feed and the amount of dopamine released from the striatum, substantia nigra and

  19. Brain areas involved in acupuncture needling sensation of de qi: a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Rong; Li, Gan-Long; Zhang, Gui-Feng; Huang, Yong; Wang, Shu-Xia; Lu, Na

    2012-12-01

    De qi is a sensory response elicited by acupuncture stimulation. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), de qi is essential for clinical efficacy. However, the understanding of the neurobiological basis of de qi is still limited. To investigate the relationship between brain activation and de qi by taking a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan while applying acupuncture at TE5. A total of 24 volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups, and received verum or sham acupuncture at true acupuncture point TE5 or a nearby sham point according to grouping. All subjects then received a (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT scan. All six subjects in the verum acupuncture at true acupuncture point group experienced de qi sensation; in contrast, all six subjects in the sham acupuncture at the sham point group responded with nothing other than non-sensation. Compared to the scan results from subjects who experienced non-sensation, SPECT scans from subjects with de qi sensation demonstrated significant activated points mainly located in brodmann areas 6, 8, 19, 21, 28, 33, 35, 37, 47, the parahippocampal gyrus, lentiform nucleus, claustrum and red nucleus; deactivated points were seen in brodmann areas 9 and 25. Verum acupuncture at true acupuncture points is more likely to elicit de qi sensation. De qi sensations mainly resulted in brain area activations, but not deactivations. These brain areas are related to the curative effect of Te5. The acupuncture needle sensations of de qi and sharp pain are associated with different patterns of activations and deactivations in the brain.

  20. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  1. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel; Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife

  2. Higher-order Brain Areas Associated with Real-time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training of the Somato-motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Frahm, Jens; Schweizer, Renate

    2018-05-15

    Neurofeedback (NFB) allows subjects to learn self-regulation of neuronal brain activation based on information about the ongoing activation. The implementation of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) for NFB training now facilitates the investigation into underlying processes. Our study involved 16 control and 16 training right-handed subjects, the latter performing an extensive rt-fMRI NFB training using motor imagery. A previous analysis focused on the targeted primary somato-motor cortex (SMC). The present study extends the analysis to the supplementary motor area (SMA), the next higher brain area within the hierarchy of the motor system. We also examined transfer-related functional connectivity using a whole-volume psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis to reveal brain areas associated with learning. The ROI analysis of the pre- and post-training fMRI data for motor imagery without NFB (transfer) resulted in a significant training-specific increase in the SMA. It could also be shown that the contralateral SMA exhibited a larger increase than the ipsilateral SMA in the training and the transfer runs, and that the right-hand training elicited a larger increase in the transfer runs than the left-hand training. The PPI analysis revealed a training-specific increase in transfer-related functional connectivity between the left SMA and frontal areas as well as the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) for right- and left-hand trainings. Moreover, the transfer success was related with training-specific increase in functional connectivity between the left SMA and the target area SMC. Our study demonstrates that NFB training increases functional connectivity with non-targeted brain areas. These are associated with the training strategy (i.e., SMA) as well as with learning the NFB skill (i.e., aMCC and frontal areas). This detailed description of both the system to be trained and the areas involved in learning can provide valuable information

  3. Changes in the peritumoral hypoperfusion area immediately after radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumor. Analysis using 3D-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Masaaki [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Sixteen patients with single metastatic brain tumor underwent SPECT using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) before and after radiosurgery. Influence of treatment was evaluated using three-dimensional SPECT images, threshold-voxel graphs and changes in the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area. A three-detector type scanner, the PRISM3000, was also used. SPECT scanning was performed for 30 minutes after intravenous administration of {sup 123}I-IMP with sequential scans every 1 minutes. The data obtained 16-30 minutes after administration were processed using a low-pass ramp filter, and three-dimensional SPECT images were constructed from these data using the Application Visualization System (AVS). Furthermore, a threshold-voxel graph was plotted and the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area was calculated. SPECT was performed before radiosurgery, and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after, and these data were compared. Three-dimensional SPECT presented the area of peritumoral hypoperfusion as a deficit image and changes were evaluated visually. Threshold-voxel graphs were evaluated as follows: changes in voxels with a threshold of 40-50% indicated a hypoperfusion area, and changes in voxels with a threshold of 70-95% indicated a hyperperfusion area in the tumor side hemisphere. The volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area was calculated using the voxel difference between the tumor side and normal hemispheres. Our results showed that the peritumoral hypoperfusion area gradually decreased after an initial first-day increase following radiosurgery. Visual three-dimensional SPECT allowed us to monitor both the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area of metastatic brain tumors after radiosurgery by means of a threshold-voxel graph and changes in the peritumoral hypoperfusion area. (author)

  4. Optimal use of EEG recordings to target active brain areas with transcranial electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Koessler, Laurent; Norcia, Anthony M; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-08-15

    To demonstrate causal relationships between brain and behavior, investigators would like to guide brain stimulation using measurements of neural activity. Particularly promising in this context are electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), as they are linked by a reciprocity principle which, despite being known for decades, has not led to a formalism for relating EEG recordings to optimal stimulation parameters. Here we derive a closed-form expression for the TES configuration that optimally stimulates (i.e., targets) the sources of recorded EEG, without making assumptions about source location or distribution. We also derive a duality between TES targeting and EEG source localization, and demonstrate that in cases where source localization fails, so does the proposed targeting. Numerical simulations with multiple head models confirm these theoretical predictions and quantify the achieved stimulation in terms of focality and intensity. We show that constraining the stimulation currents automatically selects optimal montages that involve only a few (4-7) electrodes, with only incremental loss in performance when targeting focal activations. The proposed technique allows brain scientists and clinicians to rationally target the sources of observed EEG and thus overcomes a major obstacle to the realization of individualized or closed-loop brain stimulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth

  6. GLP-1 Receptor Activation Modulates Appetite- and Reward-Related Brain Areas in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloemendaal, L.; IJzerman, R.G.; ten Kulve, J.S.; Barkhof, F.; Konrad, R.J.; Drent, M.L.; Veltman, D.J.; Diamant, M.

    2014-01-01

    Gut-derived hormones, such as GLP-1, have been proposed to relay information to the brain to regulate appetite. GLP-1 receptor agonists, currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), improve glycemic control and stimulate satiety, leading to decreases in food intake and body weight. We

  7. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-08-10

    In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction) also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent) response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal cortex is likely to play an important role, may induce V4 activation and the percept of

  8. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour. Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal

  9. Scintillator performance considerations for dedicated breast computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Karellas, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Dedicated breast computed tomography (BCT) is an emerging clinical modality that can eliminate tissue superposition and has the potential for improved sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. It is performed without physical compression of the breast. Most of the dedicated BCT systems use large-area detectors operating in cone-beam geometry and are referred to as cone-beam breast CT (CBBCT) systems. The large-area detectors in CBBCT systems are energy-integrating, indirect-type detectors employing a scintillator that converts x-ray photons to light, followed by detection of optical photons. A key consideration that determines the image quality achieved by such CBBCT systems is the choice of scintillator and its performance characteristics. In this work, a framework for analyzing the impact of the scintillator on CBBCT performance and its use for task-specific optimization of CBBCT imaging performance is described.

  10. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  11. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on grey matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelis eKaiser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to 2 languages simultaneously from birth (SiM were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM. Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower grey matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and influence experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  12. Diminished Dentate Gyrus Filtering of Cortical Input Leads to Enhanced Area Ca3 Excitability after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folweiler, Kaitlin A; Samuel, Sandy; Metheny, Hannah E; Cohen, Akiva S

    2018-04-06

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area Cornu Ammonis (CA3). Although injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3. In this study, we assessed hippocampal function, specifically the interaction between the dentate gyrus and CA3, using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques in ex vivo brain slices 1 week following mild lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI). Behaviorally, LFPI mice were found to be impaired in an object-place recognition task, indicating that spatial information processing in the hippocampus is disrupted. Extracellular recordings and voltage-sensitive dye imaging demonstrated that perforant path activation leads to the aberrant spread of excitation from the dentate gyrus into area CA3 along the mossy fiber pathway. These results suggest that after mTBI, the dentate gyrus has a diminished capacity to regulate cortical input into the hippocampus, leading to increased CA3 network excitability. The loss of the dentate filtering efficacy reveals a potential mechanism by which hippocampal-dependent spatial information processing is disrupted, and may contribute to memory dysfunction after mTBI.

  13. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-identification with another person's face: the time relevant role of multimodal brain areas in the enfacement illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalari, Ilaria; Porciello, Giuseppina; Sperduti, Marco; Minio-Paluello, Ilaria

    2015-04-01

    The illusory subjective experience of looking at one's own face while in fact looking at another person's face can surprisingly be induced by simple synchronized visuotactile stimulation of the two faces. A recent study (Apps MA, Tajadura-Jiménez A, Sereno M, Blanke O, Tsakiris M. Cereb Cortex. First published August 20, 2013; doi:10.1093/cercor/bht199) investigated for the first time the role of visual unimodal and temporoparietal multimodal brain areas in the enfacement illusion and suggested a model in which multisensory mechanisms are crucial to construct and update self-face representation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Response of lactate metabolism in brain glucosensing areas of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to changes in glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-01

    There is no evidence in fish brain demonstrating the existence of changes in lactate metabolism in response to alterations in glucose levels. We induced in rainbow trout through intraperitoneal (IP) treatments, hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic changes to assess the response of parameters involved in lactate metabolism in glucosensing areas like hypothalamus and hindbrain. To distinguish those effects from those induced by peripheral changes in the levels of metabolites or hormones, we also carried out intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatments with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, a non-metabolizable glucose analogue thus inducing local glucopenia) or glucose. Finally, we also incubated hypothalamus and hindbrain in vitro in the presence of increased glucose concentrations. The changes in glucose availability were in general correlated to changes in the amount of lactate in both areas. However, when we assessed in these areas the response of parameters related to lactate metabolism, the results obtained were contradictory. The increase in glucose levels did not produce in general the expected changes in those pathways with only a minor increase in their capacity of lactate production. The decrease in glucose levels was, however, more clearly related to a decreased capacity of the pathways involved in the production and use of lactate, and this was especially evident after ICV treatment with 2-DG in both areas. In conclusion, the present results while addressing the existence of changes in lactate metabolism after inducing changes in glucose levels in brain glucosensing areas only partially support the possible existence of an astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle in hypothalamus and hindbrain of rainbow trout relating glucose availability to lactate production and use.

  16. Local Anesthesia at ST36 to Reveal Responding Brain Areas to deqi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-min Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Development of non-deqi control is still a challenge. This study aims to set up a potential approach to non-deqi control by using lidocaine anesthesia at ST36. Methods. Forty healthy volunteers were recruited and they received two fMRI scans. One was accompanied with manual acupuncture at ST36 (DQ group, and another was associated with both local anesthesia and manual acupuncture at the same acupoint (LA group. Results. Comparing to DQ group, more than 90 percent deqi sensations were reduced by local anesthesia in LA group. The mainly activated regions in DQ group were bilateral IFG, S1, primary motor cortex, IPL, thalamus, insula, claustrum, cingulate gyrus, putamen, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum. Surprisingly only cerebellum showed significant activation in LA group. Compared to the two groups, bilateral S1, insula, ipsilateral IFG, IPL, claustrum, and contralateral ACC were remarkably activated. Conclusions. Local anesthesia at ST36 is able to block most of the deqi feelings and inhibit brain responses to deqi, which would be developed into a potential approach for non-deqi control. Bilateral S1, insula, ipsilateral IFG, IPL, claustrum, and contralateral ACC might be the key brain regions responding to deqi.

  17. Application of stereological methods to estimate post-mortem brain surface area using 3T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlong, Carolyn; García-Fiñana, Marta; Puddephat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Cavalieri and Vertical Sections methods of design based stereology were applied in combination with 3 tesla (i.e. 3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to estimate cortical and subcortical volume, area of the pial surface, area of the grey-white matter boundary, and thickness of the cerebral...

  18. DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Court, A.J.; Smorenburg, K.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Visser, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Decae, R.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of aerosols is a largely unresolved problem. A dedicated instrument aimed at aerosols would be able to reduce the large uncertainties connected to this kind of remote sensing. TNO is performing a study of a space based instrument for aerosol measurements, together with the

  19. Different distributions of the 5-HT reuptake complex and the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors in Brodmann areas and brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, Pilar; Arranz, Belén; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Oros, Miguel; San, Luis; Vallejo, Julio; Navarro, Miguel Angel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of the presynaptic 5-HT reuptake complex and the 5-HT(2A) receptors through Brodmann areas from two control subjects, together with the possible existence of laterality between both brain hemispheres. A left laterality was observed in the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) binding sites, with significantly higher B(max) values in the left frontal and cingulate cortex. In frontal cortex, [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine binding showed the highest B(max) values in areas 25, 10 and 11. In cingulate cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) values were noted in Brodmann area 33 followed by area 24, while postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors were mainly distributed through Brodmann areas 23 and 29. In temporal cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) was noted in Brodmann areas 28 and 34, followed by areas 35 and 38. All Brodmann areas from parietal cortex (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 39, 40 and 43) showed similar presynaptic and postsynaptic binding values. In occipital cortex no differences were observed with regard to the brain hemisphere or to the Brodmann area (17, 18 and 19). These results suggest the need to carefully define the brain hemisphere and the Brodmann areas studied, as well to avoid comparisons between studies including different Brodmann areas or brain hemispheres.

  20. [Intensity of pentose phosphate metabolism of carbohydrates in various brain areas in normal and starved animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimov, B F

    2002-01-01

    The activities of key enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), were studied in cytoplasmatic fractions of brain cortical (limbic, orbital, sensorimotor cortex) and subcortical (myelencefalon, mesencefalon, hypothalamus) structures of rats subjected to starvation for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days. Short-term starvation (1-3 days) caused activation of 6-GPD and 6-PGD both in cortical and subcortical structures. Long-term starvation for 5-7 days caused a decrease of activities of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes in all studied structures. It is suggested that enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway in nervous tissues are functionally and metabolically related to glutathione system and during starvation they indirectly participate in the regulation lipid peroxidation processes.

  1. [Language Functions in the Frontal Association Area: Brain Mechanisms That Create Language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kayako; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2016-11-01

    Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing. Here, we review how neuroimaging studies, combined with research paradigms based on theoretical linguistics, have contributed to clarifying the critical roles of the left IFG in syntactic processing and those of language-related networks, including cortical and cerebellar regions.

  2. Functional connectivity between somatosensory and motor brain areas predicts individual differences in motor learning by observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    Action observation can facilitate the acquisition of novel motor skills; however, there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in brain function or structure can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Subjects underwent an anatomical MRI scan and resting-state fMRI scans to assess preobservation gray matter volume and preobservation resting-state functional connectivity (FC), respectively. On the following day, subjects observed a video of a tutor adapting her reaches to a novel force field. After observation, subjects performed reaches in a force field as a behavioral assessment of gains in motor learning resulting from observation. We found that individual differences in resting-state FC, but not gray matter volume, predicted postobservation gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state FC between left primary somatosensory cortex and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, and primary somatosensory cortex and left superior parietal lobule was positively correlated with behavioral measures of postobservation motor learning. Sensory-motor resting-state FC can thus predict the extent to which observation will promote subsequent motor learning. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that individual differences in preobservation brain function can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state functional connectivity within a sensory-motor network may be used as a biomarker for the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. This kind of information may be useful if observation is to be used as a way to boost neuroplasticity and sensory-motor recovery for patients undergoing rehabilitation for diseases that impair movement such as stroke. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Opposite modulation of brain stimulation reward by NMDA and AMPA receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eDucrot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that blockade of ventral midbrain (VM glutamate N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA receptors induces reward, stimulates forward locomotion and enhances brain stimulation reward. Glutamate induces two types of excitatory response on VM neurons, a fast and short lasting depolarisation mediated by a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA receptors and a longer lasting depolarization mediated by NMDA receptors. A role for the two glutamate receptors in modulation of VM neuronal activity is evidenced by the functional change in AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses that result from repeated exposure to reward. Since both receptors contribute to the action of glutamate on VM neuronal activity, we studied the effects of VM AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade on reward induced by electrical brain stimulation. Experiments were performed on rats trained to self-administer electrical pulses in the medial posterior mesencephalon. Reward thresholds were measured with the curve-shift paradigm before and for two hours after bilateral VM microinjections of the AMPA antagonist, NBQX (2,3,-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo(fquinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, 0, 80, and 800 pmol/0.5ul/side and of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5ul/side of the NMDA antagonist, PPPA (2R,4S-4-(3-Phosphonopropyl-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid. NBQX produced a dose-dependent increase in reward threshold with no significant change in maximum rate of responding. Whereas PPPA injected at the same VM sites produced a significant time dependent decrease in reward threshold and increase in maximum rate of responding. We found a negative correlation between the magnitude of the attenuation effect of NBQX and the enhancement effect of PPPA; moreover, NBQX and PPPA were most effective when injected respectively into the anterior and posterior VM. These results suggest that glutamate acts on different receptor sub-types, most likely located on different VM neurons, to modulate

  4. Deafferentation in thalamic and pontine areas in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouchedi, M; Galanaud, D; Delmaire, C; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Messé, A; Mesmoudi, S; Oulebsir Boumghar, F; Pélégrini-Issac, M; Puybasset, L; Benali, H; Perlbarg, V

    2015-07-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized mainly by diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). The cortico-subcortical disconnections induced by such fiber disruption play a central role in consciousness recovery. We hypothesized that these cortico-subcortical deafferentations inferred from diffusion MRI data could differentiate between TBI patients with favorable or unfavorable (death, vegetative state, or minimally conscious state) outcome one year after injury. Cortico-subcortical fiber density maps were derived by using probabilistic tractography from diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in 24 severe TBI patients and 9 healthy controls. These maps were compared between patients and controls as well as between patients with favorable (FO) and unfavorable (UFO) 1-year outcome to identify the thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical pathways involved in the maintenance of consciousness. Thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical fiber density was significantly lower in TBI patients than in healthy controls. Comparing FO and UFO TBI patients showed thalamo-cortical deafferentation associated with unfavorable outcome for projections from ventral posterior and intermediate thalamic nuclei to the associative frontal, sensorimotor and associative temporal cortices. Specific ponto-thalamic deafferentation in projections from the upper dorsal pons (including the reticular formation) was also associated with unfavorable outcome. Fiber density of cortico-subcortical pathways as measured from diffusion MRI tractography is a relevant candidate biomarker for early prediction of one-year favorable outcome in severe TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of whole body neutron irradiation on certain enzyme activities in different brain areas in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotb, M.A.; Ashour, A.M.; El-Bassiouni, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Male swiss albino mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation by fast neutrons of 14 MeV average energy. Two single doses of 0.08 sievert and 0.16 sievert were used, corresponding to fluences of 1.27 X 10 8 and 2.54 X 10 8 n/cm 2 respectively. Two enzymes were assessed in different layers of the cerebrum and cerebellum of mouse brain. Changes in the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) were taken to measure alterations in lysosomal and mitochondrial functions respectively. The degrees of lysosomal affection in different layers of the cerebrum were not uniform, while changes in A activity were very prominent in certain layers (e.g. external pyramidal layer, polymorphous cells layer and white matter), they were practically absent in others (e.g. internal pyramidal layer). Stronger effect was noted in the tissue layers of the cerebellum. The activity of SDH decreased as result of fast neutron irradiation. The response was more apparent for this enzyme than for ACP. This indicates more liability for a decrease in energy metabolism with consequent effect on behavioural and physiological functions under central nervous system control. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Effects of deep brain stimulation of the peduncolopontine area on working memory tasks in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Caltagirone, Carlo; Mazzone, Paolo; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Peppe, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at investigating the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation (25 Hz) of the peduncolopontine (PPN) area on working memory (WM) functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Five PD patients who underwent simultaneous PPN area- and subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation participated in the study. PD patients were evaluated in the morning at least 12 h after antiparkinsonian therapy withdrawal in two conditions: i) after continuous PPN area stimulation (Off Therapy/On PPN: "On" condition); ii) at least 120 min after PPN area had been switched "Off" (Off Ther/Off PPN: "Off" condition). The experimental WM task consisted of an n-back paradigm with verbal and visual-object stimuli. PD patients showed a consistent response time decrease on both the verbal and the visual-object tasks passing from the "Off" to the "On" condition (p processing of information in the content of WM, possibly through the modulation of the attentional resources.

  7. The AMFEC: a tool for dedications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor Escobar, H.; Gomar Vidal, J.

    2014-01-01

    The process of dedication, consists of a series of activities intended to ensure that a component of commercial grade can be used in applications related with the Security at nuclear facilities. However, in one of the steps of essential dedication, is often the problem defined with certain accuracy the most relevant characteristics or critical acceptance of the component characteristics, which through its verification, give by valid the commercial component for security-related use. Due to lack of information, they can sometimes not be identified clearly, and therefore it is necessary to resort to some alternative method that will allow us to define them, the AMFEC (analysis of failure modes, effects and criticality. (Author)

  8. Dedication of Fermilab's LHC Remote Operations Center

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    Fermilab's Remote Operations Center will be dedicated simultaneously at Fermilab in the U.S. and from CMS (Point 5) in Cessy, France. Speakers will include: from the U.S. DOE Undersecretary for Science Raymond Orbach and Fermilab Director Pier Oddone (U.S.); and from CERN Director General Robert Aymar, CMS Spokesperson Jim Virdee, LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans and US CMS Project Manager Joel Butler.

  9. Dedicating Fermilab's Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    It was a bold move to have a fullscale dedication ceremony for the new proton-antiproton Collider at the Fermilab Tevatron on 13 October, two days before the first collisions were seen. However the particles dutifully behaved as required, and over the following weekend the Collider delivered its goods at a total energy of 1600 GeV, significantly boosting the world record for laboratory collisions

  10. Computational and mathematical methods in brain atlasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L

    2017-12-01

    Brain atlases have a wide range of use from education to research to clinical applications. Mathematical methods as well as computational methods and tools play a major role in the process of brain atlas building and developing atlas-based applications. Computational methods and tools cover three areas: dedicated editors for brain model creation, brain navigators supporting multiple platforms, and atlas-assisted specific applications. Mathematical methods in atlas building and developing atlas-aided applications deal with problems in image segmentation, geometric body modelling, physical modelling, atlas-to-scan registration, visualisation, interaction and virtual reality. Here I overview computational and mathematical methods in atlas building and developing atlas-assisted applications, and share my contribution to and experience in this field.

  11. Nuclab Marcoule: a dedicated waste management and dismantling support laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugne, Olivier; Bec-Espitalier, Lionel; Rosen, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Formerly dedicated to plutonium production support, NucLab was renovated to perform a wide range of analyses for dismantling, plant operation and process development activities mainly at Marcoule but also for external clients. The laboratory is a CEA entity in the Nuclear Energy Division. It provides services to several industrial operators (nuclear processes and power plants) in the fields of analytical chemistry, radioactivity measurements, in situ nuclear measurements, decontamination processes, industrial chemistry processes, and waste treatment. NucLab supports research, production, and dismantling activities in all areas of dismantling operations (authors)

  12. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  13. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however, the brain is beginning to relinquish its secrets. Scientists have learned more about the brain in ... through the activity of these lobes. At the top of each temporal lobe is an area responsible ...

  14. Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

  15. PI3 kinase is involved in cocaine behavioral sensitization and its reversal with brain area specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuwu; Mi Jing; Wetsel, William C.; Davidson, Colin; Xiong Xieying; Chen Qiang; Ellinwood, Everett H.; Lee, Tong H.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important signaling molecule involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, and phagocytosis, and may participate in various brain functions. To determine whether it is also involved in cocaine sensitization, we measured the p85α/p110 PI3K activity in the nuclear accumbens (NAc) shell, NAc core, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) following establishment of cocaine sensitization and its subsequent reversal. Naive rats were rank-ordered and split into either daily cocaine or saline pretreatment group based on their locomotor responses to an acute cocaine injection (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.). These two groups were then injected with cocaine (40 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline for 4 consecutive days followed by 9-day withdrawal. Cocaine sensitization was subsequently reversed by 5 daily injections of the D 1 /D 2 agonist pergolide (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) in combination with the 5-HT 3 antagonist ondansetron (0.2 mg/kg, s.c., 3.5 h after pergolide injection). After another 9-day withdrawal, behavioral cocaine sensitization and its reversal were confirmed with an acute cocaine challenge (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and animals were sacrificed the next day for measurement of p85α/p110 PI3K activity. Cocaine-sensitized animals exhibited increased PI3K activity in the NAc shell, and this increase was reversed by combined pergolide/ondansetron treatment, which also reversed behavioral sensitization. In the NAc core and PFC, cocaine sensitization decreased and increased the PI3K activity, respectively. These changes, in contrast to that in the NAc shell, were not normalized following the reversal of cocaine-sensitization. Interestingly, daily injections of pergolide alone in saline-pretreated animals induced PI3K changes that were similar to the cocaine sensitization-associated changes in the NAc core and PFC but not the NAc shell; furthermore, these changes in saline-pretreated animals were prevented by ondansetron given 3.5 h after pergolide. The present

  16. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice treated with a nootropic Amazonian herbal (Marapuama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró, M; Ilha, J; Pochmann, D; Porciúncula, L O; Xavier, L L; Achaval, M; Nunes, D S; Elisabetsky, E

    2010-10-01

    The goal of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) used to treat Alzheimer's patients is an improvement in cholinergic transmission. While currently available AChEIs have limited success, a huge impediment to the development of newer ones is access to the relevant brain areas. Promnesic, anti-amnesic and AChEI properties were identified in a standardized ethanol extract from Ptychopetalum olacoides (POEE), a medicinal plant favored by the elderly in Amazon communities. The purpose of this study was to provide conclusive evidence that orally given POEE induces AChE inhibition in brain areas relevant to cognition. Histochemistry experiments confirmed that the anticholinesterase compound(s) present in POEE are orally bioavailable, inducing meaningful AChE inhibition in the hippocampus CA1 (∼33%) and CA3 (∼20%), and striatum (∼17%). Ellman's colorimetric analysis revealed that G1 and G4 AChE isoforms activities were markedly inhibited (66 and 72%, respectively) in hippocampus and frontal cortex (50 and 63%, respectively), while G4 appeared to be selectively inhibited (72%) in the striatum. Western blotting showed that POEE did not induce significant changes in the AChE immunocontent suggesting that its synthesis is not extensively modified. This study provides definitive proof of meaningful anticholinesterase activity compatible with the observed promnesic and anti-amnesic effects of POEE in mice, reaffirming the potential of this extract for treating neurodegenerative conditions where a hypofunctioning cholinergic neurotransmission is prominent. Adequate assessment of the safety and efficacy of this extract and/or its isolated active compound(s) are warranted. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Activation changes in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) brain areas evoked by alterations of the earth magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keary, Nina; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Many animals are able to perceive the earth magnetic field and to use it for orientation and navigation within the environment. The mechanisms underlying the perception and processing of magnetic field information within the brain have been thoroughly studied, especially in birds, but are still obscure. Three hypotheses are currently discussed, dealing with ferromagnetic particles in the beak of birds, with the same sort of particles within the lagena organs, or describing magnetically influenced radical-pair processes within retinal photopigments. Each hypothesis is related to a well-known sensory organ and claims parallel processing of magnetic field information with somatosensory, vestibular and visual input, respectively. Changes in activation within nuclei of the respective sensory systems have been shown previously. Most of these previous experiments employed intensity enhanced magnetic stimuli or lesions. We here exposed unrestrained zebra finches to either a stationary or a rotating magnetic field of the local intensity and inclination. C-Fos was used as an activity marker to examine whether the two treatments led to differences in fourteen brain areas including nuclei of the somatosensory, vestibular and visual system. An ANOVA revealed an overall effect of treatment, indicating that the magnetic field change was perceived by the birds. While the differences were too small to be significant in most areas, a significant enhancement of activation by the rotating stimulus was found in a hippocampal subdivision. Part of the hyperpallium showed a strong, nearly significant, increase. Our results are compatible with previous studies demonstrating an involvement of at least three different sensory systems in earth magnetic field perception and suggest that these systems, probably less elaborated, may also be found in nonmigrating birds.

  18. Development traumatic brain injury computer user interface for disaster area in Indonesia supported by emergency broadband access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi; Arifin, Muh Zafrullah; Kitamura, Yohei; Yoshida, Kazunari; Merdika, Daduk; Qiantori, Andri; Iskandar

    2012-12-01

    Disasters bring consequences of negative impacts on the environment and human life. One of the common cause of critical condition is traumatic brain injury (TBI), namely, epidural (EDH) and subdural hematoma (SDH), due to downfall hard things during earthquake. We proposed and analyzed the user response, namely neurosurgeon, general doctor/surgeon and nurse when they interacted with TBI computer interface. The communication systems was supported by TBI web based applications using emergency broadband access network with tethered balloon and simulated in the field trial to evaluate the coverage area. The interface consisted of demography data and multi tabs for anamnesis, treatment, follow up and teleconference interfaces. The interface allows neurosurgeon, surgeon/general doctors and nurses to entry the EDH and SDH patient's data during referring them on the emergency simulation and evaluated based on time needs and their understanding. The average time needed was obtained after simulated by Lenovo T500 notebook using mouse; 8-10 min for neurosurgeons, 12-15 min for surgeons/general doctors and 15-19 min for nurses. By using Think Pad X201 Tablet, the time needed for entry data was 5-7 min for neurosurgeon, 7-10 min for surgeons/general doctors and 12-16 min for nurses. We observed that the time difference was depending on the computer type and user literacy qualification as well as their understanding on traumatic brain injury, particularly for the nurses. In conclusion, there are five data classification for simply TBI GUI, namely, 1) demography, 2) specific anamnesis for EDH and SDH, 3) treatment action and medicine of TBI, 4) follow up data display and 5) teleneurosurgery for streaming video consultation. The type of computer, particularly tablet PC was more convenient and faster for entry data, compare to that computer mouse touched pad. Emergency broadband access network using tethered balloon is possible to be employed to cover the communications systems in

  19. Comparison of ADC map with trace map in the normal and infarct areas of the brains of stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyung; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeong, Eun Kee; Oh, Young Taick; Kim, Dong Ik

    1999-01-01

    To compare ADC mapping with trace mapping in normal and infarct areas of the brains of stroke patients. Eighteen patients diagnosed on the basis of clinical and brain MRI examinations as suffering from brain infarction were included in this study (hyperacute-1, acute-4, subacute-12, chronic-1). Diffusion weighted images of three orthogonal directions of a patient's brain were obtained by means of a single shot EPI pulse sequence, using a diffusion gradient with four serial b-factors. Three ADC maps were then reconstructed by post-image processing and were summed pixel by pixel to yield a trace map. ROIs were selected in the normal areas of white matter, gray matter and CSF of one hemisphere, and other ROIs of the same size were selected at the same site of the contralateral hemisphere. ADC and trace values were measured and right/left ratios of ADC and trace values were calculated. Using these values, we then compared the ADC map with the trace map, and compared the degree of anisotropic diffusion between white matter, gray matter and CSF. Except for three, whose infarct lesions were small and lay over white and gray matter, patients were divided into two groups. Those with infarct in the white matter (n=10) were assigned to one group, and those with infarct in the gray matter (n=5) to the other. ROIs were selected in the infarct area and other ROIs of the same size were selected at the same site of the contralateral hemisphere. ADC and trace values were measured and infarct/contralateral ratios were calculated. We then compared ADC ratio with trace ratio in white matter and gray matter infarct. In normal white matter, the Dxx ratio was 0.980±0.098, the Dyy ratio 1.019±0.086, the Dzz ratio 0.999±0.111, and the trace ratio 0.995±0.031. In normal gray matter, the Dxx ratio was 1.001±0.058, the Dyy ratio 0.996±0.063, Dzz ratio 1.005±0.070, and the trace ratio 1.001±0.028. In CSF, the Dxx ratio was 1.002±0.064, the Dyy ratio 1.023±0.055, the Dzz ratio 0.999

  20. A PET imaging system dedicated to mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The imaging system Clear-PEM for positron emission mammography, under development within the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN, is presented. The detector is based on pixelized LYSO crystals optically coupled to avalanche photodiodes (APD) and readout by a fast low-noise electronic system. A dedicated digital trigger and data acquisition system is used for on-line selection of coincidence events with high efficiency, large bandwidth and negligible dead-time. The detector module performance was characterized in detail.

  1. Ford F250 Dedicated CNG Pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eudy, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is encouraging the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. In this study, we tested a pair of 1998 Ford F-250 pickups: one dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) model and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible. Each vehicle was run through a series of tests to evaluate acceleration, fuel economy, braking, and cold-start capabilities, as well as more subjective performance indicators such as handling, climate control, and noise

  2. In psychopathic patients emotion attribution modulates activity in outcome-related brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Monika; Sodian, Beate; Döhnel, Katrin; Schwerdtner, Johannes; Meinhardt, Jörg; Hajak, Göran

    2010-05-30

    The understanding that other people's emotional states depend on the fulfilment of their intention is fundamentally important for responding adequately to others. Psychopathic patients show severe deficits in responding adequately to other people's emotion. The present study explored whether these impairments are associated with deficits in the ability to infer others' emotional states. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), identical cartoon stories, depicting a subject whose intention was fulfilled or not fulfilled, were presented to 14 psychopathic patients and 14 non-psychopathic patients. The participants should indicate the protagonist's emotional state. Additionally, a non-mentalizing control condition was presented. The two groups showed no behavioural differences. But in non-psychopathic patients emotion attribution was associated with increased activity of the mirror neuron system, the bilateral supramarginal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus. In contrast psychopathic patients showed increased activation of regions associated with outcome monitoring and attention, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, the medial frontal cortex and temporo-parietal areas. The results emphasize that although psychopathic patients show no deficits in reasoning about other people's emotion if an explicit evaluation is demanded, they use divergent neural processing strategies that are related to more rational, outcome-oriented processes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on cognition disorder and morphologic change of neurons in hippocampus area following traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪军; 崔建忠; 周云涛; 高俊玲

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between cognition disorder and morphologic change of hippocampal neurons after traumatic brain injury (TBI).   Methods: Wistar rat models with severe TBI were made by Marmarous method. The histopathological change of the neurons in the hippocampus area were studied with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated X-dUPT nick end labeling (TUNEL), respectively. The cognitive function was evaluated with the Morris water maze test.   Results: The comprehensive neuronal degeneration and necrosis could be observed in CA2-3 regions of hippocampus at 3 days after injury. Apoptotic positive neurons in CA2-4 regions of hippocampus and dentate gyrus increased in the injured group at 24 hours following TBI. They peaked at 7 days and then declined. Significant impairment of spatial learning and memory was observed after injury in the rats.   Conclusions: The rats have obvious disorders in spatial learning and memory after severe TBI. Meanwhile, delayed neuronal necrosis and apoptosis can be observed in the neurons in the hippocampus area. It suggests that delayed hippocampal cell death may contribute to the functional deficit.

