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Sample records for bradykinin

  1. Identification of bradykinins in solitary wasp venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Katsuhiro; Palma, Mario Sergio; Hitara, Izaura Yoshico; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Yasuhara, Tadashi

    2002-03-01

    Bradykinins were identified in three solitary wasp venoms. Purification and characterization of the venom extract of the scoliid wasp Megacampsomeris prismatica led to the identification of bradykinin and threonine(6)-bradykinin as the major peptide components. The survey of a number of extracts from solitary wasp venom by MALDI-TOF MS revealed that the venoms of two other scoliid wasps, Campsomeriella annulata annulata and Carinoscolia melanosoma fascinata, also contained Thr(6)-BK as one of the major components. Thus, this study showed the presence of bradykinins in some of the solitary wasp venoms. Moreover, it indicated that these peptides play a major role in their paralyzing action for prey capture because these bradykinins have been shown to block the synaptic transmission of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the insect central nervous system.

  2. Bradykinin B2-receptor-mediated positive chronotropic effect of bradykinin in isolated rat atria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Q.; Zhang, J.; Loro, J. F.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    The positive chronotropic effect of bradykinin was investigated in isolated spontaneously beating atria of the rat. Cumulative additions of bradykinin (0.3-100 nM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in the beating rate of the atria by maximally 35+/-4 beats/min, approximately 25% of the 1

  3. Bradykinin-induced asthmatic fibroblast/myofibroblast activities via bradykinin B2 receptor and different MAPK pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabatini, Federica; Luppi, Fabrizio; Petecchia, Loredana; Stefano, Antonino Di; Longo, Anna M.; Eva, Alessandra; Vanni, Cristina; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Sorbello, Valentina; Fabbri, Leonardo M.; Rossi, Giovanni A.; Ricciardolo, Fabio L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Bradykinin drives normal lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, induces fibroblast proliferation and activates mitogen activated protein kinase pathways (MAPK) but its effects on bronchial fibroblasts from asthmatics (HBAFb) have not been yet studied. We studied bradykinin-induced fibroblast

  4. Bradykinin-induced relaxation of coronary microarteries: S-nitrosothiols as EDHF?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. Batenburg (Wendy); R. Popp (Rudiger); I. Fleming (Ingrid); R. de Vries (René); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstract1. To investigate whether S-nitrosothiols, in addition to NO, mediate bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation, porcine coronary microarteries (PCMAs) were mounted in myographs. 2. Following preconstriction, concentration-response curves (CRCs) were constructed to bradykinin,

  5. Regulation of bradykinin B2-receptor expression by oestrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Paolo; Emanueli, Costanza; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Demontis, Maria Piera; Anania, Vittorio; Gorioso, Nicola; Chao, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Tissue kallikrein is overexpressed in the kidney of female rats, this sexual dimorphism being associated with a greater effect of early blockade of bradykinin B2-receptors on female blood pressure phenotype. We evaluated the effect of ovariectomy and oestradiol benzoate (50 μg kg−1 every two days for two weeks) on the vasodepressor response to intra-arterial injection of bradykinin (150–900 ng kg−1) and on the expression of bradykinin B2-receptors.Ovariectomy reduced the magnitude of the vasodepressor response to bradykinin and unmasked a secondary vasopressor effect. Oestrogen replacement restored the vasodepressor response to bradykinin in ovariectomized rats.The vasodepressor responses to sodium nitroprusside (3–18 μg kg−1), acetylcholine (30–600 ng kg−1), desArg9-bradykinin (150–900 ng kg−1) or prostaglandin E2 (30–600 ng kg−1) were significantly reduced by ovariectomy. Oestrogen restored to normal the responses to desArg9-bradykinin, acetylcholine and prostaglandin E2, but not that to sodium nitroprusside.B2-receptor mRNA levels were decreased by ovariectomy in the aorta and kidney and they were restored to normal levels by oestrogen. Neither ovariectomy nor oestradiol affected receptor expression in the heart and uterus.These results indicate that oestrogen regulates B2-receptor gene expression and function. Since kinins exert a cardiovascular protective action, reduction in their vasodilator activity after menopause might contribute to the increased risk of pathological cardiovascular events. Conversely, the cardioprotective effects of oestrogen replacement might be, at least in part, mediated by activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. PMID:9283715

  6. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist Losartan binds and activates bradykinin B2 receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Olsen, Kristine Boisen; Erikstrup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    not significantly compete with bradykinin and does not change the binding affinity of bradykinin on the B2R. Furthermore, Losartan but not Candesartan mimicked the ability of bradykinin to increase the recovery of contractile force after metabolic stress in rat atrial tissue strips. In conclusion, Losartan...

  7. BENEFICIAL-EFFECTS OF BRADYKININ ON PORCINE ISCHEMIC MYOCARDIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIO, RA; TOBE, TJM; BEL, KJ; DELANGEN, CDJ; VANGILST, WH; WESSELING, H

    1991-01-01

    Exogenous bradykinin was administered to pigs in which an experimental infarction was evoked by ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemia (45 min) was induced in a closed-chest model with a balloon catheter in the left anterior descending artery, reperfusion by deflating and removing the balloon. The pigs

  8. Nuclear localization of bradykinin B(2) receptors reflects binding to the nuclear envelope protein lamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Masaoki; Kanoh, Akira; Amako, Katsumi; Otani, Mieko; Sano, Keiji; Kanazawa-Hamada, Michiko; Matsuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-15

    The mechanism of action of bradykinin (BK), a pro-inflammatory mediator, is thought to be mediated by specific cell surface membrane bradykinin B2 receptors. Some evidence suggests that there are both intracellular and nuclear bradykinin B2 receptors. This study identified proteins that interact with the C-terminus of the bradykinin B2 receptor (in particular, the nuclear membrane protein lamin C), using the yeast two-hybrid system. The motif of the C-terminal domain (CT) mutant 303-320 in bradykinin B2 receptor was identified as a lamin C protein binding motif. Immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of FLAG- bradykinin B2 receptor with HA-lamin C in the nucleus of HEK 293T cells. In situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) showed that FLAG-bradykinin B2 receptor formed heterodimers with HA-lamin C in the nucleus. In addition, live cell fluorescence imaging showed that bradykinin B2 receptor-EGFP was located in the nucleus and co-localized with HcRed-lamin C. Interestingly, neither BK addition nor bradykinin B2 receptor CT mutation reduced the binding to lamin C or changed the distribution of bradykinin B2 receptor. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that bradykinin B2 receptor-lamin C heterodimers form in the nucleus independent of BK stimulation and CT mutation. We propose that heterodimerization of bradykinin B2 receptor with lamin C is essential to nuclear localization of bradykinin B2 receptor and plays an important role in cell signaling and function. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Omeprazole induces gastric transmucosal permeability to the peptide bradykinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabello, Melissa; Valenzano, Mary Carmen; Zurbach, E Peter; Mullin, James M

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate omeprazole-induced transepithelial gastric leak and its effects on the permeability of the peptides bradykinin and oxytocin. METHODS: Rat gastric corpus tissue was isolated and mounted in an Ussing chamber apparatus to evaluate the permeability of 3H-bradykinin, 3H-oxytocin, and 14C-EDTA in the presence or absence of omeprazole. Thin-layer chromatography was performed to identify any metabolic breakdown products of the peptides resulting from permeation through the gastric tissue, and thereby calculate the true flux of the peptide. RESULTS: The flux rate of intact 3H-bradykinin increased substantially after omeprazole addition (109.5%) compared to the DMSO vehicle control (14%). No corresponding change in flux of intact 3H-oxytocin was observed under the same conditions (11.9% and 6.4% in the DMSO- and omeprazole-treated conditions, respectively). After exposure to omeprazole, the flux rate of 14C-EDTA also increased dramatically (122.3%) compared to the DMSO condition (36.3%). CONCLUSION: The omeprazole-induced gastric leak allows for transmucosal permeability to charged molecules as well as non-electrolytes. This induced leak will allow certain peptides to permeate. PMID:20205280

  10. The bradykinin B2 receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaman, W.E.; Wolterink, A.F.W.M.; Bader, M.; Boele, L.C.L.; Kleij, D. van der

    2009-01-01

    The endogenous danger signal bradykinin was recently found implicated in the development of immunity against parasites via dendritic cells. We here report an essential role of the B2 (B2R) bradykinin receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection. Mice deficient in B2R (B2R-/-

  11. New Aspects of Ace Inhibition: Importance of ACE co-localization with angiotensin and bradykinin receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tom (Beril)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe beneficial effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in hypertension and heart failure may relate, at least in part, to their capacity to interfere with bradykinin metabolism. In addition, recent studies have provided evidence for bradykinin-potentiating effects of

  12. Growth suppression activity of bradykinin antagonists in glioma cells

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    Avdieiev S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was Aimed at analyzing the effect of bradykinin (BK antagonists on proliferation of the human glioblastoma cells U373. Methods. MTT-based cell proliferation assay. Results. BKM-570 revealed a significant antiproliferative activity in the U373 cells with LC50 3,8 M. Conclusions. The antiproliferative properties of BK antagonists were shown in vitro using the glioma cells. Further investigations of the molecular mechanisms of their action and pre-clinical studies on animal models are needed for the evaluation of these compounds as new anti-cancer drugs.

  13. Elevated Aminopeptidase P Attenuates Cerebral Arterial Responses to Bradykinin in Fawn-Hooded Hypertensive Rats.

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    Md Abdul Hye Khan

    Full Text Available Cerebral arterial myogenic and autoregulatory responses are impaired in Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH rats. Cerebral autoregulatory responses are restored in the congenic rat strain in which a segment of chromosome 1 from the Brown Norway (BN rat was transferred into the FHH genetic background (FHH.1BN. The impact of this region on cerebral arterial dilator responses remains unknown. Aminopeptidase is a gene that was transferred into the FHH genetic background to generate the FHH.1BN rats and is responsible for degradation of the vasodilator bradykinin. Thus, we hypothesized that FHH rats will have increased aminopeptidase P levels with impaired cerebral arterial responses to bradykinin compared to BN and FHH.1BN rats. We demonstrated higher cerebral arterial expression of aminopeptidase P in FHH compared to BN rats. Accordingly, we demonstrated markedly impaired cerebral arterial dilation to bradykinin in FHH compared to BN rats. Interestingly, aminopeptidase P expression was lower in FHH.1BN compared to FHH rats. Decreased aminopeptidase P levels in FHH.1BN rats were associated with increased cerebral arterial bradykinin-induced dilator responses. Aminopeptidase P inhibition by apstatin improved cerebral arterial bradykinin dilator responses in FHH rats to a level similar to FHH.1BN rats. Unlike bradykinin, cerebral arterial responses to acetylcholine were similar between FHH and FHH.1BN groups. These findings indicate decreased bradykinin bioavailability contributes to impaired cerebral arterial dilation in FHH rats. Overall, these data indicate an important role of aminopeptidase P in the impaired cerebral arterial function in FHH rat.

  14. Release of biologically active kinin peptides, Met-Lys-bradykinin and Leu-Met-Lys-bradykinin from human kininogens by two major secreted aspartic proteases of Candida parapsilosis.

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    Bras, Grazyna; Bochenska, Oliwia; Rapala-Kozik, Maria; Guevara-Lora, Ibeth; Faussner, Alexander; Kamysz, Wojciech; Kozik, Andrzej

    2013-10-01

    In terms of infection incidence, the yeast Candida parapsilosis is the second after Candida albicans as causative agent of candidiases in humans. The major virulence factors of C. parapsilosis are secreted aspartic proteases (SAPPs) which help the pathogen to disseminate, acquire nutrients and dysregulate the mechanisms of innate immunity of the host. In the current work we characterized the action of two major extracellular proteases of C. parapsilosis, SAPP1 and SAPP2, on human kininogens, proteinaceous precursors of vasoactive and proinflammatory bradykinin-related peptides, collectively called the kinins. The kininogens, preferably the form with lower molecular mass, were effectively cleaved by SAPPs, with the release of two uncommon kinins, Met-Lys-bradykinin and Leu-Met-Lys-bradykinin. While optimal at acidic pH (4-5), the kinin release yield was only 2-3-fold lower at neutral pH. These peptides were able to interact with cellular kinin receptors of B2 subtype and to stimulate the human endothelial cells HMEC-1 to increased secretion of proinflammatory interleukins (ILs), IL-1β and IL-6. The analysis of the stability of SAPP-generated kinins in plasma suggested that they are biologically equivalent to bradykinin, the best agonist of B2 receptor subtype and can be quickly converted to des-Arg(9)-bradykinin, the agonist of inflammation-inducible B1 receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercise-induced increase in interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations in skeletal muscle and peritendinous tissue in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Bjørn, C; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Bradykinin is known to cause vasodilatation in resistance vessels and may, together with adenosine, be an important regulator of tissue blood flow during exercise. Whether tissue concentrations of bradykinin change with exercise in skeletal muscle and tendon-related connective tissue has not yet......, range 22-33 years). Interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations were determined using an internal reference to determine relative recovery ([2,3,prolyl-3,4-(3)H(N)]-bradykinin and [2-(3)H]-adenosine). Bradykinin and adenosine recovery were closely related and in the range of 30......-50 %. The interstitial concentration of bradykinin rose in response to exercise both in skeletal muscle (from 23.1 +/- 4.9 nmol l(-1) to 110.5 +/- 37.9 nmol l(-1); P adenosine concentration...

  16. Bradykinin and vasopressin activate phospholipase D in rat Leydig cells by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study we report that bradykinin stimulated phospholipase D activity in rat Leydig cells. Bradykinin added for 8 min stimulated choline formation in a dose-dependent manner and, in the presence of ethanol, bradykinin (100 nmol/l) stimulated transphosphatidylation by phospholipase D...... resulting in the formation of phosphatidylethanol. This stimulation was abolished after down-regulation of protein kinase C by long-term pretreatment for 22 h with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The stimulation of phospholipase D by the simultaneous addition for 8 min of maximum concentrations...... of PMA and vasopressin (AVP), PMA and bradykinin, or AVP and bradykinin produced no additive phosphatidylethanol or choline response, suggesting that AVP, bradykinin and PMA stimulated phospholipase D catalysed phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by a similar protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Furthermore...

  17. Multiple bradykinin-related peptides from the capture web of the spider Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Tetragnatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volsi, Evelyn C F R; Mendes, Maria Anita; Marques, Maurício Ribeiro; dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari; Santos, Keity Souza; de Souza, Bibiana Monson; Babieri, Eduardo Feltran; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Three bradykinin-related peptides (nephilakinins-I to -III) and bradykinin itself were isolated from the aqueous washing extract of the capture web of the spider Nephila clavipes by gel permeation chromatography on a Sephacryl S-100 column, followed by chromatography in a Hi-Trap Sephadex-G25 Superfine column. The novel peptides occurred in low concentrations and were sequenced through ESI-MS/MS analysis: nephilakinin-I (G-P-N-P-G-F-S-P-F-R-NH2), nephilakinin-II (E-A-P-P-G-F-S-P-F-R-NH2) and nephilakinin-III (P-S-P-P-G-F-S-P-F-R-NH2). Synthetic peptides replicated the novel bradykinin-related peptides, which were submitted to biological characterizations. Nephilakinins were shown to cause constriction on isolated rat ileum preparations and relaxation on rat duodenum muscle preparations at amounts higher than bradykinin; apparently these peptides constitute B2-type agonists of ileal and duodenal smooth muscles. All peptides including the bradykinin were moderately lethal to honeybees. These bradykinin peptides may be related to the predation of insects by the webs of N. clavipes.

  18. A novel bradykinin-like peptide from skin secretions of rufous-spotted torrent frog, Amolops loloensis.

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    Liang, Jianguo; Han, Yaoping; Li, Jianxu; Xu, Xueqing; Rees, Huw H; Lai, Ren

    2006-11-01

    A bradykinin-like peptide has been isolated from skin secretions of rufous-spotted torrent frog, Amolops loloensis. This bradykinin-like peptide was named amolopkinin. Its primary structure, RAPVPPGFTPFR, was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. It is structurally related to bradykinin-like peptides identified from skin secretions of other amphibians. Amolopkinin is composed of 12 amino acid residues and is related to bradykinin composed of nine amino acid residues, identified from the skin secretions of Odorrana schmackeri. Amolopkinin was found to elicit concentration-dependent contractile effects on isolated guinea pig ileum. cDNA clones encoding the precursor of amolopkinin were isolated by screening a skin cDNA library of A. loloensis and then sequenced. The amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNA sequences match well with the results from Edman degradation. Analysis of different amphibian bradykinin cDNA structures revealed that a deficiency of an18-nucleotide fragment (TCAAGAATGATCAGACGC in the cDNA encoding bradykinin from O. schmackeri) in the peptide-coding region resulted in absence of a di-basic site for trypsin-like proteinases and an unusual - APV - insertion in the N-terminal part of amolopkinin. This is the first report of a bradykinin-like peptide comprised of bradykinin with an insertion in its N-terminal part. Our results demonstrate the hypervariability of amphibian bradykinin-like peptides, as well as the diversity of antimicrobial peptides in amphibians.

  19. Bradykinin stimulation of nitric oxide production is not sufficient for gamma-globin induction

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    Čokić Vladan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hydroxycarbamide, used in therapy of hemoglobinopathies, enhances nitric oxide (NO production both in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and human bone marrow endothelial cell line (TrHBMEC. Moreover, NO increases γ-globin and fetal hemoglobin levels in human erythroid progenitors. Objective. In order to find out whether simple physiologic stimulation of NO production by components of hematopoietic microenvironment can increase γ-globin gene expression, the effects of NO-inducer bradykinin were examined in endothelial cells. Methods. The study was performed in co-cultures of human erythroid progenitors, TrHBMEC and HUVECs by ozone-based chemiluminescent determination of NO and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results. In accordance with previous reports, the endogenous factor bradykinin increased endothelial cell production of NO in a dose- and time-dependent manner (0.1-0.6 μM up to 30 minutes. This induction of NO in HUVECs and TrHBMEC by bradykinin was blocked by competitive inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS, demonstrating NOS-dependence. It has been shown that bradykinin significantly reduced endothelial NOS (eNOS mRNA level and eNOS/Я-actin ratio in HUVEC (by twofold. In addition, bradykinin failed to increase γ-globin mRNA expression in erythroid progenitors only, as well as in co-culture studies of erythroid progenitors with TrHBMEC and HUVEC after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, bradykinin did not induce γ/β globin ratio in erythroid progenitors in co-cultures with HUVEC. Conclusion. Bradykinin mediated eNOS activation leads to short time and low NO production in endothelial cells, insufficient to induce γ-globin gene expression. These results emphasized the significance of elevated and extended NO production in augmentation of γ-globin gene expression. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175053

  20. Bradykinin and adenosine receptors mediate desflurane induced postconditioning in human myocardium: role of reactive oxygen species

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    Gérard Jean-Louis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desflurane during early reperfusion has been shown to postcondition human myocardium, in vitro. We investigated the role of adenosine and bradykinin receptors, and generation of radical oxygen species in desflurane-induced postconditioning in human myocardium. Methods We recorded isometric contraction of human right atrial trabeculae hanged in an oxygenated Tyrode's solution (34 degrees Celsius, stimulation frequency 1 Hz. After a 30-min hypoxic period, desflurane 6% was administered during the first 5 min of reoxygenation. Desflurane was administered alone or with pretreatment of N-mercaptopropionylglycine, a reactive oxygen species scavenger, 8-(p-Sulfophenyltheophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, HOE140, a selective B2 bradykinin receptor antagonist. In separate groups, adenosine and bradykinin were administered during the first minutes of reoxygenation alone or in presence of N-mercaptopropionylglycine. The force of contraction of trabeculae was recorded continuously. Developed force at the end of a 60-min reoxygenation period was compared (mean ± standard deviation between the groups by a variance analysis and post hoc test. Results Desflurane 6% (84 ± 6% of baseline enhanced the recovery of force after 60-min of reoxygenation as compared to control group (51 ± 8% of baseline, P N-mercaptopropionylglycine (54 ± 3% of baseline, 8-(p-Sulfophenyltheophylline (62 ± 9% of baseline, HOE140 (58 ± 6% of baseline abolished desflurane-induced postconditioning. Adenosine (80 ± 9% of baseline and bradykinin (83 ± 4% of baseline induced postconditioning (P vs control, N-mercaptopropionylglycine abolished the beneficial effects of adenosine and bradykinin (54 ± 8 and 58 ± 5% of baseline, respectively. Conclusions In vitro, desflurane-induced postconditioning depends on reactive oxygen species production, activation of adenosine and bradykinin B2 receptors. And, the cardioprotective effect of adenosine and bradykinin

  1. Bradykinin does not acutely sensitize the reflex pressor response during hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch in decerebrate rats.

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    Rollins, Korynne S; Smith, Joshua R; Esau, Peter J; Kempf, Evan A; Hopkins, Tyler D; Copp, Steven W

    2017-10-01

    Hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch (i.e., selective activation of the muscle mechanoreflex) in decerebrate rats evokes reflex increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. Bradykinin has been found to sensitize mechanogated channels through a bradykinin B2 receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, bradykinin B2 receptor expression on sensory neurons is increased following chronic femoral artery ligation in the rat (a model of simulated peripheral artery disease). We tested the hypothesis that injection of bradykinin into the arterial supply of a hindlimb in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats would acutely augment (i.e., sensitize) the increase in blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity during hindlimb muscle stretch to a greater extent in rats with a ligated femoral artery than in rats with a freely perfused femoral artery. The pressor response during static hindlimb muscle stretch was compared before and after hindlimb arterial injection of 0.5 µg of bradykinin. Injection of bradykinin increased blood pressure to a greater extent in "ligated" (n = 10) than "freely perfused" (n = 10) rats. The increase in blood pressure during hindlimb muscle stretch, however, was not different before vs. after bradykinin injection in freely perfused (14 ± 2 and 15 ± 2 mmHg for pre- and post-bradykinin, respectively, P = 0.62) or ligated (15 ± 3 and 14 ± 2 mmHg for pre- and post-bradykinin, respectively, P = 0.80) rats. Likewise, the increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity during stretch was not different before vs. after bradykinin injection in either group of rats. We conclude that bradykinin did not acutely sensitize the pressor response during hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch in freely perfused or ligated decerebrate rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Bradykinin produces pain hypersensitivity by potentiating spinal cord glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

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    Wang, Haibin; Kohno, Tatsuro; Amaya, Fumimasa; Brenner, Gary J; Ito, Nobuko; Allchorne, Andrew; Ji, Ru-Rong; Woolf, Clifford J

    2005-08-31

    Bradykinin, an inflammatory mediator, sensitizes nociceptor peripheral terminals reducing pain threshold. We now show that the B2 kinin receptor is expressed in rat dorsal horn neurons and that bradykinin, a B2-specific agonist, augments AMPA- and NMDA-induced, and primary afferent-evoked EPSCs, and increases the frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs in superficial dorsal horn neurons in vitro. Administration of bradykinin to the spinal cord in vivo produces, moreover, an NMDA-dependent hyperalgesia. We also demonstrate that nociceptive inputs result in the production of bradykinin in the spinal cord and that an intrathecal B2-selective antagonist suppresses behavioral manifestations of central sensitization, an activity-dependent increase in glutamatergic synaptic efficacy. Primary afferent-evoked central sensitization is, in addition, reduced in B2 receptor knock-out mice. We conclude that bradykinin is released in the spinal cord in response to nociceptor inputs and acts as a synaptic neuromodulator, potentiating glutamatergic synaptic transmission to produce pain hypersensitivity.

  3. DMPD: Multifunctional effects of bradykinin on glial cells in relation to potentialanti-inflammatory effects. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17669557 Multifunctional effects of bradykinin on glial cells in relation to potent... Epub 2007 Jun 27. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Multifunctional effects of bradykinin on glial cells i...n relation to potentialanti-inflammatory effects. PubmedID 17669557 Title Multifunction

  4. Plasma bradykinin and early diabetic nephropathy lesions in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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    Kevin M Wheelock

    Full Text Available To examine the association of bradykinin and related peptides with the development of diabetic nephropathy lesions in 243 participants with type 1 diabetes (T1D from the Renin-Angiotensin System Study who, at baseline, were normoalbuminuric, normotensive and had normal or increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR.Plasma concentrations of bradykinin and related peptides were measured at baseline by quantitative mass spectrometry. All participants were randomly assigned at baseline to receive placebo, enalapril or losartan during the 5 years between kidney biopsies. Kidney morphometric data were available from kidney biopsies at baseline and after 5 years. Relationships of peptides with changes in morphometric variables were assessed using multiple linear regression after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, HbA1c, mean arterial pressure, treatment assignment and, for longitudinal analyses, baseline structure.Baseline median albumin excretion rate of study participants was 5.0 μg/min, and mean GFR was 128 mL/min/1.73 m2. After multivariable adjustment, higher plasma concentration of bradykinin (1-8 was associated with greater glomerular volume (partial r = 0.191, P = 0.019 and total filtration surface area (partial r = 0.211, P = 0.010, and higher bradykinin (1-7 and hyp3-bradykinin (1-7 were associated with lower cortical interstitial fractional volume (partial r = -0.189, P = 0.011; partial r = -0.164, P = 0.027 respectively. In longitudinal analyses, higher bradykinin was associated with preservation of surface density of the peripheral glomerular basement membrane (partial r = 0.162, P = 0.013, and for participants randomized to losartan, higher hyp3-bradykinin (1-8 was associated with more limited increase in cortical interstitial fractional volume (partial r = -0.291, P = 0.033.Higher plasma bradykinin and related peptide concentrations measured before clinical onset of diabetic nephropathy in persons with T1D were associated with

  5. Analysis of erectile responses to bradykinin in the anesthetized rat

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    Edward, Justin A.; Pankey, Edward A.; Jupiter, Ryan C.; Lasker, George F.; Yoo, Daniel; Reddy, Vishwaradh G.; Peak, Taylor C.; Chong, Insun; Jones, Mark R.; Feintech, Samuel V.; Lindsey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    The kallikrein-kinin system is expressed in the corpus cavernosa, and bradykinin (BK) relaxes isolated corpora cavernosal strips. However, erectile responses to BK in the rat have not been investigated in vivo. In the present study, responses to intracorporal (ic) injections of BK were investigated in the anesthetized rat. BK, in doses of 1–100 μg/kg ic, produced dose-related increases in intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and dose-related deceases in mean arterial pressure (MAP). When decreases in MAP were prevented by intravenous injections of angiotensin II (Ang II), increases in ICP, in response to BK, were enhanced. Increases in ICP, ICP/MAP ratio, and area under the curve and decreases in MAP in response to BK were inhibited by the kinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE-140 and enhanced by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril and by Ang-(1–7). Increases in ICP, in response to BK, were not attenuated by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester) or the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) but were attenuated by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, sodium meclofenamate. Decreases in MAP were not attenuated by either inhibitor. These data suggest that erectile responses are mediated by kinin B2 receptors and modulated by decreases in MAP. These data indicate that ACE is important in the inactivation of BK and that erectile and hypotensive responses are independent of NO in the penis or the systemic vascular bed. Erectile responses to cavernosal nerve stimulation are not altered by BK or HOE-140, suggesting that BK and B2 receptors do not modulate nerve-mediated erectile responses under physiologic conditions. These data suggest that erectile responses to BK are mediated, in part, by the release of cyclooxygenase products. PMID:26055796

  6. Factor XII-independent activation of the bradykinin-forming cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Kusumam; Tholanikunnel, Baby G; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that prekallikrein expresses an active site when it is bound to high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) and can digest HK to produce bradykinin. The reaction is stoichiometric and inhibited by C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) or corn trypsin inhibitor. Addition of heat s...

  7. Pain, wheal and flare in human forearm skin induced by bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kai; Tuxen, C; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U

    1990-01-01

    Pain was induced in 19 healthy individuals by double-blind injections into the forearm skin of 0.05 ml of physiological saline with or without active substances added. Bradykinin (0.5 nmol), 5-hydroxytryptamine (0.5 nmol) and a mixture of the two substances in half dosage (0.25 nmol + 0.25 nmol) ...

  8. B1 but not B2 bradykinin receptor agonists promote DU145 prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous pathway involved in angiogenesis and tumourigenesis, both vital for cancer growth and progression. Objectives: To investigate the effect of two bradykinin receptor (B1R and B2R) agonists on growth and motility of prostate tumour (DU145) and ...

  9. Bradykinin or acetylcholine as vasodilators to test endothelial venous function in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida R. Rabelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of endothelial function has been performed in the arterial bed, but recently evaluation within the venous system has also been explored. Endothelial function studies employ different drugs that act as endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response inductors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the endothelium-dependent venous vasodilator response mediated by either acetylcholine or bradykinin in healthy volunteers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in vein diameter after phenylephrine-induced venoconstriction were measured to compare venodilation induced by acetylcholine or bradykinin (linear variable differential transformer dorsal hand vein technique. We studied 23 healthy volunteers; 31% were male, and the subject had a mean age of 33 ± 8 years and a mean body mass index of 23 ± 2 kg/m². The maximum endothelium-dependent venodilation was similar for both drugs (p = 0.13, as well as the mean responses for each dose of both drugs (r = 0.96. The maximum responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin also had good agreement. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between acetylcholine and bradykinin as venodilators in this endothelial venous function investigation.

  10. B1 but not B2 bradykinin receptor agonists promote DU145 prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both vital for cancer growth and progression. Objectives: To investigate the effect of two bradykinin receptor (B1R and B2R) agonists on growth and motility of prostate tumour (DU145) and micro-vascular endothelial cells (dMVECs). Methods: Increasing concentrations of selective B1R and B2R agonists were added to ...

  11. Bradykinin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocytes senescence via regulating redox state.

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    Ruolan Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell senescence is central to a large body of age related pathology, and accordingly, cardiomyocytes senescence is involved in many age related cardiovascular diseases. In consideration of that, delaying cardiomyocytes senescence is of great importance to control clinical cardiovascular diseases. Previous study indicated that bradykinin (BK protected endothelial cells from senescence induced by oxidative stress. However, the effects of bradykinin on cardiomyocytes senescence remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of bradykinin on H2O2-induced H9C2 cells senescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bradykinin pretreatment decreased the senescence induced by H2O2 in cultured H9C2 cells in a dose dependent manner. Interestingly, 1 nmol/L of BK almost completely inhibited the increase in senescent cell number and p21 expression induced by H2O2. Since H2O2 induces senescence through superoxide-induced DNA damage, we also observed the DNA damage by comet assay, and BK markedly reduced DNA damage induced by H2O2, and moreover, BK treatment significantly prevented reactive oxygen species (ROS production in H9C2 cells treated with H2O2. Importantly, when co-incubated with bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE-140 or eNOS inhibitor N-methyl-L-arginine acetate salt (L-NAME, the protective effects of bradykinin on H9C2 senescence were totally blocked. Furthermore, BK administration significantly prevented the increase in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activity characterized by increased ROS generation and gp91 expression and increased translocation of p47 and p67 to the membrane and the decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and expression induced by H2O2 in H9C2 cells, which was dependent on BK B2 receptor mediated nitric oxide (NO release. CONCLUSIONS: Bradykinin, acting through BK B2 receptor induced NO release, upregulated antioxidant Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activity and expression while

  12. Effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones on bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction

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    P. A. Virych

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical properties of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepine determined by the characteristics of their chemical structure. Influence of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones on maximal normalized rate and amplitudes of isometric smooth muscle contraction in rats was investigated. Compounds MX-1775 and MX-1828 demonstrated the similar inhibition effect on bradykinin-induced contraction of smooth muscle like competitive inhibitor des-arg9-bradykinin-acetate to bradykinin B2-receptors. MX-1626 demonstrated unidirectional changes of maximal normalized rate and force of smooth muscle that proportionally depended on bradykinin concentration in the range 10-10-10-6 M. MX-1828 has statistically significant decrease of normalized rate of smooth muscle contraction for bradykinin concentrations 10-10 and 10-9 M by 20.7 and 8.6%, respectively, but for agonist concentration 10-6 M, this parameter increased by 10.7% and amplitude was reduced by 29.5%. Compounds MX-2011, MX-1785 and MX-2004 showed no natural effect on bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction. Compounds MX-1775, MX-1828, MX-1626 were selected for further research of their influence on kinin-kallikrein system and pain perception.

  13. Inhibitory effect of donepezil on bradykinin-induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in cultured cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makitani, Kouki; Nakagawa, Shota; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    Donepezil is a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated the responses of astrocytes to bradykinin, an inflammatory mediator, and the effect of donepezil on these responses using cultured cortical astrocytes. Bradykinin induced a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultured astrocytes. Bradykinin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase was inhibited by the exposure to thapsigargin, which depletes Ca(2+) stores on endoplasmic reticulum, but not by the exclusion of extracellular Ca(2+). Twenty four hours pretreatment of donepezil reduced the bradykinin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase. This reduction was inhibited not only by mecamylamine, a nAChR antagonist, but also by PI3K and Akt inhibitors. In addition, donepezil inhibited bradykinin-induced increase of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level in astrocytes. These results suggest that donepezil inhibits the inflammatory response induced by bradykinin via nAChR and PI3K-Akt pathway in astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitory effect of donepezil on bradykinin-induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in cultured cortical astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Makitani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Donepezil is a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated the responses of astrocytes to bradykinin, an inflammatory mediator, and the effect of donepezil on these responses using cultured cortical astrocytes. Bradykinin induced a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i in cultured astrocytes. Bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited by the exposure to thapsigargin, which depletes Ca2+ stores on endoplasmic reticulum, but not by the exclusion of extracellular Ca2+. Twenty four hours pretreatment of donepezil reduced the bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i increase. This reduction was inhibited not only by mecamylamine, a nAChR antagonist, but also by PI3K and Akt inhibitors. In addition, donepezil inhibited bradykinin-induced increase of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level in astrocytes. These results suggest that donepezil inhibits the inflammatory response induced by bradykinin via nAChR and PI3K-Akt pathway in astrocytes.

  15. Consensus statement on the diagnosis, management, and treatment of angioedema mediated by Bradykinin. Part. II: treatment, follow-up, and special situations

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, T.; Baeza, M. L.; Cabañas, R.; Campos, A.; Cimbollek, S.; Gómez-Traseira, C.; González-Quevedo, T.; Guilarte, M.; Jurado-Palomo, J.; Larco, J. I.; López-Serrano, M. C.; López-Trascasa, M.; Marcos, C.; Muñoz- Caro, J. M.; Pedrosa, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are no previous Spanish guidelines or consensus statements on bradykinin-induced angioedema. Aim: To draft a consensus statement on the management and treatment of angioedema mediated by bradykinin in light of currently available scientifi c evidence and the experience of experts. This statement will serve as a guideline to health professionals. Methods: The consensus was led by the Spanish Study Group on Bradykinin-Induced Angioedema, a working group of the Spanish...

  16. A novel assay to diagnose hereditary angioedema utilizing inhibition of bradykinin-forming enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Kusumam; Bains, Sonia; Tholanikunnel, Baby G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema types I and II are caused by a functional deficiency of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) leading to overproduction of bradykinin. The current functional diagnostic assays employ inhibition of activated C1s, however, an alternative, more physiologic method, is desirable...... dilutions of normal plasma were employed to validate the ability to detect known concentration of C1-INH in the plasma as a percent of normal. HAE types I and II were then tested. The level of functional C1-INH in all HAE types I and II plasma tested were less than 40% of our normal control...... samples were considered equivocal (4 controls and 38 patients). CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of HAE types I and II can be ascertained by inhibition of enzymes of the bradykinin-forming cascade; namely, factor XIIa and kallikrein. Either method yields functional C1-INH levels in HAE patients (types I & II...

  17. Gene Variant of the Bradykinin B2 Receptor Influences Pulmonary Arterial Pressures in Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Thomas P; Frantz, Robert P; Turner, Stephen T; Bailey, Kent R; Wood, Christina M; Johnson, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) varies considerably in heart failure (HF) despite similar degrees of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Bradykinin alters vascular tone and common variations in the kinin B2 receptor (BDKRB2) gene exists. We hypothesized that genetic variation in this receptor would influence PAP in HF. 131 HF patients (>1yr history systolic HF), without COPD, not currently smoking, BMI tone in stable HF.

  18. Bronchoconstriction induced by citric acid inhalation in guinea pigs: role of tachykinins, bradykinin, and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardolo, F L; Rado, V; Fabbri, L M; Sterk, P J; Di Maria, G U; Geppetti, P

    1999-02-01

    Gastroesophageal acid reflux into the airways can trigger asthma attacks. Indeed, citric acid inhalation causes bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs, but the mechanism of this effect has not been fully clarified. We investigated the role of tachykinins, bradykinin, and nitric oxide (NO) on the citric acid- induced bronchoconstriction in anesthetized and artificially ventilated guinea pigs. Citric acid inhalation (2-20 breaths) caused a dose-dependent increase in total pulmonary resistance (RL). RL value obtained after 10 breaths of citric acid inhalation was not significantly different from the value obtained after 20 breaths (p = 0.22). The effect produced by a half-submaximum dose of citric acid (5 breaths) was halved by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 (0.1 micromol x kg-1, intravenous) and abolished by the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (0.3 micromol x kg-1, intravenous). Bronchoconstriction induced by a submaximum dose of citric acid (10 breaths) was partially reduced by the administration of HOE 140, SR 48968, or the NK1 receptor antagonist CP-99,994 (8 micromol x kg-1, intravenous) alone and completely abolished by the combination of SR 48968 and CP-99,994. Pretreatment with the NO synthase inhibitor, L-NMMA (1 mM, 10 breaths every 5 min for 30 min) increased in an L-arginine-dependent manner the effect of citric acid inhalation on RL. HOE 140 and CP-99,994 markedly reduced the L-NMMA-potentiated bronchoconstriction to inhaled citric acid. We conclude that citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction is caused by tachykinin release from sensory nerves, which, in part, is mediated by endogenously released bradykinin. Simultaneous release of NO by citric acid inhalation counteracts tachykinin-mediated bronchoconstriction. Our study suggests a possible implication of these mechanisms in asthma associated with gastroesophageal acid reflux and a potential therapeutic role of tachykinin and bradykinin antagonists.

  19. Bixa orellana leaves extract inhibits bradykinin-induced inflammation through suppression of nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoke Keong, Y; Arifah, A K; Sukardi, S; Roslida, A H; Somchit, M N; Zuraini, A

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of a crude aqueous extract of Bixa orellana leaves (AEBO) and to examine the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in its anti-inflammatory mechanism. The air-dried, powdered leaves were soaked in distilled water (1:20 w/v) at 50°C for 24 h and the supernatant obtained was freeze-dried (yield 8.5% w/w). The dosage was recorded as the mass of extract per kg b.w. of rats in all inflammatory assays (bradykinin-induced paw edema, peritoneal vascular permeability and NO assay). Pretreatment with AEBO for 4 consecutive days exhibited significant inhibitory activity against inflammatory models, the bradykinin-induced hind paw edema model and bradykinin-induced increased peritoneal vascular permeability at both doses in dose-dependent manner. In addition, AEBO was also found to significantly suppress the production of NO at doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg. This study provides scientific data to support the traditional use of B. orellana leaves in treating inflammation. Results from this study suggest that AEBO exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Part of this anti-inflammatory effect may be associated with its antibradykinin activity and may be related to a reduction of the NO production. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  1. Inhibitory effect of fentanyl citrate on the release of endothlin-1 induced by bradykinin in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Tsugunobu; Shinohara, Akira; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2017-02-01

    Our previous study showed that the μ-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl citrate inhibits endothelin-1-and bradykinin-mediated pain responses in mice orthotopically inoculated with melanoma cells. We also demonstrated that bradykinin induces endothelin-1 secretion in melanoma cells. However, the analgesic mechanisms of fentanyl citrate remain unclear. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine whether fentanyl citrate affects bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion in B16-BL6 melanoma cells. The amount of endothelin-1 in the culture medium was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The expression of endothelin-1, kinin B2 receptors, and μ-opioid receptors in B16-BL/6 melanoma cells was determined using immunocytochemistry. Fentanyl citrate inhibited bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion. The inhibitory effect of fentanyl citrate on the secretion of endothelin-1 was attenuated by the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide. The immunoreactivities of endothelin-1, kinin B2 receptors, and μ-opioid receptors in B16-BL6 melanoma cells were observed. These results suggest that fentanyl citrate regulates bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion through μ-opioid receptors in melanoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of the intra-arterial injection of bradykinin into the limbs, upon the activity of mesencephalic reticular units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, M C; Guilbaud, G; Besson, J M

    1975-02-01

    The changes in firing rate of mesencephalic reticular units after intra-arterial injection into the limbs of a potent nociceptive agent, bradykinin, were studied in cats (unanesthetized, immobilized with flaxedil and hyperventilated). 30 per cent of the d35 studied cells were affected, 56 per cent were excited, 23 per cent inhibited and 5 per cent had mixed effects. Among the 75 excited cells, the activation of 16 of them seemed to related to the arousa- processes (group A); for 56 cells the increase seemed dire-tly dependent on the nociceptive stimulation itself (group B). The changes of firing rate were repruducible; their latencies and durations were of the same order as the latencies and duration of the nociceptive reactions and painful sensation s, which have been obtained in animals and men after bradykinin injections. The modifications induced by bradykinin administration were suppressed by Ketamin and Thiopental.

  3. Exogenous Bradykinin Inhibits Tissue Factor Induction and Deep Vein Thrombosis via Activating the eNOS/Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolan Dong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bradykinin has been shown to exert a variety of protective effects against vascular injury, and to reduce the levels of several factors involved in the coagulation cascade. A key determinant of thrombin generation is tissue factor (TF. However, whether bradykinin can regulate TF expression remains to be investigated. Methods: To study the effect of bradykinin on TF expression, we used Lipopolysaccharides (LPS to induce TF expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes. Transcript levels were determined by RT-PCR, protein abundance by Western blotting. In the in vivo study, bradykinin and equal saline were intraperitoneally injected into mice for three days ahead of inferior cava vein ligation that we took to induce thrombus formation, after which bradykinin and saline were injected for another two days. Eventually, the mice were sacrificed and tissues were harvested for tests. Results: Exogenous bradykinin markedly inhibited TF expression in mRNA and protein level induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the NO synthase antagonist L-NAME and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 dramatically abolished the inhibitory effects of bradykinin on tissue factor expression. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation induced by bradykinin administration reduced the activity of GSK-3ß and MAPK, and reduced NF-κB level in the nucleus, thereby inhibiting TF expression. Consistent with this, intraperitoneal injection of C57/BL6 mice with bradykinin also inhibited the thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava. Conclusion: Bradykinin suppressed TF protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes in vitro; in line with this, it inhibits thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava in vivo.

  4. Gene Variant of the Bradykinin B2 Receptor Influences Pulmonary Arterial Pressures in Heart Failure Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Olson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP varies considerably in heart failure (HF despite similar degrees of left ventricular (LV dysfunction. Bradykinin alters vascular tone and common variations in the kinin B2 receptor (BDKRB2 gene exists. We hypothesized that genetic variation in this receptor would influence PAP in HF. Methods 131 HF patients (>1yr history systolic HF, without COPD, not currently smoking, BMI < 40, without atrial fibrillation completed the study which included a blood draw for genotyping and neurohormones (ACE, A-II, Bradykinin, ANP, BNP, and catecholamines, an echocardiogram for cardiac function and systolic PAP (PAPsys. Results Mean LVEF was 29% ∓ 12%, NYHA class 2 ∓ 1, age 56 ∓ 12 yr, BMI 28 ∓ 5 kg/m 2 . Forty-six patients (35% were homozygous for the +9 allele, 58 (44% were heterozygous (+9/-9 and 27 (21% were homozygous for the -9 allele of the BDKRB2. PAPsys averaged 42 ∓ 13, 38 ∓ 12, and 35 ∓ 11 mmHg for +9/+9, +9/-9 and -9/-9, respectively (p = 0.03. There was a trend towards gene effect for plasma ACE with the highest values in +9/+9 and lowest in -9/-9 patients (9.5 ∓ 10.7, 7.1 ∓ 8.7, and 5.4 ∓ 6.4 U/L, respectively, p = 0.06. There were no differences in plasma bradykinin or A-II, LVEF, or NYHA across genotypes. Conclusion These data suggest the +9/+9 polymorphism of the BDKRB2 receptor influences pulmonary vascular tone in stable HF.

  5. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and bradykinin peptides in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhe; Xu, Hongxin; Tian, Yihao

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been reported to decrease myocardial remodeling and faciliate cardiac function improvement in the setting myocardial infarction by affecting bradykinin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combination effects of perindopril and bradykinin (BK) in rats with myocardial infarction. Wistar Rats underwent to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation were allocated into MI group (n=6); Perindopril group (n=7); Perindopril+BK group (n=7). An additional sham operation group (Sham group, n=6) were also established. After 4 weeks, the left ventricle function, myocardial tissue morphology, myocardial collagen volume faction, infracted ventricular wall thickness, myocardial infarction area and neovascular formation were evaluated. Combination treatment with perindopril and BK were showed significant improvement on LVEDV, LVEF and LVFS than MI group. Moreover, a significant improvement on LVEF was found in Perindopril+BK group than Perindopril group but not on LVEDV and LVFS between these two groups. Furthermore, neo-vessel density was significantly increased in Perindopril+BK group than other groups while no significant improvement on vessel density was found after the treatment of perindopril. In addition, myocardial infarction thickness improvement was found in Perindopril and group than MI group while combination treatment with perindopril and BK can significant improve the myocardial infarction thickness than perindopril only. Combination treatment with ACE inhibitor perindopril and BK can significantly improve the ventricle function in the rat model of myocardial infarction. Our data suggest BK can serve as adjuvant treatment in myocardial infarction treatment.

  6. A liver metalloendopeptidase which degrades the circulating hypotensive peptide hormones bradykinin and atrial natriuretic peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A new metalloendopeptidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from a homogenate of normal human liver using successive steps of chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and Sephacryl S-200. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed the Pro7-Phe8 bond of bradykinin and the Ser25-Tyr26 bond of atrial natriuretic peptide. No cleavage was produced in other peptide hormones such as vasopressin, oxytocin or Met- and Leu-enkephalin. This enzyme activity was inhibited by 1 mM divalent cation chelators such as EDTA, EGTA and o-phenanthroline and was insensitive to 1 µM phosphoramidon and captopril, specific inhibitors of neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1, respectively. With Mr 85 kDa, the enzyme exhibits optimal activity at pH 7.5. The high affinity of this endopeptidase for bradykinin (Km = 10 µM and for atrial natriuretic peptide (Km = 5 µM suggests that it may play a physiological role in the inactivation of these circulating hypotensive peptide hormones.

  7. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels with small conductance in bradykinin-induced vasodilation of porcine retinal arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel; Bek, Toke

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasodilation may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal vascular diseases. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying bradykinin vasodilation were examined and whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (I...

  8. Amolopkinins W1 and W2--novel bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) from the skin of the Chinese torrent frog, Amolops wuyiensis: antagonists of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction of the rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Tianbao; Ding, Anwei; Rao, Pingfan; Walker, Brian; Shaw, Chris

    2009-05-01

    Bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) represent one of the most widespread and closely studied families of amphibian defensive skin secretion peptides. Apart from canonical bradykinin (RPPGFSPFR) that was first reported in skin extracts of the European brown frog, Rana temporaria, many additional site-substituted, N- and/or C-terminally extended peptides have been isolated from skin extracts and secretions from representative species of the families Ranidae, Hylidae, Bombinatoridae and Leiopelmatidae. The most diverse range of BRPs has been found in ranid frog skin secretions and this probably reflects the diversity and number of species studied and their associated life histories within this taxon. Amolops (torrent or cascade frogs) is a genus within the Ranidae that has been poorly studied. Here we report the presence of two novel BRPs in the skin secretions of the Chinese Wuyi Mountain torrent frog (Amolops wuyiensis). Amolopkinins W1 and W2 are dodecapeptides differing in only one amino acid residue at position 2 (Val/Ala) that are essentially (Leu(1), Thr(6))-bradykinins extended at the N-terminus by either RVAL (W1) or RAAL (W2). Amolopkinins W1 and W2 are structurally similar to amolopkinin L1 from Amolops loloensis and the major BRP (Leu(1), Thr(6), Trp(8))-bradykinin from the skin of the Japanese frog, Rana sakuraii. A. wuyiensis amolopkinins were separately encoded as single copies within discrete precursors of 61 amino acid residues as deduced from cloned skin cDNA. Synthetic replicates of both peptides were found to potently antagonize the contractile effects of canonical bradykinin on isolated rat ileum smooth muscle preparations. Amolopkinins thus appear to represent a novel sub-family of ranid frog skin secretion BRPs.

  9. Predictive value of serum bradykinin and desArg9-bradykinin levels for chemotherapeutic responses in active tuberculosis patients: A retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xu; Nguyen, Duc T M; Li, Yaojun; Lyu, Jianxin; Graviss, Edward A; Hu, Tony Y

    2016-12-01

    There is an urgent need for methods that can rapidly and accurately assess therapeutic responses in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in order to predict treatment outcomes. Exposure to bacterial pathogens can rapidly activate the plasma contact system, triggering the release of bradykinin (BK) and its metabolite desArg9-bradykinin (DABK) to induce inflammation and innate immune responses. We hypothesized that serum BK and DABK levels might act as sensitive immune response signatures for changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) burden, and therefore examined how serum levels of these markers corresponded with anti-TB therapy in a small cohort of active TB cases. Nanotrap Mass-Spectrometry (MS) was used to analyze serial blood specimens from 13 HIV-negative adults with microbiologically confirmed active TB who were treated with first-line anti-TB chemotherapy. MS signal for BK (m/z 1060.5) and DABK (m/z 904.5) serum peptides were evaluated at multiple time-points (before, during, and after treatment) to evaluate how BK and DABK levels corresponded with disease status. Serum BK levels declined from pretreatment baseline levels during the early stage anti-TB therapy (induction phase) and tended to remain below baseline levels during extended treatment (consolidation phase) and after therapy completion. BK levels were consistent with induction phase sputum culture conversions indicative of decreased Mtb burden reflecting good treatment responses. Serum DABK levels tended to increase during the induction phase and decrease at consolidation and post-therapy time points, which may indicate a shift from active disease to chronic inflammation to a disease free state. Elevated BK and DABK levels after treatment completion in one patient may be related to the subsequent recurrent TB disease. Our pilot data suggests that changes in the circulating BK and DABK levels in adult TB patients can be used as potential surrogate markers of the host response both early and late

  10. Bradykinin receptor blockade restores the baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in cisplatin-induced renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, M H; Duff, M; Swanton, H; Johns, E J

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of renal bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor blockade on the high- and low-pressure baroreceptor reflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats with cisplatin-induced renal failure. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg) or saline was given intraperitoneally 4 days prior to study. Following chloralose/urethane anaesthesia, rats were prepared for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and RSNA and received intrarenal infusions of either Lys-[des-Arg9 , Leu8 ]-bradykinin (LBK), a bradykinin B1 receptor blocker, or bradyzide (BZ), a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker. RSNA baroreflex gain curves and renal sympatho-inhibitory responses to volume expansion (VE) were obtained. In the control and renal failure groups, basal MAP (89 ± 3 vs. 80 ± 8 mmHg) and RSNA (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 1.7 ± 0.6 μV.s) were similar but HR was lower in the latter group (331 ± 8 vs. 396 ± 9 beats/min). The baroreflex gain for RSNA in the renal failure rats was 39% (P renal failure rats. Intrarenal LBK infusion in the renal failure rats normalized the VE induced renal sympatho-inhibition whereas BZ only partially restored the response. These findings suggest that pro-inflammatory bradykinin acting at different receptors within the kidney generates afferent neural signals which impact differentially within the central nervous system on high- and low-pressure regulation of RSNA. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pain and tenderness in human temporal muscle induced by bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kai; Tuxen, C; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U

    1990-01-01

    Pain was induced in 19 healthy individuals by double-blind injections into the temporal muscle of 0.2 ml of physiological saline with or without active substances added. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (2 nmol) caused pain similar to saline, bradykinin (2 nmol) only insignificantly more pain (0.05 less than p...... less than 0.1), while a mixture of the two substances in half dosage (1 nmol + 1 nmol) caused pain significantly above saline (p less than 0.01). Variations in the response to saline did not permit a conclusion to be made on the question of induced tenderness. However, the mixture of the two substances...... appeared to lower the pressure-pain threshold as measured by a pressure algometer (p less than 0.05)....

  12. Activity of Bradykinin B2 Receptor Is Regulated by Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Candelario

    Full Text Available The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA exert their beneficial effects on cardiovascular health remain obscure. While both LCPUFA and bradykinin (BK signaling pathway play a role in the cardiovascular system, any direct link between the two is yet to be established. Using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and a genetically engineered bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R sensor (B2K-CC, we detected LCPUFA-induced conformational responses in the B2R similar to those caused by its cognate ligand, BK. The selective B2R antagonist (HOE-140 blocked the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20∶5, n-3 induced conformational response of the B2K-CC. Further analysis suggests that LCPUFA are capable of direct, B2R-dependent activation of extracellular ligand-regulated kinases (ERK. From a wide range of fatty acids studied, varying in chain length, saturation, and position of double bonds, EPA, docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22∶6, n-3, docosadienoic (DDA, C22∶2, n-6, and dihomo-gamma linoleic (DGLA, C20∶3, n-6 fatty acids caused the highest ERK phosphorylation. EPA or DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the selective B2R antagonist. We show that LCPUFA stimulates downstream signaling by B2R such as B2R-dependent phosphorylation and expression regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS. Further analysis indicated that LCPUFA also alters levels of the eNOS transcription factor, kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2. Moreover we show that EPA increases membrane fluidity on the same time scale as B2R conformational response, suggesting that partitioning of LCPUFA into bilayer is a primary step required for receptor activation. In summary our data show that LCPUFA activate B2R receptor at nanomolar concentrations suggesting a novel molecular mechanism by which fatty acids may affect the cardiovascular system.

  13. Identification of B(2)-bradykinin receptors in guinea pig brain regions, spinal cord and peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, N A; Whiting, R L

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biochemical and pharmacological properties of bradykinin receptors in the guinea pig central and peripheral tissues using radioligand binding techniques. Specific [(3)H]bradykinin ([(3)H]BK) receptor binding to homogenates of guinea pig cerebral cortex, hippocampus, spinal cord, ileum, kidney, heart, vas deferens and uterus was of high affinity, saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of saturation (0.005-1 nM) data revealed the presence of a single population of non-interacting nanomolar affinity (generally 0.14-0.38 nM) binding sites in all these tissues, with the ileum having the highest affinity (K(D) = 0.02 nM) and the greatest density of sites (B(max) = 5.8 +/- 1.8 pmol/g tissue). The rank order of tissue enrichment in terms of [(3)H]BK binding sites was: ileum > uterus > kidney > heart > vas deferens > spinal cord > cerebral cortex > hippocampus. Unlabelled BK and its analogs inhibited [(3)H]BK binding in the above tissues in a concentration-dependent manner and with the same rank order of potency: BK > Lys-BK > Met-Lys-BK > [ d -Arg (0)-Hyp (3)- d -Phe (7)]BK ? [ d -Arg (0)-Hyp (3)-Thi (5,8)- d -Phe (7)]BK ? Des-Arg (9)-BK . A similar rank order of potency of agonists was observed for their ability to contract guinea pig uterine and ileal smooth muscle strips. The pharmacological profile of [(3)H]BK receptor binding, using BK agonists and antagonists, and that of functional responses was consistent with the identification of BK receptors of the B(2)-type in the guinea pig central nervous system and peripheral tissues.