  4. Dedicated low-field MRI in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquet, P; Breton, E; Goetz, C; Constantinesco, A; Marin, C

    2009-01-01

    The rationale of this work is to point out the relevance of in vivo MR images of mice obtained using a dedicated low-field system. For this purpose a small 0.1 T water-cooled electro-magnet and solenoidal radio frequency (RF) transmit-receive coils were used. All MR images were acquired in three-dimensional (3D) mode. An isolation cell was designed allowing easy placement of the RF coils and simple delivery of gaseous anesthesia as well as warming of the animal. Images with and without contrast agent were obtained in total acquisition times on the order of half an hour to four hours on normal mice as well as on animals bearing tumors. Typical in plane pixel dimensions range from 200 x 200 to 500 x 500 μm 2 with slice thicknesses ranging between 0.65 and 1.50 mm. This work shows that, besides light installation and low cost, dedicated low-field MR systems are suitable for small rodents imaging, opening this technique even to small research units.

  5. Dedicated low-field MRI in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, P.; Breton, E.; Goetz, C.; Marin, C.; Constantinesco, A.

    2009-09-01

    The rationale of this work is to point out the relevance of in vivo MR images of mice obtained using a dedicated low-field system. For this purpose a small 0.1 T water-cooled electro-magnet and solenoidal radio frequency (RF) transmit-receive coils were used. All MR images were acquired in three-dimensional (3D) mode. An isolation cell was designed allowing easy placement of the RF coils and simple delivery of gaseous anesthesia as well as warming of the animal. Images with and without contrast agent were obtained in total acquisition times on the order of half an hour to four hours on normal mice as well as on animals bearing tumors. Typical in plane pixel dimensions range from 200 × 200 to 500 × 500 µm2 with slice thicknesses ranging between 0.65 and 1.50 mm. This work shows that, besides light installation and low cost, dedicated low-field MR systems are suitable for small rodents imaging, opening this technique even to small research units.

  6. Addressing the selective role of distinct prefrontal areas in response suppression: A study with brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Pacella, Valentina; De Pellegrin, Serena; Rossetto, Marta; Denaro, Luca; D'Avella, Domenico; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Vallesi, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The diverging evidence for functional localization of response inhibition within the prefrontal cortex might be justified by the still unclear involvement of other intrinsically related cognitive processes like response selection and sustained attention. In this study, the main aim was to understand whether inhibitory impairments, previously found in patients with both left and right frontal lesions, could be better accounted for by assessing these potentially related cognitive processes. We tested 37 brain tumor patients with left prefrontal, right prefrontal and non-prefrontal lesions and a healthy control group on Go/No-Go and Foreperiod tasks. In both types of tasks inhibitory impairments are likely to cause false alarms, although additionally the former task requires response selection and the latter target detection abilities. Irrespective of the task context, patients with right prefrontal damage showed frequent Go and target omissions, probably due to sustained attention lapses. Left prefrontal patients, on the other hand, showed both Go and target omissions and high false alarm rates to No-Go and warning stimuli, suggesting a decisional rather than an inhibitory impairment. An exploratory whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis confirmed the association of left ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal lesions with target discrimination failure, and right ventrolateral and medial prefrontal lesions with target detection failure. Results from this study show how left and right prefrontal areas, which previous research has linked to response inhibition, underlie broader cognitive control processes, particularly involved in response selection and target detection. Based on these findings, we suggest that successful inhibitory control relies on more than one functionally distinct process which, if assessed appropriately, might help us to better understand inhibitory impairments across different pathologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  7. The Brain Activity in Brodmann Area 17: A Potential Bio-Marker to Predict Patient Responses to Antiepileptic Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yida Hu

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to predict newly diagnosed patient responses to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging tools to explore changes in spontaneous brain activity. We recruited 21 newly diagnosed epileptic patients, 8 drug-resistant (DR patients, 11 well-healed (WH patients, and 13 healthy controls. After a 12-month follow-up, 11 newly diagnosed epileptic patients who showed a poor response to AEDs were placed into the seizures uncontrolled (SUC group, while 10 patients were enrolled in the seizure-controlled (SC group. By calculating the amplitude of fractional low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF of blood oxygen level-dependent signals to measure brain activity during rest, we found that the SUC patients showed increased activity in the bilateral occipital lobe, particularly in the cuneus and lingual gyrus compared with the SC group and healthy controls. Interestingly, DR patients also showed increased activity in the identical cuneus and lingual gyrus regions, which comprise Brodmann's area 17 (BA17, compared with the SUC patients; however, these abnormalities were not observed in SC and WH patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves indicated that the fALFF value of BA17 could differentiate SUC patients from SC patients and healthy controls with sufficient sensitivity and specificity prior to the administration of medication. Functional connectivity analysis was subsequently performed to evaluate the difference in connectivity between BA17 and other brain regions in the SUC, SC and control groups. Regions nearby the cuneus and lingual gyrus were found positive connectivity increased changes or positive connectivity changes with BA17 in the SUC patients, while remarkably negative connectivity increased changes or positive connectivity decreased changes were found in the SC patients. Additionally, default mode network (DMN regions showed negative connectivity increased changes or

  8. Various dedicated imaging systems for routine nuclear medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kari; Tamas Gyorke; Erno Mako; Laszlo Nagy; Jozsef Turak; Oszkar Partos

    2004-01-01

    The most essential problems of nuclear medical imaging are resolution, signal/noise ratio (S/N) and sensitivity. Nowadays, the vast majority of the Anger system gamma cameras in clinical application are using parallel projection. The main problem of this projection method is the highly dependence of the image quality on the distance from the collimator surface as well as any improvement in the resolution with the distance -i.e. reduction of image blur- significantly reduces sensitivity. The aim of our research and development work was to create imaging geometry, collimator and detector constructions optimized to particular organs (brain, heart, thyroid), where it is simultaneously possible to increase the resolution and sensitivity. Main concept of the imaging geometry construction is based on the size, location and shape of a particular organ. In case of brain SPECT imaging a multiple head (4 heads in cylinder symmetric approximation) arrangement with extra high intrinsic resolution (<2.5 mm) dedicated detector design provide feasible solution for routine clinical application. The imaging system was essentially designed for Tc-99m and I-123 isotopes. The application field can be easily extended for functional small animal research and new born baby studies. Very positive feedbacks were received from both technical (stability and reproducibility of the technical parameters) and clinical sides in the past 2 years routine applications. A unique, novel conception ultra compact dedicated dual head SPECT system has been created only for 2D, 3D nuclear cardiac applications for Tc-99m and T1-201 labeled radio-pharmaceuticals. The two rectangular detectors (with <2.6 mm intrinsic resolution) are mounted fix in 90 degree geometry and move inside the special formed gantry arrangement. The unique and unusual gantry is designed to keep the detector heads as close as possible to the patient, while the patient is not exposed by any moving part. This special construction also

  9. Effects of thyroid status on NEI concentration in specific brain areas related to reproduction during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Carolina; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester; Valdez, Susana Ruth

    2013-11-01

    We previously showed that short-term hypo- and hyperthyroidism induce changes in neuropeptide glutamic-acid-isoleucine-amide (NEI) concentrations in discrete brain areas in male rats. To investigate the possible effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on NEI concentrations mainly in hypothalamic areas related to reproduction and behavior, female rats were sacrificed at different days of the estrous cycle. Circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in control, hypothyroid (hypoT, treated with PTU during 7-9 days) and hyperthyroid (hyperT, l-T4 during 4-7 days) animals. Both treatments blunted the LH surge. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism increased estradiol concentrations during proestrus afternoon (P-PM), although hypoT rats showed lower values compared to control during proestrus morning (P-AM). Progesterone levels were higher in all groups at P-PM and in the hyperT during diestrus morning (D2). NEI concentrations were lower in hypoT rats during the estrous cycle except in estrus (E) in the peduncular part of the lateral hypothalamus (PLH). They were also reduced by both treatments in the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) during P-PM. Hypothyroidism led to higher NEI concentrations during P-PM in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (OVLT+AVPV). The present results indicate that NEI concentration is regulated in a complex manner by hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the different areas studied, suggesting a correlation between NEI values and the variations of gonadal steroid levels during estrous cycle. These changes could be, in part, responsible for the alterations observed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping the areas sensitive to long-term endotoxin tolerance in the rat brain: a c-fos mRNA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Astrid; Martí, Octavi; Armario, Antonio

    2005-06-01

    We have recently found that a single endotoxin administration to rats reduced the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to another endotoxin administration 4 weeks later, which may be an example of the well-known phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance. However, the time elapsed between the two doses of endotoxin was long enough to consider the above results as an example of late tolerance, whose mechanisms are poorly characterized. To know if the brain plays a role in this phenomenon and to characterize the putative areas involved, we compared the c-fos mRNA response after a final dose of endotoxin in animals given vehicle or endotoxin 4 weeks before. Endotoxin caused a widespread induction of c-fos mRNA in the brain, similar to that previously reported by other laboratories. Whereas most of the brain areas were not sensitive to the previous experience with endotoxin, a few showed a reduced response in endotoxin-pretreated rats: the parvocellular and magnocellular regions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, the central amygdala, the lateral division of the bed nucleus and the locus coeruleus. We hypothesize that late tolerance to endotoxin may involve plastic changes in the brain, likely to be located in the central amygdala. The reduced activation of the central amygdala in rats previously treated with endotoxin may, in turn, reduce the activation of other brain areas, including the hypothalamic paraventicular nucleus.

  11. Cortical thickness, surface area, and volume of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence: relationships to relapse and extended abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Tosun, Duygu; Buckley, Shannon; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Fryer, Susanna L; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2011-06-01

    At least 60% of those treated for an alcohol use disorder will relapse. Empirical study of the integrity of the brain reward system (BRS) is critical to understanding the mechanisms of relapse as this collection of circuits is implicated in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. This study compared thickness, surface area, and volume in neocortical components of the BRS among nonsmoking light-drinking controls (controls), individuals who remained abstinent and those who relapsed after treatment. Seventy-five treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (abstinent for 7±3 days) and 43 controls completed 1.5T proton magnetic resonance imaging studies. Parcellated morphological data were obtained for following bilateral components of the BRS: rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), rostral and caudal middle and superior frontal gyri, amygdala and hippocampus as well as for 26 other bilateral neocortical regions. Alcohol-dependent participants were followed over 12-months after baseline study and were classified as abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n=24) and relapsers (any alcohol consumption; n=51) at follow-up. Relapsers and abstainers demonstrated lower cortical thickness in the vast majority of BRS regions as well as lower global thickness compared to controls. Relapsers had lower total BRS surface area than both controls and abstainers, but abstainers were not significantly different from controls on any surface area measure. Relapsers demonstrated lower volumes than controls in the majority of regions, while abstainers showed lower volumes than controls in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus, bilaterally. Relapsers exhibited smaller volumes than abstainers in the right rostral middle and caudal middle frontal gyri and the lateral OFC, bilaterally. In relapsers, lower baseline volumes and surface areas in multiple regions were associated with

  12. Commercial Grade Item (CGI) dedication - on complex electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Kwang Young; Kim, Joong Han; Koo, In Soo; Lee, Sang Yong

    2008-01-01

    In future more complicated IT-based hardware and software is supposed to used in the safety-grade systems in nuclear power plants. Also there are the efforts to establish the criteria for CGI dedications in NRC and CEC dedication in other standard organizations. The highly complicated components, i.e. CEC should be dedication plans. Thus work to be done in later is to prepare the strategies, plans, guide and procedures that is more specific for CEC dedication

  13. A dedicated fund supports technological innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group is calling on CERN Departments to take their technology out of the confines of the laboratory and make it ready for dissemination. For the first time, projects can apply for financial support from the newly established KTT Fund.   Scientific inquiry can lead to unexpected developments for society when researchers apply their expertise for public use. CERN actively encourages this transfer of knowledge and technology and, for the first time, has created a dedicated fund to provide financial support to projects aiming at disseminating their technologies to external audiences. CERN’s technology transfer schemes were formalised in the recent Policy on the Management of Intellectual Property in Technology Transfer, approved in March. Revenues generated by commercial exploitation will be distributed between the members of the team that developed the technology, their Department, and the KTT Fund for reinvestment in further KTT projects. &qu...

  14. Optical Design Using Small Dedicated Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Douglas C.

    1980-09-01

    Since the time of the 1975 International Lens Design Conference, we have developed a series of optical design programs for Hewlett-Packard desktop computers. The latest programs in the series, OSLO-25G and OSLO-45G, have most of the capabilities of general-purpose optical design programs, including optimization based on exact ray-trace data. The computational techniques used in the programs are similar to ones used in other programs, but the creative environment experienced by a designer working directly with these small dedicated systems is typically much different from that obtained with shared-computer systems. Some of the differences are due to the psychological factors associated with using a system having zero running cost, while others are due to the design of the program, which emphasizes graphical output and ease of use, as opposed to computational speed.

  15. 47 CFR 69.125 - Dedicated signalling transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dedicated signalling transport. 69.125 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.125 Dedicated signalling transport. (a) Dedicated signalling transport shall consist of two elements, a signalling link charge and a signalling transfer point...

  16. Brain Perfusion Changes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mititelu, R.; Mazilu, C.; Ghita, S.; Rimbu, A.; Marinescu, G.; Codorean, I.; Bajenaru, O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Despite the latest advances in medical treatment and neuro critical care, patients suffering spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) still have a very poor prognosis, with a greater mortality and larger neurological deficits at the survivors than for ischemic stroke. Many authors have shown that there are many mechanisms involved in the pathology of SICH: edema, ischemia, inflammation, apoptosis. All of these factors are affecting brain tissue surrounding hematoma and are responsible of the progressive neurological deterioration; most of these damages are not revealed by anatomical imaging techniques. The aim of our study was to asses the role of brain perfusion SPECT in demonstrating perfusion changes in SICH patients. Method: 17 SICH pts were studied. All pts underwent same day CT and brain SPECT with 99mTcHMPAO, 24h-5d from onset of stroke. Results: 14/17 pts showed a larger perfusion defect than expected after CT. In 2 pts hematoma diameter was comparable on CT and SPECT; 1pt had quasinormal aspect of SPECT study. In pts with larger defects, SPECT revealed a large cold spot with similar size compared with CT, and a surrounding hypo perfused area. 6/17 pts revealed cortical hyper perfusion adjacent to hypo perfused area and corresponding to a normal-appearing brain tissue on CT. In 3 pts we found crossed cerebellar diaskisis.In 2 pts we found cortical hypo perfused area in the contralateral cortex, with normal appearing brain tissue on CT. Conclusions: Brain perfusion SPECT revealed different types of perfusion changes in the brain tissue surrounding hematoma. These areas contain viable brain tissue that may be a target for future ne uroprotective strategies. Further studies are definitely required to demonstrate prognostic significance of these changes, but we can conclude that brain perfusion SPECT can play an important role in SICH, by early demonstrating functional changes responsible of clinical deterioration, thus allowing prompt

  17. Novel Middle-Type Kenyon Cells in the Honeybee Brain Revealed by Area-Preferential Gene Expression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Kumi; Ikeda, Tsubomi; Nagai, Mirai; Hori, Sayaka; Umatani, Chie; Tadano, Hiroto; Ugajin, Atsushi; Nakaoka, Takayoshi; Paul, Rajib Kumar; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Shirai, Kenichi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kubo, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    The mushroom bodies (a higher center) of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) brain were considered to comprise three types of intrinsic neurons, including large- and small-type Kenyon cells that have distinct gene expression profiles. Although previous neural activity mapping using the immediate early gene kakusei suggested that small-type Kenyon cells are mainly active in forager brains, the precise Kenyon cell types that are active in the forager brain remain to be elucidated. We searched for n...

  18. Sexual dimorphism of Broca's region: More gray matter in female brains in Brodmann areas 44 and 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; Jancke, Lutz; Luders, Eileen

    2017-01-02

    Although a sexual dimorphism in brain structure is generally well established, evidence for sex differences in Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 is inconclusive. This may be due to the difficulty of accurately defining BA 44 and BA 45 in magnetic resonance images, given that these regions are variable in their location and extent and that they do not match well with macroanatomic landmarks. Here we set out to test for possible sex differences in the local gray matter of BA 44/45 by integrating imaging-based signal intensities with cytoarchitectonically defined tissue probabilities in a sample of 50 male and 50 female subjects. In addition to testing for sex differences with respect to left- and right-hemispheric measures of BA 44/45, we also assessed possible sex differences in BA 44/45 asymmetry. Our analyses revealed significantly larger gray matter volumes in females compared with males for BA 44 and BA 45 bilaterally. However, there was a lack of significant sex differences in BA 44/45 asymmetry. These results corroborate reports of a language-related female superiority, particularly with respect to verbal fluency and verbal memory tasks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evolving Concepts in Posterior Subthalamic Area Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Tremor: Surgical Neuroanatomy and Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Smith, Heather; Kumar, Vignessh; Prusik, Julia; Phookan, Sujoy; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-01-01

    Although thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as an effective therapy for refractory tremor in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, reports investigating the efficacy of posterior subthalamic area (PSA) DBS for severe, debilitating tremors continue to emerge. However, questions regarding the optimal anatomical target, surgical approach, programming paradigms and effectiveness compared to other targets remain. In this report, we aimed to review the current literature to assess different stereotactic techniques, anatomical considerations, adverse effects and stimulation settings in PSA DBS. A comprehensive literature review was performed searching for articles discussing tremors and PSA stimulation. We performed a quantitative analysis comparing different DBS tremor targets. Tremor improvement is consistently documented in most reports with an average reduction in tremor of 79% depending on the specific tremor syndrome. Tremor benefit in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) tremor was significantly higher than for other stimulation targets. Transient paresthesias, imbalance, dizziness and dysarthria are the most common side effects with PSA DBS. PSA DBS is an effective and safe treatment for tremor control and should be considered in patients with refractory tremors with associated cerebellar or dystonic features, proximal tremors and MS tremor. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Accuracy and reproducibility of simple cross-sectional linear and area measurements of brain structures and their comparison with volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalley, H.C.; Wardlaw, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Volumetric measurement of brain structure on brain images is regarded as a gold standard, yet is very time consuming. We wondered whether simple linear and area measurements might be as accurate and reproducible. Two observers independently measured the cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum, lentiform and caudate nuclei, thalamus, amygdalas, hippocampi, lateral and third ventricles, and the width of the sylvian and frontal interhemispheric fissures and brain stem on brain MRI of 55 patients using a program written in-house; one observer also measured the volumes of the basal ganglia, amygdalo-hippocampal complex and ventricular system using Analyze, and performed qualitative assessment of four regions (lateral and third ventricles, cortex, and medial temporal lobe) using the Lieberman score. All measures were performed blinded to all other information. Test objects of known size were also imaged with MRI and measured by the two observers using the in-house program. The true sizes of the test objects were measured using engineering calipers by two observers blind to the MRI results. Differences between the two observers using the same measurement method, and one observer using different methods, were calculated. The simple linear and cross-sectional area measurements were rapid (20 min versus 5 h for volumetric); were highly accurate for test-object measurement versus true size; had excellent intraobserver reliability; and, for most brain structures, the simple measures correlated highly significantly with volumetric measures. The simple measures were in general highly reproducible, the difference (as a percentage of the area or width of a region) between the two raters being around 10 %, range 0.1 %- 14.1 %, (similar to inter-rater variability in previous studies of volume measurements). The simple linear and area measures are reproducible and correlate well with the measured volumes, and there is a considerable time saving with the former. In circumstances

  1. Editorial: A dedication to Professor Jan Evetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Harald; Dew-Hughes, David; Campbell, Archie; Barber, Zoe; Somekh, Rob; Glowacki, Bartek

    2006-03-01

    A few days before the beginning of the 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity we learned that Professor Jan Evetts, a pioneer of superconductor research, a brilliant scientist, a wonderful person and a great personal friend, had passed away. We therefore decided to dedicate the 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity to the memory of Jan Evetts. The following citation is based on material provided by his former supervisor (D Dew-Hughes) and his closest co-workers in Cambridge. Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Jan Evetts passed away after losing his second battle with cancer on 24th August 2005. He made an outstanding series of contributions to the science of superconductivity and to the understanding of superconducting materials and was an indefatigable champion of the development of applications of superconductivity. The loss to the superconductivity community is incalculable, as attested by the many communications received from colleagues throughout the world. Jan was born on 31 March 1939, and attended the Dragon School in Oxford, and later Haileybury. He was awarded an exhibition to read Natural Sciences at Pembroke College, Cambridge. He entered the college in 1958 and took his BA degree in 1961. He then undertook a Certificate of Postgraduate Study in Physics under the supervision of Professor Neville Mott. He was the first student to undertake this newly-instituted course; the title of his thesis was `The Resistance of Transition Metals'. In 1962 he joined David Dew-Hughes' superconducting materials research group, along with Archie Campbell and Anant Narlikar. In fact it was Jan's enthusiasm for the proposed course of research that helped convince David that he should follow Professor Alan Cottrell's suggestion to apply metallurgical methodology to the study of the factors that controlled critical current density in the type II superconductors that were then under development for

  2. Special issue dedicated to Professor Johann M. Schepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon P De Bruin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a great pleasure for me to have been associated with this special issue of the SA Journal of Industrial Psychology dedicated to Professor Johann M. Schepers. The purpose of the special issue is to honour Professor Schepers for his contributions to the development of Psychology and Industrial Psychology as empirical fields of study in South Africa. The contributors have worked with Professor Schepers as students or colleagues and share his academic interests. The articles reflect his areas of interest and employ analytic techniques taught and championed by him. We are grateful to Professor Schepers for his cooperation throughout this project. Thanks are due to all the contributors and referees.

  3. SR TXRF: performances and perspectives of a dedicated synchrotron beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin, F.; Apostolo, G.

    2000-01-01

    In principle the brilliance of synchrotron radiation x-ray beams combined with a high degree of linear polarization allows to reach at the same time low LLDs, mapping of the impurity distribution and chemical identification for elements as light as Na. The TXRF facility at the European synchrotron radiation facility is installed along a beamline dedicated to industry and is designed to reach ultimate detection limits of 6 x 10 7 at/cm 2 in selected areas, or to map the concentration of contaminants with LLD in the scale 10 9 at/cm 2 . In the present configuration the facility works in vacuum with a single element detector. Loading, unloading and pump down of wafers is completely automatic. Typical DDLs are of few 10 9 at/cm 2 for Na and Al and 10 8 at/cm 2 for transition metals. Absorption spectra (XANES and EXAFS) of TM help in the defining the chemistry of the contaminant. (author)

  4. Distribution of the insecticide 14 C-fen valerate and its effect on protein and amino acid content in different brain areas of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Intragastric administration of fenvalerate (45 mg/kg) to male rats induced symptoms associated with gamma-cyano pyrethroids (type II syndrome). Fenvalerate crossed blood brain barrier and reached different brain areas. The highest concentration of fenvalerate was found in striatum (18.7+2.5 Mou/g) followed by pons + medulla oblongata (10.4+ 0.91Moug/g) after 24 h of the insecticide administration. A decrease in the protein content in different brain areas was recorded at 24 h. However, it was observed that there was a tendency for the protein level to recover at 48 h although it was still lower than corresponding controlgroup. Excitatory neurotransmitter amino acids, glutamic and aspartic, in the pons + medulla oblongata showed a prominent decrease (-9.9 and 7.0%, respectively). Inhibitory neurotransmitter amino acids, glycine and alanine, showed a slight decrease. On the other hand, the amino acids in the striatum revealed fluctuating changes. Amino acids acting as a precursor of neurotransmitter were also affected in the selected brain areas. The data obtained revealed that fenvalerate caused subtle disruption in the integrity of the CNS and there is a possibility that such disruption might result in physiological and behavioural alteration which may affect the organism ability to interact with environment

  5. Assessment of the brain areas perfused by superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy using single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Hiroki; Iwadate, Yasuo; Saegusa, Takashi; Sueyoshi, Kanji [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Kobayashi, Shigeki; Sato, Akira; Watanabe, Yoshiro

    1994-12-01

    The brain areas perfused by superselective intra-arterial (i.a.) chemotherapy were assessed using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). A superselective catheter was introduced into the anterior, middle, or posterior cerebral artery of patients with malignant glioma for i.a. chemotherapy. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was subsequently injected via the same catheter used for chemotherapy, and a higher dose of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was injected intravenously to obtain adequate background brain images. Comparison of the SPECT images with magnetic resonance images could confirm complete perfusion of the tumor tissue. In two patients with malignant glioma, regions of interest were selected in the peritumoral brain area and a reference brain area, and the radioactivity was measured. The concentration of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was about 50 times higher in tissue perfused by superselective injection into anterior or middle cerebral artery compared to intravenous injection. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT is readily available in many institutions and the information provided is useful for planning more effective and safe i.a. chemotherapy. (author).

  6. Cost effective nuclear commercial grade dedication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maletz, J.J.; Marston, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new computerized database method to create/edit/view specification technical data sheets (mini-specifications) for procurement of spare parts for nuclear facility maintenance and to develop information that could support possible future facility life extension efforts. This method may reduce cost when compared with current manual methods. The use of standardized technical data sheets (mini-specifications) for items of the same category improves efficiency. This method can be used for a variety of tasks, including: Nuclear safety-related procurement; Non-safety related procurement; Commercial grade item procurement/dedication; Evaluation of replacement items. This program will assist the nuclear facility in upgrading its procurement activities consistent with the recent NUMARC Procurement Initiative. Proper utilization of the program will assist the user in assuring that the procured items are correct for the applications, provide data to assist in detecting fraudulent materials, minimize human error in withdrawing database information, improve data retrievability, improve traceability, and reduce long-term procurement costs

  7. Virtual Machine Scheduling in Dedicated Computing Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Boettger, Stefan; Zicari, V Roberto

    2014-01-08

    Time-critical applications process a continuous stream of input data and have to meet specific timing constraints. A common approach to ensure that such an application satisfies its constraints is over-provisioning: The application is deployed in a dedicated cluster environment with enough processing power to achieve the target performance for every specified data input rate. This approach comes with a drawback: At times of decreased data input rates, the cluster resources are not fully utilized. A typical use case is the HLT-Chain application that processes physics data at runtime of the ALICE experiment at CERN. From a perspective of cost and efficiency it is desirable to exploit temporarily unused cluster resources. Existing approaches aim for that goal by running additional applications. These approaches, however, a) lack in flexibility to dynamically grant the time-critical application the resources it needs, b) are insufficient for isolating the time-critical application from harmful side-effects i...

  8. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  9. Conception of comics dedicated to optics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machemy, Jacques; Bousquet, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Optics' teaching is commonly based on the use of lessons including several mathematical tools. For example, ray tracing can be described through matrix algebra, and interference and polarization can be supported by the use of complex numbers. Thus, the numerous mathematical descriptions included in the optics' lessons represent a real difficulty for students having insufficient skills in mathematics. Moreover, despite of very impressive optical effects one can observe in real life, e.g. rainbows, their description in optics' courses is often considered as too academic and boring, and finally not really exciting. In this context, we have invented a new type of comics dedicated to optics' learning. Based on a dialogue between two imaginary characters, one considered as the young student and the other one as the old teacher, we have chosen to reduce the role of mathematics and to mix realistic and unrealistic elements in the drawing to complete the explanations faster. Starting from reflection and refraction, the Snell's laws then allow for describing natural phenomena such as mirage and rainbow as well as technical points such as light propagation into an optical fiber and the measurement of the refraction index. The first volume presented here will be evaluated during the fall semester 2015 in different high schools and at university through a linked survey and the students will also get access to an online version while the following parts are in preparation.

  10. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valotassiou, V; Tsougos, I; Tzavara, C; Georgoulias, P [Nuclear Medicine Dpt, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (Greece); Papatriantafyllou, J; Karageorgiou, C [Neurology Dpt, General Hospital ' G. Gennimatas' , Athens (Greece); Sifakis, N; Zerva, C [Nuclear Medicine Dpt, ' Alexandra' University Hospital, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: vanvalot@yahoo.gr

    2009-05-15

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76{+-}6.51 years, education 11.81{+-}4.25 years, MMSE 16.69{+-}9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25{+-}10.48 years, education 10{+-}4.6 years, MMSE 12.5{+-}3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  11. The cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain: an application of event-related fMRI study of the voluntary motor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Enzhong; Tian Jie; Dai Ruwei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To detect the cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain using event-related fMRI technique developed in recent years. Methods: Forty-four subjects were selected in this experiment and scanned by GE Signa Horizon 1.5 Tesla superconductive MR system. A CUE-GO paradigm was used in this experiment. The data were analyzed in SUN and SGI workstation. Results: The activation areas were found in contralateral primary motor area (Ml), bilateral supplementary motor areas (SMA), pre-motor areas (PMA), basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices. The time-signal curve of Ml was a typical single-peak curve, but the curves in PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were double-peak curves. SMA had 2 parts, one was Pre-SMA, and another was SMA Proper. The curve was double-peak type in Pre-SMA and single-peak type in SMA Proper. There was difference between the time-signal intensity curves in above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: (1) Ml is mainly associated with motor execution, while others with both motor preparation and execution. There are differences in the function at the variant areas in the brain. (2) The fact that bilateral SMA, PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were activated, is different from what the classical theories told. (3) Event-related fMRI technique has higher temporary and spatial resolutions. (4) There is cooperation among different cortical areas, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

  12. Brain surface anatomy in adults with autism: the relationship between surface area, cortical thickness, and autistic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christine; Ginestet, Cedric; Feng, Yue; Johnston, Patrick; Lombardo, Michael V; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Suckling, John; Palaniyappan, Lena; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Williams, Steven C; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brammer, Michael; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of brain anatomy in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have mostly been based on measures of cortical volume (CV). However, CV is a product of 2 distinct parameters, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), that in turn have distinct genetic and developmental origins. To investigate regional differences in CV, SA, and CT as well as their relationship in a large and well-characterized sample of men with ASD and matched controls. Multicenter case-control design using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Medical Research Council UK Autism Imaging Multicentre Study. A total of 168 men, 84 diagnosed as having ASD and 84 controls who did not differ significantly in mean (SD) age (26 [7] years vs 28 [6] years, respectively) or full-scale IQ (110 [14] vs 114 [12], respectively). Between-group differences in CV, SA, and CT investigated using a spatially unbiased vertex-based approach; the degree of spatial overlap between the differences in CT and SA; and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV. Individuals with ASD differed from controls in all 3 parameters. These mainly consisted of significantly increased CT within frontal lobe regions and reduced SA in the orbitofrontal cortex and posterior cingulum. These differences in CT and SA were paralleled by commensurate differences in CV. The spatially distributed patterns for CT and SA were largely nonoverlapping and shared only about 3% of all significantly different locations on the cerebral surface. Individuals with ASD have significant differences in CV, but these may be underpinned by (separable) variations in its 2 components, CT and SA. This is of importance because both measures result from distinct developmental pathways that are likely modulated by different neurobiological mechanisms. This finding may provide novel targets for future studies into the etiology of the condition and a new way to fractionate the disorder.

  13. Differential behavioral profile induced by the injection of dipotassium chlorazepate within brain areas that project to the nucleus accumbens septi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano López, Luis H; Caif, Fernando; Fraile, Miriam; Tinnirello, Belén; de Gargiulo, Adriana I Landa; Lafuente, José V; Baiardi, Gustavo C; Gargiulo, Pascual A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the agonism on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors was studied within medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMY) and ventral hipocampus (VH) in the plus-maze test in male rats bilaterally cannulated. These structures send glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS), in which interaction and integration between these afferent pathways has been described. In a previous study of our group, blockade of glutamatergic transmission within NAS induced an anxiolytic like effect. Three rat groups received either saline or dipotassium chlorazepate (1 or 2 μg/1 μl solution) 15 min before testing. Time spent in the open arms (TSOA), time per entry (TPE), extreme arrivals (EA), open and closed arms entries (OAE, CAE) and relationship between open- and closed-arms quotient (OCAQ) were recorded. In the AMY injected group TSOA, OAE and EA were increased by the higher doses of dipotassium chlorazepate (p < 0.01). In the mPFC, TPE was decreased by both doses (p < 0.05). Injection within ventral hippocampus (VH) decreased TSOA, OAE and OCAQ with lower doses (p < 0.05). When the three studied saline groups were compared, TSOA, OAE, EA and OCAQ were enhanced in the VH group when compared to mPFC and AMY (p < 0.001). Insertion of inner canula (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.01) and saline injection showed an increasing significant difference (p < 0.001 in all cases) with the action of guide cannula alone within VH in TSOA, OAE and EA. We conclude that the injection of dipotassium chlorazepate has a differential effect depending of the brain area, leading to facilitatory and inhibitory effects on anxiety processing.

  14. Effects of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus on food intake and brain reward function in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Corrie, Lu W; Rogers, Jessica A; Yamada, Hidetaka

    2011-06-01

    There is evidence for a role of insulin and leptin in food intake, but the effects of these adiposity signals on the brain reward system are not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and leptin on food intake in females are underinvestigated. These studies investigated the role of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc) on food intake and brain reward function in female rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of insulin and leptin on the reward system. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA (15-500 ng/side) or Arc (15-150 ng/side) decreased food intake for 72 h. The infusion of leptin into the VTA or Arc resulted in weight loss during the first 48 (VTA) or 24 h (Arc) after the infusions. The administration of insulin (0.005-5 mU/side) into the VTA or Arc decreased food intake for 24 h but did not affect body weights. The bilateral administration of low, but not high, doses of leptin (15 ng/side) or insulin (0.005 mU/side) into the VTA elevated brain reward thresholds. Neither insulin nor leptin in the Arc affected brain reward thresholds. These studies suggest that a small increase in leptin or insulin levels in the VTA leads to a decrease in brain reward function. A relatively large increase in insulin or leptin levels in the VTA or Arc decreases food intake. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Synaesthetic Colour in the Brain: Beyond Colour Areas. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Synaesthetes and Matched Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Petersson, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e. g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory

  16. Special Issue Dedication to Stephen H. Schneider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is with both pleasure and sadness that we dedicate this special climate change issue of Portal to the late Dr. Stephen H. Schneider. Steve, as he was known to his friends and colleagues, was as rare a bird as any he sought out in his passion as a birdwatcher. A brilliant climate scientist, author of countless books and papers, path breaking inter-disciplinarian, eminent public communicator, mentor to dozens of young scholars; the list of roles and adulatory adjectives could fill an IPCC special report. Steve would have appreciated this special issue, with its multidisciplinary approach, and its quest for solutions based on analytical scholarship. He understood better than most the inseparability of normative and descriptive concerns, the need for academics and scientists of all kinds to be involved with public processes of communication, policy design and deliberation. While his last book was called “Science as a Contact Sport,” the unspoken title of his career might have been “Science as a Public Service.” He was endlessly testifying, consulting and giving interviews, and encouraged others to learn to do the same. Notwithstanding a battle with lymphoma in the last decade (chronicled in the wonderful book The Patient from Hell, Steve maintained a frenetic level of activity and was still going strong when he was felled by a pulmonary embolism in July of 2010 at age 65. He leaves behind a legacy embodied in his publications, institutions like the IPCC and the journal Climatic Change, and in the hearts and minds of the countless persons he interacted with, mentored, and loved. Exuberant, passionate, full of warmth and good humor, Steve was a mensch among mensches. He will be sorely missed. Paul Baer, with the assistance of Terry Root and Ian McGregor.

  17. Multimodality Registration without a Dedicated Multimodality Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Beattie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimodality scanners that allow the acquisition of both functional and structural image sets on a single system have recently become available for animal research use. Although the resultant registered functional/structural image sets can greatly enhance the interpretability of the functional data, the cost of multimodality systems can be prohibitive, and they are often limited to two modalities, which generally do not include magnetic resonance imaging. Using a thin plastic wrap to immobilize and fix a mouse or other small animal atop a removable bed, we are able to calculate registrations between all combinations of four different small animal imaging scanners (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and computed tomography [CT] at our disposal, effectively equivalent to a quadruple-modality scanner. A comparison of serially acquired CT images, with intervening acquisitions on other scanners, demonstrates the ability of the proposed procedures to maintain the rigidity of an anesthetized mouse during transport between scanners. Movement of the bony structures of the mouse was estimated to be 0.62 mm. Soft tissue movement was predominantly the result of the filling (or emptying of the urinary bladder and thus largely constrained to this region. Phantom studies estimate the registration errors for all registration types to be less than 0.5 mm. Functional images using tracers targeted to known structures verify the accuracy of the functional to structural registrations. The procedures are easy to perform and produce robust and accurate results that rival those of dedicated multimodality scanners, but with more flexible registration combinations and while avoiding the expense and redundancy of multimodality systems.

  18. Holistic face categorization in higher-level cortical visual areas of the normal and prosopagnosic brain: towards a non-hierarchical view of face perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossion

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available How a visual stimulus is initially categorized as a face in a network of human brain areas remains largely unclear. Hierarchical neuro-computational models of face perception assume that the visual stimulus is first decomposed in local parts in lower order visual areas. These parts would then be combined into a global representation in higher order face-sensitive areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. Here we tested this view in fMRI with visual stimuli that are categorized as faces based on their global configuration rather than their local parts (2-tones Mooney figures and Arcimboldo’s facelike paintings. Compared to the same inverted visual stimuli that are not categorized as faces, these stimuli activated the right middle fusiform gyrus (Fusiform face area, FFA and superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, with no significant activation in the posteriorly located inferior occipital gyrus (i.e., no occipital face area, OFA. This observation is strengthened by behavioral and neural evidence for normal face categorization of these stimuli in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient (PS whose intact right middle fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus are devoid of any potential face-sensitive inputs from the lesioned right inferior occipital cortex. Together, these observations indicate that face-preferential activation may emerge in higher order visual areas of the right hemisphere without any face-preferential inputs from lower order visual areas, supporting a non-hierarchical view of face perception in the visual cortex.

  19. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Fushiki, Shinji [Department of Pathology and Applied Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki [Department of Analytical and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Kanamura, Narisato [Department of Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji, E-mail: sfushiki@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [The International Clinical Research Center, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-08-20

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans.

  20. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Fushiki, Shinji; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Kanamura, Narisato; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans.

  1. Use of commercial grade item dedication to reduce procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, the Nuclear Regulatory Industry (NRC) began inspecting utility practices of procuring and dedicating commercial grade items intended for plant safety-related applications. As a result of the industry efforts to address NRC concerns, nuclear utilities have enhanced existing programs and procedures for dedication of commercial grade items. Though these programs were originally enhanced to meet NRC concerns, utilities have discovered that the dedication of commercial grade items can also reduce overall procurement costs. This paper will discuss the enhancement of utility dedication programs and demonstrates how utilities have utilized them to reduce procurement costs

  2. Implications of dose limit modification for radioactive installations dedicated to research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbreras, J.M.; Fernandez, G.M.; Marana, D.

    1992-01-01

    The reduced dose limits proposed in the ICRP recommendations affect the Spanish Regulations on Sanitary Protection against Ionizing Radiation. Some implications of this for radioactive installations dedicated to research are pointed out. A very simple statistical study shows that dosimetric data might be used to adopt new criteria for classification of personnel, and even of working areas. (author)

  3. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-02-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed activation in right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 7 and 19), the right temporal lobe (Brodmann area 39), the right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 23) and bilateral occipital lobes (Brodmann area 18). Furthermore, inhibition of bilateral frontal lobes (Brodmann area 4, 6, and 45), right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 1 and 5) and left temporal lobe (Brodmann area 21) were observed in the true point group. Activation in the precuneus of right parietal lobe (Brodmann area 7) and inhibition of the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) was observed in the sham group. Compared with sham acupuncture, acupuncture at Waiguan in stroke patients inhibited Brodmann area 5 on the healthy side. Results indicated that the altered specificity of sensation-associated cortex (Brodmann area 5) is possibly associated with a central mechanism of acupuncture at Waiguan for stroke patients.

  4. Whole brain imaging with Serial Two-Photon Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging entire mouse brains at submicron resolution has historically been a challenging undertaking and largely confined to the province of dedicated atlasing initiatives. The has limited systematic investigations into important areas of neuroscience, such as neural circuits, brain mapping and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we describe in detail Serial Two-Photon (STP tomography, a robust, reliable method for imaging entire brains with histological detail. We provide examples of how the basic methodology can be extended to other imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, in order to provide unique contrast mechanisms. Furthermore we provide a survey of the research that STP tomography has enabled in the field of neuroscience, provide examples of how this technology enables quantitative whole brain studies, and discuss the current limitations of STP tomography-based approaches

  5. Embedding filtering criteria into a wrapper marker selection method for brain tumor classification: an application on metabolic peak area ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kounelakis, M G; Zervakis, M E; Giakos, G C; Postma, G J; Buydens, L M C; Kotsiakis, X

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify reliable sets of metabolic markers that provide accurate classification of complex brain tumors and facilitate the process of clinical diagnosis. Several ratios of metabolites are tested alone or in combination with imaging markers. A wrapper feature selection and classification methodology is studied, employing Fisher's criterion for ranking the markers. The set of extracted markers that express statistical significance is further studied in terms of biological behavior with respect to the brain tumor type and grade. The outcome of this study indicates that the proposed method by exploiting the intrinsic properties of data can actually reveal reliable and biologically relevant sets of metabolic markers, which form an important adjunct toward a more accurate type and grade discrimination of complex brain tumors

  6. Quantification of bronchial dimensions at MDCT using dedicated software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillet, P.Y.; Fetita, C.I.; Saragaglia, A.; Perchet, D.; Preteux, F.; Beigelman-Aubry, C.; Grenier, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of quantification of bronchial dimensions at MDCT using dedicated software (BronCare). We evaluated the reliability of the software to segment the airways and defined criteria ensuring accurate measurements. BronCare was applied on two successive examinations in 10 mild asthmatic patients. Acquisitions were performed at pneumotachographically controlled lung volume (65% TLC), with reconstructions focused on the right lung base. Five validation criteria were imposed: (1) bronchus type: segmental and subsegmental; (2) lumen area (LA)>4 mm 2 ; (3) bronchus length (Lg) > 7 mm; (4) confidence index - giving the percentage of the bronchus not abutted by a vessel - (CI) >55% for validation of wall area (WA) and (5) a minimum of 10 contiguous cross-sectional images fulfilling the criteria. A complete segmentation procedure on both acquisitions made possible an evaluation of LA and WA in 174/223 (78%) and 171/174 (98%) of bronchi, respectively. The validation criteria were met for 56/69 (81%) and for 16/69 (23%) of segmental bronchi and for 73/102 (72%) and 58/102 (57%) of subsegmental bronchi, for LA and WA, respectively. In conclusion, BronCare is reliable to segment the airways in clinical practice. The proposed criteria seem appropriate to select bronchi candidates for measurement. (orig.)

  7. Energy Secretary Dedicates ESIF at NREL | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    3 » Energy Secretary Dedicates ESIF at NREL Energy Secretary Dedicates ESIF at NREL September 18 prey. Enlarge image Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz (center) joins NREL Director Dan Arvizu (left) and newest Energy Department supercomputer. The high performance computer inside NREL's new Energy Systems

  8. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  9. Coherence in Professional Education: Does It Foster Dedication and Identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggen, Kåre; Terum, Lars Inge

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of professional education on students' dedication to and identification with a profession. The premise is that professional education is not only about knowledge acquisition and reasoning but also about attitudes and aspirations. In fostering dedication and identification, students' experiences of relevance seem to…

  10. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  11. In vivo fate of a behaviorally potent ACTH 4-9 analog; evidence for its specific uptake in the brain septal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoef, J.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of ACTH-like neuropeptides on conditioned avoidance behavior and their tentative central sites of action are reviewed. The in vivo fate of the [ 3 H]-ACTH 4-9 analog after various routes of peripheral administration in mice and rats are described, in particular, the uptake of intact peptide in the brain is emphasized, since ACTH-like neuropeptides elicit their behavioral activities by directly affecting the central nervous system. Subsequently, the metabolic profiles of the ACTH 4-9 analog in plasma and brain tissue are reported. The distribution of the [ 3 H]-ACTH 4-9 analog throughout the rat brain is studied after intraventricular injection to allow detection in small brain areas and nuclei and to limit (peripheral) proteolysis. Finally, the effects of increased and decreased circulating levels of both ACTH-like peptides and structurally non-related but behaviorally active neuropeptides on the central distribution profile of intraventricularly injected [ 3 H]-ACTH 4-9 analog are reviewed

  12. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: Beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T.M.; Petersson, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background

    In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual

  13. Sense and antisense transcripts of the developmentally regulated murine hsp70.2 gene are expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping areas in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the spatial pattern of expression of a member of the hsp70 gene family, hsp70.2, in the mouse central nervous system. Surprisingly, RNA blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed abundant expression of an 'antisense' hsp70.2 transcript in several areas of adult mouse brain. Two different transcripts recognized by sense and antisense riboprobes for the hsp70.2 gene were expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping neuronal populations. RNA blot analysis revealed low levels of the 2.7 kb transcript of hsp70.2 in several areas of the brain, with highest signal in the hippocampus. Abundant expression of a slightly larger (approximately 2.8 kb) 'antisense' transcript was detected in several brain regions, notably in the brainstem, cerebellum, mesencephalic tectum, thalamus, cortex, and hippocampus. In situ hybridization revealed that the sense and antisense transcripts were both predominantly neuronal and localized to the same cell types in the granular layer of the cerebellum, trapezoid nucleus of the superior olivary complex, locus coeruleus and hippocampus. The hsp70.2 antisense transcripts were particularly abundant in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, superior and inferior colliculi, central gray, brainstem, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Our findings have revealed a distinct cellular and spatial localization of both sense and antisense transcripts, demonstrating a new level of complexity in the function of the heat shock genes.

  14. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valotassiou, V; Tsougos, I; Tzavara, C; Georgoulias, P; Papatriantafyllou, J; Karageorgiou, C; Sifakis, N; Zerva, C

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76±6.51 years, education 11.81±4.25 years, MMSE 16.69±9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25±10.48 years, education 10±4.6 years, MMSE 12.5±3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  15. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, V.; Papatriantafyllou, J.; Sifakis, N.; Karageorgiou, C.; Tsougos, I.; Tzavara, C.; Zerva, C.; Georgoulias, P.

    2009-05-01

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76±6.51 years, education 11.81±4.25 years, MMSE 16.69±9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25±10.48 years, education 10±4.6 years, MMSE 12.5±3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  16. A pilot study into the effects of music therapy on different areas of the brain of individuals with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Heine, Astrid M.; Vogl, Julia; Weiss, Konrad; Aschraf, Asita; Hajek, Paul; Schnider, Peter; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The global cerebral network allows music “ to do to us what it does.” While the same music can cause different emotions, the basic emotion of happy and sad songs can, nevertheless, be understood by most people. Consequently, the individual experience of music and its common effect on the human brain is a challenging subject for research. Various activities such as hearing, processing, and performing music provide us with different pictures of cerebral centers in PET. In comparison to these simple acts of experiencing music, the interaction and the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapist in Music Therapy (MT) provide us with an additional element in need of investigation. In the course of a pilot study, these problems were approached and reduced to the simple observation of pattern alteration in the brains of four individuals with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) during MT. Each patient had three PET investigations: (i) during a resting state, (ii) during the first exposure to MT, and (iii) during the last exposure to MT. Two patients in the MT group received MT for 5 weeks between the 2nd and the 3rd PET (three times a week), while two other patients in the control group had no MT in between. Tracer uptake was measured in the frontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar region of the brain. With certain differences in these three observed brain areas, the tracer uptake in the MT group was higher (34%) than in the control group after 5 weeks. The preliminary results suggest that MT activates the three brain regions described above. In this article, we present our approach to the neuroscience of MT and discuss the impact of our hypothesis on music therapy practice, neurological rehabilitation of individuals in UWS and additional neuroscientific research. PMID:26347603

  17. Quantitative assessment of the synergistic and independent effects of estradiol and progesterone on ventromedial hypothalamic and preoptic-area proteins in female rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.J.; McEwen, B.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, quantitative assessment of the synergistic and independent effects of estradiol and progesterone on protein synthesis in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMN) and the preoptic area (POA) was accomplished using in vitro 35S-methionine and 35S-cystein labeling, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and computerized densitometry. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was implanted with estradiol (E) capsules for 6 hr and injected with progesterone (P; 0.1 ml, 5 mg/ml propylene glycol) at 20 hr. Group 3 was sham-implanted for 6 hr and injected with 0.01 ml P at 20 hr. Group 4 was sham-planted for 6 hr and injected with vehicle alone at 20 hr. All animals were sacrificed at 24 hr. A number of proteins in both VMN and POA were found to be increased or decreased in labeling by E plus P, E alone, and P alone. Two important synergistic effects of the hormones were found. First, the effects of E on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by P, and conversely, the effects of P on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by E. Second, E priming increased the number of proteins affected in labeling by P in both brain regions. Comparison of the effects of E and P on proteins in the VMN and POA indicated that the populations of proteins affected in labeling were markedly different. These results begin to clarify the mechanism in which E and P affect neuronal functioning in two regions involved in the control of reproduction and lend support to the hypothesis that gonadal steroids accomplished their action on brain tissue via a mechanism that is partly unique to the brain region

  18. Subliminal and Supraliminal Processing of Facial Expression of Emotions: Brain Oscillation in the Left/Right Frontal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Balconi, Michela; Ferrari, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The unconscious effects of an emotional stimulus have been highlighted by a vast amount of research, whereover it remains questionable whether it is possible to assign a specific function to cortical brain oscillations in the unconscious perception of facial expressions of emotions. Alpha band variation was monitored within the right- and left-cortical side when subjects consciously (supraliminal stimulation) or unconsciously (subliminal stimulation) processed facial patterns. Twenty subjects...

  19. A parallel architecture system dedicated to fast numerical calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmanci, A.E.

    1982-04-01

    The project described here is the first result of a careful reflection oriented to the implementation of a machine intended for fast scientific computation, having in mind applications in the field of nuclear reactor safety. The selected structure is a data processing system of the MIMD type (Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data Stream). It is built by generalizing a basic cell constituted by associating an host processor and one or several processors dedicated to numerical computation, both operating alternatively on two areas of a common memory block. The principle of simultaneous operation of a large number of identical resources is used at every level of the structure. The system described here is hence modular and reconfigurable. The number of cells, the size and number of memory blocks may be chosen according to the needs. The communication between processors is carried out through the switching of the allocation of memory blocks. Moreover the numerical processors make the best use of private interconnections for synchronisation and fast data interchange. The present study devoted to the definition of the main hardware structures, will be followed by a simulation phase while suitable software tools will be developed [fr

  20. TCP Throughput Profiles Using Measurements over Dedicated Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Towsley, Don [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Vardoyan, Gayane [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Foster, Ian [University of Chicago

    2017-06-01

    Wide-area data transfers in high-performance computing infrastructures are increasingly being carried over dynamically provisioned dedicated network connections that provide high capacities with no competing traffic. We present extensive TCP throughput measurements and time traces over a suite of physical and emulated 10 Gbps connections with 0-366 ms round-trip times (RTTs). Contrary to the general expectation, they show significant statistical and temporal variations, in addition to the overall dependencies on the congestion control mechanism, buffer size, and the number of parallel streams. We analyze several throughput profiles that have highly desirable concave regions wherein the throughput decreases slowly with RTTs, in stark contrast to the convex profiles predicted by various TCP analytical models. We present a generic throughput model that abstracts the ramp-up and sustainment phases of TCP flows, which provides insights into qualitative trends observed in measurements across TCP variants: (i) slow-start followed by well-sustained throughput leads to concave regions; (ii) large buffers and multiple parallel streams expand the concave regions in addition to improving the throughput; and (iii) stable throughput dynamics, indicated by a smoother Poincare map and smaller Lyapunov exponents, lead to wider concave regions. These measurements and analytical results together enable us to select a TCP variant and its parameters for a given connection to achieve high throughput with statistical guarantees.

  1. A Free-Choice High-Fat High-Sugar Diet Alters Day-Night Per2 Gene Expression in Reward-Related Brain Areas in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea Susana; Unmehopa, Unga A; Eggels, Leslie; Koekkoek, Laura; Kalsbeek, Andries; Mendoza, Jorge; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2018-01-01

    Under normal light-dark conditions, nocturnal rodents consume most of their food during the dark period. Diets high in fat and sugar, however, may affect the day-night feeding rhythm resulting in a higher light phase intake. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that nutrients affect clock-gene expression. We therefore hypothesized that overconsuming fat and sugar alters clock-gene expression in brain structures important for feeding behavior. We determined the effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet on clock-gene expression in rat brain areas related to feeding and reward and compared them with chow-fed rats. Consuming a fcHFHS diet for 6 weeks disrupted day-night differences in Per2 mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and lateral hypothalamus but not in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, habenula, and ventral tegmental area. Furthermore, short-term sugar drinking, but not fat feeding, upregulates Per2 mRNA expression in the NAc. The disruptions in day-night differences in NAc Per2 gene expression were not accompanied by altered day-night differences in the mRNA expression of peptides related to food intake. We conclude that the fcHFHS diet and acute sugar drinking affect Per2 gene expression in areas involved in food reward; however, this is not sufficient to alter the day-night pattern of food intake.

  2. Awake craniotomy for brain lesions within and near the primary motor area: A retrospective analysis of factors associated with worsened paresis in 102 consecutive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Midorikawa, Akira; Yamada, Ryoji; Hana, Taijun; Saito, Akira; Hiromitsu, Kentaro; Itoi, Chisato; Saito, Syoko; Yagi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background: We analyzed factors associated with worsened paresis in a large series of patients with brain lesions located within or near the primary motor area (M1) to establish protocols for safe, awake craniotomy of eloquent lesions. Methods: We studied patients with brain lesions involving M1, the premotor area (PMA) and the primary sensory area (S1), who underwent awake craniotomy (n = 102). In addition to evaluating paresis before, during, and one month after surgery, the following parameters were analyzed: Intraoperative complications; success or failure of awake surgery; tumor type (A or B), tumor location, tumor histology, tumor size, and completeness of resection. Results: Worsened paresis at one month of follow-up was significantly associated with failure of awake surgery, intraoperative complications and worsened paresis immediately after surgery, which in turn was significantly associated with intraoperative worsening of paresis. Intraoperative worsening of paresis was significantly related to preoperative paresis, type A tumor (motor tract running in close proximity to and compressed by the tumor), tumor location within or including M1 and partial removal (PR) of the tumor. Conclusions: Successful awake surgery and prevention of deterioration of paresis immediately after surgery without intraoperative complications may help prevent worsening of paresis at one month. Factors associated with intraoperative worsening of paresis were preoperative motor deficit, type A and tumor location in M1, possibly leading to PR of the tumor. PMID:24381792

  3. Characterization of a cerebral palsy-like model in rats: Analysis of gait pattern and of brain and spinal cord motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Souza; de Almeida, Wellington; Popik, Bruno; Sbardelotto, Bruno Marques; Torrejais, Márcia Miranda; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Centenaro, Lígia Aline

    2017-08-01

    In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days. At 29days of age, the CPG exhibited coordination between limbs, weight-supported dorsal steps or weight-supported plantar steps with paw rotation. At 45days of age, CPG exhibited plantar stepping with the paw rotated in the balance phase. An increase in the number of glial cells in the primary somatosensory cortex and dorsal striatum were observed in the CPG, but the corpus callosum thickness and cross-sectional area of lateral ventricle were similar between studied groups. No changes were found in the number of motoneurons, glial cells and soma area of the motoneurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord. The combination of insults in the pre, peri and postnatal periods produced changes in hindlimbs gait pattern of animals similar to those observed in diplegic patients, but motor impairments were attenuated over time. Besides, the greater number of glial cells observed seems to be related to the formation of a glial scar in important sensorimotor brain areas. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural reactivity to visual food stimuli is reduced in some areas of the brain during evening hours compared to morning hours: an fMRI study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Travis D; Kirwan, C Brock; Davidson, Lance E; LeCheminant, James D

    2016-03-01

    The extent that neural responsiveness to visual food stimuli is influenced by time of day is not well examined. Using a crossover design, 15 healthy women were scanned using fMRI while presented with low- and high-energy pictures of food, once in the morning (6:30-8:30 am) and once in the evening (5:00-7:00 pm). Diets were identical on both days of the fMRI scans and were verified using weighed food records. Visual analog scales were used to record subjective perception of hunger and preoccupation with food prior to each fMRI scan. Six areas of the brain showed lower activation in the evening to both high- and low-energy foods, including structures in reward pathways (P foods compared to low-energy foods (P food stimuli tended to produce greater fMRI responses than low-energy food stimuli in specific areas of the brain, regardless of time of day. However, evening scans showed a lower response to both low- and high-energy food pictures in some areas of the brain. Subjectively, participants reported no difference in hunger by time of day (F = 1.84, P = 0.19), but reported they could eat more (F = 4.83, P = 0.04) and were more preoccupied with thoughts of food (F = 5.51, P = 0.03) in the evening compared to the morning. These data underscore the role that time of day may have on neural responses to food stimuli. These results may also have clinical implications for fMRI measurement in order to prevent a time of day bias.

  5. President Roosevelt's 1940 Dedication of the First NCI Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watch this video excerpt of the dedication of the National Institute of Health, October 31, 1940. President Roosevelt spoke of the importance of the National Cancer Institute, which would be located in Building 6.

  6. Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection testing in group a ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... Several generations of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) have been developed to facilitate ...

  7. Don't Forget About Dedicated Sea Mine Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Malcolm H

    2005-01-01

    .... Struggling through the Korean Conflict, the U.S. Navy began a slow improvement of MCM forces leading up to the first Gulf War where experiences led to the conclusion that a well equipped dedicated MCM force structure is essential...

  8. Minimizing Warehouse Space with a Dedicated Storage Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fumi

    2013-07-01

    inevitably be supported by warehouse management system software. On the contrary, the proposed methodology relies upon a dedicated storage policy, which is easily implementable by companies of all sizes without the need for investing in expensive IT tools.

  9. 28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

  10. Physics of the Brain: Interaction of the Optical-Fiber-Guided Multi-Ultraviolet-Photon Beams with the Epilepsy Topion, (the Seizure Onset Area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    A novel method for the possible prevention of epileptic seizures is proposed, based on the multi-ultraviolet-photon beam interaction with the epilepsy topion, (nonlinear coupling of an ultra high frequency mode to the brain beta phonons). It is hypothesized that epilepsy is a chaotic-dynamics phenomenon: small electrical changes in the epilepsy-topion lead, (within the 10s of milliseconds), to the onset of chaos, (seizure--excessive electrical discharge), and subsequent cascading into adjacent areas. The ultraviolet photons may control the imbalance of sodium and potassium ions and, consequently, may prove to be efficient in the prevention of epileptic seizures. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, Stefan University.

  11. The CBRNE Threat Needs New Dedicated Analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stienstra, S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: After the 9-11 attack by terrorists several governments realized their vulnerability towards creative asymmetric attacks. Due to increasing complexity of our society we create more vulnerability towards terror attacks. More chemical substances than we realize can be misused to destabilize our modern society. Recently aircraft passengers were confronted with new regulations, which limit the amount of fluid, which a passenger can bring on board with hand luggage. How far should we go limiting the allowance to bring liquids and substances on board? It indicates that we need new analytic instruments for screening the safety of luggage in all types of transport. Study Design: An inventory was made of the present demand for safe transport and its vulnerability to terror attacks. Also the safety and safety awareness in public buildings, offices and industrial complexes was assessed. Knowing the demand for a certain safety level, an inventory was made to identify analytical equipment, which can be used to check passengers and luggage on possible threats. The same can be used for protecting public areas, offices and industrial complexes. Results And Discussion: It is amazing how some governments, financially driven, underestimate the consequences of CBRNE incidences and disasters. Both threats due to release of dangerous substances just by accident and deliberate abuse of chemicals and/or biologicals by terror organizations is underestimated. Financial rationales are often the cause that the preparedness is less that technically could be possible. Still some commercial companies realize the importance of safety and preparedness towards terror attacks and take their precautions. Several detection systems are now under development and a new market of safety devices comes into existence. Conclusion: Key question is how far we would like to go with defending us with technical devices against potential terror attacks. Also the design of buildings, transport

  12. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the language and motor white matter pathways of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Mehrnaz; Peck, Kyung K; Young, Robert J; Brennan, Nicole; Holodny, Andrei I

    2014-12-01

    Accurate localization of anatomically and functionally separate SMA tracts is important to improve planning prior to neurosurgery. Using fMRI and probabilistic DTI techniques, we assessed the connectivity between the frontal language area (Broca's area) and the rostral pre-SMA (language SMA) and caudal SMA proper (motor SMA). Twenty brain tumor patients completed motor and language fMRI paradigms and DTI. Peaks of functional activity in the language SMA, motor SMA and Broca's area were used to define seed regions for probabilistic tractography. fMRI and probabilistic tractography identified separate and unique pathways connecting the SMA to Broca's area - the language SMA pathway and the motor SMA pathway. For all subjects, the language SMA pathway had a larger number of voxels (PProbabilistic tractography can identify unique white matter tracts that connect language SMA and motor SMA to Broca's area. The language SMA is more significantly connected to Broca's area than is the motor subdivision of the SMA proper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Categorization for Faces and Tools—Two Classes of Objects Shaped by Different Experience—Differs in Processing Timing, Brain Areas Involved, and Repetition Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozunov, Vladimir; Nikolaeva, Anastasia; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2018-01-01

    The brain mechanisms that integrate the separate features of sensory input into a meaningful percept depend upon the prior experience of interaction with the object and differ between categories of objects. Recent studies using representational similarity analysis (RSA) have characterized either the spatial patterns of brain activity for different categories of objects or described how category structure in neuronal representations emerges in time, but never simultaneously. Here we applied a novel, region-based, multivariate pattern classification approach in combination with RSA to magnetoencephalography data to extract activity associated with qualitatively distinct processing stages of visual perception. We asked participants to name what they see whilst viewing bitonal visual stimuli of two categories predominantly shaped by either value-dependent or sensorimotor experience, namely faces and tools, and meaningless images. We aimed to disambiguate the spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity between the meaningful categories and determine which differences in their processing were attributable to either perceptual categorization per se, or later-stage mentalizing-related processes. We have extracted three stages of cortical activity corresponding to low-level processing, category-specific feature binding, and supra-categorical processing. All face-specific spatiotemporal patterns were associated with bilateral activation of ventral occipito-temporal areas during the feature binding stage at 140–170 ms. The tool-specific activity was found both within the categorization stage and in a later period not thought to be associated with binding processes. The tool-specific binding-related activity was detected within a 210–220 ms window and was located to the intraparietal sulcus of the left hemisphere. Brain activity common for both meaningful categories started at 250 ms and included widely distributed assemblies within parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions

  14. Categorization for Faces and Tools-Two Classes of Objects Shaped by Different Experience-Differs in Processing Timing, Brain Areas Involved, and Repetition Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozunov, Vladimir; Nikolaeva, Anastasia; Stroganova, Tatiana A

    2017-01-01

    The brain mechanisms that integrate the separate features of sensory input into a meaningful percept depend upon the prior experience of interaction with the object and differ between categories of objects. Recent studies using representational similarity analysis (RSA) have characterized either the spatial patterns of brain activity for different categories of objects or described how category structure in neuronal representations emerges in time, but never simultaneously. Here we applied a novel, region-based, multivariate pattern classification approach in combination with RSA to magnetoencephalography data to extract activity associated with qualitatively distinct processing stages of visual perception. We asked participants to name what they see whilst viewing bitonal visual stimuli of two categories predominantly shaped by either value-dependent or sensorimotor experience, namely faces and tools, and meaningless images. We aimed to disambiguate the spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity between the meaningful categories and determine which differences in their processing were attributable to either perceptual categorization per se , or later-stage mentalizing-related processes. We have extracted three stages of cortical activity corresponding to low-level processing, category-specific feature binding, and supra-categorical processing. All face-specific spatiotemporal patterns were associated with bilateral activation of ventral occipito-temporal areas during the feature binding stage at 140-170 ms. The tool-specific activity was found both within the categorization stage and in a later period not thought to be associated with binding processes. The tool-specific binding-related activity was detected within a 210-220 ms window and was located to the intraparietal sulcus of the left hemisphere. Brain activity common for both meaningful categories started at 250 ms and included widely distributed assemblies within parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions

  15. Subliminal and supraliminal processing of facial expression of emotions: brain oscillation in the left/right frontal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Ferrari, Chiara

    2012-03-26

    The unconscious effects of an emotional stimulus have been highlighted by a vast amount of research, whereover it remains questionable whether it is possible to assign a specific function to cortical brain oscillations in the unconscious perception of facial expressions of emotions. Alpha band variation was monitored within the right- and left-cortical side when subjects consciously (supraliminal stimulation) or unconsciously (subliminal stimulation) processed facial patterns. Twenty subjects looked at six facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral) under two different conditions: supraliminal (200 ms) vs. subliminal (30 ms) stimulation (140 target-mask pairs for each condition). The results showed that conscious/unconscious processing and the significance of the stimulus can modulate the alpha power. Moreover, it was found that there was an increased right frontal activity for negative emotions vs. an increased left response for positive emotion. The significance of facial expressions was adduced to elucidate cortical different responses to emotional types.

  16. fMRI activation in the middle frontal gyrus as an indicator of hemispheric dominance for language in brain tumor patients: a comparison with Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian W; Brennan, Nicole M Petrovich; Izzo, Giana; Peck, Kyung K; Holodny, Andrei I

    2016-05-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) can assess language lateralization in brain tumor patients; however, this can be limited if the primary language area-Broca's area (BA)-is affected by the tumor. We hypothesized that the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) can be used as a clinical indicator of hemispheric dominance for language during presurgical workup. Fifty-two right-handed subjects with solitary left-hemispheric primary brain tumors were retrospectively studied. Subjects performed a verbal fluency task during fMRI. The MFG was compared to BA for fMRI voxel activation, language laterality index (LI), and the effect of tumor grade on the LI. Language fMRI (verbal fluency) activated more voxels in MFG than in BA (MFG = 315, BA = 216, p hemispheric MFG and BA were positively correlated (r = 0.69, p hemispheric dominance for language using a measure of verbal fluency and may be an adjunct measure in the clinical determination of language laterality for presurgical planning.

  17. Relationship between extent of brain hypoperfused area and functional outcome in patients with a small subcortical infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Ashida, Keiichi; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Iiji, Osamu; Itoi, Yoshihito; Furukawa, Toshiyuki

    1992-01-01

    We performed 123 I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 43 patients who had a small infarction ( 2 =29.3; p 123 I-IMP SPECT in patients with a small infarction may discriminate lacunar infarction from embolic or hemodynamic infarction, which was caused by vascular lesions of major cerebral arteries, in subcortical area. Our study suggests that functional outcome is better in lacunar infarction than embolic or hemodynamic infarction in subcortical area. (author)

  18. Dedicated medical ion accelerator design study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Results and conclusions are reported from a design study for a dedicated medical accelerator. Basing efforts on the current consensus regarding medical requirements, the resulting demands on accelerator and beam delivery systems were analyzed, and existing accelerator technology was reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of meeting these demands. This general analysis was augmented and verified by preparing detailed preliminary designs for sources of therapeutic beams of neutrons, protons and heavy ions. The study indicates that circular accelerators are the most desirable and economical solutions for such sources. Synchrotrons are clearly superior for beams of helium and heavier ions, while synchrotrons and cyclotrons seem equally well suited for protons although they have different strengths and weaknesses. Advanced techniques of beam delivery are of utmost importance in fully utilizing the advantages of particle beams. Several issues are invloved here. First, multi-treatment room arrangements are essential for making optimal use of the high dose rate capabilities of ion accelerators. The design of corresponding beam switching systems, the principles of which are already developed for physics experimental areas, pose no problems. Second, isocentric beam delivery substantially enhances flexibility of dose delivery. After several designs for such devices were completed, it was concluded that high field magnets are necessary to keep size, bulk and cost acceptable. Third, and most important, is the generation of large, homogeneous radiation fields. This is presently accomplished with the aid of scattering foils, occluding rings, collimators, ridge filters, and boluses. A novel approach, three-dimensional beam scanning, was developed here, and the most demanding components of such a system (fast-scanning magnet and power supply) were built and tested

  19. A neurosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy dedicated PACS for conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefkopoulos, D.; Bocquiault, P.; Levrier, M.; Merienne, L.; Schlienger, M.

    1995-01-01

    To realise conformal cerebral stereotactic irradiations we use a Neurosurgery/stereotactic dedicated PACS between two distant hospitals. It connects the stereotactic neurosurgery planification imaging system NEUROAXIS (Sopelem-Sofretec/Ste Anne Hospital) with the dosimetric TPS ARTEMIS-3D/Dosigray (Tenon Hospital). NEUROAXIS is a computer aided stereotactic biopsies and stereo-electroencephalographies, used by surgeons in operating room. The system determines the precise location data for Talairach radiological equipment (X ray source at 5 meters from film) and the geometry of scanner and MRI stereotactical referentials. It provides a full set of features for lesion localization, geometrical computations, surgical planifications, picture archiving, stereotactic angiography, CT and MRI image processing and networking. It sends images through the French public digital network ISDN (NUMERIS/France Telecom : 2x64 Kbits/s) from Ste Anne to Tenon Hospital. Stereotactic angiographic and CT images are reformatted into the DOSIGRAY image processing environment where 3-D dose distributions, displays and DVHs are computed to determine the optimal treatment. ARTEMIS-3D/Dosigray is a TPS for stereotactic radiotherapy devised by the Tenon Hospital for clinical methodology and 3D dose calculations, optimization software development and the Dosigray company for multimodality imaging, (2D(3D)) computer graphics for dose and anatomical representation and data networking. Communication within the radiation oncology department is provided by local area ETHERNET network, linking heterogeneous systems (Vaxstations-3200; Decstation (5000(240))) by means of different protocols. The works in progress are to send back via the same network the 3-D dose matrix to Neurosurgery department NEUROAXIS system. Our PACS is used since six months to treat patients. It has permitted to improve the treatment quality in comparison with our first version TPS ARTEMIS-3D

  20. Ghrelin agonists impact on Fos protein expression in brain areas related to food intake regulation in male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnik, Z; Bundziková, J; Holubová, M; Pýchová, M; Fehrentz, J A; Martinez, J; Zelezná, B; Maletínská, L; Kiss, A

    2011-11-01

    Many peripheral substances, including ghrelin, induce neuronal activation in the brain. In the present study, we compared the effect of subcutaneously administered ghrelin and its three stable agonists: Dpr(3)ghr ([Dpr(N-octanoyl)(3)] ghrelin) (Dpr - diaminopropionic acid), YA GHRP-6 (H-Tyr-Ala-His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH(2)), and JMV1843 (H-Aib-DTrp-D-gTrp-CHO) on the Fos expression in food intake-responsive brain areas such as the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and area postrema (AP) in male C57BL/6 mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that acute subcutaneous dose of each substance (5mg/kg b.w.), which induced a significant food intake increase, elevated Fos protein expression in all brain areas studied. Likewise ghrelin, each agonist tested induced distinct Fos expression overall the PVN. In the ARC, ghrelin and its agonists specifically activated similarly distributed neurons. Fos occurrence extended from the anterior (aARC) to middle (mARC) ARC region. In the latter part of the ARC, the Fos profiles were localized bilaterally, especially in the ventromedial portions of the nucleus. In the NTS, all substances tested also significantly increased the number of Fos profiles in neurons, which also revealed specific location, i.e., in the NTS dorsomedial subnucleus (dmNTS) and the area subpostrema (AsP). In addition, cells located nearby the NTS, in the AP, also revealed a significant increase in number of Fos-activated cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that ghrelin agonists, regardless of their different chemical nature, have a significant and similar activating impact on specific groups of neurons that can be a part of the circuits involved in the food intake regulation. Therefore there is a real potency for ghrelin agonists to treat cachexia and food intake disorders. Thus, likewise JMV1843, the other ghrelin agonists represent substances that might be involved in

  1. Dedication increases productivity: an analysis of the implementation of a dedicated medical team in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Pedro; Paiva, José Artur

    2017-12-01

    In several European countries, emergency departments (EDs) now employ a dedicated team of full-time emergency medicine (EM) physicians, with a distinct leadership and bed-side emergency training, in all similar to other hospital departments. In Portugal, however, there are still two very different models for staffing EDs: a classic model, where EDs are mostly staffed with young inexperienced physicians from different medical departments who take turns in the ED in 12-h shifts and a dedicated model, recently implemented in some hospitals, where the ED is staffed by a team of doctors with specific medical competencies in emergency medicine that work full-time in the ED. Our study assesses the effect of an intervention in a large academic hospital ED in Portugal in 2002, and it is the first to test the hypothesis that implementing a dedicated team of doctors with EM expertise increases the productivity and reduces costs in the ED, maintaining the quality of care provided to patients. A pre-post design was used for comparing the change on the organisational model of delivering care in our medical ED. All emergency medical admissions were tracked in 2002 (classic model with 12-h shift in the ED) and 2005/2006 (dedicated team with full-time EM physicians), and productivity, costs with medical human resources and quality of care measures were compared. We found that medical productivity (number of patients treated per hour of medical work) increased dramatically after the creation of the dedicated team (X 2 KW = 31.135; N = 36; p work reduced both in regular hours and overtime. Moreover, hospitalisation rates decreased and the length of stay in the ED increased significantly after the creation of the dedicated team. Implementing a dedicated team of doctors increased the medical productivity and reduced costs in our ED. Our findings have straightforward implication for Portuguese policymakers aiming at reducing hospital costs while coping with increased ED demand.