  14. CA2+-DEPENDENT AND CA2+-INDEPENDENT MECHANISM OF CYCLIC-AMP REDUCTION - MEDIATION BY BRADYKININ B-2 RECEPTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIPMA, H; DENHERTOG, A; NELEMANS, A

    1 Bradykinin caused a transient reduction of about 25% in the cyclic AMP level in forskolin prestimulated DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells (IC50: 36.4 +/- 4.9 nM) and a pronounced, sustained inhibition (40%) of the isoprenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP level (IC50: 37.5 +/- 1.1 nM). 2 The Ca2+ ionophore,

  15. Bradykinin, insulin, and glycemia responses to exercise performed above and below lactate threshold in individuals with type 2 diabetes

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    R.Y. Asano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the acute responses of bradykinin, insulin, and glycemia to exercise performed above and below lactate threshold (LT in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. Eleven participants with a diagnosis of T2D randomly underwent three experimental sessions 72 h apart: 1 20 min of exercise performed at 120% of LT (120%LT, 2 20 min of exercise performed at 80% of LT (80%LT, and 3 20 min of control session. Blood glucose was analyzed before, during, and at 45 min post-exercise. Bradykinin and insulin were analyzed before and at 45 min post-exercise. Both exercise sessions elicited a parallel decrease in glucose level during exercise (P≤0.002, with a greater decrease being observed for 120%LT (P=0.005. Glucose decreased 22.7 mg/dL (95%CI=10.3 to 35, P=0.001 at the 45 min post-exercise recovery period for 80%LT and decreased 31.2 mg/dL (95%CI=18.1 to 44.4, P<0.001 for 120%LT (P=0.004. Insulin decreased at post-exercise for 80%LT (P=0.001 and control (P≤0.035. Bradykinin increased at 45 min post-exercise only for 80%LT (P=0.013, but was unrelated to the decrease in glucose (r=-0.16, P=0.642. In conclusion, exercise performed above and below LT reduced glycemia independently of insulin, but exercise above LT was more effective in individuals with T2D. However, these changes were unrelated to the increase in circulating bradykinin.

  16. Plasma kallikrein-bradykinin pathway promotes circulatory nitric oxide metabolite availability during hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Gayatri; Gangwar, Anamika; Sharma, Manish; Himashree, Gidugu; Singh, Krishan; Bhaumik, Gopinath; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an indispensible signalling molecule under hypoxic environment for both ethnic high altitude natives as well as lowland residents at high altitude. Several studies have reported higher levels of NO and bioactive NO products for both high altitude natives as well as healthy high altitude sojourners. But the metabolic pathways regulating the formation of NO and associated metabolites during hypoxia still remain elusive. In the present study, we profiled plasma proteomes of Ladakhi natives (3520 m) and lowland residents (post 1, 4 and 7 days stay) at the same altitude. This has resulted in the identification of 208 hypoxia responsive proteins (p hypoxia. In corroboration, we have also observed significant higher levels of plasma biomarkers for NO production (l-citrulline, nitrite, nitrate) for Ladakhi natives as compared to both lowland individuals healthy high altitude sojourners indicating higher NO availability. Since hypoxia-induced free radicals reduce NO availability, we also measured plasma levels of 8-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls and protein oxidation products in both Ladakhi natives and high altitude sojourners. Interestingly Ladakhi natives had significant lower levels of oxidative stress in comparison to high altitude sojourners but higher than lowland controls. These results suggest that plasma kallikrein-bradykinin-eNOS pathway along with moderate oxidative stress contributes to high altitude adaptation of Ladakhi natives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacologic Targets and Prototype Therapeutics in the Kallikrein-Kinin System: Bradykinin Receptor Agonists or Antagonists

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    J. N. Sharma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS is a complex system produced in various organs. This system includes kininogen (precursor for kinin, kallikreins, and pharmacologically active bradykinin (BK, which is considered to be proinflammatory and/or cardioprotective. It is a proinflammatory polypeptide that is involved in many pathological conditions and can cause pain, inflammation, increased vascular permeability, vasodilation, contraction of various smooth muscles, as well as cell proliferation. On the other hand, it has been shown that BK has cardioprotective effects, as all components of KKS are located in the cardiac muscles. Numerous observations have indicated that decreased activity of this system may lead to cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, cardiac failure, and myocardial infarction. BK acts on two receptors, B1 and B2, which are linked physiologically through their natural stimuli and their common participation in a variety of inflammatory responses. Recently, numerous BK antagonists have been developed in order to treat several diseases that are due to excessive BK formation. Although BK has many beneficial effects, it has been recognized to have some undesirable effects that can be reversed with BK antagonists. In addition, products of this system have multiple interactions with other important metabolic pathways, such as the renin-angiotensin system.

  18. Rapid optimization of the post-column fluorogenic ninhydrin reaction for the HPLC-based determination of bradykinin and related fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalasena, R; Audus, K L; Stobaugh, J F

    2003-01-01

    A flow injection analysis scheme is demonstrated for the rapid optimization of reagent concentrations, flow rates, delay time and temperature using the guanidino moiety specific fluorogenic ninhydrin reaction. Using the amino acid arginine, non-arginine containing peptides, and the arginine-containing peptides, bradykinin and related fragments, specificity is demonstrated. These results serve to extend previous descriptions of the post-column reaction by offering a time efficient approach for the optimization of newly assembled post-column reactors using this chemistry. The reactor is subsequently added to a gradient elution HPLC system with the separation of bradykinin and bradykinin fragments demonstrated. Detection sensitivity in the high femtomole-low picomole mass range was achieved for these substances. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. PKA and Epac cooperate to augment bradykinin-induced interleukin-8 release from human airway smooth muscle cells

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    Halayko Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway smooth muscle contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases by secreting inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8. IL-8 production is in part regulated via activation of Gq-and Gs-coupled receptors. Here we study the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP effectors protein kinase A (PKA and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac1 and Epac2 in the bradykinin-induced IL-8 release from a human airway smooth muscle cell line and the underlying molecular mechanisms of this response. Methods IL-8 release was assessed via ELISA under basal condition and after stimulation with bradykinin alone or in combination with fenoterol, the Epac activators 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP and Sp-8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMPS, the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cGMP. Where indicated, cells were pre-incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors Clostridium difficile toxin B-1470 (GTPases, U0126 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 and Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (PKA. The specificity of the cyclic nucleotide analogs was confirmed by measuring phosphorylation of the PKA substrate vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. GTP-loading of Rap1 and Rap2 was evaluated via pull-down technique. Expression of Rap1, Rap2, Epac1 and Epac2 was assessed via western blot. Downregulation of Epac protein expression was achieved by siRNA. Unpaired or paired two-tailed Student's t test was used. Results The β2-agonist fenoterol augmented release of IL-8 by bradykinin. The PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP significantly increased bradykinin-induced IL-8 release. The hydrolysis-resistant Epac activator Sp-8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMPS mimicked the effects of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, whereas the negative control 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cGMP did not. Fenoterol, forskolin and 6-Bnz-cAMP induced VASP phosphorylation, which was diminished by the PKA inhibitor Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS. 6-Bnz-cAMP and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP induced GTP

  20. GENETICALLY INCREASED ANGIOTENSIN-I CONVERTING ENZYME ALTERS PERIPHERAL AND RENAL VASCULAR REACTIVITY TO ANGIOTENSIN II AND BRADYKININ IN MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Catherine; Placier, Sandrine; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Hus-Citharel, Annette; Caron, Nathalie; Roussel, Ronan; Alhenc-Gelas, Francois; Bouby, Nadine

    2017-11-03

    Angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) levels in man are under strong genetic influence. Genetic variation in ACE has been linked to risk for, and progression of, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Causality has been documented in genetically modified mice but mechanisms underlying causality are not completely elucidated. To further document the vascular and renal consequences of a moderate genetic increase in ACE synthesis, we studied genetically modified mice carrying three copies of the ACE gene (3-copy mice) and littermate wild type animals (2-copy mice). We investigated peripheral and renal vascular reactivity to angiotensin II and bradykinin in vivo by measuring blood pressure and renal blood flow after intravenous administration, and also reactivity of isolated glomerular arterioles by following intracellular calcium mobilisation. Carrying 3 copies of the ACE gene potentiated the systemic and renal vascular responses to angiotensin II over the whole range of peptide concentration tested. Consistently, response of isolated glomerular afferent arterioles to angiotensin II was enhanced in 3-copy mice. In these mice, signalling pathways triggered by endothelial activation by bradykinin or carbachol in glomerular arterioles were also altered. While the NOS-NO pathway was not functional in arterioles of 2-copy mice, in muscular efferent arterioles of 3-copy mice NOS3 gene expression was induced and NO mediated the effect of bradykinin or carbachol. These data document new and unexpected vascular consequences of a genetic increase in ACE synthesis. Enhanced vasoconstrictor effect of angiotensin II may contribute to the risk for cardiovascular and renal diseases linked to genetically high ACE level. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  1. Bradykinin antagonist counteracts the acute effect of both angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and of angiotensin receptor blockade on the lower limit of autoregulation of cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur T; Paulson, Olaf B; Høj Nielsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The lower limit of autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be modulated with both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). The influence of bradykinin antagonism on ARB-induced changes was the subject of this study. CBF was measured in Sprague......-Dawley rats with laser Doppler technique. The blood pressure was lowered by controlled bleeding. Six groups of rats were studied: a control group and five groups given drugs intravenously: an ACE inhibitor (enalaprilat), an ARB (candesartan), a bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist (Hoe 140), a combination...

  2. Cardiovascular and vasoconstrictive actions of skate bradykinin in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea (Elasmobranchii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasiewicz, Patricia J; Conlon, J Michael; Anderson, W Gary

    2011-11-01

    The vasoconstrictive and cardiovascular actions of a recently identified bradykinin (BK)-related peptide (Gly-Ile-Thr-Ser-Trp-Leu-Pro-Phe) from the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea were examined in the unanesthetised little skate. Intra-arterial administration of a skate BK (0.1-1 nmolkg(-1)) produced a hypertensive response with a rise in blood pressure reaching a maximum elevation of 28.7±4.8% over baseline (Pskate BK. Further, in vivo administration of 1 nmolkg(-1) skate BK induced a significant delayed increase in stroke volume (reaching a maximum of 54.4±14.7% above baseline) without significant effect on either cardiac output or heart rate. In vitro, skate BK constricted the 1st branchial, mesenteric (EC(50) 2.7×10(-9)M) and coeliac (EC(50) 3.1×10(-9)M) arterial preparations of the skate. In contrast, skate [Arg(9)]BK, the mammalian B(1) receptor agonist des-[Arg(9)]BK, and the mammalian B(2) receptor antagonist HOE-140 failed to induce vasoconstriction in these isolated arterial preparations. The vasoconstrictor actions of skate BK in the isolated mesenteric, coeliac and branchial arterial preparations were significantly inhibited when co-administrated with esculetin and phentolamine. Indomethacin also inhibited the vasoconstrictor actions of skate BK in the isolated branchial artery. We conclude that, as in mammals and teleost fish, multiple pathways involving at least the alpha adrenergic and leukotriene synthesis pathway are involved in mediating the vasoconstrictive actions of BK in vascular smooth muscle of the little skate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cetirizine inhibits bradykinin-induced cutaneous wheal and flare in atopic and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, R; Ramboer, I; Chatterjee, N; Rihoux, J P; Derde, M P

    2000-04-01

    Kinins are vasoactive mediators involved in allergic reactions. When applied on the skin or in the nose, bradykinin (BK) elicits inflammation that is poorly affected by previous H1-blockade. The aim of this study was to compare the possible effect of cetirizine (an H1-antagonist) on wheal and flare responses to BK, histamine, and compound 48/80 in atopic and healthy subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, eight atopic and eight healthy subjects received cetirizine (10 mg/day) or placebo for 3 days before cutaneous tests. Intradermal tests (IDT) and prick tests (PT) were performed with BK (20 nmol/ml for IDT and 20 micromol/ml for PT), histamine (100 microg/ml IDT and 100 mg/ml PT), and compound 48/80 (100 microg/ml IDT and 100 mg/ml PT) as positive controls and saline as negative control. The skin responses were monitored by measurement of wheal and flare areas. BK, histamine, and 48/80 induced wheal and flare reactions in all placebo-treated subjects. Histamine elicited larger wheal and flare reactions than BK and 48/80. IDT with BK induced four- to sixfold larger wheal and flare reaction than PT. No differences in BK-induced wheal and flare were observed between atopic and healthy subjects. In atopic subjects, cetirizine induced a significant reduction of flare reactions after the BK test (80% for IDT, and 94% for PT [P wheals by 70% for IDT (P wheal and flare reactions induced by BK challenge were markedly inhibited by previous intake of cetirizine. The mechanism by which this effect is mediated cannot be established at present.

  4. Characterisation and mechanisms of bradykinin-evoked pain in man using iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Kathryn J; Zambreanu, Laura; Bennett, David L H; McMahon, Stephen B

    2013-06-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is an inflammatory mediator that can evoke oedema and vasodilatation, and is a potent algogen signalling via the B1 and B2 G-protein coupled receptors. In naïve skin, BK is effective via constitutively expressed B2 receptors (B2R), while B1 receptors (B1R) are purported to be upregulated by inflammation. The aim of this investigation was to optimise BK delivery to investigate the algesic effects of BK and how these are modulated by inflammation. BK iontophoresis evoked dose- and temperature-dependent pain and neurogenic erythema, as well as thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia (P skin was pretreated with compound 4880 to degranulate the MCs prior to BK challenge. The early phase of BK-evoked pain was reduced in degranulated skin (P wheal, and flare were still evident. In contrast to BK, the B1R selective agonist des-Arg9-BK failed to induce pain or sensitise naïve skin. However, following skin inflammation induced by ultraviolet B irradiation, this compound produced a robust pain response. We have optimised a versatile experimental model by which BK and its analogues can be administered to human skin. We have found that there is an early phase of BK-induced pain which partly depends on the release of inflammatory mediators by MCs; however, subsequent hyperalgesia is not dependent on MC degranulation. In naïve skin, B2R signaling predominates, however, cutaneous inflammation results in enhanced B1R responses. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bradykinin preconditioning improves therapeutic potential of human endothelial progenitor cells in infarcted myocardium.

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    Zulong Sheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Stem cell preconditioning (PC is a powerful approach in reducing cell death after transplantation. We hypothesized that PC human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs with bradykinin (BK enhance cell survival, inhibit apoptosis and repair the infarcted myocardium. METHODS: The hEPCs were preconditioned with or without BK. The hEPCs apoptosis induced by hypoxia along with serum deprivation was determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/ propidium iodide staining. Cleaved caspase-3, Akt and eNOS expressions were determined by Western blots. Caspase-3 activity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF levels were assessed in hEPCs. For in vivo studies, the survival and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of transplanted hEPCs were assessed using 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodi- carbocyanine,4-chlorobenzenesul-fonate salt labeled hEPCs and TUNEL staining. Infarct size and cardiac function were measured at 10 days after transplantation, and the survival of transplanted hEPCs were visualized using near-infrared optical imaging. RESULTS: In vitro data showed a marked suppression in cell apoptosis following BK PC. The PC reduced caspase-3 activation, increased the Akt, eNOS phosphorylation and VEGF levels. In vivo data in preconditioned group showed a robust cell anti-apoptosis, reduction in infarct size, and significant improvement in cardiac function. The effects of BK PC were abrogated by the B2 receptor antagonist HOE140, the Akt and eNOS antagonists LY294002 and L-NAME, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The activation of B2 receptor-dependent PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway by BK PC promotes VEGF secretion, hEPC survival and inhibits apoptosis, thereby improving cardiac function in vivo. The BK PC hEPC transplantation for stem cell-based therapies is a novel approach that has potential for clinical used.

  6. Inflammatory mediator bradykinin increases population of sensory neurons expressing functional T-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongyang; Liang, Ce; Zhang, Fan; Men, Hongchao; Du, Xiaona; Gamper, Nikita; Zhang, Hailin

    2016-04-29

    T-type Ca(2+) channels are important regulators of peripheral sensory neuron excitability. Accordingly, T-type Ca(2+) currents are often increased in various pathological pain conditions, such as inflammation or nerve injury. Here we investigated effects of inflammation on functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in small-diameter cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We found that overnight treatment of DRG cultures with a cocktail of inflammatory mediators bradykinin (BK), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), norepinephrine (NE) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) strongly increased the population size of the small-diameter neurons displaying low-voltage activated (LVA, T-type) Ca(2+) currents while having no effect on the peak LVA current amplitude. When applied individually, BK and ATP also increased the population size of LVA-positive neurons while NE and PGE2 had no effect. The PLC inhibitor U-73122 and B2 receptor antagonist, Hoe-140, both abolished the increase of the population of LVA-positive DRG neurons. Inflammatory treatment did not affect CaV3.2 mRNA or protein levels in DRG cultures. Furthermore, an ubiquitination inhibitor, MG132, did not increase the population of LVA-positive neurons. Our data suggest that inflammatory mediators BK and ATP increase the abundance of LVA-positive DRG neurons in total neuronal population by stimulating the recruitment of a 'reserve pool' of CaV3.2 channels, particularly in neurons that do not display measurable LVA currents under control conditions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Peptide IC-20, encoded by skin kininogen-1 of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, antagonizes bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation

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    Mu Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives were to determine if the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata, in common with other related species, contains a bradykinin inhibitor peptide and to isolate and structurally characterize this peptide. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized skin secretion obtained from this toad was subjected to reverse phase HPLC fractionation with subsequent bioassay of fractions for antagonism of the bradykinin activity using an isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle preparation. Subsequently, the primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy, and molecular cloning, following which a synthetic replicate was chemically synthesised for bioassay. Results: A single peptide of molecular mass 2300.92 Da was resolved in HPLC fractions of skin secretion and its primary structure determined as IYNAIWP-KH-NK-KPGLL-. Database interrogation with this sequence indicated that this peptide was encoded by skin kininogen-1 previously cloned from B. variegata. The blank cycles were occupied by cysteinyl (C residues and the peptide was located toward the C-terminus of the skin kininogen, and flanked N-terminally by a classical -KR- propeptide convertase processing site. The peptide was named IC-20 in accordance (I = N-terminal isoleucine, C = C-terminal cysteine, 20 = number of residues. Like the natural peptide, its synthetic replicate displayed an antagonism of bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Conclusion: IC-20 represents a novel bradykinin antagonizing peptide from amphibian skin secretions and is the third such peptide found to be co-encoded with bradykinins within skin kininogens.

  8. Anti-migraine effect of Areca Catechu L. nut extract in bradykinin-induced plasma protein extravasation and vocalization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandare, Amol M; Vyawahare, Neeraj S; Kshirsagar, Ajay D

    2015-08-02

    Areca catechu Linn. (Arecaceae) nut is a popular folk remedy for the treatment of migraine in Kerala and Tamil Nadu states of India. This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. catechu L. nut (ANE) treatment on migraine pain in rat models to strengthen its use as an anti-migraine therapy. Bradykinin (0.1 μmol/kg) injection in to left femoral vein of rat produced PPE which was measured with luminescence spectrometer. Vocalizations were produced in rats with 10 μg of bradykinin infusion into common carotid artery. Phonogram was recorded before, during and for 5min after bradykinin injection and sumatriptan was used as a standard anti-migraine drug. In both models, the ANE was orally administered at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, 60 min before bradykinin infusion. The PPE was reduced in both ANE treated groups of rats. The percent fluorescein was significantly increased in positive control group (97.00±1.7%; p<0.0001) compared to negative control (63.87±1.2%). With ANE treatments (250 and 500 mg/kg) PPE was significantly decreased to 88.88±1.4% (p<0.01) and 83.55±0.1% (p<0.0001) compared to positive control group, respectively. On the other hand in the model of vocalization, with 250 and 500 mg/kg ANE treatment, vocalization was significantly reduced to 33.33% and 16.66%, respectively, compared to saline treated rats. The reduction in vocalization is comparable to the reference drug sumatriptan. The findings provide the strong evidence for anti-migraine potential of ANE in rat models of migraine. In summary, therapeutic intervention with ANE treatment could be a promising strategy for prevention of migraine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bradykinin-evoked changes in cytosolic calcium and membrane currents in cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, M B; Sage, S O

    1989-12-01

    1. Cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were voltage clamped using a single microelectrode while cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was simultaneously measured using the fluorescent calcium indicator, Indo-1. 2. The resting current-voltage relationship was non-linear and exhibited marked inward rectification near the resting potential. In about 60% of cells examined, superfusion of saline resulted in a hyperpolarization and decrease in inward current. This result did not depend on the presence of agonist and is consistent with the presence of extracellular potassium accumulation in restricted spaces around the cell and the known dependence of the inward rectifier. In other cells there was no effect. 3. Resting [Ca2+]i was sensitive to membrane potential, decreasing continuously with membrane depolarization over the range -70 to +60 mV. This result is consistent with a simple pump-leak model and suggests that voltage-dependent calcium channels are not present in these cells. 4. Bradykinin (10 microM) increased [Ca2+]i after a delay of approximately 3 s. [Ca2+]i reached a peak after a further 3 s and declined over several minutes. 5. During the rise in [Ca2+]i evoked by application of bradykinin, there were no changes in the current-voltage relationship of the cell. These results question the role of a receptor-operated non-selective cation channel in mediating the increase in [Ca2+]i. This observation, coupled with the observed delay in the agonist-evoked response suggests that a second messenger system is involved in mediating the increase in [Ca2+]i. 6. Changes in the current-voltage relation started to occur about 30 s after the application of agonist. These changes could be explained by the activation of large-conductance potassium and non-selective cation channels with a reversal potential near 0 mV. The latter channels may mediate the plateau phase of the agonist-evoked response. 7. The results are discussed with respect to the

  10. Impact of angiotensin and endothelin converting enzymes and related bradykinin on renal functions in L-NAME hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ali Zainal; Maulood, Ismail M.

    2017-09-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), one of the most important hormonal systems, controls the kidney functions by regulating fluid volume, and electrolyte balance. The current study included the effects of kinin-kallikrein system (KKS) and its interaction with both angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) on some of kidney function test parameters. In the present experiment, rats were divided into six groups, the first group was infused with normal saline, the second group was L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treated rats, third group was bradykinin (BK), forth group was captopril (ACEi), fifth group was phosphoramidon (ECEi), sixth group was a combination of BK with phosphoramidon. L-NAME was intravenously infused for one hour to develop systematic hypertension in male rats. After one hour of infusion, the results showed that L-NAME significantly increased serum creatinine. While, it decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and K+ excretion rate. Moreover, BK increased packed cell volume PCV%, serum creatinine and K+ ion concentration. While, it reduced GFR, serum Ca+2 ion concentration, K+ and Na+ excretion rates. On the other hand, captopril infusion showed its effect by reduction in GFR, serum Ca+2 ion and electrolyte excretion rates. Phosphoramidon an ECEi dramatically reduced serum Ca+2 ion, but it increased pH, GFR and Ca+2 excretion rate. The results suggested that BK and Captopril each alone severely reduces GFR value. Interestingly, inhibition of ET-1 production via phosphoramidon could markedly elevate GFR values.

  11. A bradykinin potentiating peptide from Egyptian cobra venom strongly affects rat atrium contractile force and cellular calcium regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saadani, Muhammad A M; El-Sayed, Muhammad F

    2003-12-01

    Peptide fractions were isolated from venoms of the Egyptian snake Naja haje haje (cobra BPP) and the scorpions Buthus occitanus (BPP(B)) and Leirus quenquestriatus (BPP(L)). The pharmacological effects of these peptides were bioassayed and showed bradykinin potentiating activities. Amino acid analysis revealed that 14 amino acids contribute to the structure of BPP(B) and 16 for BPP(L), while cobra BPP was composed of 15 amino acids. Treatment of rat atrial preparations with 50 microg/ml of cobra BPP caused a significant reduction (Pcobra BPP in a way that restored the atrial force development. Na(+)-channel blockers did not change the force development at 5 mM Ca(2+). Experiments with (45)Ca revealed that Ca(2+) uptake of cobra BPP treated atria was 0.52+/-0.07 microM/g wet mass and the force at the end of the uptake period was 55.0+/-2.0%. The corresponding values for non-treated preparations were 0.56+/-0.04 microM/g and 92.0%+/-3.0%, respectively. Our results revealed that cobra BPP did not exhibit any effect on Ca(2+) uptake by rat atrial preparations, but strongly affected cellular Ca(2+) regulation.

  12. NSAID zaltoprofen possesses novel anti-nociceptive mechanism through blockage of B2-type bradykinin receptor in nerve endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Misaki; Inoue, Makoto; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2006-04-24

    Zaltoprofen, a propionic acid derivative of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), was shown to have more powerful inhibitory effects to bradykinin (BK)-nociception than other NSAIDs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this potent analgesia are not yet fully understood. Here we attempted to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying zaltoprofen-induced analgesia on BK-induced nociception by a novel algogenic-induced paw flexion (APF) test in mice. The intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of zaltoprofen at 1nmol showed strong analgesic action on BK (i.pl.)-induced nociceptive flexor responses, whereas loxoprofen or its active metabolite loxoprofen-SRS did not. Zaltoprofen also inhibited the nociception induced by [Tyr8]-BK, a specific agonist of B2-type BK receptor, but did not affect the nociception by [Lys-des-Arg9]-BK, a specific agonist of B1-type BK receptor. However, zaltoprofen did not affect the substance P-induced nociception, which is mediated by common post-receptor signaling through nociceptive fibers with BK-ones. All these results suggest that NSAID zaltoprofen possesses novel anti-nociceptive mechanism, which inhibits B2-type BK receptor function in nerve endings.

  13. Interaction between bradykinin potentiating nonapeptide (BPP9a) and {beta}-cyclodextrin: A structural and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lula, Ivana; De Sousa, Frederico B. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Denadai, Angelo M.L. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais, CEFET-MG, Campus VII, 35.183-006, Timoteo, MG (Brazil); Ferreira de Lima, Guilherme; Duarte, Helio Anderson [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mares Guia, Thiago R. dos [Departamento de Bioquimica e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Faljoni-Alario, Adelaide [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santoro, Marcelo M. [Departamento de Bioquimica e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Camargo, Antonio C.M. de [Center for Applied Toxinology CAT-CEPID, Laboratorio Especial de Toxicologia Aplicada, Instituto Butantan, 05503-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Robson A.S. dos [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofisica, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); and others

    2012-02-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the physical and chemical characterizations of the supramolecular complex formed between {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}CD) and bradykinin potentiating nonapeptide (BPP9a), an endogenous toxin found in Bothrops jararaca. Circular dichroism results indicate a conformational change in the BPP9a secondary structure upon its complexation with {beta}CD. Nuclear magnetic resonance results, mainly from NOESY experiments, and theoretical calculations showed a favorable interaction between the tryptophan residue of BPP9a and the {beta}CD cavity. Thermodynamic inclusion parameters were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry, demonstrating that {beta}CD/BPP9a complex formation is an exothermic process that results in a reduction in entropy. Additionally, in vitro degradation study of BPP9a against trypsin (37 Degree-Sign C, pH 7.2) showed higher stability of peptide in presence of {beta}CD. This {beta}CD/BPP9a complex, which presents new chemical properties arising from the peptide inclusion process, may be useful as an antihypertensive drug in oral pharmaceutical formulations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd and NMR showed evidences for the existence of more than one structure in solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexation with {beta}CD reduces the conformational rigidity of the peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}CD cavity recognize Trp and/or Pro segments of BPP9a. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactions involving disaggregation of BPP9a assemblies and binding with {beta}CD.

  14. Effect of bradykinin on TGF-β1-induced retinal pigment epithelial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenting; Wei, Qingquan; Liu, Qingyu; Ren, Chengda; Liu, Junling; Zhang, Ruiling; He, Mengmei; Wang, Qianyi; Du, Yaru; Yu, Jing

    2016-11-10

    To evaluate the effect of bradykinin (BK) on TGF-β1-induced retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell proliferation and extracellular matrix secretion and to elucidate the relationship between BK and the Erk/Akt signaling pathway. The effects of BK on TGF-β1-induced RPE cell proliferation were examined via CCK-8 assay. Cell culture supernatant collagen I concentrations were measured via ELISA. Fibronectin (Fn), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression levels were measured via q-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Changes in Akt/Erk phosphorylation induced by BK and HOE-140 were evaluated via Western blotting. TGF-β1 stimulated ARPE-19 cell proliferation, which was inhibited by BK, whose effects were inhibited by HOE-140. BK inhibited TGF-β1-induced collagen I, Fn and MMP-2 secretion in RPE cells, and these effects were inhibited by HOE-140. BK also inhibited TGF-β1-induced Akt phosphorylation in RPE cells, and these effects were blocked by HOE-140. BK had no significant effect on Erk-mediated signaling. The findings from this study indicate that BK could be novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of PVR.

  15. Cleavage of kininogen and subsequent bradykinin release by the complement component: mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Dobó

    Full Text Available Bradykinin (BK, generated from high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK is the major mediator of swelling attacks in hereditary angioedema (HAE, a disease associated with C1-inhibitor deficiency. Plasma kallikrein, activated by factor XIIa, is responsible for most of HK cleavage. However other proteases, which activate during episodes of angioedema, might also contribute to BK production. The lectin pathway of the complement system activates after infection and oxidative stress on endothelial cells generating active serine proteases: MASP-1 and MASP-2. Our aim was to study whether activated MASPs are able to digest HK to release BK. Initially we were trying to find potential new substrates of MASP-1 in human plasma by differential gel electrophoresis, and we identified kininogen cleavage products by this proteomic approach. As a control, MASP-2 was included in the study in addition to MASP-1 and kallikrein. The proteolytic cleavage of HK by MASPs was followed by SDS-PAGE, and BK release was detected by HPLC. We showed that MASP-1 was able to cleave HK resulting in BK production. MASP-2 could also cleave HK but could not release BK. The cleavage pattern of MASPs is similar but not strictly identical to that of kallikrein. The catalytic efficiency of HK cleavage by a recombinant version of MASP-1 and MASP-2 was about 4.0×10(2 and 2.7×10(2 M(-1 s(-1, respectively. C1-inhibitor, the major inhibitor of factor XIIa and kallikrein, also prevented the cleavage of HK by MASPs. In all, a new factor XII- and kallikrein-independent mechanism of bradykinin production by MASP-1 was demonstrated, which may contribute to the pro-inflammatory effect of the lectin pathway of complement and to the elevated bradykinin levels in HAE patients.

  16. Effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones on maximal normalized rate of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in the presence of calcium channel blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Virych

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern organic chemistry and molecular modeling technologies simplify the search for potential inhibitors of various receptor systems and biological processes. The one of the directions is the development of analgesics of broad spectrum and low toxicity. It is important to search for inhibitors of the kinin-kallikrein system that regulates many functions: inflammation, pain, carcinogenesis, vascular tone, smooth muscle contraction and other. Derivatives of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones have a unique spatial conformation that allows one to simulate β-structures of bioactive peptides. The functional activity of compounds is determined by properties of their peripheral chemical radicals. We analyzed the effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones derivatives on the normalized maximal rate of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction and relaxation of the stomach in the presence of calcium channel blockers: verapamil (1 μM, gadolinium (300 μM and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (0.1 μM. The levels of bradykinin and 3-arylamino-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones in incubation solution were 10–6 M. Data processing on dynamics of contraction was performed according to the method of Burdyha and Kosterin. Compounds MX-1775 and MX-1925 reduced maximal normalized rate (Vn of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in the presence of Gd3+ by 21.2% and 31.0% respectively. Compound MX-1925 increased Vn of relaxation by 11.6%. A similar effect is typical for MX-2011, where there is an increase by 34.6%. In the presence of verapamil this compound additionally decreased Vn contraction by 20.5%. Substances MX-1775, MX-2004 and MX-1925 restored maximal normalized rate of relaxation to original values of bradykinin-induced contraction. In the presence of 2-aminoethyldiphenylborinate MX-1775 additionally reduced Vn of contractions by 7.5%. 3-substituted 1,4-benzo­diazepine-2-ones did not change the maximal

  17. Intermittent activation of bradykinin B2 receptors and mitochondrial KATP channels trigger cardiac postconditioning through redox signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Claudia; Mancardi, Daniele; Rastaldo, Raffaella; Losano, Gianni; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2007-07-01

    Postconditioning (PostC) maneuvers allow post-ischemic accumulation of autacoids, which trigger protection. We tested if PostC-triggering includes bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor activation and its downstream pathway. Isolated rat hearts underwent 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Infarct size was evaluated using nitro-blue tetrazolium staining. In Control hearts infarct size was 61+/-5% of risk area. PostC (5 cycles of 10 s reperfusion/ischemia) reduced infarct size to 22+/-4% (pIntermittent-BK infusion were used to mimic PostC: a) 5 cycles of 10 s oxygenated-no-BK/oxygenated+BK buffer; b) 5 cycles of 10 s oxygenated-no-BK/hypoxic+BK buffer. Both protocols with Intermittent-BK attenuated infarct size (36+/-5% and 38+/-4%, respectively; pIntermittent-BK protection was abolished by the same antagonists used to prevent PostC protection. Intermittence of re-oxygenation only (5 cycles of 10 s oxygenated/hypoxic buffer) did not reproduce PostC. Yet, cardioprotection was triggered by intermittent mK(ATP) activation with diazoxide, but not by intermittent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with purine/xanthine oxidase. ROS scavengers (N-acetyl-L-cysteine or 2-mercaptopropionylglycine), given for 3 min only, abolished PostC-, Intermittent BK-and diazoxide-induced protection. Intermittent targeting of specific cellular sites (i.e. BK B2 receptors and mK(ATP) channels) during early reperfusion triggers PostC protection via ROS signaling. Since neither intermittent oxygenation nor exogenous ROS generators can trigger protection, it is likely that intermittent autacoid accumulation and ROS compartmentalization may play a pivotal role in PostC-triggering.

  18. Icatibant, an inhibitor of bradykinin receptor 2, for hereditary angioedema attacks: prospective experimental single-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Albuquerque Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hereditary angioedema (HAE with C1 inhibitor deficiency manifests as recurrent episodes of edema involving the skin, upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. It can be lethal due to asphyxia. The aim here was to evaluate the response to therapy for these attacks using icatibant, an inhibitor of the bradykinin receptor, which was recently introduced into Brazil.DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective experimental single-cohort study on the efficacy and safety of icatibant for HAE patients.METHODS: Patients with a confirmed HAE diagnosis were enrolled according to symptoms and regardless of the time since onset of the attack. Icatibant was administered in accordance with the protocol that has been approved in Brazil. Symptom severity was assessed continuously and adverse events were monitored.RESULTS: 24 attacks in 20 HAE patients were treated (female/male 19:1; 19-55 years; median 29 years of age. The symptoms were: subcutaneous edema (22/24; abdominal pain (15/24 and upper airway obstruction (10/24. The time taken until onset of relief was: 5-10 minutes (5/24; 20.8%; 10-20 (5/24; 20.8%; 20-30 (8/24; 33.4%; 30-60 (5/24; 20.8%; and 2 hours (1/24; 4.3%. The time taken for complete resolution of symptoms ranged from 4.3 to 33.4 hours. Adverse effects were only reported at injection sites. Mild to moderate erythema and/or feelings of burning were reported by 15/24 patients, itching by 3 and no adverse effects in 6.CONCLUSION: HAE type I patients who received icatibant responded promptly; most achieved improved symptom severity within 30 minutes. Local adverse events occurred in 75% of the patients.

  19. Interaction between bradykinin B2 and Ang-(1-7) Mas receptors regulates erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro de Souza; Peruchetti, Diogo de Barros; Silva, Claudio Teixeira Ferreira-Da; Ferreira-DaSilva, André Teixeira; Perales, Jonas; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia Sá

    2016-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasite are well understood, but the contribution of host components is not. We recently reported that Ang-(1-7) impairs the erythrocytic cycle of P. falciparum through Mas receptor-mediated reduction of protein kinase A (PKA) activity. The effects of bradykinin (BK), a peptide of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), can be potentiated by Ang-(1-7), or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as captopril. We investigated the coordinated action between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and KKS peptides in the erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum. We used human erythrocytes infected with P. falciparum to assess the influence of RAS and KKS peptides in the invasion of new erythrocytes. The inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7) were mimicked by captopril. 10(-8)M BK decreased new ring forms and this effect was sensitive to 10(-8)M HOE-140 and 10(-7)M A779, B2 and Mas receptor antagonists, respectively. However, DALBK, a B1 receptor blocker, had no effect. The inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) was reversed by HOE-140 and A779 at the same concentrations. Co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed an association between B2 and Mas receptors. BK also inhibited PKA activity, which was sensitive to both HOE-140 and A779. The results suggest that B2 and Mas receptors are mediators of Ang-(1-7) and BK inhibitory effects, through a cross-signaling pathway, possibly by the formation of a heterodimer. Our results describe new elements in host signaling that could be involved in parasite invasion during the erythrocyte cycle of P. falciparum. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Pre- and post-junctional bradykinin B2 receptors regulate smooth muscle tension to the pig intravesical ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana S F; Fernandes, Vítor S; Martínez, María Pilar; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Barahona, María Victoria; Recio, Paz; Martínez, Ana Cristina; Blaha, Igor; Orensanz, Luis M; Bustamante, Salvador; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores; Hernández, Medardo

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal and non-neuronal bradykinin (BK) receptors regulate the contractility of the bladder urine outflow region. The current study investigates the role of BK receptors in the regulation of the smooth muscle contractility of the pig intravesical ureter. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to show the expression of BK B1 and B2 receptors and myographs for isometric force recordings. B2 receptor expression was consistently detected in the intravesical ureter urothelium and smooth muscle layer, B1 expression was not detected where a strong B2 immunoreactivity was observed within nerve fibers among smooth muscle bundles. On ureteral strips basal tone, BK induced concentration-dependent contractions, were potently reduced by extracellular Ca(2+) removal and by B2 receptor and voltage-gated Ca(2+) (VOC) channel blockade. BK contraction did not change as a consequence of urothelium mechanical removal or cyclooxygenase and Rho-associated protein kinase inhibition. On 9,11-dideoxy-9a,11a-methanoepoxy prostaglandin F2α (U46619)-precontracted samples, under non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) and nitric oxide (NO)-independent NANC conditions, electrical field stimulation-elicited frequency-dependent relaxations which were reduced by B2 receptor blockade. Kallidin, a B1 receptor agonist, failed to increase preparation basal tension or to induce relaxation on U46619-induced tone. The present results suggest that BK produces contraction of pig intravesical ureter via smooth muscle B2 receptors coupled to extracellular Ca(2+) entry mainly via VOC (L-type) channels. Facilitatory neuronal B2 receptors modulating NO-dependent or independent NANC inhibitory neurotransmission are also demonstrated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Factor XII-independent activation of the bradykinin-forming cascade: Implications for the pathogenesis of hereditary angioedema types I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Kusumam; Tholanikunnel, Baby G; Bygum, Anette; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Kaplan, Allen P

    2013-08-01

    We have previously reported that prekallikrein expresses an active site when it is bound to high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) and can digest HK to produce bradykinin. The reaction is stoichiometric and inhibited by C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) or corn trypsin inhibitor. Addition of heat shock protein 90 leads to conversion of prekallikrein to kallikrein in a zinc-dependent reaction. Our goal was to determine whether these reactions are demonstrable in plasma and distinguish them from activation through factor XII. Plasma was incubated in polystyrene plates and assayed for kallikrein formation. C1-INH was removed from factor XII-deficient plasma by means of immunoadsorption. We demonstrate that prekallikrein-HK will activate to kallikrein in phosphate-containing buffers and that the rate is further accelerated on addition of heat shock protein 90. Prolonged incubation of plasma deficient in both factor XII and C1-INH led to conversion of prekallikrein to kallikrein and cleavage of HK, as was seen in plasma from patients with hereditary angioedema but not plasma from healthy subjects. These results indicate that C1-INH stabilizes the prekallikrein-HK complex to prevent HK cleavage either by prekallikrein or by prekallikrein-HK autoactivation to generate kallikrein. In patients with hereditary angioedema, kallikrein and bradykinin formation can occur without invoking factor XII activation, although the kallikrein formed can rapidly activate factor XII if it is surface bound. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and bradykinin on the vascular system of isolated lungs of the guinea-pig and the influence of phenylbutazone on these effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsen, P. N.; Zeegers, A.

    1972-01-01

    1. In isolated lungs of the guinea-pig perfused through the pulmonary artery repeated doses of histamine progressively increased pulmonary arterial pressure and reduced fluctuations in tracheal pressure. Phenylbutazone almost completely abolished the effect of histamine on the arterial pressure and suppressed the progression of the effect on tracheal pressure. 2. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and bradykinin did not show such progression. 3. The fractions of radioactivity remaining in the lungs after doses of 14C-histamine did not differ significantly after successive doses. The outflow of radioactivity from previously loaded lungs was greatly increased by histamine, bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptamine. This increase was not affected by papaverine. 4. Successive doses of histamine, but not 5-hydroxytryptamine, produced a progressive increase in weight of the lungs and this effect was accompanied by a progressive increase in arterial pressure. Both effects were strongly suppressed by phenylbutazone. 5. It is concluded that repeated administration of histamine causes an accumulation of fluid in the lungs probably mainly in the interstitial spaces, which results in an inhibition of the tracheal pressure fluctuations. Phenylbutazone prevents this effect by suppressing the vasoconstrictor action of histamine without affecting the increased vascular permeability. PMID:4403102

  3. Gender and age-dependent differences in the bradykinin-degradation within the pericardial fluid of patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtloff, Roland; Goette, Andreas; Bukowska, Alicja; Kähne, Thilo; Peters, Brigitte; Huth, Christof; Wolke, Carmen; Lendeckel, Uwe

    2011-01-21

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and, in particular, coronary artery disease (CAD) are the leading causes of death in developed countries, especially in the elderly population. Males exhibit a higher risk for cardiovascular events than women. The pericardial fluid (PF) is in direct contact with the epicardial sections of the coronary arteries and the perimyocardium. A systematic analysis of gender-specific or age-related differences in angiotensin-related pathways like bradykinin metabolism however, has not been performed in the PF so far. Therefore, the amounts of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the rate of the degradation of bradykinin (BK) and the amounts/activity of major BK-degrading enzymes, aminopeptidase N (APN) and dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase IV (DPIV), were assessed in the pericardial fluid (PF) of 44 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. We found BK being degraded within the PF. Interestingly, there was an age-dependent decrease in the amounts of ACE protein in women. In elderly women, ACE/APN and ACE/DPIV ratios were substantially reduced to 41.4% or 29.4% respectively (pgender-dependent differences in BK metabolism within the PF in patients with coronary artery disease. The present finding that the expression of ACE is lowest in elderly women, despite the presence of similar BK degradation, might help to explain the potentially reduced therapeutic effects of ACE inhibitors in elderly women. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein expression, biochemical pharmacology of signal transduction, and relation to intraocular pressure modulation by bradykinin B₂ receptors in ciliary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Najam A; Xu, Shouxi; Li, Linya; Katoli, Parvaneh; Kelly, Curtis R; Wang, Yu; Cao, Shutong; Patil, Rajkumar; Husain, Shahid; Klekar, Laura; Scott, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To examine the bradykinin (BK) B₂-receptor system in human and monkey ciliary muscle (CM) using immunohistochemical techniques, and to pharmacologically characterize the associated biochemical signal transduction systems in human CM (h-CM) cells. BK-induced modulation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in pigmented Dutch-Belt rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys was also studied. Previously published procedures were used throughout these studies. The human and monkey ciliary bodies expressed high levels of B₂-receptor protein immunoreactivity. Various kinins differentially stimulated [Ca²⁺](i) mobilization in primary h-CM cells (BK EC₅₀=2.4±0.2 nM > Hyp³,β-(2-thienyl)-Ala⁵,Tyr(Me)⁸-(®)-Arg⁹-BK (RMP-7) > Des-Arg⁹-BK EC₅₀=4.2 µM [n=3-6]), and this was blocked by B₂-selective antagonists, HOE-140 (IC₅₀=1.4±0.1 nM) and WIN-63448 (IC₅₀=174 nM). A phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122; 10-30 µM) and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (1-2 mM) abolished the BK-induced [Ca²⁺](i) mobilization. Total prostaglandin (primarily PGE₂) secretion stimulated by BK and other kinins in h-CM cells was attenuated by the cyclooxygenase inhibitors bromfenac and flurbiprofen, and by the B₂-antagonists. BK and RMP-7 (100 nM) induced a twofold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 phosphorylation, and BK (0.1-1 µM; at 24 h) caused a 1.4-3.1-fold increase in promatrix metalloproteinases-1-3 release. Topical ocular BK (100 µg) failed to alter IOP in cynomolgus monkeys. However, intravitreal injection of 50 µg of BK, but not Des-Arg⁹-BK, lowered IOP in rabbit eyes (22.9±7.3% and 37.0±5.6% at 5 h and 8 h post-injection; n=7-10). These studies have provided evidence of a functional endogenously expressed B₂-receptor system in the CM that appears to be involved in modulating IOP.

  5. Rupatadine effectively prevents the histamine-induced up regulation of histamine H1R and bradykinin B2R receptor gene expression in the rat paw.

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    Molyva, Dimitra; Kalokasidis, Konstantinos; Poulios, Christos; Dedi, Hara; Karkavelas, George; Mirtsou, Vassiliki; Goulas, Antonis

    2014-12-01

    Activation of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) is a well-known hallmark of allergic and inflammatory pathology. Both types of bradykinin receptors (B1R and B2R) are also known to contribute significantly to the latter and some sort of functional interaction between them and H1R has been alluded to in the past. Here we use an experimental model of rat paw oedema formation to examine the effect of exogenously added histamine on the gene expression of H1R and bradykinin receptors B1R and B2R, alone or in combination to rupatadine, a second generation antihistamine agent. Histamine-induced oedema formation was monitored with a plethysmometer. The gene expression of H1R, B1R and B2R was analyzed with both conventional and real-time PCR. Rupatadine fumarate was used in pure form and administered intraperitoneally, prior to histamine injection into the paw. Microscopy of haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of paw tissue was used to examine effects on tissue architecture. Histamine injection into the paw resulted in significant up regulation of H1R and B2R without inducing significant cellular infiltration, but appears to affect less the expression of B1R. Rupatadine was, under the conditions used in this study, very effective in preventing this effect and in suppressing oedema formation through its antihistamine action. Rupatadine has a suppressing effect on H1R and B2R gene expression which could add to its efficacy towards allergy and allergy-like conditions. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of an oral preparation containing hyaluronic acid (Oralvisc®) on obese knee osteoarthritis patients determined by pain, function, bradykinin, leptin, inflammatory cytokines, and heavy water analyses.

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    Nelson, F R; Zvirbulis, R A; Zonca, B; Li, K W; Turner, S M; Pasierb, M; Wilton, P; Martinez-Puig, D; Wu, W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an oral preparation containing hyaluronic acid on osteoarthritic knee joint pain and function as well as changes in inflammatory cytokines, bradykinin, and leptin. We also used heavy water to determine the turnover rates of glycosaminoglycans in synovial fluid. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 40 subjects over a period of 3 months. Visual analog scale, Western Ontario McMaster pain, and WOMAC function scores were recorded. Serum and synovial fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for inflammatory cytokines, bradykinin, and leptin. In 20 subjects, terminal heavy water ingestion was used for spectral analyses of serum and joint fluid samples. There were statistically significant improvements in pain and function. Both serum and synovial fluid samples showed significant decreases for a majority of inflammatory cytokines, leptin, and bradykinin in the oral hyaluronic acid preparation group. Heavy water analyses revealed a significant decrease in hyaluronic acid turnover in the synovial fluid of the treatment group. A preparation containing hyaluronic acid and other glycosaminoglycans holds promise for a safe and effective agent for the treatment for patients with knee osteoarthritis and who are overweight. Further studies will be required to see whether this is a disease-modifying agent.

  7. Bradykinin type 2 receptor -9/-9 genotype is associated with triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy following strength training in young healthy men

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    Popadic Gacesa Jelena Z

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2BRK genotype was reported to be associated with changes in the left-ventricular mass as a response to aerobic training, as well as in the regulation of the skeletal muscle performance in both athletes and non-athletes. However, there are no reports on the effect of B2BRK 9-bp polymorphism on the response of the skeletal muscle to strength training, and our aim was to determine the relationship between the B2BRK SNP and triceps brachii functional and morphological adaptation to programmed physical activity in young adults. Methods In this 6-week pretest-posttest exercise intervention study, twenty nine healthy young men (21.5 ± 2.7 y, BMI 24.2 ± 3.5 kg/m2 were put on a 6-week exercise protocol using an isoacceleration dynamometer (5 times a week, 5 daily sets with 10 maximal elbow extensions, 1 minute rest between sets. Triceps brachii muscle volumes were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging before and after the strength training. Bradykinin type 2 receptor 9 base pair polymorphism was determined for all participants. Results Following the elbow extensors training, an average increase in the volume of both triceps brachii was 5.4 ± 3.4% (from 929.5 ± 146.8 cm3 pre-training to 977.6 ± 140.9 cm3 after training, p9 allele compared to individuals with one or two +9 alleles (−9/-9, 8.5 ± 3.8%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 4.7 ± 4.5%, p B2BRK genotype (−9/-9, 50.2 ± 19.2%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 46.8 ± 20.7%, p > 0.05. Conclusions We found that muscle morphological response to targeted training – hypertrophy – is related to polymorphisms of B2BRK. However, no significant influence of different B2BRK genotypes on functional muscle properties after strength training in young healthy non athletes was found. This finding could be relevant, not only in predicting individual muscle adaptation capacity to training or sarcopenia related to aging and inactivity, but also in

  8. NADPH oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species signal contributes to bradykinin-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and cell migration in brain astrocytes.

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    Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Shih, Ruey-Horng; Chi, Pei-Ling; Cheng, Shin-Ei; Chen, Jin-Chung; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2012-11-23

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in pathological processes of brain inflammation, injury, and neurodegeneration. Moreover, bradykinin (BK) induces the expression of several inflammatory proteins in brain astrocytes. Recent studies have suggested that increased oxidative stress is implicated in the brain inflammation and injury. However, whether BK induced MMP-9 expression mediated through oxidative stress remains virtually unknown. Herein we investigated the role of redox signals in BK-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells). In the study, we first demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a crucial role in BK-induced MMP-9 expression in cultured brain astrocytes (in vitro) and animal brain tissue (in vivo) models. Next, BK-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a Ca2+-mediated PKC-α linking to p47phox/NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)/ROS signaling pathway. Nox2-dependent ROS generation led to activation and up-regulation of the downstream transcriptional factor AP-1 (i.e. c-Fos and c-Jun), which bound to MMP-9 promoter region, and thereby turned on transcription of MMP-9 gene. Functionally, BK-induced MMP-9 expression enhanced astrocytic migration. These results demonstrated that in RBA-1 cells, activation of AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun) by the PKC-α-mediated Nox2/ROS signals is essential for up-regulation of MMP-9 and cell migration enhanced by BK.

  9. NADPH oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species signal contributes to bradykinin-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and cell migration in brain astrocytes

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    Lin Chih-Chung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 plays a crucial role in pathological processes of brain inflammation, injury, and neurodegeneration. Moreover, bradykinin (BK induces the expression of several inflammatory proteins in brain astrocytes. Recent studies have suggested that increased oxidative stress is implicated in the brain inflammation and injury. However, whether BK induced MMP-9 expression mediated through oxidative stress remains virtually unknown. Herein we investigated the role of redox signals in BK-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells. Results In the study, we first demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS plays a crucial role in BK-induced MMP-9 expression in cultured brain astrocytes (in vitro and animal brain tissue (in vivo models. Next, BK-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a Ca2+-mediated PKC-α linking to p47phox/NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2/ROS signaling pathway. Nox2-dependent ROS generation led to activation and up-regulation of the downstream transcriptional factor AP-1 (i.e. c-Fos and c-Jun, which bound to MMP-9 promoter region, and thereby turned on transcription of MMP-9 gene. Functionally, BK-induced MMP-9 expression enhanced astrocytic migration. Conclusions These results demonstrated that in RBA-1 cells, activation of AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun by the PKC-α-mediated Nox2/ROS signals is essential for up-regulation of MMP-9 and cell migration enhanced by BK.

  10. Phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor at serine 1047 in cultured lung alveolar epithelial cells by bradykinin B2 receptor stimulation.

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    Izumi, Shunsuke; Higa-Nakamine, Sayomi; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Torihara, Hidetsugu; Uehara, Ayako; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Kakinohana, Manabu; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2017-09-09

    Accumulating evidence indicates that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is desensitized by phosphorylation of serine 1047 (Ser1047). We and other groups have reported that stimulation of a receptor of tumor-necrosis factor α (TNFα) and Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) induced the phosphorylation of Ser1047 through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in cultured lung alveolar epithelial A549 cells. However, phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 by stimulation of any G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) has not been reported in any cultured cells. In the present study, we first confirmed that A549 cells expressed bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor, and then, we examined whether BK treatment of A549 cells activated MAPKs and induced the phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047. Immunoblotting analysis and reporter gene assays indicated that BK activated the pathways of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK. Inhibitor studies suggested that Gq/11 was mainly involved in the activation of ERK and p38 MAPK. We found that stimulation of the BK B2 receptor, but not the BK B1 receptor, induced phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047. Pharmacological experiments indicated that both ERK and p38 MAPK were involved in the phosphorylation of EGFR. These results strongly suggested that BK regulates EGFR functions in lung alveolar epithelial cells. In addition, we found that BK treatment increased the mRNA level of dual specificity MAPK phosphatase 5 (DUSP5) in an ERK-dependent manner, which suggested that a negative feedback mechanism of ERK existed in the cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Multiple factors from bradykinin-challenged astrocytes contribute to the neuronal apoptosis: involvement of astroglial ROS, MMP-9, and HO-1/CO system.

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    Yang, Chuen-Mao; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Lin, Chih-Chung; Shih, Ruey-Horng; Chi, Pei-Ling; Cheng, Shin-Ei; Hsiao, Li-Der

    2013-06-01

    Bradykinin (BK) has been shown to induce the expression of several inflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in brain astrocytes. These mediators may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and death in various neurological disorders. However, the effects of multiple inflammatory mediators released from BK-challenged astrocytes on neuronal cells remain unclear. Here, we found that multiple factors were released from brain astrocytes (RBA-1) exposed to BK in the conditioned culture media (BK-CM), including ROS, MMP-9, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO), leading to neuronal cell (SK-N-SH) death. Exposure of SK-N-SH cells to BK-CM or H2O2 reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis which were attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, indicating a role of ROS in these responses. The effect of BK-CM on cell viability and cell apoptosis was also reversed by immunoprecipitation of BK-CM with anti-MMP-9 antibody (MMP-9-IP-CM) or MMP2/9 inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of MMP-9 in BK-CM-mediated responses. Astroglial HO-1/CO in BK-CM induced cell apoptosis and reduced cell viability which was reversed by hemoglobin. Consistently, the involvement of CO in these cellular responses was revealed by incubation with a CO donor CO-RM2 which was reversed by hemoglobin. The role of HO-1 in BK-CM-induced responses was confirmed by overexpression of HO-1 in SK-N-SH infected with Adv-HO-1. BK-CM-induced cell apoptosis was due to the activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. Together, we demonstrate that BK-induced several neurotoxic factors, including ROS, MMP-9, and CO released from astrocytes, may induce neuronal death through a caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  12. Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent c-Fos/Activator Protein 1 Induction Upregulates Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression by Bradykinin in Brain Astrocytes.