  2. Subliminal and Supraliminal Processing of Facial Expression of Emotions: Brain Oscillation in the Left/Right Frontal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balconi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The unconscious effects of an emotional stimulus have been highlighted by a vast amount of research, whereover it remains questionable whether it is possible to assign a specific function to cortical brain oscillations in the unconscious perception of facial expressions of emotions. Alpha band variation was monitored within the right- and left-cortical side when subjects consciously (supraliminal stimulation or unconsciously (subliminal stimulation processed facial patterns. Twenty subjects looked at six facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral under two different conditions: supraliminal (200 ms vs. subliminal (30 ms stimulation (140 target-mask pairs for each condition. The results showed that conscious/unconscious processing and the significance of the stimulus can modulate the alpha power. Moreover, it was found that there was an increased right frontal activity for negative emotions vs. an increased left response for positive emotion. The significance of facial expressions was adduced to elucidate cortical different responses to emotional types.

  3. Where one hand meets the other: limb-specific and action-dependent movement plans decoded from preparatory signals in single human frontoparietal brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, Jason P; McLean, D Adam; Flanagan, J Randall; Culham, Jody C

    2013-01-30

    Planning object-directed hand actions requires successful integration of the movement goal with the acting limb. Exactly where and how this sensorimotor integration occurs in the brain has been studied extensively with neurophysiological recordings in nonhuman primates, yet to date, because of limitations of non-invasive methodologies, the ability to examine the same types of planning-related signals in humans has been challenging. Here we show, using a multivoxel pattern analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) data, that the preparatory activity patterns in several frontoparietal brain regions can be used to predict both the limb used and hand action performed in an upcoming movement. Participants performed an event-related delayed movement task whereby they planned and executed grasp or reach actions with either their left or right hand toward a single target object. We found that, although the majority of frontoparietal areas represented hand actions (grasping vs reaching) for the contralateral limb, several areas additionally coded hand actions for the ipsilateral limb. Notable among these were subregions within the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), ventral premotor cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, presupplementary motor area, and motor cortex, a region more traditionally implicated in contralateral movement generation. Additional analyses suggest that hand actions are represented independently of the intended limb in PPC and PMd. In addition to providing a unique mapping of limb-specific and action-dependent intention-related signals across the human cortical motor system, these findings uncover a much stronger representation of the ipsilateral limb than expected from previous fMRI findings.

  4. Electroencephalographic (eeg coherence between visual and motor areas of the left and the right brain hemisphere while performing visuomotor task with the right and the left hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brežan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unilateral limb movements are based on the activation of contralateral primary motor cortex and the bilateral activation of premotor cortices. Performance of a visuomotor task requires a visuomotor integration between motor and visual cortical areas. The functional integration (»binding« of different brain areas, is probably mediated by the synchronous neuronal oscillatory activity, which can be determined by electroencephalographic (EEG coherence analysis. We introduced a new method of coherence analysis and compared coherence and power spectra in the left and right hemisphere for the right vs. left hand visuomotor task, hypothesizing that the increase in coherence and decrease in power spectra while performing the task would be greater in the contralateral hemisphere.Methods: We analyzed 6 healthy subjects and recorded their electroencephalogram during visuomotor task with the right or the left hand. For data analysis, a special Matlab computer programme was designed. The results were statistically analysed by a two-way analysis of variance, one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc t-tests with Bonferroni correction.Results: We demonstrated a significant increase in coherence (p < 0.05 for the visuomotor task compared to control tasks in alpha (8–13 Hz in beta 1 (13–20 Hz frequency bands between visual and motor electrodes. There were no significant differences in coherence nor power spectra depending on the hand used. The changes of coherence and power spectra between both hemispheres were symmetrical.Conclusions: In previous studies, a specific increase of coherence and decrease of power spectra for the visuomotor task was found, but we found no conclusive asymmetries when performing the task with right vs. left hand. This could be explained in a way that increases in coherence and decreases of power spectra reflect symmetrical activation and cooperation between more complex visual and motor brain areas.

  5. Convergence of human brain mapping tools: neuronavigated TMS parameters and fMRI activity in the hand motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Diekhoff, Svenja; Wang, Ling E; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Uludağ, Kamil; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are well-established tools for investigating the human motor system in-vivo. We here studied the relationship between movement-related fMRI signal changes in the primary motor cortex (M1) and electrophysiological properties of the hand motor area assessed with neuronavigated TMS in 17 healthy subjects. The voxel showing the highest task-related BOLD response in the left hand motor area during right hand movements was identified for each individual subject. This fMRI peak voxel in M1 served as spatial target for coil positioning during neuronavigated TMS. We performed correlation analyses between TMS parameters, BOLD signal estimates and effective connectivity parameters of M1 assessed with dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed a negative correlation between the movement-related BOLD signal in left M1 and resting as well as active motor threshold (MT) obtained for left M1. The DCM analysis revealed that higher excitability of left M1 was associated with a stronger coupling between left supplementary motor area (SMA) and M1. Furthermore, BOLD activity in left M1 correlated with ipsilateral silent period (ISP), i.e. the stronger the task-related BOLD response in left M1, the higher interhemispheric inhibition effects targeting right M1. DCM analyses revealed a positive correlation between the coupling of left SMA with left M1 and the duration of ISP. The data show that TMS parameters assessed for the hand area of M1 do not only reflect the intrinsic properties at the stimulation site but also interactions with remote areas in the human motor system. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. NMDA receptors regulate nicotine-enhanced brain reward function and intravenous nicotine self-administration: role of the ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Paul J; Chartoff, Elena; Roberto, Marisa; Carlezon, William A; Markou, Athina

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is considered an important component of tobacco responsible for the smoking habit in humans. Nicotine increases glutamate-mediated transmission throughout brain reward circuitries. This action of nicotine could potentially contribute to its intrinsic rewarding and reward-enhancing properties, which motivate consumption of the drug. Here we show that the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist LY235959 (0.5-2.5 mg per kg) abolished nicotine-enhanced brain reward function, reflected in blockade of the lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds usually observed after experimenter-administered (0.25 mg per kg) or intravenously self-administered (0.03 mg per kg per infusion) nicotine injections. The highest LY235959 dose (5 mg per kg) tested reversed the hedonic valence of nicotine from positive to negative, reflected in nicotine-induced elevations of ICSS thresholds. LY235959 doses that reversed nicotine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds also markedly decreased nicotine self-administration without altering responding for food reinforcement, whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist NBQX had no effects on nicotine intake. In addition, nicotine self-administration upregulated NMDA receptor subunit expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggesting important interactions between nicotine and the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, nicotine (1 microM) increased NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat CeA slices, similar to its previously described effects in the VTA. Finally, infusion of LY235959 (0.1-10 ng per side) into the CeA or VTA decreased nicotine self-administration. Taken together, these data suggest that NMDA receptors, including those in the CeA and VTA, gate the magnitude and valence of the effects of nicotine on brain reward systems, thereby regulating motivation to consume the drug.

  7. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  8. Operating dedicated data centers – is it cost-effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, M; Hogue, R; Hollowell, C; Strecker-Kellog, W; Wong, A; Zaytsev, A

    2014-01-01

    The advent of cloud computing centres such as Amazon's EC2 and Google's Computing Engine has elicited comparisons with dedicated computing clusters. Discussions on appropriate usage of cloud resources (both academic and commercial) and costs have ensued. This presentation discusses a detailed analysis of the costs of operating and maintaining the RACF (RHIC and ATLAS Computing Facility) compute cluster at Brookhaven National Lab and compares them with the cost of cloud computing resources under various usage scenarios. An extrapolation of likely future cost effectiveness of dedicated computing resources is also presented.

  9. Operating Dedicated Data Centers - Is It Cost-Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, M.; Hogue, R.; Hollowell, C.; Strecker-Kellog, W.; Wong, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2014-06-01

    The advent of cloud computing centres such as Amazon's EC2 and Google's Computing Engine has elicited comparisons with dedicated computing clusters. Discussions on appropriate usage of cloud resources (both academic and commercial) and costs have ensued. This presentation discusses a detailed analysis of the costs of operating and maintaining the RACF (RHIC and ATLAS Computing Facility) compute cluster at Brookhaven National Lab and compares them with the cost of cloud computing resources under various usage scenarios. An extrapolation of likely future cost effectiveness of dedicated computing resources is also presented.

  10. A study on the activation of supplementary motor area in functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho; Park, Hark Hoon; Oh, Hee Sul; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Jin Young

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the activated zone of the supplementary motor area through motor and sensory stimulation of both hands by fMRI. Twenty-four healthy volunteers, ranging in age from 20 to 30 years, served as subjects. They were divided into four groups and performed one of the four activation tasks : complex movement, fine movement, touch sensation, heat sensation. Complex movement consisted of a finger task in which subjects flexed and extended all fingers repeatedly in union, without the fingers touching each other(group I). Fine movement involved a thumb task in which subjects flexed and extended the thumb repeatedly without touching the other fingers(group II). Touch sensation consisted of a palm task in which another person repeatedly drew a circle on the subject's palm (group III), and heat sensation involved of a palm task in which subject's palm was touched by another person with a 40 deg C water-bag (group IV). F-MRI was conducted on a commercial 1.5-T scanner equipped with echo-planar imaging. After overlapping images were obtained using a Z-s-core, and the mean/curve in the MR devices was evaluated, the activated zone of the supplementary motor area was also evalvated. Thirty-two of 48 images(20 of the 24 men) revealed activated zones in the supplementary motor area. In group I, activation was observed in five subjects, in three of whom it was bilateral (contralateral activation). In group II, activation was observed in five subjects, in one of whom it was bilateral. In group III, activation occurred in five subjects(bilateral in four, and contralateral in three), and In group IV, activation was also observed in five;in three of these it was bilateral. Using fMRI, and in association with motor and sensory tasks, the supplementary motor area was activated in 66.7% of healthy volunteers (32/48)

  11. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of brain activation during cognitive aging: A systematic review of an emerging area of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbangla, Nounagnon F; Audiffren, Michel; Albinet, Cédric T

    2017-09-01

    The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a growing and stimulating research area. The development of neuroimaging techniques in the past two decades has considerably increased our understanding of the brain mechanisms that might underlie cognitive performance and resulting changes due to normal aging. Beside traditional metabolic neuroimaging techniques, such as Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique allowing to monitor real-time cerebral blood oxygenation, has gained recent interest in this field. The aim of the present review paper, after briefly presenting the NIRS technique, is to review and to summarize the recent results of neuroimaging studies using this technique in the field of cognitive aging. The reviewed literature shows that, despite low spatial resolution and cerebral depth penetration, this technique provides consistent findings on the reduced hemodynamic activity as a function of chronological age, mainly in the prefrontal cortex. Important moderators of brain hemodynamics, such as cognitive load, subjects' characteristics and experimental conditions, for which the NIRS technique is sensitive, are discussed. Strengths and weaknesses of functional NIRS in the field of cognitive aging are presented and finally, novel perspectives of research are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain 'talks over' boring quotes: top-down activation of voice-selective areas while listening to monotonous direct speech quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2012-04-15

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said, "I'm hungry") is perceived as more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said that she was hungry). This vividness distinction has previously been found to underlie silent reading of quotations: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that direct speech elicited higher brain activity in the temporal voice areas (TVA) of the auditory cortex than indirect speech, consistent with an "inner voice" experience in reading direct speech. Here we show that listening to monotonously spoken direct versus indirect speech quotations also engenders differential TVA activity. This suggests that individuals engage in top-down simulations or imagery of enriched supra-segmental acoustic representations while listening to monotonous direct speech. The findings shed new light on the acoustic nature of the "inner voice" in understanding direct speech. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain tumors in eloquent areas: A European multicenter survey of intraoperative mapping techniques, intraoperative seizures occurrence, and antiepileptic drug prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spena, Giannantonio; Schucht, Philippe; Seidel, Kathleen; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Freyschlag, Christian Franz; D'Agata, Federico; Costi, Emanule; Zappa, Francesca; Fontanella, Marco; Fontaine, Denys; Almairac, Fabien; Cavallo, Michele; De Bonis, Pasquale; Conesa, Gerardo; Foroglou, Nicholas; Gil-Robles, Santiago; Mandonnet, Emanuel; Martino, Juan; Picht, Thomas; Viegas, Catarina; Wager, Michel; Pallud, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Intraoperative mapping and monitoring techniques for eloquent area tumors are routinely used world wide. Very few data are available regarding mapping and monitoring methods and preferences, intraoperative seizures occurrence and perioperative antiepileptic drug management. A questionnaire was sent to 20 European centers with experience in intraoperative mapping or neurophysiological monitoring for the treatment of eloquent area tumors. Fifteen centers returned the completed questionnaires. Data was available on 2098 patients. 863 patients (41.1%) were operated on through awake surgery and intraoperative mapping, while 1235 patients (58.8%) received asleep surgery and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring or mapping. There was great heterogeneity between centers with some totally AW oriented (up to 100%) and other almost totally ASL oriented (up to 92%) (31% SD). For awake surgery, 79.9% centers preferred an asleep-awake-asleep anesthesia protocol. Only 53.3% of the centers used ECoG or transcutaneous EEG. The incidence of intraoperative seizures varied significantly between centers, ranging from 2.5% to 54% (p mapping technique and the risk of intraoperative seizures. Moreover, history of preoperative seizures can significantly increase the risk of intraoperative seizures (p mapping and monitoring protocols and the management of peri- and intraoperative seizures. This data can help identify specific aspects that need to be investigated in prospective and controlled studies.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn wound infection in a dedicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a major cause of morbidity in burns patients. There is a paucity of publications dealing with this infection in the paediatric population. We describe the incidence, microbiology and impact of P. aeruginosa infection in a dedicated paediatric burns unit. Methods.

  15. Dedicating time to volunteering : Values, engagement, and commitment to beneficiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shantz, A.; Saksida, T.; Alfes, K.

    2014-01-01

    A moderated mediation model was developed to explain the variation in the amount of time volunteers dedicate to their chosen voluntary cause. Data from 534 volunteers of an international aid and development agency in the United Kingdom revealed a positive relationship between prosocial values and

  16. Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Dedication for Leak Detection Relays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.; JOHNS, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    This Test Plan provides a test method to dedicate the leak detection relays used on the new Pumping and Instrumentation Control (PIC) skids. The new skids are fabricated on-site. The leak detection system is a safety class system per the Authorization Basis

  17. Spectrograph dedicated to measuring tropospheric trace gas constituents from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Laan, E.C.; Deutz, A.F.; Escudero-Sanz, I.; Bokhove, H.; Hoegee, J.; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.; Landgraf, J.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Houweling, S.; Weele, M. van; Oss, R. van; Oord, G. van den; Levelt, P.

    2005-01-01

    Several organizations in the Netherlands are cooperating to develop user requirements and instrument concepts in the line of SCIAMACHY and OMI but with an increased focus on measuring tropospheric constituents from space. The concepts use passive spectroscopy in dedicated wavelength sections in the

  18. Performance of TCP over UMTS common and dedicated channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo, Anthony; Heijenk, Geert; Bruma, Cezar; Gameiro, A.

    2003-01-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third-generation cellular network that enables high-speed wireless Internet access. This paper investigates the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over UMTS utilizing a common and four dedicated transport channels with bit rates

  19. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  20. Virginia Tech's College Of Natural Resources Dedicates Cheatham Hall Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Thanks to funding by private donors, Alyce Cheatham and her family of Portland, Oregon, Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources will dedicate a much-needed, three-story addition to its current Cheatham Hall on Wednesday, March 19, at 2:30 p.m.

  1. Cost of a dedicated ART clinic | Harling | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background. The provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is being rolled out across South Africa. Little evidence exists on the cost of running clinics for ART provision. Objectives. To determine the cost per patient-month enrolled in an ART programme and per patient-visit for a dedicated, public-sector ART clinic in a ...

  2. Service differentiation in spare parts supply through dedicated stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, Elisa; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate keeping dedicated stocks at customer sites in addition to stock kept at some central location as a tool for applying service differentiation in spare parts supply. We study the resulting two-echelon system in a multi-item setting, both under backordering and under emergency shipments

  3. Identifying non-toxic doses of manganese for manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to map brain areas activated by operant behavior in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálosi, Rita; Szalay, Csaba; Aradi, Mihály; Perlaki, Gábor; Pál, József; Steier, Roy; Lénárd, László; Karádi, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) offers unique advantages such as studying brain activation in freely moving rats, but its usefulness has not been previously evaluated during operant behavior training. Manganese in a form of MnCl 2 , at a dose of 20mg/kg, was intraperitoneally infused. The administration was repeated and separated by 24h to reach the dose of 40mg/kg or 60mg/kg, respectively. Hepatotoxicity of the MnCl 2 was evaluated by determining serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin and protein levels. Neurological examination was also carried out. The animals were tested in visual cue discriminated operant task. Imaging was performed using a 3T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were determined before and after MnCl 2 administrations. Manganese-enhanced images of each animal were subtracted from their baseline images to calculate decrease in the T1 value (ΔT1) voxel by voxel. The subtracted T1 maps of trained animals performing visual cue discriminated operant task, and those of naive rats were compared. The dose of 60mg/kg MnCl 2 showed hepatotoxic effect, but even these animals did not exhibit neurological symptoms. The dose of 20 and 40mg/kg MnCl 2 increased the number of omissions and did not affect the accuracy of performing the visual cue discriminated operant task. Using the accumulated dose of 40mg/kg, voxels with a significant enhanced ΔT1 value were detected in the following brain areas of the visual cue discriminated operant behavior performed animals compared to those in the controls: the visual, somatosensory, motor and premotor cortices, the insula, cingulate, ectorhinal, entorhinal, perirhinal and piriform cortices, hippocampus, amygdala with amygdalohippocampal areas, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens core, substantia nigra, and retrorubral field. In conclusion, the MEMRI proved to be a reliable method to accomplish brain activity mapping in correlation with the operant behavior

  4. The Dedicated Aerosol Retrieval Experiment (DARE): scientific requirements for a dedicated satellite instrument to measure atmospheric aerosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decae, R.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Leeuw, G. de

    2004-01-01

    DARE (Dedicated Aerosol Retrieval Experiment) is a study to design an instrument for accurate remote sensing of aerosol properties from space. DARE combines useful properties of several existing instruments like TOMS, GOME, ATSR and POLDER. It has a large wavelength range, 330 to 1000 nm, to

  5. Impact of dedicated E85 vehicle use on ozone and particulate matter in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Griffin, W. Michael; Yarwood, Greg; Dunker, Alan M.; MacLean, Heather L.; Mansell, Gerard; Grant, John

    2011-12-01

    Increased use of ethanol as a vehicle fuel worldwide warrants the need to understand air quality impacts of replacing gasoline with ethanol. This study evaluates the impacts of dedicated E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline) light-duty vehicles on emissions, ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the United States for a future year (2022) using a 3-D photochemical model, detailed emissions inventories that account for changes in all sectors studied, and winter and summer meteorology that occurred in 2002. Use of E85 introduces new emissions from ethanol production and distribution, reduces petrochemical industry emissions due to lower gasoline consumption, changes on-road vehicle emissions and alters biogenic emissions due to land use changes. Three scenarios with increased ethanol production for dedicated E85 light-duty vehicles were compared to a base case without increased ethanol production. Increased use of E85 caused both increases and decreases in ozone and PM, driven mainly by changes in NO x emissions related to biogenic and upstream petrochemical industry sources. In all states modeled, adoption of dedicated E85 vehicles caused negligible change in average higher ozone and PM concentrations of importance for air quality management strategies. Ozone and PM changes are relatively insensitive to how land area is allocated for switchgrass production. The findings are subject to various uncertainties, especially those in vehicle technology and emissions from cellulosic ethanol production.

  6. Interactive dedicated training curriculum improves accuracy in the interpretation of MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, Oguz; Zhang, Jingbo; Hricak, Hedvig; Riedl, Christopher C.; Ishill, Nicole M.; Moskowitz, Chaya S.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of interactive dedicated training on radiology fellows' accuracy in assessing prostate cancer on MRI. Eleven radiology fellows, blinded to clinical and pathological data, independently interpreted preoperative prostate MRI studies, scoring the likelihood of tumour in the peripheral and transition zones and extracapsular extension. Each fellow interpreted 15 studies before dedicated training (to supply baseline interpretation accuracy) and 200 studies (10/week) after attending didactic lectures. Expert radiologists led weekly interactive tutorials comparing fellows' interpretations to pathological tumour maps. To assess interpretation accuracy, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted, using pathological findings as the reference standard. In identifying peripheral zone tumour, fellows' average area under the ROC curve (AUC) increased from 0.52 to 0.66 (after didactic lectures; p < 0.0001) and remained at 0.66 (end of training; p < 0.0001); in the transition zone, their average AUC increased from 0.49 to 0.64 (after didactic lectures; p = 0.01) and to 0.68 (end of training; p = 0.001). In detecting extracapsular extension, their average AUC increased from 0.50 to 0.67 (after didactic lectures; p = 0.003) and to 0.81 (end of training; p < 0.0001). Interactive dedicated training significantly improved accuracy in tumour localization and especially in detecting extracapsular extension on prostate MRI. (orig.)

  7. Interactive dedicated training curriculum improves accuracy in the interpretation of MR imaging of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, Oguz; Zhang, Jingbo; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Riedl, Christopher C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Ishill, Nicole M.; Moskowitz, Chaya S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-04-15

    To assess the effect of interactive dedicated training on radiology fellows' accuracy in assessing prostate cancer on MRI. Eleven radiology fellows, blinded to clinical and pathological data, independently interpreted preoperative prostate MRI studies, scoring the likelihood of tumour in the peripheral and transition zones and extracapsular extension. Each fellow interpreted 15 studies before dedicated training (to supply baseline interpretation accuracy) and 200 studies (10/week) after attending didactic lectures. Expert radiologists led weekly interactive tutorials comparing fellows' interpretations to pathological tumour maps. To assess interpretation accuracy, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted, using pathological findings as the reference standard. In identifying peripheral zone tumour, fellows' average area under the ROC curve (AUC) increased from 0.52 to 0.66 (after didactic lectures; p < 0.0001) and remained at 0.66 (end of training; p < 0.0001); in the transition zone, their average AUC increased from 0.49 to 0.64 (after didactic lectures; p = 0.01) and to 0.68 (end of training; p = 0.001). In detecting extracapsular extension, their average AUC increased from 0.50 to 0.67 (after didactic lectures; p = 0.003) and to 0.81 (end of training; p < 0.0001). Interactive dedicated training significantly improved accuracy in tumour localization and especially in detecting extracapsular extension on prostate MRI. (orig.)

  8. Development of a circular shape Si-PM-based detector ring for breast-dedicated PET system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kouhei; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinji; Fujita, Naotoshi; Kato, Katsuhiko

    2018-02-01

    In clinical situations, various breast-dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) systems have been used. However, clinical breast-dedicated PET systems have polygonal detector ring. Polygonal detector ring sometimes causes image artifact, so complicated reconstruction algorithm is needed to reduce artifact. Consequently, we developed a circular detector ring for breast-dedicated PET to obtain images without artifact using a simple reconstruction algorithm. We used Lu1.9Gd0.1SiO5 (LGSO) scintillator block which was made of 1.5 x 1.9 x 15 mm pixels that were arranged in an 8 x 24 matrix. As photodetectors, we used silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) arrays whose channel size was 3 x 3 mm. A detector unit was composed of four scintillator blocks, 16 Si-PM arrays and a light guide. The developed detector unit had angled configuration since the light guide was bending. A detector unit had three gaps with an angle of 5.625° between scintillator blocks. With these configurations, we could arrange 64 scintillator blocks in nearly circular shape (regular 64-sided polygon) using 16 detector units. The use of the smaller number of detector units could reduce the size of the front-end electronics circuits. The inner diameter of the developed detector ring was 260 mm. This size was similar to those of brain PET systems, so our breast-dedicated PET detector ring can measure not only breast but also brain. Measured radial, tangential and axial spatial resolution of the detector ring reconstructed by the filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm were 2.1 mm FWHM, 2.0 mm FWHM and 1.7 mm FWHM at center of field of view (FOV), respectively. The sensitivity was 2.0% at center of the axial FOV. With the developed detector ring, we could obtain high resolution image of the breast phantom and the brain phantom. We conclude that our developed Si-PM-based detector ring is promising for a high resolution breast-dedicated PET system that can also be used for brain PET system.

  9. Study of the personal radiation dose received by nuclear medicine technologists working in a dedicated PET centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.N.; Wallace, A.B.; Young, A.B.; Ibbetson, V.J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of dedicated PET scanners is becoming more widespread throughout Australia and the world. PET imaging utilises short-lived (-108 min), high-energy (511 keV) gamma-ray emitters, that could result in a high radiation dose being received by staff. As part of a larger staff and area monitoring project, this paper discusses the personal dose equivalent, H p (10), received by PET staff working in a dedicated PET centre. The typical H (10) received by staff was approximately 31 μSv. The average daily administered activity to patients at Austin Health was 1280 MBq

  10. Enhanced brain responses to C-fiber input in the area of secondary hyperalgesia induced by high-frequency electrical stimulation of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broeke, Emanuel N; Mouraux, André

    2014-11-01

    High-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the human skin induces an increase in both mechanical and heat pain sensitivity in the surrounding unconditioned skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HFS on the intensity of perception and brain responses elicited by the selective activation of C fibers. HFS was applied to the ventral forearm of 15 healthy volunteers. Temperature-controlled CO2 laser stimulation was used to activate selectively low-threshold C-fiber afferents without concomitantly activating Aδ-fiber afferents. These stimuli were detected with reaction times compatible with the conduction velocity of C fibers. The intensity of perception and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by thermal stimuli delivered to the surrounding unconditioned skin were recorded before (T0) and after HFS (T1: 20 min after HFS; T2: 45 min after HFS). The contralateral forearm served as a control. Mechanical hyperalgesia following HFS was confirmed by measuring the change in the intensity of perception elicited by mechanical punctate stimuli. HFS resulted in increased intensity of perception to mechanical punctate stimulation and selective C-fiber thermal stimulation at both time points. In contrast, the N2 wave of the ERP elicited by C-fiber stimulation (679 ± 88 ms; means ± SD) was enhanced at T1 but not at T2. The P2 wave (808 ± 105 ms) was unaffected by HFS. Our results suggest that HFS enhances the sensitivity to thermal C-fiber input in the area of secondary hyperalgesia. However, there was no significant enhancement of the magnitude of the C-fiber ERPs at T2, suggesting that quickly adapting C fibers do not contribute to this enhancement. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Engine with pulse-suppressed dedicated exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.; Baker, Rodney E.

    2016-06-07

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, and an exhaust assembly. The intake assembly includes a charge air cooler disposed between an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixer and a backpressure valve. The charge air cooler has both an inlet and an outlet, and the back pressure valve is configured to maintain a minimum pressure difference between the inlet of the charge air cooler and an outlet of the backpressure valve. A dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is provided in fluid communication with at least one cylinder and with the EGR mixer. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the at least one cylinder to the EGR mixer for recirculation back to the engine.

  12. Dedication of Stotz-Kontakt switches for Spanish utility owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vergara, T.; Martin de la Torre, M.; Alminana, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Spanish Utility Owners Group commissioned Empresarios Agrupados to perform the work for the dedication of the S280 series of Stotz-KONTAKT switches and two of its possible accessories. As a results of this process, the components can be used in safety-related applications in the conditions and locations expected. This article describes the different phases of the dedication process: Technical Evaluation considering the application of switches as new or alternative elements, Acceptance Process and Purchasing Documentation. It sets out the main conclusion drawn from each phase. It also includes details of the activities performed by Empresarios Agrupados as part of the seismic qualification of components: selection of the sample to be tested, the definition of electrical tests before and after the seismic test, and the mounting, electrical powering, operating requirements and monitoring of components during seismic tests. (Author)

  13. Preliminary design of a dedicated proton therapy linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Crandall, K.R.; Potter, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design has been completed for a low current, compact proton linac dedicated to cancer therapy. A 3 GHz side-coupled structure accelerates the beam from a 70 MeV drift tube linac using commercially available S-band rf power systems and accelerating cavities. This significantly reduces the linac cost and allows incremental energies up to 250 MeV. The short beam pulse width and high repetition rate make the linac similar to the high energy electron linacs now used for cancer therapy, yet produce a proton flux sufficient for treatment of large tumors. The high pulse repetition rate permits raster scanning, and the small output beam size and emittance result in a compact isocentric gantry design. Such a linac will reduce the facility and operating costs for a dedicated cancer therapy system

  14. Dedicated data recording video system for Spacelab experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Shoji; Fujiwara, Shinji; Onozuka, Kuniharu

    1984-04-01

    A feasibility study of video tape recorder (VTR) modification to add the capability of data recording etc. was conducted. This system is an on-broad system to support Spacelab experiments as a dedicated video system and a dedicated data recording system to operate independently of the normal operation of the Orbiter, Spacelab and the other experiments. It continuously records the video image signals with the acquired data, status and operator's voice at the same time on one cassette video tape. Such things, the crews' actions, animals' behavior, microscopic views and melting materials in furnace, etc. are recorded. So, it is expected that experimenters can make a very easy and convenient analysis of the synchronized video, voice and data signals in their post flight analysis.

  15. Entraigues, a system dedicated to industrial radiography interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleuet, E.; Lavayssiere, B.

    1995-01-01

    Some inspections including radiography are periodically done among the components of a nuclear power plant in order to check their integrity. Today the operator is in charge of acquiring data, of analysing and of quantifying the produced X-ray films. EDF has built a digital system called ENTRAIGUES which aims to help the processing and the interpretation of radiographic images. The hardware of ENTRAIGUES is composed of a digitizer, a dedicated image processor and a PC. The software has been designed to facilitate the analysis of X-ray images. With the inclusion of compression algorithms and automatic image procedures ENTRAIGUES has become a complete tool dedicated to digitization, processing and archiving of nuclear power plant radiographs. (authors). 2 refs

  16. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common, radiation area, monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) for use in safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the approved design. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications

  17. c-Fos immunoreactivity in prefrontal, basal ganglia and limbic areas of the rat brain after central and peripheral administration of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen N. Segovia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that the metabolite of ethanol (EtOH, acetaldehyde, is biologically active. Acetaldehyde can be formed from EtOH peripherally mainly by alcohol dehydrogenase, and also centrally by catalase. EtOH and acetaldehyde show differences in their behavioral effects depending upon the route of administration. In terms of their effects on motor activity and motivated behaviors, when administered peripherally acetaldehyde tends to be more potent than EtOH but shows very similar potency administered centrally. Since dopamine (DA rich areas have an important role in regulating both motor activity and motivation, the present studies were undertaken to compare the effects of central (intraventricular, ICV and peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP administration of EtOH and acetaldehyde on a cellular marker of brain activity, c-Fos immunoreactivity, in DA innervated areas. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an IP injection of vehicle, EtOH (0.5 or 2.5 g/kg or acetaldehyde (0.1 or 0.5 g/kg or an ICV injection of vehicle, EtOH or acetaldehyde (2.8 or 14.0 µmoles. IP administration of EtOH minimally induced c-Fos in some regions of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, mainly at the low dose (0.5 g/kg, while IP acetaldehyde induced c-Fos in virtually all the structures studied at both doses. Acetaldehyde administered centrally increased c-Fos in all areas studied, a pattern that was very similar to EtOH. Thus, IP administered acetaldehyde was more efficacious than EtOH at inducing c-Fos expression. However, the general pattern of c-Fos induction promoted by ICV EtOH and acetaldehyde was similar. These results are consistent with the pattern observed in behavioral studies in which both substances produced the same magnitude of effect when injected centrally, and produced differences in potency after peripheral administration.

  18. Cost of a dedicated ART clinic | Harling | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little evidence exists on the cost of running clinics for ART provision. Objectives. To determine the cost per patient-month enrolled in an ART programme and per patient-visit for a dedicated, public-sector ART clinic in a South African peri-urban setting in 2004/05 and 2005/06, as the clinic moved from a temporary to a ...

  19. Dedicated training in adult education among otolaryngology faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMains, Kevin C; Peel, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Most faculty members undergo ad hoc training in education. This survey was developed to assess the prevalence and type of dedicated training in education received by academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTO-HNS) faculty in the United States. Survey. An 11-item survey was developed to assess the prevalence of dedicated instruction in education theory and practice, the types of instruction received, and the barriers to receiving instruction. The survey was sent to all OTO-HNS program directors for distribution among their respective faculty. A total of 216 responses were received. Seventy respondents (32.7%) serve as program director, associate program director, or assistant program director in their respective programs. Forty-six respondents (21.8%) had received dedicated training in education. Of the respondents who described the type of education training received, 48.7% participated in didactics/seminar, 35.9% in degree/certificate programs, 10.3% in multimodality training, and 5.1% online training. Among the barriers encountered to participation in instruction in education, time/productivity pressures was the most commonly cited reason (60.2%), followed by not knowing about the opportunity to receive training (36.4%), lack of departmental support (26.2%), lack of available training (22.3%), and the perception that such training would not be useful (7.8%). Presently, only a minority of surveyed academic otolaryngologists in the United States have received any dedicated instruction in the theory and practice of education. Personal, departmental, and institutional barriers exist in many practice environments that hinder otolaryngology faculty from participating in education training. N/A. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Quality assurance requirements for dedication process in Angra 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliza, Ana Rosa, E-mail: baliza@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Departamento GQO.G; Morghi, Youssef, E-mail: ymo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil the regulatory body is CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear), according to its requirements, when there is not a Brazilian standard, the utilities shall follow the requirements of the designer. For Angra 1, the designer is an American company - Westinghouse. So, the requirements for dedication of U.S. NRC (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission) shall be applied, these requirements are in 10CFR21 - Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance. According to 10CFR21, when applied to nuclear power plants licensed dedication is an acceptance process undertaken to provide reasonable assurance that a commercial grade item to be used as a basic component will perform its intended safety function and, in this respect, is deemed equivalent to an item designed and manufactured under a quality assurance program standard for nuclear power plant. This assurance is achieved by identifying the critical characteristics of the item and verifying their acceptability by inspections, tests, or analyses by the purchaser or third-party dedicating entity. (author)

  1. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Liaquat, A.M.; Husnawan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Petro diplomacy has played its role in last few decades and that makes energy security a major concern worldwide. Rapid climate change and environmental protection is another vital issue to be addressed in recent energy policies. So an alternative carbon neutral transport fuel is a must in new sustainable energy mix. Biodiesel has immense potentiality to be a part of a sustainable energy mix. In this energy scenario, Brazil's success is a role model in utilizing its agro-industry for reducing poverty, greenhouse gas emission and petro-dependency simultaneously. Brazil commercialized bioethanol in mass scale by introducing flexible fuel vehicles in market. This dedicated engine idea moralizes a new concept of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles for Malaysia and Indonesia. Southeast Asian countries, i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia is the largest producer as well as exporter of palm oil. Growing at highest yield rate among other biodiesel feedstock, palm based biodiesel is a top exported product for this region. This paper will quantify the prospects of a dedicated biodiesel engine vehicle for Malaysia and Indonesia that will initiate palm based biodiesel in fuel supply chain by leapfrogging the barriers of biodiesel utilization by boosting local automobile industry simultaneously. This article will also review on energy scenario of Malaysia and Indonesia and their renewable energy policies and challenges for coming decades. (author)

  2. Quality assurance requirements for dedication process in Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliza, Ana Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil the regulatory body is CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear), according to its requirements, when there is not a Brazilian standard, the utilities shall follow the requirements of the designer. For Angra 1, the designer is an American company - Westinghouse. So, the requirements for dedication of U.S. NRC (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission) shall be applied, these requirements are in 10CFR21 - Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance. According to 10CFR21, when applied to nuclear power plants licensed dedication is an acceptance process undertaken to provide reasonable assurance that a commercial grade item to be used as a basic component will perform its intended safety function and, in this respect, is deemed equivalent to an item designed and manufactured under a quality assurance program standard for nuclear power plant. This assurance is achieved by identifying the critical characteristics of the item and verifying their acceptability by inspections, tests, or analyses by the purchaser or third-party dedicating entity. (author)

  3. Methodology for creating dedicated machine and algorithm on sunflower counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muracciole, Vincent; Plainchault, Patrick; Mannino, Maria-Rosaria; Bertrand, Dominique; Vigouroux, Bertrand

    2007-09-01

    In order to sell grain lots in European countries, seed industries need a government certification. This certification requests purity testing, seed counting in order to quantify specified seed species and other impurities in lots, and germination testing. These analyses are carried out within the framework of international trade according to the methods of the International Seed Testing Association. Presently these different analyses are still achieved manually by skilled operators. Previous works have already shown that seeds can be characterized by around 110 visual features (morphology, colour, texture), and thus have presented several identification algorithms. Until now, most of the works in this domain are computer based. The approach presented in this article is based on the design of dedicated electronic vision machine aimed to identify and sort seeds. This machine is composed of a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) and a PC bearing the GUI (Human Machine Interface) of the system. Its operation relies on the stroboscopic image acquisition of a seed falling in front of a camera. A first machine was designed according to this approach, in order to simulate all the vision chain (image acquisition, feature extraction, identification) under the Matlab environment. In order to perform this task into dedicated hardware, all these algorithms were developed without the use of the Matlab toolbox. The objective of this article is to present a design methodology for a special purpose identification algorithm based on distance between groups into dedicated hardware machine for seed counting.

  4. Survey VS audit by using method 2 to dedicate commercial grade services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez ayucar, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the start of the commercial grade dedications, both 10CFR21 and EPRI documents, plus the dedication of commercial grade components, and the stage of commercial grade dedication of the services contemplated. And recently the NRC through various communications and answers trafficking among other issues the commercial grade dedication service. The NRC has detected repeatedly incorrect application of the survey as a method of commercial grade dedication and instead has done an audit of the program elements of commercial quality. (Author)

  5. Reengineering GSM/GPRS Towards a Dedicated Network for Massive Smart Metering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    GSM is a synonym for a major success in wireless technology, achieving widespread use and high technology maturity. However, its future is questionable, as many stakeholders indicate that the GSM spectrum should be re-farmed for LTE. On the other hand, the advent of smart grid and the ubiquity...... of smart meters will require reliable, long-lived wide area connections. This motivates to investigate the potential of GSM to be evolved into a dedicated network for smart metering. We introduce simple mechanisms to reengineer the access control in GSM. The result is a system that offers excellent support...

  6. Brain imaging and schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, J.L.; Dao-Castellana, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain structures and brain function have been investigated by the new brain imaging techniques for more than ten years. In Psychiatry, these techniques could afford a new understanding of mental diseases. In schizophrenic patients, CAT scanner and RMI pointed out statistically significant ventricular enlargments which are presently considered as evidence for abnormalities in brain maturation. Functional imaging techniques reported metabolic dysfunctions in the cortical associative areas which are probably linked to the cognitive features of schizophrenics [fr

  7. A dual-route perspective on brain activation in response to visual words: evidence for a length by lexicality interaction in the visual word form area (VWFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-02-01

    Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., "Does xxx sound like an existing word?") presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In situ hybridization on the change of m1 receptor mRNA in different brain areas of aged rats and the effect of Yin tonic Zhimu studied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yaer; Xia Zongqin; Yi Ningyu

    1996-01-01

    The change of gene expression of m1 receptors in different brain areas of aged rats and the effects of water extract of the Yin tonic Zhimu and its active principle ZMS was studied. In situ hybridization using 35 S-labelled m1 and m2 probes and analysis of the autoradiographs using a computerized image-analyzer was selected. The grain density of m1 mRNA in striatum was significantly lowered in old rats as compared with young rats (decreased by 12.26 +- 3.60, P<0.01). Long-term oral administration of ZMS, the active principle of Yin tonic Zhimu but not the water extraction of Zhimu, elevated the m1 mRNA in striatum of aged rats (increased by 15.71 +- 3.27, P<0.01). Neither significant change of the grain density of m1 mRNA in old rats nor significant effect of Zhimu or ZMS was observed in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The m1 mRNA level in striatum is decreased in aged rats and ZMS is able to elevate it

  9. Clear-PEM, a dedicated PET camera for mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results suggest that Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) can offer a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Metabolic images from PEM contain unique information not available from conventional morphologic imaging techniques and aid in expeditiously establishing the diagnosis of cancer. A dedicated machine seems to offer better perspectives in terms of position resolution and sensitivity. This paper describes the concept of Clear-PEM, the system presently developed by the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN for an evaluation of this approach. This device is based on new crystals introduced by the Crystal Clear as well as on modern data acquisition techniques developed for the large experiments in high energy physics experiments.

  10. Proposed dedicated high pressure beam lines at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoff, A.L.; Vohra, Y.K.; Bassett, W.A.; Batterman, B.W.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    An instrumentation proposal for dedicated high pressure beam lines at CHESS is described. It is the purpose of this proposed program to provide researchers in high pressure science with beam lines for X-ray diffraction studies in the megabar regime. This will involve radiation from a bending magnet as well as from a wiggler. Examples of the high pressure results up to 2.16 Mbar are shown. Diffraction patterns from bending magnet and wiggler beams are shown and compared. The need for this facility by the high pressure community is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  12. A Dedicated Genetic Algorithm for Localization of Moving Magnetic Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Alimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A dedicated Genetic Algorithm (GA has been developed to localize the trajectory of ferromagnetic moving objects within a bounded perimeter. Localization of moving ferromagnetic objects is an important tool because it can be employed in situations when the object is obscured. This work is innovative for two main reasons: first, the GA has been tuned to provide an accurate and fast solution to the inverse magnetic field equations problem. Second, the algorithm has been successfully tested using real-life experimental data. Very accurate trajectory localization estimations were obtained over a wide range of scenarios.

  13. Classification of cognitive systems dedicated to data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiela, Lidia; Ogiela, Marek R.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper will be presented classification of new cognitive information systems dedicated to cryptographic data splitting and sharing processes. Cognitive processes of semantic data analysis and interpretation, will be used to describe new classes of intelligent information and vision systems. In addition, cryptographic data splitting algorithms and cryptographic threshold schemes will be used to improve processes of secure and efficient information management with application of such cognitive systems. The utility of the proposed cognitive sharing procedures and distributed data sharing algorithms will be also presented. A few possible application of cognitive approaches for visual information management and encryption will be also described.

  14. Marble tabula in Belgrade: Commemoration plates dedicated to perished ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapović Lasta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ancient Balkans tradition of building commemoration plates dedicated to perished ones. This actually represents twofold belief, one being that a deceased should rest on his/hers own soil and an attempt to mark a place of someone's death. All were performed with an aim to prolong memory and reminiscence of the deceased. In 19th century Serbia and especially so at the beginning of the 20th century it became popular to build such commemoration plates dedicated to soldiers who have died abroad. In the second half of the 20th century, there are sporadic commemoration plates near roads, not as a designation for an unknown grave but to mark down a place where someone has died, most often in a car accident. At the crossroads of the century, however, this custom was very frequent. Belgrade has also seen many of these commemoration plates. The studying of ways and shapes of this custom is the main subject of this paper. The author tries to follow all changes ranging from those induced by the state to those very rare private commemoration plates placed on certain buildings, including those left to decay, or those maintained regularly, on street lights, near cressets at grave yards, flowers, granite plates etc. The paper also discusses possible causes, frequencies and changes related to this custom.

  15. Calibration of a dedicated software for 3D rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, Marcos E.S.; Felix, Warley F.; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing use of 3D reconstruction techniques, to assist in diagnosis, dedicated programs are being widely used. For this they must be calibrated in order to encounter the values of the real volumes of the human tissues. The purpose of this work is to indicate correction and calibration values for true volumes, read in a 3D reconstruction system dedicated, using DICOM images of Computed Tomography. This work utilized a PMMA thorax phantom associated with the DICOM image and the volume found by a program of a tomograph. The physical volume of the PMMA phantom found was 10359.0 cm³. For the volumes found according to the structures of interest, the values are 11005.5 cm³, 10249.3 cm³ and 10205.1 cm³ and the correction values are -6.2%, +1.1% e +1.5% respectively for tissues: pulmonary, bony and soft tissues. The procedure performed can be used for calibration in other 3D reconstruction programs, observing the necessary corrections and the methodology used. (author)

  16. Procurement Engineering Process for Commercial Grade Item Dedication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Park, Jong-Eun; Kwak, Tack-Hun; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    Procurement Engineering Process for commercial grade item dedication plays an increasingly important role in operation management of Korea Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of the Procurement Engineering Process is the provision and assurance of a high quality and quantity of spare, replacement, retrofit and new parts and equipment while maximizing plant availability, minimizing downtime due to parts unavailability and providing reasonable overall program and inventory cost. In this paper, we will review the overview requirements, responsibilities and the process for demonstrating with reasonable assurance that a procured item for potential nuclear safety related services or other essential plant service is adequate with reasonable assurance for its application. This paper does not cover the details of technical evaluation, selecting critical characteristics, selecting acceptance methods, performing failure modes and effects analysis, performing source surveillance, performing quality surveys, performing special tests and inspections, and the other aspects of effective Procurement Engineering and Commercial Grade Item Dedication. The main contribution of this paper is to provide the provision of an overview of Procurement Engineering Process for commercial grade item

  17. Dedicated OO expertise applied to Run II software projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidei, D.

    2000-01-01

    The change in software language and methodology by CDF and D0 to object-oriented from procedural Fortran is significant. Both experiments requested dedicated expertise that could be applied to software design, coding, advice and review. The Fermilab Run II offline computing outside review panel agreed strongly with the request and recommended that the Fermilab Computing Division hire dedicated OO expertise for the CDF/D0/Computing Division joint project effort. This was done and the two experts have been an invaluable addition to the CDF and D0 upgrade software projects and to the Computing Division in general. These experts have encouraged common approaches and increased the overall quality of the upgrade software. Advice on OO techniques and specific advice on C++ coding has been used. Recently a set of software reviews has been accomplished. This has been a very successful instance of a targeted application of computing expertise, and constitutes a very interesting study of how to move toward modern computing methodologies in HEP

  18. Calibration of a dedicated software for 3D rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrantes, Marcos E.S.; Felix, Warley F.; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F., E-mail: marcos.nuclear@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: warleyferreirafelix@gmail.com, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Faculdade Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais (FCMMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    With the increasing use of 3D reconstruction techniques, to assist in diagnosis, dedicated programs are being widely used. For this they must be calibrated in order to encounter the values of the real volumes of the human tissues. The purpose of this work is to indicate correction and calibration values for true volumes, read in a 3D reconstruction system dedicated, using DICOM images of Computed Tomography. This work utilized a PMMA thorax phantom associated with the DICOM image and the volume found by a program of a tomograph. The physical volume of the PMMA phantom found was 10359.0 cm³. For the volumes found according to the structures of interest, the values are 11005.5 cm³, 10249.3 cm³ and 10205.1 cm³ and the correction values are -6.2%, +1.1% e +1.5% respectively for tissues: pulmonary, bony and soft tissues. The procedure performed can be used for calibration in other 3D reconstruction programs, observing the necessary corrections and the methodology used. (author)

  19. Dedicated researcher brings cancer care to rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Bhuller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an ardent cancer researcher, Dr. Smita Asthana has a vision to create wider awareness on cancer and its prevention, and aims to work on translational research to benefit the general public through the implementation of evidence-based research. “I have been associated with the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO since November 2004 and have progressed over a period of time from being a staff scientist to the current role of a senior scientist,” says Dr. Asthana, who is presently with NICPR’s Biostatistics and Epidemiology division.“I have been working in various positions that deal with the design, execution, and evaluation of medical projects. Recently, we have concluded two major cervical cancer screening projects and conducted a screening of 10,000 women in rural areas,” she tells AMOR. One project, funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, was carried out 100 km west of New Delhi in the rural town of Dadri “as part of an operational research to see the implementation of VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol's iodine screenings with the help of existing healthcare infrastructure,” she explains.As a leading researcher in cervical cancer screening, she completed an Indo-US collaborative project on the clinical performance of a human papillomavirus (HPV test, used as a strategy for screening cervical cancer in rural communities, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation via the international non-profit global health organization PATH. “The primary objective of the project was to observe the performance of careHPV, a new diagnostic kit, in a rural setup,” she says.CareHPV is a highly sensitive DNA test, which detects 14 different types of the human papillomavirus that cause cervical cancer, providing results more rapidly than other DNA tests and is designed especially for use in clinics

  20. A clearer view of the insect brain – combining bleaching with standard whole-mount immunocytochemistry allows confocal imaging of pigment-covered brain areas for 3D reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa Stöckl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the study of insect neuroanatomy, three-dimensional reconstructions of neurons and neuropils have become a standard technique. As images have to be obtained from whole-mount brain preparations, pigmentation on the brain surface poses a serious challenge to imaging. In insects, this is a major problematic in the first visual neuropil of the optic lobe, the lamina, which is obstructed by the pigment of the retina as well as by the pigmented fenestration layer. This has prevented inclusion of this major processing center of the insect visual system into most neuroanatomical brain atlases and hinders imaging of neurons within the lamina by confocal microscopy. It has recently been shown that hydrogen peroxide bleaching is compatible with immunohistochemical labeling in insect brains, and we therefore developed a simple technique for removal of pigments on the surface of insect brains by chemical bleaching. We show that our technique enables imaging of the pigment-obstructed regions of insect brains when combined with standard protocols for both anti-synapsin-labeled as well as neurobiotin-injected samples. This method can be combined with different fixation procedures, as well as different fluorophore excitation wavelengths without negative effects on staining quality. It can therefore serve as an effective addition to most standard histology protocols used in insect neuroanatomy.

  1. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  2. Indoor air quality of everyday use spaces dedicated to specific purposes-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marć, Mariusz; Śmiełowska, Monika; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2018-01-01

    According to literature data, some of the main factors which significantly affect the quality of the indoor environment in residential households or apartments are human activities such as cooking, smoking, cleaning, and indoor exercising. The paper presents a literature overview related to air quality in everyday use spaces dedicated to specific purposes which are integral parts of residential buildings, such as kitchens, basements, and individual garages. Some aspects of air quality in large-scale car parks, as a specific type of indoor environment, are also discussed. All those areas are characterized by relatively short time use. On the other hand, high and very high concentration levels of xenobiotics can be observed, resulting in higher exposure risk. The main compounds or group of chemical compounds are presented and discussed. The main factors influencing the type and amount of chemical pollutants present in the air of such areas are indicated.

  3. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  4. Brain SPECT in children; Explorations scintigraphiques en neurologie et psychiatrie de l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot, M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1996-12-31

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author). 18 refs.

  5. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Coleman, Andre M.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.

    2016-08-01

    Biofuels produced from both terrestrial and algal biomass feedstocks can contribute to energy security while providing economic, environmental, and social benefits. To assess the potential for land competition between these two feedstock types in the United States, we evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 x 109 L yr-1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. This total includes 12.0 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from open-pond microalgae production and 29.5 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems. Under these scenarios, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 million ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems would use 14.0 million ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysis indicates that potential competition for land under these scenarios would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 million hectares of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. A land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county’s pastureland. However, this combined 2.7 million ha represents only 2%-5% of total pastureland in the U.S., with the remaining 12.5 million ha of algal or terrestrial dedicated feedstock production on pastureland in non-competing areas.

  6. Dedicated health systems strengthening of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: an analysis of grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Victoria Y; Tsai, Feng-Jen J; Shroff, Zubin C; Nakahara, Branden; Vargha, Nabil; Weathers, Scott

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to understand the determinants of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria's dedicated channel for health systems strengthening (HSS) funding across countries and to analyze their health system priorities expressed in budgets and performance indicators. We obtained publicly available data for disease-specific and HSS grants from the Global Fund over 2004-2013 prior to the new funding model. Regression analysis was employed to assess the determinants of dedicated HSS funding across 111 countries. Documents for 27 dedicated HSS grants including budgets and performance indicators were collected, and activities were analyzed by health system functions. HSS funding per capita is significantly associated with TB and HIV funding per capita, but not per capita income and health worker density. Of 27 dedicated HSS grants, 11 had line-item budgets publicly available, in which health workforce and medical products form the majority (89% or US$132 million of US$148 million) of funds. Yet these areas accounted for 41.7% (215) of total 516 performance indicators. Health worker densities were not correlated with HSS funding, despite the emphasis on health workforce in budgets and performance indicators. Priorities in health systems in line-item budgets differ from the numbers of indicators used. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Stress-induced activation of the immediate early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) is restricted to telencephalic areas in the rat brain: relationship to c-fos mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ons, Sheila; Martí, Octavi; Armario, Antonio

    2004-06-01

    Arc is an effector immediate early gene whose expression is induced in situations of increased neuronal activity. However, there is no report on the influence of stress on Arc expression. Here, we compared the induction of both c-fos and Arc mRNAs in the brain of rats exposed to one of three different stressful situations: novel environment, forced swimming and immobilization. An absent or weak c-fos mRNA signal was observed in control rats, whereas those exposed to one of three stressors showed enhanced c-fos expression in a wide range of brain areas. Constitutive Arc expression was observed in some areas such as cortex, striatum, hippocampus, reticular thalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex. In response to stressors, a strong induction of Arc was observed, but the pattern was different from that of c-fos. For instance, activation of Arc but not c-fos was observed in the nucleus accumbens after immobilization and in the hippocampus after novel environment. No Arc induction was observed in diencephalic and brainstem areas. The present data show that Arc has a neuroanatomically restricted pattern of induction in the brain after emotional stress. Telencephalic activation suggests that a more intense induction of synaptic plasticity is occurring in this area after exposure to emotional stressors.

  8. Study of spear as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerino, J.; Golde, A.; Hastings, J.; Lindau, I.; Salsburg, B.; Winick, H.; Lee, M.; Morton, P.; Garren, A.

    1977-11-01

    A study was made of the potential of SPEAR as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation, based on the expectation that SPEAR will become increasingly available for this purpose as PEP, the 18-GeV colliding-beam storage ring now under construction by LBL and SLAC, becomes operational. A synchrotron radiation research program has been underway since May, 1974. Two beam ports capable of serving 9 simultaneous users are now operational. In single-beam multi-bunch operation high currents are possible (225 mA has been achieved and > approximately 300 mA is expected) and the electron beam emittance can be made smaller, resulting in higher source point brightness. Descriptions are given of SPEAR capabilities and of plans to expand the research capability by adding beam runs and by inserting wiggler magnets in SPEAR straight sections

  9. Dedicated Trigger for Highly Ionising Particles at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Katre, Akshay; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a novel strategy was designed to detect signatures of Highly Ionising Particles (HIPs) such as magnetic monopoles, dyons or Q-balls with ATLAS. A dedicated trigger was developed and deployed for proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. It uses the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) system, applying an algorithm distinct from standard tracking ones. The high threshold (HT) readout capability of the TRT is used to distinguish HIPs from other background processes. The trigger requires significantly lower energy depositions in the electromagnetic calorimeters and is thereby capable of probing a larger range of HIP masses and charges. A description of the algorithm for this newly developed trigger is presented, along with a comparitive study of its performance during the 2012 data-taking period with respect to previous efforts.

  10. HIFI - a dedicated HIgh-FIeld diffraction and spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, P.; Enderle, M.; Boehm, M.; Roux, S.

    2011-01-01

    The outstanding scientific impact of single-crystal neutron diffraction and spectroscopy in steady state vertical magnetic fields up to 15 T (17 T without dilution fringe) is reflected in numerous high-profile publications. Magnetic fields 30 T - 35 T in vertical geometry allow to address enigmatic questions without equivalence at lower fields. The constraints implied by such magnetic fields demand a specially designed dedicated instrument. Since the vertical field geometry is crucial for single-crystal diffraction as well as spectroscopy, the solid angle of scattered neutrons is restricted, and a high-flux reactor is best suited to host a corresponding instrument. We propose a world-wide unique versatile instrument for diffraction and spectroscopy in vertical steady fields of 30 T. (authors)

  11. Dedicated Education Units: Partnerships for Building Leadership Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    To enable nurses to lead in health care transformation, nursing education must include opportunities for developing leadership, as well as clinical competencies. Dedicated education units (DEUs) provide supportive environments for competency development in undergraduate students. This study's aim was to explore the effects of a DEU experience on the leadership development of baccalaureate nursing students. A mixed-methods design included a quantitative strand, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, multisite design with control groups and a qualitative strand using focus groups. Students in the DEUs demonstrated significant increases (p leadership behaviors, as measured by the Student Leadership Practice Inventory. Focus group themes illuminate how the experiences of the students contributed to their leadership growth. Findings suggest that the DEU experience may promote enhanced undergraduate leadership competency development. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Dedicated education unit: implementing an innovation in replication sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, Susan R; Nishioka, Vicki M; Coe, Michael T

    2013-05-01

    An important measure of an innovation is the ease of replication and achievement of the same positive outcomes. The dedicated education unit (DEU) clinical education model uses a collaborative academic-service partnership to develop an optimal learning environment for students. The University of Portland adapted this model from Flinders University, Australia, to increase the teaching capacity and quality of nursing education. This article identifies DEU implementation essentials and reports on the outcomes of two replication sites that received consultation support from the University of Portland. Program operation information, including education requirements for clinician instructors, types of patient care units, and clinical faculty-to-student ratios is presented. Case studies of the three programs suggest the DEU model is adaptable to a range of different clinical settings and continues to show promise as one strategy for addressing the nurse faculty shortage and strengthening academic-clinical collaborations while maintaining quality clinical education for students. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Computerized engineering logic for procurement and dedication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulay, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work performed for designing the system and especially for calculating on-line expected performance and gives some significant results. In an attempt to better meet the needs of operations and maintenance organizations, many nuclear utility procurement engineering groups have simplified their procedures, developed on-line tools for performing the specification of replacement items, and developed relational databases containing part-level information necessary to automate the procurement process. Although these improvements have helped to reduce the engineering necessary to properly specify and accept/dedicate items for nuclear safety-related applications, a number of utilities have recognized that additional long-term savings can be realized by integrating a computerized logic to assist technical procurement engineering personnel

  14. Dedicated extremity MR imaging of the foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottya, G.A.; Peterfy, C.G.; Uffmann, M.; Haeckl, F.O.; LeHir, P.; Redei, J.; Gindele, A.U.; Dion, E.; Genant, H.K.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide illustrative examples of diseases of the foot and ankle when imaged with a low-field MR imaging system. A retrospective review of 268 foot and ankle examinations, performed in our institution within the past 3 years with a 0.2-T (Artoscan Esaote, Genoa, Italy) dedicated extremity MR system was done. Additionally, illustrative comparison with conventional radiography and high-field MR imaging is presented in patients in whom these examinations were also performed. Although motion artifact limited the value of a few studies, in the majority of examinations low-field MR imaging provided diagnostic image quality for the full spectrum of disorders affecting the foot and ankle and seemed to be a feasible alternative to high-field MR imaging in establishing an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Environmental Sciences Laboratory dedication, February 26-27, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Millemann, N.T.

    1980-09-01

    The dedication of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory coincided with the 25th year of the establishment of the science of ecology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. That quarter century witnessed the evolution of ecology from an obscure, backwater discipline of biology to a broadly used, everyday household word. The transition reflected broad and basic changes in our social and cultural view of the world. This was brought about as a result of the awareness developed in our society of the importance of the environment, coupled with efforts of ecologists and other environmental scientists who identified, clarified, and formulated the issues and challenges of environmental protection for both the lay public and the scientific community. In many respects, the activities in ecology at ORNL were a microcosm of the broader social scene; the particular problems of the environment associated with atomic energy needed to be defined in scientific terms and articulated in both the specific and general sense for a larger audience which was unfamiliar with the field and somewhat alien to its concepts and philosophy. The success of this effort is reflected in the existence of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory. This dedication volume brings together the thoughts and reflections of many of these scientists whose efforts contributed in a unique and individualistic fashion not only to ORNL but also to the national identification of ecology and its importance to the achievement of our national goals. Their remarks and presentations are not only a pleasant and personally gratifying recapitulation of the past and of ORNL's contributions to ecology but also portend some of the challenges to ecology in the future

  16. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey (Editor); Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Ternani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs - small satellites awaiting the launch of a larger satellite, and then riding along on the same launcher. As a result, these small satellite customers await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options. With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  17. Environmental Sciences Laboratory dedication, February 26-27, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Millemann, N.T. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    The dedication of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory coincided with the 25th year of the establishment of the science of ecology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. That quarter century witnessed the evolution of ecology from an obscure, backwater discipline of biology to a broadly used, everyday household word. The transition reflected broad and basic changes in our social and cultural view of the world. This was brought about as a result of the awareness developed in our society of the importance of the environment, coupled with efforts of ecologists and other environmental scientists who identified, clarified, and formulated the issues and challenges of environmental protection for both the lay public and the scientific community. In many respects, the activities in ecology at ORNL were a microcosm of the broader social scene; the particular problems of the environment associated with atomic energy needed to be defined in scientific terms and articulated in both the specific and general sense for a larger audience which was unfamiliar with the field and somewhat alien to its concepts and philosophy. The success of this effort is reflected in the existence of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory. This dedication volume brings together the thoughts and reflections of many of these scientists whose efforts contributed in a unique and individualistic fashion not only to ORNL but also to the national identification of ecology and its importance to the achievement of our national goals. Their remarks and presentations are not only a pleasant and personally gratifying recapitulation of the past and of ORNL's contributions to ecology but also portend some of the challenges to ecology in the future.

  18. The coming of age of the first hybrid metrology software platform dedicated to nanotechnologies (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, Johann; Labrosse, Aurelien; Dervillé, Alexandre; Zimmermann, Yann; Bernard, Guilhem; Martinez, Sergio; Grönqvist, Hanna; Baderot, Julien; Pinzan, Florian

    2017-03-01

    The development and integration of new materials and structures at the nanoscale require multiple parallel characterizations in order to control mostly physico-chemical properties as a function of applications. Among all properties, we can list physical properties such as: size, shape, specific surface area, aspect ratio, agglomeration/aggregation state, size distribution, surface morphology/topography, structure (including crystallinity and defect structure), solubility and chemical properties such as: structural formula/molecular structure, composition (including degree of purity, known impurities or additives), phase identity, surface chemistry (composition, charge, tension, reactive sites, physical structure, photocatalytic properties, zeta potential), hydrophilicity/lipophilicity. Depending on the final material formulation (aerosol, powder, nanostructuration…) and the industrial application (semiconductor, cosmetics, chemistry, automotive…), a fleet of complementary characterization equipments must be used in synergy for accurate process tuning and high production yield. The synergy between equipment so-called hybrid metrology consists in using the strength of each technique in order to reduce the global uncertainty for better and faster process control. The only way to succeed doing this exercise is to use data fusion methodology. In this paper, we will introduce the work that has been done to create the first generic hybrid metrology software platform dedicated to nanotechnologies process control. The first part will be dedicated to process flow modeling that is related to a fleet of metrology tools. The second part will introduce the concept of entity model which describes the various parameters that have to be extracted. The entity model is fed with data analysis as a function of the application (automatic analysis or semi-automated analysis). The final part will introduce two ways of doing data fusion on real data coming from imaging (SEM, TEM, AFM

  19. Technical features and experimental characterization of the IORT-1 system, a new IORT dedicated accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronsivalle, Concetta; Picardi, Luigi; Iacoboni, Vincenzo; Teodoli, Stefania; Barca, Giuliana; Siciliano, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In the last years there has been an increasing interest on IORT (Intraoperative Radiation Therapy), also because of the development of dedicated accelerators. This technique represents a very effective oncological treatment consisting in delivering a single high dose on a tumour bed soon after surgery resection. The main advantage of IORT technique, in addition to the possibility to avoid additional radio-treatments after surgery intervention, is to be referred to the improved tumor local control: the technique allows the focusing of a high single dose only on diseased tissue, avoiding to irradiate healthy tissues and preventing tumor recurrence in surrounding area. An important pioneer work was done by ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) that conceived in collaboration with the national industry since early '90 s the first mobile machines able to be used directly in the surgery room. Recently a new generation IORT dedicated system named IORT-1, based on a compact, low stray radiation linac with variable energy in a range 4-12 MeV has been built in the framework of the ENEA 'IORT project' funded by the Italian Ministry of Research (MIUR). In the following system, recently installed in the hospital of the 'Azienda Ospedaliera di Cosenza' in Southern Italy, is described and the results of the dosimetric measurements are shown

  20. Measurement-based performance profiles and dynamics of UDT over dedicated connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian [University of Chicago; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wu, Qishi [University of Memphis; Yun, Daqing [Harrisburg University; Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL

    2016-11-01

    Wide-area data transfers in high-performance computing and big data scenarios are increasingly being carried over dedicated network connections that provide high capacities at low loss rates. UDP-based transport protocols are expected to be particularly well-suited for such transfers but their performance is relatively unexplored over a wide range of connection lengths, compared to TCP over shared connections. We present extensive throughput measurements of UDP-based Data Transfer (UDT) over a suite of physical and emulated 10 Gbps connections. In sharp contrast to current UDT analytical models, these measurements indicate much more complex throughput dynamics that are sensitive to the connection modality, protocol parameters, and round-trip times. Lyapunov exponents estimated from the Poincare maps of UDT traces clearly indicate regions of instability and complex dynamics. We propose a simple model based on the ramp-up and sustainment regimes of a generic transport protocol, which qualitatively illustrates the dominant monotonicity and concavity properties of throughput profiles and relates them to Lyapunov exponents. These measurements and analytical results together enable us to comprehensively evaluate UDT performance and select parameters to achieve high throughput, and they also provide guidelines for designing effective transport protocols for dedicated connections.

  1. Challenges and models in supporting logistics system design for dedicated-biomass-based bioenergy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xueping; Yao, Qingzhu; Chen, Yuerong

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the uniqueness and challenges in designing the logistics system for dedicated biomass-to-bioenergy industry, which differs from the other industries, due to the unique features of dedicated biomass (e.g., switchgrass) including its low bulk density, restrictions on harvesting season and frequency, content variation with time and circumambient conditions, weather effects, scattered distribution over a wide geographical area, and so on. To design it, this paper proposed a mixed integer linear programming model. It covered from planting and harvesting switchgrass to delivering to a biorefinery and included the residue handling, concentrating on integrating strategic decisions on the supply chain design and tactical decisions on the annual operation schedules. The present numerical examples verified the model and demonstrated its use in practice. This paper showed that the operations of the logistics system were significantly different for harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, and that under the well-designed biomass logistics system, the mass production with a steady and sufficient supply of biomass can increase the unit profit of bioenergy. The analytical model and practical methodology proposed in this paper will help realize the commercial production in biomass-to-bioenergy industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  3. Effects of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    s To study the effect of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism,64 adult male healthy Spragne-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups,the false operation group (control group) and the operation group (model group).After surgical operation,the operation group undertook bilateral common carotid artery permanent ligation,while the other group did not.Learning and memory function were measured by Y-maze at 4 h,8 h,24 h and 3 d after surgical operation,respectively.The rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus was also detected by the PerifluxPF model laser Doppler flowmetry,and the expressions of c-fos or c-jun or Bcl-2 and Bax were also measured by immune histochemistry S-P method accordingly.Results showed that the rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group (P < 0.05).The learning indexes,error number (EN),day of reach standard and total reaction time (TRT) in the operation group,were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).However,the initiative evasion rate in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group.The study also found that the rCBF was relatively more,the indexes (EN,the day of reach standard and TRT) relatively fewer,but the initiative evasion rate and the memory keeping rate were relatively more.The positive expression and the average absorbency of Fos and Jun in the operation group were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).Furthermore,Bax and Bcl-2 positive cells were all increased over time in the operation group,and the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the operation group was significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P<0.01).In conclusion,rCBF decrease can impair the learning and memory function in rats,which may be related to

  4. Afasias e áreas cerebrais: argumentos prós e contras à perspectiva localizacionista Aphasias and brain areas: positive and negative aspects of the localization argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia C. Vieira

    2011-01-01

    investigate how cortex areas compromised by Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA are related to the classification of aphasia, since there are controversies about the location of the lesion in the brain and the characteristics related to variations in speech patterns. Through the Montreal-Toulose protocol, 26 right-handed persons who were affected by left cerebral-vascular lesion and have been showing aphasic symptoms have been evaluated. The Montreal-Toulose protocol, initial standard module - version alpha, includes nomination, repetition, oral comprehension, reading and writing comprehension tests as well as an interview, which allows an evaluation of the discourse fluency. The subjects were allocated into four sub-groups, according to the lesion sites: frontal, temporal, temporo-parietal and parieto-occipital. For the analysis of the data, a Multidimensional Similarity Structure Analysis (SSA was carried out along with an external variable method. The results show a high positive correlation between the lesion in the brain's frontal lobe and difficulties in the discourse fluency as well as a high positive correlation between the lesion in the brain's temporal lobe and hindrances in all abilities tested: nomination, repetition, oral comprehension, reading and writing comprehension. It is in accordance with localizational studies, since it highlights the fundamental role of the temporal lobe for the language and the importance of the frontal lobe for the speech praxis. However, in the remaining sub-groups (temporo-parietal and parieto-occipital there have been positive correlations only between oral comprehension and repetition, with the latter showing correlation only with the second group and presenting a low score. High negative correlations with the discourse fluency were observed. It suggests that this ability has remained preserved in those groups, which in turns weakens the localization argument.