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    Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Wang, Hui-Hsin; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2010-12-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a crucial role in tissue pathological changes such as brain injuries. Our previous studies have demonstrated that bradykinin (BK) induces the expression of several inflammatory proteins, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 and COX-2, via mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying BK-induced HO-1 expression in RBA-1 cells remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrated that BK induced HO-1 expression and enzymatic activity via a B(2) BK receptor-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling pathway. NADPH oxidase (Nox)-dependent ROS generation led to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and then activated the downstream molecules NF-κB and c-Jun, respectively. The c-Fos, an activator protein 1 (AP-1) subunit, was upregulated by activation of NF-κB and c-Jun, which bound to HO-1 promoter and thereby turned on transcription of HO-1 gene. The rat HO-1 promoter containing a putative AP-1 cis-binding site was identified as a crucial domain linking to BK action. Taken together, these results suggested that in RBA-1 cells, activation of ERK/NF-κB and JNK/c-Jun cascades by a Nox/ROS-dependent event enhancing c-Fos/AP-1 activity is essential for HO-1 upregulation and activation induced by BK. Moreover, ROS-dependent NF-E2-related factor 2 activation also contributes to HO-1 induction by BK in astrocytes.

  13. Bradykinin induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and cell migration through a PKC-delta-dependent ERK/Elk-1 pathway in astrocytes.

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    Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2008-04-15

    Many reports have shown that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays an important role in brain inflammation and diseases. In our previous study, bradykinin (BK) has been shown to induce proMMP-9 expression via MAPKs and NF-kappaB in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). However, the molecular mechanisms and physiological roles underlying BK-induced MMP-9 expression in RBA-1 remain unclear. Here we reported that BK induced proMMP-9 expression and promoted RBA-1 cell migration, via a B(2) BK receptor-activated protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta)-dependent signaling pathway. Activation of PKC-delta led to phosphorylation and translocation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and then activated a transcription factor Elk-1. Phospho-Elk-1 bound to MMP-9 promoter and thereby induced transcription of MMP-9. The rat MMP-9 promoter containing an Elk-1 cis-binding site (Ets domain), that located at nucleotides -511 to -506 was identified as a crucial domain linking to BK action. Moreover, BK induced recruitment of p300 (as a transcriptional co-activator) to the MMP-9 promoter, leading to the acetylation of histone H4 in chromatin and facilitating MMP-9 gene transcription. Taken together, these results suggested that in RBA-1 cells, activation of ERK1/2 by a PKC-delta-dependent event mediated through Elk-1 pathway is essential for MMP-9 gene up-regulation and cell migration induced by BK. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Purification, structural characterization, and myotropic activity of a peptide related to des-Arg(9)-bradykinin from an elasmobranch fish, the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea.

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    Anderson, W Gary; Leprince, Jérôme; Conlon, J Michael

    2008-08-01

    A bradykinin (BK)-related peptide was isolated from heat-denaturated plasma from an elasmobranch fish, the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea after incubation with porcine pancreatic kallikrein. The primary structure of the peptide (H-Gly-Ile-Thr-Ser-Trp-Leu-Pro-Phe-OH; skate BK) shows limited structural similarity to the mammalian B1 receptor agonist, des-Arg(9)-BK. The myotropic activities of synthetic skate BK, and the analog skate [Arg(9)]BK, were examined in isolated skate vascular and intestinal smooth muscle preparations. Skate BK produced a concentration-dependent constriction of the mesenteric artery (EC(50)=4.37x10(-8)M; maximum response=103.4+/-10.23% of the response to 60mM KCl) but the response to skate [Arg(9)]BK was appreciably weaker (response to 10(-6)M=73.0+/-23.4% of the response to 60mM KCl). Neither the first branchial gill arch nor the ventral aorta responded to either purified peptide. Skate BK also produced a concentration-dependent constriction of intestinal smooth muscle preparations (EC(50)=2.74x10(-7)M; maximum response 31.0+/-12.2% of the response to 10(-5)M acetylcholine). Skate [Arg(9)]BK was without effect on the intestinal preparation. The data provide evidence for the existence of the kallikrein-kinin system in a phylogenetically ancient vertebrate group and the greater potency of skate BK compared with the analog skate [Arg(9)]BK suggests that the receptor mediating vascular responses resembles the mammalian B1 receptor more closely than the B2 receptor.

  15. Cloning and expression of genes enocoding antimicrobial peptides and bradykinin from the skin and brain of Oki Tago's brown frog, Rana tagoi okiensis.

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    Tazato, Shoro; Conlon, J Michael; Iwamuro, Shawichi

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies led to the isolation from skin extracts of Oki Tago's brown frog, Rana tagoi okiensis of five antimicrobial peptides belonging to the brevinin-1 (brevinin-1TOa), temporin (temporin-TOa and -TOb), and ranatuerin-2 (ranatuerin-2TOa and -2TOb) families, and bradykinin (BK) identical to mammalian BK. Using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we have now cloned from skin total RNA preparations cDNAs encoding biosynthetic precursors of brevinin-1TOa and brevinin-1TOb (containing the substitution Gly(1)-->Val), temporin-TOa and -TOb, and ranatuerin-2TOa and -2TOb. In addition, three cDNA clones encoding preprobradykinins were obtained that contained either one, two, or three tandem repeats of the sequence of BK followed by the sequence of [Thr(6)]-BK. In tissue expression analyses, preprobrevinin-1, preprotemporin, and preproranatuerin-2 gene transcripts were detected at higher levels in brain compared with peripheral tissues (heart, small intestine, kidney, liver lung, skeletal muscle, stomach, and testis). RT-PCR of brain RNA resulted in the amplification of cDNAs encoding ranatuerin-2TOc and ranatuerin-2TOd that contained the amino acid substitutions Lys(6)-->Arg and Ala(14)-->Thr, respectively compared with ranatuerin-2TOb. cDNAs encoding preprobrevinin-1TOa and preprotemporin-TOa were amplified from brain RNA as well as a second preprotemporin cDNA that contained a 10-nucleotide insertion that introduced a frame shift resulting in a premature stop codon. A cDNA encoding a novel peptide, DK25 (DVNDLKNLCAKTHNLLPMCAMFGKK) was amplified from brain RNA but neither DK25 nor its putative post-translationally modified form, DF22-amide (DVNDLKNLCAKTHNLLPMCAMF.NH(2)) displayed antimicrobial or hemolytic activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences between zofenopril and ramipril, two ACE inhibitors, on cough induced by citric acid in guinea pigs: role of bradykinin and PGE2.

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    Cialdai, Cecilia; Giuliani, Sandro; Valenti, Claudio; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Dry and persistent cough is one of the commonest side effects experienced by patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for the therapy of hypertension and congestive heart failure. The present study investigated the effect of zofenopril and ramipril on cough induced by citric acid in guinea pig and the involvement of bradykinin (BK) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in mediating the responses of these drugs. Zofenopril (10 mg/kg) or ramipril (3-10 mg/kg), which is threefold more potent than zofenopril, on a mg basis, in lowering blood pressure, was orally administered daily in drinking water for 2 weeks. At the end of this period, aerosol of citric acid solution (0.1 M) was performed and the number of cough counted for 10 min. The role of the kinin B(2) receptor was also investigated. BK and PGE2 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were measured after repeated oral treatment with zofenopril or ramipril (10 mg/kg). Ramipril (3-10 mg/kg) increased citric acid-induced cough by 40% and 60%, respectively, as compared to the vehicle control group (15.0 ± 1.8), while zofenopril (10 mg/kg) was without effect. The enhancement of citric acid-induced cough caused by ramipril (10 mg/kg) was reduced by the kinin B(2) receptor antagonist MEN16132 (0.25 mg/kg ip). BK and PGE2 levels in the BAL fluid were increased, in comparison to the control group, after ramipril treatment, while they were unchanged after zofenopril administration. Zofenopril, contrary to ramipril, did not affect either citric acid-induced cough in the guinea pigs or BK and PGE2 production in the airways.

  17. Interruption of the ionic lock in the bradykinin B2 receptor results in constitutive internalization and turns several antagonists into strong agonists.

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    Leschner, Jasmin; Wennerberg, Goeran; Feierler, Jens; Bermudez, Marcel; Welte, Benjamin; Kalatskaya, Irina; Wolber, Gerhard; Faussner, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The DRY motif with the highly conserved R3.50 is a hallmark of family A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The crystal structure of rhodopsin revealed a salt bridge between R135(3.50) and another conserved residue, E247(6.30), in helix 6. This ionic lock was shown to maintain rhodopsin in its inactive state. Thus far, little information is available on how interruption of this ionic bond affects signaling properties of nonrhodopsin GPCRs, because the focus has been on mutations of R3.50, although this residue is indispensable for G protein activation. To investigate the importance of an ionic lock for overall receptor activity in a nonrhodopsin GPCR, we mutated R128(3.50) and E238(6.30) in the bradykinin (BK) B(2) receptor (B(2)R) and stably expressed the constructs in HEK293 cells. As expected, mutation of R3.50 resulted in lack of G protein activation. In addition, this mutation led to considerable constitutive receptor internalization. Mutation of E6.30 (mutants E6.30A and E6.30R) also caused strong constitutive internalization. Most intriguingly, however, although the two E6.30 mutants displayed no increased basal phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, they gave a response to three different B(2)R antagonists that was almost comparable to that obtained with BK. In contrast, swapping of R3.50 and E6.30, thus allowing the formation of an inverse ionic bond, resulted in rescue of the wild type phenotype. These findings demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that interruption of the ionic lock in a family A GPCR can have distinctly different effects on receptor internalization and G protein stimulation, shedding new light on its role in the activation process.

  18. Role of Mas Receptor Antagonist A799 in Renal Blood Flow Response to Ang 1-7 after Bradykinin Administration in Ovariectomized Estradiol-Treated Rats

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    Aghdas Dehghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accompanied role of Mas receptor (MasR, bradykinin (BK, and female sex hormone on renal blood flow (RBF response to angiotensin 1-7 is not well defined. We investigated the role of MasR antagonist (A779 and BK on RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Methods. Ovariectomized Wistar rats received estradiol (OVE or vehicle (OV for two weeks. Catheterized animals were subjected to BK and A799 infusion and mean arterial pressure (MAP, RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR responses to Ang 1-7 (0, 100, and 300 ng kg−1 min−1 were determined. Results. Percentage change of RBF (%RBF in response to Ang1-7 infusion increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BK, when MasR was not blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OVE group was greater than OV group significantly (P<0.05. Infusion of 300 ng kg−1 min−1 Ang 1-7 increased RBF by 6.9±1.9% in OVE group versus 0.9±1.8% in OV group. However when MasR was blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OV group was greater than OVE group insignificantly. Conclusion. Coadministration of BK and A779 compared to BK alone increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 in vehicle treated rats. Such observation was not seen in estradiol treated rats.

  19. Acetylcholine and bradykinin enhance hypotension and affect the function of remodeled conduit arteries in SHR and SHR treated with nitric oxide donors

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    Gerová M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrepancy was found between enhanced hypotension and attenuated relaxation of conduit arteries in response to acetylcholine (ACh and bradykinin (BK in nitric oxide (NO-deficient hypertension. The question is whether a similar phenomenon occurs in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with a different pathogenesis. Wistar rats, SHR, and SHR treated with NO donors [molsidomine (50 mg/kg or pentaerythritol tetranitrate (100 mg/kg, twice a day, by gavage] were studied. After 6 weeks of treatment systolic blood pressure (BP was increased significantly in experimental groups. Under anesthesia, the carotid artery was cannulated for BP recording and the jugular vein for drug administration. The iliac artery was used for in vitro studies and determination of geometry. Compared to control, SHR showed a significantly enhanced (P < 0.01 hypotensive response to ACh (1 and 10 µg, 87.9 ± 6.9 and 108.1 ± 5.1 vs 35.9 ± 4.7 and 64.0 ± 3.3 mmHg, and BK (100 µg, 106.7 ± 8.3 vs 53.3 ± 5.2 mmHg. SHR receiving NO donors yielded similar results. In contrast, maximum relaxation of the iliac artery in response to ACh was attenuated in SHR (12.1 ± 3.6 vs 74.2 ± 8.6% in controls, P < 0.01. Iliac artery inner diameter also increased (680 ± 46 vs 828 ± 28 µm in controls, P < 0.01. Wall thickness, wall cross-section area, wall thickness/inner diameter ratio increased significantly (P < 0.01. No differences were found in this respect among SHR and SHR treated with NO donors. These findings demonstrated enhanced hypotension and attenuated relaxation of the conduit artery in response to NO activators in SHR and in SHR treated with NO donors, a response similar to that found in NO-deficient hypertension.

  20. Use of deuterium labeling by high-temperature solid-state hydrogen-exchange reaction for mass spectrometric analysis of bradykinin biotransformation.

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    Kopylov, Arthur T; Myasoedov, Nikolay F; Dadayan, Alexander K; Zgoda, Victor G; Medvedev, Alexei E; Zolotarev, Yurii A

    2016-06-15

    Studies of molecular biodegradation by mass spectrometry often require synthetic compounds labeled with stable isotopes as internal standards. However, labeling is very expensive especially when a large number of compounds are needed for analysis of biotransformation. Here we describe an approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis using bradykinin (BK) and its in vitro degradation metabolites as an example. Its novelty lies in the use of deuterated peptides which are obtained by a high-temperature solid-state exchange (HSCIE) reaction. Deuterated and native BK were analyzed by positive electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) using an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer. High-energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD) experiments were performed on [M+H](+) and [M+2H](2+) ions in targeted-MS(2) mode with adjusted normalized HCD value. After the HSCIE reaction, each amino acid residue of the deuterated peptide contained deuterium atoms and the average degree of substitution was 5.5 atoms per the peptide molecule. The deuterated peptide demonstrated the same chromatographic mobility as the unlabeled counterpart, and lack of racemization during substitution with deuterium. Deuterium-labeled and unlabeled BKs were incubated with human plasma and their corresponding fragments BK(1-5) and BK(1-7), well known as the major metabolites, were detected. Quantitative assays demonstrated applicability of the heavy peptide for both sequencing and quantification of generated fragments. Applicability of the HSCIE deuterated peptide for analysis of routes of its degradation has been shown in in vitro experiments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Met-Lys-bradykinin-Ser-Ser, a peptide produced by the neutrophil from kininogen, is metabolically activated by angiotensin converting enzyme in vascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Lajos; Roy, Caroline; Bawolak, Marie-Thérèse; Bouthillier, Johanne; Adam, Albert; Marceau, François

    2011-11-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is a vasoactive nonapeptide cleaved from circulating kininogens and that is degraded by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). It has been reported that the PR3 protease from human neutrophil releases an alternate peptide of 13 amino acids, Met-Lys-BK-Ser-Ser, from high molecular weight kininogen. We have studied vascular actions of this kinin. Its affinity for recombinant B₁ and B₂ receptors is very low, as assessed by the binding competition of [³H]Lys-des-Arg⁹-BK and [³H]BK, respectively, but Met-Lys-BK-Ser-Ser effectively displaced a fraction of [³H]enalaprilat binding to recombinant ACE. Mutant recombinant ACE constructions revealed that affinity gap between BK and Met-Lys-BK-Ser-Ser is larger for the N-terminal catalytic site than for the C-terminal one, based on competition for the substrate Abz-Phe-Arg-Lys(Dnp)-Pro-OH in an enzymatic assay. Met-Lys-BK-Ser-Ser is a low potency stimulant of the rabbit aorta (bioassay for B₁ receptors), but the human isolated umbilical vein, a contractile bioassay for the B₂ receptors, responded to Met-Lys-BK-Ser-Ser more than expected from the radioligand binding assay, this agonist being ∼30-fold less potent than BK in the vein. Venous tissue treatment with the ACE inhibitor enalaprilat reduced the apparent potency of Met-Lys-BK-Ser-Ser by 15-fold, while not affecting that of BK. In the rabbit isolated jugular vein, Met-Lys-BK-Ser-Ser is nearly as potent as BK as a contractile stimulant of endogenous B₂ receptors (EC₅₀ values of 16.3 and 10.5 nM, respectively), but enalaprilat reduced the potency of Met-Lys-BK-Ser-Ser 13-fold while increasing that of BK 5.3-fold. In vascular tissue, ACE assumes a paradoxical activating role for Met-Lys-BK-Ser-Ser. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel Roles for Kv7 Channels in Shaping Histamine-Induced Contractions and Bradykinin-Dependent Relaxations in Pig Coronary Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingjuan; Li, Wennan; Hiett, S. Christopher; Obukhov, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7 channels are inhibited by agonists of Gq-protein-coupled receptors, such as histamine. Recent works have provided evidence that inhibition of vascular Kv7 channels may trigger vessel contractions. In this study, we investigated how Kv7 activity modulates the histamine-induced contractions in “healthy” and metabolic syndrome (MetS) pig right coronary arteries (CAs). We performed isometric tension and immunohistochemical studies with domestic, lean Ossabaw, and MetS Ossabaw pig CAs. We found that neither the Kv7.2/Kv7.4/Kv7.5 activator ML213 nor the general Kv7 inhibitor XE991 altered the tension of CA rings under preload, indicating that vascular Kv7 channels are likely inactive in the preloaded rings. Conversely, ML213 potently dilated histamine-pre-contracted CAs, suggesting that Kv7 channels are activated during histamine applications and yet partially inhibited by histamine. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed strong Kv7.4 immunostaining in the medial and intimal layers of the CA wall, whereas Kv7.5 immunostaining intensity was strong in the intimal but weak in the medial layers. The medial Kv7 immunostaining was significantly weaker in MetS Ossabaw CAs as compared to lean Ossabaw or domestic CAs. Consistently, histamine-pre-contracted MetS Ossabaw CAs exhibited attenuated ML213-dependent dilations. In domestic pig CAs, where medial Kv7 immunostaining intensity was stronger, histamine-induced contractions spontaneously decayed to ~31% of the peak amplitude within 4 minutes. Oppositely, in Ossabaw CAs, where Kv7 immunostaining intensity was weaker, the histamine-induced contractions were more sustained. XE991 pretreatment significantly slowed the decay rate of histamine-induced contractions in domestic CAs, supporting the hypothesis that increased Kv7 activity correlates with a faster rate of histamine-induced contraction decay. Alternatively, XE991 significantly decreased the amplitude of bradykinin-dependent dilations in pre

  3. Bradykinin B2 Receptors of dendritic cells, acting as sensors of kinins proteolytically released by Trypanosoma cruzi, are critical for the development of protective type-1 responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Monteiro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept that dendritic cells (DCs recognize pathogens through the engagement of Toll-like receptors is widely accepted, we recently suggested that immature DCs might sense kinin-releasing strains of Trypanosoma cruzi through the triggering of G-protein-coupled bradykinin B2 receptors (B2R. Here we report that C57BL/6.B2R-/- mice infected intraperitoneally with T. cruzi display higher parasitemia and mortality rates as compared to B2R+/+ mice. qRT-PCR revealed a 5-fold increase in T. cruzi DNA (14 d post-infection [p.i.] in B2R-/- heart, while spleen parasitism was negligible in both mice strains. Analysis of recall responses (14 d p.i. showed high and comparable frequencies of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen of B2R-/- and wild-type mice. However, production of IFN-gamma by effector T cells isolated from B2R-/- heart was significantly reduced as compared with wild-type mice. As the infection continued, wild-type mice presented IFN-gamma-producing (CD4+CD44+ and CD8+CD44+ T cells both in the spleen and heart while B2R-/- mice showed negligible frequencies of such activated T cells. Furthermore, the collapse of type-1 immune responses in B2R-/- mice was linked to upregulated secretion of IL-17 and TNF-alpha by antigen-responsive CD4+ T cells. In vitro analysis of tissue culture trypomastigote interaction with splenic CD11c+ DCs indicated that DC maturation (IL-12, CD40, and CD86 is controlled by the kinin/B2R pathway. Further, systemic injection of trypomastigotes induced IL-12 production by CD11c+ DCs isolated from B2R+/+ spleen, but not by DCs from B2R-/- mice. Notably, adoptive transfer of B2R+/+ CD11c+ DCs (intravenously into B2R-/- mice rendered them resistant to acute challenge, rescued development of type-1 immunity, and repressed TH17 responses. Collectively, our results demonstrate that activation of B2R, a DC sensor of endogenous maturation signals, is critically required for development of acquired

  4. A cleavable signal peptide enhances cell surface delivery and heterodimerization of Cerulean-tagged angiotensin II AT1 and bradykinin B2 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitterer, Ursula, E-mail: ursula.quitterer@pharma.ethz.ch [Molecular Pharmacology Unit, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Pohl, Armin; Langer, Andreas; Koller, Samuel; AbdAlla, Said [Molecular Pharmacology Unit, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} A new FRET-based method detects AT1/B2 receptor heterodimerization. {yields} First time application of AT1-Cerulean as a FRET donor. {yields} Method relies on signal peptide-enhanced cell surface delivery of AT1-Cerulean. {yields} A high FRET efficiency revealed efficient heterodimerization of AT1/B2R proteins. {yields} AT1/B2R heterodimers were functionally coupled to desensitization mechanisms. -- Abstract: Heterodimerization of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor with the receptor for the vasodepressor bradykinin, B2R, is known to sensitize the AT1-stimulated response of hypertensive individuals in vivo. To analyze features of that prototypic receptor heterodimer in vitro, we established a new method that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and applies for the first time AT1-Cerulean as a FRET donor. The Cerulean variant of the green fluorescent protein as donor fluorophore was fused to the C-terminus of AT1, and the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) as acceptor fluorophore was fused to B2R. In contrast to AT1-EGFP, the AT1-Cerulean fusion protein was retained intracellularly. To facilitate cell surface delivery of AT1-Cerulean, a cleavable signal sequence was fused to the receptor's amino terminus. The plasma membrane-localized AT1-Cerulean resembled the native AT1 receptor regarding ligand binding and receptor activation. A high FRET efficiency of 24.7% between membrane-localized AT1-Cerulean and B2R-EYFP was observed with intact, non-stimulated cells. Confocal FRET microscopy further revealed that the AT1/B2 receptor heterodimer was functionally coupled to receptor desensitization mechanisms because activation of the AT1-Cerulean/B2R-EYFP heterodimer with a single agonist triggered the co-internalization of AT1/B2R. Receptor co-internalization was sensitive to inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor kinases, GRKs, as evidenced by a GRK-specific peptide inhibitor. In agreement with efficient AT1/B2R

  5. The influence of angiotensin converting enzyme and bradykinin receptor B2 gene variants on voluntary fluid intake and fluid balance in healthy men during moderate-intensity exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Adora M W; Moss, Andrew D; James, Lewis John; Gilmore, William; Ashworth, Jason J; Evans, Gethin H

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and bradykinin receptor B2 (B2R) genetic variation may affect thirst because of effects on angiotensin II production and bradykinin activity, respectively. To examine this, 45 healthy Caucasian men completed 60 min of cycle exercise at 62% ± 5% peak oxygen uptake in a room heated to 30.5 ± 0.3 °C with ad libitum fluid intake. Blood samples were collected pre-, mid-, and immediately post-cycle. Fluid intake, body mass loss (BML), sweat loss (determined via changes in body mass and fluid intake), and thirst sensation were recorded. All participants were genotyped for the ACE insert fragment (I) and the B2R insert sequence (P). Participants were homozygous for the wild-type allele (WW or MM), heterozygous (WI or MP) or homozygous for the insert (II or PP). No differences between genotype groups were found in mean (±SD) voluntary fluid intake (WW: 613 ± 388, WI: 753 ± 385, II: 862 ± 421 mL, p = 0.31; MM: 599 ± 322, MP: 745 ± 374, PP: 870 ± 459 mL, p = 0.20), percentage BML or any other fluid balance variables for both the ACE and B2R genes, respectively. Mean thirst perception in the B2R PP group, however, was higher (p fluid intake and fluid balance in healthy men performing 60 min of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat are not predominantly influenced by ACE or B2R genetic variation.

  6. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Stéphanie; González, Carmen; García, Celina; Zamarripa, David Arredondo; Nava, Gabriel; Vaca, Luis; López-Casillas, Fernando; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez; Clapp, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK). Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  7. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Clapp

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK. Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  8. Inhibitory Effect of the root of Polygala tenuifolia on Bradykinin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory activities (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg) using the following models: acetic acid-induced writhing, rat ... temperature (22 ± 2 °C) under a 12 h light / dark .... stomach irritation. Since inflammatory reactions induce many reactive oxygen radicals, our results suggest that the extract could be beneficial in the protection of ...

  9. Inhibitory Effect of the root of Polygala tenuifolia on Bradykinin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Administration of the Polygala tenuifolia extract at 100 mg/kg dose produced significant analgesic effect on acetic acid-induced writhing (97 % inhibition) but its effect in the tail-flick test was not significant (p < 0.05). In addition, the extract exerted significant anti-inflammatory effect in the rat paw edema model (8 to 33 ...

  10. Role of the bradykinin B2 receptor in a rat model of local heart irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblong, Benjamin J; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Srivastava, Anup K; Moros, Eduardo G; Sharma, Sunil K; Boerma, Marjan

    2015-08-01

    Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a delayed effect of radiotherapy for cancers of the chest, such as breast, esophageal, and lung. Kinins are small peptides with cardioprotective properties. We previously used a rat model that lacks the precursor kininogen to demonstrate that kinins are involved in RIHD. Here, we examined the role of the kinin B2 receptor (B2R) in early radiation-induced signaling in the heart. Male Brown Norway rats received the B2R-selective antagonist HOE-140 (icatibant) via osmotic minipump from 5 days before until 4 weeks after 21 Gy local heart irradiation. At 4 weeks, signaling events were measured in left ventricular homogenates and nuclear extracts using western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Numbers of CD68-positive (monocytes/macrophages), CD2-positive (T-lymphocytes), and mast cells were measured using immunohistochemistry. Radiation-induced c-Jun phosphorylation and nuclear translocation were enhanced by HOE-140. HOE-140 did not modify endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation or alter numbers of CD2-positive or mast cells, but enhanced CD68-positive cell counts in irradiated hearts. B2R signaling may regulate monocyte/macrophage infiltration and c-Jun signals in the irradiated heart. Although eNOS is a main target for kinins, the B2R may not regulate eNOS phosphorylation in response to radiation.

  11. Duration and distribution of experimental muscular hyperalgesia in humans following combined infusions of serotonin and bradykinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babenko, Victor; Svensson, Peter; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    -infusions interval of 3 min. Infusions of isotonic saline (NaCl, 0.9%) were given as control. Pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and subjects drew the distribution of the pain areas on an anatomical map. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed with an electronic algometer...... min after infusions. The VAS-peak after BKN was significantly higher (PVAS after 5-HT+BKN was significantly longer (P

  12. Photobiomodulation therapy in the modulation of inflammatory mediators and bradykinin receptors in an experimental model of acute osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Vanessa Lima Cavalcante; Silva, José Antonio; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Pallotta, Rodney Capp; da Silva, Evela Aparecida Pereira; de Farias Marques, Anna Cristina; Feliciano, Regiane Dos Santos; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on inflammatory indicators, i.e., inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and CINC-1), and pain characterized by hyperalgesia and B1 and B2 receptor activation at 6, 24, and 48 h after papain-induced osteoarthritis (OA) in rats. Fifty-four rats were subjected to hyperalgesia evaluations and then divided randomly into three groups-a control group and two groups OA and OA PBMT group by using laser parameters at wavelength (808 nm), output power (50 mW), energy per point (4 Joules), power density (1.78 W/cm(2)), laser beam (0.028 cm(2)), and energy density (144 J/cm(2))-the induction of osteoarthritis was then performed with 20-μl injections of a 4 % papain solution dissolved in 10 μl of saline solution, to which 10 μl of cysteine solution (0.03 M). The statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test for comparisons between the 6, 24, and 48 h and team points within each group, and between the control, injury, and PBMT groups, and p osteoarthritis.

  13. Clinical similarities among bradykinin-mediated and mast cell-mediated subtypes of non-hereditary angioedema : a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulkes, Karlijn J G; van den Elzen, Mignon T.; Hack, Erik C.; Otten, Henderikus G; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.F.M.; Knulst, André C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-hereditary angioedema (non-HAE) is characterized by local swelling due to self-limiting, subcutaneous or submucosal extravasation of fluid, and can be divided into three subtypes. These subtypes are believed to have different pathophysiological backgrounds and are referred to in

  14. Relationship of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and bradykinin B2 receptor (BDKRB2) polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Honghong; Wu, Guoqing; Lv, Jinlei; Xu, Gaosi

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether ACE2 I/D and BDKRB23 +9/-9 polymorphism causatively affect diabetic nephropathy progression RESULTS: STZ-induced metabolic disorder, as well as inflammatory responses, was significantly aggravated in ACE II-B2R4+9bp, ACE DD-B2R+9bp, or ACE DD-B2R-9bp diabetic mice but not ACE II-B2R-9bp, indicating the genetic susceptibility of ACE DD or B2R+9bp to diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, ACE II-B2R+9bp, ACE DD-B2R+9bp, or ACE DD-B2R-9bp rather than ACE II-B2R-9bp, worsened renal performance and enhanced pathological alterations induced by STZ. Markedly elevated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1), podocin, osteopontin (OPN), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and reduced nephrin, podocin were also detected both in diabetic mice and podocytes under hyperglycemic conditions in response to ACE II-B2R+9bp, ACE DD-B2R+9bp, or ACE DD-B2R-9bp, versus ACE II-B2R-9bp. In addition, high glucose-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and cell apoptosis were observably increased in response to ACE II-B2R+9bp, ACE DD-B2R+9bp, or ACE DD-B2R-9bp but not ACE II-B2R-9bp. We provide first evidence indicating the causation between ACE DD or B2R+9bp genotype and the increased risk for diabetic nephropathy, broadening our horizon about the role of genetic modulators in this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. GPCR Interaction: 316 [GRIPDB[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Predicted interfaces of Bradykinin type B2 by using the SCD with the alignment provided in GPCR...DB A Bradykinin Bradykinin type B2 Bradykinin type B2 ... Prediction ... 15593372 SCD for GPCRDB subtype 001_002_003_002 ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3250 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3250 ref|XP_001154776.1| PREDICTED: bradykinin receptor B2 isoform 1 [...Pan troglodytes] gb|AAB23467.1| bradykinin B2 receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA49360.1| B2 Bradykinin receptor... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25765.1| bradykinin B2 receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB02793.1| bradykinin receptor XP_001154776.1 1e-100 55% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0230 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0230 ref|XP_001154776.1| PREDICTED: bradykinin receptor B2 isoform 1 [...Pan troglodytes] gb|AAB23467.1| bradykinin B2 receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA49360.1| B2 Bradykinin receptor... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25765.1| bradykinin B2 receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB02793.1| bradykinin receptor XP_001154776.1 1e-114 73% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-22-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-22-0010 ref|XP_001154776.1| PREDICTED: bradykinin receptor B2 isoform 1 [...Pan troglodytes] gb|AAB23467.1| bradykinin B2 receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA49360.1| B2 Bradykinin receptor... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25765.1| bradykinin B2 receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB02793.1| bradykinin receptor XP_001154776.1 4e-64 43% ...

  19. Endothelin-1 shifts the mediator of bradykinin-induced relaxation from NO to H2 O2 in resistance arteries from patients with cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leurgans, Thomas M; Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that in resistance arteries from cardiovascular disease patients, effects of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator depend on the contractile stimulus. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Arteries dissected from parietal pericardium of cardiothoracic surgery...... in the presence of inhibitors of other endothelium-derived relaxing factors. Catalase-sensitive staining of cellular reactive oxygen species with CellROX Deep Red was significantly increased in presence of both 1 μM BK and 2 nM ET-1 but not either peptide alone. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In patient resistance...

  20. Cellular localization of kinin B1 receptor in the spinal cord of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with a fluorescent [Nα-Bodipy]-des-Arg9-bradykinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudreau Pierrette

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinin B1 receptor (B1R is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxins and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. In animal models of diabetes, it contributes to pain polyneuropathy. This study aims at defining the cellular localization of B1R in thoracic spinal cord of type 1 diabetic rats by confocal microscopy with the use of a fluorescent agonist, [Nα-Bodipy]-des-Arg9-BK (BdABK and selective antibodies. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg, i.p.. Four days post-STZ treatment, B1R expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and autoradiography. The B1R selectivity of BdABK was determined by assessing its ability to displace B1R [125I]-HPP-desArg10-Hoe140 and B2R [125I]-HPP-Hoe 140 radioligands. The in vivo activity of BdABK was also evaluated on thermal hyperalgesia. Results B1R was increased by 18-fold (mRNA and 2.7-fold (binding sites in the thoracic spinal cord of STZ-treated rats when compared to control. BdABK failed to displace the B2R radioligand but displaced the B1R radioligand (IC50 = 5.3 nM. In comparison, IC50 values of B1R selective antagonist R-715 and B1R agonist des-Arg9-BK were 4.3 nM and 19 nM, respectively. Intraperitoneal BdABK and des-Arg9-BK elicited dose-dependent thermal hyperalgesia in STZ-treated rats but not in control rats. The B1R fluorescent agonist was co-localized with immunomarkers of microglia, astrocytes and sensory C fibers in the spinal cord of STZ-treated rats. Conclusion The induction and up-regulation of B1R in glial and sensory cells of the spinal cord in STZ-diabetic rats reinforce the idea that kinin B1R is an important target for drug development in pain processes.

  1. Endothelin-1 shifts the mediator of bradykinin-induced relaxation from NO to H2 O2 in resistance arteries from patients with cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leurgans, Thomas M; Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    -activated K(+) -channels, but markedly blunted by catalase during ET-1-induced contraction. This catalase-sensitive relaxation was not modified by inhibitors of NADPH oxidases or allopurinol. Exogenous H2 O2 caused significantly larger relaxation of ET-1- than K(+) - or U46619-induced contraction...... in the presence of inhibitors of other endothelium-derived relaxing factors. Catalase-sensitive staining of cellular reactive oxygen species with CellROX Deep Red was significantly increased in presence of both 1 μM BK and 2 nM ET-1 but not either peptide alone. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In patient resistance...

  2. Pustulosis palmoplantaris udløst af angiotensinkonverterende enzymhaemmere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Christiansen, J J; Asmussen, I

    1995-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is identical to kinase II, which inactivates bradykinin. Inhibition of bradykinin degradation by ACE inhibitors alters the kinin-kallikrein arachidonic acid system leading to increased concentrations of inflammatory metabolites. It has previously been...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-15-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-15-0053 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 0.0 95% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-17-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-17-0001 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 1e-63 42% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2412 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2412 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 1e-161 77% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1176 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1176 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 1e-132 69% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-22-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-22-0010 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 9e-64 43% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1336 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1336 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 2e-79 79% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-15-0054 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-15-0054 ref|NP_001075816.1| bradykinin B1 receptor [Oryctolagus cuniculus...] sp|P48748|BKRB1_RABIT B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAC48482.1| bradykinin B1 receptor NP_001075816.1 1e-157 77% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-12-0037 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-12-0037 ref|NP_001075816.1| bradykinin B1 receptor [Oryctolagus cuniculus...] sp|P48748|BKRB1_RABIT B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAC48482.1| bradykinin B1 receptor NP_001075816.1 1e-138 74% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-06-0128 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-06-0128 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 1e-180 84% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0257 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0257 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 1e-88 82% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0272 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0272 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 1e-158 78% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-05-0033 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-05-0033 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 2e-78 41% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-08-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-08-0028 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 1e-178 84% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0707 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0707 ref|NP_001075816.1| bradykinin B1 receptor [Oryctolagus cuniculus...] sp|P48748|BKRB1_RABIT B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAC48482.1| bradykinin B1 receptor NP_001075816.1 2e-48 34% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-14-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-14-0065 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 0.0 96% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-15-0054 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-15-0054 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 0.0 95% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2126 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2126 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 1e-109 56% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0608 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0608 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 1e-178 83% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2411 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2411 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 1e-180 86% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-0824 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-0824 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 5e-39 65% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0867 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0867 ref|NP_001075816.1| bradykinin B1 receptor [Oryctolagus cuniculus...] sp|P48748|BKRB1_RABIT B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAC48482.1| bradykinin B1 receptor NP_001075816.1 4e-37 69% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-07-0088 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-07-0088 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 1e-122 97% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1174 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1174 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 1e-128 86% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0197 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0197 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 4e-62 42% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-12-0037 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-12-0037 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 1e-138 73% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-15-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-15-0012 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 6e-66 40% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-08-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-08-0028 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 1e-81 44% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0091 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0091 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 9e-71 69% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2126 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2126 ref|NP_001075816.1| bradykinin B1 receptor [Oryctolagus cuniculus...] sp|P48748|BKRB1_RABIT B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAC48482.1| bradykinin B1 receptor NP_001075816.1 1e-105 56% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-07-0088 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-07-0088 ref|NP_001075816.1| bradykinin B1 receptor [Oryctolagus cuniculus...] sp|P48748|BKRB1_RABIT B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAC48482.1| bradykinin B1 receptor NP_001075816.1 1e-96 76% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0906 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0906 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 3e-48 72% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1241 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1241 ref|NP_001075816.1| bradykinin B1 receptor [Oryctolagus cuniculus...] sp|P48748|BKRB1_RABIT B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAC48482.1| bradykinin B1 receptor NP_001075816.1 8e-82 97% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0695 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0695 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 0.0 91% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0867 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0867 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 8e-38 66% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-12-0036 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-12-0036 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 0.0 89% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0230 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0230 ref|NP_999311.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] sp|Q9GLX8|BKRB2_PIG B2 brad...ykinin receptor (BK-2 receptor) (B2R) dbj|BAB18462.1| bradykinin type 2 receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999311.1 1e-116 70% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-0095 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-0095 sp|Q3BCU0|BKRB1_MACFA B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) gb|AAK95386.1| B1 brad...ykinin receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAX14712.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Macaca fascicularis] Q3BCU0 1e-44 52% ...

  20. Alu insertion/deletion of ACE gene polymorphism might not affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widodo

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... D polymorphism of ACE on the enzyme's ability to catalyse bradykinin is still not widely known. Aims: This study aimed to examine the serum bradykinin level in hypertensive patients with I/D polymorphism of ACE, who were treated with ACE inhibitor. Subjects and methods: The serum bradykinin and I/D ...

  1. Gene : CBRC-GGOR-01-1364 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bradykinin receptor B1 [Homo sapiens] sp|P46663|BKRB1_HUMAN RecName: Full=B1 bradykinin receptor; AltName: ...Full=BK-1 receptor; Short=B1R emb|CAB45650.1| bradykinin B1 receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06112.1| seven tr...ansmembrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH34705.1| Bradykinin receptor B1 [Homo sapi...ens] gb|AAP32296.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW81632.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Homo sapi...1 [synthetic construct] dbj|BAF84659.1| unnamed protein product [Homo sapiens] 1e

  2. Bradykinin and kallidin levels in the trapezius muscle in patients with work-related trapezius myalgia, in patients with whiplash associated pain, and in healthy controls - A microdialysis study of women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdle, Björn; Hilgenfeldt, Ulrich; Larsson, Britt

    2008-01-01

    investigates whether there were significant differences in interstitial muscle concentrations of BKN and KAL between chronic work-related trapezius myalgia (TM), chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), and healthy controls (CON). These subjects were studied at rest, during a 20-min repetitive low...

  3. Kinin-B2 receptor mediated neuroprotection after NMDA excitotoxicity is reversed in the presence of kinin-B1 receptor agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio H Martins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kinins, with bradykinin and des-Arg(9-bradykinin being the most important ones, are pro-inflammatory peptides released after tissue injury including stroke. Although the actions of bradykinin are in general well characterized; it remains controversial whether the effects of bradykinin are beneficial or not. Kinin-B2 receptor activation participates in various physiological processes including hypotension, neurotransmission and neuronal differentiation. The bradykinin metabolite des-Arg(9-bradykinin as well as Lys-des-Arg(9-bradykinin activates the kinin-B1 receptor known to be expressed under inflammatory conditions. We have investigated the effects of kinin-B1 and B2 receptor activation on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-induced excitotoxicity measured as decreased capacity to produce synaptically evoked population spikes in the CA1 area of rat hippocampal slices. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bradykinin at 10 nM and 1 µM concentrations triggered a neuroprotective cascade via kinin-B2 receptor activation which conferred protection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Recovery of population spikes induced by 10 nM bradykinin was completely abolished when the peptide was co-applied with the selective kinin-B2 receptor antagonist HOE-140. Kinin-B2 receptor activation promoted survival of hippocampal neurons via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, while MEK/MAPK signaling was not involved in protection against NMDA-evoked excitotoxic effects. However, 100 nM Lys-des-Arg(9-bradykinin, a potent kinin-B1 receptor agonist, reversed bradykinin-induced population spike recovery. The inhibition of population spikes recovery was reversed by PD98059, showing that MEK/MAPK was involved in the induction of apoptosis mediated by the B1 receptor. CONCLUSIONS: Bradykinin exerted protection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity which is reversed in the presence of a kinin-B1 receptor agonist. As bradykinin is converted to the kinin-B1 receptor metabolite des-Arg(9

  4. Gene : CBRC-HSAP-14-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available radykinin receptor B1 [Homo sapiens] sp|P46663|BKRB1_HUMAN B1 bradykinin receptor (BK-1 receptor) (B1R) emb|...CAB45650.1| bradykinin B1 receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06112.1| seven transmembrane helix receptor [Homo sapi...ens] gb|AAH34705.1| Bradykinin receptor B1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAP32296.1| brady...kinin receptor B1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW81632.1| bradykinin receptor B1 [Homo sapiens] gb|ABM82202.1| bradyki...59.1| unnamed protein product [Homo sapiens] 0.0 100% gnl|UG|Hs#S1726331 Homo sapi

  5. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-induced Angioedema - A Dangerous New Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Mey, Kristianna; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    to asphyxia has increased. This is mainly due to pharmaceuticals such as angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors, which are extensively used worldwide. Some aspects of the pathophysiology have been elucidated and the vasoactive molecule bradykinin is shown to be one of the main causative agents....... The diagnosis is often delayed and traditional treatment usually ineffective. Complement C1 inhibitor concentrate and bradykinin receptor antagonists, normally used to treat patients with hereditary angioedema, have shown good results when used in patients with bradykinin-mediated angioedema. This review...

  6. Life-threatening ACE inhibitor-induced angio-oedema successfully treated with icatibant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Sarah; Bygum, Anette; Rasmussen, Eva Rye

    2015-01-01

    with adrenaline inhalations. After 6 h in the hospital the swelling progressed, and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and treated with one injection of icatibant-a bradykinin receptor antagonist. The patient reported subjective relief after 20-30 min and the swelling resolved within 2 h....... Although the angio-oedema was potentially life threatening, the patient avoided intubation and mechanical ventilation. ACE inhibitor-induced angio-oedema is most likely caused by an accumulation of bradykinin and substance P. Consequently, a bradykinin receptor antagonist is the rational treatment...

  7. GPCR Interaction: 53 [GRIPDB[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is the truncation mutant starting at amino acids 53, bradykinin did not induce di...merization of the truncation mutant of B2R(65) starting amino acids 65. Both receptor variants are similar t

  8. Activities of Venom Proteins and Peptides with Possible Therapeutic Applications from Bees and WASPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiujuan; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Charlene C W; Chan, Gabriel H H; Sze, Stephen C W; Zhang, Kalin Y; Naude, Ryno; Rolka, Krzysztof; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-01-01

    The variety of proteins and peptides isolated from honey bee venom and wasp venom includes melittin, adiapin, apamine, bradykinin, cardiopep, mast cell degranulating peptide, mastoparan, phospholipase A2 and secapin. Some of the activities they demonstrate may find therapeutic applications.

  9. Icatibant er en ny behandlingsmulighed ved livstruende angiotensinkonverterende enzym-inhibitor-udløst angioødem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Søren; Henningsen, Emil; Bygum, Anette

    2011-01-01

    A 78 year-old woman with life-threatening angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-i) induced angioedema was unresponsive to conventional treatment with corticosteroids, antihistamines and epinephrine. She was successfully treated with icatibant licensed for treatment of hereditary angioedema...... knowing that both conditions involve bradykinin induced activation of bradykinin B2 receptors. Randomised, controlled trials are warranted to document the efficacy of icatibant in ACE-i angioedema....

  10. Persistent Neural Membrane Protein Misregulation Following Neurotoxicant Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    bradykinin, serotonin , proteinases, ATP; Brown and Passmore, 2009; Du and Gamper, 2014). For our purposes, the action of ACh at muscarinic receptors is...Kv1.2 is typically depressed by M1 activation (Cachero et al., 1998; Tsai et al., 1999). Moreover there is overlap between those transcription factors...receptors that are set into motion by extracellular derived pro-inflammatory agents (e.g., ACh, bradykinin, serotonin , serine proteinases, ATP, ROS

  11. Rapid shallow breathing evoked by selective stimulation of airway C fibres in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleridge, H M; Coleridge, J C; Roberts, A M

    1983-07-01

    1. We have examined the reflex changes in breathing evoked in anaesthetized dogs by stimulation of the afferent vagal C fibres that supply the intrapulmonary and lower extrapulmonary airways. We stimulated bronchial (intrapulmonary) C fibres selectively by injecting bradykinin into the right bronchial artery (the chest had been opened briefly for insertion of a bronchial arterial catheter).2. Bronchial arterial injection of bradykinin (0.15-1.5 mug in 3-6 sec) usually caused a brief bout of rapid shallow breathing, which was sometimes preceded by apnoea. Infusion of bradykinin (0.2-2.0 mug min(-1) for 2-12 min) caused prolonged rapid shallow breathing, the breathing frequency (f) increasing by 19-102% and tidal volume (V(T)) decreasing by 13-87%; end-tidal P(CO2) decreased by 2-9 mmHg in several experiments. Rapid shallow breathing was also evoked by administration of bradykinin aerosol through a lower tracheal cannula.3. Cutting the vagus nerves or cooling them to 0 degrees C abolished the prolonged rapid shallow breathing evoked by bradykinin, but intermittent disturbances of breathing could still be elicited in some dogs. These residual effects often consisted of irregular spasmodic inspirations, which were abolished by avulsion of the right upper thoracic sympathetic chain.4. Rapid shallow breathing was accompanied by contraction of airway smooth muscle in an innervated segment of the upper trachea; contraction was abolished by cutting or cooling the vagus nerves.5. Arterial blood pressure often decreased briefly when bradykinin was injected into the bronchial artery; changes in pressure were smaller and less frequent when bradykinin was infused slowly, and pressure was usually unaltered when bradykinin was administered as an aerosol. Rapid shallow breathing occurred whether pressure decreased, increased or was unchanged. A number of other observations indicated that the changes in breathing were independent of the changes in blood pressure. Changes in heart

  12. Muscle pain induced by static contraction in rats is modulated by peripheral inflammatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diogo Francisco da Silva Dos; Melo Aquino, Bruna de; Jorge, Carolina Ocanha; Azambuja, Graciana de; Schiavuzzo, Jalile Garcia; Krimon, Suzy; Neves, Juliana Dos Santos; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Oliveira-Fusaro, Maria Claudia Gonçalves

    2017-09-01

    Muscle pain is an important health issue and frequently related to static force exertion. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether peripheral inflammatory mechanisms are involved with static contraction-induced muscle pain in rats. To this end, we developed a model of muscle pain induced by static contraction performed by applying electrical pulses through electrodes inserted into muscle. We also evaluated the involvement of neutrophil migration, bradykinin, sympathetic amines and prostanoids. A single session of sustained static contraction of gastrocnemius muscle induced acute mechanical muscle hyperalgesia without affecting locomotor activity and with no evidence of structural damage in muscle tissue. Static contraction increased levels of creatine kinase but not lactate dehydrogenase, and induced neutrophil migration. Dexamethasone (glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent), DALBK (bradykinin B1 antagonist), Atenolol (β1 adrenoceptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 (β2 adrenoceptor antagonist), indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), and fucoidan (non-specific selectin inhibitor) all reduced static contraction-induced muscle hyperalgesia; however, the bradykinin B2 antagonist, bradyzide, did not have an effect on static contraction-induced muscle hyperalgesia. Furthermore, an increased hyperalgesic response was observed when the selective bradykinin B1 agonist des-Arg9-bradykinin was injected into the previously stimulated muscle. Together, these findings demonstrate that static contraction induced mechanical muscle hyperalgesia in gastrocnemius muscle of rats is modulated through peripheral inflammatory mechanisms that are dependent on neutrophil migration, bradykinin, sympathetic amines and prostanoids. Considering the clinical relevance of muscle pain, we propose the present model of static contraction-induced mechanical muscle hyperalgesia as a useful tool for the study of mechanisms underlying static contraction-induced muscle pain. Copyright © 2017 IBRO

  13. Angioedema: Classification, management and emerging therapies for the perioperative physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopa Misra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angioedema is a rare condition which manifests as sudden localised, non-pitting swelling of certain body parts including skin and mucous membranes. It is vital that anaesthesiologists understand this condition, as it may present suddenly in the perioperative period with airway compromise. To identify literature for this review, the authors searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases for English language articles covering a 10-year period, 2006 through 2016. Angioedema can be either mast-cell mediated or bradykinin-induced. Older therapies for histaminergic symptoms are well known to anaesthesiologists (e.g., adrenaline, anti-histamines and steroids, whereas older therapies for bradykinin-induced symptoms include plasma and attenuated androgens. New classes of drugs for bradykinin-induced symptoms are now available, including anti-bradykinin, plasma kallikrein inhibitor and C1 esterase inhibitors. These can be used prophylactically or as rescue medications. Anaesthesiologists are in a unique position to coordinate perioperative care for this complex group of patients.

  14. Factor XII : form determines function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maat, S; Maas, C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821241

    Factor XII is a mysterious plasma protein without a clear physiologic function. It was identified as a clotting factor, but has no clear role in hemostasis. However, FXII also contributes to the production of bradykinin, a short-lived inflammatory peptide. A growing body of mechanistic research from

  15. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of the ACE2-Angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Haltigan, Emily; Regenhardt, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    (AngII) via its type 1 receptor, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, vasodilatory, and angiogenic effects, and the role of altered kinase-phosphatase signaling. Interactions of Mas with other receptors, including bradykinin receptors and AngII type 2 receptors are also considered. A more...

  16. Coronary microvascular dysfunction after long-term diabetes and hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorop, Oana; Heuvel, van den Mieke; Ditzhuijzen, van Nienke S.; Beer, de Vincent J.; Heinonen, Ilkka; Duin, van Richard W.B.; Zhou, Zhichao; Koopmans, Sietse J.; Merkus, Daphne; Giessen, van der Wim J.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) has been proposed as an important component of diabetes mellitus (DM)-and hypercholesterolemia-associated coronary artery disease (CAD). Previously we observed that 2.5 mo of DM and high-fat diet (HFD) in swine blunted brady-kinin (BK)-induced vasodilation

  17. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme gene and I/D polymorphism ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) gene is one of the most intensely studied genes because of the key role it plays in the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). ACE catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a vasoactive and aldosterone-stimulating peptide, and inactivates bradykinin. (Erdos and Skidgel ...

  18. Direct stimulation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor enhances spatial memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Fei; Mogi, Masaki; Sakata, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    evaluated by the Morris water maze test in C57BL6 mice, but this effect was not observed in AT(2) receptor-deficient mice. However, C21-induced cognitive enhancement in C57BL6 mice was attenuated by coadministration of icatibant, a bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist. Administration of C21 dose dependently...

  19. Responses of algesic and metabolic substances to 8h of repetitive manual work in myalgic human trapezius muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, B.; Rosendal, L.; Kristiansen, J.

    2008-01-01

    highly repetitive work tasks and 20 pain-free female colleagues (CON) were studied during and after a full 8-hour workday. We collected microdialysates from their dominant/most painful trapezius muscle; concentrations of serotonin, glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, potassium, bradykinin, and cytokines...

  20. Lack of evidence for AT1R/B2R heterodimerization in COS-7, HEK293, and NIH3T3 cells: how common is the AT1R/B2R heterodimer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob L; Hansen, Jonas T; Speerschneider, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested previously ( AbdAlla, S., Lother, H., and Quitterer, U. (2000) Nature 407, 94-98 ) that the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) form constitutive heterodimers. Furthermore they demonstrate that AT1R signaling significantly increases in ...

  1. Sex differences in the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in porcine isolated coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui San; Roberts, Richard E; Randall, Michael D

    2015-03-05

    Endothelial and smooth muscle Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels contribute to regulation of vascular tone. We have previously reported sex differences in the endothelial function in porcine isolated coronary arteries (PCAs). The present study examined the role of TRP channels in endothelium-dependent and H2O2-induced vasorelaxations in male and female PCAs. Distal PCAs were mounted in a wire myograph and precontracted with U46619. Concentration-response curves to bradykinin, H2O2 and A23187 were constructed in the presence of TRP channel antagonists with or without L-NAME and indomethacin to inhibit NO synthase and cyclooxygenase respectively. 2-APB (TRPC & TRPM antagonist) inhibited the maximum relaxation (Rmax) of the bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation and abolished the EDH-type response in PCAs from both sexes. SKF96365 (TRPC antagonist) inhibited the Rmax of bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in males, and inhibited Rmax of the EDH-type response in both sexes. Pyr3 (TRPC3 antagonist) inhibited both the NO and EDH components of the bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in males, but not females. RN1734 (TRPV4 antagonist) reduced the potency of the NO component of the bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in females only, but inhibited the Rmax of the EDH-type component in both sexes. 2-APB, SKF96365 and RN1734 all reduced the H2O2-induced vasorelaxation, whereas Pyr3 had no effect. No differences in expression level of TRPC3 and TRPV4 between sexes were detected using Western blot. Present study demonstrated a clear sex differences in the role TRP channels where TRPC3 play a role in the NO- and EDH-type response in males and TRPV4 play a role in the NO-mediated response in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy impairs an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-like pathway in sheep fetal coronary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Praveen; Ghatta, Srinivas; Dubey, Nidhi; Lemley, Caleb O.; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Modgil, Amit; Vonnahme, Kimberly; Caton, Joel S.; Reynolds, Lawrence P.; Sun, Chengwen

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying developmental programming are poorly understood but may be associated with adaptations by the fetus in response to changes in the maternal environment during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy alters vasodilator responses in fetal coronary arteries. Pregnant ewes were fed a control [100% U.S. National Research Council (NRC)] or nutrient-restricted (60% NRC) diet from days 50 to 130 of gestation (term = 145 days); fetal tissues were collected at day 130. In coronary arteries isolated from control fetal lambs, relaxation to bradykinin was unaffected by nitro-l-arginine (NLA). Iberiotoxin or contraction with KCl abolished the NLA-resistant response to bradykinin. In fetal coronary arteries from nutrient-restricted ewes, relaxation to bradykinin was fully suppressed by NLA. Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) currents did not differ in coronary smooth muscle cells from control and nutrient-restricted animals. The BKCa openers, BMS 191011 and NS1619, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid [a putative endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] each caused fetal coronary artery relaxation and BKCa current activation that was unaffected by maternal nutrient restriction. Expression of BKCa-channel subunits did not differ in fetal coronary arteries from control or undernourished ewes. The results indicate that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy results in loss of the EDHF-like pathway in fetal coronary arteries in response to bradykinin, an effect that cannot be explained by a decreased number or activity of BKCa channels or by decreased sensitivity to mediators that activate BKCa channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Under these conditions, bradykinin-induced relaxation is completely dependent on nitric oxide, which may represent an adaptive response to compensate for the absence of the EDHF-like pathway. PMID:24816259

  3. The renin-angiotensin system and its blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igić Rajko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS has contributed significantly to advances in understanding cardiovascular and renal homeostasis and to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review offers a brief history of the RAS with an overview of its major components and their functions, as well as blockers of the RAS, their clinical usage and current research that targets various components of the RAS. Because angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes two biologically active peptides, one in the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS and one in the RAS, it is the essential connection between the two systems. ACE releases very powerful hypertensive agent, angiotensin II and also inactivates strong hypotensive peptide, bradykinin. Inhibition of ACE thus has a dual effect, resulting in decreased angiotensin II and increased bradykinin. We described the KKS as well.