  5. Functional brain imaging; Funktionelle Hirnbildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive method that has become one of the major tools for understanding human brain function and in recent years has also been developed for clinical applications. Changes in hemodynamic signals correspond to changes in neuronal activity with good spatial and temporal resolution in fMRI. Using high-field MR systems and increasingly dedicated statistics and postprocessing, activated brain areas can be detected and superimposed on anatomical images. Currently, fMRI data are often combined in multimodal imaging, e. g. with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. This method is helping to further understand the physiology of cognitive brain processes and is also being used in a number of clinical applications. In addition to the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, this article deals with the construction of fMRI investigations, selection of paradigms and evaluation in the clinical routine. Clinically, this method is mainly used in the planning of brain surgery, analyzing the location of brain tumors in relation to eloquent brain areas and the lateralization of language processing. As the BOLD signal is dependent on the strength of the magnetic field as well as other limitations, an overview of recent developments is given. Increases of magnetic field strength (7 T), available head coils and advances in MRI analytical methods have led to constant improvement in fMRI signals and experimental design. Especially the depiction of eloquent brain regions can be done easily and quickly and has become an essential part of presurgical planning. (orig.) [German] Mittlerweile ist die funktionelle MRT (fMRT) eine Methode, die nicht mehr nur in der neurowissenschaftlichen Routine verwendet wird. Die fMRT ermoeglicht die nichtinvasive Darstellung der Hirnaktivitaet in guter raeumlicher und zeitlicher Aufloesung unter Ausnutzung der Durchblutungsaenderung aufgrund der erhoehten Nervenzellaktivitaet. Unter

  6. Commercial off-the-shelf software dedication process based on the commercial grade survey of supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. S.; Chon, S. W.; Lee, G. Y.; Park, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    Commercial Off-The-Shelf(COTS) software dedication process can apply to a combination of methods like the hardware commercial grade item dedication process. In general, these methods are : methods 1(special test and inspection), method 2(commercial grade survey of supplier), method 3(source verification), and method 4(acceptance supplier/item performance record). In this paper, the suggested procedure-oriented dedication process on the basis of method 2 for COTS software is consistent with EPRI/TR-106439 and NUREG/CR-6421 requirements. Additional tailoring policy based on code and standards related to COTS software may be also founded in the suggested commercial software dedication process. Suggested commercial software dedication process has been developed for a commercial I and C software dedication who performs COTS qualification according to the dedication procedure

  7. Functional MR imaging of the primary motor area in patients with brain tumors of the motor cortex. Evaluation with echo-planer imaging on a clinical 1.0 T MR imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Ehara, Kazumasa; Kitamura, Junji

    1998-01-01

    The study included 3 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with a brain tumor of the motor cortex. The fMRI study was based on the spin echo (SE) type single shot echo-planer technique. Ten contiguous axial slices consisted of 40-60 echo-planer images acquired during 80-120 seconds of repeated task performances and resting periods. Activation maps were calculated by a Z-score method with thresholding, and interpolated on T1 images and surface anatomy scans. In all cases, areas of a significant signal increase were detected as clusters of several pixels on the precentral gyrus contralateral to the motor task performance. The mean signal change was 3.6±0.9% in normal subjects, and 7.2±4.1% in brain tumor patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups. In 5 brain tumor patients significant displacement of the precentral gyrus was observed on T1- or T2-weighted SE images. Of these, 2 also had marked peritumoral edema spreading over the precentral gyrus. There was no significant difference in the size, or the degree, of signal change between patients with or without compression or edema, nor between patients with and without preoperative motor impairment. During surgical intervention, displacement of the precentral gyrus was observed as had been demonstrated on preoperative images of patients. In all patients the precentral gyrus was preserved in all cases, and no deterioration of motor function occurred. Resolution of the displacement and edema was detected on postoperative MRI. Using the echo-planer technique on a clinical 1.0 T imager fMRI localization of the primary motor cortex was obtained in normal and brain tumor subjects. The activated areas were detected on the precentral gyrus of both groups, and even when there was marked brain compression or edema. It is important to identify and preserve the precentral gyrus during surgery to avoid deterioration of motor function. (K.H.)

  8. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Hernández, Trinitat, E-mail: mtrinitat@eresa.com; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del [Department of Nuclear Medicine, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Roselló Ferrando, Joan [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good

  9. Design and evaluation of the MAMMI dedicated breast PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moliner, L.; González, A. J.; Soriano, A.; Sánchez, F.; Correcher, C.; Orero, A.; Carles, M.; Vidal, L. F.; Barberá, J.; Caballero, L.; Seimetz, M.; Vázquez, C.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A breast dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) scanner has been developed based on monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). In this study, we describe the design of the PET system and report on its performance evaluation. Methods: MAMMI is a breast PET scanner based on monolithic LYSO crystals. It consists of 12 compact modules with a transaxial field of view (FOV) of 170 mm in diameter and 40 mm axial FOV that translates to cover up to 170 mm. The patient lies down in a prone position that facilitates maximum breast elongation. Quantitative performance analysis of the calculated method for the attenuation correction specifically developed for MAMMI, and based on PET image segmentation, has also been conducted in this evaluation. In order to fully determine the MAMMI prototype's performance, we have adapted the measurements suggested for National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2007 and NU 4-2008 protocol tests, as they are defined for whole-body and small animal PET scanners, respectively. Results: Spatial resolutions of 1.6, 1.8, and 1.9 mm were measured in the axial, radial, and tangential directions, respectively. A scatter fraction of 20.8% was obtained and the maximum NEC was determined to be 25 kcps at 44 MBq. The average sensitivity of the system was observed to be 1% for an energy window of (250 keV–750 keV) and a maximum absolute sensitivity of 1.8% was measured at the FOV center. Conclusions: The overall performance of the MAMMI reported on this evaluation quantifies its ability to produce high quality PET images. Spatial resolution values below 3 mm were measured in most of the FOV. Only the radial component of spatial resolution exceeds the 3 mm at radial positions larger than 60 mm. This study emphasizes the need for standardized testing methodologies for dedicated breast PET systems similar to NEMA standards for whole-body and small animal PET scanners.

  10. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Hernández, Trinitat; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo; Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del; Roselló Ferrando, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ("1"8F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good performance

  11. Assessment of dedicated revenue of non-educational hospitals in Guilan University of Medical Sciences (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asefzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals, as one of the main providers of health services, are of great importance in health and economy. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess the dedicated revenue of all non-educational hospitals in Guilan University of Medical Sciences (14 hospitals in 2012. On average, 22.35% of income was provided by cash earnings and 77.65% was provided by insurance organizations.There was 1.25% deficit by insurance. The net income of small hospitals with few available beds was very low and they were not economically affordable. The out of pocket to total income ratio was higher in the hospitals located in deprived areas due to lack of full insurance coverage.

  12. Granular, soft and fuzzy approaches for intelligent systems dedicated to professor Ronald R. Yager

    CERN Document Server

    Filev, Dimitar; Beliakov, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive report on the state-of-the art in the broadly-intended field of “intelligent systems”. After introducing key theoretical issues, it describes a number of promising models for data and system analysis, decision making, and control. It discusses important theories, including possibility theory, the Dempster-Shafer theory, the theory of approximate reasoning, as well as computing with words, together with novel applications in various areas, such as information aggregation and fusion, linguistic data summarization, participatory learning, systems modeling, and many others. By presenting the methods in their application contexts, the book shows how granular computing, soft computing and fuzzy logic techniques can provide novel, efficient solutions to real-world problems. It is dedicated to Professor Ronald R. Yager for his great scientific and scholarly achievements, and for his long-lasting service to the fuzzy logic, and the artificial and computational intelligence communit...

  13. A Life Dedicated to Public Service: The Lady L Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribeth P. Bentillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study featured how a lady local politician rose to power as a barangay captain. It aimed to: describe her leadership orientation before she became a barangay captain, analyze the factors of her success stories in political leadership, extrapolate her values based on the problems/challenges met in the barangay, unveil her initiatives to address these problems, and interpolate her enduring vision for the future of the barangay. Through a biographical research design, with purposive sampling, a key female informant named as Lady L was chosen with the sole criteria of being a female Barangay Captain of Cebu City. Interview guides were utilized in the generation of Lady L’s biographic information about her political career.Lady L’s experiences in waiting for the perfect time and working in the private sector destined her to have a successful political career enhanced with passion and family influence. Encountering problems concerning basic education and unwanted migrants in Barangay K did not discourage her choice to run for re-election, because of her dedication to public service. Her ways to reach out and collaborate with welfare groups mitigate the problems of parental neglect and informal settlers in her barangay. The story of Lady L implies that in Cebu City, issues arise as a result of the practice of partisan politics, gender issues have minor bearing, and she envisioned a healthy and welleducated barangay, with an improved wellness and child care development.

  14. Rural model dedicated education unit: partnership between college and hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Lisa M

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the pilot project development of a rural model Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) by a rural college nursing program and a rural hospital to increase student nurses' confidence and proficiency and improve recruitment of prepared rural staff nurses. Traditionally, for economies of scale, most student clinical rotations occurred in urban settings with the number of students per clinical instructor allowed by the state board of nursing. College budget constraints negated the placement of fewer than this mandated maximum number of students in a rural hospital with a clinical instructor; moreover, rural hospitals could not accommodate 10 students at one time. Rural nursing students were anxious in the urban settings, and this anxiety precluded learning in many instances. Rural hospitals face higher registered nurse vacancies than urban centers. Of the nurses applying for open positions, many were not prepared for the demands of rural nursing, resulting in increased turnover and high orientation costs. The rural model DEU addressed issues of both the nursing program and the hospital. The design and development of the rural model DEU and the advantages of the partnership for the college nursing program and the hospital are discussed. Initial outcomes and serendipitous findings from the pilot project are also discussed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. AMYPdb: A database dedicated to amyloid precursor proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delamarche Christian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Misfolding and aggregation of proteins into ordered fibrillar structures is associated with a number of severe pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases, and type II diabetes. The rapid accumulation of knowledge about the sequences and structures of these proteins allows using of in silico methods to investigate the molecular mechanisms of their abnormal conformational changes and assembly. However, such an approach requires the collection of accurate data, which are inconveniently dispersed among several generalist databases. Results We therefore created a free online knowledge database (AMYPdb dedicated to amyloid precursor proteins and we have performed large scale sequence analysis of the included data. Currently, AMYPdb integrates data on 31 families, including 1,705 proteins from nearly 600 organisms. It displays links to more than 2,300 bibliographic references and 1,200 3D-structures. A Wiki system is available to insert data into the database, providing a sharing and collaboration environment. We generated and analyzed 3,621 amino acid sequence patterns, reporting highly specific patterns for each amyloid family, along with patterns likely to be involved in protein misfolding and aggregation. Conclusion AMYPdb is a comprehensive online database aiming at the centralization of bioinformatic data regarding all amyloid proteins and their precursors. Our sequence pattern discovery and analysis approach unveiled protein regions of significant interest. AMYPdb is freely accessible 1.

  16. CIRCE: A dedicated storage ring for coherent THz synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.M.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, W.R.; Munson, D.V.; Nishimura, H.; Robin, D.S.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.D.; Thur, W.G.; Jung, J.Y.; Wan, W.

    2003-01-01

    We present the concepts for an electron storage ring dedicated to and optimized for the production of stable coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) over the far-infrared terahertz wavelength range from 200 mm to about one cm. CIRCE (Coherent InfraRed CEnter) will be a 66 m circumference ring located on top of the ALS booster synchrotron shielding tunnel and using the existing ALS injector. This location provides enough floor space for both the CIRCE ring, its required shielding, and numerous beamlines. We briefly outline a model for CSR emission in which a static bunch distortion induced by the synchrotron radiation field is used to significantly extend the stable CSR emission towards higher frequencies. This model has been verified with experimental CSR results. We present the calculated CIRCE photon flux where a gain of 6-9 orders of magnitude is shown compared to existing far-IR sources. Additionally, the particular design of the dipole vacuum chamber has been optimized to allow an excellent transmission of these far-infrared wavelengths. We believe that the CIRCE source can be constructed for a modest cost

  17. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  18. Cone-beam micro computed tomography dedicated to the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Di Lillo, Francesca; Cesarelli, Mario; Bifulco, Paolo; Russo, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    We developed a scanner for micro computed tomography dedicated to the breast (BµCT) with a high resolution flat-panel detector and a microfocus X-ray tube. We evaluated the system spatial resolution via the 3D modulation transfer function (MTF). In addition to conventional absorption-based X-ray imaging, such a prototype showed capabilities for propagation-based phase-contrast and related edge enhancement effects in 3D imaging. The system limiting spatial resolution is 6.2mm -1 (MTF at 10%) in the vertical direction and 3.8mm -1 in the radial direction, values which compare favorably with the spatial resolution reached by mini focus breast CT scanners of other groups. The BµCT scanner was able to detect both microcalcification clusters and masses in an anthropomorphic breast phantom at a dose comparable to that of two-view mammography. The use of a breast holder is proposed in order to have 1-2min long scan times without breast motion artifacts. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Embedded System Dedicated to Intervehicle Communication Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Haiying

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome system latency and network delay is essential for intervehicle communication (IVC applications such as hazard alarming and cooperative driving. This paper proposes a low-cost embedded software system dedicated to such applications. It consists of two basic component layers: an operating system, named HEROS (hybrid event-driven and real-time multitasking operating system, and a communication protocol, named CIVIC (Communication Inter Véhicule Intelligente et Coopérative. HEROS is originally designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. It contains a component-based resource-aware kernel and a low-latency tuple-based communication system. Moreover, it provides a configurable event-driven and/or real-time multitasking mechanism for various embedded applications. The CIVIC is an autoconfiguration cooperative IVC protocol. It merges proactive and reactive approaches to speed up and optimize location-based routing discovery with high-mobility nodes. Currently, this embedded system has been implemented and tested. The experiment results show that the new embedded system has low system latency and network delay under the principle of small resource consumption.

  20. A dedicated pollution tax: The motor for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyke, E.; Stoyke, G.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon taxes coming into effect around the world are predicted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 1-6%. Using the punitive approach alone, such taxes will not be sufficiently effective in fighting global climate change. A dedicated pollution tax is proposed in which moderate fees on greenhouse gases and other polluting emissions are balanced by financial incentives for energy efficient retrofitting or non-polluting substitutions. These incentives will vastly accelerate conversion to energy efficient technologies by reducing payback periods to acceptable levels and will lead to a 50-80% reduction in fossil fuel consumption at a profit. Estimated environmental costs of pollutant emissions from coal and natural gas are presented, and the internalization of external costs into energy prices is discussed. Demand reduction provides more environmental benefits than scrubbing of fossil emissions, at less cost. Examples of potential lighting savings in a classroom are presented, and simple payback and savings for a variety of lighting energy efficiency measures are tabulated. The effects of different pollution tax levels on Alberta's coal fired electricity generation are tabulated. 5 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Pancreatic β-cell regeneration: Facultative or dedicated progenitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afelik, Solomon; Rovira, Meritxell

    2017-04-15

    The adult pancreas is only capable of limited regeneration. Unlike highly regenerative tissues such as the skin, intestinal crypts and hematopoietic system, no dedicated adult stem cells or stem cell niche have so far been identified within the adult pancreas. New β cells have been shown to form in the adult pancreas, in response to high physiological demand or experimental β-cell ablation, mostly by replication of existing β cells. The possibility that new β cells are formed from other sources is currently a point of major controversy. Under particular injury conditions, fully differentiated pancreatic duct and acinar cells have been shown to dedifferentiate into a progenitor-like state, however the extent, to which ductal, acinar or other endocrine cells contribute to restoring pancreatic β-cell mass remains to be resolved. In this review we focus on regenerative events in the pancreas with emphasis on the restoration of β-cell mass. We present an overview of regenerative responses noted within the different pancreatic lineages, following injury. We also highlight the intrinsic plasticity of the adult pancreas that allows for inter-conversion of fully differentiated pancreatic lineages through manipulation of few genes or growth factors. Taken together, evidence from a number of studies suggest that differentiated pancreatic lineages could act as facultative progenitor cells, but the extent to which these contribute to β-cell regeneration in vivo is still a matter of contention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  3. Dedicated Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Radiotherapy Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mikael; Karlsson, Magnus G.; Nyholm, Tufve; Amies, Christopher; Zackrisson, Bjoern

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a novel technology arrangement in an integrated environment and outline the logistics model needed to incorporate dedicated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the radiotherapy workflow. An initial attempt was made to analyze the value and feasibility of MR-only imaging compared to computed tomography (CT) imaging, testing the assumption that MR is a better choice for target and healthy tissue delineation in radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A 1.5-T MR unit with a 70-cm-bore size was installed close to a linear accelerator, and a special trolley was developed for transporting patients who were fixated in advance between the MR unit and the accelerator. New MR-based workflow procedures were developed and evaluated. Results: MR-only treatment planning has been facilitated, thus avoiding all registration errors between CT and MR scans, but several new aspects of MR imaging must be considered. Electron density information must be obtained by other methods. Generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) for x-ray setup verification is not straight forward, and reliable corrections of geometrical distortions must be applied. The feasibility of MR imaging virtual simulation has been demonstrated, but a key challenge to overcome is correct determination of the skeleton, which is often needed for the traditional approach of beam modeling. The trolley solution allows for a highly precise setup for soft tissue tumors without the invasive handling of radiopaque markers. Conclusions: The new logistics model with an integrated MR unit is efficient and will allow for improved tumor definition and geometrical precision without a significant loss of dosimetric accuracy. The most significant development needed is improved bone imaging.

  4. Dedicated magnetic resonance imaging in the radiotherapy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Mikael; Karlsson, Magnus G; Nyholm, Tufve; Amies, Christopher; Zackrisson, Björn

    2009-06-01

    To introduce a novel technology arrangement in an integrated environment and outline the logistics model needed to incorporate dedicated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the radiotherapy workflow. An initial attempt was made to analyze the value and feasibility of MR-only imaging compared to computed tomography (CT) imaging, testing the assumption that MR is a better choice for target and healthy tissue delineation in radiotherapy. A 1.5-T MR unit with a 70-cm-bore size was installed close to a linear accelerator, and a special trolley was developed for transporting patients who were fixated in advance between the MR unit and the accelerator. New MR-based workflow procedures were developed and evaluated. MR-only treatment planning has been facilitated, thus avoiding all registration errors between CT and MR scans, but several new aspects of MR imaging must be considered. Electron density information must be obtained by other methods. Generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) for x-ray setup verification is not straight forward, and reliable corrections of geometrical distortions must be applied. The feasibility of MR imaging virtual simulation has been demonstrated, but a key challenge to overcome is correct determination of the skeleton, which is often needed for the traditional approach of beam modeling. The trolley solution allows for a highly precise setup for soft tissue tumors without the invasive handling of radiopaque markers. The new logistics model with an integrated MR unit is efficient and will allow for improved tumor definition and geometrical precision without a significant loss of dosimetric accuracy. The most significant development needed is improved bone imaging.

  5. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  6. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-19

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas.

  7. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revea...

  8. Management of patients in a dedicated burns intensive care unit (BICU) in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Madiha; Kamal, Rehana

    2013-05-01

    In Pakistan the practice of managing extensive burns in dedicated intensive care units is not well established. This audit aims to define the characteristics of the victims of major burns and factors that increase mortality and outcome of the protocol-based management in a dedicated burns intensive care unit (BICU). This prospective audit included all patients admitted to the BICU of Suleiman Dawood Burns Unit in Karachi from 1st September 2002 to 31st August 2011. Demographic information, type and place of burn, total body surface area burn (TBSA), type of organ support provided, length of ICU stay, any associated medical diseases, and out outcome were documented. A total of 1597 patients were admitted to the BICU in 9 years. Median age of the patients was 22 (IQR =32-7). 32% victims were children 50 years old. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Fire was the leading cause of burns in adults (64%) and scald burns were most common in (64%) in children. 72.4% of the accidents happened at home, where kitchen was the commonest location (597 cases). Mean TBSA burnt was 32.5% (SD ± 22.95%, 95%CI: 31.36-33.61). 27% patients needed ventilatory support, 4% were dialyzed and split skin graftings were performed in 20% patients. Average length of ICU stay was 10.42 days. Epilepsy, psychiatric illness and drug addiction were not common associations with burns. Overall mortality was 41.30% but it decreased over the years from 75% to 27%. Groups of people most vulnerable to sustain burn are young females getting burnt in the kitchen, young males getting burnt at work, and small children falling in pots of hot water stored for drinking or bathing. TBSA >40%, age >50 years, fire burn and female gender were associated with a higher risk of death. Carefully planned, protocol based management of burn patients by burn teams of dedicated healthcare professionals, even with limited resources reduced mortality. Burn hazard awareness, prevention and educational programmes targeted at the

  9. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  10. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  11. How much are the teachers dedicated to their profession and the school in which they work?

    OpenAIRE

    Ovesni, Kristinka; Radović, Vera; Alibabić, Šefika

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a research of the dedication of teachers to their profession and the institution/school in which they are employed. Dedication is defined as connectedness of the teacher with their own profession and the institution in which they are employed and it shows through normative, affective and continuation forms. The research focused on a scientifically under-researched phenomenon of the teacher's dedication in order to help identifying the problem from the perspec...

  12. Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Harada, Ken

    2012-01-01

    An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

  13. Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Harada, Ken

    2012-08-01

    An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

  14. Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi [Science and Medical Systems Business Group, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp., Ichige, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Matsumoto, Hiroaki [Corporate Manufacturing Strategy Group, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp., Ishikawa-cho, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-1991 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan)

    2012-08-27

    An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

  15. AURORA BOREALIS: a polar-dedicated European Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Egerton, Paul; Thiede, Joern; Roberto, Azzolini; Lembke-Jene, Lester

    2010-05-01

    global climate change. Chances and challenges rest in securing the construction and operation costs that need a dedicated consortium of interested countries and institutions to help tackling the biggest challenges of the next decades.

  16. Understanding nephro-blastomas. Information dedicated to parents and relatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusco, S.; Carretier, J.; Delavigne, V.; Fervers, B.; Leichtnam-Dugarin, L.; Bergeron, C.; Claude, L.; Philip, T.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Coze, C.; Leclair, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the evolution of the information-seeking behaviour of patients and concerns from health professionals regarding cancer patient information, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) introduced, in 1998, an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives, the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program. The methodology of this program adheres to established quality criteria regarding the elaboration of patient information. Cancer patient information developed in this program is based on clinical practice guidelines produced by the FNCLCC and the twenty French regional cancer centres, the National League against Cancer, The National Cancer Institute, the French Hospital Federation, the National Oncology Federation of Regional and University Hospitals, the French Oncology Federation of General Hospitals, many learned societies, as well as an active participation of patients, former patients and care-givers. The handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas is an adapted version of various scientific publications and international clinical practice guidelines, validated by oncology experts and by the Nephro-blastomas Committee of the French Society against Cancers and Leukemias in children and adolescents (SFCE). It was elaborated with the active participation of parents and other family members. It is meant to provide a basis for the explanation of the disease, to help parents asking questions, and to facilitate discussions with the health-care team. It is available from the FNCLCC (101, rue de Tolbiac, 75013 PARIS, Tel. (0033)1 76 64 78 00, www.fncicc.fr). This document was validated at the end of 2005 and published in May 2006. SOR SAVOIR PATIENT guides are systematically updated when new research becomes available. Information leaflets, extracted from the handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas and published in this edition of the Cancer et Radiotherapie, describe the physiopathology

  17. A dedicated tool for PET scanner simulations using FLUKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, P.G.; Boehlen, T.T.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.P.W.; Ferrari, A.; Mancini, C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Mairani, A.; Sala, Paola R.

    2013-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a well-established medical imaging technique. It is based on the detection of pairs of annihilation gamma rays from a beta+-emitting radionuclide, usually inoculated in the body via a biologically active molecule. Apart from its wide-spread use for clinical diagnosis, new applications are proposed. This includes notably the usage of PET for treatment monitoring of radiation therapy with protons and ions. PET is currently the only available technique for non-invasive monitoring of ion beam dose delivery, which was tested in several clinical pilot studies. For hadrontherapy, the distribution of positron emitters, produced by the ion beam, can be analyzed to verify the correct treatment delivery. The adaptation of previous PET scanners to new environments and the necessity of more precise diagnostics by better image quality triggered the development of new PET scanner designs. The use of Monte Carlo (MC) codes is essential in the early stages of the scanner design to simulate the transport of particles and nuclear interactions from therapeutic ion beams or radioisotopes and to predict radiation fields in tissues and radiation emerging from the patient. In particular, range verification using PET is based on the comparison of detected and simulated activity distributions. The accuracy of the MC code for the relevant physics processes is obviously essential for such applications. In this work we present new developments of the physics models with importance for PET monitoring and integrated tools for PET scanner simulations for FLUKA, a fully-integrated MC particle-transport code, which is widely used for an extended range of applications (accelerator shielding, detector and target design, calorimetry, activation, dosimetry, medical physics, radiobiology, ...). The developed tools include a PET scanner geometry builder and a dedicated scoring routine for coincident event determination. The geometry builder allows the efficient

  18. Topological self-organization and prediction learning support both action and lexical chains in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersi, Fabian; Ferro, Marcello; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2014-07-01

    A growing body of evidence in cognitive psychology and neuroscience suggests a deep interconnection between sensory-motor and language systems in the brain. Based on recent neurophysiological findings on the anatomo-functional organization of the fronto-parietal network, we present a computational model showing that language processing may have reused or co-developed organizing principles, functionality, and learning mechanisms typical of premotor circuit. The proposed model combines principles of Hebbian topological self-organization and prediction learning. Trained on sequences of either motor or linguistic units, the network develops independent neuronal chains, formed by dedicated nodes encoding only context-specific stimuli. Moreover, neurons responding to the same stimulus or class of stimuli tend to cluster together to form topologically connected areas similar to those observed in the brain cortex. Simulations support a unitary explanatory framework reconciling neurophysiological motor data with established behavioral evidence on lexical acquisition, access, and recall. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. A Comparison of Independent Event-Related Desynchronization Responses in Motor-Related Brain Areas to Movement Execution, Movement Imagery, and Movement Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Jeng-Ren; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) event-related desynchronization (ERD) induced by movement imagery or by observing biological movements performed by someone else has recently been used extensively for brain-computer interface-based applications, such as applications used in stroke rehabilitation training and motor skill learning. However, the ERD responses induced by the movement imagery and observation might not be as reliable as the ERD responses induced by movement execution. Given that studies on the reliability of the EEG ERD responses induced by these activities are still lacking, here we conducted an EEG experiment with movement imagery, movement observation, and movement execution, performed multiple times each in a pseudorandomized order in the same experimental runs. Then, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the EEG data to find the common motor-related EEG source activity shared by the three motor tasks. Finally, conditional EEG ERD responses associated with the three movement conditions were computed and compared. Among the three motor conditions, the EEG ERD responses induced by motor execution revealed the alpha power suppression with highest strengths and longest durations. The ERD responses of the movement imagery and movement observation only partially resembled the ERD pattern of the movement execution condition, with slightly better detectability for the ERD responses associated with the movement imagery and faster ERD responses for movement observation. This may indicate different levels of involvement in the same motor-related brain circuits during different movement conditions. In addition, because the resulting conditional EEG ERD responses from the ICA preprocessing came with minimal contamination from the non-related and/or artifactual noisy components, this result can play a role of the reference for devising a brain-computer interface using the EEG ERD features of movement imagery or observation.

  20. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Madeira Fortes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation, or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  1. The Dedication to Heracles Rheginus from Castellace of Oppido Mamertina: an Ephebic Inscription?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Consoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide literary tradition narrated by D.S., 4.22.5, tied to musical legends concerning the cicadas on the Alex river, refers to the passage of Heracles across the boundary territory between Rhegion and Locri. The careful reading of the texts, however, induces us to set the known episode about Heracles, disturbed by cicadas while resting, on the northern boundary between the two chorai along the Tyrrhenian side, within the area marked by a strong conflict between the two rival apoikiai. The bronze leaf with the inscription to Heracles Rheginus just comes from this border area of Rhegion chora, inside the district of Metauros river, signed by both indigenous settlements and Locresian claims. The inscription should not be taken as a certain clue for the existence of a sanctuary of the hero, but can represent a clear sign of his strong presence as a cultic reference for the Rheginian scattered through the colonial eschatia. Both analyzing the inscription historical-cultural context of provenance and considering the liminal worshiping places of the heros-theos, linked to the youth rites of passage, we could explain the rise of the dedication referring to the activity of the ephebes garrisoning the colonial chora.

  2. Medical Wikis Dedicated to Clinical Practice: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Guy; Letrilliart, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background Wikis may give clinician communities the opportunity to build knowledge relevant to their practice. The only previous study reviewing a set of health-related wikis, without specification of purpose or audience, globally showed a poor reliability. Objective Our aim was to review medical wiki websites dedicated to clinical practices. Methods We used Google in ten languages, PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, and Web of Science to identify websites. The review included wiki sites, accessible and operating, having a topic relevant for clinical medicine, targeting physicians or medical students. Wikis were described according to their purposes, platform, management, information framework, contributions, content, and activity. Purposes were classified as “encyclopedic” or “non-encyclopedic”. The information framework quality was assessed based on the Health On the Net (HONcode) principles for collaborative websites, with additional criteria related to users’ transparency and editorial policy. From a sample of five articles per wikis, we assessed the readability using the Flesch test and compared articles according to the wikis’ main purpose. Annual editorial activities were estimated using the Google engine. Results Among 25 wikis included, 11 aimed at building an encyclopedia, five a textbook, three lessons, two oncology protocols, one a single article, and three at reporting clinical cases. Sixteen wikis were specialized with specific themes or disciplines. Fifteen wikis were using MediaWiki software as-is, three were hosted by online wiki farms, and seven were purpose-built. Except for one MediaWiki-based site, only purpose-built platforms managed detailed user disclosures. The owners were ten organizations, six individuals, four private companies, two universities, two scientific societies, and one unknown. Among 21 open communities, 10 required users’ credentials to give editing rights. The median information framework quality score was 6 out of 16

  3. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in selected areas of the brain in patients with chronic schizophrenia treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Agata; Galińska, Beata; Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kubas, Bozena; Dzienis, Wojciech; Konarzewska, Beata; Poplawska, Regina; Tomczak, Anna A; Czernikiewicz, Andrzej; Walecki, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    NAA, marker of neurons integrity and viability, is one of the most important brain metabolites visible in 1H MRS. In most studies of schizophrenia, the decrease of NAA level was observed in the temporal, frontal lobes and in the thalamus. This finding was observed more often among chronic patients, what suggests the influence of disease duration or the effect of neuroleptic treatment. The aim of the present study was the comparison of NAA levels in brain of schizophrenic patients taking typical and atypical neuroleptics. We analyzed the NAA levels in selected brain areas in 58 schizophrenic patients and 21 healthy controls. 10 patients were treated with typical neuroleptics, 10 patients with clozapine, 17 received olanzapine and 21 - risperidone. 1H MRS was performed on a 1,5 MR scanner with PRESS sequence. Voxels of 2x2x2 cm were localized in the left frontal, left temporal lobe and left thalamus. There were no differences in NAA levels between patients on typical and atypical medications analyzed together and separately (olanzapine, clozapine and risperidone groups). We also did not find any differences between patients taking selected atypical neuroleptics and controls. The NAA level in the thalamus in the group of patients receiving typical antipsychotics was the lowest among all groups and differed significantly from healthy controls. The results of our study suggest that atypical neuroleptics may have favorable effect on NAA concentration in brain of schizophrenic patients. Decrease in NAA level in patients taking typical medication may be caused by the progression of the disease or by the direct action of these drugs.

  4. 20 CFR 416.1247 - Exclusion of a dedicated account in a financial institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial institution. 416.1247 Section 416.1247 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... a dedicated account in a financial institution. (a) General. In determining the resources of an individual (or spouse, if any), the funds in a dedicated account in a financial institution established and...

  5. Uncertainty modeling dedicated to professor Boris Kovalerchuk on his anniversary

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book commemorates the 65th birthday of Dr. Boris Kovalerchuk, and reflects many of the research areas covered by his work. It focuses on data processing under uncertainty, especially fuzzy data processing, when uncertainty comes from the imprecision of expert opinions. The book includes 17 authoritative contributions by leading experts.

  6. The brain's router: a cortical network model of serial processing in the primate brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zylberberg, Ariel; Fernández Slezak, Diego; Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sigman, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    The human brain efficiently solves certain operations such as object recognition and categorization through a massively parallel network of dedicated processors. However, human cognition also relies on the ability to perform an arbitrarily large set of tasks by flexibly recombining different

  7. The effect of amperozide on uptake and release of [3H]-dopamine in vitro from perfused rat striatal and limbic brain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, E.; Christensson, E.