  4. Crosslinking photosensitized by a ruthenium chelate as a tool for labeling and topographical studies of G-protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duroux-Richard, Isabelle; Vassault, Philippe; Subra, Guy; Guichou, Jean-François; Richard, Eric; Mouillac, Bernard; Barberis, Claude; Marie, Jacky; Bonnafous, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    The purpose was to apply oxidative crosslinking reactions to the study of recognition and signaling mechanisms associated to G-protein-coupled receptors. Using a ruthenium chelate, Ru(bipy)(3)(2+), as photosensitizer and visible light irradiation, in the presence of ammonium persulfate, we performed fast and efficient covalent labeling of the B(2) bradykinin receptor by agonist or antagonist ligands possessing a radio-iodinated phenol moiety. The chemical and topographical specificities of these crosslinking experiments were investigated. The strategy could also be applied to the covalent labeling of the B(1) bradykinin receptor, the AT(1) angiotensin II receptor, the V(1a) vasopressin receptor and the oxytocin receptor. Interestingly, we demonstrated the possibility to covalently label the AT(1) and B(2) receptors with functionalized ligands. The potential applications of metal-chelate chemistry to receptor structural and signaling studies through intramolecular or intermolecular crosslinking are presented.

  5. Electrochemical detection of oligopeptides through the precolumn formation of biuret complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H Y; Weber, S G

    1991-04-12

    The relatively slow kinetics of formation of the electroactive Cu(II)-peptide complexes from larger (greater than 6 amino acids) peptides requires relatively high temperature and long reaction times for a postcolumn reactor. The precolumn incubation of bradykinin, Tyr8-bradykinin and insulin A chain with biuret reagent for 20 min at 60 degrees C leads to the formation of biuret complexes which can be subjected to chromatography in acidic or basic eluents. These complexes are detected electrochemically with a sensitivity similar to the Cu(II)-(ala)3 complex (1 nC/pmol at 1.0 ml/min). The influence of the column-packing material on the electrochemical detector response of the Cu-peptide complexes has also been studied.

  6. Automated large-volume sample stacking procedure to detect labeled peptides at picomolar concentration using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Nathalie; Riolet, Pierre; Bayle, Christophe; Couderc, François

    2003-08-05

    We have developed an automated large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) procedure to detect fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peptides in the picomolar range. The injection duration is 10 min at 50 mbar to fill 62% of the capillary volume to the detection cell. The calculated limit of detection (S/N=3), filling 1% of the capillary volume, is 74 pM for bradykinin and 45 pM for L-enkephalin with samples diluted in water and analyzed in a 50 mM borate buffer, pH 9.2. With the automated LVSS system, the limits of detection are 7 pM for bradykinin, 3 pM for L-enkephalin and 2 pM for substance P. LVSS is shown to be quantitative from 500 to 10 pM.

  7. Direct measurements of nitric oxide release in relation to expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in isolated porcine mitral valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Sophia Gry; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the direct release of nitric oxide (NO) from the porcine mitral valve using a NO microelectrode. Furthermore, the expression and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the mitral valve was studied using immunohistochemistry, Western blotti...... techniques for investigations into the role of local NO release in mitral valve diseases.......The aim of this study was to measure the direct release of nitric oxide (NO) from the porcine mitral valve using a NO microelectrode. Furthermore, the expression and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the mitral valve was studied using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting...... and RT-PCR. Results show that bradykinin increases NO release from mitral valves (¿Bradykinin: 33.71 ± 10.41 nM NO, P

  8. The Use of Plasma-Derived Complement C1-Esterase Inhibitor Concentrate (Berinert®) in the Treatment of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-Inhibitor Related Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanrud, Thorbjørn; Duus, Nicolaj; Bygum, Anette

    2016-01-01

    concentrate is a well-established treatment option of hereditary and acquired complement C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency, which are also mediated by an increased level of bradykinin resulting in recurrent angioedema. We here present a case of severe angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor related angioedema...... (ACEi-AE) of the hypopharynx that completely resolved rapidly after the infusion of plasma-derived C1-inhibitor concentrate adding to the sparse reports in the existing literature.......Angioedema of the upper airways is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence has been increasing in the past two decades, primarily due to pharmaceuticals influencing the generation or degradation of the vasoactive molecule bradykinin. Plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor...

  9. The quantitative impact of the mesopore size on the mass transfer mechanism of the new 1.9 μm fully porous Titan-C18 particles II--analysis of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2015-05-01

    The kinetic performances of 3.0 × 100 mm columns packed with 1.9 μm Titan-C18 particles with average mesopore sizes of 80 Å and 120 Å were investigated quantitatively for the analysis of biomolecules. Large mesopores are expected to speed up the rate of diffusivity of high-molecular-weight compounds across the stationary phase and to generate higher plate counts at high velocities. The mass transfer mechanism of bradykinin acetate salt (1060 Da) and insulin (5733 Da) was determined over a range of flow rates from 0.025 to 1.0 mL/min. The pore diffusivities of these two biomolecules were accurately measured from the peak parking method. Even though the gain in column efficiency was not found significant for small molecules such as valerophenone (162 Da), enlarging the average pore size from 80 to 120 Å induces a measurable diminution of the reduced plate height, h, of bradykinin (from 17 to 11 or -35% at a reduced velocity of 50) and a significant reduction for insulin (from 43 to 12 or -72% at a reduced velocity of 90). Remarkably, while the increase of the column efficiency for bradykinin is consistent with a faster diffusivity of bradykinin across the 120 Å Titan-C18 particles, the higher column efficiencies measured for insulin are mostly due to a faster absorption kinetics into the 120 Å than that into the 80 Å Titan-C18 particles. This result is supported by the fact that the effective pore diffusivity of insulin is even slightly smaller across the 120 Å than that across the 80 Å 1.9μm Titan-C18 particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Time dependence of endothelium-mediated vasodilation by intermittent antegrade warm blood cardioplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curro, D; Bombardieri, G; Barilaro, C; Di Francesco, P; Varano, C; Possati, G; Pragliola, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of intermittent antegrade warm blood cardioplegia (IAWBC) exposes the heart to brief periods of normothermic ischemia. This may impair endothelial function in coronary arteries. Three cardioplegic technique were tested in porcine hearts arrested for 32 to 36 minutes and reperfused for 30 minutes: IAWBC, antegrade cold blood cardioplegia (ACBC), and antegrade cold crystalloid cardioplegia (ACCC). In the hearts arrested with IAWBC, three different intervals of ischemia were used: three 10-minute intervals (IAWBC1), two 15-minute intervals (IAWBC2), and one 30-minute interval (IAWBC3). Rings from the coronary arteries were used to evaluate in vitro the contractile responses to U46619 and the relaxant responses to bradykinin, A23187, and sodium nitroprusside. All six groups (treatment groups and control group) displayed similar responses to U46619 (30 nmol/L) and nitroprusside. In the IAWBC1, IAWBC2, AND ACBC groups, endothelium-dependent relaxations to bradykinin and A23187 were preserved compared with controls, whereas those of the ACCC and IAWBC3 groups were significantly impaired (bradykinin: control, 8.72 +/- 0.07; IAWBC1, 8.73 +/- 0.03; IAWBC2, 8.65 +/- 0.05; IAWBC3, 8.30 +/- 0.07 [p ACBC, 8.50 +/- 0.03; ACCC, 8.25 +/- 0.09 [p ACBC, 6.80 +/- 0.05; ACCC, 6.60 +/- 0.08 [p ACBC, 6.04 +/- 0.2; ACCC, 6.05 +/- 0.03; all values are expressed as the negative logarithm of the concentration producing 50% of the maximal response). Myocardial preservation with IAWBC with ischemic intervals of 15 minutes or shorter does not alter the endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin or A23187 in porcine coronary arteries, but these responses are significantly impaired by ACCC and IAWBC with an ischemic interval of 30 minutes.

  11. Protocols to Assess Coagulation Following In Vitro Infection with Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Likewise, patients infected with the flavivirus Dengue virus who develop Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) have increased levels of TF in their sera/plasma...following PMA treatment (as described in flow cytometry section). Therefore, the addition of PMA can be used to ensure induction within the given...FXIIa, incubate cells with only PK and HK. Notes for Quantitative analysis of Bradykinin Formation 21. Inhibitor treatment is required to prevent

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of UP1304, a botanical composite containing standardized extracts of Curcuma longa and Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Though the initial etiologies of arthritis are multifactorial, clinically, patients share the prime complaints of the disease, pain. Here the authors assessed the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of UP1304, a composite that contains a standardized blend of extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and the root bark of Morus alba, on rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema. A plant library was screened for bradykinin receptor antagonists. In vivo, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the standardized composite, UP1304, were evaluated in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema using oral dose ranges of 100-400 mg/kg. Ibuprofen, at a dose of 200 mg/kg, was used as a reference compound. In vitro, cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were performed to evaluate the degree of inflammation. Statistically significant improvements in pain resistance and paw edema suppression were observed in animals treated with UP1304, when compared to vehicle-treated rats. Results from the highest dose of UP1304 (400 mg/kg) were similar to those achieved by ibuprofen treatment at 200 mg/kg. In vitro, UP1304 showed dose-dependent inhibition of the enzymatic activities of COX and LOX. A half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 9.6 μg/mL for bradykinin B1 inhibition was calculated for the organic extract of C. longa. Curcumin showed Ki values of 2.73 and 58 μg/mL for bradykinin receptors B1 and B2, respectively. Data presented here suggest that UP1304, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin, acted as a bradykinin receptor B1 and B2 antagonist, and inhibited COX and LOX enzyme activities. This compound should be considered for the management of symptoms associated with arthritis.

  13. Tannic acid modulates excitability of sensory neurons and nociceptive behavior and the Ionic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Huiran; Zhou, Najing; Xu, Jiaxi; Si, Man; Jia, Zhanfeng; Du, Xiaona; Zhang, Hailin

    2015-10-05

    M/Kv7 K(+) channels, Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) and voltage gated Na(+) channels expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) play an important role in nociception. Tannic acid has been proposed to be involved in multiple beneficial health effects; tannic acid has also been described to be analgesic. However the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of tannic acid on M/Kv7 K(+), Na(+) currents and CaCCs, and the effects on bradykinin-induced nociceptive behavior. A perforated patch technique was used. The bradykinin-induced rat pain model was used to assess the analgesic effect of tannic acid. We demonstrated that tannic acid enhanced M/Kv7 K(+) currents but inhibited bradykinin-induced activation of CaCC/TMEM16A currents in rat small DRG neurons. Tannic acid potentiated Kv7.2/7.3 and Kv7.2 currents expressed in HEK293B cells, with an EC50 of 7.38 and 5.40 µM, respectively. Tannic acid inhibited TTX-sensitive and TTX-insensitive currents of small DRG neurons with IC50 of 5.25 and 8.43 µM, respectively. Tannic acid also potently suppressed the excitability of small DRG neurons. Furthermore, tannic acid greatly reduced bradykinin-induced pain behavior of rats. This study thus demonstrates that tannic acid is an activator of M/Kv7 K(+) and an inhibitor of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and CaCC/TMEM16A, which may underlie its inhibitory effects on excitability of DRG neurons and its analgesic effect. Tannic acid could be a useful agent in treatment of inflammatory pain conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatic arthritis and burn pain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Therapeutic possibilities of Bothrops jararaca in high dilution

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Costa Gaia Nazareth; Francisco José de Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The knowledge and use of the venom of Bothrops jararaca in high dilutions is still quite limited. One of the important properties is the use of one of its components, bradykinin, for the development of antihypertensive medication known as captopril. Other situations, such as clinical, local and systemic should receive more depth to the composition of Materia Medica related to various medical actions on the man and mammals in general. The systemic action of the bite of this snake...

  15. Some rat sensory neurons in culture express characteristics of differentiated pain sensory cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Baccaglini, P I; Hogan, P G

    1983-01-01

    Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain m...

  16. Cytochrome P-450 2C9 exerts a vasoconstrictor influence on coronary resistance vessels in swine at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhichao; Hemradj, Veemal; de Beer, Vincent J; Gao, Fen; Hoekstra, Maaike; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2012-04-15

    A significant endothelium-dependent vasodilation persists after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in the coronary vasculature, which has been linked to the activation of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenases expressed in endothelial cells and subsequent generation of vasodilator epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Here, we investigated the contribution of CYP 2C9 metabolites to regulation of porcine coronary vasomotor tone in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-six swine were chronically instrumented. Inhibition of CYP 2C9 with sulfaphenazole (5 mg/kg iv) alone had no effect on bradykinin-induced endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in vivo but slightly attenuated bradykinin-induced vasodilation in the presence of combined NOS/COX blockade with N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (20 mg/kg iv) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg iv). Sulfaphenazole had minimal effects on coronary resistance vessel tone at rest or during exercise. Surprisingly, in the presence of combined NOS/COX blockade, a significant coronary vasodilator response to sulfaphenzole became apparent, both at rest and during exercise. Subsequently, we investigated in isolated porcine coronary small arteries (∼250 μm) the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the paradoxical vasoconstrictor influence of CYP 2C9 activity. The vasodilation by bradykinin in vitro in the presence of NOS/COX blockade was markedly potentiated by sulfaphenazole under control conditions but not in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-(2-mercaptoproprionyl)-glycine. In conclusion, CYP 2C9 can produce both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator metabolites. Production of these metabolites is enhanced by combined NOS/COX blockade and is critically dependent on the experimental conditions. Thus production of vasoconstrictors slightly outweighed the production of vasodilators at rest and during exercise. Pharmacological stimulation with bradykinin resulted in vasodilator CYP 2C9 metabolite production when administered in

  17. Solid-phase synthesis of oxetane modified peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Jonathan D.; Knuhtsen, Astrid; Hoose, Alex; Raubo, Piotr; Jamieson, Andrew G.; Shipman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) is used to create peptidomimetics in which one of the backbone amide C=O bonds is replaced by a four-membered oxetane ring. The oxetane containing dipeptide building blocks are made in three steps in solution, then integrated into peptide chains by conventional Fmoc SPPS. This methodology is used to make a range of peptides in high purity including backbone modified derivatives of the nonapeptide bradykinin and Met- and Leu-enkephalin.\\ud

  18. Zero balance ultrafiltration (Z-BUF) in blood-primed CRRT circuits achieves electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis prior to patient connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbarth, Richard M; Eding, Dawn; Gianoli Smith, Carla; Koch, Ada; Sanfilippo, Dominic J; Bunchman, Timothy E

    2005-09-01

    Infants requiring CRRT present a unique challenge due to the large circuit volume to blood volume ratio. Blood priming is often used, but some patients can become unstable during the initiation of CRRT due to electrolyte and acid-base imbalance. We postulated that using Z-BUF we could normalize electrolytes and improve the acid base status of the prime prior to patient connection. To test this we set up a circuit using the Baxter BM-25 CRRT pump, a polysulfone or AN-69 membrane, and a three-way stopcock. The circuit was primed with a 60/40 mix of expired autologous donor pRBCs and 5% albumin. The modalities of CVVH, CVVHD, and CVVHDF were compared for relative efficacy. Electrolytes, lactate, pH, cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, bradykinin, and IL-6) were measured. Plasma hemoglobin levels were also measured before and after the Z-BUF procedure. Bradykinin production and elimination in AN-69 membrane circuits were assessed. All lab values equilibrated by 35 minutes. All CRRT modalities were equally efficacious for Z-BUF. Cytokine production or significant hemolysis was not found. In addition, no bradykinin accumulation occurred in AN-69 membrane-containing circuits. We conclude that Z-BUF is a simple and effective way to normalize electrolyte and acid-base status in the CRRT circuit when blood priming is required.

  19. Inhibitory effect of the Ruscus extract and of the flavonoid hesperidine methylchalcone on increased microvascular permeability induced by various agents in the hamster cheek pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouskela, E; Cyrino, F Z; Marcelon, G

    1993-08-01

    The Ruscus extract and the flavonoid hesperidine methylchalcone (HMC) are used in treatment of venous insufficiency. In the present study, we used the hamster cheek pouch preparation and investigated the effects of these substances on increased microvascular permeability induced by bradykinin, histamine, and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) applied topically. Experiments were performed on male hamsters; 30 min after completion of the cheek pouch preparation, fluorescein-labeled dextran [molecular weight (mol wt) 150,000] was given intravenously (i.v.). Bradykinin, histamine, and LTB4 increased the number of fluorescent vascular leakage sites from postcapillary venules, evidence for an increase in macromolecular permeability, which was quantified in ultraviolet (UV)-light microscope as the number of leaky sites in the prepared area. Ruscus extract and HMC, given i.v., significantly inhibited the macromolecular permeability-increasing effect of bradykinin, LTB4, and histamine. Ruscus extract, applied topically, dose dependently inhibited the macromolecular permeability-increasing effect of histamine. Our results show that Ruscus extract and HMC have a protective effect against leakage of FITC-dextran in the cheek pouch after administration of various permeability-increasing substances, which further supports data previously reported on patients with venous insufficiency.

  20. Effect of inflammatory mediators on ATP release of human urothelial RT4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Kylie J; Hughes, Jessica R

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is an important contributor to the aetiology of a number of bladder dysfunctions including interstitial cystitis, painful bladder syndrome, and overactive bladder. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on urothelial ATP release. Human urothelial RT4 cells were exposed to normal buffer or varying concentrations of inflammatory mediators (bradykinin, histamine, and serotonin) in the presence or absence of hypotonic stretch stimuli (1 : 2 dilution of Krebs-Henseleit buffer). Others have demonstrated that bradykinin increased stretch-induced ATP release; however, we observed no change in control or stretch-induced ATP release with bradykinin. Pretreatment of RT4 cells with histamine or serotonin decreased stretch-induced ATP release (P = 0.037, P = 0.040, resp.). Previous studies have demonstrated increased ATP release in response to inflammation utilising whole bladder preparations in contrast to our simple model of cultured urothelial cells. The current study suggests that it is unlikely that there is a direct interaction between the release of inflammatory mediators and increased ATP release, but rather more complex interactions occurring in response to inflammation that lead to increased bladder sensation.

  1. Therapeutic concentrations of raloxifene augment nitric oxide-dependent coronary artery dilatation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, F P; Yung, L M; Leung, H S; Au, C L; Yao, X; Vanhoutte, P M; Laher, I; Huang, Y

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Raloxifene improves cardiovascular function. This study examines the hypothesis that therapeutic concentrations of raloxifene augment endothelium-dependent relaxation via up-regulation of eNOS expression and activity in porcine coronary arteries. Experimental approach: Isometric tension was measured in rings from isolated arteries. Intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in arterial endothelial cells were detected by Ca2+ fluorescence imaging. Phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser-1177 was assayed by Western blot analysis. Key results: In arterial rings pre-contracted with 9,11-dideoxy-11α,9α-epoxy-methano-prostaglandin F2α (U46619), treatment with raloxifene (1-3 nM) augmented bradykinin- or substance P-induced relaxation and this effect was antagonized by ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist. The enhanced relaxation was abolished in rings treated with inhibitors of nitric oxide/cyclic GMP-dependent dilation, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) plus 1H-[1,2,4]oxadizolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). In contrast, effects of raloxifene were unaffected after inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors by charybdotoxin plus apamin. Raloxifene (3 nM) did not influence endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside. 17ß-Estradiol (3-10 nM) also enhanced bradykinin-induced relaxation, which was inhibited by ICI 182,780. Treatment with raloxifene (3 nM) did not affect bradykinin-stimulated rise in endothelial cell [Ca2+]i. Raloxifene, 17ß-estradiol, and bradykinin increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 and ICI 182,780 prevented effects of raloxifene or 17ß-estradiol but not that of bradykinin. Raloxifene had neither additive nor antagonistic effects on 17ß-estradiol-induced eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusions and implications: Raloxifene in therapeutically relevant concentrations augmented endothelial function in porcine coronary arteries in vitro through ICI 182,780-sensitive mechanisms that were

  2. Protective effect of heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer against oxyhemoglobin-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, D; Weiler, D; Alam, J; Nath, K; Katusic, Z S

    2001-10-01

    The current study was designed to determine the effect of recombinant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression on endothelial function in cerebral arteries. Isolated canine basilar arteries were exposed ex vivo (30 minutes at 37 degrees C) to an adenoviral vector (10(10) PFU/mL, total volume 300 microL) encoding either the HO-1 gene (AdCMVHO-1) or the beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) reporter gene (AdCMVbeta-Gal). Twenty-four hours after transduction, arterial rings were suspended in organ chamber for isometric force recording. Endothelium-dependent relaxations were obtained in response to bradykinin (10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L) during contraction to uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP; 3 x 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-5) mol/L). Certain rings were incubated with oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb; 10(-5) mol/L) overnight (16 to 18 hours of 24 hours). Expression and localization of recombinant protein were shown by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin and endothelium-independent relaxation to forskolin (10(-9) to 10(-5) mol/L) and DEA-NONOate (10(-10) to 10(-5) mol/L) were identical in beta-Gal- and HO-1-transduced arteries. Exposure to OxyHb caused impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin (P arteries expressing recombinant HO-1 ( P > 0.05). This protective effect of HO-1 was reversed by coincubation with tin protoporphyrin (SnPP9; 10(-5) mol/L), a selective inhibitor of HO-1 (P arteries, and that expression of recombinant HO-1 in cerebral arteries protects vasomotor function against OxyHb-induced injury.

  3. Voltage-dependent sodium channels and calcium-activated potassium channels in human odontoblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hideki; Kim, Hyong-Jung; Shuprisha, Apichai; Shikano, Tetsuo; Tsumura, Maki; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Tazaki, Masakazu

    2012-10-01

    Transmembrane ionic signaling regulates many cellular processes in both physiological and pathologic settings. In this study, the biophysical properties of voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in odontoblasts derived from human dental pulp (HOB cells) were investigated together with the effect of bradykinin on intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and expression of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Ionic channel activity was characterized by using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and fura-2 fluorescence. Mean resting membrane potential in the HOB cells was -38 mV. Depolarizing steps from a holding potential of -80 mV activated transient voltage-dependent inward currents with rapid activation/inactivation properties. At a holding potential of -50 mV, no inward current was recorded. Fast-activation kinetics exhibited dependence on membrane potential, whereas fast-inactivation kinetics did not. Steady-state inactivation was described by a Boltzmann function with a half-maximal inactivation potential of -70 mV, indicating that whereas the channels were completely inactivated at physiological resting membrane potential, they could be activated when the cells were hyperpolarized. Inward currents disappeared in Na(+)-free extracellular solution. Bradykinin activated intracellular Ca(2+)-releasing and influx pathways. When the HOB cells were clamped at a holding potential of -50 mV, outward currents were recorded at positive potentials, indicating sensitivity to inhibitors of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Human odontoblasts expressed voltage-dependent Na(+) channels, bradykinin receptors, and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, which play an important role in driving cellular functions by channel-receptor signal interaction and membrane potential regulation. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards understanding the kallikrein-kinin system: insights from measurement of kinin peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Campbell

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin system is complex, with several bioactive peptides that are formed in many different compartments. Kinin peptides are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes including the regulation of blood pressure and sodium homeostasis, inflammatory processes, and the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning. We established a methodology for the measurement of individual kinin peptides in order to study the function of the kallikrein-kinin system. The levels of kinin peptides in tissues were higher than in blood, confirming the primary tissue localization of the kallikrein-kinin system. Moreover, the separate measurement of bradykinin and kallidin peptides in man demonstrated the differential regulation of the plasma and tissue kallikrein-kinin systems, respectively. Kinin peptide levels were increased in the heart of rats with myocardial infarction, in tissues of diabetic and spontaneously hypertensive rats, and in urine of patients with interstitial cystitis, suggesting a role for kinin peptides in the pathogenesis of these conditions. By contrast, blood levels of kallidin, but not bradykinin, peptides were suppressed in patients with severe cardiac failure, suggesting that the activity of the tissue kallikrein-kinin system may be suppressed in this condition. Both angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and neutral endopeptidase (NEP inhibitors increased bradykinin peptide levels. ACE and NEP inhibitors had different effects on kinin peptide levels in blood, urine, and tissues, which may be accounted for by the differential contributions of ACE and NEP to kinin peptide metabolism in the multiple compartments in which kinin peptide generation occurs. Measurement of the levels of individual kinin peptides has given important information about the operation of the kallikrein-kinin system and its role in physiology and disease states.

  5. Effects of neutral endopeptidase (neprilysin) inhibition on the response to other vasoactive peptides in small human resistance arteries: studies with thiorphan and omapatrilat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Jonathan R; Seed, Alison; Berry, Colin; Whelan, Carol J; Petrie, Mark C; Padmanabhan, Neal; Clarke, Amanda; Biggerstaff, Fiona; Hillier, Christopher; McMurray, John J V

    2014-02-01

    New compounds with neprilysin or neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibiting activity are under clinical investigation in heart failure and hypertension. We investigated the effect of NEP inhibition on the functional vasomotor responses to a range of vasoactive peptides in human blood vessels. Small human resistance arteries from patients with coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular systolic function were studied. Thiorphan (a NEP inhibitor) was compared with captopril (an ACE inhibitor) and omapatrilat (a dual NEP-ACE inhibitor) with regard to their effects on the response of human arteries to key vasoactive peptides. As expected, both captopril and omapatrilat (but not thiorphan) inhibited the vasoconstrictor effect of angiotensin I (maximal response [SEM]: 27 ± 8% vehicle, 6 ± 2% captopril, 39 ± 10% thiorphan, 8 ± 7% omapatrilat, P < 0.05). Thiorphan, captopril, and omapatrilat all enhanced the vasodilator response to bradykinin (all P < 0.01). Omapatrilat markedly augmented the vasodilator action of adrenomedullin (P < 0.05), whilst thiorphan and captopril did not. None of the three inhibitors studied affected the vasodilator action of c-type natriuretic peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or substance P. NEP inhibition with thiorphan modestly augmented the vasodilator action of bradykinin, but did not potentiate the response to adrenomedullin; dual ACE and NEP inhibition with omapatrilat, as expected, markedly augmented the response to bradykinin and also potentiated the effect of adrenomedullin. Thiorphan weakly enhanced the vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin I. Neither omapatrilat nor thiorphan had any effect on the action of a range of other vasoactive peptides including CNP. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pharmacotherapy for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Claire M; Ananth, Ashwin; Barton, Blair M; Flowers, Thomas C; McCoul, Edward D

    2017-11-01

    Objective Angioedema is a potentially life-threatening complication of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use, occurring in up to 0.5% of users. Although the pathophysiology of ACEI-induced angioedema is attributable to elevated serum bradykinin, standard management typically includes corticosteroids and antihistamines. We sought to summarize the evidence supporting pharmacotherapy for ACEI-induced angioedema. Data Sources PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase portals. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Databases were queried by 3 independent reviewers for English-language studies published between 1980 and 2017. The initial search screened for all occurrences of "angioedema" and then was further refined to include studies of ACEI-related cases and exclude hereditary angioedema. Results Five articles representing 218 cases were identified, including 3 randomized controlled trials and 2 prospective case series with historical controls. One of 2 studies of icatibant (bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist) found more rapid symptom improvement than that with a control group of corticosteroids and antihistamines. Two studies of ecallantide (plasma kallikrein inhibitor) and 1 study of C1 inhibitor replacement found no significant benefit over control. No studies were identified that compared the efficacy of corticosteroids with antihistamines, of one dose with another, of fresh frozen plasma, or of combination therapy. Conclusion The efficacy of treatment of ACEI-induced angioedema with bradykinin antagonists, kallikrein inhibitor, and C1 inhibitor warrants further study. Although consistent benefit of these medications has not been demonstrated, their use has not caused harm. One study examining off-label use of icatibant has demonstrated efficacy over control. In addition, further study is needed to establish the efficacy and mechanism of action of standard pharmacotherapy such as corticosteroids and antihistamines in

  7. Desflurane inhibits endothelium-dependent vasodilation more than sevoflurane with inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuma, Satoshi; Tokinaga, Yasuyuki; Takada, Yukimasa; Azumaguchi, Ryu; Kimizuka, Motonobu; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2018-01-01

    The effects of desflurane on endothelium-dependent vasodilation remain uncertain, whereas sevoflurane is known to inhibit it. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is mainly mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The effects of desflurane on endothelium-dependent vasodilation were compared with those of sevoflurane, and inhibition mechanisms, including phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the calcium pathway, were evaluated for the two anesthetics. We hypothesized that desflurane would inhibit endothelium-dependent vasodilation in a concentration-dependent manner more than sevoflurane, with inhibition of a calcium pathway. Isolated rat aortic rings were randomly assigned to treatment with desflurane or sevoflurane for measurements of the vasodilation ratio. To determine NO production with desflurane and sevoflurane, an in vitro assay was performed with cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. These cells were also used for measurement of intracellular calcium or Western blotting. For endothelium-dependent vasodilation, the ratio of vasodilation was more significantly inhibited by 11.4% desflurane than by 4.8% sevoflurane. Inhibition did not between 5.7% desflurane and 2.4% sevoflurane. No inhibitory effect of desflurane or sevoflurane was observed in endothelium-denuded aorta. Desflurane inhibited nitric oxide production caused by stimulation of bradykinin significantly more than sevoflurane. Desflurane had a greater suppressive effect on the bradykinin-induced increase in intracellular calcium concentration than did sevoflurane. Sevoflurane, but not desflurane, inhibited phosphorylation of the serine 1177 residue by bradykinin stimulation. Desflurane inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation more than sevoflurane through inhibition of a calcium pathway. Sevoflurane inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation by inhibition of phosphorylation of the serine 1177 residue of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  8. Marked impairment of protease-activated receptor type 1-mediated vasodilation and fibrinolysis in cigarette smokers: smoking, thrombin, and vascular responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ninian N; Gudmundsdóttir, Ingibjörg J; Boon, Nicholas A; Ludlam, Christopher A; Fox, Keith A; Newby, David E

    2008-07-01

    We sought to test the hypothesis that cigarette smoking adversely alters protease-activated receptor type 1 (PAR-1)-mediated vascular effects in vivo in humans. Distinct from its role in the coagulation cascade, thrombin exerts its major cellular and cardiovascular actions via PAR-1. The activation of PAR-1 causes endothelium-dependent arterial vasodilation and the release of endogenous fibrinolytic factors. Forearm blood flow was measured with venous occlusion plethysmography in 12 cigarette smokers and 12 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers during intrabrachial infusions of PAR-1-activating-peptide (SFLLRN; 5 to 50 nmol/min), bradykinin (100 to 1,000 pmol/min), and sodium nitroprusside (2 to 8 mug/min). Plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 antigen and activity concentrations were measured throughout the experiment. All agonists caused dose-dependent increases in forearm blood flow (p < 0.0001 for all). Although bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside caused similar vasodilation, SFLLRN-induced vasodilation was attenuated in smokers (p = 0.04). Smokers had modest reductions in bradykinin-induced active t-PA release (reduced by 37%, p = 0.03) and had a marked impairment of SFLLRN-induced t-PA antigen (p = 0.02) and activity (p = 0.006) release, with a 96% reduction in overall net t-PA antigen release. The use of SFLLRN also caused similar (p = NS) increases in inactive plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 in both smokers and nonsmokers (p

  9. Effect of maternal nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation from mid to late gestation on vascular reactivity of maternal and fetal placental arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P; Lemley, C O; Dubey, N; Meyer, A M; O'Rourke, S T; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-07-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction and decreased scotophase concentrations of melatonin have been associated with severely compromised pregnancies. We hypothesized that melatonin supplementation in a compromised pregnancy enhances the bradykinin (BK)-induced relaxations of placental arteries thereby ensuring sufficient umbilical blood flow to the developing fetus. Pregnant ewes (n = 31) were fed an adequate (ADQ) or nutrient restricted (RES) diet supplemented with 5 mg of melatonin (MEL) or without melatonin (CON) from day 50 to 130 of gestation. On day 130 of gestation, the maternal (caruncular; CAR) and fetal (cotyledonary; COT) placental arteries were suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recording. There were no treatment or dietary effects on CAR arteries for any vasoactive agent. However, in COT arteries, MEL ewes were more sensitive (P < 0.01) to bradykinin-induced relaxation than CON ewes. There was a melatonin by nutritional level interaction (P < 0.01) with sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation of COT arteries where CON-RES were more sensitive to sodium nitroprusside compared to CON-ADQ, which was in contrast to when ewes were fed MEL. There was a significant melatonin by nutritional interaction (P = 0.04) for responsiveness to norepinephrine. The sensitivity of the COT arteries to norepinephrine in CON-RES ewes was decreased compared to CON-ADQ. Melatonin supplementation, regardless of maternal dietary intake, resulted in COT arteries having similar responsiveness to CON-RES ewes. An increase in placental vessel sensitivity to bradykinin-induced relaxation may contribute to melatonin-induced increases in umbilical artery blood flow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-reported habitual short sleep duration is associated with endothelial fibrinolytic dysfunction in men: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Brian R; Greiner, Jared J; Stauffer, Brian L; Desouza, Christopher A

    2013-02-01

    Habitual short sleep duration is associated with increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality resulting from atherothrombotic events. The mechanisms responsible for this heightened cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The capacity of the endothelium to release tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), the primary activator of the fibrinolytic system, is a key endogenous defense mechanism against intravascular fibrin deposition and thrombosis. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial t-PA release is impaired in adults who sleep less than 7 h/night compared with adults who sleep between 7 and 9 h/night. THIRTY ADULT MEN WERE STRATIFIED BASED ON AVERAGE NIGHTLY HABITUAL SLEEP DURATION: 15 with normal sleep duration (age: 55 ± 2 years; sleep duration: 7.6 h/night) and 15 with short sleep duration (56 ± 2 years; 6.1 h/night). Net endothelial release of t-PA was determined, in vivo, in response to intra-brachial infusions of bradykinin (12.5-50.0 ng/100 mL tissue/min) and sodium nitroprusside (1.0-4.0 μg/100 mL tissue/min). Net endothelial t-PA release to bradykinin was significantly lower (∼25%) in the short (from 0.4 ± 0.8 to 41.5 ± 4.3 ng/100 mL tissue/min) compared with the normal (0.4 ± 0.5 to 64.9 ± 6.7 ng/100 mL/tissue/min) sleep duration group. Furthermore, there was an inverse relation between average nightly sleep duration and peak t-PA release to bradykinin (r = 0.36, P short habitual sleep duration. Impaired endothelial fibrinolytic function may underlie the increased atherothrombotic risk associated with chronic short sleep.

  11. Sex differences in endothelial function in porcine coronary arteries: a role for H2O2 and gap junctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, P S; Roberts, R E; Randall, M D

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular risk is higher in men and postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women. This may be due to sex differences in endothelial function. Here, sex differences in endothelial function of porcine coronary arteries (PCAs) were investigated. Distal PCAs were studied under myographic conditions and after precontraction with U46619. Concentration-response curves to bradykinin were constructed in the presence of a range of inhibitors. In male and female PCAs, bradykinin produced comparable vasorelaxant responses. Inhibition of NO and prostanoid synthesis produced greater inhibition in males compared with females. Removing H2 O2 with PEG-catalase reduced the maximum relaxation in the absence, but not the presence of L-NAME and indomethacin in females, and had no effect in males. Blocking gap junctions with 100 µM carbenoxolone or 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid further inhibited the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated response in females but not in males. In female PCAs, the maximum EDH-mediated response was reduced by inhibiting SKCa with apamin and by inhibiting IKCa with TRAM-34, or with both. In male PCAs, at maximum bradykinin concentration, the EDH-mediated response was reduced in the presence of apamin but not TRAM-34. Western blot did not detect any differences in connexins 40 or 43 or in IKCa expression between male and female PCAs. H2 O2 mediated some part of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in female PCAs and EDH was more important in females, with differences in the contribution of gap junctions and IKCa channels. These findings may contribute to understanding vascular protection in premenopausal women. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. HAE Pathophysiology and Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuraw, Bruce L; Christiansen, Sandra C

    2016-10-01

    Remarkable progress in understanding the pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms of hereditary angioedema has led to the development of effective treatment for this disorder. Progress in three separate areas has catalyzed our understanding of hereditary angioedema. The first is the recognition that HAE type I and type II result from a deficiency in the plasma level of functional C1 inhibitor. This observation has led to a detailed understanding of the SERPING1 mutations responsible for this deficiency as well as the molecular regulation of C1 inhibitor expression and function. The second is that the fundamental cause of swelling is enhanced contact system activation leading to increased generation of bradykinin. Substantial progress has been made in defining the parameters regulating bradykinin generation and catabolism as well as the receptors that transduce the biologic effects of kinins. The third is the understanding that tissue swelling in hereditary angioedema primarily involves the function of endothelial cell adherens junctions. This knowledge is driving increased attention to the role of endothelial biology in determining disease activity in hereditary angioedema. While there has been considerable progress made, large gaps still remain in our knowledge. Important areas that remain poorly understood include the factors that lead to very low plasma functional C1 inhibitor levels, the triggers of contact system activation in hereditary angioedema, and the role of the bradykinin B1 receptor. The phenotypic variability of hereditary angioedema has been extensively documented but never understood. The mechanisms discussed in this chapter likely contribute to this variability. Future progress in understanding these mechanisms should provide new means to improve the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema.

  13. Peripheral KV7 channels regulate visceral sensory function in mouse and human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Madusha; Hockley, James Rf; Reed, David E; Smith, Ewan St John; Bulmer, David C; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic visceral pain is a defining symptom of many gastrointestinal disorders. The KV7 family (KV7.1-KV7.5) of voltage-gated potassium channels mediates the M current that regulates excitability in peripheral sensory nociceptors and central pain pathways. Here, we use a combination of immunohistochemistry, gut-nerve electrophysiological recordings in both mouse and human tissues, and single-cell qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of gut-projecting sensory neurons, to investigate the contribution of peripheral KV7 channels to visceral nociception. Results Immunohistochemical staining of mouse colon revealed labelling of KV7 subtypes (KV7.3 and KV7.5) with CGRP around intrinsic enteric neurons of the myenteric plexuses and within extrinsic sensory fibres along mesenteric blood vessels. Treatment with the KV7 opener retigabine almost completely abolished visceral afferent firing evoked by the algogen bradykinin, in agreement with significant co-expression of mRNA transcripts by single-cell qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for KCNQ subtypes and the B2 bradykinin receptor in retrogradely labelled extrinsic sensory neurons from the colon. Retigabine also attenuated responses to mechanical stimulation of the bowel following noxious distension (0-80 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the KV7 blocker XE991 potentiated such responses. In human bowel tissues, KV7.3 and KV7.5 were expressed in neuronal varicosities co-labelled with synaptophysin and CGRP, and retigabine inhibited bradykinin-induced afferent activation in afferent recordings from human colon. Conclusions We show that KV7 channels contribute to the sensitivity of visceral sensory neurons to noxious chemical and mechanical stimuli in both mouse and human gut tissues. As such, peripherally restricted KV7 openers may represent a viable therapeutic modality for the treatment of gastrointestinal pathologies.

  14. Plasma-mediated vascular dysfunction in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure model of preeclampsia: a microvascular characterization.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Sarah K

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia is associated with widespread maternal vascular dysfunction, which is thought to be mediated by circulating factor(s). The aim of the study was to characterize vascular function in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of preeclampsia and to investigate the role of plasma factors in mediating any observed changes in vascular reactivity. Mean arterial blood pressure and vascular function were measured in RUPP and control rats. Mesenteric vessels from both virgin and pregnant rats were exposed for 1 hour or overnight to plasma from both RUPP and control rats and their vascular function assessed. RUPP rats were characterized by severe hypertension, restricted fetal growth, and reduced placental weight (P<0.001). Vasorelaxation was impaired in resistance vessels from RUPP compared with control rats (acetylcholine: R(max) 70+\\/-3 versus 92+\\/-1 [NP] and 93+\\/-3% [sham], P<0.01; bradykinin: 40+\\/-2 versus 62+\\/-2 [NP] and 59+\\/-4% [sham], P<0.001). Incubation of vessels from pregnant (but not virgin) animals with RUPP plasma overnight resulted in an attenuation of vasorelaxant responses (acetylcholine: 63+\\/-7 versus 86+\\/-2%, P<0.05; bradykinin: 35+\\/-5 versus 55+\\/-6%, P<0.001). The residual relaxant response in RUPP plasma-treated vessels was not further attenuated after treatment with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (acetylcholine: 57+\\/-7 versus 63+\\/-7%, ns; bradykinin: 37+\\/-5 versus 35+\\/-5%, ns). The RUPP rat model is characterized by an impaired response to vasodilators which may be attributable to one or more circulating factors. This plasma-mediated endothelial dysfunction appears to be a pregnancy-dependent effect. Furthermore, nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation appears to be absent in RUPP plasma-treated vessels.

  15. Cigarette smoke extracts promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and enhances contractile responses in the vasculature and airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Lei, Ying; Chen, Qingwen; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-12-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the knowledge about how cigarette smoke induces damage to vasculature and airway is limited. The present study was designed to examine the effects of cigarette smoke particles extracted by heptane (heptane-soluble smoke particles, HSP), by water (water-soluble smoke particles, WSP) and by DMSO (DMSO-soluble smoke particles, DSP), which represent lipophilic, hydrophilic and ambiphoteric constituents from the cigarette smoke, respectively. Human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) proliferation was assessed in cell culture. Rat resistance artery and airway contractile responses to serotonin, U46619, phenylephrine, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, des-Arg⁹-bradykinin, bradykinin, sarafotoxin 6c and endothelin-1 were monitored by a sensitive myograph system. Immunocytochemistry and cell-based phosphoELISA assay were used to demonstrate activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). For the first time, our results demonstrate that although all the three extracts promote HASMC proliferation, the HSP and DSP effects occur earlier. HSP and DSP, but not WSP, increase the contractile responses to sarafotoxin 6c, U46619 or bradykinin in rat mesenteric artery and/or in bronchi. ERK1/2 is activated by HSP and DSP in HASMCs and inhibition of ERK1/2 abrogated the smoke extracts-induced HASMC proliferation, while blockage of nicotinic receptors had no effects, suggesting that the toxic effects of the smoke extracts occur via activation of intracellular ERK1/2 signalling, but not nicotinic receptors. © 2010 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2010 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  16. Long-term exposure to IL-1beta enhances Toll-IL-1 receptor-mediated inflammatory signaling in murine airway hyperresponsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yaping; Xu, Cang-Bao; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2009-01-01

    -1beta (IL-1beta), induce AHR. However, the underlying intracellular signaling mechanisms that lead to AHR remain elusive. In order to see if the Toll-IL-1 receptor-mediated inflammatory signal pathways are involved in the development of AHR, the present study was designed to use a real-time PCR...... mechanisms to the AHR, the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone, was used. Dexamethasone not only completely abolished the IL-1beta-induced AHR to bradykinin, but also abrogated the increased mRNA expression for inflammatory mediators, IL-6, IFN-gamma and Cox-2. In conclusion, long-term exposure of murine...

  17. Characterization of kininogenase activity of an acidic proteinase isolated from human kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, RAS; Juliano, L. [UNIFESP; Chagas, JR [UNIFESP; Hial, V

    1997-01-01

    An acidic proteinase was purified from human kidney cortex. the enzyme showed a molecular mass of 31 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 36 kDa by gel filtration, and isoelectric points of 5.2 and 6.1. the optimum pH for hydrolysis of bovine hemoglobin was about 3.5. Reverse-phase KPLC analysis of the incubation mixture of the enzyme with human plasma showed the presence of an active peptide on rat uterus muscle with the same retention time as the methionyl-lysyl-bradykinin (MLBK) standard. the specific activit...

  18. The Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-Induced Angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat

    2017-02-01

    The bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist icatibant is effective in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema. The drug is not approved officially for this indication and has to be administered in an emergency situation off-label. Corticosteroids or antihistamines do not seem to work in this condition. The effectiveness of C1-esterase-inhibitor in angiotensin-converting enzyme-induced angioedema must be verified in a double-blind study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aerosol matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization for liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, K.K.; Lewis, T.M.; Beeson, M.D.; Russell, D.H. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-05-15

    We report the application of aerosol matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) to liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The aerosol MALDI experiment uses aerosol liquid introduction in conjunction with pulsed UV laser ionization to form ions from large biomolecules in solution. Mass analysis is achieved in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. In the LC/MALDI-MS experiment, the matrix solution is combined with the column effluent in a mixing tee, LC/MALDI-MS is demonstrated for the separation of bradykinin, gramicidin S, and myoglobin. 32 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. An ABC of the Warning Signs of Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Ferraroni, Natasha; Olivares, Maria Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency is a genetic disorder that clinically manifests with attacks of angioedema in the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues, mainly in the extremities, abdomen, and upper airway. During attacks, vascular permeability is increased due to increased.......e., the so-called “ABC” of the warning signs of HAE. The letters represent the following: A = Angioedema, B = Bradykinin, C = C1 inhibitor, D = Distress factors, E = Epinephrine nonresponsive, F = Family history, and G = Glottis/Gastrointestinal edema. To avoid fatalities, medical staff and patients...

  1. Differential phospholipid-labeling suggests two subtypes of phospholipase D in rat Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    Cho). The [H] phosphatidylethanol formation in response to 4ß-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), sphingosine, or Ca-ionophore A23187, was lower when Leydig cells were labeled with 1-O-[H]alkyl lysoPtdCho compared with the responses when [H]myristic acid was employed. In contrast, the results...... for the receptor agonists (vasopressin, bradykinin, and lysophosphatidic acid), using the two labels, showed mole consistency. Thus, the PLD-activity induced by PMA, sphingosine, or A23187 has a more selective substrate range (i.e. mainly acyl-linked PtdCho) than the PLD-activity stimulated via a receptor. Our...

  2. Proteomic Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    CTCL 298 (O75791) GRB2-related adaptor protein 2 (GADS protein) (Growth factor receptor binding protein) (GR 299 (O15360) Fanconi anemia group A...peptides due to a possible bad batch of iTRAQ reagent, a brief test is performed by labeling a standard peptide, des -Arg-Bradykinin, prior to labeling...be treated with PNGase-F to identify the peptides that possessed the N-linked sugars (Yang Z, Harris LE, Palmer-Toy DE , Hancock WS. Multilectin

  3. Expression and function of calcium-activated potassium channels following in-stent restenosis in a porcine coronary artery model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mais F. Absi

    2012-04-01

    Functional analysis using 1-EBIO and Bradykinin produced hyperpolarization of neointimal but not medial myocytes, which indicated the expression of functional endothelial SK3 and IKCa in the former and not in the latter. The expression of IKCa and SK3 within the neointimal layer suggested that some degree of recovery of both endothelial as well as smooth muscle regeneration had occurred. Future development of selective modulators of IKCa and SK3 channels may decrease the progression of ISR and improve coronary vascular function after stent placement, and is an area for future investigation.

  4. Distribution of voltage-dependent and intracellular Ca2+ channels in submucosal neurons from rat distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Matthias; Bader, Sandra; Bell, Anna; Diener, Martin

    2013-09-01

    We recently observed a bradykinin-induced increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in submucosal neurons of rat colon, an increase inhibited by blockers of voltage-dependent Ca2+ (Ca(v)) channels. As the types of Ca(v) channels used by this part of the enteric nervous system are unknown, the expression of various Ca(v) subunits has been investigated in whole-mount submucosal preparations by immunohistochemistry. Submucosal neurons, identified by a neuronal marker (microtubule-associated protein 2), are immunoreactive for Ca(v)1.2, Ca(v)1.3 and Ca(v)2.2, expression being confirmed by reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction. These data agree with previous observations that the inhibition of L- and N-type Ca2+ currents strongly inhibits the response to bradykinin. However, whole-cell patch-clamp experiments have revealed that bradykinin does not enhance Ca2+ inward currents under voltage-clamp conditions. Consequently, bradykinin does not directly interact with Ca(v) channels. Instead, the kinin-induced Ca2+ influx is caused indirectly by the membrane depolarization evoked by this peptide. As intracellular Ca2+ channels on Ca(2+)-storing organelles can also contribute to Ca2+ signaling, their expression has been investigated by imaging experiments and immunohistochemistry. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R) have been functionally demonstrated in submucosal neurons loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye, fura-2. Histamine, a typical agonist coupled to the phospholipase C pathway, induces an increase in the fura-2 signal ratio, which is suppressed by 2-aminophenylborate, a blocker of IP3 receptors. The expression of IP3R1 has been confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, ryanodine, tested over a wide concentration range, evokes no increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration nor is there immunohistochemical evidence for the expression of ryanodine receptors in these neurons. Thus, rat submucosal neurons are equipped

  5. Long-term exposure to IL-1beta enhances Toll-IL-1 receptor-mediated inflammatory signaling in murine airway hyperresponsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yaping; Xu, Cang-Bao; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2009-01-01

    -time PCR-based cDNA array. The key gene expressions that were altered were verified by immunohistochemistry using confocal microscopy. Tracheal ring segment contractile responsiveness to the inflammatory mediator bradykinin was monitored using a sensitive myograph system. The results showed that after...... array, a sensitive and powerful tool, consisting of 84 genes related to Toll-IL-1 receptor signal pathways. Murine tracheal segments were organ cultured for four days in the presence and absence of IL-1beta. The Toll-IL-1 receptor-mediated inflammatory signal gene profile was studied using the real...

  6. Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuan, E-mail: yuan.xu@ki.se; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B{sub 2} receptor agonist) and des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin- (selective B{sub 1} receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE{sub 2}. The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B{sub 2} receptors, but not those on B{sub 1}. Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance seen in

  7. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.; Townsley, C.

    1995-04-01

    DRE Suffield has initiated a research program to develop methods and equipment for field detection and laboratory identification of mid-spectrum agents, molecules of biological origin such as proteins, peptides and toxins. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defence interest: bradykinin, bradykinin fragment 1-5, substance P,ARG8-vasopressin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, bombesin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin, and oxytocin. Using a 50 micrometer x 47 cm capillary column, 22.5 kV separation voltage and a 100 mM pH 2.5 phosphate buffer, all nine peptide could separated in under 10 minutes. Three strategies, which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system, were demonstrated for the identification of unknown peptides: comparison of migration times, comparison of electrophoretic mobilities, and co-injection of multiple reference standards. These experiments demonstrate that a separation based analytical method such as capillary electrophoresis could form the basis of a generic detection system for mid-spectrum protein and peptide toxins.

  8. Lysosomal Cathepsin A Plays Significant Role In The Processing Of Endogenous Bioactive Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Timur

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase Cathepsin A (CTSA is a multifunctional enzyme with distinct protective and catalytic function. CTSA that is present in the lysosomal multienzyme complex facilitates correct lysosomal routing, stability and activation of betagalactosidase and alpha-neuraminidase. In addition, CTSA plays a role in the inactivation of bioactive peptides including bradykinin, substances P, oxytocin, angiotensin I and endothelin-I by cleavage of one or two amino acid(s from the C-terminal ends. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory role of CTSA on bioactive peptides in a knock-in mouse model of CTSAS190A. We evaluated the levels of bradykinin, substances P, oxytocin, angiotensin I and endothelin-I in the kidney, liver, lung, brain and serum of the CTSAS190A mouse model at three- and six-months of age. Our results suggest that CTSA selectively contributes to the processing of bioactive peptides in different tissues of CTSAS190A mice compared to those of age-matched wild-type mice.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of root of Alpinia galanga willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Kumar Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of root extract of Alpinia galanga in rodents. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using albino rats of either sex (150-200 g. An extract of the root of A. galanga was prepared using absolute alcohol and distillation in a Soxhlet apparatus. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of this extract were evaluated using carrageenan-, bradykinin-, and 5-HT-induced rat paw edema. The chronic anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated using formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema. Results and Analysis: Inhibition of inflammation was seen to be 32.22% in carrageenan-induced, 37.70% in 5-HT-induced, and 35.21% in bradykinin-induced anti-inflammatory models. In chronic inflammatory model, a progressive inhibition of 34.73% (3 rd day, 37.50% (5 th day, 38.83% (7 th day, 44.66% (9 th day, 49.59% (11 th day, and 55.75% (13 th day was observed with study compound. The efficacy was comparable with the standard drugs. Conclusion: It can be thus concluded that A. galanga has anti-inflammatory properties and probably acts by blocking histaminic and serotonin pathways. It may be an effective alternative to NASAIDs and corticosteroid in inflammatory disorders.

  10. A novel effect of Noscapine on patients with massive ischemic stroke: A pseudo-randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Massoud; Rezvani, Mohammad; Rohani, Mohammad; Benaissa, Foozya; Jalili, Mehdi; Ghourchian, Shadi

    2015-01-05

    Massive ischemic stroke causes significant mortality and morbidity in stroke patients. The main treatments for massive ischemic stroke are recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), craniotomy, and endovascular interventions. Due to destructive effects of bradykinin on the nervous system in ischemic stroke, it seems reasonable that using Noscapine as a Bradykinin antagonist may improve patients' outcome after ischemic stroke. The effect of Noscapine on massive ischemic stroke was shown by the previous pilot study by our group. This pseudo-randomized clinical trial study was designed to assess the result of the pilot study. Patients who had clinical symptoms or computed tomography scan indicative of massive stroke (in full middle cerebral artery territory) were entered to the study. The cases received the drugs according to their turns in emergency ward (pseudo-randomized). The patient group received Noscapine, and the control group received common supportive treatments. The patients and data analyzer were blinded about the data. At the end of the study, to adjust confounding variables we used logistic regression. After 1-month follow-up, 16 patients in the control group and 11 patients in the case group expired (P = 0.193). Analyzing the data extracted from Rankin scale and Barthel index check lists, revealed no significant differences in the two groups. Despite the absence of significant statistical results in our study, the reduction rate of 16% for mortality rate in Noscapine recipients is clinically remarkable and motivates future studies with larger sample sizes.

  11. Elapid snake venom analyses show the specificity of the peptide composition at the level of genera Naja and Notechis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Aisha; Trusch, Maria; Georgieva, Dessislava; Hildebrand, Diana; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Behnken, Henning; Harder, Sönke; Arni, Raghuvir; Spencer, Patrick; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian

    2014-02-28

    Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms-that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja), and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis). A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F) cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467) from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes.

  12. The voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.9 is an effector of peripheral inflammatory pain hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Fumimasa; Wang, Haibin; Costigan, Michael; Allchorne, Andrew J; Hatcher, Jon P; Egerton, Julie; Stean, Tania; Morisset, Valerie; Grose, David; Gunthorpe, Martin J; Chessell, Iain P; Tate, Simon; Green, Paula J; Woolf, Clifford J

    2006-12-13

    We used a mouse with deletion of exons 4, 5, and 6 of the SCN11A (sodium channel, voltage-gated, type XI, alpha) gene that encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.9 to assess its contribution to pain. Na(v)1.9 is present in nociceptor sensory neurons that express TRPV1, bradykinin B2, and purinergic P2X3 receptors. In Na(v)1.9-/- mice, the non-inactivating persistent tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium TTXr-Per current is absent, whereas TTXr-Slow is unchanged. TTXs currents are unaffected by the mutation of Na(v)1.9. Pain hypersensitivity elicited by intraplantar administration of prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, interleukin-1beta, capsaicin, and P2X3 and P2Y receptor agonists, but not NGF, is either reduced or absent in Na(v)1.9-/- mice, whereas basal thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity is unchanged. Thermal, but not mechanical, hypersensitivity produced by peripheral inflammation (intraplanatar complete Freund's adjuvant) is substantially diminished in the null allele mutant mice, whereas hypersensitivity in two neuropathic pain models is unchanged in the Na(v)1.9-/- mice. Na(v)1.9 is, we conclude, an effector of the hypersensitivity produced by multiple inflammatory mediators on nociceptor peripheral terminals and therefore plays a key role in mediating peripheral sensitization.