    1990-01-01

    Amperozide, a putatively antipsychotic drug, was studied for its effects on uptake and release of [ 3 H]-dopamine in rat brain in vitro. Amperozide inhibited uptake of [ 3 H]-dopamine in striatal chopped tissue in vitro with an IC 50 of 18 μM. It also increased basal release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from perfused rat striatal and limbic tissue in vitro at concentrations above 5 μM. Release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from perfused rat striatal and limbic tissue stimulated with 5 μM amphetamine, was inhibited by 1 μM amperozide to 46%. No significant difference was found for the effect of amperozide on in vitro release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from corpus striatum compared to tissue from limbic grain regions; neither on basal release nor on amphetamine-stimulated release of dopamine. (author)

  8. Prospects for dedicated energy crop production and attitudes towards agricultural straw use: The case of livestock farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.; Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Second generation biofuels utilising agricultural by-products (e.g. straw), or dedicated energy crops (DECs) produced on ‘marginal’ land, have been called for. A structured telephone survey of 263 livestock farmers, predominantly located in the west or ‘marginal’ upland areas of England captured data on attitudes towards straw use and DECs. Combined with farm physical and business data, the survey results show that 7.2% and 6.3% of farmers would respectively consider growing SRC and miscanthus, producing respective maximum potential English crop areas of 54,603 ha and 43,859 ha. If higher market prices for straw occurred, most livestock farmers would continue to buy straw. Reasons for not being willing to consider growing DECs include concerns over land quality, committing land for a long time period, lack of appropriate machinery, profitability, and time to financial return; a range of moral, land quality, production conflict and lack of crop knowledge factors were also cited. Results demonstrate limited potential for the production of DECs on livestock farms in England. Changes in policy support to address farmer concerns with respect to DECs will be required to incentivise farmers to increase energy crop production. Policy support for DEC production must be cognisant of farm-level economic, tenancy and personal objectives. - Highlights: • Survey of English livestock farms determining attitudes to dedicated energy crops. • 6.3% to 7.2% of surveyed farmers would consider growing energy crops. • Limited potential for dedicated energy crops on livestock farms in England. • Livestock farmers would continue to buy straw, even at higher market prices. • Wide range of reasons given for farmers’ decisions related to energy crops

  9. Aurel Sandulescu—a life dedicated to nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, R. J.

    2013-02-01

    leaders of Romanian physics. It is in recognition of his contribution to physics, especially nuclear physics, as well as his work for Romanian science that this School is organized in his honour, on the occasion of his 80th birthday. I cannot finish this short account without mentioning the person that accompanied Aurel Sandulescu through all his life, his wife of more than fifty years, Violeta. She also was an exceptional person. In her youth she was a very dedicated sporty girl, very athletic, very courageous, very fair and, above all, very generous. These qualities remained with her throughout her life. With deep sorrow I learnt that she passed away three months ago, still youthful and enthusiastic. R J Liotta

  10. Observation-status patients in children's hospitals with and without dedicated observation units in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Michelle L; Hall, Matthew; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Fieldston, Evan S; Shanley, Leticia A; Hronek, Carla; Hain, Paul D; Shah, Samir S

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric observation units (OUs) have demonstrated reductions in lengths of stay (LOS) and costs of care. Hospital-level outcomes across all observation-status stays have not been evaluated in relation to the presence of a dedicated OU in the hospital. To compare observation-status stay outcomes in hospitals with and without a dedicated OU. Cross-sectional analysis of hospital administrative data. Observation-status stay outcomes were compared in hospitals with and without a dedicated OU across 4 categories: (1) LOS, (2) standardized costs, (3) conversion to inpatient status, and (4) return care. Observation-status stays in 31 free-standing children's hospitals contributing observation patient data to the Pediatric Health Information System database, 2011. Fifty-one percent of the 136,239 observation-status stays in 2011 occurred in 14 hospitals with a dedicated OU; the remainder were in 17 hospitals without. The percentage of observation-status same-day discharges was higher in hospitals with a dedicated OU compared with hospitals without (23.8 vs 22.1, P hospitals with a dedicated OU (11.06%) compared with hospitals without (9.63%, P hospital-level outcomes. Inclusion of location of care (eg, dedicated OU, inpatient unit, emergency department) in hospital administrative datasets would allow for more meaningful comparisons of models of hospital care. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. Study of cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization in the edematous area and ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter using positron emission tomography in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yusuke

    1990-01-01

    We measured the cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization of the peritumoral white matter and ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter in 50 patients with brain tumors using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The intraaxial tumors consisted of 34 cases (25 of gliomas, 6 of metastatic tumors, and 3 others), white the extraaxial tumors (all of meningiomas) were 16 cases. The cases were divided into 2 groups on the basis of the Xray CT scan findings. The cases of Edema (+) group showed moderate or large peritumoral edema in the white matter on the Xray CT scan, while Edema (-) group showed no or small edema. The method of PET study was the 15 O steady state inhalation technique by Frackoviak's method. ROIs (region of interest) were set on the peritumoral white matter and the ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter, and the mean CBF, OEF and CMRO2 values of the white and gray matter were calculated. In the Edema (+) group, the mean values of blood flow and oxygen utilization were low in the peritumoral white matter, and there were no obvious differences of values between intra and extraaxial tumors. But, the values in the ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter of intraaxial tumors were lower than those of extraaxial tumor. In the Edema (-) group, the mean values were almost normal in the white and gray matter, and there were no differences between intra and extraaxial tumors. The consideration about significance of the above stated results was discussed added with literature. (author)

  12. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  13. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  14. Impact of a dedicated infusion clinic for acute management of adults with sickle cell pain crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzkron, Sophie; Carroll, C Patrick; Hill, Peter; David, Mandy; Paul, Nicklaine; Haywood, Carlton

    2015-05-01

    Most adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) receive care for their acute painful episodes in an emergency department (ED) setting. The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of opening a dedicated treatment center for adults with SCD [Sickle Cell Infusion Clinic (SCIC)] on patient outcomes and on hospital discharges for SCD. Descriptive data including demographics, time to first dose of narcotic, and pain scores were collected on patients presenting to the SCIC and ED. Maryland hospital discharge data were obtained from the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission. Analyses were conducted using T tests, χ(2) tests, and simple generalized estimating equation regression models accounting for the clustered nature of observations, as appropriate. There were 3,874 visits to the SCIC by 361 unique patients; 85% of those visits resulted in the patient being sent home. During the same time period, there were 3,408 visits to the ED by 558 unique patients with SCD. The overall admission rate from the ED for these patients was 35.9% but decreased significantly over the time period with a rate of 20% in December 2011. There was a significant decrease in readmissions over time for the entire Baltimore Metro area with the likelihood of readmission decreasing by 7% over time. The SCIC model provides adults with SCD access to high quality care that decreases the need for hospital admission. Further research needs to be done to evaluate the cost effectiveness of this model. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Use of other industry standards to facilitate the procurement and dedication of commercial-grade items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, R.L.; Rosch, F.C.; Sanwarwalla, M.H.; Tjernlund, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear utilities are embarking on innovative approaches for reducing costs in all aspects of engineering, operation, maintenance, and procurement to produce power cheaply and efficiently and remain competitive with other power producers. In the area of procurement, utilities are increasingly obtaining commercial-grade items for use in safety-related applications. This trend is occurring because of lack of suppliers capable or willing to meet 10 CFR 21 and 10 CFR 50 App. B requirements and because of the absence of original equipment suppliers or the spiraling cost associated with procuring items' basic components safety-related from original suppliers. Utilities have been looking at ways to reduce procurement costs. One promising means to reduce costs is to utilize information provided in other nonnuclear industry standards regarding the specification, control, manufacture, and acceptance of the critical characteristics required of the item to perform its design function. A task force was instituted under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate the feasibility of using items manufactured to other industry standards in nuclear safety-related applications. This investigation looked at a broad spectrum of available industry standards pertaining to the design, function, manufacture, and testing of items and determined that some standards are more useful than others. This paper discusses the results of this investigation and how credit from the controls exercised for items manufactured to certain existing industry standards can be taken to minimize dedication costs

  16. Design of the dipole and quadrupole magnets of the dedicated proton synchrotron for hadron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukarnikov, S.I.; Makoveev, V.K.; Minashkin, V.F.; Molodozhentsev, A.Yu.; Shevtsov, V.F.; Sidorov, G.I.

    1998-01-01

    The 2D-calculation results of magnetic elements of the PRAMES (Prague Medical Synchrotron) are presented. This machine is a dedicated accelerator for cancer therapy. The output energy of the beam should be variable in the range 60-220 MeV. The maximum magnetic field of the dipole magnet should be 1.2 T, the maximum magnetic field ramp - less than 8 T/s. The focusing structure of the proton synchrotron consists of 8 dipole and 18 quadrupole magnets. All magnets are laminated to minimize leakage currents. The dipoles are parallel-edge, H-type magnets. The field uniformity should be of the order of ± 1 x 10 -4 in the working area (± 63 mm and ± 27 mm in the horizontal and vertical planes, respectively). The maximum magnetic field on the pole of the quadrupole lenses should be less than 1 T. The gradient uniformity of quadrupole magnets in the working region should be less than ± 3.5 x 10 -4

  17. Providing nutritional support to patients with thoracic cancer: findings of a dedicated rehabilitation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Cheryl; Hussain, Asmah; Zadora-Chrzastowska, Sonja; White, Gillian; Maddocks, Matthew; Wilcock, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    National guidelines recommend screening patients with thoracic cancer to identify those requiring nutritional support. To help quantify this area of need, the associated workload and explore its impact, we report findings from a dedicated rehabilitation service. Patients were screened soon after diagnosis to determine the prevalence of malnutrition, and various aspects compared between malnourished and not malnourished groups. A nutritional care plan was instigated and all contacts recorded, together with follow-up body weight. Of 243 patients seen, 35% were malnourished which was associated with a palliative treatment intent (P group received oral nutritional supplements, but also experienced problems tolerating them. Over one month, neither the pattern nor magnitude of the change in weight differed between malnourished and not malnourished groups. Overall, weight was stable, increased or decreased in 52 (27%), 80 (42%) and 59 (31%) respectively, with no difference in overall survival (P = 0.16). Our data provides a pragmatic insight into the implications of following national guidance on nutritional screening and support in this patient group. Nutritional support failed to prevent weight loss in some patients, and did not appear to impact on survival; new assessments and treatments for cachexia are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fos Protein Expression in Olfactory-Related Brain Areas after Learning and after Reactivation of a Slowly Acquired Olfactory Discrimination Task in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullet, Florence; Lienard, Fabienne; Datiche, Frederique; Cattarelli, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Fos protein immunodetection was used to investigate the neuronal activation elicited in some olfactory-related areas after either learning of an olfactory discrimination task or its reactivation 10 d later. Trained rats (T) progressively acquired the association between one odor of a pair and water-reward in a four-arm maze. Two groups of…

  19. Dynamic functional brain connectivity for face perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yuan; Qiu, Yihong; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2015-01-01

    Face perception is mediated by a distributed brain network comprised of the core system at occipito-temporal areas and the extended system at other relevant brain areas involving bilateral hemispheres. In this study we explored how the brain connectivity changes over the time for face-sensitive

  20. Intraoperative appearance of the resection area in brain-tumor operations in an open 0,5 MRT; Intraoperatives Erscheinungsbild des Resektionsbereichs bei Hirntumoroperationen in einem offenen 0,5-T-MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, J. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Leipzig (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Neuroradiologie; Schneider, J.P.; Schulz, T. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Leipzig (Germany); Seifert, V.; Trantakis, C. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Leipzig (Germany); Kellermann, S. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuropathologie

    1998-11-01

    During MRI-controlled resection of brain tumors using an open MRI system, operation-induced alterations may occur, especially enhancement of the resection cavity wall. This may simulate tumor areas, resulting in false assessment of the resection or resection of non-tumorous areas. Based on 42 MRI- and biopsy-controlled brain tumor resections in an 0.5 T open MRI (Signa SP, GE), the appearance and origin of operation-induced reactions are analyzed. In our opinion, there is a superposition of preformed peritumoral reactions by operation-induced microcontusions. The beginning of the cavity wall enhancement needs at least 10-15 min. MRI-controlled analysis of the intraoperative steps by the neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist allows discrimination of operation-induced reactions from tumor areas and leads to safe operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der intraoperativen Kontrolle von Hirntumorresektionen in offenen MRT-Geraeten kann es zu operativ induzierten Veraenderungen, insbesondere Rand-enhancement-Zonen, kommen. Diese koennen Tumorreste vortaeuschen, so dass die Radikalitaet des Eingriffs unterschaetzt wird oder nicht tumortragende Hirnareale entfernt werden. Ergebnisse und Diskussion: Anhand von 42 in einem offenen 0,5-T-MRT (Signa SP, GE) vorgenommenen, biopsiekontrollierten Hirntumoroperationen werden Erscheinungsbild und Entstehungsweise der Randveraenderungen analysiert. Bei den haeufig vorzufindenden Rand-enhancement-Zonen handelt es sich um eine Ueberlagerung von praeformierten Tumorrandreaktionen mit Mikrokontusionen. Die Ausbildung dieser Veraenderungen braucht eine Mindestzeit von 10-15 min. Die staendige Analyse der die Tumorresektion begleitenden MRT-Kontrollen durch den Operateur und einen mit der Problematik vertrauten Radiologen gestattet in der Regel die Differenzierung der operativ induzierten Veraenderungen und erhoeht damit die Sicherheit des Eingriffs. (orig.)

  1. Reducing radiation dose to the female breast during conventional and dedicated breast computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupcich, Franco John

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of techniques intended to reduce dose to the breast during CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scans with respect to task-based image quality, and to evaluate the effectiveness of optimal energy weighting in improving contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and thus the potential for reducing breast dose, during energy-resolved dedicated breast CT. A database quantifying organ dose for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during CTCA, including the breast, was generated using Monte Carlo simulations. This database facilitates estimation of organ-specific dose deposited during CTCA protocols using arbitrary x-ray spectra or tube-current modulation schemes without the need to run Monte Carlo simulations. The database was used to estimate breast dose for simulated CT images acquired for a reference protocol and five protocols intended to reduce breast dose. For each protocol, the performance of two tasks (detection of signals with unknown locations) was compared over a range of breast dose levels using a task-based, signal-detectability metric: the estimator of the area under the exponential free-response relative operating characteristic curve, AFE. For large-diameter/medium-contrast signals, when maintaining equivalent AFE, the 80 kV partial, 80 kV, 120 kV partial, and 120 kV tube-current modulated protocols reduced breast dose by 85%, 81%, 18%, and 6%, respectively, while the shielded protocol increased breast dose by 68%. Results for the small-diameter/high-contrast signal followed similar trends, but with smaller magnitude of the percent changes in dose. The 80 kV protocols demonstrated the greatest reduction to breast dose, however, the subsequent increase in noise may be clinically unacceptable. Tube output for these protocols can be adjusted to achieve more desirable noise levels with lesser dose reduction. The improvement in CNR of optimally projection-based and image-based weighted images relative to photon

  2. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  3. Psychotherapy, consciousness, and brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eCollerton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purely psychological treatments for emotional distress produce lasting, measureable, and reproducible changes in cognitive and emotional consciousness and brain function. How these changes come about illustrates the interplay between brain and consciousness. Studies of the effects of psychotherapy highlight the holistic nature of consciousness. Pre and post treatment functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging localises the brain changes following psychotherapy to frontal, cingulate, and limbic circuits, but emphasise that these areas support a wide range of conscious experiences. Multivoxel Pattern Analysis of distributed changes in function across these brain areas may be able to provide the ability to distinguish between different states of consciousness.

  4. Correlation between special brain area and blood perfusion in patients with cerebral infarction at convalescent period Feasibility for quantitative determination and estimation of learning and memory function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Presently, clinic memory scale is used to evaluate learning memory ability in most studies,and the influence of difference in measurement condition of individuals exists.OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) perfusion and learning memory function in special brain regions of patients with cerebral infarction at convalescent period,and to try to find out a method which can quantitatively evaluate learning ability.DESIGN: Case observation, and correlation analysis.SETTINGS: Shandong Institute for Behavioral Medicine; the Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 70 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to Departtment of Neurology, Jining Medical College between January 2004 and December 2005 were involved. The involved patients, 58 male and 12 female, were averaged (52±3) years, and they were all right handed. They all met the diagnosis criteria instituted by the Fourth National Conference on Cerebrovascular Disease, and were confirmed as cerebral infarction by skull CT or MRI. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the patients and relatives.METHODS: When the patients were at convalescent period, their learning and memory ability were measured with" clinic memory scale (set A)". The 18 patients whose total mark over 100 were regarded as good learning memory function group; The 23 cases whose total mark less than 70 were regarded as poor learning memory function group. RCBF of hippocampus, nucleus amygdalae, temporal cortex and prefrontal lobe of patients between two groups were measured and compared by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The total scores of the 18 good learning memory patients and 23 poor learning memory patients were taken as dependent variable Y, and their rCBFs of hippocampus, nucleus amygdale,temporal cortex and prefrontal lobe respectively as independent variable X for linear correlation analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

  5. Effect of Different Forms of Hypokinesia on the Ultrastructure of Limbic, Extrapyramidal and Neocortical Areas of the Rat Brain: Electron Microscopic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, Mzia G.; Japaridze, Nadezhda J.; Ksovreli, Mariam G.

    The effect of chronic restraint stress and chronic hypokinesia "without stress" on the ultrastructure of central and lateral nuclei of amygdala, CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, cingular cortex, nucleus caudatus and motor cortex of adult male rats were elucidated. In some neurons and synapses of abovementioned regions pathological modifications were revealed. More significant alterations provokes chronic restraint stress. Alterations are mostly concentrated: first—in the nuclei of amygdala, then in the CA1 and CA3 areas. Moderate alterations were observed in cingular cortex and nucleus caudatus. In comparing with it, hypokinesia "without stress" provokes only moderate modifications: predominantly in the nucleus caudatus, in lesser degree—in the hippocampus and amygdalae.

  6. Linking social and vocal brains: could social segregation prevent a proper development of a central auditory area in a female songbird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cousillas

    Full Text Available Direct social contact and social interaction affect speech development in human infants and are required in order to maintain perceptual abilities; however the processes involved are still poorly known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that social segregation during development would prevent the proper development of a central auditory area, using a "classical" animal model of vocal development, a songbird. Based on our knowledge of European starling, we raised young female starlings with peers and only adult male tutors. This ensured that female would show neither social bond with nor vocal copying from males. Electrophysiological recordings performed when these females were adult revealed perceptual abnormalities: they presented a larger auditory area, a lower proportion of specialized neurons and a larger proportion of generalist sites than wild-caught females, whereas these characteristics were similar to those observed in socially deprived (physically separated females. These results confirmed and added to earlier results for males, suggesting that the degree of perceptual deficiency reflects the degree of social separation. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first evidence that social segregation can, as much as physical separation, alter the development of a central auditory area.

  7. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  8. Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become a Member Home Early Development & Well-Being Brain Development A child’s brain undergoes an amazing period of development from birth ... neural connections each second. The development of the brain is influenced by many factors, including a child’s ...

  9. Dedication to Professor Hazel Prichard BSc, PhD, MBA (1954-2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ian; Maier, Wolfgang; Barnes, Stephen J.

    2017-11-01

    The final section of this special issue of GCA on highly siderophile elements is dedicated to Professor Hazel Prichard (see Fig. 1) who sadly passed away in Cardiff on 1st January, 2017, after a brave battle with cancer.

  10. A dedicated storage ring for Far-IR coherent synchrotron radiation at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, W.C.; Baptist, K.M.; Benjegerdes, R.J.; Biocca, A.K.; Byrd, J.M.; Byrne, W.E.; Cambie, D.; Chin, M.J.; Harkins, J.P.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Li, D.; Marks, S.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Munson, D.V.; Nishimura, H.; Paterson, J.A.; Plate, D.W.; Rex, K.R.; Robin, D.S.; Rossi, S.L.; Sannibale, F.; Scarvie, T.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.A.; Stover, G.D.; Thur, W.G.; Jung, J.Y.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We present the concepts for a storage ring dedicated to and optimized for the production of stable coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) over the far-infrared wavelength range from about 200 microns to 1 mm

  11. Revision to dedicated short range communication roadside equipment specification - RSU 4.1.Bench Test Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    The document describes the overall process for evaluating Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Roadside Units (RSU) against USDOT RSU Specification 4.1 in preparation for field evaluation. The Test Cases contained in this document only evaluate...

  12. Does the SBCT Intelligence Structure Need a Dedicated ACE/Fusion Cell?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sisemore, James

    2004-01-01

    ... a dedicated division level fusion cell. This question is considered because of the doctrinal lack of a Stryker Division headquarters to serve as the link between a SBCT and a corps headquarters...

  13. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  14. Extended defect related energy loss in CVD diamond revealed by spectrum imaging in a dedicated STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangert, U.; Harvey, A.J.; Schreck, M.; Hoermann, F.

    2005-01-01

    This article aims at investigations of the low EEL region in the wide band gap system diamond. The advent of the UHV Enfina electron energy loss spectrometer combined with Digital Micrograph acquisition and processing software has made reliable detection of absorption losses below 10 eV possible. Incorporated into a dedicated STEM this instrumentation allows the acquisition of spectral information via spectrum maps (spectrum imaging) of sample areas hundreds of nanometers across, with nanometers pixel sizes, adequate spectrum statistics and 0.3 eV energy resolution, in direct correlation with microstructural features in the mapping area. We aim at discerning defect related losses at band gap energies, and discuss different routes to simultaneously process and analyse the spectra in a map. This involves extracting the zero loss peak from each spectrum and constructing ratio maps from the intensities in two energy windows, one defect related and one at a higher, crystal bandstructure dominated energy. This was applied to the residual spectrum maps and their first derivatives. Secondly, guided by theoretical EEL spectra calculations, the low loss spectra were fitted by a series of gaussian distributions. Pixel maps were constructed from amplitude ratios of gaussians, situated in the defect and the unaffected energy regime. The results demonstrate the existence of sp 2 -bonded carbon in the vicinity of stacking faults and partial dislocations in CVD diamond as well as additional states below conduction band, tailing deep into the band gap, at a node in a perfect dislocation. Calculated EEL spectra of shuffle dislocations give similar absorption features at 5-8 eV, and it is thought that this common feature is due to sp 2 -type bonding

  15. 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Sciences Optimization : Dedicated to the Memory of Professor M.G. Karlaftis

    CERN Document Server

    Papadrakakis, Manolis; OPT-i

    2015-01-01

    The chapters which appear in this volume are selected studies presented at the First International Conference on Engineering and Applied Sciences Optimization (OPT-i), Kos, Greece, 4-6 June 2014,  and works written by friends, former colleagues and students of the late Professor M. G. Karlaftis; all in the area of optimization that he loved and published so much in himself. The subject areas represented here range from structural optimization, logistics, transportation, traffic and telecommunication networks to operational research, metaheuristics, multidisciplinary and multiphysics design optimization, etc.  This volume is dedicated to the life and the memory of Professor Matthew G. Karlaftis, who passed away a few hours before he was to give the opening speech at OPT-i. All contributions reflect the warmth and genuine friendship which he enjoyed from his associates and show how much his scientific contribution has been appreciated. He will be greatly missed and it is hoped that this volume will be receive...

  16. Medial forebrain bundle lesions fail to structurally and functionally disconnect the ventral tegmental area from many ipsilateral forebrain nuclei: implications for the neural substrate of brain stimulation reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J M; Ackermann, R F; Gallistel, C R

    1998-10-15

    Lesions in the medial forebrain bundle rostral to a stimulating electrode have variable effects on the rewarding efficacy of self-stimulation. We attempted to account for this variability by measuring the anatomical and functional effects of electrolytic lesions at the level of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and by correlating these effects to postlesion changes in threshold pulse frequency (pps) for self-stimulation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We implanted True Blue in the VTA and compared cell labeling patterns in forebrain regions of intact and lesioned animals. We also compared stimulation-induced regional [14C]deoxyglucose (DG) accumulation patterns in the forebrains of intact and lesioned animals. As expected, postlesion threshold shifts varied: threshold pps remained the same or decreased in eight animals, increased by small but significant amounts in three rats, and increased substantially in six subjects. Unexpectedly, LH lesions did not anatomically or functionally disconnect all forebrain nuclei from the VTA. Most septal and preoptic regions contained equivalent levels of True Blue label in intact and lesioned animals. In both intact and lesioned groups, VTA stimulation increased metabolic activity in the fundus of the striatum (FS), the nucleus of the diagonal band, and the medial preoptic area. On the other hand, True Blue labeling demonstrated anatomical disconnection of the accumbens, FS, substantia innominata/magnocellular preoptic nucleus (SI/MA), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. [14C]DG autoradiography indicated functional disconnection of the lateral preoptic area and SI/MA. Correlations between patterns of True Blue labeling or [14C]deoxyglucose accumulation and postlesion shifts in threshold pulse frequency were weak and generally negative. These direct measures of connectivity concord with the behavioral measures in suggesting a diffuse net-like connection between forebrain nuclei and the VTA.

  17. Interpretation of digital breast tomosynthesis: preliminary study on comparison with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and dedicated workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Seon; Chang, Jung Min; Yi, Ann; Shin, Sung Ui; Lee, Myung Eun; Kim, Won Hwa; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency in the interpretation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images using a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and a dedicated workstation. 97 DBT images obtained for screening or diagnostic purposes were stored in both a workstation and a PACS and evaluated in combination with digital mammography by three independent radiologists retrospectively. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System final assessments and likelihood of malignancy (%) were assigned and the interpretation time when using the workstation and PACS was recorded. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sensitivities and specificities were compared with histopathological examination and follow-up data as a reference standard. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for cancer detection (0.839 vs 0.815, p = 0.6375) and sensitivity (81.8% vs 75.8%, p = 0.2188) showed no statistically significant differences between the workstation and PACS. However, specificity was significantly higher when analysing on the workstation than when using PACS (83.7% vs 76.9%, p = 0.009). When evaluating DBT images using PACS, only one case was deemed necessary to be reanalysed using the workstation. The mean time to interpret DBT images on PACS (1.68 min/case) was significantly longer than that to interpret on the workstation (1.35 min/case) (p < 0.0001). Interpretation of DBT images using PACS showed comparable diagnostic performance to a dedicated workstation, even though it required a longer reading time. Advances in knowledge: Interpretation of DBT images using PACS is an alternative to evaluate the images when a dedicated workstation is not available.

  18. STSE: Spatio-Temporal Simulation Environment Dedicated to Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Susanne

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the availability of high-resolution microscopy together with the advancements in the development of biomarkers as reporters of biomolecular interactions increased the importance of imaging methods in molecular cell biology. These techniques enable the investigation of cellular characteristics like volume, size and geometry as well as volume and geometry of intracellular compartments, and the amount of existing proteins in a spatially resolved manner. Such detailed investigations opened up many new areas of research in the study of spatial, complex and dynamic cellular systems. One of the crucial challenges for the study of such systems is the design of a well stuctured and optimized workflow to provide a systematic and efficient hypothesis verification. Computer Science can efficiently address this task by providing software that facilitates handling, analysis, and evaluation of biological data to the benefit of experimenters and modelers. Results The Spatio-Temporal Simulation Environment (STSE is a set of open-source tools provided to conduct spatio-temporal simulations in discrete structures based on microscopy images. The framework contains modules to digitize, represent, analyze, and mathematically model spatial distributions of biochemical species. Graphical user interface (GUI tools provided with the software enable meshing of the simulation space based on the Voronoi concept. In addition, it supports to automatically acquire spatial information to the mesh from the images based on pixel luminosity (e.g. corresponding to molecular levels from microscopy images. STSE is freely available either as a stand-alone version or included in the linux live distribution Systems Biology Operational Software (SB.OS and can be downloaded from http://www.stse-software.org/. The Python source code as well as a comprehensive user manual and video tutorials are also offered to the research community. We discuss main concepts

  19. STSE: Spatio-Temporal Simulation Environment Dedicated to Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoma, Szymon; Fröhlich, Martina; Gerber, Susanne; Klipp, Edda

    2011-04-28

    Recently, the availability of high-resolution microscopy together with the advancements in the development of biomarkers as reporters of biomolecular interactions increased the importance of imaging methods in molecular cell biology. These techniques enable the investigation of cellular characteristics like volume, size and geometry as well as volume and geometry of intracellular compartments, and the amount of existing proteins in a spatially resolved manner. Such detailed investigations opened up many new areas of research in the study of spatial, complex and dynamic cellular systems. One of the crucial challenges for the study of such systems is the design of a well stuctured and optimized workflow to provide a systematic and efficient hypothesis verification. Computer Science can efficiently address this task by providing software that facilitates handling, analysis, and evaluation of biological data to the benefit of experimenters and modelers. The Spatio-Temporal Simulation Environment (STSE) is a set of open-source tools provided to conduct spatio-temporal simulations in discrete structures based on microscopy images. The framework contains modules to digitize, represent, analyze, and mathematically model spatial distributions of biochemical species. Graphical user interface (GUI) tools provided with the software enable meshing of the simulation space based on the Voronoi concept. In addition, it supports to automatically acquire spatial information to the mesh from the images based on pixel luminosity (e.g. corresponding to molecular levels from microscopy images). STSE is freely available either as a stand-alone version or included in the linux live distribution Systems Biology Operational Software (SB.OS) and can be downloaded from http://www.stse-software.org/. The Python source code as well as a comprehensive user manual and video tutorials are also offered to the research community. We discuss main concepts of the STSE design and workflow. We

  20. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans.Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals.Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  1. Design and characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT scanner for detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Prompt and reliable detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has substantial clinical impact in diagnosis and treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury. This paper describes the design, development, and preliminary performance characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) head scanner prototype for imaging of acute ICH. Methods: A task-based image quality model was used to analyze the detectability index as a function of system configuration, and hardware design was guided by the results of this model-based optimization. A robust artifact correction pipeline was developed using GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) scatter simulation, beam hardening corrections, detector veiling glare, and lag deconvolution. An iterative penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) reconstruction framework with weights adjusted for artifact-corrected projections was developed. Various bowtie filters were investigated for potential dose and image quality benefits, with a MC-based tool providing estimates of spatial dose distribution. Results: The initial prototype will feature a source-detector distance of 1000 mm and source-axis distance of 550 mm, a 43x43 cm2 flat panel detector, and a 15° rotating anode x-ray source with 15 kW power and 0.6 focal spot size. Artifact correction reduced image nonuniformity by ~250 HU, and PWLS reconstruction with modified weights improved the contrast to noise ratio by 20%. Inclusion of a bowtie filter can potentially reduce dose by 50% and improve CNR by 25%. Conclusions: A dedicated CBCT system capable of imaging millimeter-scale acute ICH was designed. Preliminary findings support feasibility of point-of-care applications in TBI and stroke imaging, with clinical studies beginning on a prototype.

  2. Moral processing deficit in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia is associated with facial emotion recognition and brain changes in default mode and salience network areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Stam, Daphne; De Winter, François-Laurent; Mantini, Dante; Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt; Van Laere, Koen; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is associated with abnormal emotion recognition and moral processing. We assessed emotion detection, discrimination, matching, selection, and categorization as well as judgments of nonmoral, moral impersonal, moral personal low- and high-conflict scenarios. bvFTD patients gave more utilitarian responses on low-conflict personal moral dilemmas. There was a significant correlation between a facial emotion processing measure derived through principal component analysis and utilitarian responses on low-conflict personal scenarios in the bvFTD group (controlling for MMSE-score and syntactic abilities). Voxel-based morphometric multiple regression analysis in the bvFTD group revealed a significant association between the proportion of utilitarian responses on personal low-conflict dilemmas and gray matter volume in ventromedial prefrontal areas ( p height  emotions in moral cognition and suggest a common basis for deficits in both abilities, possibly related to reduced experience of emotional sensations. At the neural level abnormal moral cognition in bvFTD is related to structural integrity of the medial prefrontal cortex and functional characteristics of the anterior insula. The present findings provide a common basis for emotion recognition and moral reasoning and link them with areas in the default mode and salience network.

  3. Quantitative comparisons on hand motor functional areas determined by resting state and task BOLD fMRI and anatomical MRI for pre-surgical planning of patients with brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob L. Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For pre-surgical planning we present quantitative comparison of the location of the hand motor functional area determined by right hand finger tapping BOLD fMRI, resting state BOLD fMRI, and anatomically using high resolution T1 weighted images. Data were obtained on 10 healthy subjects and 25 patients with left sided brain tumors. Our results show that there are important differences in the locations (i.e., >20 mm of the determined hand motor voxels by these three MR imaging methods. This can have significant effect on the pre-surgical planning of these patients depending on the modality used. In 13 of the 25 cases (i.e., 52% the distances between the task-determined and the rs-fMRI determined hand areas were more than 20 mm; in 13 of 25 cases (i.e., 52% the distances between the task-determined and anatomically determined hand areas were >20 mm; and in 16 of 25 cases (i.e., 64% the distances between the rs-fMRI determined and anatomically determined hand areas were more than 20 mm. In just three cases, the distances determined by all three modalities were within 20 mm of each other. The differences in the location or fingerprint of the hand motor areas, as determined by these three MR methods result from the different underlying mechanisms of these three modalities and possibly the effects of tumors on these modalities.

  4. Brains on video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A

    2011-11-18

    The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward.

  5. Conference 'Republic Anniversary Conference of young scientists, dedicated to 30 thirtieth anniversary of Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This collection of thesis of Republic Anniversary Conference of young scientists, dedicated to 30 thirtieth anniversary of Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan present the results of investigation of young scientists-chemists of Tajikistan which was carried out from 1974 till 1976 years in the area of physical, nonorganic, analytical, applied and organic chemistry. They are consider the questions of matters synthesis with beforehand given properties

  6. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  7. Quantifying the Effects of Biomass Market Conditions and Policy Incentives on Economically Feasible Sites to Establish Dedicated Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Nepal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used a spatially-explicit model to identify the amount and spatial distribution of economically feasible sites for establishing dedicated energy crops under various market and policy scenarios. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a biomass market with different discount rates and biomass prices as well as policy scenarios including propriety tax exemption, carbon offset payments, and the inclusion of farmland for biomass production. The model was applied to a four-county study area in Kentucky representing conditions commonly found in the Ohio River Valley. Results showed that both biomass price and discount rate have a can strongly influence the amount of economically efficient sites. Rising the biomass price by 5 $·t−1 and lowering discount rate by 1% from the baseline scenario (40 $·t−1 and 5% resulted in an over fourteen fold increment. Property tax exemption resulted in a fourfold increase, a carbon payment on only 1 $·t−1 caused a twelve fold increase and extending the landbase from marginal land to farmland only slightly increase the economically efficient sites. These results provide an objective evaluation of market and policy scenarios in terms of their potential to increase land availability for establishing dedicated energy crops and to promote the bioenergy industry.

  8. First clinical experience with a dedicated MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound system for breast cancer ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merckel, Laura G.; Knuttel, Floor M.; Peters, Nicky H.G.M.; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, HP E 01.132, Utrecht (Netherlands); Deckers, Roel; Moonen, Chrit T.W.; Bartels, Lambertus W. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Dalen, Thijs van [Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schubert, Gerald [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Weits, Teun [Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Diest, Paul J. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vaessen, Paul H.H.B. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Anesthesiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gorp, Joost M.H.H. van [Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    To assess the safety and feasibility of MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation in breast cancer patients using a dedicated breast platform. Patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer underwent partial tumour ablation prior to surgical resection. MR-HIFU ablation was performed using proton resonance frequency shift MR thermometry and an MR-HIFU system specifically designed for breast tumour ablation. The presence and extent of tumour necrosis was assessed by histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationship between sonication parameters, temperature increase and size of tumour necrosis at histopathology. Ten female patients underwent MR-HIFU treatment. No skin redness or burns were observed in any of the patients. No correlation was found between the applied energy and the temperature increase. In six patients, tumour necrosis was observed with a maximum diameter of 3-11 mm. In these patients, the number of targeted locations was equal to the number of areas with tumour necrosis. A good correlation was found between the applied energy and the size of tumour necrosis at histopathology (Pearson = 0.76, p = 0.002). Our results show that MR-HIFU ablation with the dedicated breast system is safe and results in histopathologically proven tumour necrosis. (orig.)

  9. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shun, E-mail: shchen_2013@163.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Tan, Hong-yu, E-mail: honhyutan@21cn.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Wu, Zhuo-hua, E-mail: zhh88@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Sun, Chong-peng, E-mail: Suncp2002@gmail.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); He, Jian-xun, E-mail: xundog@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Li, Xin-chun, E-mail: xinchunli@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Shao, Ming, E-mail: yimshao@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China)

    2014-03-15

    We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal subjects, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging sequences in combination with voxel-based statistical analysis. We found that, compared to normal subjects and MSA patients, the volumes of the olfactory bulb and tract were significantly reduced in IPD patients. The gray matter volume of IPD patients decreased in the following order: the olfactory area to the right of the piriform cortex, the right amygdala, the left entorhinal cortex, and the left occipital lobe. Further, the total olfactory bulb volume of IPD patients was associated with the duration of disease. The entorhinal cortical gray matter volume was negatively associated with the UPDRS III score. Conclusion: Structural volumes measured by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may potentially be used for differential diagnosis of IPD from MSA.

  10. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shun; Tan, Hong-yu; Wu, Zhuo-hua; Sun, Chong-peng; He, Jian-xun; Li, Xin-chun; Shao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal subjects, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging sequences in combination with voxel-based statistical analysis. We found that, compared to normal subjects and MSA patients, the volumes of the olfactory bulb and tract were significantly reduced in IPD patients. The gray matter volume of IPD patients decreased in the following order: the olfactory area to the right of the piriform cortex, the right amygdala, the left entorhinal cortex, and the left occipital lobe. Further, the total olfactory bulb volume of IPD patients was associated with the duration of disease. The entorhinal cortical gray matter volume was negatively associated with the UPDRS III score. Conclusion: Structural volumes measured by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may potentially be used for differential diagnosis of IPD from MSA

  11. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  12. Brain Research: Implications for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…

  13. Brain Death in Islamic Jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikzad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In today's world, Islamic jurisprudence encounters  new issues. One of the areas where jurisprudence gets involved is the issues concerned with brain death, whether brain death in jurisprudence and Islamic law is considered the end of life. In this study, brain death was discussed from the Shiite jurisprudence perspective and also the opinions of the specialists are taken into account. METHODS: This study is designed based on library collection and review of the literature in the field of brain death. Also, Quranic verses, hadiths and fatwas (religious opinions of the scholars are used. Some of the articles which were centered around Islamic jurisprudence, particularly Shiite jurisprudence that explain and deal with brain death were given special consideration. FINDINGS: Brain death from religious and jurisprudence perspective is considered the termination of life and removing the vital organs from the body is not viewed as committing manslaughter. A person with brain death is not a normally known injured man who is still alive. The brain death patinets have no life and getting rid of the body does not constitute a case of manslaughter. Amputation of the organs of brain death patients for donation and transplantation amounts to the amputation of a dead body. If the life of a Muslim is subject to transplant of organs from the body of a brain death patient, it will be permissible. CONCLUSION: In principle, if the life of a Muslim entails transplant of organs of brain death patients, it will be permissible 

  14. Brain-machine and brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friehs, Gerhard M; Zerris, Vasilios A; Ojakangas, Catherine L; Fellows, Mathew R; Donoghue, John P

    2004-11-01

    The idea of connecting the human brain to a computer or machine directly is not novel and its potential has been explored in science fiction. With the rapid advances in the areas of information technology, miniaturization and neurosciences there has been a surge of interest in turning fiction into reality. In this paper the authors review the current state-of-the-art of brain-computer and brain-machine interfaces including neuroprostheses. The general principles and requirements to produce a successful connection between human and artificial intelligence are outlined and the authors' preliminary experience with a prototype brain-computer interface is reported.

  15. Complex brain networks: From topological communities to clustered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    functional connectivity of the human brain has shown that both types of brain networks share .... the areas and also of the whole network, the Pearson correlation coefficient r and ..... Several areas important for intercommunity communication.

  16. Dedication for Safety-Related Fuses used in Class-1E Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Younghee

    2014-01-01

    The safety-related fuses used in class-1E power system provide overcurrent protection for electrical system and isolate the class 1E circuit from a fault or overload condition. These days, the number of nuclear grade suppliers has been reduced. Accordingly, commercial grade, instead of safety-related, fuses are procured and used in the utilities through the dedication process. Therefore, this paper introduces the commercial grade fuse dedication process/engineering and how to assure the quality requirements with this process and engineering. The fuses used in class-1E power system are to protect overcurrent and to isolate fault. Therefore the fuse for acceptance in order to improve the quality and reliability for commercial grade fuses shall be dedicated. The fuse resistance value may be useful as an indicator of acceptance. The current carrying capacity test can change the fuse performance properties. Therefore these critical characteristics are needed for additional review and analysis with fuse manufactures

  17. Implementation and analysis of list mode algorithm using tubes of response on a dedicated brain and breast PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, L.; Correcher, C.; González, A. J.; Conde, P.; Hernández, L.; Orero, A.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M. J.; Sánchez, F.; Soriano, A.; Vidal, L. F.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2013-02-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the reconstruction of PET images based on the List-Mode (LM) technique which improves their spatial resolution compared to results obtained with current MLEM algorithms. This study appears as a part of a large project with the aim of improving diagnosis in early Alzheimer disease stages by means of a newly developed hybrid PET-MR insert. At the present, Alzheimer is the most relevant neurodegenerative disease and the best way to apply an effective treatment is its early diagnosis. The PET device will consist of several monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to SiPM detectors. Monolithic crystals can reduce scanner costs with the advantage to enable implementation of very small virtual pixels in their geometry. This is especially useful for LM reconstruction algorithms, since they do not need a pre-calculated system matrix. We have developed an LM algorithm which has been initially tested with a large aperture (186 mm) breast PET system. Such an algorithm instead of using the common lines of response, incorporates a novel calculation of tubes of response. The new approach improves the volumetric spatial resolution about a factor 2 at the border of the field of view when compared with traditionally used MLEM algorithm. Moreover, it has also shown to decrease the image noise, thus increasing the image quality.

  18. Implementation and analysis of list mode algorithm using tubes of response on a dedicated brain and breast PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moliner, L.; Correcher, C.; González, A.J.; Conde, P.; Hernández, L.; Orero, A.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M.J.; Sánchez, F.; Soriano, A.; Vidal, L.F.; Benlloch, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the reconstruction of PET images based on the List-Mode (LM) technique which improves their spatial resolution compared to results obtained with current MLEM algorithms. This study appears as a part of a large project with the aim of improving diagnosis in early Alzheimer disease stages by means of a newly developed hybrid PET-MR insert. At the present, Alzheimer is the most relevant neurodegenerative disease and the best way to apply an effective treatment is its early diagnosis. The PET device will consist of several monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to SiPM detectors. Monolithic crystals can reduce scanner costs with the advantage to enable implementation of very small virtual pixels in their geometry. This is especially useful for LM reconstruction algorithms, since they do not need a pre-calculated system matrix. We have developed an LM algorithm which has been initially tested with a large aperture (186 mm) breast PET system. Such an algorithm instead of using the common lines of response, incorporates a novel calculation of tubes of response. The new approach improves the volumetric spatial resolution about a factor 2 at the border of the field of view when compared with traditionally used MLEM algorithm. Moreover, it has also shown to decrease the image noise, thus increasing the image quality

  19. Local curvature analysis for classifying breast tumors: Preliminary analysis in dedicated breast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Juhun; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Reiser, Ingrid; Boone, John M.; Lindfors, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to measure the effectiveness of local curvature measures as novel image features for classifying breast tumors. Methods: A total of 119 breast lesions from 104 noncontrast dedicated breast computed tomography images of women were used in this study. Volumetric segmentation was done using a seed-based segmentation algorithm and then a triangulated surface was extracted from the resulting segmentation. Total, mean, and Gaussian curvatures were then computed. Normalized curvatures were used as classification features. In addition, traditional image features were also extracted and a forward feature selection scheme was used to select the optimal feature set. Logistic regression was used as a classifier and leave-one-out cross-validation was utilized to evaluate the classification performances of the features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, area under curve) was used as a figure of merit. Results: Among curvature measures, the normalized total curvature (C_T) showed the best classification performance (AUC of 0.74), while the others showed no classification power individually. Five traditional image features (two shape, two margin, and one texture descriptors) were selected via the feature selection scheme and its resulting classifier achieved an AUC of 0.83. Among those five features, the radial gradient index (RGI), which is a margin descriptor, showed the best classification performance (AUC of 0.73). A classifier combining RGI and C_T yielded an AUC of 0.81, which showed similar performance (i.e., no statistically significant difference) to the classifier with the above five traditional image features. Additional comparisons in AUC values between classifiers using different combinations of traditional image features and C_T were conducted. The results showed that C_T was able to replace the other four image features for the classification task. Conclusions: The normalized curvature measure

  20. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques of brain imaging and results in perfusion studies and delayed images are outlined. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the brain scan in a variety of common problems is discussed, especially as compared with other available procedures. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions are considered. (Auth/C.F.)

  1. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Hisato; Yanagimoto, Masahiro; Goto, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg -1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  2. Modeling and sizing the coil in boost converters dedicated to photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Lotfi; Fares, Mohammed Amine; Zaraket, Jean; Bachir, Ghalem; Aillerie, Michel

    2018-05-01

    The coil is a very important element in a wide range of power electrical systems as such as those used in converter or inverter dedicated to extract and to adapt the value and the shape of the intensity and the voltage delivered by renewable energy sources. Thus, knowing its behavior in converters is paramount to obtain a maximum conversion efficiency and reliability. In this context, this paper presents a global study of a DC/DC boost converter dedicated to photovoltaic sources based on the modeling of the behavior of the coil or the inductance as a function of the switching frequency.

  3. Dedicated workspaces: Faster resumption times and reduced cognitive load in sequential multitasking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeuris, Steven; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that virtual desktops have become a widespread approach to window management within desktop environments. However, despite their success, there is no experimental evidence of their effect on multitasking. In this paper, we present an experimental study incorporating 16 participants...... to perform the same tasks. Results show that adopting virtual desktops as dedicated workspaces allows for faster task resumption (10 s faster on average) and reduced cognitive load during sequential multitasking. Within our experiment the majority of users already benefited from using dedicated workspaces...

  4. A Dedication to the 70 th Anniversary of Late Prof. Dmitrii A. Krivolutsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badamdorj Bayartogtokh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the 70 th birthday of late professor and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, D. A. Krivolutsky, a man of exceptional abilities and experiences, and one of the leading acarologists and soil zoologists in Russia. He was one of the scientists who led to the development of modern acarology and soil zoology in Russia and some other countries through his scienti fi c, teaching and organizational activities. He has dedicated his scienti fi c career to discovering and describing biological diversity of Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union.

  5. A system dedicated to the viewing and handling of tomographic images obtained by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaets, Joan F.W.; Almeida, Lirio O.B.; Traina, Agma J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a dedicated system to be used in visualization and manipulation of a MR images. The graphics environment as well as the tool kit were developed for the dedicated TMS34010 based hardware. The developed software offers a compact kernel with primitives to support the creation and manipulation windows and menus directly in 'C' language. This work is fundamental for the implementation of a user friendly interface build to operate and visualize tomographic images. This tools are essential for the selection an archiving of images planes as used in clinical applications. (author)

  6. Dedicated sub 0.1 mSv 3DCT using MBIR in children with suspected craniosynostosis: quality assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Caroline W.; Hulstaert, Tine L.; Belsack, Dries; Buls, Nico; Gompel, Gert van; Nieboer, Koenraad H.; Verhelle, Filip; Maeseneer, Michel de; Mey, Johan de [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Buyl, Ronald [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-03-15

    To retrospectively compare image quality of a lowered dose CT protocol to a standard CT protocol in children with suspicion of craniosynostosis. Forty-eight patients (age 0- 35 months), who presented with a cranial deformity underwent cranial 3D CT to assess sutural patency: between 2009 - 2010, 24 patients were imaged with a standard protocol (CTDIvol 32.18 mGy), from 2011-2012, 24 underwent a low dose protocol (0.94 mGy) combined with iterative reconstruction. Image quality was evaluated by both expert reading and objective analysis. Differences were assessed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test, interreader agreement by Cohen's Kappa test. Effective dose of the low dose protocol was 0.08 mSv, corresponding to a reduction of 97 %. Image quality was similar in both groups in terms of overall diagnostic acceptability, objective noise measurements, subjective cranial bone edge sharpness and presence of artefacts. For objective sharpness of cranial bone-brain interface and subjective perception of noise, the images of the low dose protocol were superior. For all evaluated structures, interreader agreement was moderate to almost perfect. In the diagnosis of craniosynostosis in children with cranial deformities, a dedicated sub 0.1 mSv cranial 3DCT protocol can be used without loss in image quality. (orig.)

  7. Brain transcriptome atlases : A computational perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfouz, A.M.E.T.A.; Huisman, S.M.H.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Reinders, M.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    The immense complexity of the mammalian brain is largely reflected in the underlying molecular signatures of its billions of cells. Brain transcriptome atlases provide valuable insights into gene expression patterns across different brain areas throughout the course of development. Such atlases

  8. Linking brain, mind and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeig, Scott; Gramann, Klaus; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard

    2009-08-01

    Cortical brain areas and dynamics evolved to organize motor behavior in our three-dimensional environment also support more general human cognitive processes. Yet traditional brain imaging paradigms typically allow and record only minimal participant behavior, then reduce the recorded data to single map features of averaged responses. To more fully investigate the complex links between distributed brain dynamics and motivated natural behavior, we propose the development of wearable mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) systems that continuously capture the wearer's high-density electrical brain and muscle signals, three-dimensional body movements, audiovisual scene and point of regard, plus new data-driven analysis methods to model their interrelationships. The new imaging modality should allow new insights into how spatially distributed brain dynamics support natural human cognition and agency.

  9. Research on Heat Recovery Technology for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Dedicated Ventilation Systems: An Application to the Operating Model of a Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the application of heat pipes in the air handler dedicated to decoupling dehumidification from cooling to reduce energy consumption was simulated and investigated by simulations and experimental studies. The cooling load profiles and heat pipes with effectiveness of 0.45 and 0.6, respectively, were evaluated in achieving the desired space conditions and calculated hour by hour. The results demonstrated that for all examined cases, a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX can be used to save over 80% of the energy during the hours of operation of air conditioning. The overall energy reduction rate was from 3.2% to 4.5% under air conditioning system conditions. It was found that the energy saving potential of a laboratory was higher than for other kinds of buildings. Therefore, the dedicated ventilation system combined with heat recovery technology can be efficiently applied to buildings, especially for laboratories in subtropical areas.

  10. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  11. WE-FG-207A-00: Advances in Dedicated Breast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    investigating dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1–8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography

  12. WE-FG-207A-01: Introduction to Dedicated Breast CT - Early Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedantham, S.

    2016-01-01

    investigating dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1–8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography

  13. WE-FG-207A-00: Advances in Dedicated Breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    investigating dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1–8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography

  14. WE-FG-207A-01: Introduction to Dedicated Breast CT - Early Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, S. [University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States)

    2016-06-15

    investigating dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1–8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography

  15. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  16. A community call for a dedicated radiobiological research facility to support particle beam cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Dosanjh, Manjit

    2012-01-01

    Recently more than one hundred researchers followed an invitation to a brainstorming meeting on the topic of a future dedicated radio-biological and radio-physical research center. 100 more joint the meeting via webcast. After a day of presentations and discussions it was clear, that an urgent need...

  17. Optimal routing in an automated storage/retrieval system with dedicated storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den J.P.; Gademann, A.J.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    We address the sequencing of requests in an automated storage/retrieval system with dedicated storage. We consider the block sequencing approach, where a set of storage and retrieval requests is given beforehand and no new requests come in during operation. The objective for this static problem is

  18. THE USE OF DEDICATED PEPTIDE LIBRARIES PERMITS THE DISCOVERY OF HIGH-AFFINITY BINDING PEPTIDES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKOSTER, HS; AMONS, R; BENCKHUIJSEN, WE; FEIJLBRIEF, M; SCHELLEKENS, GA; DRIJFHOUT, JW

    1995-01-01

    The motif for peptide binding to monoclonal antibody mAb A16, which is known to be directed against glycoprotein D of Herpes simplex virus type 1, was determined using two dedicated peptide libraries. As a starting point for this study we used an A-16 binding lead sequence, which had previously been

  19. Discrete Mathematics - Special Issue: Graph Theory - dedicated to Carsten Thomassen on his 60th birthday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Carsten Thomassen belongs to the worlds's absolute top graph theorists, and to the world's top mathematicians in general. The special issue is a rather somewhat random collection of good papers in graph theory, by many different authors, dedicated to Carsten Thomassen on his 60th birthday. Guest ...

  20. BTEV: a dedicated B physics detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.N.

    1996-11-01

    The capabilities of future Dedicated Hadron Collider B Physics experiments are discussed and compared to experiments that will run in the next few years. The design for such an experiment at the Tevatron Collider is presented and an evolutionary path for developing it is outlined. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Improving Vision Awareness in Autism Services: Evaluation of a Dedicated Education Programme for Support Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph J.; Butchart, Maggie; Brown, Michael; Bain, Janice; McMillan, Anne; Karatzias, Thanos

    2018-01-01

    Background: The research reported here sought to evaluate whether a dedicated education programme in vision awareness improved the knowledge and skills of autism support practitioners in identifying visual impairment in autistic people with intellectual disabilities and providing better support to those individuals identified as visually impaired.…

  2. Equipment Qualification and Environment Establishment for COTS Dedication of Safety Grade PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Chul; Bin, Chang Sun; Kwon, Yoon Kwang; Kang, Shin Woo; Koh, Sung Won; Shon, Eui Chan; Jang, Hyun Doo; Song, Il Sup; Lee, Hyun Noh

    2010-08-01

    Safety grade PCs are required for protection systems of SKN 3 and 4 nuclear power plant and subsequent plants. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication should be carried out to utilize a commercial PC as a safety grade PC of nuclear power plants. This project is aimed to perform the equipment qualification of the commercial PC, and review and improve the quality system of the PC supplier. As a result of the EQ for the CGI dedication, selected military PCs have passed the environment test, the seismic test, and the EMI test required for the digital controllers of nuclear plants. In addition, a walk-through of the quality system of the PC supplier, ISO 9001, was carried out and the quality system was improved. History data for the PC was gathered. As the analysis of the history data showed that operating experience time of the PC is longer than the plant life time, the history data could be used as an evidence of acceptance. After dedicated according to the CGI dedication process, military rugged PCs could be used for safety grade PCs

  3. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of MDR relays for nuclear safety related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit K.; Julka, Anil; Modi, Govind

    1994-08-01

    MDR relays manufactured by Potter & Brumfield (P&B) have been used in various safety related applications in commercial nuclear power plants. These include emergency safety features (ESF) actuation systems, emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) actuation, and reactor protection systems. The MDR relays manufactured prior to May 1990 showed signs of generic failure due to corrosion and outgassing of coil varnish. P&B has made design changes to correct these problems in relays manufactured after May 1990. However, P&B does not manufacture the relays under any 10CFR50 Appendix B quality assurance (QA) program. They manufacture the relays under their commercial QA program and supply these as commercial grade items. This necessitates CGI Dedication of these relays for use in nuclear-safety-related applications. This paper presents a CGI dedication program that has been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after May 1990. The program is in compliance with current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) guidelines and applicable industry standards; it specifies the critical characteristics of the relays, provides the tests and analysis required to verify the critical characteristics, the acceptance criteria for the test results, performs source verification to quality P&B for its control of the critical characteristics, and provides documentation. The program provides reasonable assurance that the new MDR relays will perform their intended safety functions.

  4. What About the Moorish Footman? : Portrait of a Dutch Nabob as a Dedicated Follower of Fashion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Yme; Ilmakunnas, Johanna; Stobart, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Collecting porcelain, furniture, lacquer, ivory objects, statues and folding screens from the Far East became very popular in Europe in the course of the eighteenth century. The Dutch nabob Jan Albert Sichterman (1692-1764), who as VOC-director made a big career in Bengal, was a dedicated follower

  5. An efficient hybrid protection scheme with shared/dedicated backup paths on elastic optical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogbou G. Anoh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast recovery and minimum utilization of resources are the two main criteria for determining the protection scheme quality. We address the problem of providing a hybrid protection approach on elastic optical networks under contiguity and continuity of available spectrum constraints. Two main hypotheses are used in this paper for backup paths computation. In the first case, it is assumed that backup paths resources are dedicated. In the second case, the assumption is that backup paths resources are available shared resources. The objective of the study is to minimize spectrum utilization to reduce blocking probability on a network. For this purpose, an efficient survivable Hybrid Protection Lightpath (HybPL algorithm is proposed for providing shared or dedicated backup path protection based on the efficient energy calculation and resource availability. Traditional First-Fit and Best-Fit schemes are employed to search and assign the available spectrum resources. The simulation results show that HybPL presents better performance in terms of blocking probability, compared with the Minimum Resources Utilization Dedicated Protection (MRU-DP algorithm which offers better performance than the Dedicated Protection (DP algorithm.

  6. A dedicated tool for analysing protection selectivity and back-up in large MV networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, S. P.J.; Morren, J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to integration of distributed generation the operation of medium-voltage distribution networks is becoming more difficult. This paper describes a dedicated simulation tool that can be used to study the protection coordination in the network. One of the main advantages of the program is that it

  7. Genetic Modification in Dedicated Bioenergy Crops and Strategies for Gene Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of dedicated bioenergy crops is in its infancy; however, there are numerous advantages to the use of these tools to improve crops used for biofuels. Potential improved traits through genetic engineering (GE) include herbicide resistance, pest, drought, cold and salt tolerance, l...

  8. Gene Flow in Genetically Engineered Perennial Grasses: Lessons for Modification of Dedicated Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of dedicated bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass, will play a major role in crop improvement for a wide range of beneficial traits specific to biofuels. One obstacle that arises regarding transgenic improvement of perennials used for biofuels is the propensity of these plants t...

  9. Status of the dedicated short-range communications technology and applications : report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report responds to a Congressional request for an assessment of the 5.9 Gigahertz (GHz) Dedicated Short Range : Communications (DSRC) in accordance with the requirements provided by Congress in the Moving Ahead for Progress in the : 21st Century...

  10. An Optimized Version of a New Absolute Linear Encoder Dedicated to Intelligent Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2009-01-01

    made in the coding algorithm, in the ruler topology and in the dedicated software. The optimized ALE is a robust device able to work in industrial environment, with a high level of vibrations. By this reason it is ideal for the transport system control in automating manufacturing processes, intelligent...

  11. A mycotoxin-dedicated total diet study in the Netherlands in 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, R.C.; Wit-Bos, de L.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Alewijn, M.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    A mycotoxin-dedicated total diet study (mTDS) allowing assessment of occurrence and dietary exposure to these substances was developed and carried out in the Netherlands in 2013. First, literature was searched to establish the occurrence profile of mycotoxins. Next, foods as consumed according to

  12. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis bone erosions by two different dedicated extremity MRI units and conventional radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer-Jensen, A.; Vestergaard, A.; Dohn, U.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the ability of two different dedicated extremity MRI (E-MRI) units and conventional radiography (CR) for identifying bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints. Methods: CR and two MRI examinations (using 0.2 T Esaote Artoscan and 0...

  13. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis bone erosions by 2 different dedicated extremity MRI units and conventional radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Anne; Vestergaard, Aage; Døhn, Uffe Møller

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ability of 2 different dedicated extremity magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) units and conventional radiography (CR) for identifying bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints. METHODS: CR and 2 MRI-examinations (on 0.2T Esaote...

  14. An arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to different subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkwon; Min, Se Dong; Lee, Myoungho

    2011-06-27

    Numerous studies have been conducted regarding a heartbeat classification algorithm over the past several decades. However, many algorithms have also been studied to acquire robust performance, as biosignals have a large amount of variation among individuals. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the differences coming from personal characteristics, but these expand the differences caused by arrhythmia. In this paper, an arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to individual subjects is proposed. We reduced the performance variation using dedicated wavelets, as in the ECG morphologies of the subjects. The proposed algorithm utilizes morphological filtering and a continuous wavelet transform with a dedicated wavelet. A principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were utilized to compress the morphological data transformed by the dedicated wavelets. An extreme learning machine was used as a classifier in the proposed algorithm. A performance evaluation was conducted with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The results showed a high sensitivity of 97.51%, specificity of 85.07%, accuracy of 97.94%, and a positive predictive value of 97.26%. The proposed algorithm achieves better accuracy than other state-of-the-art algorithms with no intrasubject between the training and evaluation datasets. And it significantly reduces the amount of intervention needed by physicians.

  15. An arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to different subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Se Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have been conducted regarding a heartbeat classification algorithm over the past several decades. However, many algorithms have also been studied to acquire robust performance, as biosignals have a large amount of variation among individuals. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the differences coming from personal characteristics, but these expand the differences caused by arrhythmia. Methods In this paper, an arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to individual subjects is proposed. We reduced the performance variation using dedicated wavelets, as in the ECG morphologies of the subjects. The proposed algorithm utilizes morphological filtering and a continuous wavelet transform with a dedicated wavelet. A principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were utilized to compress the morphological data transformed by the dedicated wavelets. An extreme learning machine was used as a classifier in the proposed algorithm. Results A performance evaluation was conducted with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The results showed a high sensitivity of 97.51%, specificity of 85.07%, accuracy of 97.94%, and a positive predictive value of 97.26%. Conclusions The proposed algorithm achieves better accuracy than other state-of-the-art algorithms with no intrasubject between the training and evaluation datasets. And it significantly reduces the amount of intervention needed by physicians.

  16. Evaluation of Why the Air Force Dedicated Personnel Recovery Mission Should Remain with Air Combat Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    purpose, and thus are a waste of government funds in a tight budget environment.84 Col Hanover argued that these 28 attacks come from a complete... bread and butter for the dedicated PR community, the broader PR umbrella truly enables the crews to continually conduct joint operations. This has

  17. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of generators for nuclear safety related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, R.K.; Hajos, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The number of nuclear safety related equipment suppliers and the availability of spare and replacement parts designed specifically for nuclear safety related application are shrinking rapidly. These have made it necessary for utilities to apply commercial grade spare and replacement parts in nuclear safety related applications after implementing proper acceptance and dedication process to verify that such items conform with the requirements of their use in nuclear safety related application. The general guidelines for the commercial grade item (CGI) acceptance and dedication are provided in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letters and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report NP-5652, Guideline for the Utilization of Commercial Grade Items in Nuclear Safety Related Applications. This paper presents an application of these generic guidelines for procurement, acceptance, and dedication of a commercial grade generator for use as a standby generator at Salem Generating Station Units 1 and 2. The paper identifies the critical characteristics of the generator which once verified, will provide reasonable assurance that the generator will perform its intended safety function. The paper also delineates the method of verification of the critical characteristics through tests and provide acceptance criteria for the test results. The methodology presented in this paper may be used as specific guidelines for reliable and cost effective procurement and dedication of commercial grade generators for use as standby generators at nuclear power plants

  18. Brain Connectivity Networks and the Aesthetic Experience of Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira

    2018-06-12

    Listening to music is above all a human experience, which becomes an aesthetic experience when an individual immerses himself/herself in the music, dedicating attention to perceptual-cognitive-affective interpretation and evaluation. The study of these processes where the individual perceives, understands, enjoys and evaluates a set of auditory stimuli has mainly been focused on the effect of music on specific brain structures, as measured with neurophysiology and neuroimaging techniques. The very recent application of network science algorithms to brain research allows an insight into the functional connectivity between brain regions. These studies in network neuroscience have identified distinct circuits that function during goal-directed tasks and resting states. We review recent neuroimaging findings which indicate that music listening is traceable in terms of network connectivity and activations of target regions in the brain, in particular between the auditory cortex, the reward brain system and brain regions active during mind wandering.

  19. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  20. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  1. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  2. Brain abscess: Current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess (BA is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.

  3. Brains, Genes and Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  4. Brain abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found. However, the most common source is a lung infection. Less often, a heart infection is the cause. The following raise your chance of developing a brain abscess: A weakened immune system (such as in people ...

  5. Brain imaging and brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage

  6. Brain stem type neuro-Behcet's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Satoshi; Hirose, Genjiro; Kosoegawa, Hiroshi; Oda, Rokuhei; Yoshioka, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of brain stem type Neuro-Behcet's syndrome were evaluated by brain CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Super-conducting type, 0.5 tesla) to correlate with the neurological findings. In the acute phase, low density area with peripheral enhancement effect and mass effect were seen at the brain stem in brain CT. MRI revealed a extensive high intensity signal area mainly involving the corticospinal tract in the meso-diencephalon as well as pons by T 2 weighted images (spin echo, TR = 1, 600 msec, TE = 90 msec) and the value of T 1 , T 2 , at the brain stem lesion were prolonged moderately. After high dose steroid treatment, the low density area in brain CT and high signal area in MRI were gradually reduced in its size. Peripheral enhancement effect in brain CT disappeared within 10 months in case 1, one month in the other case. In the chronic stage, the reduction of low density area and atrophy of brain stem were noted in brain CT. The lesion in chronic stage had low intensity in T 1 , T 2 weighted images and the T 1 , T 2 values at the lesion were mildly prolonged in MRI. Sequentially CT with enhancement and MRI examinations with T 1 , T 2 weighted images were useful to detect the lesion and to evaluate the activity, evolution of brain stem type Neuro-Behcet's syndrome. (author)

  7. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurogenesis and brain injury: managing a renewable resource for repair

    OpenAIRE

    Hallbergson, Anna F.; Gnatenco, Carmen; Peterson, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    The brain shows limited ability to repair itself, but neurogenesis in certain areas of the adult brain suggests that neural stem cells may be used for structural brain repair. It will be necessary to understand how neurogenesis in the adult brain is regulated to develop strategies that harness neural stem cells for therapeutic use.

  9. Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Knockdown of ventral tegmental area mu-opioid receptors in rats prevents effects of social defeat stress: Implications for amphetamine cross-sensitization, social avoidance, weight regulation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Caitlin E.; Herschel, Daniel; Lasek, Amy W.; Hammer, Ronald P.; Nikulina, Ella M.

    2014-01-01

    Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:25446676

  11. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  12. Contrast-enhanced dedicated breast CT detection of invasive breast cancer preceding mammographic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas D. Prionas, MD, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT generates high-resolution, three-dimensional images of the pendent uncompressed breast. Intravenous iodinated contrast during bCT provides additional physiologic information. In this case, a 10.0-mm invasive ductal carcinoma was visualized using contrast-enhanced breast CT one year before mammographic detection. Mammography four months before bCT was negative. The bCT contrast enhancement pattern closely matched the dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI obtained after diagnosis. Lesion enhancement at contrast-enhanced breast CT matched previously published enhancement values of breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced dedicated bCT provided high-resolution tomographic images and physiologic contrast enhancement data that facilitated the detection of an early breast cancer.

  13. Specialist trainees on rotation cannot replace dedicated consultant clinicians for antimicrobial stewardship of specialty disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Chay Leng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our prospective-audit-and-feedback antimicrobial stewardship (AS program for hematology and oncology inpatients was switched from one led by dedicated clinicians to a rotating team of infectious diseases trainees in order to provide learning opportunities and attempt a “de-escalation” of specialist input towards a more protocol-driven implementation. However, process indicators including the number of recommendations and recommendation acceptance rates fell significantly during the year, with accompanying increases in broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription. The trends were reversed only upon reverting to the original setup. Dedicated clinicians play a crucial role in AS programs involving immunocompromised patients. Structured training and adequate succession/contingency planning is critical for sustainability.

  14. Historical aspects of meetings, publication series, and digital resources dedicated to echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ziegler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Half a century after the first scientific meeting dedicated to marine spiny-skinned animals (Deuterostomia: Echinodermata was held in Washington, DC, we take this opportunity to provide information on a number of historical aspects related to the echinoderm scientific community. Apart from shedding light on the historical origins of modern echinoderm conferences, the present contribution presents photographs taken during the first meeting of echinoderm researchers in 1963 as well as during the first installments of the International Echinoderm Conference and the European Conference on Echinoderms. Furthermore, we provide background information on publication series dedicated solely to the Echinodermata as well as descriptions of selected digital resources that focus on echinoderms. Finally, we present a number of echinoderm conference logos and flyers in addition to selected information about specific echinoderm meetings.

  15. Systematic and deliberate orientation and instruction for dedicated education unit staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyer, Tish; Tejada, Marianne Bundalian; Tan, Rhigel Alforque

    2015-03-01

    On the basis of increasing complexity of the health care environment and recommended changes in how nurses are educated to meet these challenges, the University of Nevada Las Vegas, School of Nursing established an academic-practice partnership with Summerlin Hospital Medical Center to develop a dedicated education unit (DEU). When the DEU model was implemented, variables that were not discussed in the literature needed to be addressed. One such challenge was how to impart pedagogy related to clinical teaching to the DEU nursing staff who would be acting as clinical dedicated unit instructors (CDIs). Of chief concern was the evaluation and monitoring of the quality of CDI-student interactions to ensure optimal student learning outcomes. This article addresses the development of a deliberate, systematic approach to the orientation and continued education of CDIs in the DEU. This information will assist other nursing programs as they begin to implement DEUs. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The Integration of Disability Content into Social Work Education: An Examination of Infused and Dedicated Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Faye Bean

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Disability content has been slowly integrated into social work curricula despite the large proportion of social workers supporting people with disabilities and its requirement in social work education by the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Schools of social work offer disability content to their students in three ways: infused, dedicated (specialization, or a combination of both. A content analysis of 1620 course titles and descriptions from the top schools of social work was conducted to assess the integration of disability content into social work curricula. Eighty percent of the schools included disability content in their curriculum. Disability content was more likely to be integrated using the infused rather than the dedicated model.

  17. Distributed computing feasibility in a non-dedicated homogeneous distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Scott T.; Sun, Xian-He

    1993-01-01

    The low cost and availability of clusters of workstations have lead researchers to re-explore distributed computing using independent workstations. This approach may provide better cost/performance than tightly coupled multiprocessors. In practice, this approach often utilizes wasted cycles to run parallel jobs. The feasibility of such a non-dedicated parallel processing environment assuming workstation processes have preemptive priority over parallel tasks is addressed. An analytical model is developed to predict parallel job response times. Our model provides insight into how significantly workstation owner interference degrades parallel program performance. A new term task ratio, which relates the parallel task demand to the mean service demand of nonparallel workstation processes, is introduced. It was proposed that task ratio is a useful metric for determining how large the demand of a parallel applications must be in order to make efficient use of a non-dedicated distributed system.

  18. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  19. Use of a microprocessor in the CAMAC standard. The dedicated microcomputer: JCAM-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallice, Pierre.

    1978-01-01

    The general purpose minicomputers and dedicated crate controllers currently used in small CAMAC systems are now being superseded by autonomous crate controllers with built-in microprocessor such as the JCAM-10, which is in fact a CAMAC dedicated microcomputer. This controller has been designed around the INTEL-8080 microprocessor and employs a semiconductor memory. The very much reduced price and smaller packaging of this module, and the relatively large potential market of CAMAC systems justify the tremendous efforts required for the study of its complete system as well in hardware than in software. After a short description of the CAMAC standard this paper will describe the principle of the microcomputer JCAM-10, and its complementary system: hardware (peripheral modules) and software (TTY command processor, Input Output, Control system, interrupt system, text editor, local macro-assembler, LP and BASICAM local compilers). As application examples, an autonomous counting system and a distributed intelligence system will be described [fr

  20. Eddy Current Transducer Dedicated for Sigma Phase Evaluation in Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Psuj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new transducer dedicated for evaluation of a duplex stainless steel (DSS. Different phases which exist in DSS have influence on mechanical as well as on electrical properties. Therefore, an eddy current transducer was utilized. In order to achieve high sensitivity, a differential type of the transducer was selected. The performance of the transducer was verified by utilizing the samples which had a different amount of sigma phase.