  13. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels antagonize nociceptive behavior and hyperexcitability of DRG neurons from rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hailin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nociceptive responses to noxious stimuli are initiated at peripheral nociceptor terminals. Ion channels play a vital role in pain signal initiation and conduction. Activation of KATP channels has been implicated in mediating the analgesic effects of agents such as morphine. However, systematic studies regarding the effects of KATP activators on nociception and neuronal excitability are scarce. Results In this study, we describe the antagonistic effects of KATP activators pinacidil and diazoxide on nocifensive behavior induced by bradykinin (BK, thermo and mechanical stimuli, and the bradykinin-induced hyperexcitability of DRG neurons. We also found that KATP activators can moderately activate KATP in DRG neurons. Because the effects of KATP activators can be reversed by the KATP blocker glyburide, direct activation of KATP is most likely the underlying mechanism. Conclusion This systematic study clearly demonstrates that activation of KATP could have significant modulatory effects on the excitability of sensory neurons and thus on sensory behaviors, such as nociception. KATP activators can be evaluated clinically for the treatment of pain symptoms.

  14. Effects of wavelength, fluence, and dose on fragmentation pathways and photoproduct ion yield in 213 nm and 266 nm ultraviolet photodissociation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Simon; Spengler, Bernhard; Heiles, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet photodissociation tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to investigate the structure of biomolecules, due to its ability to generate rich fragmentation patterns or bond selective cleavage, as a function of used laser wavelength, laser fluence, dose (number of accumulated laser pulses), and available chromophores. Herein, we report first results obtained with a newly developed two-wavelength (266 nm and 213 nm) ultraviolet photodissociation setup coupled to a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Photoproduct yields for protonated 3-iodo-l-tyrosine were up to ∼75%. Dose and fluence dependent measurements for protonated 3-iodo-l-tyrosine, doubly charged protonated bradykinin and Fe(II) attached to 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine reveal that the ultraviolet photodissociation mechanism for photoproduct formation qualitatively differs between these model systems. Three derived photodissociation models were used to interpret the experimental results and show that while protonated 3-iodo-l-tyrosine and Fe(II) attached to 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine most likely dissociates via a single-photon process, fragmentation of doubly charged bradykinin ions was found to be most consistent with sequential two-photon dissociation (213 nm). The introduced dissociation models present an easy means to study the mechanism of ultraviolet photodissociation processes for a variety of analytes without prior knowledge of their photochemistry or to optimize experimental conditions by adjusting laser fluence or number of laser pulses.

  15. Interaction of Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron with the kallikrein–kinin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörgelin, Matthias; Cooney, Jakki C.; Frick, Inga-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens interfere with the contact system (kallikrein–kinin system) in human plasma. Activation of this system has two consequences: cleavage of high-molecular-mass kininogen (HK) resulting in release of the potent proinflammatory peptide bradykinin, and initiation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. In this study, two species of the Gram-negative anaerobic commensal organism Bacteroides, namely Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, were found to bind HK and fibrinogen, the major clotting protein, from human plasma as shown by immunoelectron microscopy and Western blot analysis. In addition, these Bacteroides species were capable of activating the contact system at its surface leading to a significant prolongation of the intrinsic coagulation time and also to the release of bradykinin. Members of the genus Bacteroides have been known to act as opportunistic pathogens outside the gut, with B. fragilis being the most common isolate from clinical infections, such as intra-abdominal abscesses and bacteraemia. The present results thus provide more insight into how Bacteroides species cause infection. PMID:21527472

  16. Interaction of Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron with the kallikrein-kinin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth C; Mörgelin, Matthias; Cooney, Jakki C; Frick, Inga-Maria

    2011-07-01

    Many bacterial pathogens interfere with the contact system (kallikrein-kinin system) in human plasma. Activation of this system has two consequences: cleavage of high-molecular-mass kininogen (HK) resulting in release of the potent proinflammatory peptide bradykinin, and initiation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. In this study, two species of the Gram-negative anaerobic commensal organism Bacteroides, namely Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, were found to bind HK and fibrinogen, the major clotting protein, from human plasma as shown by immunoelectron microscopy and Western blot analysis. In addition, these Bacteroides species were capable of activating the contact system at its surface leading to a significant prolongation of the intrinsic coagulation time and also to the release of bradykinin. Members of the genus Bacteroides have been known to act as opportunistic pathogens outside the gut, with B. fragilis being the most common isolate from clinical infections, such as intra-abdominal abscesses and bacteraemia. The present results thus provide more insight into how Bacteroides species cause infection.

  17. A novel myotropic peptide from the skin secretions of the tree frog, Polypedates pingbianensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongli; Wei, Lin; He, Xiaoqin; Liu, Huan; Yang, Shilong; Lai, Ren; Rao, Dingqi

    2012-08-01

    A novel myotropic peptide, polypedatein, was purified and characterized from the skin secretions of the tree frog, Polypedates pingbianensis. Its primary structure, TLLCKYFAIC, was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. Polypedatein was subjected to bioassays including myotropic, antimicrobial, and serine protease inhibitory activities, which are related with many amphibian skin bioactive peptides. It was found to elicit concentration-dependent contractile effects on isolated rat ileum. cDNA clones encoding the precursor of polypedatein were isolated by screening a skin cDNA library of P. pingbianensis and then sequenced. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequences matches well with the result from Edman degradation. BLAST search revealed that the sequence of polypedatein did not show similarity to known protein or peptide sequences. Especially, polypedatein does not contain conserved structural motifs of other amphibian myotropic peptides, such as bradykinins, bombesins, cholecystokinin (CCK), and tachykinins, indicating that polypedatein belongs to a novel amphibian myotropic peptide family. The signal peptide of the precursor encoding polypedatein shows significant sequence identity to that of other amphibian skin defensive peptides, such as antimicrobial peptides, bradykinins, lectins, and serine protease inhibitors, suggesting that polypedatein belongs to a novel amphibian myotropic peptide family. Polypedatein is also the first bioactive peptide from the genus of the frog, Polypedates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Elapid Snake Venom Analyses Show the Specificity of the Peptide Composition at the Level of Genera Naja and Notechis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Aisha; Trusch, Maria; Georgieva, Dessislava; Hildebrand, Diana; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Behnken, Henning; Harder, Sönke; Arni, Raghuvir; Spencer, Patrick; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms—that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja), and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis). A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F) cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467) from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes. PMID:24590383

  19. Contact system activation and high thrombin generation in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Gu, Ja-Yoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Han, Se Eun; Kim, Young Il; Nam-Goong, Il Sung; Kim, Eun Sook; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombotic risk. As contact system activation through formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) has emerged as an important trigger of thrombosis, we hypothesized that the contact system is activated along with active NET formation in hyperthyroidism and that their markers correlate with disease severity. In 61 patients with hyperthyroidism and 40 normal controls, the levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen, and factor VII, VIII, IX, XI and XII), D-dimer, thrombin generation assay (TGA) markers, NET formation markers (histone-DNA complex, double-stranded DNA and neutrophil elastase) and contact system markers (activated factor XII (XIIa), high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK), prekallikrein and bradykinin) were measured. Patients with hyperthyroidism showed higher levels of fibrinogen (median (interquartile range), 315 (280-344) vs 262 (223-300), P = 0.001), D-dimer (103.8 (64.8-151.5) vs 50.7 (37.4-76.0), P hyperthyroidism's contribution to coagulation and contact system activation. Free T4 was significantly correlated with factors VIII and IX, D-dimer, double-stranded DNA and bradykinin. This study demonstrated that contact system activation and abundant NET formation occurred in the high thrombin generation state in hyperthyroidism and were correlated with free T4 level. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Preclinical characterization of recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 as a novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kolodka

    Full Text Available Modulation of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS has been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and several other physiological responses relevant to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. The importance of bradykinin and its receptors in mediating these responses is well documented, but the role of tissue kallikrein-1, the protease that generates bradykinin in situ, is much less understood. We developed and tested DM199, recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 protein (rhKLK-1, as a potential novel therapeutic for T2D. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies suggest that DM199 increases whole body glucose disposal in non-diabetic rats. Single-dose administration of DM199 in obese db/db mice and ZDF rats, showed an acute, dose-dependent improvement in whole-body glucose utilization. Sub-acute dosing for a week in ZDF rats improved glucose utilization, with a concomitant rise in fasting insulin levels and HOMA1-%B scores. After cessation of sub-acute dosing, fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in ZDF rats during a drug wash-out period. Our studies show for the first time that DM199 administration results in acute anti-hyperglycemic effects in several preclinical models, and demonstrate the potential for further development of DM199 as a novel therapeutic for T2D.

  1. The acute impact of polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa in metabolic homeostasis: an approach combining metabolomics and gene-expression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Senan-Campos, Oriol; Massucci, Francesco A; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Guimerà, Roger; Camps, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    We explored the acute multifunctional effects of polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa in humans to assess possible consequences on the host's health. The expected dynamic response was studied using a combination of transcriptomics and metabolomics to integrate specific functional pathways through network-based methods and to generate hypotheses established by acute metabolic effects and/or modifications in the expression of relevant genes. Data were obtained from healthy male volunteers after 3 hours of ingestion of an aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extract. The data were compared with data obtained prior to the ingestion, and the overall findings suggest that these particular polyphenols had a simultaneous role in mitochondrial function, energy homeostasis and protection of the cardiovascular system. These findings suggest beneficial actions in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidation, which are interrelated mechanisms. Among other effects, the activation of the heme oxygenase-biliverdin reductase axis, the systemic inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system, the inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme, and several actions mirroring those of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists further support this notion. We also found concordant findings in the serum of the participants, which include a decrease in cortisol levels and a significant increase in the active vasodilator metabolite of bradykinin (des-Arg(9)-bradykinin). Therefore, our data support the view that polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa play a regulatory role in metabolic health and in the maintenance of blood pressure, thus implying a multi-faceted impact in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Somaclonal variation: a morphogenetic and biochemical analysis of Mandevilla velutina cultured cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maraschin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell cultures of Mandevilla velutina have proved to be an interesting production system for biomass and secondary metabolites able to inhibit the hypotensive activity of bradykinin, a nonapeptide generated in plasma during tissue trauma. The crude ethyl acetate extract of cultured cells contains about 31- to 79-fold more potent anti-bradykinin compounds (e.g., velutinol A than that obtained with equivalent extracts of tubers. Somaclonal variation may be an explanation for the wide range of inhibitor activity found in the cell cultures. The heterogeneity concerning morphology, differentiation, carbon dissimilation, and velutinol A production in M. velutina cell cultures is reported. Cell cultures showed an asynchronous growth and cells in distinct developmental stages. Meristematic cells were found as the major type, with several morphological variations. Cell aggregates consisting only of meristematic cells, differentiated cells containing specialized cell structures such as functional chloroplasts (cytodifferentiation and cells with embryogenetic characteristics were observed. The time course for sucrose metabolism indicated cell populations with significant differences in growth and metabolic rates, with the highest biomass-producing cell line showing a cell cycle 60% shorter and a metabolic rate 33.6% higher than the control (F2 cell population. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of velutinol A in selected cell lines demonstrated the existence of velutinol A producing and nonproducing somaclones. These results point to a high genetic heterogeneity in general and also in terms of secondary metabolite content.

  3. The plasma contact system, a protease cascade at the nexus of inflammation, coagulation and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Henri; Heikaus, Laura; Long, Andy T; Naudin, Clément; Schlüter, Hartmut; Renné, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The contact system is a potent procoagulant and proinflammatory plasma protease cascade that is initiated by binding ("contact")-induced, auto-activation of factor XII zymogen. Formed active serine protease FXIIa then cleaves plasma prekallikrein to kallikrein that in turn liberates the mediator bradykinin from its precursor high molecular weight kininogen. Bradykinin induces inflammation with implications for host defense and innate immunity. FXIIa also triggers the intrinsic pathway of coagulation that has been shown to critically contribute to thrombosis. Vice versa, FXII deficiency impairs thrombosis in animal models without inducing abnormal excessive bleeding. Recent work has established the FXIIa-driven contact system as promising target for anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory drugs. This review focuses on the biochemistry of the contact system, its regulation by endogenous and exogenous inhibitors, and roles in disease states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteolysis as a Regulatory Event in Pathophysiology edited by Stefan Rose-John. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nebivolol, But Not Metoprolol, Treatment Improves Endothelial Fibrinolytic Capacity in Adults With Elevated Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Brian L; Dow, Caitlin A; Diehl, Kyle J; Bammert, Tyler D; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2017-11-09

    Vascular endothelial fibrinolytic function is impaired in adults with prehypertension and hypertension and plays a mechanistic role in the development of atherothrombotic events. The influence of β-blockers on endothelial fibrinolysis is unknown. This study compared the effects of chronic nebivolol and metoprolol treatment on endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release in adults with elevated blood pressure (BP). Forty-four middle-aged adults (36% women) with elevated BP completed a 3-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing nebivolol (5 mg/d), metoprolol succinate (100 mg/d), and placebo. Net endothelial t-PA release was determined in vivo in response to intrabrachial infusions of bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside before and after each intervention. In a subset, the dose-response curves to bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside were repeated with a coinfusion of the antioxidant vitamin C. At baseline, resting BP and endothelial t-PA release were comparable between the 3 groups. BP decreased to a similar extent (≈10 mm Hg) in the nebivolol- and metoprolol-treated groups. There was a substantial increase (≈30%; PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01595516. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Elapid Snake Venom Analyses Show the Specificity of the Peptide Composition at the Level of Genera Naja and Notechis

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    Aisha Munawar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms—that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja, and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis. A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467 from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes.

  6. Peptidomics of Three Bothrops Snake Venoms: Insights Into the Molecular Diversification of Proteomes and Peptidomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Alexandre K.; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S.; Ianzer, Danielle; Melo, Robson L.; Rioli, Vanessa; Sant'anna, Sávio S.; Schenberg, Ana C. G.; Camargo, Antônio C. M.; Serrano, Solange M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Snake venom proteomes/peptidomes are highly complex and maintenance of their integrity within the gland lumen is crucial for the expression of toxin activities. There has been considerable progress in the field of venom proteomics, however, peptidomics does not progress as fast, because of the lack of comprehensive venom sequence databases for analysis of MS data. Therefore, in many cases venom peptides have to be sequenced manually by MS/MS analysis or Edman degradation. This is critical for rare snake species, as is the case of Bothrops cotiara (BC) and B. fonsecai (BF), which are regarded as near threatened with extinction. In this study we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the venom peptidomes of BC, BF, and B. jararaca (BJ) using a combination of solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase HPLC to fractionate the peptides, followed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) or direct infusion electrospray ionization-(ESI)-MS/MS or MALDI-MS/MS analyses. We detected marked differences in the venom peptidomes and identified peptides ranging from 7 to 39 residues in length by de novo sequencing. Forty-four unique sequences were manually identified, out of which 30 are new peptides, including 17 bradykinin-potentiating peptides, three poly-histidine-poly-glycine peptides and interestingly, 10 l-amino acid oxidase fragments. Some of the new bradykinin-potentiating peptides display significant bradykinin potentiating activity. Automated database search revealed fragments from several toxins in the peptidomes, mainly from l-amino acid oxidase, and allowed the determination of the peptide bond specificity of proteinases and amino acid occurrences for the P4-P4′ sites. We also demonstrate that the venom lyophilization/resolubilization process greatly increases the complexity of the peptidome because of the imbalance caused to the venom proteome and the consequent activity of proteinases on venom components. The use of proteinase inhibitors clearly showed

  7. New treatments addressing the pathophysiology of hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alvin E

    2008-04-14

    Hereditary angioedema is a serious medical condition caused by a deficiency of C1-inhibitor. The condition is the result of a defect in the gene controlling the synthesis of C1-inhibitor, which regulates the activity of a number of plasma cascade systems. Although the prevalence of hereditary angioedema is low - between 1:10,000 to 1:50,000 - the condition can result in considerable pain, debilitation, reduced quality of life, and even death in those afflicted. Hereditary angioedema presents clinically as cutaneous swelling of the extremities, face, genitals, and trunk, or painful swelling of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Angioedema of the upper airways is extremely serious and has resulted in death by asphyxiation.Subnormal levels of C1-inhibitor are associated with the inappropriate activation of a number of pathways - including, in particular, the complement and contact systems, and to some extent, the fibrinolysis and coagulation systems.Current findings indicate bradykinin, a product of contact system activation, as the primary mediator of angioedema in patients with C1-inhibitor deficiency. However, other systems may play a role in bradykinin's rapid and excessive generation by depleting available levels of C1-inhibitor.There are currently no effective therapies in the United States to treat acute attacks of hereditary angioedema, and currently available agents used to treat hereditary angioedema prophylactically are suboptimal. Five new agents are, however, in Phase III development. Three of these agents replace C1-inhibitor, directly addressing the underlying cause of hereditary angioedema and re-establishing regulatory control of all pathways and proteases involved in its pathogenesis. These agents include a nano-filtered C1-inhibitor replacement therapy, a pasteurized C1-inhibitor, and a recombinant C1-inhibitor isolated from the milk of transgenic rabbits. All C1-inhibitors are being investigated for acute angioedema attacks; the nano-filtered C1

  8. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  9. Characterization of thimet oligopeptidase and neurolysin activities in B16F10-Nex2 tumor cells and their involvement in angiogenesis and tumor growth

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    Juliano Luiz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis is a fundamental process that allows tumor growth by providing nutrients and oxygen to the tumor cells. Beyond the oxygen diffusion limit from a capillary blood vessel, tumor cells become apoptotic. Angiogenesis results from a balance of pro- and anti-angiogenic stimuli. Endogenous inhibitors regulate enzyme activities that promote angiogenesis. Tumor cells may express pro-angiogenic factors and hydrolytic enzymes but also kinin-degrading oligopeptidases which have been investigated. Results Angiogenesis induced by B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells was studied in a co-culture with HUVEC on Matrigel. A stimulating effect on angiogenesis was observed in the presence of B16F10-Nex2 lysate and plasma membrane. In contrast, the B16F10-Nex2 culture supernatant inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was abolished by the endo-oligopeptidase inhibitor, JA-2. Thimet oligopeptidase (TOP and neurolysin activities were then investigated in B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells aiming at gene sequencing, enzyme distribution and activity, influence on tumor development, substrate specificity, hydrolytic products and susceptibility to inhibitors. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET peptides as well as neurotensin and bradykinin were used as substrates. The hydrolytic activities in B16F10-Nex2 culture supernatant were totally inhibited by o-phenanthrolin, JA-2 and partially by Pro-Ile. Leupeptin, PMSF, E-64, Z-Pro-Prolinal and captopril failed to inhibit these hydrolytic activities. Genes encoding M3A enzymes in melanoma cells were cloned and sequenced being highly similar to mouse genes. A decreased proliferation of B16F10-Nex2 cells was observed in vitro with specific inhibitors of these oligopeptidases. Active rTOP but not the inactive protein inhibited melanoma cell development in vivo increasing significantly the survival of mice challenged with the tumor cells. On Matrigel, rTOP inhibited the bradykinin

  10. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents. Suffield memorandum No. 1463

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Mid-spectrum biological warfare agents such as proteins, peptides, and toxins are often difficult to analyze and often require individually developed assay methods for detection and identification. In this regard, capillary electrophoresis is an important, emerging technique for separation and quantitation of peptides and proteins, providing separation efficiencies up to two orders of magnitude greater than high performance liquid chromatography. The technique can also analyze a broad range of compounds, has a simple instrument design which can be automated, and has low sample volume requirements. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defense interest including bradykinin, leucine enkephalin, and oxytocin. The paper demonstrates three strategies which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system for unknown peptides.

  11. Nanoparticle-Functionalized Porous Polymer Monolith Detection Elements for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jikun; White, Ian; DeVoe, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of porous polymer monoliths functionalized with silver nanoparticles is introduced in this work for high-sensitivity surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. Preparation of the SERS detection elements is a simple process comprising the synthesis of a discrete polymer monolith section within a silica capillary, followed by physically trapping silver nanoparticle aggregates within the monolith matrix. A SERS detection limit of 220 fmol for Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is demonstrated, with excellent signal stability over a 24 h period. The capability of the SERS-active monolith for label-free detection of biomolecules was demonstrated by measurements of bradykinin and cyctochrome c. The SERS-active monoliths can be readily integrated into miniaturized micro-total-analysis systems for on-line and label-free detection for a variety of biosensing, bioanalytical, and biomedical applications. PMID:21322579

  12. Proteomic Analyses of Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix Venom Using 2D Electrophoresis and MS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, Aleksandra; Urbanik, Małgorzata; Hus, Konrad; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Petrilla, Vladimír; Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Petrillová, Monika; Legáth, Jaroslav

    2016-12-13

    Snake venom is a complex mixture of proteins and peptides which in the Viperidae is mainly hemotoxic. The diversity of these components causes the venom to be an extremely interesting object of study. Discovered components can be used in search for new pharmaceuticals used primarily in the treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system. In order to determine the protein composition of the southern copperhead venom, we have used high resolution two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI ToF/ToF MS-based identification. We have identified 10 groups of proteins present in the venom, of which phospholipase A₂ and metalloprotease and serine proteases constitute the largest groups. For the first time presence of 5'-nucleotidase in venom was found in this group of snakes. Three peptides present in the venom were also identified. Two of them as bradykinin-potentiating agents and one as an inhibitor.

  13. Relaxing Responses to Hydrogen Peroxide and Nitric Oxide in Human Pericardial Resistance Arteries Stimulated with Endothelin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leurgans, Thomas M; Bloksgaard, Maria; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon

    2017-01-01

    In human pericardial resistance arteries, effects of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator bradykinin are mediated by NO during contraction induced by K(+) or the TxA2 analogue U46619 and by H2 O2 during contraction by endothelin-1 (ET-1), respectively. We tested the hypotheses that ET-1 reduces...... relaxing effects of NO and increases those of H2 O2 in resistance artery smooth muscle of patients with cardiovascular disease. Arterial segments, dissected from the parietal pericardium of 39 cardiothoracic surgery patients, were studied by myography during amplitude-matched contractions induced by K......(+) , the TXA2 analogue U46619 or ET-1. Effects of the NO-donor Na-nitroprusside (SNP) and of exogenous H2 O2 were recorded in absence and presence of inhibitors of cyclooxygenases, NO-synthases and small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels. During contractions induced by either...

  14. Pharmacogenetic Risk Stratification in Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Treated Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelveg-Kristensen, Karl Emil; Busk Madsen, Majbritt; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for pharmacogenetic risk stratification of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) treatment is limited. Therefore, in a cohort of ACEI-treated patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), we investigated the predictive value of two pharmacogenetic scores...... that previously were found to predict ACEI efficacy in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension, respectively. Score A combined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene (rs275651 and rs5182) and the bradykinin receptor B1 gene (rs12050217). Score B combined...... SNPs of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (rs4343) and ABO blood group genes (rs495828 and rs8176746). METHODS: Danish patients with CHF enrolled in the previously reported Echocardiography and Heart Outcome Study were included. Subjects were genotyped and categorized according to pharmacogenetic...

  15. Baltikinin: A New Myotropic Tryptophyllin-3 Peptide Isolated from the Skin Secretion of the Purple-Sided Leaf Frog, Phyllomedusa baltea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daning Shi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the identification of a novel tryptophyllin-3 peptide with arterial smooth muscle relaxation activity from the skin secretion of the purple-sided leaf frog, Phyllomedusa baltea. This new peptide was named baltikinin and had the following primary structure, pGluDKPFGPPPIYPV, as determined by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS fragmentation sequencing and from cloned skin precursor-encoding cDNA. A synthetic replicate of baltikinin was found to have a similar potency to bradykinin in relaxing arterial smooth muscle (half maximal effective concentration (EC50 is 7.2 nM. These data illustrate how amphibian skin secretions can continue to provide novel potent peptides that act through functional targets in mammalian tissues.

  16. Arginine vasopressin stimulates phosphoinositide turnover in an enriched rat Leydig cell preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl......An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol......-dependent feedback inhibition of the stimulation. Other agonists that might have a regulatory function in the testis were tested for possible effects on phosphoinositide metabolism. Of prostaglandin E (10 µm), angiotensin II (0.1 µM), and bradykinin (0.9 µM), only the latter induced a significant increase...

  17. Structure-function relationships in thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plug, T; Meijers, J C M

    2016-04-01

    Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is an important regulator in the balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. TAFI is a metallocarboxypeptidase that circulates in plasma as zymogen. Activated TAFI (TAFIa) cleaves C-terminal lysine or arginine residues from peptide substrates. The removal of C-terminal lysine residues from partially degraded fibrin leads to reduced plasmin formation and thus attenuation of fibrinolysis. TAFI also plays a role in inflammatory processes via the removal of C-terminal arginine or lysine residues from bradykinin, thrombin-cleaved osteopontin, C3a, C5a and chemerin. TAFI has been studied extensively over the past three decades and recent publications provide a wealth of information, including crystal structures, mutants and structural data obtained with antibodies and peptides. In this review, we combined and compared available data on structure/function relationships of TAFI. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. Neural control of the circulation in heart failure and coronary ischaemia: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, I H

    1996-08-01

    1. A large gap in our knowledge of the reflex control of the circulation still exists in the setting of chronic heart failure. This symposium will provide state-of-the-art experimental data on the reflex regulation of the circulation in heart failure and myocardial ischaemia. 2. Alterations in arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflexes contribute to the increase in sympathetic tone in this disease state. Additionally, changes in neurohormones, such as angiotensin, are thought to contribute. 3. Coronary ischaemia is associated with activation of both vagal and sympathetic reflexes of cardiac origin. The balance between activation of these two reflexes will determine the ultimate change in sympathetic outflow. 4. Sensory endings in the myocardium are exquisitely sensitive to local mediators, such as prostaglandins, oxygen-derived free radicals, adenosine and bradykinin.

  19. Kinin Receptor Antagonists as Potential Neuroprotective Agents in Central Nervous System Injury

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    Anna V Leonard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Injury to the central nervous system initiates complex physiological, cellular and molecular processes that can result in neuronal cell death. Of interest to this review is the activation of the kinin family of neuropeptides, in particular bradykinin and substance P. These neuropeptides are known to have a potent pro-inflammatory role and can initiate neurogenic inflammation resulting in vasodilation, plasma extravasation and the subsequent development of edema. As inflammation and edema play an integral role in the progressive secondary injury that causes neurological deficits, this review critically examines kinin receptor antagonists as a potential neuroprotective intervention for acute brain injury, and more specifically, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury and stroke.

  20. Responses of algesic and metabolic substances to 8h of repetitive manual work in myalgic human trapezius muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, B; Rosendal, L; Kristiansen, J

    2008-01-01

    The trapezius muscle often develops pain as the result of repetitive and stressful work tasks although it is unclear to what extent this pain is due to alterations in muscle concentrations of algesic/nociceptive substances. Twenty women with chronic neck- and shoulder pain (TM) whose work required...... highly repetitive work tasks and 20 pain-free female colleagues (CON) were studied during and after a full 8-hour workday. We collected microdialysates from their dominant/most painful trapezius muscle; concentrations of serotonin, glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, potassium, bradykinin, and cytokines...... and blood flow were determined. In addition, we measured surface electromyogram, task exposure level, pain intensity, perceived mental stress, and urine-cortisol. In connection to the clinical neck and shoulder examination, we determined pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) over the trapezius and tibialis...

  1. Decreased synthesis of serum carboxypeptidase N (SCPN) in familial SCPN deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, K.P.; Curd, J.G.; Hugli, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Serum carboxypeptidase N (SCPN) is the primary inactivator of the C3a, C4a, and C5a anaphylatoxins as well as an inactivator of bradykinin. Thus, SCPN deficiency potentially could result in significant pathophysiologic consequences. Previous studies identified a deficient subject afflicted with frequent episodes of angioedema, and other family members also had SCPN deficiency. To delineate this abnormality further, the fractional catabolic rate (FRC) and enzyme synthesis were determined in three members of the afflicted kindred as well as in five normal persons following the infusion of homogeneous /sup 125/I-SCPN. The mean FCR and synthesis rates for SCPN in the normal subjects were 1.3%/hr and 20,793 U/kg/hr, respectively. Reduced synthesis was concluded to be primarily responsible for the low SCPN levels in the afflicted kindred. The high FRC of SCPN discourages attempted maintenance therapy with infusions of enriched SCPN preparations.

  2. On the zwitterionic nature of gas-phase peptides and protein ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marchese

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the total number of charged residues corresponding to a given value of net charge for peptides and proteins in gas phase is crucial for the interpretation of mass-spectrometry data, yet it is far from being understood. Here we show that a novel computational protocol based on force field and massive density functional calculations is able to reproduce the experimental facets of well investigated systems, such as angiotensin II, bradykinin, and tryptophan-cage. The protocol takes into account all of the possible protomers compatible with a given charge state. Our calculations predict that the low charge states are zwitterions, because the stabilization due to intramolecular hydrogen bonding and salt-bridges can compensate for the thermodynamic penalty deriving from deprotonation of acid residues. In contrast, high charge states may or may not be zwitterions because internal solvation might not compensate for the energy cost of charge separation.

  3. Effect of electron radiation on vasomotor function of the left anterior descending coronary artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Billings, Paul C.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Thorne, Pamela K.; Laughlin, Maurice H.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    The left anterior descending (LAD, interventricular) coronary artery provides the blood supply to the mid-region of the heart and is a major site of vessel stenosis. Changes in LAD function can have major effects on heart function. In this report, we examined the effect of electron simulated solar particle event (eSPE) radiation on LAD function in a porcine animal model. Vasodilatory responses to adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 10-9-10-4 M), bradykinin (BK; 10-11-10-6 M), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10-10-10-4 M) were assessed. The LAD arteries from Control (non-irradiated) and the eSPE (irradiated) animals were isolated and exhibited a similar relaxation response following treatment with either ADP or SNP. In contrast, a significantly reduced relaxation response to BK treatment was observed in the eSPE irradiated group, compared to the control group. These data demonstrate that simulated SPE radiation exposure alters LAD function.

  4. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bladder. Neuropeptides have tissue-specific distributions and functions in the LUT and exhibit neuroplastic changes in expression and function with LUT dysfunction following neural injury, inflammation and disease. LUT dysfunction with abnormal voiding including urinary urgency, increased voiding frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence and pain may reflect a change in the balance of neuropeptides in bladder reflex pathways. LUT neuropeptide/receptor systems may represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21290237

  5. Hereditary angioedema: special consideration in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlen, James L; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-01-01

    This review on hereditary angioedema (HAE) focused on special topics regarding HAE in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly. HAE is a rare autosomal dominant bradykinin-mediated disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal swelling that usually affects the face, upper airway, extremities, gastrointestinal tract, or genitalia. These recurrent attacks cause significant morbidity and can be life threatening, especially when the swelling affects the airway. Our objective was to summarize the published data available on the disease epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, on demand and prophylactic therapy, and focus on management considerations for these special patient populations. Unique aspects of HAE in women with regard to contraception, hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause were also reviewed.

  6. Altered responsiveness of small uterine arteries in women with idiopathic menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mints, Miriam; Luksha, Leonid; Kublickiene, Karolina

    2008-12-01

    This study was undertaken to study vascular reactivity of small myometrial arteries in women with idiopathic menorrhagia. Small myometrial arteries were isolated from 6 patients with idiopathic menorrhagia and 4 controls. The contractile responses to thromboxane mimetic (U46619) and endothelin-1 were assessed before and after incubation with N(w)-nitro-L arginine methyl ester alone or in combination with indomethacin (Indo). Endothelium-dependent dilation to bradykinin and basal tension were compared before and after incubation with N(w)-nitro-L arginine methyl ester alone, or with N(w)-nitro-L arginine methyl ester in combination with indomethacin. Constriction to endothelin-1 was enhanced in idiopathic menorrhagia arteries (P menorrhagia arteries demonstrated enhanced basal tension after incubation with N(w)-nitro-L arginine methyl ester, which was further exaggerated by indomethacin. NOS inhibition had no effect on basal tension in controls, but basal tension was enhanced after inhibition of cyclooxygenase-derived products (P menorrhagia (P menorrhagia.

  7. Proteomic Analyses of Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix Venom Using 2D Electrophoresis and MS Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, Aleksandra; Urbanik, Małgorzata; Hus, Konrad; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Petrilla, Vladimír; Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Petrillová, Monika; Legáth, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom is a complex mixture of proteins and peptides which in the Viperidae is mainly hemotoxic. The diversity of these components causes the venom to be an extremely interesting object of study. Discovered components can be used in search for new pharmaceuticals used primarily in the treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system. In order to determine the protein composition of the southern copperhead venom, we have used high resolution two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI ToF/ToF MS-based identification. We have identified 10 groups of proteins present in the venom, of which phospholipase A2 and metalloprotease and serine proteases constitute the largest groups. For the first time presence of 5′-nucleotidase in venom was found in this group of snakes. Three peptides present in the venom were also identified. Two of them as bradykinin-potentiating agents and one as an inhibitor. PMID:27983581

  8. A fungal protease allergen provokes airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balenga, Nariman A.; Klichinsky, Michael; Xie, Zhihui; Chan, Eunice C.; Zhao, Ming; Jude, Joseph; Laviolette, Michel; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Druey, Kirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma, a common disorder that affects more than 250 million people worldwide, is defined by exaggerated bronchoconstriction to inflammatory mediators including acetylcholine, bradykinin, and histamine—also termed airway hyper-responsiveness Nearly 10% of people with asthma have severe, treatment-resistant disease, which is frequently associated with IgE sensitization to ubiquitous fungi, typically Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we show that a major Aspergillus fumigatus allergen, Asp f13, which is a serine protease, alkaline protease 1 (Alp 1), promotes airway hyper-responsiveness by infiltrating the bronchial submucosa and disrupting airway smooth muscle cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Alp 1-mediated extracellular matrix degradation evokes pathophysiological RhoA-dependent Ca2+ sensitivity and bronchoconstriction. These findings support a pathogenic mechanism in asthma and other lung diseases associated with epithelial barrier impairment, whereby airway smooth muscle cells respond directly to inhaled environmental allergens to generate airway hyper-responsiveness. PMID:25865874

  9. Aloe vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, A.D.; Penneys, N.S.

    1988-04-01

    We review the scientific literature regarding the aloe vera plant and its products. Aloe vera is known to contain several pharmacologically active ingredients, including a carboxypeptidase that inactivates bradykinin in vitro, salicylates, and a substance(s) that inhibits thromboxane formation in vivo. Scientific studies exist that support an antibacterial and antifungal effect for substance(s) in aloe vera. Studies and case reports provide support for the use of aloe vera in the treatment of radiation ulcers and stasis ulcers in man and burn and frostbite injuries in animals. The evidence for a potential beneficial effect associated with the use of aloe vera is sufficient to warrant the design and implementation of well-controlled clinical trials. 27 references.

  10. Vascular endothelium receptors and transduction mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Gillis, C; Ryan, Una; Proceedings of the Advanced Studies Institute on "Vascular Endothelium: Receptors and Transduction Mechanisms"

    1989-01-01

    Beyond their obvious role of a barrier between blood and tissue, vascular endothelial cells are now firmly established as active and essential participants in a host of crucial physiological and pathophysiological functions. Probably the two most important factors responsible for promoting the current knowledge of endothelial functions are 1) observations in the late sixties-early seventies that many non-ventilatory properties of the lung could be attributed to the pulmonary endothelium and 2) the establishment, in the early and mid-seventies of procedures for routine culture of vascular endothelial cells. Many of these endothelial functions require the presence of receptors on the surface of the plasma membrane. There is now evidence for the existence among others of muscarinic, a-and /3-adrenergic, purine, insulin, histamine, bradykinin, lipoprotein, thrombin, paf, fibronectin, vitronectin, interleukin and albumin receptors. For some of these ligands, there is evidence only for the existence of endothelial ...

  11. Biological properties of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor derived from tuna muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohama, Y; Oka, H; Matsumoto, S; Nakagawa, T; Miyamoto, T; Mimura, T; Nagase, Y; Satake, M; Takane, T; Fujita, T

    1989-09-01

    A novel inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) derived from tuna muscle, Pro-Thr-His-Ile-Lys-Trp-Gly-Asp (tuna AI), was chemically synthesized, and its biological properties were investigated. Synthetic tuna AI was found to be chemically and biologically indistinguishable from the native one. Tuna AI inhibited rabbit lung ACE non-competitively with Ki values of 1.7 and 5.7 microM with substrates, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine and angiotensin I, respectively. This peptide (5.3 microM) also doubled the effect of bradykinin in the contraction of isolated guinea pig ileum. The peptide did not show zinc chelating activity and carboxypeptidase A inhibitory activity. Thus, tuna AI was found to be a unique ACE inhibitory peptide with non-competitive manner, differing from many naturally occurring peptide ACE-inhibitors.

  12. Receptor-mediated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and prostacyclin from bovine aortic endothelial cells is coupled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nucci, G.; Gryglewski, R.J.; Warner, T.D.; Vane, J.R. (William Harvey Research Institute, London (England))

    1988-04-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial cells were grown on microcarrier beads and were perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) was bioassayed on a cascade of four strips of rabbit aorta, and prostacyclin was analyzed by RIA of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F{sub 1{alpha}}. The endothelial cells released EDRF and prostacyclin when stimulated with bradykinin and its analogues, or with ADP, ATP, arachidonic acid, and phospholipase C. The detection of EDRF was potentiated by superoxide dismutase, and the relaxation of rabbit aortic strips induced by EDRF was antagonized by methylene blue. The release of EDRF and prostacyclin was inhibited by phorbol myristate acetate, R59022 (a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor), and gentamycin. The authors suggest that the release of EDRF and prostacyclin is coupled and the initial common step is activation of a phospholipase C.

  13. Neprilysin inhibition to treat heart failure: a tale of science, serendipity, and second chances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J V

    2015-03-01

    This review describes the role of neprilysin (also known as neutral endopeptidase or enkephalinase) in the degradation of natriuretic and other vasoactive peptides, including bradykinin and adrenomedullin. The initial development of neprilysin inhibitors, then angiotensin converting enzyme-neprilysin inhibitors and, most recently, the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) LCZ696 (sacubitril valsartan) as an extension of the nurohumoral basis for the treatment of heart failure is also summarised. Finally, the implications of the compelling benefits of LCZ696 compared with enalapril in the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF) is discussed. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  14. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...... expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000) were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre-eclampsia...... as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of events...

  15. Proteomic Analyses of Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix Venom Using 2D Electrophoresis and MS Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bocian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom is a complex mixture of proteins and peptides which in the Viperidae is mainly hemotoxic. The diversity of these components causes the venom to be an extremely interesting object of study. Discovered components can be used in search for new pharmaceuticals used primarily in the treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system. In order to determine the protein composition of the southern copperhead venom, we have used high resolution two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI ToF/ToF MS-based identification. We have identified 10 groups of proteins present in the venom, of which phospholipase A2 and metalloprotease and serine proteases constitute the largest groups. For the first time presence of 5′-nucleotidase in venom was found in this group of snakes. Three peptides present in the venom were also identified. Two of them as bradykinin-potentiating agents and one as an inhibitor.

  16. New proline-rich oligopeptides from the venom of African adders: Insights into the hypotensive effect of the venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Roberto T; Cajado-Carvalho, Daniela; Kuniyoshi, Alexandre K; Kitano, Eduardo S; Tashima, Alexandre K; Barna, Barbara F; Takakura, Ana Carolina; Serrano, Solange M T; Dias-Da-Silva, Wilmar; Tambourgi, Denise V; Portaro, Fernanda V

    2015-06-01

    The snakes from the Bitis genus are some of the most medically important venomous snakes in sub Saharan Africa, however little is known about the composition and effects of these snake venom peptides. Considering that the victims with Bitis genus snakes have exacerbate hypotension and cardiovascular disorders, we investigated here the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme modulators on four different species of venoms. The peptide fractions from Bitis gabonica gabonica, Bitis nasicornis, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros and Bitis arietans which showed inhibitory activity on angiotensin-converting enzyme were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Eight proline-rich peptides were synthetized and their potencies were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The MS analysis resulted in over 150 sequences, out of which 32 are new proline-rich oligopeptides, and eight were selected for syntheses. For some peptides, inhibition assays showed inhibitory potentials of cleavage of angiotensin I ten times greater when compared to bradykinin. In vivo tests showed that all peptides decreased mean arterial pressure, followed by tachycardia in 6 out of 8 of the tests. We describe here some new and already known proline-rich peptides, also known as bradykinin-potentiating peptides. Four synthetic peptides indicated a preferential inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme C-domain. In vivo studies show that the proline-rich oligopeptides are hypotensive molecules. Although proline-rich oligopeptides are known molecules, we present here 32 new sequences that are inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme and consistent with the symptoms of the victims of Bitis spp, who display severe hypotension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biased G protein-coupled receptor agonism mediates Neu1 sialidase and matrix metalloproteinase-9 crosstalk to induce transactivation of insulin receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxho, Fiona; Haq, Sabah; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2017-12-24

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) can participate in a number of signaling pathways, and this property led to the concept of biased GPCR agonism. Agonists, antagonists and allosteric modulators can bind to GPCRs in different ways, creating unique conformations that differentially modulate signaling through one or more G proteins. A unique neuromedin B (NMBR) GPCR-signaling platform controlling mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) crosstalk has been reported in the activation of the insulin receptor (IR) through the modification of the IR glycosylation. Here, we propose that there exists a biased GPCR agonism as small diffusible molecules in the activation of Neu1-mediated insulin receptor signaling. GPCR agonists bombesin, bradykinin, angiotensin I and angiotensin II significantly and dose-dependently induce Neu1 sialidase activity and IR activation in human IR-expressing rat hepatoma cell lines (HTC-IR), in the absence of insulin. Furthermore, the GPCR agonist-induced Neu1 sialidase activity could be specifically blocked by the NMBR inhibitor, BIM-23127. Protein expression analyses showed that these GPCR agonists significantly induced phosphorylation of IRβ and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1). Among these, angiotensin II was the most potent GPCR agonist capable of promoting IRβ phosphorylation in HTC-IR cells. Interestingly, treatment with BIM-23127 and Neu1 inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate were able to block GPCR agonist-induced IR activation in HTC cells in vitro. Additionally, we found that angiotensin II receptor (type I) exists in a multimeric receptor complex with Neu1, IRβ and NMBR in naïve (unstimulated) and stimulated HTC-IR cells with insulin, bradykinin, angiotensin I and angiotensin II. This complex suggests a molecular link regulating the interaction and signaling mechanism between these molecules on the cell surface. These findings uncover a biased GPCR agonist-induced IR transactivation signaling axis

  18. Pharmacological studies of jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) venom: evidence for the presence of histamine, and haemolytic and eicosanoid-releasing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszek, M A; Hodgson, W C; Sutherland, S K; King, R G

    1992-09-01

    Jumper ant venom was prepared by extraction of venom sacs in distilled water and centrifugation to remove insoluble material. Jumper ant venom (2 micrograms/ml) produced a biphasic response on isolated guinea-pig ileum, i.e. an initial rapid contraction followed by a slower prolonged contraction. The histamine antagonist mepyramine (0.1 microM) inhibited the first phase of this response by greater than 90%. In the isolated rat stomach fundus strip (which is insensitive to histamine), jumper ant venom (6 micrograms/ml) produced only a single contraction. No tachyphylaxis was observed to repeated doses of jumper ant venom in guinea-pig ileum or rat fundus strip. Responses to jumper ant venom of the egg-albumin-sensitised guinea-pig ileum were not significantly different before and after an in vitro anaphylactic response induced by egg albumin (0.5 mg/ml). Fluorometric assay revealed a mean value of 0.9 +/- 0.2% of the dry weight as histamine in jumper ant venom. Both the lipoxygenase/cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor BW755C and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin significantly inhibited the second phase response to jumper ant venom of the guinea-pig ileum, and the response of the rat fundus strip. The muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (0.1 microM), the bradykinin antagonist [Thi5,8,D-Phe7]-bradykinin (10 microM) and the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (20 microM) did not affect either phase of the venom response in guinea-pig ileum. Jumper ant venom caused haemolysis of guinea-pig blood. The degree of haemolysis was significantly reduced when boiled venom was used. These results suggest that jumper ant venom contains histamine and may cause the release of cyclo-oxygenase products. It also contains a heat-sensitive haemolytic factor.

  19. Human Urinary Kallidinogenase Promotes Angiogenesis and Cerebral Perfusion in Experimental Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Han

    Full Text Available Angiogenesisis a key restorative mechanism in response to ischemia, and pro-angiogenic therapy could be beneficial in stroke. Accumulating experimental and clinical evidence suggest that human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK improves stroke outcome, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim of current study was to verify roles of HUK in post-ischemic angiogenesis and identify relevant mediators. In rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO model, we confirmed that HUK treatment could improve stroke outcome, indicated by reduced infarct size and improved neurological function. Notably, the 18F-FDG micro-PET scan indicated that HUK enhanced cerebral perfusion in rats after MCAO treatment. In addition, HUK promotespost-ischemic angiogenesis, with increased vessel density as well as up-regulated VEGF andapelin/APJ expression in HUK-treated MCAO mice. In endothelial cell cultures, induction of VEGF and apelin/APJ expression, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by HUK was further confirmed. These changes were abrogated by U0126, a selective ERK1/2 inhibitor. Moreover, F13A, a competitive antagonist of APJ receptor, significantly suppressed HUK-induced VEGF expression. Furthermore, angiogenic functions of HUK were inhibited in the presence of selective bradykinin B1 or B2 receptor antagonist both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate that HUK treatment promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis and cerebral perfusion via activation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors, which is potentially due to enhancement expression of VEGF and apelin/APJ in ERK1/2 dependent way.

  20. Rapakinin, an anti-hypertensive peptide derived from rapeseed protein, dilates mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats via the prostaglandin IP receptor followed by CCK(1) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuko; Iwasaki, Masashi; Usui, Hachiro; Ohinata, Kousaku; Marczak, Ewa D; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2010-05-01

    The anti-hypertensive peptide Arg-Ile-Tyr, which was isolated based on its inhibitory activity (IC(50)=28microM) for angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) from the subtilisin digest of rapeseed protein, exhibited vasorelaxing activity (EC(50)=5.1microM) in an endothelium-dependent manner in the mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We named the peptide rapakinin. ACE inhibitors are reported to induce nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasorelaxation by elevating the endogenous bradykinin level; however, the vasorelaxation induced by 10microM of rapakinin was blocked only insignificantly by HOE140 or N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), antagonists of bradykinin B(2) receptor and an inhibitor of NO synthase, respectively. On the other hand, the vasorelaxation induced by 10microM rapakinin was significantly blocked by indomethacin and CAY10441, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor and an antagonist of the IP receptor, respectively. The vasorelaxing activity of rapakinin was also blocked by lorglumide, an antagonist of the cholecystokinin (CCK) CCK(1) receptor, although rapakinin has no affinity for the IP and CCK(1) receptors. The vasorelaxation induced by 10microM iloprost, an IP receptor agonist, was also blocked by lorglumide, suggesting that CCK-CCK(1) receptor system is activated downstream of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system. The anti-hypertensive activity of rapakinin after oral administration in SHRs was also blocked by CAY10441 and lorglumide. These results suggest that the anti-hypertensive activity of rapakinin might be mediated mainly by the PGI(2)-IP receptor, followed by CCK-CCK(1) receptor-dependent vasorelaxation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relaxative effect of core licorice aqueous extract on mouse isolated uterine horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianwei; Li, Yuxiang; Lei, Zhen; Hao, Yinju; Wu, Yang; Zhao, Qipeng; Wang, Hao; Ma, Lin; Liu, Juan; Zhao, Chengjun; Jiang, Yuanxu; Wang, Yanrong; Tan, Hanran; Dai, Xiuying; Zhang, Wannian; Sun, Tao; Yu, Jianqiang

    2013-06-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most frequent gynecological disorders in young women. Chinese herbal medicine has the advantage in terms of multi-targeting efficacy, lower toxicity, as well as lower cost. Core licorice is the hard and atropurpureus heart part in root and rootstock of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch (Leguminosae), having a therapeutic effect on dysmenorrhea. This experiment indicated the spasmolytic effect of core licorice aqueous extract (CLE) on spontaneous rhythmic contractions and spasmogen-provoked contractions of stilbestrol primed, estrogen-dominated, non-pregnant mouse isolated uterine horns and its spasmolytic mechanism. We investigated the spasmolytic effect of CLE (0.025-0.1 mg/mL) on spontaneous contractions and potassium chloride (KCl, 40 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 5 μg/mL), carbachol (CCh, 5 μg/mL), oxytocin (OT, 2 U/L) or bradykinin (5 ng/mL)-provoked contractions of mouse isolated uterine horns. Contractions were recorded by tension force transducers using Biolap 420F software on a PC. Our present study showed that graded, escalated concentrations of CLE (0.025-0.1 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions (15.03-55.10%), as well as the contractions produced by KCl (40 mM; 20.16-53.99%), ACh (5 μg/mL; 14.65-48.32%), CCh (5 μg/mL; 38.40-76.70%), OT (2 U/L; 21.53-58.49%) or bradykinin (5 ng/mL; 58.01-79.44%) of the estrogen-dominated isolated mice uterine horn preparations in a concentration-related manner. The spasmolytic effect of CLE observed in the present study lends pharmacological support to the traditional use of core licorice in the management, control and treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

  2. Effects of skeletal unloading on the vasomotor properties of the rat femur principal nutrient artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D; Behnke, Bradley J; Allen, Matthew R; Delp, Michael D

    2015-04-15

    Spaceflight and prolonged bed rest induce deconditioning of the cardiovascular system and bone loss. Previous research has shown declines in femoral bone and marrow perfusion during unloading and with subsequent reloading in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats, an animal model of chronic disuse. We hypothesized that the attenuated bone and marrow perfusion may result from altered vasomotor properties of the bone resistance vasculature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of unloading on the vasoconstrictor and vasodilator properties of the femoral principal nutrient artery (PNA), the main conduit for blood flow to the femur, in 2 wk HU and control (CON) rats. Vasoconstriction of the femoral PNA was assessed in vitro using norepinephrine, phenylephrine, clonidine, KCl, endothelin-1, arginine vasopressin, and myogenic responsiveness. Vasodilation through endothelium-dependent [acetylcholine, bradykinin, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] and endothelium-independent mechanisms [sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and adenosine] were also determined. Vasoconstrictor responsiveness of the PNA from HU rats was not enhanced through any of the mechanisms tested. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine (CON, 86 ± 3%; HU, 48 ± 7% vasodilation) and FMD (CON, 61 ± 9%; HU, 11 ± 11% vasodilation) were attenuated in PNAs from HU rats, while responses to bradykinin were not different between groups. Endothelium-independent vasodilation to SNP and adenosine were not different between groups. These data indicate that unloading-induced decrements in bone and marrow perfusion and increases in vascular resistance are not the result of enhanced vasoconstrictor responsiveness of the bone resistance arteries but are associated with reductions in endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Gastrin response to candidate messengers in intact conscious rats monitored by antrum microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Peter; Håkanson, Rolf; Norlén, Per

    2010-08-09

    We monitored gastrin release in response to locally applied candidate messengers in intact conscious rats. Earlier studies have been performed on anaesthetized animals, isolated pieces of antrum, or purified preparations of gastrin cells. In this study we created an experimental situation to resemble physiological conditions, using reverse microdialysis to administer regulatory peptides and amines that might affect gastrin secretion. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the submucosa of the antrum of the rat stomach. Three days later, putative messenger compounds were administered via the probe. Their effects on basal (24 h fast) and omeprazole-stimulated (400 micromol/kg/day, 4 days peroral administration) gastrin release were monitored by continuous measurement (3 h) of gastrin in the perfusate (radioimmunoassay). Fasted rats (low microdialysate gastrin, 2.1+/-0.1 pmol l(-1)) were used to study stimulation of gastrin release. Omeprazole-treated rats (high microdialysate gastrin, 95.8+/-6.7 pmol l(-1)) were used to study suppression of gastrin release. The following agents raised the concentration of microdialysate gastrin (peak response): gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) (11-fold increase at a near-maximal dose), carbachol (5-fold increase), serotonin (2-fold increase) and isoprenaline (20-fold increase). Adrenaline and noradrenaline induced transient but powerful elevation (40- and 20-fold increase). Somatostatin, galanin and bradykinin (at near-maximal doses) suppressed omeprazole-stimulated gastrin release (50% decrease). Calcitonin gene-related peptide, ghrelin, gastric inhibitory peptide, motilin, neurotensin, neuromedin U-25, peptide YY and vasoactive intestinal peptide were without effect on gastrin release, as were aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, glycine, dopamine and histamine. The results support the view that G cells operate under neurocrine/paracrine control. They were stimulated by agents present in enteric neurons (GRP, galanin

  4. Morphological heterogeneity with normal expression but altered function of G proteins in porcine cultured regenerated coronary endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg-Capra, Catherine; Fournet-Bourguignon, Marie-Pierre; Janiak, Philip; Villeneuve, Nicole; Bidouard, Jean-Pierre; Vilaine, Jean-Paul; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate whether the pertussis toxin-dependent endothelial dysfunction following balloon injury is due to a reduced expression or an insufficient function of G-proteins. Endothelium-dependent responses of porcine coronary arteries were examined in vitro by use of conventional organ chambers. Morphological analysis was performed by isolating and culturing the endothelial cells from these arteries. The expression of Gi-proteins in regenerated endothelial cells was measured by Western blots and immunolabelling. The function of G-proteins was assessed by measuring the GTPase activity of cultured endothelial cells. Eight days following denudation, endothelial regrowth was confirmed by histological examination and by demonstrating the presence of endothelium-dependent relaxations to bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). In primary culture, the regenerated endothelial cells displayed a ‘cobblestone' pattern as seen with native endothelial cells. Twenty eight days after denudation, the endothelium-dependent relaxations induced by 5-HT were impaired, but those to bradykinin were maintained. However, the latter were reduced when endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization was prevented. Twenty eight days after denudation, multinucleated giant cells were present in the regenerated but not in the native cultured endothelial cell populations. These regenerated endothelial cells incorporated less tritiated thymidine than native endothelial cells. The intensities of the bands on the immunoblot of the regenerated endothelial cells, when several antibodies against Giα1/α2/α3 were used, were the same as those obtained in native endothelial cells. The immunolabelling with the same antibodies was similar between the giant cells and the regenerated endothelial cells of normal size. The hydrolysis of GTP was lower in regenerated than in native endothelial cell membranes. In conclusion, endothelium-dependent relaxations mediated by Gi-proteins are

  5. Evaluation of potassium ion as the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the bovine coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelli, Silvia; Wilson, William S; Laidlaw, Hilary; Llano, Andrea; Middleton, Susan; Price, Andrew G; Martin, William

    2003-07-01

    1. This study explored the role of the potassium ion in endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated vasodilatation in the bovine coronary artery. 2. Bradykinin-induced, EDHF-mediated vasodilatation was blocked by the Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (1 micro M), in a time-dependent manner, with maximal blockade seen after 90 min. In contrast, the K(IR) channel inhibitor, Ba(2+) (30 micro M), had no effect. 3. When the potassium content of the bathing solution was increased in a single step from 5.9 to 7-19 mM, powerful vasodilatation (max. 75.9+/-3.6%) was observed. Vasodilatation was transient and, consequently, cumulative addition of potassium produced little vasodilatation, with vasoconstriction predominating at the higher concentrations. 4. The magnitude of potassium-induced vasodilatation was similar in endothelium-containing and endothelium-denuded rings, and was unaffected by Ba(2+) (30 micro M), but abolished by ouabain (1 micro M). 5. Ouabain (1 micro M, 90 min) powerfully blocked bradykinin-induced, nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation as well as that induced by the nitrovasodilator, glyceryl trinitrate, but that induced by the K(ATP) channel opener, levcromakalim, was hardly affected. 6. Thus, activation of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase is likely to be involved in the vasodilator responses of the bovine coronary artery to both nitric oxide and EDHF. These findings, together with the ability of potassium to induce powerful, ouabain- but not Ba(2+)-sensitive, endothelium-independent vasodilatation, are consistent with this ion contributing to the EDHF response in this tissue.

  6. Sex differences in pulmonary vascular control: focus on the nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijs-Meijler, Daphne P M; Danser, A H Jan; Reiss, Irwin K M; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2017-06-01

    Although the incidence of pulmonary hypertension is higher in females, the severity and prognosis of pulmonary vascular disease in both neonates and adults have been shown to be worse in male subjects. Studies of sex differences in pulmonary hypertension have mainly focused on the role of sex hormones. However, the contribution of sex differences in terms of vascular signaling pathways regulating pulmonary vascular function remains incompletely understood. Consequently, we investigated pulmonary vascular function of male and female swine in vivo, both at rest and during exercise, and in isolated small pulmonary arteries in vitro, with a particular focus on the NO-cGMP-PDE5 pathway. Pulmonary hemodynamics at rest and during exercise were virtually identical in male and female swine. Moreover, NO synthase inhibition resulted in a similar degree of pulmonary vasoconstriction in male and female swine. However, NO synthase inhibition blunted bradykinin-induced vasodilation in pulmonary small arteries to a greater extent in male than in female swine. PDE5 inhibition resulted in a similar degree of vasodilation in male and female swine at rest, while during exercise there was a trend towards a larger effect in male swine. In small pulmonary arteries, PDE5 inhibition failed to augment bradykinin-induced vasodilation in either sex. Finally, in the presence of NO synthase inhibition, the pulmonary vasodilator effect of PDE5 inhibition was significantly larger in female swine both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated significant sex differences in the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone, which may contribute to understanding sex differences in incidence, treatment response, and prognosis of pulmonary vascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  7. Functional and structural adaptations of coronary microvessels distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorop, Oana; Merkus, Daphne; de Beer, Vincent J; Houweling, Birgit; Pistea, Adrian; McFalls, Edward O; Boomsma, Frans; van Beusekom, Heleen M; van der Giessen, Wim J; VanBavel, Ed; Duncker, Dirk J

    2008-04-11

    Distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis, structural remodeling of the microvasculature occurs. The microvascular functional changes distal to the stenosis have not been studied in detail. We tested the hypothesis that microvascular structural remodeling is accompanied by altered regulation of coronary vasomotor tone with increased responsiveness to endothelin-1. Vasomotor tone was studied in coronary microvessels from healthy control swine and from swine 3 to 4 months after implantation of an occluder that causes a progressive coronary narrowing, resulting in regional left ventricular dysfunction and blunted myocardial vasodilator reserve. Arterioles (approximately 200-microm passive inner diameter at 60 mm Hg) were isolated from regions perfused by the stenotic left anterior descending and normal left circumflex coronary arteries and studied in vitro. Passive pressure-diameter curves demonstrated reduced distensibility of subendocardial left anterior descending compared with subendocardial left circumflex or control arterioles, suggestive of structural remodeling. Myogenic responses were blunted in subendocardial left anterior descending compared with left circumflex arterioles, reflecting altered smooth muscle function. However, vasodilator responses to nitroprusside and bradykinin were not different in the endocardium, suggesting preserved endothelium and smooth muscle responsiveness. Finally, vasoconstrictor responses to endothelin-1 were enhanced in left anterior descending arterioles compared with left circumflex or control arterioles. Regional myocardial vascular conductance responses to bradykinin and endothelin in vivo confirmed the in vitro observations. In conclusion, inward remodeling of coronary microvessels distal to a stenosis is accompanied by exaggerated vasoconstrictor responses to endothelin-1. These structural and functional alterations may aggravate flow abnormalities distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis.

  8. G protein-coupled receptors mediate coronary flow- and agonist-induced responses via lectin-oligosaccharide interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Aguilar, Sandra; Torres-Tirado, David; Martell-Gallegos, Guadalupe; Velarde-Salcedo, Jimena; Barba-de la Rosa, Ana Paulina; Knabb, Maureen; Rubio, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    Blood flow acts parallel to the coronary luminal endothelial surface layer (LESL) and modulates multiple parenchymal functions via the release of paracrine agents. Evidence indicates that the LESL may be a flow-sensing organelle and that perhaps through flow-induced lectin (L)·oligosaccharide (O) complex formation (L·O) participates in this process. LESL integrins and selectins are both lectinic and flow sensitive, but the L properties of flow-sensitive G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the presence of L in the LESL and hypothesized that if flow-sensitive GPCRs are L, flow and O will determine their response to receptor activation. The LESL protein fraction isolated from guinea pig hearts was passed through an affinity chromatography column made of three sugars, mannose, galactose, and N-acetylglucosamine, and the lectinic fraction was eluted. Immune dot blot was used to identify L proteins in the LESL fraction. Our results indicate the following. 1) Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE (2D-SDS-PAGE) of the LESL lectinic fraction revealed at least 167 Ls. 2) Among these Ls, we identified three selectins and the GPCRs: angiotensin II, bradykinin (B2-R), adenosine A1 and A2, prolactin, endothelin, α1-adrenergic (α1A-R), thromboxane A2, β1-adrenergic, β3-adrenergic, and insulin receptors; the first six GPCRs are known to be flow sensitive. 3) The amplitude of receptor-induced vascular responses by α1A-R and B2-R activation (phenylephrine or bradykinin, respectively) was a function of flow and O (hyaluronidate). Our results support a novel mechanism of GPCR-mediated responses to flow via L·O interaction.

  9. Nonallergic hypersensitivity to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, volume substitutes and medications used in general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurakić Toncić, Ruzica; Marinović, Branka; Lipozencić, Jasna

    2009-01-01

    Urticaria and angioedema are common allergic manifestations and medications are one of common triggering factors. The most severe immediate drug reaction is anaphylaxis. Apart from the well established IgE-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reactions, the pathogenesis of drug-induced urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis often remains obscure. In this article, emphasis is put on nonallergic reactions to the most commonly used drug groups of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, radiocontrast media, volume expanders and drugs used in general anesthesia. Urticaria is the second most common drug eruption after maculopapular exanthema. The mechanisms of acute urticarial reactions are multiple, mostly IgE mediated, but some drugs can induce immune complex reactions and activate complement cascade, while others can induce direct activation of mast cells and degranulation or activation of complement by non-immune mechanisms. With different types of medications different pathomechanisms are involved. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are thought to cause reaction due to cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition and overproduction of leukotrienes, blamed for cutaneous and respiratory symptoms. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can cause fatal angioedema, which is partially explained with bradykinin excess and impairment of aminopeptidase P and dipeptidyl peptidase IV that are involved in the metabolism of substance P and bradykinin. It remains unknown what additional mechanisms are involved. Radiocontrast media and local anesthetics mostly cause nonallergic hypersensitivity reaction, but in rare cases true allergic reaction can occur. Dextran is known to cause IgG mediated, immune complex anaphylaxis and it is recommended to use human serum albumin as the safest colloid.

  10. KV7 channels contribute to paracrine, but not metabolic or ischemic, regulation of coronary vascular reactivity in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Adam G.; Fu, Lijuan; Noblet, Jillian N.; Casalini, Eli D.; Berwick, Zachary C.; Kassab, Ghassan S.; Tune, Johnathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and voltage-dependent K+ (KV) channels play key roles in regulating coronary blood flow in response to metabolic, ischemic, and paracrine stimuli. The KV channels responsible have not been identified, but KV7 channels are possible candidates. Existing data regarding KV7 channel function in the coronary circulation (limited to ex vivo assessments) are mixed. Thus we examined the hypothesis that KV7 channels are present in cells of the coronary vascular wall and regulate vasodilation in swine. We performed a variety of molecular, biochemical, and functional (in vivo and ex vivo) studies. Coronary arteries expressed KCNQ genes (quantitative PCR) and KV7.4 protein (Western blot). Immunostaining demonstrated KV7.4 expression in conduit and resistance vessels, perhaps most prominently in the endothelial and adventitial layers. Flupirtine, a KV7 opener, relaxed coronary artery rings, and this was attenuated by linopirdine, a KV7 blocker. Endothelial denudation inhibited the flupirtine-induced and linopirdine-sensitive relaxation of coronary artery rings. Moreover, linopirdine diminished bradykinin-induced endothelial-dependent relaxation of coronary artery rings. There was no effect of intracoronary flupirtine or linopirdine on coronary blood flow at the resting heart rate in vivo. Linopirdine had no effect on coronary vasodilation in vivo elicited by ischemia, H2O2, or tachycardia. However, bradykinin increased coronary blood flow in vivo, and this was attenuated by linopirdine. These data indicate that KV7 channels are expressed in some coronary cell type(s) and influence endothelial function. Other physiological functions of coronary vascular KV7 channels remain unclear, but they do appear to contribute to endothelium-dependent responses to paracrine stimuli. PMID:26825518

  11. The effects of intravascular stents on vasomotion in porcine coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J S; Webel, R; Laughlin, M H; Rowland, S M; Yoklavich, M F; Branson, K; Parker, J L; Myers, P R

    1995-09-01

    Intravascular stents are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, however little is known about the effects of stents on coronary vasomotion. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of a heparin treated tantalum stent and balloon injury on coronary artery vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction. Male miniswine underwent cardiac catheterization and oversized balloon injury to the right and left circumflex coronary arteries. After two weeks, one artery was either balloon-injured again, or underwent implantation of a stent. Four weeks later, the coronary arteries were prepared for in vitro isometric ring studies. Vasodilator responses to bradykinin and A23187 calcium ionophore were significantly impaired in balloon-injured vessels. The bradykinin and A23187 responses in stented vessels showed significantly less vasorelaxation, compared to both balloon-injured and normal vessels. There were no significant differences between any of the groups in their vasodilator response to nitroprusside. Vasoconstrictor responses to acetylcholine were significantly greater in balloon-injured vessels, compared to normal vessels. Stented vessels, however, showed markedly less vasoconstriction to acetylcholine compared to both balloon-injured and normal vessels. The maximal KCI vasoconstrictor responses in balloon injured vessels and normal controls were not significantly different. However, the maximal KCI responses in stented vessels showed significantly less constriction compared to both balloon injured and normal vessels. In conclusion, the data demonstrated that coronary arteries implanted with a heparin treated tantalum stent were capable of vasomotor activity. Both conventional balloon angioplasty and stents resulted in impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, however, was not impaired.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Effect of antihypertensive agents on stellate cells during liver regeneration in rats Efeito de agentes anti-hipertensivos sobre as células estreladas durante a regeneração hepática em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra N. Z. Ramalho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although most studies have focused on the hepatocytes, all the hepatic cells participate in the regenerative process, among them the stellate cells. The stellate cells are mesenchymal cells involved in local neurotransmission and paracrine regulation of several liver functions. Acute hepatic tissue loss promotes the proliferation and activation of stellate cells from a quiescent state to myofibroblast-like cells. AIM: Investigate the effects of antihypertensive agents on the stellate cell population during the liver regenerative phenomenon in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats received lisinopril, losartan, bradykinin, or saline solution in a proportional volume, intraperitoneally, before and after 70% partial hepatectomy. Animals from the experimental and saline groups were sacrificed at 36 hours after partial hepatectomy. The alpha-smooth muscle actin labelled stellate cells population was counted in the periportal and pericentral zones of the liver specimen. RESULTS: The labelled stellate cells were more numerous in the control group both in the periportal and pericentral zones at 36 hours after partial hepatectomy than at the other times. The population of stellate cells was significantly lower in the losartan group and higher in the bradykinin and lisinopril groups than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that losartan can inhibit and bradykinin and lisinopril can stimulate the stellate cell population during liver regeneration in rats. These cells synthesize several substances to stimulate liver regeneration.RACIONAL: Embora a maioria dos estudos focalize os hepatócitos, todas as células hepáticas participam do processo regenerativo, entre elas as células estreladas, que são células mesenquimais envolvidas na regulação de uma série de funções hepáticas. A perda aguda de parênquima hepático induz proliferação e ativação destas células, a partir de estado de quiescência para fen

  13. Mast Cell Coupling to the Kallikrein–Kinin System Fuels Intracardiac Parasitism and Worsens Heart Pathology in Experimental Chagas Disease

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    Clarissa R. Nascimento

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the course of Chagas disease, infectious forms of Trypanosoma cruzi are occasionally liberated from parasitized heart cells. Studies performed with tissue culture trypomastigotes (TCTs, Dm28c strain demonstrated that these parasites evoke neutrophil/CXCR2-dependent microvascular leakage by activating innate sentinel cells via toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Upon plasma extravasation, proteolytically derived kinins and C5a stimulate immunoprotective Th1 responses via cross-talk between bradykinin B2 receptors (B2Rs and C5aR. Awareness that TCTs invade cardiovascular cells in vitro via interdependent activation of B2R and endothelin receptors [endothelin A receptor (ETAR/endothelin B receptor (ETBR] led us to hypothesize that T. cruzi might reciprocally benefit from the formation of infection-associated edema via activation of kallikrein–kinin system (KKS. Using intravital microscopy, here we first examined the functional interplay between mast cells (MCs and the KKS by topically exposing the hamster cheek pouch (HCP tissues to dextran sulfate (DXS, a potent “contact” activator of the KKS. Surprisingly, although DXS was inert for at least 30 min, a subtle MC-driven leakage resulted in factor XII (FXII-dependent activation of the KKS, which then amplified inflammation via generation of bradykinin (BK. Guided by this mechanistic insight, we next exposed TCTs to “leaky” HCP—forged by low dose histamine application—and found that the proinflammatory phenotype of TCTs was boosted by BK generated via the MC/KKS pathway. Measurements of footpad edema in MC-deficient mice linked TCT-evoked inflammation to MC degranulation (upstream and FXII-mediated generation of BK (downstream. We then inoculated TCTs intracardiacally in mice and found a striking decrease of parasite DNA (quantitative polymerase chain reaction; 3 d.p.i. in the heart of MC-deficient mutant mice. Moreover, the intracardiac parasite load was significantly reduced in WT

  14. Effects of NSAIDs and paracetamol (acetaminophen on protein kinase C epsilon translocation and on substance P synthesis and release in cultured sensory neurons

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    Vellani V

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vittorio Vellani,1 Silvia Franchi,2 Massimiliano Prandini,1 Sarah Moretti,2 Mara Castelli,2 Chiara Giacomoni,3 Paola Sacerdote21Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; 2Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Economics and Technology, University of the Republic of San Marino, Republic of San MarinoAbstract: Celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and nimesulide are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs very commonly used for the treatment of moderate to mild pain, together with paracetamol (acetaminophen, a very widely used analgesic with a lesser anti-inflammatory effect. In the study reported here, we tested the efficacy of celecoxib, diclofenac, and ibuprofen on preprotachykinin mRNA synthesis, substance P (SP release, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 release, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε translocation in rat cultured sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs. The efficacy of these NSAIDs was compared with the efficacy of paracetamol and nimesulide in in vitro models of hyperalgesia (investigated previously. While nimesulide and paracetamol, as in previous experiments, decreased the percentage of cultured DRG neurons showing translocation of PKCε caused by 100 nM thrombin or 1 µM bradykinin in a dose-dependent manner, the other NSAIDs tested did not have a significant effect. The amount of SP released by peptidergic neurons and the expression level of preprotachykinin mRNA were assessed in basal conditions and after 70 minutes or 36 hours of stimulation with an inflammatory soup (IS containing potassium chloride, thrombin, bradykinin, and endothelin-1. The release of SP at 70 minutes was inhibited only by nimesulide, while celecoxib and diclofenac were effective at 36 hours. The mRNA basal level of the SP precursor preprotachykinin expressed in DRG neurons was reduced only by nimesulide, while the

  15. Angioedema hereditario: Guía de tratamiento Hereditary angioedema: A therapeutic guide

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    Alejandro Malbrán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El angioedema hereditario (HAE es una enfermedad rara, autosómica dominante, caracterizada por episodios que comprometen la piel, el tracto gastrointestinal y la laringe. Tiene una mortalidad histórica por asfixia del 15 al 50%. Es producida por la deficiencia funcional del C1 inhibidor. La identificación de la bradiquinina como mediador principal ha estimulado el desarrollo de nuevos medicamentos para tratar la enfermedad. El tratamiento del HAE se establece en consensos internacionales. El desarrollo de guías para el tratamiento de la enfermedad permite ordenar el uso de procedimientos diagnósticos y drogas. Describimos aquí algunas características farmacológicas de los medicamentos utilizados en el tratamiento del HAE en la Argentina: el concentrado plasmático de C1 inhibidor, el antagonista de la bradiquinina, icatibant, el andrógeno atenuado danazol y los agentes anti-fibrinolíticos ácidos épsilon aminocaproico (EACA y tranexámico. Asimismo, se describe su forma de uso y del control de los eventos adversos más frecuentes, así como las recomendaciones del último consenso internacional, aplicables para conformar una primera guía de tratamiento del HAE en la Argentina.Hereditary angioedema (HAE is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by episodes of edema involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract and larynx. HAE has a historical asphyxia mortality of 15% to 50%. It is the consequence of functional C1 inhibitor deficiency. The identification of bradykinin as the principal mediator of the disease has lead to the development of new drugs for its treatment. HAE management and treatment are agreed by international consensus decision. A therapeutic guide for the treatment of the disease is important to improve diagnosis and treatment. We here describe the pharmacology of drugs available for the treatment of HAE in Argentina: plasma derived C1 Inhibitor, the bradykinin antagonist: icatibant, the attenuated androgen

  16. A possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ethyl acetate extracts of Teucrium stocksianum Bioss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukarram Shah, Syed Muhammad

    2015-08-29

    Teucrium stocksianum (T. stocksianum) is one of the important members of the genus Teucrium which contains numerous biologically active compounds. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of fever, pain, as expectorant and blood purifier. Researchers are trying to discover plants origin, novel and safe remedies for the management of various ailments. The present study was aimed to determine the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ethyl acetate extract of T. stocksianum. Preliminary, the ethanolic extract and sub-fractions were screened for anti-inflammatory potential at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (i.p) body weight, using carrageenan induced paw edema test in mice. In-order to determine the possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect, the ethyl acetate fraction was ascertained with different phlogistic agents like histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins E2 and arachedonic acid via paw edema test in mice. The ethanolic extract and sub-fractions of T. stocksianum displayed marked to moderate anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan induced paw edema test in mice. Among the sub-fractions, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) demonstrated excellent (66%) anti-inflammatory action at the highest tested dose (300 mg/kg) that reached to the maximum value at 3rd hour after carrageenan injection and remained significant (***P<0.001) till 5th hour of test sample administration. EAF revealed moderate effect against the paw edema induced by histamine (31.048%) while non-significant results (18.148%) were observed against the edema induced by bradykinin. The extract demonstrated significant (66.23-73.076%) anti-inflammatory potential against the edematogenic effect of prostaglandin E2. Moreover, the extract also significantly inhibited (51.33%) the paw edema induced by arachedonic acid. Our results suggest that the EAF has dual action and produced the anti-inflammatory effect by blocking both pathways of arachedonic acid metabolites (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase). Thus

  17. Angiotensin inhibition in heart failure

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    John JV Mcmurray

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival in patients with heart failure remains very poor, and is worse than that for most common cancers, including bowel cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is not completely blocked by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition. Blockade of the RAAS at the AT1-receptor has the theoretical benefit of more effective blockade of the actions of angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors (ACE-Is prevent the breakdown of bradykinin: this has been blamed for some of the unwanted effects of ACE-Is although bradykinin may have advantageous effects in heart failure. Consequently, ACE-Is and ARBs might be complementary or even additive treatments; recent trials have tested these hypotheses. The Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM programme compared the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB candesartan (target dose 32 mg once daily to placebo in three distinct but complementary populations of patients with symptomatic heart failure. These were: patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF who were ACE-I-intolerant (CHARM-Alternative; patients with reduced LVEF who were being treated with ACE-Is (CHARM-Added; and patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function (CHARM-Preserved. There were substantial and statistically significant reductions in the primary composite end point (risk of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure in CHARM-Alternative. This was also the case in CHARM-Added, supporting and extending the findings of Val-HeFT. In CHARM-Preserved, the effect of candesartan on the primary end point did not reach conventional statistical significance though hospital admission for heart failure was reduced significantly with candesartan. In the CHARM-Overall programme there was a statistically borderline reduction in all-cause mortality with a clear reduction in cardiovascular mortality. All-cause mortality was

  18. Angiotensin inhibition in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John JV McMurray

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival in patients with heart failure remains very poor, and is worse than that for most common cancers, including bowel cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is not completely blocked by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition. Blockade of the RAAS at the AT1-receptor has the theoretical benefit of more effective blockade of the actions of angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors (ACE-Is prevent the breakdown of bradykinin: this has been blamed for some of the unwanted effects of ACE-Is although bradykinin may have advantageous effects in heart failure. Consequently, ACE-Is and ARBs might be complementary or even additive treatments; recent trials have tested these hypotheses.The Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM programme compared the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB candesartan (target dose 32 mg once daily to placebo in three distinct but complementary populations of patients with symptomatic heart failure. These were: patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF who were ACE-I-intolerant (CHARM-Alternative; patients with reduced LVEF who were being treated with ACE-Is (CHARM-Added; and patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function (CHARM-Preserved.There were substantial and statistically significant reductions in the primary composite end point (risk of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure in CHARM-Alternative. This was also the case in CHARM-Added, supporting and extending the findings of Val-HeFT. In CHARM-Preserved, the effect of candesartan on the primary end point did not reach conventional statistical significance though hospital admission for heart failure was reduced significantly with candesartan. In the CHARM-Overall programme there was a statistically borderline reduction in all-cause mortality with a clear reduction in cardiovascular mortality. All-cause mortality was

  19. Growth hormone-releasing peptide ghrelin inhibits homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries and human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Nasim; Annambhotla, Suman; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Xinwen; Chai, Hong; Lin, Peter H; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, is implicated to play a protective role in cardiovascular tissues. However, it is not clear whether ghrelin protects vascular tissues from injury secondary to risk factors such as homocysteine (Hcy). This study investigated the effect and potential mechanisms of ghrelin on Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. Porcine coronary artery rings were incubated for 24 hours with ghrelin (100 ng/mL), Hcy (50 microM), or ghrelin plus Hcy. Endothelial vasomotor function was evaluated using the myograph tension model. The response to the thromboxane A(2)analog U46619, bradykinin, and sodium nitroprusside was analyzed. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry staining, and superoxide anion production was documented lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence analysis. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with different concentrations of Hcy, ghrelin, or antighrelin receptor antibody for 24 hours, and eNOS protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Maximal contraction with U46619 and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation with sodium nitroprusside were not different among the four groups. However, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation with bradykinin (10(-6) M) was significantly reduced by 34% with Hcy compared with controls (P ghrelin to Hcy had a protective effect, with 61.6% relaxation, which was similar to controls (64.7%). Homocysteine significantly reduced eNOS expression, whereas ghrelin cotreatment effectively restored eNOS expression to the control levels. Superoxide anion levels, which were increased by 100% with Hcy, returned to control levels with ghrelin cotreatment. Ghrelin also effectively blocked the Hcy-induced decrease of eNOS protein levels in HCAECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Antighrelin receptor antibody effectively inhibited the effect of ghrelin. Ghrelin has a protective

  20. Cardiovascular-Active Venom Toxins: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello Horta, Carolina Campolina; Chatzaki, Maria; Rezende, Bruno Almeida; Magalhães, Bárbara de Freitas; Duarte, Clara Guerra; Felicori, Liza Figueiredo; Ribeiro Oliveira-Mendes, Bárbara Bruna; do Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms are a mixture of bioactive compounds produced as weapons and used primarily to immobilize and kill preys. As a result of the high potency and specificity for various physiological targets, many toxins from animal venoms have emerged as possible drugs for the medication of diverse disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. Captopril, which inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), was the first successful venom-based drug and a notable example of rational drug design. Since captopril was developed, many studies have discovered novel bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) with actions on the cardiovascular system. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have also been found in animal venoms and used as template to design new drugs with applications in cardiovascular diseases. Among the anti-arrhythmic peptides, GsMTx-4 was discovered to be a toxin that selectively inhibits the stretch-activated cation channels (SACs), which are involved in atrial fibrillation. The present review describes the main components isolated from animal venoms that act on the cardiovascular system and presents a brief summary of venomous animals and their venom apparatuses.

  1. Effects of serum immunoglobulins from patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) on depolarisation-induced calcium transients in isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Joanne M; Dharmalingam, Backialakshmi; Marsh, Stephen J; Thompson, Victoria; Goebel, Andreas; Brown, David A

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is thought to have an auto-immune component. One such target recently proposed from the effects of auto-immune IgGs on Ca(2+) transients in cardiac myocytes and cell lines is the α1-adrenoceptor. We have tested whether such IgGs exerted comparable effects on nociceptive sensory neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia. Depolarisation-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients were generated by applying 30 mM KCl for 2 min and monitored by Fura-2 fluorescence imaging. No IgGs tested (including 3 from CRPS patients) had any significant effect on these [Ca(2+)]i transients. However, IgG from one CRPS patient consistently and significantly reduced the K(+)-induced response of cells that had been pre-incubated for 24h with a mixture of inflammatory mediators (1 μM histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin and PGE2). Since this pre-incubation also appeared to induce a comparable inhibitory response to the α1-agonist phenylephrine, this is compatible with the α1-adrenoceptor as a target for CRPS auto-immunity. A mechanism whereby this might enhance pain is suggested. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  3. Tissue kallikrein induces SH-SY5Y cell proliferation via epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhengyu [Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Department of Neurology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437 (China); Yang, Qi; Cui, Mei; Liu, Yanping [Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wang, Tao; Zhao, Hong [Department of Neurology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437 (China); Dong, Qiang, E-mail: qiang_dong163@163.com [Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • TK promotes EGFR phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. • TK activates ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. • TK mediates SH-SY5Y cell proliferation via EGFR and ERK1/2 pathway. - Abstract: Tissue kallikrein (TK) is well known to take most of its biological functions through bradykinin receptors. In the present study, we found a novel signaling pathway mediated by TK through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human SH-SY5Y cells. We discovered that TK facilitated the activation of EGFR, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 cascade. Interestingly, not p38 but ERK1/2 phosphorylation was severely compromised in cells depleted of EGFR. Nevertheless, impairment of signaling of ERK1/2 seemed not to be restricted to EGFR phosphorylation. We also observed that TK stimulation could induce SH-SY5Y cell proliferation, which was reduced by EGFR down-regulation or ERK1/2 inhibitor. Overall, our findings provided convincing evidence that TK could mediate cell proliferation via EGFR and ERK1/2 pathway in vitro.

  4. Activation of GPR54 promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human tumor cells through a specific transcriptional program not shared by other Gq-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jérôme A J; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Bernard, Jérôme; Burgeon, Emmanuel; Simons, Marie-Jeanne; Vassart, Gilbert; Parmentier, Marc; Libert, Frédérick

    2005-01-21

    GPR54 is a receptor for peptides derived from the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1. To investigate the intracellular mechanisms involved in the reduction of the metastatic potential of MDA-MB-435S cells expressing GPR54, a time course stimulation by kisspeptin-10 over a period of 25 h was performed using cDNA microarrays. Comparison with the bradykinin B(2) receptor revealed a distinct pattern of gene regulation despite a common coupling to the G(q/11) class of G-proteins. Inhibitors of PLC and PK-C abolished the transcriptional regulation of all tested genes, while an inhibitor of p42/44 affected a subset of genes controlled both by GPR54 and B(2). Among the genes specifically up-regulated by GPR54, we found several proapoptotic genes. Stimulation of GPR54 promoted apoptosis while no significant change was observed after B(2) receptor activation. Our results suggest that the metastasis suppressor properties of GPR54 are mediated in part by cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells.

  5. Industrial-scale proteomics: from liters of plasma to chemically synthesized proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Keith; Bougueleret, Lydie; Baussant, Thierry; Böhm, Günter; Botti, Paolo; Colinge, Jacques; Cusin, Isabelle; Gaertner, Hubert; Gleizes, Anne; Heller, Manfred; Jimenez, Silvia; Johnson, Andrew; Kussmann, Martin; Menin, Laure; Menzel, Christoph; Ranno, Frederic; Rodriguez-Tomé, Patricia; Rogers, John; Saudrais, Cedric; Villain, Matteo; Wetmore, Diana; Bairoch, Amos; Hochstrasser, Denis

    2004-07-01

    Human blood plasma is a useful source of proteins associated with both health and disease. Analysis of human blood plasma is a challenge due to the large number of peptides and proteins present and the very wide range of concentrations. In order to identify as many proteins as possible for subsequent comparative studies, we developed an industrial-scale (2.5 liter) approach involving sample pooling for the analysis of smaller proteins (M(r) generally < ca. 40 000 and some fragments of very large proteins). Plasma from healthy males was depleted of abundant proteins (albumin and IgG), then smaller proteins and polypeptides were separated into 12 960 fractions by chromatographic techniques. Analysis of proteins and polypeptides was performed by mass spectrometry prior to and after enzymatic digestion. Thousands of peptide identifications were made, permitting the identification of 502 different proteins and polypeptides from a single pool, 405 of which are listed here. The numbers refer to chromatographically separable polypeptide entities present prior to digestion. Combining results from studies with other plasma pools we have identified over 700 different proteins and polypeptides in plasma. Relatively low abundance proteins such as leptin and ghrelin and peptides such as bradykinin, all invisible to two-dimensional gel technology, were clearly identified. Proteins of interest were synthesized by chemical methods for bioassays. We believe that this is the first time that the small proteins in human blood plasma have been separated and analyzed so extensively.

  6. Tyrosine Phosphorylation Modulates the Vascular Responses of Mesenteric Arteries from Human Colorectal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze whether tyrosine phosphorylation in tumoral arteries may modulate their vascular response. To do this, mesenteric arteries supplying blood flow to colorectal tumors or to normal intestine were obtained during surgery and prepared for isometric tension recording in an organ bath. Increasing tyrosine phosphorylation with the phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate produced arterial contraction which was lower in tumoral than in control arteries, whereas it reduced the contraction to noradrenaline in tumoral but not in control arteries and reduced the relaxation to bradykinin in control but not in tumoral arteries. Protein expression of VEGF-A and of the VEGF receptor FLT1 was similar in control and tumoral arteries, but expression of the VEGF receptor KDR was increased in tumoral compared with control arteries. This suggests that tyrosine phosphorylation may produce inhibition of the contraction in tumoral mesenteric arteries, which may increase blood flow to the tumor when tyrosine phosphorylation is increased by stimulation of VEGF receptors.

  7. Proteome and Peptidome of Vipera berus berus Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bocian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom is a rich source of peptides and proteins with a wide range of actions. Many of the venom components are currently being tested for their usefulness in the treatment of many diseases ranging from neurological and cardiovascular to cancer. It is also important to constantly search for new proteins and peptides with properties not yet described. The venom of Vipera berus berus has hemolytic, proteolytic and cytotoxic properties, but its exact composition and the factors responsible for these properties are not known. Therefore, an attempt was made to identify proteins and peptides derived from this species venom by using high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI ToF/ToF mass spectrometry. A total of 11 protein classes have been identified mainly proteases but also l-amino acid oxidases, C-type lectin like proteins, cysteine-rich venom proteins and phospholipases A2 and 4 peptides of molecular weight less than 1500 Da. Most of the identified proteins are responsible for the highly hemotoxic properties of the venom. Presence of venom phospholipases A2 and l-amino acid oxidases cause moderate neuro-, myo- and cytotoxicity. All successfully identified peptides belong to the bradykinin-potentiating peptides family. The mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004958.

  8. Renal nerve and cardiovascular responses to cardiac receptor stimulation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitani, S; Tomomatsu, E; Ohba, H; Yoshida, Y; Yagi, S

    1988-02-01

    It has been shown that a species difference exists among cats, dogs, and monkeys in the reflex response to cardiac sympathetic afferent stimulation with bradykinin (BK). This study was performed to determine the arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), and renal nerve activity (RNA) responses to epicardial BK applications in the intact and sinoaortic-denervated and vagotomized (SAD + Vx) rabbits. Eight rabbits were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The heart was exposed and suspended in the epicardial cradle. The ABP, HR, and RNA responses were determined when 1 and 10 micrograms/ml BK were applied to the anterior surface of the left ventricle in the intact and SAD + Vx state. In both the intact and SAD + Vx rabbits, ABP, HR, and RNA were significantly reduced with epicardial BK. In the SAD + Vx rabbits, BK evoked small decreases in ABP and HR and no change in RNA after topical lidocaine. These results show the existence of a depressor response and decreases in HR and RNA in the rabbit mediated by the action of BK on cardiac sympathetic afferents.

  9. Electrowetting on dielectric actuation of droplets with capillary electrophoretic zones for MALDI mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatsova, Jelena; Borissova, Maria; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2012-09-01

    An automated fraction collection interface was developed for coupling CE with MALDI-MS. This fraction collection approach is based on the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) phenomenon performed on a digital microfluidic (DMF) board; it does not rely on a MALDI spotter. In this study, a four-peptide mixture was used as a sample test, and the separations were conducted in a portable CE instrument with a 150 μm o.d. × 50 μm i.d. capillary and a contactless conductivity detector. The CE instrument was interfaced with a robust DMF board. The CE fractions were directly deposited onto the DMF board at predetermined locations prior to MALDI analysis. The series of experiments determined the lowest concentration that produces a measurable MALDI signal. The concentrations were 0.25, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.05 nmol for bradykinin, angiotensin, ACTH (18-39), and insulin, respectively. The contactless conductivity detector limit of detection for the same analytes was 2.5 μmol. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Gabapentin Inhibits Protein Kinase C Epsilon Translocation in Cultured Sensory Neurons with Additive Effects When Coapplied with Paracetamol (Acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Vellani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε translocation in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs. We found that gabapentin significantly reduced PKCε translocation induced by the pronociceptive peptides bradykinin and prokineticin 2, involved in both inflammatory and chronic pain. We recently showed that paracetamol (acetaminophen, a very commonly used analgesic drug, also produces inhibition of PKCε. We tested the effect of the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, and we found that the inhibition of translocation adds up. Our study provides a novel mechanism of action for gabapentin in sensory neurons and suggests a mechanism of action for the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, which has recently been shown to be effective, with a cumulative behavior, in the control of postoperative pain in human patients.

  11. Actions of galanin on neurotransmission in the submucous plexus of guinea pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sumei; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Gao, Chuanyun; Gao, Na; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D

    2003-06-13

    Electrophysiologic recording methods were used to study the actions of galanin on synaptic transmission in the submucous plexus of guinea pig ileum. Exposure to galanin resulted in concentration-dependent suppression of slow noradrenergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and fast nicotinic excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the majority of neurons. Failure of galanin to suppress nicotinic depolarizing responses to micropressure pulses of acetylcholine and failure to suppress hyperpolarizing responses to micropressure pulses of norepinephrine suggested that galanin acted at presynaptic inhibitory receptors to suppress release of acetylcholine and norepinephrine. Galanin suppressed slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials in eight of eight neurons with AH (after-hyperpolarization) type electrical behavior and in none of 26 neurons with S (synaptic) type electrical behavior. Suppression of excitatory neurotransmission in AH neurons was always associated with membrane hyperpolarization. Excitatory responses caused by experimentally applied substance P were also inhibited by galanin. Galanin-(1-16) and galanin-like peptide mimicked the inhibitory actions of galanin on neurotransmission. The selective galanin GAL2 receptor agonist [D-Trp(2)]galanin was inactive. The chimeric peptides, galanin-(1-13)-spantide I, galantide, galanin-(1-13)-neuropeptide Y(25-36) amide, galanin-(1-13)-bradykinin-(2-9)amide and galanin-(1-13)-Pro-Pro-Ala-Leu-Ala-Leu-Ala amide all produced varying degrees of suppression of the synaptic potentials. The evidence suggests that the galanin GAL1 receptor, but not the galanin GAL2 receptor, mediated the presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibitory actions of galanin.

  12. Cerebrovascular recovery after stroke with individual and combined losartan and captopril treatment of SHRsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, John S; Daneshtalab, Noriko

    2017-09-01

    We assessed whether the superior restoration of cerebrovascular function after hemorrhagic stroke by losartan versus captopril treatment was due to better BP, uremia, uricaemia, or aldosterone control in Kyoto Wistar stroke-prone-hypertensive rats and evaluated whether elevated angiotensin II (A2) levels enhanced the effectiveness of losartan treatment. Constriction was studied in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) using a pressure myograph. Post-stroke survival increased from 21 to 310 and 189days respectively with losartan and captopril treatment. Neither treatment reduced BP, both reversed uremia and hyperaldosteronism equally after 7days. Plasma uric acid remained low. At stroke, MCA constriction to pressure (PDC), protein kinase C (PKC) activation, depolarization, and sarcoplasmic Ca2+ were attenuated. Endothelial-dependent-vasodilation by bradykinin and endogenous NO release were lost. Both treatments recovered these functions within 7days. These functions deteriorated after 116days of captopril but not losartan treatment. Inhibiting A2 formation during losartan treatment didn't alter BP or vascular recovery. The superior recovery of PDC by losartan over captopril was not produced by better BP, uremia or aldosterone control or elevated A2. PDC recovery was associated with improved PKC function and enhanced basal NO release. The re-establishment of PDC could reduce cerebrovascular over-perfusion and hematoma expansion after stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contact activation of plasmatic coagulation on polymeric membranes measured by the activity of kallikrein in heparinized plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, T; Synowitz, J; Malsch, G; Richau, K; Albrecht, W; Lange, K P; Paul, D

    1997-01-01

    Kallikrein is involved in the generation of bradykinin during extracorporal circulation, that is believed to play an important role in cases of anaphylactic shock during hemodialysis. Therefore, a method for the assessment of kallikrein generation was developed, based on the chromogenic substrate S-2302. Comparison of kallikrein-like activity on glass using citrate or heparinized plasma demonstrated enhanced activity in the presence of heparin. The applicability of the assay, and the time course of kallikrein generation was demonstrated with glass and cuprophan. Membranes based on pure polyacrylonitrile, or its copolymers differing in their content of acrylic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, and allylsulphonate were investigated with respect to kallikrein-like activity, and physicochemical surface properties. It was found that high content in 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, and acrylic acid caused a substantial activation of the contact system while low content in allylsulphonate (less than 2 mol%) did not result in enhanced kallikrein-like activity. The activating materials were characterized to be highly wettable, and had the most negative zeta potentials.

  14. Hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butani, Lavjay; Calogiuri, Gianfranco

    2017-06-01

    To describe hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. PubMed search of articles published during the past 30 years with an emphasis on publications in the past decade. Case reports and review articles describing hypersensitivity reactions in the context of hemodialysis. Pharmacologic agents are the most common identifiable cause of hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis. These include iron, erythropoietin, and heparin, which can cause anaphylactic or pseudoallergic reactions, and topical antibiotics and anesthetics, which lead to delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Many hypersensitivity reactions are triggered by complement activation and increased bradykinin resulting from contact system activation, especially in the context of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. Several alternative pharmacologic preparations and dialyzer membranes are available, such that once an etiology for the reaction is established, recurrences can be prevented without affecting the quality of care provided to patients. Although hypersensitivity reactions are uncommon in patients receiving hemodialysis, they can be life-threatening. Moreover, considering the large prevalence of the end-stage renal disease population, the implications of such reactions are enormous. Most reactions are pseudoallergic and not mediated by immunoglobulin E. The multiplicity of potential exposures and the complexity of the environment to which patients on dialysis are exposed make it challenging to identify the precise cause of these reactions. Great diligence is needed to investigate hypersensitivity reactions to avoid recurrence in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Apelin, and New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors in postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and apelin have a close relationship with inflammation and oxidative stress. The effect of ACE and apelin on POAF after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG remains a question. The concentrations of serum ACE, angiotensin II (Ang II, apelin, bradykinin (BK, malondialdehyde (MDA, and C reactive protein (CRP were measured in the perioperative period of OPCABG. The levels of serum ACE in the POAF group were higher than in the no POAF group both preoperatively and postoperatively. Apelin in the POAF group was lower than in the no POAF group. There was a correlation between serum ACE and apelin. Postoperatively, CRP and MDA in the POAF group were higher than in the no POAF group; however, there was no difference before the operation. Preoperative ACE and apelin were both significant and independent risk factors for POAF. In conclusion, the high ACE and low apelin preoperatively led to CRP and MDA being increased postoperatively, which was probably associated with POAF after OPCABG. Apelin may be a new predictor for POAF.

  16. Studies on the anti-oedematogenic properties of a fraction rich in lonchocarpin and derricin isolated from Lonchocarpus sericeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenele, J B; Leal, L K A M; Felix, F H C; Silveira, E R; Viana, G S B

    2009-01-01

    The acute anti-inflammatory properties of a fraction rich in the chalcones lonchocarpin and derricin, from the roots of Lonchocarpus sericeus (HFLS), were studied for the first time, using a paw oedema model induced in rats by various stimuli. Results showed that HFLS (100 and 200 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was ineffective in inhibiting dextran-induced paw oedema. The HFLS (200 mg kg(-1), p.o. or i.p.) also failed to inhibit the bradykinin-induced oedema. In the yeast-elicited oedema, the HFLS (200 mg kg(-1), i.p.) caused inhibitions ranging from 42 to 59% in the first to fourth hours. Orally administered HFLS (200 mg kg(-1)) was active only in the second (27%) and fourth (32%) hours after yeast injection. It was observed that HFLS (50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1), i.p.) showed inhibitions of 34, 57 and 74%, respectively, in the third hour for the carrageenan-induced oedema. The inhibition was smaller when the HFLS (100 and 200 mg kg(-1)) was administered orally. The effect of the HFLS (20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) in the carrageenan-induced oedema was not modified by the L-NAME, but the association of pentoxifylline and HFLS increased its effect, suggesting an involvement of the PDE enzyme.

  17. Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and its implications for sympathetic activation in chronic heart failure and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W-W; Xiong, X-Q; Chen, Q; Li, Y-H; Kang, Y-M; Zhu, G-Q

    2015-04-01

    Persistent excessive sympathetic activation greatly contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF) and hypertension. Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is a sympathoexcitatory reflex with positive feedback characteristics. Humoral factors such as bradykinin, adenosine and reactive oxygen species produced in myocardium due to myocardial ischaemia stimulate cardiac sympathetic afferents and thereby reflexly increase sympathetic activity and blood pressure. The CSAR is enhanced in myocardial ischaemia, CHF and hypertension. The enhanced CSAR at least partially contributes to the sympathetic activation and pathogenesis of these diseases. Nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla are the most important central sites involved in the modulation and integration of the CSAR. Angiotensin II, AT1 receptors and NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide anions pathway in the PVN are mainly responsible for the enhanced CSAR in CHF and hypertension. Central angiotensin-(1-7), nitric oxide, endothelin, intermedin, hydrogen peroxide and several other signal molecules are involved in regulating CSAR. Blockade of the CSAR shows beneficial effects in CHF and hypertension. This review focuses on the anatomical and physiological basis of the CSAR, the interaction of CSAR with baroreflex and chemoreflex, and the role of enhanced CSAR in the pathogenesis of CHF and hypertension. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Prevents Alterations of Coronary Vascular Reactivity Caused by Hormone Deficiency Induced by Castration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wender Nascimento Rouver

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effects of chronic treatment with different doses of testosterone on endothelium-dependent coronary vascular reactivity in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (SHAM, castrated (CAST, castrated and immediately treated subcutaneously with a physiological dose (0.5 mg/kg/day, PHYSIO group or supraphysiological dose (2.5 mg/kg/day, SUPRA group of testosterone for 15 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was assessed at the end of treatment through tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed using the Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose-response curve for bradykinin (BK was constructed, followed by inhibition with 100 μM L-NAME, 2.8 μM indomethacin (INDO, L-NAME + INDO, or L-NAME + INDO + 0.75 μM clotrimazole (CLOT. We observed significant endothelium-dependent, BK-induced coronary vasodilation, which was abolished in the castrated group and restored in the PHYSIO and SUPRA groups. Furthermore, castration modulated the lipid and hormonal profiles and decreased body weight, and testosterone therapy restored all of these parameters. Our results revealed an increase in SBP in the SUPRA group. In addition, our data led us to conclude that physiological concentrations of testosterone may play a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system by maintaining an environment that is favourable for the activity of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator without increasing SBP.

  19. Charge Transfer Dissociation (CTD) Mass Spectrometry of Peptide Cations: Study of Charge State Effects and Side-Chain Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Jackson, Glen P.

    2017-07-01

    1+, 2+, and 3+ precursors of substance P and bradykinin were subjected to helium cation irradiation in a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer. Charge exchange with the helium cations produces a variety of fragment ions, the number and type of which are dependent on the charge state of the precursor ions. For 1+ peptide precursors, fragmentation is generally restricted to C-CO backbone bonds ( a and x ions), whereas for 2+ and 3+ peptide precursors, all three backbone bonds (C-CO, C-N, and N-Cα) are cleaved. The type of backbone bond cleavage is indicative of possible dissociation channels involved in CTD process, including high-energy, kinetic-based, and ETD-like pathways. In addition to backbone cleavages, amino acid side-chain cleavages are observed in CTD, which are consistent with other high-energy and radical-mediated techniques. The unique dissociation pattern and supplementary information available from side-chain cleavages make CTD a potentially useful activation method for the structural study of gas-phase biomolecules.

  20. Development of electrospray ionization of biomolecules on a magnetic sector mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y

    2002-01-01

    The initial part of this study involves developments made on an electrospray ionization (ESI) source installed on a large-scale double-focusing reverse-geometry two-sector mass spectrometer. The practical considerations and some basic theory have been given in this thesis for each of the improvements made to the ESI source. The process of partial re-designing the ion optical system showed that the ion beam was affected by both gas dynamics and by the field penetration from the lenses of the ion optical system in the region immediately after second skimmer. More than one order magnitude stronger ion signal intensities at the mass spectrometer final detector and easier ESI source operation conditions and stable ion signals has been achieved. Mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectroscopy (MIKES) of different charge-states of relatively small peptides (substance P and bradykinin) for collision-induced dissociation (CID) and the metastable dissociation was carried out successfully. The translational energy losses ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of the essential oil and active compounds from Cordia verbenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Giselle F; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Juliano; Pianowski, Luiz F; Campos, Maria M; Calixto, João B

    2007-03-21

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae) and some of its active compounds were evaluated. Systemic treatment with the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (300-600mg/kg, p.o.) reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, myeloperoxidase activity and the mouse oedema elicited by carrageenan, bradykinin, substance P, histamine and platelet-activating factor. It also prevented carrageenan-evoked exudation and the neutrophil influx to the rat pleura and the neutrophil migration into carrageenan-stimulated mouse air pouches. Moreover, Cordia verbenacea oil inhibited the oedema caused by Apis mellifera venom or ovalbumin in sensitized rats and ovalbumin-evoked allergic pleurisy. The essential oil significantly decreased TNFalpha, without affecting IL-1beta production, in carrageenan-injected rat paws. Neither the PGE(2) formation after intrapleural injection of carrageenan nor the COX-1 or COX-2 activities in vitro were affected by the essential oil. Of high interest, the paw edema induced by carrageenan in mice was markedly inhibited by both sesquiterpenic compounds obtained from the essential oil: alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene (50mg/kg, p.o.). Collectively, the present results showed marked anti-inflammatory effects for the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea and some active compounds, probably by interfering with TNFalpha production. Cordia verbenacea essential oil or its constituents might represent new therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Passos, Giselle F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Juliano; Campos, Maria M; Pianowski, Luiz F; Calixto, João B

    2007-08-27

    This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of two sesquiterpenes isolated from Cordia verbenacea's essential oil, alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene. Our results revealed that oral treatment with both compounds displayed marked inhibitory effects in different inflammatory experimental models in mice and rats. alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were effective in reducing platelet activating factor-, bradykinin- and ovoalbumin-induced mouse paw oedema, while only alpha-humulene was able to diminish the oedema formation caused by histamine injection. Also, both compounds had important inhibitory effects on the mouse and rat carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Systemic treatment with alpha-humulene largely prevented both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) generation in carrageenan-injected rats, whereas (-)-trans-caryophyllene diminished only TNFalpha release. Furthermore, both compounds reduced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression, induced by the intraplantar injection of carrageenan in rats. The anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were comparable to those observed in dexamethasone-treated animals, used as positive control drug. All these findings indicate that alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene, derived from the essential oil of C. verbenacea, might represent important tools for the management and/or treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  3. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Applications on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetimakman, Ayse Filiz; Tanyildiz, Murat; Kesici, Selman; Kockuzu, Esra; Bayrakci, Benan

    2017-06-01

    Continuous venovenous hemofiltration or hemodiafiltration is used frequently in pediatric patients, but experience of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) application on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is still limited. Among several methods used for applying CRRT on ECMO patients, we aim to share our experience on inclusion of a CRRT device in the ECMO circuit which we believe is easier and safer to apply. The data were collected on demographics, outcomes, and details of the treatment of ECMO patients who had CRRT. During the study period of 3 years, venous cannula of ECMO circuit before pump was used for CRRT access for both the filter inlet and outlet of CRRT machine to minimize the thromboembolic complications. The common indication for CRRT was fluid overload. CRRT was used in 3.68% of a total number of patients admitted and 43% of patients on ECMO. The patients have undergone renal replacement therapy for periods of time ranging between 24 h and 25 days (260 h mean). The survival rate of this group of patients with multiorgan failure was 33%. Renal recovery occurred in all of the survivors. Complications such as electrolyte imbalance, hypothermia, and bradykinin syndrome were easily managed. Adding a CRRT device on ECMO circuit is a safe and effective technique. The major advantages of this technique are easy to access, applying CRRT without extra anticoagulation process, preventing potential hemodynamic disturbances, and increased clearance of solutes and fluid overload using larger hemofilter.

  4. Detection of peptides by precolumn derivatization with biuret reagent and preconcentration on capillary liquid chromatography columns with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Witowski, S R; Boyd, B W; Kennedy, R T

    1999-03-01

    The separation and detection of biuret complexes of neuropeptides by capillary liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was explored. Capillaries of 25-micron inner diameter packed with base-resistant, polymer-based reversed-phase particles were used for separation, and C-fiber electrodes were used for detection. Detection at the C-fiber electrode was found to have some differences in relative sensitivity for peptides compared to glassy carbon electrodes used previously. On-column preconcentration of preformed complexes allowed up to 1-microL samples to be injected with minimal band broadening resulting in a 100-fold improvement in concentration detection limit with no effect on mass detection limit. Concentration detection limits ranged from 5 to 59 pM, depending upon the peptide, corresponding to 5-59 amol injected. The low concentration detection limit was possible because of minimal baseline disturbances, minimal formation of unwanted products, and high efficiency of complex formation associated with biuret derivatization. The method was applied to determination of vasopressin and bradykinin in dialysates collected with 5-min sampling frequency from the rat supraoptic nucleus.

  5. Characterization of dipeptidylcarboxypeptidase of Leishmania donovani: a molecular model for structure based design of antileishmanials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Saqib; Kumar, Ashutosh; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Goyal, Neena

    2010-01-01

    Leishmania donovani dipeptidylcarboxypeptidsae (LdDCP), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) related metallopeptidase has been identified and characterized as a putative drug target for antileishmanial chemotherapy. The kinetic parameters for LdDCP with substrate, Hip-His-Leu were determined as, Km, 4 mM and Vmax, 1.173 μmole/ml/min. Inhibition studies revealed that known ACE inhibitors (captopril and bradykinin potentiating peptide; BPP1) were weak inhibitors for LdDCP as compared to human testicular ACE (htACE) with Ki values of 35.8 nM and 3.9 μM, respectively. Three dimensional model of LdDCP was generated based on crystal structure of Escherichia coli DCP (EcDCP) by means of comparative modeling and assessed using PROSAII, PROCHECK and WHATIF. Captopril docking with htACE, LdDCP and EcDCP and analysis of molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP) suggested that the active site domain of three enzymes has several minor but potentially important structural differences. These differences could be exploited for designing selective inhibitor of LdDCP thereby antileishmanial compounds either by denovo drug design or virtual screening of small molecule databases.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of a Novel Biflavonoid from Shells of Camellia oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shells are by-products of oil production from Camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. The purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in Camellia oleifera. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice, and analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing. The mechanism of anti-inflammation of biflavonoid is related to both bradykinin and prostaglandins synthesis inhibition. The biflavonoid showed both central and peripheral analgesic effects different from aspirin, inhibition of the synthesis or action of prostaglandins may contribute to analgesic effect of biflavonoid. The biflavonoid significantly decreased malonaldehyde (MDA and increased superoxidase dismutase (SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in serum (p < 0.01, revealed strong free radical scavenging activity in vivo. It indicates the biflavonoid can control inflammation and pain by eliminating free radical so as to inhibit the mediators and decrease the prostaglandins. The biflavonoid can be used as a prospective medicine for inflammation and pain.

  7. [BAME-Esterase activity in plasmas from blood of human placental interveillous space and umbilical cord vessels (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, M; Salles Meirelles, R

    1976-01-01

    The authors studied an enzymatic activity (BAME-esterase) from human plasma, intimately related with the bradykinin release mechanisms. The optimal conditions of evaluation of the different plasmas were determined. Lately, the authors showed the results obtained with plasma from maternal peripheral blood, umbilical vessels blood and human placental intervillous space blood. It was concluded: 1. The study of enzymatic kinetics allows to establish a reaction time of 30 minutes, and the enzymatic concentration contained within 0.5 ml. of plasma, as ideal parameters to determine the enzymatic activities into the different compartments. 2. In the cases studied, considered clinically normals, the enzymatic activity in plasma from the interveillous space, before and after the detachment of the placenta, was greater than in peripheral maternal and umbilical vessels bloods. The activity in umbilical artery plasma was greater than in umbilical vein and practically the same as in maternal plasma. 3. The esterase activity values into the compartments studied in pre-eclamptics, were similar to that found in the cases considered clinically normal.

  8. Desmolaris, a novel factor XIa anticoagulant from the salivary gland of the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) inhibits inflammation and thrombosis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongying; Mizurini, Daniella M; Assumpção, Teresa C F; Li, Yuan; Qi, Yanwei; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Ribeiro, José M C; Monteiro, Robson Q; Francischetti, Ivo M B

    2013-12-12

    The identity of vampire bat saliva anticoagulant remained elusive for almost a century. Sequencing the salivary gland genes from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus identified Desmolaris as a novel 21.5-kDa naturally deleted (Kunitz 1-domainless) form of tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Recombinant Desmolaris was expressed in HEK293 cells and characterized as a slow, tight, and noncompetitive inhibitor of factor (F) XIa by a mechanism modulated by heparin. Desmolaris also inhibits FXa with lower affinity, independently of protein S. In addition, Desmolaris binds kallikrein and reduces bradykinin generation in plasma activated with kaolin. Truncated and mutated forms of Desmolaris determined that Arg32 in the Kunitz-1 domain is critical for protease inhibition. Moreover, Kunitz-2 and the carboxyl-terminus domains mediate interaction of Desmolaris with heparin and are required for optimal inhibition of FXIa and FXa. Notably, Desmolaris (100 μg/kg) inhibited FeCl3-induced carotid artery thrombus without impairing hemostasis. These results imply that FXIa is the primary in vivo target for Desmolaris at antithrombotic concentrations. Desmolaris also reduces the polyphosphate-induced increase in vascular permeability and collagen- and epinephrine-mediated thromboembolism in mice. Desmolaris emerges as a novel anticoagulant targeting FXIa under conditions in which the coagulation activation, particularly the contact pathway, plays a major pathological role.

  9. Antiinflammatory Efficacy of Extracts of Latex of Calotropis procera Against Different Mediators of Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L

    2005-01-01

    The latex of the plant Calotropis procera has been reported to exhibit potent antiinflammatory activity against carrageenin and formalin that are known to release various mediators. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficacy of extracts prepared from the latex of C procera against inflammation induced by histamine, serotonin, compound 48/80, bradykinin (BK), and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) in the rat paw oedema model. The paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of various inflammagens and oedema volume was recorded using a plethysmometer. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the dried latex (DL) and standard antiinflammatory drugs were administered orally 1 hour before inducing inflammation. The inhibitory effect of the extracts was also evaluated against cellular influx induced by carrageenin. The antiinflammatory effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of DL was more pronounced than phenylbutazone (PBZ) against carrageenin while it was comparable to chlorpheniramine and PBZ against histamine and PGE2, respectively. Both extracts produced about 80%, 40%, and 30% inhibition of inflammation induced by BK, compound 48/80, and serotonin. The histological analysis revealed that the extracts were more potent than PBZ in inhibiting cellular infiltration and subcutaneous oedema induced by carrageenin. The extracts of DL exert their antiinflammatory effects mainly by inhibiting histamine and BK and partly by inhibiting PGE2. PMID:16192673

  10. Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenhut Michael

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ion transport is essential for maintenance of transmembranous and transcellular electric potential, fluid transport and cellular volume. Disturbance of ion transport has been associated with cellular dysfunction, intra and extracellular edema and abnormalities of epithelial surface liquid volume. There is increasing evidence that conditions characterized by an intense local or systemic inflammatory response are associated with abnormal ion transport. This abnormal ion transport has been involved in the pathogenesis of conditions like hypovolemia due to fluid losses, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in diarrhoeal diseases, electrolyte abnormalites in pyelonephritis of early infancy, septicemia induced pulmonary edema, and in hypersecretion and edema induced by inflammatory reactions of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Components of membranous ion transport systems, which have been shown to undergo a change in function during an inflammatory response include the sodium potassium ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and calcium activated chloride channels and the sodium potassium chloride co-transporter. Inflammatory mediators, which influence ion transport are tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, interleukins, transforming growth factor, leukotrienes and bradykinin. They trigger the release of specific messengers like prostaglandins, nitric oxide and histamine which alter ion transport system function through specific receptors, intracellular second messengers and protein kinases. This review summarizes data on in vivo measurements of changes in ion transport in acute inflammatory conditions and in vitro studies, which have explored the underlying mechanisms. Potential interventions directed at a correction of the observed abnormalities are discussed.

  11. Inflammatory skin responses induced by icatibant injection are mast cell mediated and attenuated by H(1)-antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Marcus; Church, Martin K

    2012-02-01

    Icatibant, a bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist, is administered by subcutaneous injection for the treatment of attacks of type I and type II hereditary angioedema. Following injection, patients feel transient pain followed by a short-lived wheal and flare response at the injection site. We hypothesized that the icatibant-induced wheal and flare response follows histamine release from activated skin mast cells and would therefore be reduced by an H(1)-antihistamine. Intradermal injection of 100 μl of 100 μg/ml histamine and 10 mg/ml icatibant into the forearms of health volunteers caused wheal and flare responses of a similar magnitude which were reduced by cetirizine pretreatment by 49% and 41% (histamine) and 35% and 41% (icatibant). Studies in vitro showed that icatibant at 1 × 10(-4) and 1 × 10(-5) M caused significant (P wheal and flare responses that may be reduced in severity by prophylactic administration of an H(1)-antihistamine. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-02-01

    Globally, primary dysmenorrhoea is one of the most frequent gynaecological disorders in young women. It is associated with increased uterine tone, and exaggerated contractility of uterine smooth muscles. In many rural African communities, a number of medicinal plants, including Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae), are used traditionally for the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting and oestrogen-dominated, quiescent uterine horns of healthy, young adult, female Wistar rats. Graded, escalated concentrations of PGE (0.5-4.0 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent and significant inhibitions of the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated rat uterine horn preparations. In a concentration-related manner, PGE also significantly inhibited or abolished contractions produced by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml), oxytocin (0.5-4.0 microU), bradykinin (2.5-10 ng/ml), carbachol (CCh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml) or potassium chloride (K+, 10-80 mM) in quiescent uterine horn preparations isolated from the oestrogen-dominated rats. The spasmolytic effect of PGE observed in the present study lends pharmacological support to the traditional use of ;guava' leaves in the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in some rural African communities.

  13. Localized chemical release from an artificial synapse chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Mark C.; Noolandi, Jaan; Blumenkranz, Mark S.; Fishman, Harvey A.

    2004-07-01

    A device that releases chemical compounds in small volumes and at multiple, well defined locations would be a powerful tool for clinical therapeutics and biological research. Many biomedical devices such as neurotransmitter-based prostheses or drug delivery devices require precise release of chemical compounds. Additionally, the ability to control chemical gradients will have applications in basic research such as studies of cell microenvironments, stem cell niches, metaplasia, or chemotaxis. We present such a device with repeatable delivery of chemical compounds at multiple locations on a chip surface. Using electroosmosis to drive flow through microfluidic channels, we pulse minute quantities of a bradykinin solution through four 5-µm apertures onto PC12 cells and show stimulation of individual cells using a Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye. We also present basic computational results with experimental verification of both fluid ejection and fluid withdrawal by imaging pH changes by using a fluorescent dye. This "artificial synapse chip" is a prototype neural interface that introduces a new paradigm for neural stimulation, with eventual application in treating macular degeneration and other neurological disorders.

  14. Prolyl carboxypeptidase mRNA expression in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Kwon; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-01-13

    Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP), a serine protease, is widely expressed in the body including liver, lung, kidney and brain, with a variety of known substrates such as plasma prekallikrein, bradykinin, angiotensins II and III, and α-MSH, suggesting its role in the processing of tissue-specific substrates. In the brain, PRCP has been shown to inactivate hypothalamic α-MSH, thus modulating melanocortin signaling in the control of energy metabolism. While its expression pattern has been reported in the hypothalamus, little is known on the distribution of PRCP throughout the mouse brain. This study was undertaken to determine PRCP expression in the mouse brain. Radioactive in situ hybridization was performed to determine endogenous PRCP mRNA expression. In addition, using a gene-trap mouse model for PRCP deletion, X-gal staining was performed to further determine PRCP distribution. Results from both approaches showed that PRCP gene is broadly expressed in the brain. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. An effective combination of two different methods of postconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielisova, Viera; Burda, Jozef; Nemethova, Miroslava; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Burda, Rastislav

    2012-10-01

    Ischemic tolerance based on the synthesis of protective proteins acquires its full strength by repeated exposure to stress, and "the end effector of tolerance" may paradoxically be activated by the second or lethal stress, particularly in the case of preconditioning. That happens when an additional nonspecific stressor is applied either before (preconditioning) or after (postconditioning) the period of lethal ischemia. A combination of antioxidants with pre or postconditioning prevents the acquisition of tolerance, and in the case of more severe attacks repeated stress can lead to accumulation of damage. Our attempt to weaken ischemic injury to hippocampal CA1 with antioxidants applied after lethal stress, i.e. before delayed postconditioning, was ineffective. We then tried using rapid postconditioning consisting of 30-s reperfusion alternating with 15-s ischemia repeated three times and applied immediately at the end of lethal ischemia as a tool decreasing post-ischemic production of reactive oxygen species, and combining that with delayed postconditioning consisting of an i.p. injection of Bradykinin 2 days after lethal ischemia. This approach once more confirmed the efficacy of both rapid as well as delayed postconditioning but, more importantly, it demonstrated the possibility of effectively combining these two procedures. Our findings further confirm that in cases of delayed neuronal death, which is practically pathologically-induced apoptosis, there exists a 2-day-wide therapeutic window that can be effectively exploited.

  16. Does estrogen affect the development of abnormal vascular function in offspring of rats fed a low-protein diet in pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musha, Yuka; Itoh, Shigeru; Hanson, Mark A; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki

    2006-06-01

    It is established that there are gender-related differences in the effects on offspring blood pressure induced by maternal protein restriction in animal studies. Since such effects may depend on estrogen levels, we hypothesized that lower estrogen would induce an earlier onset of hypertension caused by maternal under-nutrition. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing either 18% (C) or 9% (R) casein throughout pregnancy. Half of the offspring in both C and R groups were ovariectomized on day 50 (CX, RX), and the other half underwent a sham operation (CO, RO). On d 175, offspring were killed for small artery reactivity and histologic investigation. Birth weight and later growth were not significantly different between C and R. RX had higher systolic blood pressure than CX on d125, but no difference was seen between RO and CO. On d 175, systolic blood pressure was higher in R than in C, whether or not ovariectomized. Dilator responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin in small mesenteric arteries were significantly attenuated in RX, although responses to SNP and isoprenaline showed no attenuation in R. The ratio of coronary peri-vascular fibrosis to total vascular area was higher in R, and the fibrosis became prominent in ovariectomized rats. These findings suggest that estrogen plays an important role in limiting the elevation of offspring blood pressure induced by maternal under-nutrition, possibly via BK-mediated mechanisms. The processes may underlie gender and life course patterns of hypertension and also the developmental origins of this disease.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract and two biflavonoids from Garcinia gardneriana leaves in mouse paw oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castardo, Jaqueline C; Prudente, Arthur S; Ferreira, Juliano; Guimarães, Cláudio L; Monache, Franco Delle; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Otuki, Michel F; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2008-08-13

    Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana) Zappi (Clusiaceae) is widely distributed in Brazil and used in folk medicine to treat inflammation, pain, and urinary tract and other infections. However, very few studies have analyzed these therapeutic effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Garcinia gardneriana (HEGG) and some of its isolated biflavonoids were evaluated. The results showed that HEGG from the leaves, bark and seeds reduced carrageenan-induced mouse paw inflammation, in addition to diminishing the myeloperoxidase activity in the stimulated tissues. The reduction of neutrophil infiltration by treatment with the HEGG from leaves was confirmed by histology. The leaf extract also reduced the paw oedema evoked by bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandin E2 and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate. However, it partially decreased substance P and compound 48/80-caused paw oedema, without any influence on the arachidonic acid-induced oedema. Both of the isolated compounds, fukugetin and GB-2a, prevented the carrageenan-induced paw oedema. In conclusion, this study showed important anti-inflammatory effects of HEGG through its interaction with different intracellular signaling pathways, without interfering with the formation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. These characteristics, in addition to the wide distribution and culturing ease of the plant, confirm its popular use and highlight its promise in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs.

  18. Resveratrol inhibits BK-induced COX-2 transcription by suppressing acetylation of AP-1 and NF-κB in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuen-Mao; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chi, Pei-Ling; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der

    2017-05-15

    Bradykinin (BK) induces inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Resveratrol is a potent activator of Sirt1 which could modulate inflammation through deacetylating histones of transcription factors. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying BK-induced COX-2 expression which is modulated by resveratrol/Sirt1 in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). We found that BK-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression associated with PGE2 synthesis, and promoter activity was mediated through B2R receptors, which were attenuated by selective B2R antagonist Hoe140 or transfection with B2R siRNA. BK-induced responses were mediated through PKCμ, MAPKs, AP-1 and NF-κB which were inhibited by their respective inhibitors or siRNAs. Up-regulation of Sirt1 by resveratrol suppressed the BK-induced COX-2/PGE2 production through inhibiting the interaction of AP-1 and NF-κB with COX-2 promoter in RASFs. BK-induced COX-2/PGE2 expression is mediated through a B2R-PKCμ-dependent MAPKs, AP-1, and NF-κB cascade. Resveratrol inhibited the phosphorylation and acetylation of p65, c-Jun, and Fos and reduced the binding to the COX-2 promoter, thereby attenuated the COX-2 expression. Therefore, resveratrol may be a promising therapeutic intervention for treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of laser-speckle contrast image analysis techniques in the cortical microcirculation of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domoki, Ferenc; Zölei, Dániel; Oláh, Orsolya; Tóth-Szuki, Valéria; Hopp, Béla; Bari, Ferenc; Smausz, Tomi

    2012-05-01

    A new laser speckle-contrast analysis (LASCA) technique based on multi-exposure imaging was employed to simultaneously study pial arteriolar responses with cerebrocortical perfusion changes to various vasodilator (5-10% CO(2) ventilation, bradykinin (1-10 μM), N-methyl-D-aspartate (100 μM)) vasoconstrictor (10-100 μM noradrenaline, 1M KCl), or neutral (2.1% H(2) ventilation) stimuli as well as to asphyxia in the newborn piglet. Anesthetized, ventilated animals (n=20) were fitted with closed cranial windows. Multiple exposure laser-speckle image series (1-100 ms) were obtained using a near infrared diode laser (λ=808 nm). The autocorrelation decay time (τ) of speckle fluctuations was determined over pial arterioles and parenchymal areas to express 1/τ being proportional to blood flow velocity by two different LASCA techniques: our novel multi-exposure or a single exposure (2 and 20 ms) approach. 1/τ values yielded by different LASCA techniques were not significantly different at most points. LASCA easily detected both increases and decreases in cortical blood flow (CoBF). Cortical 1/τ changes to hypercapnia closely matched quantitative CoBF data determined previously, and were also in accordance with increases of pial arteriolar blood flow, calculated from arteriolar flow velocity and cross sectional area changes. In summary, LASCA emerges as an appealing method to simultaneously study microvascular reactivity and cortical perfusion changes in the piglet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. D-Glucosamine Promotes Transfection Efficiency during Electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunari Igawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available D-Glucosamine is a useful medicament in various fields of medicine and dentistry. With respect to stability of the cell membrane, it has been reported that bradykinin-induced nociceptive responses are significantly suppressed by the direct application of D-glucosamine. Electroporation is usually used to effectively introduce foreign genes into tissue culture cells. Buffers for electroporation with or without D-glucosamine are used in experiments of transfection vectors. This is the first study to indirectly observe the stability and protection of the osteoblast membrane against both electric stress and gene uptake (the proton sponge hypothesis: osmotic rupture during endosomes prior to fusion with lysosomes in electroporation with D-glucosamine application. The transfection efficiency was evaluated as the fluorescence intensity of the transfected green fluorescent protein (GFP in the cultured cells (osteoblasts; NOS-1 cells. The transfection efficiency increased over 30% in the electroporation samples treated with D-glucosamine-supplemented buffer after one day. The membrane absorption of D-glucosamine is the primary mechanism of membrane stress induced by electric stress. This new function of D-glucosamine is useful and meaningful for developing more effective transformation procedures.

  1. Characterization of thimet- and neurolysin-like activities in Escherichia coli M 3 A peptidases and description of a specific substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoalin, Thaysa; Carmona, Adriana K; Oliveira, Vitor; Juliano, Luiz; Travassos, Luiz R

    2005-09-01

    M 3 A oligopeptidases from Escherichia coli, with hydrolytic properties similar to Zn-dependent mammalian thimet oligopeptidase (EP 24.15) and neurolysin (EP 24.16), were studied aiming at identification of comparative enzyme and substrate specificity, hydrolytic products, and susceptibility to inhibitors. Fluorescent peptides, neurotensin (NT) and bradykinin (BK), were used as substrates for bacterial lysates. Bacterial enzymes were totally inhibited by o-phenanthrolin, JA-2 and partially by Pro-Ile, but not by leupeptin, PMSF, E-64, and Z-Pro-Prolinal, using internally quenched Abz-GFSPFRQ-EDDnp as substrate. The molecular mass of the bacterial oligopeptidase activity (77--78 kDa) was determined by gel filtration, and the effect of inhibitors, including captopril, suggested that it results from a combination of oligopeptidase A (OpdA) and peptidyl dipeptidase Dcp (77.1 and 77.5 kDa, respectively). Recombinant OpdA cloned from the same E. coli strain entirely reproduced the primary cleavage of fluorescent peptides, NT and BK, by the bacterial lysate. Genes encoding these M 3 A enzymes were those recognized in E. coli genome, bearing identity at the amino acid level (25--31%) with mammalian Zn-dependent oligopeptidases. We also describe a substrate, Abz-GFSPFRQ-EDDnp, that differentiates bacterial and mammalian oligopeptidases.

  2. Dragon's blood inhibits chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain responses by blocking the synthesis and release of substance P in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Sang; Wang, Jun-Xian; Jia, Mei-Mei; Liu, Min; Li, Xiao-Jun; Tang, He-Bin

    2012-01-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine, dragon's blood (DB) is widely used in treating various pains for thousands of years due to its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In the present study, we observed that intragastric administration of DB at dosages of 0.14, 0.56, and 1.12 g/kg potently inhibited paw edema, hyperalgesia, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, or preprotachykinin-A mRNA expression in carrageenan-inflamed or sciatic nerve-injured (chronic constriction injury) rats, respectively. A short-term (15 s or 10 min) pre-exposure of cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to DB (0.3, 3, and 30 µg/ml) or its component cochinchinenin B (CB; 0.1, 1, and 10 µM) blocked capsaicin-evoked increases in both the intracellular calcium ion concentration and the substance P release. Moreover, a long-term (180 min) exposure of cultured rat DRG neurons to DB or CB significantly attenuated bradykinin-induced substance P release. These findings indicate that DB exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects by blocking the synthesis and release of substance P through inhibition of COX-2 protein induction and intracellular calcium ion concentration. Therefore, DB may serve as a promising potent therapeutic agent for treatment of chronic pain, and its effective component CB might partly contribute to anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

  3. Gabapentin Inhibits Protein Kinase C Epsilon Translocation in Cultured Sensory Neurons with Additive Effects When Coapplied with Paracetamol (Acetaminophen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellani, Vittorio; Giacomoni, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on protein kinase C epsilon (PKC ε ) translocation in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). We found that gabapentin significantly reduced PKC ε translocation induced by the pronociceptive peptides bradykinin and prokineticin 2, involved in both inflammatory and chronic pain. We recently showed that paracetamol (acetaminophen), a very commonly used analgesic drug, also produces inhibition of PKC ε . We tested the effect of the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, and we found that the inhibition of translocation adds up. Our study provides a novel mechanism of action for gabapentin in sensory neurons and suggests a mechanism of action for the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, which has recently been shown to be effective, with a cumulative behavior, in the control of postoperative pain in human patients.

  4. Localized neurotransmitter release for use in a prototype retinal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Mark C; Bloom, David M; Lee, Christina; Bent, Stacey F; Marmor, Michael F; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Fishman, Harvey A

    2003-07-01

    Current neural prostheses use electricity as the mode of stimulation, yet information transfer in neural circuitry is primarily through chemical transmitters. To address this disparity, this study was conducted to devise a prototype interface for a retinal prosthetic based on localized chemical delivery. The goal was to determine whether fluidic delivery through microfabricated apertures could be used to stimulate at single-cell dimensions. A drug delivery system was microfabricated based on a 5- or 10- microm aperture in a 500-nm thick silicon nitride membrane to localize and limit transmitter release. The aperture overlies a microfluidic delivery channel in a silicone elastomer. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this transmitter-based prosthesis, rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cell line) were grown on the surface of the device to test the precision of stimulation, using bradykinin as a stimulant and measuring fluorescence from the calcium indicator, fluo-4. The extent of stimulation could be controlled accurately by varying the concentration of stimulant, from a single cell adjacent to the aperture to a broad area of cells. The stimulation radius was as small as 10 microm, corresponding to stimulation volumes as small as 2 pL. The relationship between the extent of stimulation and concentration was linear. The demonstration of localized chemical stimulation of excitable cells illustrates the potential of this technology for retinal prostheses. Although this is only a proof of concept of neurotransmitter stimulation for a retinal prosthesis, it is a significant first step toward mimicking neurotransmitter release during synaptic transmission.

  5. [The value of ACE inhibitors in heart failure (mechanism of action)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, H

    1992-01-01

    ACE-inhibitors improve symptoms and prognosis in patients with heart failure. The V-Heft II trial has demonstrated that the beneficial effect of these agents is superior to unspecific vasodilators. Besides sustained arterial and venous vasodilation the inhibition of the neurohumoral axis is thought to play an important role. Angiotensin II and catecholamines not only exert vasoconstrictor effects, but might also contribute to vascular and myocardial growth. Thus, it may not be surprising that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors in heart failure only emerge during long-term therapy rather than after short-term administration. It has been shown that these agents improve blood flow to skeletal muscle during exercise after chronic therapy (not acutely), and there is some preliminary evidence that improvement of endothelial function might be involved in this effect, i.e., by reducing the degradation of bradykinin, an endothelial vasodilator. ACE inhibitors reduce LV hypertrophy, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and prognosis. Moreover, there is experimental evidence that ACE inhibitors can prevent and even reverse interstitial fibrosis in the left ventricle. Although the plasma renin activity may be normal in patients with chronic heart failure, recent data using polymerase chain reaction indicate that the tissue cardiac renin angiotensin system is activated in the failing human heart as assessed by measurements of angiotensin converting enzyme mRNA and angiotensinogen mRNA which may be an important target for ACE-inhibition.

  6. Variables Affecting the Internal Energy of Peptide Ions During Separation by Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Brandon G.; Campbell, Matthew T.; Glish, Gary L.

    2017-10-01

    Differential ion mobility spectrometry (DIMS) devices separate ions on the basis of differences in ion mobility in low and high electric fields, and can be used as a stand-alone analytical method or as a separation step before further analysis. As with other ion mobility separation techniques, the ability of DIMS separations to retain the structural characteristics of analytes has been of concern. For DIMS separations, this potential loss of ion structure originates from the fact that the separations occur at atmospheric pressure and the ions, during their transit through the device, undergo repeated collisions with the DIMS carrier gas while being accelerated by the electric field. These collisions have the ability to increase the internal energy distribution of the ions, which can cause isomerization or fragmentation. The increase in internal energy of the ions is based on a number of variables, including the dispersion field and characteristics of the carrier gas such as temperature and composition. The effects of these parameters on the intra-DIMS fragmentation of multiply charged ions of the peptides bradykinin (RPPGFSPFR) and GLISH are discussed herein. Furthermore, similarities and differences in the internal energy deposition that occur during collisional activation in tandem mass spectrometry experiments are discussed, as the fragmentation pathways accessed by both are similar. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. The Mast Cell, Contact, and Coagulation System Connection in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Guilarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction, resulting from the effect of mediators and chemotactic substances released by activated cells. Mast cells and basophils are considered key players in IgE-mediated human anaphylaxis. Beyond IgE-mediated activation of mast cells/basophils, further mechanisms are involved in the occurrence of anaphylaxis. New insights into the potential relevance of pathways other than mast cell and basophil degranulation have been unraveled, such as the activation of the contact and the coagulation systems. Mast cell heparin released upon activation provides negatively charged surfaces for factor XII (FXII binding and auto-activation. Activated FXII, the initiating serine protease in both the contact and the intrinsic coagulation system, activates factor XI and prekallikrein, respectively. FXII-mediated bradykinin (BK formation has been proven in the human plasma of anaphylactic patients as well as in experimental models of anaphylaxis. Moreover, the severity of anaphylaxis is correlated with the increase in plasma heparin, BK formation and the intensity of contact system activation. FXII also activates plasminogen in the fibrinolysis system. Mast cell tryptase has been shown to participate in fibrinolysis through plasmin activation and by facilitating the degradation of fibrinogen. Some usual clinical manifestations in anaphylaxis, such as angioedema or hypotension, or other less common, such as metrorrhagia, may be explained by the direct effect of the activation of the coagulation and contact system driven by mast cell mediators.

  8. Snake Venom Peptides and Low Mass Proteins: Molecular Tools and Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J R; Resende, L M; Watanabe, R K; Carregari, V C; Huancahuire-Vega, S; da S Caldeira, C A; Coutinho-Neto, A; Soares, A M; Vale, N; de C Gomes, P A; Marangoni, S; de A Calderon, L; Da Silva, S L

    2017-01-01

    Snake venoms are natural sources of biologically active molecules that are able to act selectively and specifically on different cellular targets, modulating physiological functions. Thus, these mixtures, composed mainly of proteins and peptides, provide ample and challenging opportunities and a diversified molecular architecture to design and develop tools and agents of scientific and therapeutic interest. Among these components, peptides and small proteins play diverse roles in numerous physiological processes, exerting a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, antihypertensive, analgesic, antitumor, analgesic, among others. The pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have recognized the huge potential of these privileged frameworks and believe them to be a promising alternative to contemporary drugs. A number of natural or synthetic peptides from snake venoms have already found preclinical or clinical applications for the treatment of pain, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and aging skin. A well-known example is captopril, whose natural peptide precursor was isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, which is a peptide-based drug that inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme, producing an anti-hypertensive effect. The present review looks at the main peptides (natriuretic peptides, bradykinin-potentiating peptides and sarafotoxins) and low mass proteins (crotamine, disintegrins and three-Finger toxins) from snake venoms, as well as synthetic peptides inspired by them, describing their biochemical, structural and physiological features, as well as their applications as research tools and therapeutic agents. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. cGMP-activating peptides do not regulate electrogenic electrolyte transport in principal cells of rat CCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, E; Cermak, R; Forssmann, W G; Hirsch, J R; Kleta, R; Kuhn, M; Sun, D; Schafer, J A

    1996-12-01

    K+ channels in the basolateral membrane of rat cortical collecting duct (CCD) are regulated by a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (J. Hirsch and E. Schlatter. Pfluegers Arch. 429: 338-344, 1995). Conflicting data exist on the effects of cGMP-activating agonists on Na+ transport in these cells. Thus we tested members of the family of peptides that increase intracellular cGMP [cardiodilatin/atrial natriuretic peptide (CDD/ANP), brain natriuretic peptide, C-type natriuretic peptide, urodilatin, guanylin, and uroguanylin], as well as bradykinin +/- CDD/ANP on membrane voltages (Vm) of principal cells of isolated rat CCD using the slow whole cell patch-clamp technique (E. Schlatter, U. Fröbe, and R. Greger. Pfluegers Arch. 421: 381-387, 1992). None of the agonists tested changed Vm significantly. There was also no effect of dibutyryl guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (DBcGMP) on AVP-dependent lumen-to-bath Na+ flux, transepithelial voltage, or osmotic water permeability in isolated perfused rat CCD. Finally, CDD/ANP increased intracellular cGMP only in glomeruli but not in CCD. Thus the findings provide no evidence for control of electrogenic electrolyte transport by these natriuretic peptides in principal cells of rat CCD, and the agonist that physiologically regulates the cGMP-dependent K+ channels remains to be identified.

  10. Biosensors of DsRed as FRET partner with CFP or GFP for quantitatively imaging induced activation of Rac, Cdc42 in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rushi; Ren, Daoquan; Liu, Yizhou; Deng, Yuting; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Qingyan; Guo, Xiangrong

    2011-06-01

    The suboptimal features of the spectral properties of the leading fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair, cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)/yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), limit the full promise of FRET imaging. To overcome the drawbacks, we developed FRET-based, intra-molecular biosensors consisting of CFP/discomona sp red fluorescent protein (DsRed) or green fluorescent protein (GFP)/DsRed as donor/acceptor fluorophores. The biosensors were expressed in NIH3T3 cells. In vitro fluorescence spectroscopy and Rho GTPase activation assays were used to confirm that Rac1 or Cdc42 was activated in serum-starved cells following stimulation with insulin or bradykinin. The transient changes of the amount, location, and translocation of activated Rac1 or Cdc42 in living cells were tracked with confocal imaging. The increase of FRET efficiency was achieved in the cells expressing the biosensors and was proportional to the levels of activated Rac1 or Cdc42. The localized, transitional, and transient FRET signals were directly and quantitatively imaged with high spatial and temporal resolution. The biosensors were used to analyze and judge the GEF or GAP activities of putative regulatory proteins for Rac1 or Cdc42. DsRed is a more suitable acceptor in FRET pair with CFP than with GFP in terms of the spectral overlap between the donor and acceptor. The approach can also be applied to many other types of protein behavior in living cells.

  11. Pharmacological properties of angiotensin II antagonists: Examining all the therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Unger

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (Ang II, the effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, exerts a variety of actions in physiological blood pressure and body fluid regulation, and is implicated as a major pathogenic factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of the RAS, via treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I, or more recently the Ang II AT1-receptor blockers (ARBs, has been used as a therapeutic approach to the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular dysfunction. Evidence from animal and clinical studies shows that the antihypertensive and overall organ-protective actions of the ARBs are similar to those of ACE-I. However, as the ARBs selectively block the AT1-receptor, which is responsible for the known cardiovascular actions of Ang II, leave the AT2-receptor unopposed and do not interfere with the breakdown of bradykinin, there is the potential for beneficial effects in hypertensive patients with cardiovascular diseases such as left ventricular hypertrophy. Furthermore, there may be additional benefits when the ARBs are combined with ACE-I in such patients. Animal studies contribute to the elucidation and understanding of the role of AT1- and AT2-receptors in the cardiovascular system, and may help in the design of clinical studies aimed at investigating the effects of ACE-I, ARBs, and their combination, on cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling of Placentas Affected by Pre-Eclampsia

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    Anne Mette Hoegh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000 were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre-eclampsia as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of events effectuated throughout gestation. They were associated with transcriptional regulation and vasoregulative pathways, along with a number of hypothetical proteins and gene sequences with unknown functions.

  13. Gabapentin Inhibits Protein Kinase C Epsilon Translocation in Cultured Sensory Neurons with Additive Effects When Coapplied with Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) translocation in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). We found that gabapentin significantly reduced PKCε translocation induced by the pronociceptive peptides bradykinin and prokineticin 2, involved in both inflammatory and chronic pain. We recently showed that paracetamol (acetaminophen), a very commonly used analgesic drug, also produces inhibition of PKCε. We tested the effect of the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, and we found that the inhibition of translocation adds up. Our study provides a novel mechanism of action for gabapentin in sensory neurons and suggests a mechanism of action for the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, which has recently been shown to be effective, with a cumulative behavior, in the control of postoperative pain in human patients. PMID:28299349

  14. Molecular cloning of a novel tryptophyllin peptide from the skin of the orange-legged monkey frog, Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Lin, Yangjun; Chen, Tianbao; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Lei; Shaw, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Tryptophyllins are a group of small (4-14 amino acids), heterogenous peptides, mostly from the skins of hylid frogs from the genera, Phyllomedusa and Litoria. To date, more than forty TPHs have been discovered in species from these two genera. Here, we describe the identification of a novel tryptophyllin type 3 peptide, PhT-3, from the extracts of skin of the orange-legged monkey frog, Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis, and molecular cloning of its precursor-encoding cDNA from a cDNA library constructed from the same skin sample. Full primary structural characterization was achieved using a combination of direct Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and deduction from cloned skin-derived cDNA. The open-reading frame of the precursor cDNA was found to consist of 63 amino acid residues. The mature peptide arising from this precursor contains a post-translationally modified N-terminal pyroglutamate (pGlu) residue, formed from acid-mediated cyclization of an N-terminal Gln (Q) residue, and with the structure: pGlu-Asp-Lys-Pro-Phe-Trp-Pro-Pro-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Pro-Met. Pharmacological assessment of a synthetic replicate of this peptide on phenylephrine preconstricted rat tail artery segments, revealed a reduction in relaxation induced by bradykinin. PhT-3 was also found to mediate antiproliferative effects on human prostate cancer cell lines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuraw, Bruce L; Christiansen, Sandra C

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) was first described in the 19th century. Over the past 50 years, many details of the pathophysiology and molecular biology of HAE have been elucidated. Two types of HAE, type I and type II, result from mutations in the gene for the broad-spectrum protease inhibitor C1 inhibitor (C1INH). Type I HAE is characterized by low antigenic and functional C1INH levels and type II HAE has normal antigenic but low functional C1INH levels. Type III HAE, by contrast, has normal antigenic and functional C1INH levels. In some families, type III HAE has been linked to mutations in Hageman factor. C1INH is the primary inhibitor of the complement proteases C1r and C1s as well as the contact system proteases activated Hageman factor (coagulation factor XIIa and XIIf) and plasma kallikrein. It is also an inhibitor of plasmin and coagulation factor XIa. The primary mediator of swelling in HAE has now been unequivocally shown to be bradykinin, generated from activation of the plasma contact system. The knowledge gained concerning the underlying mechanisms of the different types of HAE allow the clinician to approach the laboratory diagnosis with confidence and provides opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies.

  16. The balance between the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 determines tissue injury and lethality during intestinal ischemia and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle G Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A major goal in the treatment of acute ischemia of a vascular territory is to restore blood flow to normal values, i.e. to "reperfuse" the ischemic vascular bed. However, reperfusion of ischemic tissues is associated with local and systemic leukocyte activation and trafficking, endothelial barrier dysfunction in postcapillary venules, enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and great lethality. This phenomenon has been referred to as "reperfusion injury" and several studies demonstrated that injury is dependent on neutrophil recruitment. Furthermore, ischemia and reperfusion injury is associated with the coordinated activation of a series of cytokines and adhesion molecules. Among the mediators of the inflammatory cascade released, TNF-alpha appears to play an essential role for the reperfusion-associated injury. On the other hand, the release of IL-10 modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production and reperfusion-associated tissue injury. IL-1beta, PAF and bradykinin are mediators involved in ischemia and reperfusion injury by regulating the balance between TNF-alpha and IL-10 production. Strategies that enhance IL-10 and/or prevent TNF-alpha concentration may be useful as therapeutic adjuvants in the treatment of the tissue injury that follows ischemia and reperfusion.

  17. A Novel Category of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs for Treating Salt-Sensitive Hypertension on the Basis of a New Development Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Makoto; Majima, Masataka

    2010-01-07

    Terrestrial animals must conserve water and NaCl to survive dry environments. The kidney reabsorbs 95% of the sodium filtered from the glomeruli before sodium reaches the distal connecting tubules. Excess sodium intake requires the renal kallikrein-kinin system for additional excretion. Renal kallikrein is secreted from the distal connecting tubule cells of the kidney, and its substrates, low molecular kininogen, from the principal cells of the cortical collecting ducts (CD). Formed kinins inhibit reabsorption of NaCl through bradykinin (BK)-B₂ receptors, localized along the CD. Degradation pathway of BK by kinin-destroying enzymes in urine differs completely from that in plasma, so that ACE inhibitors are ineffective. Urinary BK is destroyed mainly by a carboxypeptidase-Y-like exopeptidase (CPY) and partly by a neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Inhibitors of CPY and NEP, ebelactone B and poststatin, respectively, were found. Renal kallikrein secretion is accelerated by potassium and ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blockers, such as PNU-37883A. Ebelactone B prevents DOCA-salt hypertension in rats. Only high salt intake causes hypertension in animals deficient in BK-B2 receptors, tissue kallikrein, or kininogen. Hypertensive patients, and spontaneously hypertensive rats, excrete less kallikrein than normal subjects, irrespective of races, and become salt-sensitive. Ebelactone B, poststatin, and KATP channel blockers could become novel antihypertensive drugs by increase in urinary kinin levels. Roles of kinin in cardiovascular diseases were discussed.

  18. A Novel Category of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs for Treating Salt-Sensitive Hypertension on the Basis of a New Development Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Majima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial animals must conserve water and NaCl to survive dry environments. The kidney reabsorbs 95% of the sodium filtered from the glomeruli before sodium reaches the distal connecting tubules. Excess sodium intake requires the renal kallikrein-kinin system for additional excretion. Renal kallikrein is secreted from the distal connecting tubule cells of the kidney, and its substrates, low molecular kininogen, from the principal cells of the cortical collecting ducts (CD. Formed kinins inhibit reabsorption of NaCl through bradykinin (BK-B2 receptors, localized along the CD. Degradation pathway of BK by kinin-destroying enzymes in urine differs completely from that in plasma, so that ACE inhibitors are ineffective. Urinary BK is destroyed mainly by a carboxypeptidase-Y-like exopeptidase (CPY and partly by a neutral endopeptidase (NEP. Inhibitors of CPY and NEP, ebelactone B and poststatin, respectively, were found. Renal kallikrein secretion is accelerated by potassium and ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channel blockers, such as PNU-37883A. Ebelactone B prevents DOCA-salt hypertension in rats. Only high salt intake causes hypertension in animals deficient in BK-B2 receptors, tissue kallikrein, or kininogen. Hypertensive patients, and spontaneously hypertensive rats, excrete less kallikrein than normal subjects, irrespective of races, and become salt-sensitive. Ebelactone B, poststatin, and KATP channel blockers could become novel antihypertensive drugs by increase in urinary kinin levels. Roles of kinin in cardiovascular diseases were discussed.

  19. Spectroscopy of mobility-selected biomolecular ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Georgios; Svendsen, Annette; Boyarkin, Oleg V; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    We describe here experiments that combine differential ion mobility, which separates conformational isomers of biomolecular ions, with electronic spectroscopy in a cold, radio-frequency ion trap. Although the low temperature attainable in a cold ion trap greatly simplifies the electronic spectra of large molecules, conformational heterogeneity can still be a significant source of congestion, complicating spectroscopic analysis. We demonstrate here that using differential ion mobility to separate gas-phase peptide conformers before injecting them into a cold ion trap allows one to decompose a dense spectrum into contributions from different conformational families. In the inverse sense, cold ion spectroscopy can be used as a conformation-specific detector for ion mobility, allowing one to separate an unresolved peak into contributions from different conformational families. The doubly protonated peptide bradykinin serves as a good test case for the marriage of these two techniques as it exhibits a considerable degree of conformational heterogeneity that results in a highly congested electronic spectrum. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of directly coupling ion mobility with spectroscopy and provide a diagnostic of conformational isomerization of this peptide after being produced in the gas phase by electrospray.

  20. Postreceptor signal transduction mechanisms involved in octreotide-induced inhibition of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P C; Barrie, R; Hill, N; Landeck, S; Kurozawa, D; Woltering, E A

    1994-12-01

    Somatostatin analogues inhibit peptide release and cell growth through multiple postreceptor signal transduction mechanisms (PRSTM), including G proteins (GP), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), and tyrosine phosphatase (TP). Octreotide acetate (OA), a somatostatin analogue, has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis; however, the PRSTM involved are unknown. Fertilized chicken eggs were obtained and incubated. On day 3, embryos were removed and placed in plastic wrap hammocks. On day 7, disks containing OA, test substances that interfere with PRSTM, or combinations of OA plus a test substance were placed on the developing chorioallantoic membrane. Blood vessel growth under each disk was assessed at 24 hours. Data were evaluated by chi-squared analysis. OA's ability to inhibit angiogenesis is significantly diminished when combined with calcium, bradykinin (increases calcium), pertussis toxin (inhibits GP), or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (increases cAMP). In contrast, no significant decrease is noted in OA's ability to inhibit angiogenesis when combined with phorbol ester (activates PKC) or vanadate (inhibits TP). OA-induced inhibition of angiogenesis is GP, calcium, and cAMP dependent and is PKC and TP independent. Better understanding of the PRSTM involved with OA-induced inhibition of angiogenesis may lead to enhancement of OA's effect on angiogenesis.

  1. Plasma extravasation mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induction of kinin B1 receptors in rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Wille

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to: (a evaluate the effects of kinin B1 (Sar{D-Phe8}-des-Arg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (bradykinin (BK; 10 nmol/kg receptor agonists on plasma extravasation in selected rat tissues; (b determine the contribution of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 μ g/kg to the effects triggered by B1 and B2 agonists; and (c characterize the selectivity of B1 ({Leu8}desArg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (HOE 140; 10 nmol/kg antagonists as inhibitors of this kinin-induced phenomenon. B1 and B2 agonists were shown to increase plasma extravasation in the duodenum, ileum and also in the urinary bladder of the rat. LPS pretreatment enhanced the plasma extravasation mediated only by the B1 agonist in the duodenum, ileum, trachea, main and segmentar bronchi. These effects were prevented by the B1. but not the B2 antagonist. In normal rats, the B2 antagonist inhibited the effect of B2 agonist in all the tissues analyzed. However, in LPS-treated rats, the B2 antagonist was ineffective in the urinary bladder.

  2. Profiles of secreted neuropeptides and catecholamines illustrate similarities and differences in response to stimulation by distinct secretagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvin, Sonia; Bundey, Richard; Toneff, Thomas; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to define profiles of secreted neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that undergo co-release from sympathoadrenal chromaffin cells upon stimulation by distinct secretagogues. Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla participate in the dynamic responses to stress, especially that of 'fight and flight', and, thus, analyses of the co-release of multiple neurotransmitters is necessary to gain knowledge of how the stress response regulates cell-cell communication among physiological systems. Results of this study demonstrated that six different secretagogues stimulated the co-release of the neuropeptides Met-enkephalin, galanin, NPY, and VIP with the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Importantly, the quantitative profiles of the secreted neurotransmitters showed similarities and differences upon stimulation by the different secretagogues evaluated, composed of KCl depolarization, nicotine, carbachol, PACAP, bradykinin, and histamine. The rank-orders of the secreted profiles of the neurotransmitters were generally similar among these secretagogues, but differences in the secreted amounts of each neurotransmitter occurred with different secretagogues. Epinephrine among the catecholamines showed the highest level of secretion. (Met)enkephalin showed the largest levels of secretion compared to the other neuropeptides examined. Levels of secreted catecholamines were greater than that of the neuropeptides. These data support the hypothesis that profiles of secreted neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters show similarities and differences upon stimulation by distinct secretagogues. These results illustrate the co-release of concerted neurotransmitter profiles that participate in the stress response of the sympathoadrenal nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Costa, Gabriel; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor, AT2R, has been described as having opposite effects to the angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1R. Although the quantities of the AT2R found in the adult are low, its expression rises in pathological situations. The AT2R has three major signaling pathways: activation of serine/threonine phosphatases (promoting apoptosis and antioxidant effects), activation of the bradykinin/NO/cGMP pathway (promoting vasodilation), and activation of phospholipase A2 (associated with regulation of potassium currents). The AT2R appears to have effects in vascular remodeling, atherosclerosis prevention and blood pressure lowering (when associated with an AT1R inhibitor). After myocardial infarction, the AT2R appears to decrease infarct size, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and to improve cardiac function. However, its role in the heart is controversial. In the kidney, the AT2R promotes natriuresis. Until now, treatment directed at the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been based on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers. The study of the AT2R has been revolutionized by the discovery of a direct agonist, C21, which promises to become part of the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood borne hormones in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure, the role of circumventricular organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Skrzypecki, Janusz

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that blood borne hormones modulate brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure. This appears to be mediated by the circumventricular organs which are located in the walls of the brain ventricular system and lack the blood-brain barrier. Recent evidence shows that neurons of the circumventricular organs express receptors for the majority of cardiovascular hormones. Intracerebroventricular infusions of hormones and their antagonists is one approach to evaluate the influence of blood borne hormones on the neural mechanisms regulating arterial blood pressure. Interestingly, there is no clear correlation between peripheral and central effects of cardiovascular hormones. For example, angiotensin II increases blood pressure acting peripherally and centrally, whereas peripherally acting pressor catecholamines decrease blood pressure when infused intracerebroventricularly. The physiological role of such dual hemodynamic responses has not yet been clarified. In the paper we review studies on hemodynamic effects of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, angiotensin II, aldosterone, natriuretic peptides, endothelins, histamine and bradykinin in the context of their role in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiinflammatory Efficacy of Extracts of Latex of Calotropis procera Against Different Mediators of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soneera Arya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The latex of the plant Calotropis procera has been reported to exhibit potent antiinflammatory activity against carrageenin and formalin that are known to release various mediators. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficacy of extracts prepared from the latex of C procera against inflammation induced by histamine, serotonin, compound 48/80, bradykinin (BK, and prostaglandin E(PGE in the rat paw oedema model. The paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of various inflammagens and oedema volume was recorded using a plethysmometer. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the dried latex (DL and standard antiinflammatory drugs were administered orally 1 hour before inducing inflammation. The inhibitory effect of the extracts was also evaluated against cellular influx induced by carrageenin. The antiinflammatory effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of DL was more pronounced than phenylbutazone (PBZ against carrageenin while it was comparable to chlorpheniramine and PBZ against histamine and PGE, respectively. Both extracts produced about 80%, 40%, and 30% inhibition of inflammation induced by BK, compound 48/80, and serotonin. The histological analysis revealed that the extracts were more potent than PBZ in inhibiting cellular infiltration and subcutaneous oedema induced by carrageenin. The extracts of DL exert their antiinflammatory effects mainly by inhibiting histamine and BK and partly by inhibiting PGE.

  6. Quantitative characterization of tissue globotetraosylceramides in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease by PrimaDrop sample preparation and indirect high-performance thin layer chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry with automated data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, Hermelindis; Sandhoff, Roger; Meyer, Björn; Gretz, Norbert; Hopf, Carsten

    2013-07-02

    Glycosphingolipids (GSL) have been associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In contrast to glucosylceramide and gangliosides, alterations in complex neutral GSLs such as globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer) have not been investigated in ADPKD yet, and mass spectrometry analysis of Gb4Cer from tissue extracts remains challenging. To this end, we introduce PrimaDrop as an improved and widely applicable sample preparation method for automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis of lipid extracts, which promotes homogeneous cocrystallization and enables relative quantification by indirect thin layer chromatography (TLC)-MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF)-MS against an internal bradykinin standard. Application of the method for detailed investigation of Gb4Cer isoforms in kidneys of an ADPKD rat model revealed increased levels of sphingoid base-containing isoforms in cystic kidneys, whereas changes were subtle for Gb4Cer-containing phytosphingoid bases. We furthermore established an absolute LC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method and demonstrate that absolute quantities of Gb4Cer correlate well with relative quantities obtained by indirect TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS. Taken together, our study proposes an effective sample preparation method for automated analysis of lipid extracts and TLC eluates and suggests that indirect high-performace (HP)TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS with automated data acquisition is a viable option for analysis of neutral glycosphingolipids and that Gb4Cer may play a role in the pathogenesis of ADPKD.

  7. [Contact phase activation can occur with certain types of activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atti, M; Wratten, M L; Sereni, A; Ghezzi, P M; De Nitti, C; Formica, M

    2004-01-01

    HFR is an integrated hemodiafiltration system that utilizes a double chamber filter to separate convection from diffusion. The ultrafiltrate is regenerated by passage through a sorbent cartridge made up of resin and activated carbon. A small percentage of patients using this technique had gastrointestinal symptoms that included nausea/vomiting, diarrhea and/or stomach cramps approximately 1-2 hours after the start of HFR. We undertook a series of investigations to try and elucidate the cause of these reactions. Since the majority of the patients were taking ACE inhibitors, attention was focused on contact phase activation. Healthy and uremic plasma were incubated with different components of the HFR circuit. The activated carbon caused a moderate activation of factor XII and production of kallikrein, while there was no activation for the lines, double filter or resin. Patients taking ACE inhibitors may be at risk for treatments involved with contact phase activation as ACE inhibitors also block the degradation of bradykinin. A new sorbent cartridge has now been developed that contains only resin.

  8. Insight into the interactive residues between two domains of human somatic Angiotensin-converting enzyme and Angiotensin II by MM-PBSA calculation and steered molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shan-shan; Han, Wei-wei; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Song; Shan, Ya-ming

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), a membrane-bound zinc metallopeptidase, catalyzes the formation of Angiotensin-II (AngII) and the deactivation of bradykinin in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and kallikrein-kinin systems. As a hydrolysis product of ACE, AngII is regarded as an inhibitor and displays stronger competitive inhibition in the C-domain than the N-domain of ACE. However, the AngII binding differences between the two domains and the mechanisms behind AngII dissociation from the C-domain are rarely explored. In this work, molecular docking, Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area calculation, and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) are applied to explore the structures and interactions in the binding or unbinding of AngII with the two domains of human somatic ACE. Calculated free energy values suggest that the C-domain-AngII complex is more stable than the N-domain-AngII complex, consistent with available experimental data. SMD simulation results imply that electrostatic interaction is dominant in the dissociation of AngII from the C-domain. Moreover, Gln106, Asp121, Glu123, and Tyr213 may be the key residues in the unbinding pathway of AngII. The simulation results in our work provide insights into the interactions between the two domains of ACE and its natural peptide inhibitor AngII at a molecular level. Moreover, the results provide theoretical clues for the design of new inhibitors.

  9. Biochemical response and the effects of bariatric surgeries on type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Roland; Hughes, Tyler; Lerd Ng, Jia; Ortiz, Roberto; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah

    2013-03-01

    A general method is introduced for calculating the biochemical response to pharmaceuticals, surgeries, or other medical interventions. This method is then applied in a simple model of the response to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in obese diabetic patients. We specifically address the amazing fact that glycemia correction is usually achieved immediately after RYGB surgery, long before there is any appreciable weight loss. Many studies indicate that this result is not due merely to caloric restriction, and it is usually attributed to an increase in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels observed after the surgery. However, our model indicates that this mechanism alone is not sufficient to explain either the largest declines in glucose levels or the measured declines in the homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The most robust additional mechanism would be production of a factor which opens an insulin-independent pathway for glucose transport into cells, perhaps related to the well-established insulin-independent pathway associated with exercise. Potential candidates include bradykinin, a 9 amino acid peptide. If such a substance were found to exist, it would offer hope for medications which mimic the immediate beneficial effect of RYGB surgery. Supported by Qatar Biomedical Research Institute and Science Program at Texas A&M University at Qatar

  10. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T

    2010-03-01

    In 2009, reports on basic and clinical immunology had an increased focus on human disease mechanisms and management. The molecular pathogenesis of familial angioedema associated with estrogen was further explored to find possible factors affecting severity, including polymorphisms in enzymes and receptors related to bradykinin pathways. A placebo-controlled clinical trial of C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate in patients with hereditary angioedema demonstrated the safety of its use and its efficacy to reduce the duration of angioedema attacks. The interaction of innate immunity and adaptive responses was further examined in several reports, establishing the significant role of Toll-like receptor stimulation for the development of optimal specific antibody responses. The 2009 update of the classification of primary immunodeficiencies introduced more than 15 new genetic defects related to the immune response, including of dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) mutations, which are responsible for the autosomal recessive form of the hyper-IgE syndrome. Other reports expanded the clinical spectrum of disease and improved the characterization of conditions such as warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, and myelokathexis syndrome or the occurrence of mucormycosis and Serratia species infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. The frequent presentation of gastrointestinal disorders in patients with humoral immunodeficiencies was recognized, and recommendations for management were reviewed. Clinical research focused on severe combined immunodeficiency included the development and implementation of a state-wide newborn screening program for this condition, a desired goal considering the significant reduction of mortality rate when the diagnosis is made early before opportunistic infections occur.

  11. Modulation of Hemostatic and Inflammatory Responses by Leptospira Spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica L Vieira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonotic and neglected infectious disease of human and veterinary concern that is caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. In severe infections, hemostatic impairments such as coagulation/fibrinolysis dysfunction are frequently observed. These complications often occur when the host response is controlled and/or modulated by the bacterial pathogen. In the present investigation, we aimed to analyze the modulation of the hemostatic and inflammatory host responses by the bacterial pathogen Leptospira. The effects of leptospires and their secreted products on stimulation of human intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation were investigated by means of altered clotting times, assembly and activation of contact system and induction of tissue factor. We show that both extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation cascades are modulated in response to Leptospira or leptospiral secreted proteins. We further find that the pro-inflammatory mediator bradykinin is released following contact activation at the bacterial surface and that pro-coagulant microvesicles are shed from monocytes in response to infection. Also, we show that human leptospirosis patients present higher levels of circulating pro-coagulant microvesicles than healthy individuals. Here we show that both pathways of the coagulation system are modulated by leptospires, possibly leading to altered hemostatic and inflammatory responses during the disease. Our results contribute to the understanding of the leptospirosis pathophysiological mechanisms and may open new routes for the discovery of novel treatments for the severe manifestations of the disease.

  12. Modulation of Hemostatic and Inflammatory Responses by Leptospira Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mônica L; Naudin, Clément; Mörgelin, Matthias; Romero, Eliete C; Nascimento, Ana Lucia T O; Herwald, Heiko

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonotic and neglected infectious disease of human and veterinary concern that is caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. In severe infections, hemostatic impairments such as coagulation/fibrinolysis dysfunction are frequently observed. These complications often occur when the host response is controlled and/or modulated by the bacterial pathogen. In the present investigation, we aimed to analyze the modulation of the hemostatic and inflammatory host responses by the bacterial pathogen Leptospira. The effects of leptospires and their secreted products on stimulation of human intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation were investigated by means of altered clotting times, assembly and activation of contact system and induction of tissue factor. We show that both extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation cascades are modulated in response to Leptospira or leptospiral secreted proteins. We further find that the pro-inflammatory mediator bradykinin is released following contact activation at the bacterial surface and that pro-coagulant microvesicles are shed from monocytes in response to infection. Also, we show that human leptospirosis patients present higher levels of circulating pro-coagulant microvesicles than healthy individuals. Here we show that both pathways of the coagulation system are modulated by leptospires, possibly leading to altered hemostatic and inflammatory responses during the disease. Our results contribute to the understanding of the leptospirosis pathophysiological mechanisms and may open new routes for the discovery of novel treatments for the severe manifestations of the disease.

  13. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Calcium activity of upper thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons in zucker diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C B; Fjalland, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    or in combination with algogenic chemicals (bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E2 (all 10(-5)¿M), and adenosine (10(-3)¿M)) at pH 7.4 and 6.0. Neurons from diabetic animals exhibited an overall increased response to stimulation with 20¿mM¿K(+) compared to neurons from control. Stimulation with Capsaicin alone...... caused an augmented response in neurons from diabetic animals compared to control animals. When stimulated with a combination of Capsaicin and algogenic chemicals, no differences between the two groups of neurons were measured, neither at pH 7.4 nor 6.0. In conclusion, diabetes-induced alterations......The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated...

  15. Fibrinolysis and insulin sensitivity in imidapril and candesartan (FISIC study) recipients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogari, Roberto; Zoppi, Annalisa; Salvadeo, Sibilla A T; Mugellini, Amedeo; Lazzari, Pierangelo; Santoro, Tara; Derosa, Giuseppe

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of imidapril and candesartan on fibrinolysis and insulin sensitivity in normoweight hypertensive patients. After a 2-week wash-out period, 61 patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomized to imidapril or candesartan for 12 weeks. Blood pressure (BP), plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen activities were evaluated at baseline and during treatment. The patients underwent a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (insulin sensitivity was evaluated as glucose infusion rate during the last 30 min) and a desmopressin test (with desmopressin infusion in the brachial artery) to evaluate endothelial ability to release t-PA. Imidapril and candesartan induced similar systolic/diastolic BP reductions (-16/12.6 and -16.1/12.2 mm Hg, respectively, Pcandesartan did not change it. Both drugs decreased PAI-1 antigen activity after 4 weeks of treatment; subsequently, only the decreasing effect of imidapril was sustained throughout the 12 weeks, whereas candesartan increased PAI-1 activity at week 12 (Pcandesartan (from 0.48±0.16 to 0.43±0.14 IU ml(-1), Pcandesartan (+2.73 IU ml(-1), Pcandesartan improved the fibrinolytic balance, suggesting that mechanisms other than Ang II inhibition, possibly including bradykinin-mediated effects on insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, may be responsible for these different effects.

  16. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) enhances vasodilatation in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareing, Mark; Myers, Jenny E; O'Hara, Maureen; Baker, Philip N

    2005-05-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects up to 8% of all pregnancies and has massive short-term (increased fetal morbidity and mortality) and long-term (increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in adulthood) health implications. Doppler waveform analysis of pregnancies complicated by FGR suggests compromised uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoperfusion. Our aim was to determine whether myometrial small artery function was aberrant in FGR and to assess whether sildenafil citrate could improve vasodilatation in FGR pregnancies. Small arteries dissected from myometrial biopsies obtained at cesarean section from normal pregnant women (n = 27) or women whose pregnancies were complicated by FGR (n = 12) were mounted on wire myographs. Vessels were constricted (with arginine vasopressin or U46619) and relaxed (with bradykinin) before and after incubation with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil citrate. We demonstrated increased myometrial small artery vasoconstriction and decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in vessels from women whose pregnancies were complicated by FGR. Sildenafil citrate significantly reduced vasoconstriction and significantly improved relaxation of FGR small arteries. We conclude that sildenafil citrate improves endothelial function of myometrial vessels from women whose pregnancies are complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. Sildenafil citrate may offer a potential therapeutic strategy to improve uteroplacental blood flow in FGR pregnancies.

  17. The use of acetone as a substitute for acetonitrile in analysis of peptides by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppel, Theodore R; Jacques, Martin E; Weis, David D

    2010-01-01

    The recent worldwide shortage of acetonitrile has prompted interest in alternative solvents for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In this work, acetone was substituted for acetonitrile in the separation of a peptide mixture by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and in the positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of individual peptides. On both C12 and C18 stationary phases, the substitution of acetone for acetonitrile as the organic component of the mobile phase did not alter the gradient elution order of a five-peptide retention standard, but did increase peak width, shorten retention times, and increase peak tailing. Positive ESI mass spectra were obtained for angiotensin I, bradykinin, [Leu(5)]-enkephalin, and somatostatin 14 dissolved in both acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25%/75%/0.1%) and acetone/water/formic acid (25%/75%/0.1%). Under optimized ESI-MS conditions, the mass spectral response of [Leu(5)]-enkephalin was increased two-fold when the solvent contained acetone. The substitution of acetone for acetonitrile resulted in only slight changes in the responses of the remaining peptides. A higher capillary voltage was required for optimum response when acetone was used. Compared with acetonitrile/water/formic acid (50/50/0.1%), more interfering species below m/z = 140 were found in the ESI-MS spectra of acetone/water/formic acid (50/50/0.1%). Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Is the renal kallikrein-kinin system a factor that modulates hypercalciuria?

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    Armando Luis Negri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular calcium reabsorption is one of the principal factors that determine serum calcium concentration and calcium excretion. Calcium excretion is regulated by the distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule, where the epithelial calcium channel TRPV5 can be found, which limits the rate of transcellular calcium transport. The dynamic presence of the TRPV5 channel on the surface of the tubular cell is mediated by an endosomal recycling process. Different intrarenal factors are involved in calcium channel fixation in the apical membrane, including the anti-ageing hormone klotho and tissue kallikrein (TK. Both proteins are synthesised in the distal tubule and secreted in the tubular fluid. TK stimulates active calcium reabsorption through the bradykinin receptor B2 that compromises TRPV5 activation through the protein kinase C pathway. TK-deficient mice show hypercalciuria of renal origin comparable to that seen in TRPV5 knockout mice. There is a polymorphism with loss of function of the human TK gene R53H (allele H that causes a marked decrease in enzymatic activity. The presence of the allele H seems to be common at least in the Japanese population (24%. These individuals have a tendency to greater calcium and sodium excretion in urine that is more evident during furosemide infusion. Future studies should analyse if manipulating the renal kallikrein-kinin system can correct idiopathic hypercalciuria with drugs other than thiazide diuretics.

  19. Peripheral artery disease: potential role of ACE-inhibitor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Coppola

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Coppola, Giuseppe Romano, Egle Corrado, Rosa Maria Grisanti, Salvatore NovoDepartment of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Nephro-Urological Diseases, Chair of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Subjects with peripheral arterial disease (PAD of the lower limbs are at high risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in such patients is elevated. Recent studies have shown that regular use of cardiovascular medications, such as therapeutic and preventive agents for PAD patients, seems to be promising in reducing long-term mortality and morbidity. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE system plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, and ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I seem to have vasculoprotective and antiproliferative effects as well as a direct antiatherogenic effect. ACE-I also promote the degradation of bradykinin and the release of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator; further, thay have shown important implications for vascular oxidative stress. Other studies have suggested that ACE-I may also improve endothelial dysfunction. ACE-I are useful for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in clinical and subclinical PAD. Particularly, one agent of the class (ie, ramipril has shown in many studies to able to significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with PAD.Keywords: atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, endothelial dysfunction, ACE-inhibitors

  20. Effects of combination of aliskiren and pentoxyfylline on renal function in the rat remnant kidney model of chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Hitesh M; Patel, Praful P; Patel, Savan; Rath, Akshyaya C; Acharya, Aviseka; Trivedi, Harshkant D; Jain, Mukul R

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the nephroprotective effect of combination of aliskiren (ASK), a direct renin inhibitor and pentoxifylline (PTX), inhibitor of tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in rat remnant kidney model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nephrectomized (NPX) rats were treated with ASK (10 mg/kg, p.o.), PTX (100 mg/kg, p.o.), and combination of PTX + ASK once daily for 28 days. We have performed analysis of various renal injury parameters after 4 weeks of treatment. Treatment with PTX, ASK and combination showed significant improvement in urea, creatinine and total protein in plasma when compared with vehicle treated group in NPX rats. ASK and combination of PTX + ASK elicited significant reduction in blood pressure but PTX alone did not produce blood pressure reduction. ASK treatment showed significant elevation in TNF-alpha, whereas PTX and ASK + PTX showed significant reduction in TNF-alpha in plasma. Histopathologically, the extent of the kidney injury was similar in NPX + vehicle and NPX + ASK-treated rats. PTX and ASK + PTX-treated group showed lesser extent of kidney injury. There was good correlation of mRNA expression levels of kidney injury molecule-1 and bradykinin B1 receptor data with histopathological findings in kidney samples and elevated TNF-alpha levels in plasma. We conclude that combination of PTX + ASK may be better therapeutic intervention for nephroprotection in CKD patients.

  1. General aspects of muscle glucose uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL O. ALVIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose uptake in peripheral tissues is dependent on the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. Studies have shown the existence of two major signaling pathways that lead to the translocation of GLUT4. The first, and widely investigated, is the insulin activated signaling pathway through insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The second is the insulin-independent signaling pathway, which is activated by contractions. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle due to the phenomenon of insulin resistance. However, those individuals have normal glucose uptake during exercise. In this context, physical exercise is one of the most important interventions that stimulates glucose uptake by insulin-independent pathways, and the main molecules involved are adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide, bradykinin, AKT, reactive oxygen species and calcium. In this review, our main aims were to highlight the different glucose uptake pathways and to report the effects of physical exercise, diet and drugs on their functioning. Lastly, with the better understanding of these pathways, it would be possible to assess, exactly and molecularly, the importance of physical exercise and diet on glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, it would be possible to assess the action of drugs that might optimize glucose uptake and consequently be an important step in controlling the blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, in addition to being important to clarify some pathways that justify the development of drugs capable of mimicking the contraction pathway.

  2. Efecto hemodinámico esplácnico de somatostatina y octreótido en cirróticos: Estudio con ultrasonografía Doppler Splanchnic hemodynamic effects of somatostatin and octreotide in cirrhotic patients: A Doppler ultrasonographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Fernández Pérez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: valoración ultrasonografica Doppler del efecto hemodinámico de la administración intravenosa de somatostatina y octreótido. Material y método: aleatorizamos a 45 cirróticos con varices esofágicas para recibir en una hora una infusión intravenosa de somatostatina (SOM, 250 µg, octreotido (OCT, 50 µg o placebo (PLA. Pretratamiento y a 15, 30, 45 y 60 minutos medimos velocidad media, índice de congestión, volumen de flujo y diámetro de la vena porta además del índice de resistencia en arteria mesentérica superior. Analizamos las concentraciones séricas de bradicinina y péptido intestinal vasoactivo (VIP en situación basal y a 30 y 60 minutos. Resultados: respecto de los valores basales tanto SOM como OCT provocaron un descenso significativo en la velocidad (-19,41 vs. -11.19% y flujo portal (-22,79 vs. -12,33%, con aumento del índice de congestión (+17,5 vs. +7,5% y del índice de resistencia arterial (+7,18 vs. +6,16% respecto de sus valores basales (p Aim: Doppler-ultrasound assessment of the splanchnic hemodynamic effects of intravenous somatostatin and octreotide administration. Material and method: forty-five cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices were randomized to receive 1-hour intravenous somatostatin (SOM, 250 µg, octreotide (OCT, 50 µg, or placebo (PLA. In baseline and at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes of infusion, mean velocity, congestion index, flow volume and diameter of the portal vein, as well as the superior mesenteric artery resistivity index, were measured. Plasma bradykinine and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP concentrations were also measured at baseline and at 30 and 60 minutes. Results: while placebo caused no changes in any of the venous and arterial parameters, SOM and OCT caused a sustained decrease in portal vein velocity (-19.41 vs. -11.19% and flow (-22.79 vs. -12.33%, and an increase in the congestion index (+17.5 vs. +7.5% and resistivity index of the superior mesenteric artery (+7

  3. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) elevation and arginase up-regulation contribute to endothelial dysfunction related to insulin resistance in rats and morbidly obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Assar, Mariam; Angulo, Javier; Santos-Ruiz, Marta; Ruiz de Adana, Juan Carlos; Pindado, María Luz; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alberto; Hernández, Alberto; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2016-06-01

    The presence of insulin resistance (IR) is determinant for endothelial dysfunction associated with obesity. Although recent studies have implicated the involvement of mitochondrial superoxide and inflammation in the defective nitric oxide (NO)-mediated responses and subsequent endothelial dysfunction in IR, other mechanisms could compromise this pathway. In the present study, we assessed the role of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and arginase with respect to IR-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in human morbid obesity and in a non-obese rat model of IR. We show that both increased ADMA and up-regulated arginase are determinant factors in the alteration of the l-arginine/NO pathway associated with IR in both models and also that acute treatment of arteries with arginase inhibitor or with l-arginine significantly alleviate endothelial dysfunction. These results help to expand our knowledge regarding the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction that are related to obesity and IR and establish potential therapeutic targets for intervention. Insulin resistance (IR) is determinant for endothelial dysfunction in human obesity. Although we have previously reported the involvement of mitochondrial superoxide and inflammation, other mechanisms could compromise NO-mediated responses in IR. We evaluated the role of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and arginase with respect to IR-induced impairment of l-arginine/NO-mediated vasodilatation in human morbid obesity and in a non-obese rat model of IR. Bradykinin-induced vasodilatation was evaluated in microarteries derived from insulin-resistant morbidly obese (IR-MO) and non-insulin-resistant MO (NIR-MO) subjects. Defective endothelial vasodilatation in IR-MO was improved by l-arginine supplementation. Increased levels of ADMA were detected in serum and adipose tissue from IR-MO. Serum ADMA positively correlated with IR score and negatively with pD2 for bradykinin. Gene

  4. Comparison of Phylogeny, Venom Composition and Neutralization by Antivenom in Diverse Species of Bothrops Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Pedro S.; Bernardoni, Juliana L.; Oliveira, Sâmella S.; Portes-Junior, José Antonio; Mourão, Rosa Helena V.; Lima-dos-Santos, Isa; Sano-Martins, Ida S.; Chalkidis, Hipócrates M.; Valente, Richard H.; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, Bothrops snakes account for most snake bites in humans, and the recommended treatment is administration of multispecific Bothrops antivenom (SAB – soro antibotrópico). However, Bothrops snakes are very diverse with regard to their venom composition, which raises the issue of which venoms should be used as immunizing antigens for the production of pan-specific Bothrops antivenoms. In this study, we simultaneously compared the composition and reactivity with SAB of venoms collected from six species of snakes, distributed in pairs from three distinct phylogenetic clades: Bothrops, Bothropoides and Rhinocerophis. We also evaluated the neutralization of Bothrops atrox venom, which is the species responsible for most snake bites in the Amazon region, but not included in the immunization antigen mixture used to produce SAB. Using mass spectrometric and chromatographic approaches, we observed a lack of similarity in protein composition between the venoms from closely related snakes and a high similarity between the venoms of phylogenetically more distant snakes, suggesting little connection between taxonomic position and venom composition. P-III snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are the most antigenic toxins in the venoms of snakes from the Bothrops complex, whereas class P-I SVMPs, snake venom serine proteinases and phospholipases A2 reacted with antibodies in lower levels. Low molecular size toxins, such as disintegrins and bradykinin-potentiating peptides, were poorly antigenic. Toxins from the same protein family showed antigenic cross-reactivity among venoms from different species; SAB was efficient in neutralizing the B. atrox venom major toxins. Thus, we suggest that it is possible to obtain pan-specific effective antivenoms for Bothrops envenomations through immunization with venoms from only a few species of snakes, if these venoms contain protein classes that are representative of all species to which the antivenom is targeted. PMID

  5. Snake venomics across genus Lachesis. Ontogenetic changes in the venom composition of Lachesis stenophrys and comparative proteomics of the venoms of adult Lachesis melanocephala and Lachesis acrochorda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Marvin; Sanz, Libia; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Sasa, Mahmood; Núñez, Vitelbina; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Calvete, Juan J

    2012-12-21

    We report the proteomic analysis of ontogenetic changes in venom composition of the Central American bushmaster, Lachesis stenophrys, and the characterization of the venom proteomes of two congeneric pitvipers, Lachesis melanocephala (black-headed bushmaster) and Lachesis acrochorda (Chochoan bushmaster). Along with the previous characterization of the venom proteome of Lachesis muta muta (from Bolivia), our present outcome enables a comparative overview of the composition and distribution of the toxic proteins across genus Lachesis. Comparative venomics revealed the close kinship of Central American L. stenophrys and L. melanocephala and support the elevation of L. acrochorda to species status. Major ontogenetic changes in the toxin composition of L. stenophrys venom involves quantitative changes in the concentration of vasoactive peptides and serine proteinases, which steadily decrease from birth to adulthood, and age-dependent de novo biosynthesis of Gal-lectin and snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The net result is a shift from a bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic peptide (BPP/C-NP)-rich and serine proteinase-rich venom in newborns and 2-years-old juveniles to a (PI>PIII) SVMP-rich venom in adults. Notwithstanding minor qualitative and quantitative differences, the venom arsenals of L. melanocephala and L. acrochorda are broadly similar between themselves and also closely mirror those of adult L. stenophrys and L. muta venoms. The high conservation of the overall composition of Central and South American bushmaster venoms provides the ground for rationalizing the "Lachesis syndrome", characterized by vagal syntomatology, sensorial disorders, hematologic, and cardiovascular manifestations, documented in envenomings by different species of this wide-ranging genus. This finding let us predict that monospecific Lachesic antivenoms may exhibit paraspecificity against all congeneric species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The association between ACE inhibitors and the complex regional pain syndrome: Suggestions for a neuro-inflammatory pathogenesis of CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, M; Huygen, F J P M; Stricker, B H Ch; Dieleman, J P; Sturkenboom, M C J M

    2009-04-01

    Antihypertensive drugs interact with mediators that are also involved in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), such a neuropeptides, adrenergic receptors, and vascular tone modulators. Therefore, we aimed to study the association between the use of antihypertensive drugs and CRPS onset. We conducted a population-based case-control study in the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) database in the Netherlands. Cases were identified from electronic records (1996-2005) and included if they were confirmed during an expert visit (using IASP criteria), or if they had been diagnosed by a medical specialist. Up to four controls per cases were selected, matched on gender, age, calendar time, and injury. Exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics was assessed from the automated prescription records. Data were analyzed using multivariate conditional logistic regression. A total of 186 cases were matched to 697 controls (102 confirmed during an expert visit plus 84 with a specialist diagnosis). Current use of ACE inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of CRPS (OR(adjusted): 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1-6.8). The association was stronger if ACE inhibitors were used for a longer time period (OR(adjusted): 3.0, 95% CI: 1.1-8.1) and in higher dosages (OR(adjusted): 4.3, 95% CI: 1.4-13.7). None of the other antihypertensive drug classes was significantly associated with CRPS. We conclude that ACE inhibitor use is associated with CRPS onset and hypothesize that ACE inhibitors influence the neuro-inflammatory mechanisms that underlie CRPS by their interaction with the catabolism of substance P and bradykinin.

  7. Inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkitny, Luke; McAuley, James H.; Di Pietro, Flavia; Stanton, Tasha R.; O’Connell, Neil E.; Marinus, Johan; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We conducted a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis to determine whether complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is associated with a specific inflammatory profile and whether this is dependent on the duration of the condition. Methods: Comprehensive searches of the literature using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and reference lists from published reviews identified articles that measured inflammatory factors in CRPS. Two independent investigators screened titles and abstracts, and performed data extraction and risk of bias assessments. Studies were subgrouped by medium (blood, blister fluid, and CSF) and duration (acute and chronic CRPS). Where possible, meta-analyses of inflammatory factor concentrations were performed and pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models. Results: Twenty-two studies were included in the systematic review and 15 in the meta-analysis. In acute CRPS, the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8 and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I (sTNF-RI) and II (sTNF-RII) were significantly increased in blood. In chronic CRPS, significant increases were found in 1) TNFα, bradykinin, sIL-1RI, IL-1Ra, IL-2, sIL-2Ra, IL-4, IL-7, interferon-γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products) in blood; 2) IL-1Ra, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and IL-6 in blister fluid; and 3) IL-1β and IL-6 in CSF. Chronic CRPS was also associated with significantly decreased 1) substance P, sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sP-selectin, and sGP130 in blood; and 2) soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in CSF. Most studies failed to meet 3 or more of our quality criteria. Conclusion: CRPS is associated with the presence of a proinflammatory state in the blood, blister fluid, and CSF. Different inflammatory profiles were found for acute and chronic cases. PMID:23267031

  8. Lack of plasma kallikrein-kinin system cascade in teleosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Kwok-Shing Wong

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS consists of two major cascades in mammals: "plasma KKS" consisting of high molecular-weight (HMW kininogen (KNG, plasma kallikrein (KLKB1, and bradykinin (BK; and "tissue KKS" consisting of low molecular-weight (LMW KNG, tissue kallikreins (KLKs, and [Lys(0]-BK. Some components of the KKS have been identified in the fishes, but systematic analyses have not been performed, thus this study aims to define the KKS components in teleosts and pave a way for future physiological and evolutionary studies. Through a combination of genomics, molecular, and biochemical methods, we showed that the entire plasma KKS cascade is absent in teleosts. Instead of two KNGs as found in mammals, a single molecular weight KNG was found in various teleosts, which is homologous to the mammalian LMW KNG. Results of molecular phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicated that the all current teleost genomes lack KLKB1, and its unique protein structure, four apple domains and one trypsin domain, could not be identified in any genome or nucleotide databases. We identified some KLK-like proteins in teleost genomes by synteny and conserved domain analyses, which could be the orthologs of tetrapod KLKs. A radioimmunoassay system was established to measure the teleost BK and we found that [Arg(0]-BK is the major circulating form instead of BK, which supports that the teleost KKS is similar to the mammalian tissue KKS. Coincidently, coelacanths are the earliest vertebrate that possess both HMW KNG and KLKB1, which implies that the plasma KKS could have evolved in the early lobe-finned fish and descended to the tetrapod lineage. The co-evolution of HMW KNG and KLKB1 in lobe-finned fish and early tetrapods may mark the emergence of the plasma KKS and a contact activation system in blood coagulation, while teleosts may have retained a single KKS cascade.

  9. How does angiotensin AT2 receptor activation help neuronal differentiation and improve neuronal pathological situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Marie-Odile; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor of angiotensin II has long been thought to be limited to few tissues, with the primary effect of counteracting the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor. Functional studies in neuronal cells have demonstrated AT2 receptor capability to modulate neuronal excitability, neurite elongation, and neuronal migration, suggesting that it may be an important regulator of brain functions. The observation that the AT2 receptor was expressed in brain areas implicated in learning and memory led to the hypothesis that it may also be implicated in cognitive functions. However, linking signaling pathways to physiological effects has always proven challenging since information relative to its physiological functions has mainly emerged from indirect observations, either from the blockade of the AT1 receptor or through the use of transgenic animals. From a mechanistic standpoint, the main intracellular pathways linked to AT2 receptor stimulation include modulation of phosphorylation by activation of kinases and phosphatases or the production of nitric oxide and cGMP, some of which are associated with the Gi-coupling protein. The receptor can also interact with other receptors, either G protein-coupled such as bradykinin, or growth factor receptors such as nerve growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor receptors. More recently, new advances have also led to identification of various partner proteins, thus providing new insights into this receptor’s mechanism of action. This review summarizes the recent advances regarding the signaling pathways induced by the AT2 receptor in neuronal cells, and discussed the potential therapeutic relevance of central actions of this enigmatic receptor. In particular, we highlight the possibility that selective AT2 receptor activation by non-peptide and selective agonists could represent new pharmacological tools that may help to improve impaired cognitive performance in Alzheimer’s disease and other

  10. [Role of nitric oxide and other endothelium-derived factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevicius, Edgaras; Kevelaitis, Egidijus; Vainorius, Enrikas; Simonsen, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    The endothelial cell layer displays the features of a distributed organ and has a variety of biological functions such as keeping the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis, expression of adhesion molecules for cells in the immune system, metabolism of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine, and conversion of angiotensin I and bradykinin. The endothelium also regulates the underlying smooth muscle layer and vascular tone by release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) as well as vasoconstricting factors such as endothelin, superoxide (O(2)(-)), and thromboxane. We have reviewed the nature, mechanisms of action, and role of these factors in regulation of vascular tone, with special emphasis on NO. By a process catalyzed by NO synthase, NO and citrulline is formed from the substrates molecular O(2) and L-arginine. The main receptor for NO is guanylyl cyclase leading to formation of smooth muscle cyclic guanosinmonophosphate and relaxation. EDHF is an endothelium-derived factor causing vasorelaxation of the underlying smooth muscle layer by hyperpolarization. The nature of EDHF is still unknown, but several candidates for EDHF have been proposed such as potassium ions, hydrogen peroxide, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Prostaglandins such as prostacyclin and prostaglandin E2 binds to specific receptors followed by increases in cyclic adenosinmonophosphate and vasorelaxation, while contractile prostaglandins constrict vessels by activation of thromboxane and endoperoxidase receptors. Superoxide anions induce contraction of vascular smooth muscles cells by scavenging NO. Endothelin is a potent endothelium-derived contractile factor. The synthesis of endothelin-1 is induced by hypoxia, thrombin, interleukin-1, transforming growth factor-beta1, vasopressin, and catecholamines. Cardiovascular risk factors like age, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia are associated with

  11. Preclinical pharmacology of bilastine, a new selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist: receptor selectivity and in vitro antihistaminic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcóstegui, Reyes; Labeaga, Luis; Innerárity, Ana; Berisa, Agustin; Orjales, Aurelio

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the receptor selectivity and antihistaminic activity of bilastine, a new selective antihistamine receptor antagonist. In vitro experiments were conducted using a receptor binding screening panel and guinea-pig and rat tissues. Antihistaminic activity was determined using H1 receptor binding studies and in vitro H1 antagonism studies conducted in guinea-pig tissues and human cell lines. Receptor selectivity was established using a receptor binding screening panel and a receptor antagonism screening conducted in guinea-pig, rat and rabbit tissues. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators was determined through the Schultz-Dale reaction in sensitised guinea-pig ileum. Bilastine binds to histamine H1-receptors as indicated by its displacement of [3H]-pyrilamine from H1-receptors expressed in guinea-pig cerebellum and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. The studies conducted on guinea-pig smooth muscle demonstrated the capability of bilastine to antagonise H1-receptors. Bilastine is selective for histamine H1-receptors as shown in receptor-binding screening conducted to determine the binding capacity of bilastine to 30 different receptors. The specificity of its H1-receptor antagonistic activity was also demonstrated in a series of in vitro experiments conducted on guinea-pig and rat tissues. The results of these studies confirmed the lack of significant antagonism against serotonin, bradykinin, leukotriene D4, calcium, muscarinic M3-receptors, alpha1-adrenoceptors, beta2-adrenoceptors, and H2- and H3-receptors. The results of the in vitro Schultz-Dale reaction demonstrated that bilastine also has anti-inflammatory activity. These preclinical studies provide evidence that bilastine has H1- antihistamine activity, with high specificity for H1-receptors, and poor or no affinity for other receptors. Bilastine has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.

  12. Trolox-sensitive reactive oxygen species regulate mitochondrial morphology, oxidative phosphorylation and cytosolic calcium handling in healthy cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distelmaier, Felix; Valsecchi, Federica; Forkink, Marleen; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet; Swarts, Herman G; Rodenburg, Richard J T; Verwiel, Eugène T P; Smeitink, Jan A M; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H

    2012-12-15

    Cell regulation by signaling reactive oxygen species (sROS) is often incorrectly studied through extracellular oxidant addition. Here, we used the membrane-permeable antioxidant Trolox to examine the role of sROS in mitochondrial morphology, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) handling in healthy human skin fibroblasts. Trolox treatment reduced the levels of 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein (CM-H(2)DCF) oxidizing ROS, lowered cellular lipid peroxidation, and induced a less oxidized mitochondrial thiol redox state. This was paralleled by increased glutathione- and mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial filamentation, increased expression of fully assembled mitochondrial complex I, elevated activity of citrate synthase and OXPHOS enzymes, and a higher cellular O(2) consumption. In contrast, Trolox did not alter hydroethidium oxidation, cytosolic thiol redox state, mitochondrial NAD(P)H levels, or mitochondrial membrane potential. Whole genome expression profiling revealed that Trolox did not trigger significant changes in gene expression, suggesting that Trolox acts downstream of this process. Cytosolic Ca(2+) transients, induced by the hormone bradykinin, were of a higher amplitude and decayed faster in Trolox-treated cells. These effects were dose-dependently antagonized by hydrogen peroxide. Our findings suggest that Trolox-sensitive sROS are upstream regulators of mitochondrial mitofusin levels, morphology, and function in healthy human skin fibroblasts. This information not only facilitates the interpretation of antioxidant effects in cell models (of oxidative-stress), but also contributes to a better understanding of ROS-related human pathologies, including mitochondrial disorders.

  13. Antinociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions, and aggregatin D isolated from Sinningia aggregata tubers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgea V Souza

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa, fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE and ethyl acetate (EA fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs.

  14. Effects of Simvastatin Beyond Dyslipidemia: Exploring Its Antinociceptive Action in an Animal Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Vieira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is a lipid-lowering agent that blocks the production of cholesterol through inhibition of 3-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase. In addition, recent evidence has suggested its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions during inflammatory and pain disorders. Herein, we investigated the effects of simvastatin in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type I, and its underlying mechanisms. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP was induced by ischemia and reperfusion (IR injury of the left hind paw. Our findings showed that simvastatin inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CPIP model in single and repeated treatment schedules, respectively; however simvastatin did not alter inflammatory signs during CPIP model. The mechanisms underlying those actions are related to modulation of transient receptor potential (TRP channels, especially TRMP8. Moreover, simvastatin oral treatment was able to reduce the nociception induced by acidified saline [an acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs activator] and bradykinin (BK stimulus, but not by TRPA1, TRPV1 or prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2. Relevantly, the antinociceptive effects of simvastatin did not seem to be associated with modulation of the descending pain circuits, especially noradrenergic, serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems. These results indicate that simvastatin consistently inhibits mechanical hyperalgesia during neuropathic and inflammatory disorders, possibly by modulating the ascending pain signaling (TRPM8/ASIC/BK pathways expressed in the primary sensory neuron. Thus, simvastatin open-up new standpoint in the development of innovative analgesic drugs for treatment of persistent pain, including CRPS-I.

  15. Effects of Ginger and Its Constituents on Airway Smooth Muscle Relaxation and Calcium Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviski, Matthew E.; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Hoonjan, Bhupinder; Emala, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent years, and is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Many patients report using alternative therapies to self-treat asthma symptoms as adjuncts to short-acting and long-acting β-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). As many as 40% of patients with asthma use herbal therapies to manage asthma symptoms, often without proven efficacy or known mechanisms of action. Therefore, investigations of both the therapeutic and possible detrimental effects of isolated components of herbal treatments on the airway are important. We hypothesized that ginger and its active components induce bronchodilation by modulating intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in airway smooth muscle (ASM). In isolated human ASM, ginger caused significant and rapid relaxation. Four purified constituents of ginger were subsequently tested for ASM relaxant properties in both guinea pig and human tracheas: [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol induced rapid relaxation of precontracted ASM (100–300 μM), whereas [10]-gingerol failed to induce relaxation. In human ASM cells, exposure to [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, but not [10]-gingerol (100 μM), blunted subsequent Ca2+ responses to bradykinin (10 μM) and S-(−)-Bay K 8644 (10 μM). In A/J mice, the nebulization of [8]-gingerol (100 μM), 15 minutes before methacholine challenge, significantly attenuated airway resistance, compared with vehicle. Taken together, these novel data show that ginger and its isolated active components, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, relax ASM, and [8]-gingerol attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness, in part by altering [Ca2+]i regulation. These purified compounds may provide a therapeutic option alone or in combination with accepted therapeutics, including β2-agonists, in airway diseases such as asthma. PMID:23065130

  16. Regulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan production by prostaglandin E2 in cultured lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlinsky, J.B.; Goldstein, R.H. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to increase the synthesis of hyaluronic acid in cultured fibroblasts by increasing the activity of hyaluronate synthetase, a group of plasma membrane-bound synthetic enzymes. We examined whether PGE2 also increased the activity of those enzyme systems involved in the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan in the human embryonic lung fibroblast. Exposure of cells to PGE2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in glucosamine incorporation into all sulfated glycosaminoglycan subtypes. PGE2 at 10(-7) mol/L increased total glycosaminoglycan per dish to 21.6 +/- 3.1 micrograms versus 12.0 +/- 2.5 micrograms in control untreated cultures. Stimulation of endogenous PGE2 production by bradykinin had a similar effect on glycosaminoglycan synthesis. To examine whether PGE2 affected sulfated glycosaminoglycan protein core production, cells were labeled with tritiated glucosamine in the presence of cycloheximide. Under these conditions, incorporation of radiolabel into all glycosaminoglycan subtypes was reduced. However, when exogenous sulfated glycosaminoglycan chain initiator (p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside) was added, incorporation of tritiated glucosamine into sulfated glycosaminoglycan increased but not to levels found in control cultures. Application of PGE2 to cultures treated with cycloheximide alone, or to cultures treated with cycloheximide plus xyloside, increased tritiated glucosamine incorporation into chondroitin, dermatan sulfate, and to a lesser extent into heparan sulfate. We conclude that PGE2 stimulates synthesis of all sulfated glycosaminoglycan even in the absence of new protein core production, probably by increasing activities of sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthetase enzymes. PGE2 stimulation of heparan sulfate synthesis is partially dependent on the availability of heparan sulfate-specific protein core.

  17. Loss of nitrergic neurotransmission to mouse corpus cavernosum in the absence of neurturin is accompanied by increased response to acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangle, Matthew R; Keast, Janet R

    2006-01-01

    The neurotrophic factor, neurturin (NTN), plays an important role in parasympathetic neural development. In the penis, parasympathetic nitrergic/cholinergic nerves mediate the erectile response. However, despite reduced parasympathetic penile innervation in mice lacking the NTN receptor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor α (GFRα)2, they are capable of erection and reproduction. Our aim was to assess neural regulation of erectile tissues from mice lacking NTN. Responses of cavernosal smooth muscle were studied in vitro, monitoring agonist- and nerve-evoked changes in tension. Frequency-dependent nerve-evoked relaxations in the presence of guanethidine were markedly reduced in the mutant mice compared to wild types (19 vs 72% of phenylephrine pre-contraction). Atropine reduced the amplitude in wild-type mice to 61%, but abolished relaxations in knockout mice. In wild-type and knockout animals, nitric oxide synthase inhibition abolished neurogenic relaxations. In NTN knockout animals, EC50 values for nitric oxide-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine and muscarine were increased approximately 0.5 log units. In contrast, contractions to electrical stimulation or phenylephrine, and relaxations to bradykinin or the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside, were unaltered. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that nerves immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide were substantially reduced in cavernosum of NTN knockout mice. Parallel immunohistochemical and pharmacological studies in GFRα2 knockout animals showed the same changes from their wild types as the NTN knockout animals. The data demonstrate that NTN is essential for normal development of penile erection-inducing nerves and that its absence leads to increased responsiveness to muscarinic agonists, possibly as a compensatory mechanism. PMID:16682963

  18. AVE 0991, a nonpeptide mimic of the effects of angiotensin-(1-7) on the endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, Gabriele; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Louka, Febee R; Malinski, Tadeusz; Heitsch, Holger

    2002-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-[1-7]) exhibits a favorable kinetic of nitric oxide (NO) release accompanied by extremely low superoxide (O2-) production. In this report we describe AVE 0991, a novel nonpeptide compound that evoked effects similar to Ang-(1-7) on the endothelium. AVE 0991 and unlabeled Ang-(1-7) competed for high-affinity binding of [125I]-Ang-(1-7) to bovine aortic endothelial cell membranes with IC50 values of 21+/-35 and 220+/-280 nmol/L, respectively. Stimulated NO and O2- release from bovine aortic endothelial cells was directly and simultaneously measured on the cell surface by selective electrochemical nanosensors. Peak concentrations of NO and O2- release by AVE 0991 and Ang-(1-7) (both 10 micromol/L) were not significantly different (NO: 295+/-20 and 270+/-25 nmol/L; O2-: 18+/-2 and 20+/-4 nmol/L). However, the released amount of bioactive NO was approximately 5 times higher for AVE 0991 in comparison to Ang-(1-7). The selective Ang-(1-7) antagonist [D-Ala(7)]-Ang-(1-7) inhibited the AVE 0991-induced NO and O2- production by approximately 50%. A similar inhibition level was observed for the Ang II AT1 receptor antagonist EXP 3174. In contrast, the Ang II AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123,177 inhibited the AVE 0991-stimulated NO production by approximately 90% but without any inhibitory effect on O2- production. Both NO and O2- production were inhibited by NO synthase inhibition ( approximately 70%) and by bradykinin B2 receptor blockade (approximately 80%). AVE 0991 efficiently mimics the effects of Ang-(1-7) on the endothelium, most probably through stimulation of a specific, endothelial Ang-(1-7)-sensitive binding site causing kinin-mediated activation of endothelial NO synthase.

  19. Hereditary angioedema: what the gastroenterologist needs to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available M Aamir Ali, Marie L Borum Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Up to 93% of patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE experience recurrent abdominal pain. Many of these patients, who often present to emergency departments, primary care physicians, general surgeons, or gastroenterologists, are misdiagnosed for years and undergo unnecessary testing and surgical procedures. Making the diagnosis of HAE can be challenging because symptoms and attack locations are often inconsistent from one episode to the next. Abdominal attacks are common and can occur without other attack locations. An early, accurate diagnosis is central to managing HAE. Unexplained abdominal pain, particularly when accompanied by swelling of the face and extremities, suggests the diagnosis of HAE. A family history and radiologic imaging demonstrating edematous bowel also support an HAE diagnosis. Once HAE is suspected, C4 and C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH laboratory studies are usually diagnostic. Patients with HAE may benefit from recently approved specific treatments, including plasma-derived C1-INH or recombinant C1-INH, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, or a kallikrein inhibitor as first-line therapy and solvent/detergent-treated or fresh frozen plasma as second-line therapy for acute episodes. Short-term or long-term prophylaxis with nanofiltered C1-INH or attenuated androgens will prevent or reduce the frequency and severity of episodes. Gastroenterologists can play a critical role in identifying and treating patients with HAE, and should have a high index of suspicion when encountering patients with recurrent, unexplained bouts of abdominal pain. Given the high rate of abdominal attacks in HAE, it is important for gastroenterologists to appropriately diagnose and promptly recognize and treat HAE, or refer patients with HAE to an allergist. Keywords: hereditary angioedema, abdominal pain, diagnosis

  20. Biochemical pharmacology of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Daniel N; Szallasi, Arpad

    2004-05-01

    There is mounting evidence that the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor; transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), is subjected to multiple interacting levels of control. The first level is by reversible phosphorylation catalyzed by intrinsic kinases (e.g. protein kinase A and C) and phosphatases (e.g. calcineurin), which plays a pivotal role in receptor sensitization vs. tachyphylaxis. In addition, this mechanism links TRPV1 to intracellular signaling by various important endogenous as well as exogenous substances such as bradykinin, ethanol, nicotin and insulin. It is not clear, however, whether phosphorylation per se is sufficient to liberate TRPV1 under the inhibitory control of phosphatydylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. The second level of control is by forming TRPV1 heteromers and their association with putative regulatory proteins. The next level of regulation is by subcellular compartmentalization. The membrane form of TRPV1 functions as a nonselective cation channel. On the endoplasmic reticulum, TRPV1 is present in two differentially regulated forms, one of which is inositol triphosphate-dependent whereas the other is not. These three TRPV1 compartments provide a versatile regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Last, there is a complex and poorly understood regulation of TRPV1 activity via control of gene expression. Factors that downregulate TRPV1 expression include vanilloid treatment and growth factor (notably, nerve growth factor) deprivation. By contrast, TRPV1 appears to be upregulated during inflammatory conditions. Interestingly, following experimental nerve injury and in animal models of diabetic neuropathy TRPV1 is present on neurons that do not normally express TRPV1. Combined, these findings imply an important role for aberrant TRPV1 expression in the development of neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia. In humans, disease-related changes in TRPV1 expression have already been described (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease

  1. Pharmacological studies of the venom of an Australian bulldog ant (Myrmecia pyriformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszek, M A; Hodgson, W C; Sutherland, S K; King, R G

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine some of the pharmacological actions of venom from the Australian bulldog ant Myrmecia pyriformis. M. pyriformis venom was prepared by extraction of venom sacs in distilled water and centrifugation to remove insoluble material. Venom (2 micrograms/ml) produced a biphasic response of isolated guinea-pig ileum, i.e., an initial rapid contraction followed by a slower prolonged contraction. The histamine antagonist mepyramine (0.1 microM) inhibited the first phase of this response by approximately 80%. In the isolated rat stomach fundus strip (histamine-insensitive), venom (2-4 micrograms/ml) produced only a single contraction. Responses to venom of egg-albumin-sensitized guinea-pig ileum, were not significantly different before and after an anaphylactic response induced in vitro by egg albumin (0.5 mg/ml). Fluorometric assay showed that histamine accounted for 3.5 +/- 0.5% of the dry weight of M. pyriformis venom. Both the lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase inhibitor BW755C and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin significantly inhibited the response to venom of guinea-pig ileum (second phase) and rat fundus strip. M. pyriformis venom caused hemolysis of guinea pig blood. The degree of hemolysis was reduced significantly when boiled venom was used. No evidence was found that the venom contains acetylcholine, bradykinin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine or that the venom releases histamine from guinea-pig ileum. However, the results indicate that the venom contains histamine-like activity. In addition the venom was found to cause the release of cyclooxygenase products and to contain a heat-sensitive hemolytic factor.

  2. Intermittent Losartan Administration Triggers Cardiac Post-Conditioning in Isolated Rat Hearts: Role of BK2 Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarra, Luca; Leo, Valentina; Addabbo, Francesco; Iacobazzi, Dominga; Carratù, Maria Rosaria; Montagnani, Monica; Potenza, Maria Assunta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The angiotensin (Ang) and bradykinin (BK) tissue-system plays a pivotal role in post-conditioning, but the efficacy of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) in post-ischemic strategies is still under investigation. We evaluated functional and morphological outcomes, together with activation of cytosolic RISK pathway kinases, in rat hearts subjected to losartan (LOS) or irbesartan (IRB) post-ischemic administration. Methods Isolated rat hearts underwent 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Post-conditioning was obtained by intermittent (10 s/each) or continuous drug infusion during the first 3 min of reperfusion. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular developed pressure (dLVP), coronary flow (CF), and left ventricular infarct mass (IM) were measured together with the activation status of RISK kinases Akt, p42/44 MAPK and GSK3β. Results When compared to hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (iI/R) alone, continuous IRB or LOS administration did not significantly reduce total infarct mass (cIRB or cLOS vs. iI/R, p = 0.2). Similarly, intermittent IRB (iIRB) was not able to enhance cardioprotection. Conversely, intermittent LOS administration (iLOS) significantly ameliorated cardiac recovery (iLOS vs iI/R, plosartan is effective in mediating post-conditioning cardioprotection, whereas irbesartan is not. The infarct mass reduction by intermittent losartan seem mainly related on its specific ability to modulate BK2R, and only modestly associated on AT1R blocking properties. PMID:24520397

  3. Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) extracts in mesenteric vascular bed of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A P M; Carvalho, L C R M; Sousa, M A V; Madeira, S V F; Sousa, P J C; Tano, T; Schini-Kerth, V B; Resende, A C; Soares de Moura, R

    2007-02-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) a fruit from the Amazon region, largely consumed in Brazil is rich in polyphenols. Experiments were undertaken to determine whether hydro-alcoholic extract obtained from stone of açaí induces a vasodilator effect in the rat mesenteric vascular bed precontracted with norepinephrine (NE) and, if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Açai stone extract (ASE, 0.3-100 microg) induced a long-lasting endothelium-dependent vasodilation that was significantly reduced by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and (1)H-[1,2,3] oxadiazolo [4,4-a] quinoxalin-l-one (ODQ) and abolished by KCl (45 mM) plus l-NAME. In vessels precontrated with NE and KCl (45 mM) or treated with K(Ca)(+2) channel blockers (charybdotoxin plus apamin), the effect of ASE was significantly reduced. However this effect is not affect by indomethacin, glybenclamide and 4-aminopiridine. Atropine, pyrilamine, yohimbine and HOE 140 significantly reduced the vasodilator effect of acetylcholine, histamine, clonidine and bradykinin, respectively, but did not change the vasodilator effect of ASE. In cultured endothelial cells ASE (100 microg/mL) induced the formation of NO that was reduced by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NA, 100 microM). The present study demonstrates that the vasodilator effect of ASE is dependent on activation of NO-cGMP pathway and may also involve endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) release. The vasodilator effect suggest a possibility to use ASE as a medicinal plant, in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. LCZ696 (Valsartan/Sacubitril)--A Possible New Treatment for Hypertension and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mathilde Borring; Simonsen, Ulf; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this MiniReview was to introduce the newly invented dual-acting drug valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696), which combines an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan) with sacubitril, a specific inhibitor of the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) that degrades vasoactive peptides, including natriuretic peptides ANP and BNP, but also glucagon, enkephalins and bradykinin, among others. The MiniReview presents the data of four available trials NCT01193101, NCT00549770, NCT00887588 and NCT01035255 and provides the current knowledge about LCZ696 effects in patients with hypertension and heart failure. Presently, patients suffering from hypertension and heart failure are treated with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists often in combination with other drugs. These current medications lead to a reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive patients and a decreased mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but not in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. LCZ696 had been tested to utilize the beneficial properties of natriuretic peptides in combination with angiotensin receptor antagonism. It induces even greater blood pressure reductions and decreased mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, while patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction show lowered blood pressure and decreased NT-pro-BNP levels. Although long-term studies remain to be performed, these initial data suggest that there is a potential clinical benefit of LCZ696 in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  5. Individualized Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE)-Inhibitor Therapy in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Based on Clinical and Pharmacogenetic Determinants: The PERindopril GENEtic (PERGENE) Risk Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; Akkerhuis, K Martijn; Van Vark, Laura C; Redekop, W Ken; Rudez, Goran; Remme, Willem J; Bertrand, Michel E; Fox, Kim M; Ferrari, Roberto; Danser, A H Jan; de Maat, Moniek; Simoons, Maarten L; Brugts, Jasper J; Boersma, Eric

    2016-03-28

    Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) constitute a heterogeneous group in which the treatment benefits by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor therapy vary between individuals. Our objective was to integrate clinical and pharmacogenetic determinants in an ultimate combined risk prediction model. Clinical, genetic, and outcomes data were used from 8726 stable CAD patients participating in the EUROPA/PERGENE trial of perindopril versus placebo. Multivariable analysis of phenotype data resulted in a clinical risk score (range, 0-21 points). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs275651 and rs5182 in the angiotensin-II type I-receptor gene and rs12050217 in the bradykinin type I-receptor gene) were used to construct a pharmacogenetic risk score (PGXscore; range, 0-6 points). Seven hundred eighty-five patients (9.0%) experienced the primary endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction or resuscitated cardiac arrest, during 4.2 years of follow-up. Absolute risk reductions ranged from 1.2% to 7.5% in the 73.5% of patients with PGXscore of 0 to 2. As a consequence, estimated annual numbers needed to treat ranged from as low as 29 (clinical risk score ≥10 and PGXscore of 0) to 521 (clinical risk score ≤6 and PGXscore of 2). Furthermore, our data suggest that long-term perindopril prescription in patients with a PGXscore of 0 to 2 is cost-effective. Both baseline clinical phenotype, as well as genotype determine the efficacy of widely prescribed ACE inhibition in stable CAD. Integration of clinical and pharmacogenetic determinants in a combined risk prediction model demonstrated a very wide range of gradients of absolute treatment benefit. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Genetics of Hereditary Angioedema Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germenis, Anastasios E; Speletas, Matthaios

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary genetic research has provided evidences that angioedema represents a diverse family of disorders related to kinin metabolism, with a much greater genetic complexity than was initially considered. Convincing data have also recently been published indicating that the clinical heterogeneity of hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (classified as C1-INH-HAE) could be attributed at least in part, either to the type of SERPING1 mutations or to mutations in genes encoding for enzymes involved in the metabolism and function of bradykinin. Alterations detected in at least one more gene (F12) are nowadays considered responsible for 25 % of cases of hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH (type III hereditary angioedema (HAE), nlC1-INH-HAE). Interesting data derived from genetic approaches of non-hereditary angioedemas indicate that other immune pathways might be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAE. More than 125 years after the recognition of the hereditary nature of HAE by Osler, the heterogeneity of clinical expressions, the genetics of this disorder, and the genotype-phenotype relationships, still presents a challenge that will be discussed in this review. Large scale, in-depth genetic studies are expected not only to answer these emerging questions but also to further elucidate many of the unmet aspects of angioedema pathogenesis. Uncovering genetic biomarkers affecting the severity of the disease and/or the effectiveness of the various treatment modalities might lead to the prevention of attacks and the optimization of C1-INH-HAE management that is expected to provide a valuable benefit to the sufferers of angioedema.

  7. Rapid screening and identification of ACE inhibitors in snake venoms using at-line nanofractionation LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladic, Marija; de Waal, Tessa; Burggraaff, Lindsey; Slagboom, Julien; Somsen, Govert W; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Manjunatha Kini, R; Kool, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an analytical method for the screening of snake venoms for inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and a strategy for their rapid identification. The method is based on an at-line nanofractionation approach, which combines liquid chromatography (LC), mass spectrometry (MS), and pharmacology in one platform. After initial LC separation of a crude venom, a post-column flow split is introduced enabling parallel MS identification and high-resolution fractionation onto 384-well plates. The plates are subsequently freeze-dried and used in a fluorescence-based ACE activity assay to determine the ability of the nanofractions to inhibit ACE activity. Once the bioactive wells are identified, the parallel MS data reveals the masses corresponding to the activities found. Narrowing down of possible bioactive candidates is provided by comparison of bioactivity profiles after reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and after hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) of a crude venom. Additional nanoLC-MS/MS analysis is performed on the content of the bioactive nanofractions to determine peptide sequences. The method described was optimized, evaluated, and successfully applied for screening of 30 snake venoms for the presence of ACE inhibitors. As a result, two new bioactive peptides were identified: pELWPRPHVPP in Crotalus viridis viridis venom with IC 50  = 1.1 μM and pEWPPWPPRPPIPP in Cerastes cerastes cerastes venom with IC 50  = 3.5 μM. The identified peptides possess a high sequence similarity to other bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), which are known ACE inhibitors found in snake venoms.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Martins Gomes Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o., ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o. and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o., were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA. None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect.

  9. Arthrogenic lameness of the fetlock: synovial fluid markers of inflammation and cartilage turnover in relation to clinical joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grauw, J C; van de Lest, C H A; van Weeren, R; Brommer, H; Brama, P A J

    2006-07-01

    Joint pain is one of the most common causes of lameness in the horse but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. To investigate which synovial fluid markers may be related to the presence of clinically detectable joint pain in the horse. Concentrations of structural (CPII, C2C, GAG) and inflammatory markers (PGE2, LTB4, CysLTs, bradykinin and substance P) were measured in fetlock joint fluid from 22 horses in which lameness was localised to the fetlock region by perineural anaesthesia. Levels of these markers were then compared in horses that responded (n = 15) to those that did not (n = 7) to subsequent intra-articular anaesthesia (IAA). Of all markers analysed, only substance P levels were significantly higher (P = 0.0358) in synovial fluid of horses that showed a positive response to IAA compared to those with a negative response to IAA. Notably, while PGE2 levels were found to be elevated in all 22 lame horses compared to sound controls (P = 0.0025), they were not related to the response to IAA. While levels of PGE2 are elevated in synovial fluid of lame horses that respond to perineural anaesthesia, only substance P is related to joint pain as detected by the response to intra-articular anaesthesia. Substance P is associated with clinically detectable joint pain in the horse. Elevated levels of PGE2 in fetlock-lame horses, regardless of their response to IAA, indicate that either this mediator does not reflect intra-articular pain or that IAA might have limitations in differentiating between intra- and peri-articular sources of pain. Either way, a negative response to IAA may not exclude intra-articular pathology.

  10. Kinin B1 Receptor Promotes Neurogenic Hypertension Through Activation of Centrally Mediated Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Lazartigues, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with increased activity of the kallikrein-kinin system. Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) activation leads to vasoconstriction and inflammation. Despite evidence supporting a role for the B1R in blood pressure regulation, the mechanisms by which B1R could alter autonomic function and participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain unidentified. We sought to explore whether B1R-mediated inflammation contributes to hypertension and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of B1R in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, using the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in wild-type and B1R knockout mice. Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment in wild-type mice led to significant increases in B1R mRNA and protein levels and bradykinin levels, enhanced gene expression of carboxypeptidase N supporting an increase in the B1R ligand, associated with enhanced blood pressure, inflammation, sympathoexcitation, autonomic dysfunction, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity, whereas these changes were blunted or prevented in B1R knockout mice. B1R stimulation was further shown to involve activation of the ASK1-JNK-ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathways in the brain. To dismiss potential developmental alterations in knockout mice, we further used B1R blockade selectively in the brain of wild-type mice. Supporting the central origin of this mechanism, intracerebroventricular infusion of a specific B1R antagonist, attenuated the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced increase in blood pressure in wild-type mice. Our data provide the first evidence of a central role for B1R-mediated inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension and offer novel insights into possible B1R-targeted therapies for the treatment of neurogenic hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. A key role for STIM1 in store operated calcium channel activation in airway smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peel Samantha E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of cytosolic calcium plays a key role in airway myocyte function. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ stores can modulate contractile responses, modulate proliferation and regulate synthetic activity. Influx of Ca2+ in non excitable smooth muscle is believed to be predominantly through store operated channels (SOC or receptor operated channels (ROC. Whereas agonists can activate both SOC and ROC in a range of smooth muscle types, the specific trigger for SOC activation is depletion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores. The mechanism underlying SOC activation following depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores in smooth muscle has not been identified. Methods To investigate the roles of the STIM homologues in SOC activation in airway myocytes, specific siRNA sequences were utilised to target and selectively suppress both STIM1 and STIM2. Quantitative real time PCR was employed to assess the efficiency and the specificity of the siRNA mediated knockdown of mRNA. Activation of SOC was investigated by both whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology and a fluorescence based calcium assay. Results Transfection of 20 nM siRNA specific for STIM1 or 2 resulted in robust decreases (>70% of the relevant mRNA. siRNA targeted at STIM1 resulted in a reduction of SOC associated Ca2+ influx in response to store depletion by cyclopiazonic acid (60% or histamine but not bradykinin. siRNA to STIM2 had no effect on these responses. In addition STIM1 suppression resulted in a more or less complete abrogation of SOC associated inward currents assessed by whole cell patch clamp. Conclusion Here we show that STIM1 acts as a key signal for SOC activation following intracellular Ca2+ store depletion or following agonist stimulation with histamine in human airway myocytes. These are the first data demonstrating a role for STIM1 in a physiologically relevant, non-transformed endogenous expression cell model.

  12. [Burn shock, diagnostics, monitoring and fluid therapy of severe burns--new look].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdz, Łukasz; Madry, Ryszard; Struzyna, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Pathomechanism of burn shock is associated with an important endocrine disorder and cytokines storm. As a result of the burns are released to bloodstream kinins such as: histamine, serotonin and bradykinin and also inflammatory mediators such as: tromboxans, prostacyclins, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Arises temporary endothelial failure. Comes to the escape of liquid blood to the tissues and a sudden decrease in the quantity of the fluid in the vessels and appear symptoms of burn shock. Offset of fluids by vascular wall to the extravascular space described mathematically with Landis-Starling law. Treatment of burn shock relies on intensive fluid therapy to fill vessels. Fluid rules are based on infusion crystalloids, colloids, hypersaline or plasma. Effect of fluid resuscitation after severe burn are edemas of whole body. Severe burn receives up to 25 000 ml of fluids intravenous in the first 48 hours after injury. The quantity of water defaulting tissue after 48 hours is even 13 000-18 500 ml which is 300-400% of the volume of blood flow. From 3rd day after burn this may produce symptoms of acute circulatory insufficiency or polycompartment syndrom. Enforces this restrictive fluid treatment and removing significant quantities of water from the bloodstream. In East Poland Burn Center and Reconstructive Surgery we remove even 300-350 ml fluid/h by ultrafiltration during CVVHD CiCa. Additional application hemodynamic monitoring such Vigileo-Flotrac has considerably reduce the amount of complications such as: intra-abdominal hypertension IAH, acute heart syndrome, cerebral edema and pulmonary edema.

  13. Kinin B1 receptor regulates interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells by modulating the levels of Mac-1, LFA-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Carlos D; Matus, Carola E; Pavicic, Francisca; Sarmiento, Jose; Hidalgo, Maria A; Burgos, Rafael A; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    Kinins are pro-inflammatory peptides that mimic the cardinal features of inflammation. We examined the concept that expression levels of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and neutrophil integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 are modulated by the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist, Lys-des[Arg(9)]bradykinin (LDBK). Stimulation of endothelial cells with LDBK increased the levels of ICAM-1 mRNA transcripts/protein, and also of E-selectin and platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1. ICAM-1 levels increased in a magnitude comparable with that produced by TNF-α. This stimulatory effect was reduced when endothelial cells, which had been previously transfected with a B1R small interfering RNA, were stimulated with LDBK, under comparable conditions. Similarly, LDBK produced a significant increase in protein levels of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins in human neutrophils, an effect that was reversed by pretreatment of cells with 10 µg/ml cycloheximide or a B1R antagonist. Functional experiments performed with post-confluent monolayers of endothelial cells stimulated with LDBK and neutrophils primed with TNF-α, and vice versa, resulted in enhanced adhesiveness between both cells. Neutralizing Abs to ICAM-1 and Mac-1 reduced the adhesion between them. Our results indicate that kinin B1R is a novel modulator that promotes adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, critically enhancing the movement of neutrophils from the circulation to sites of inflammation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. [Biosynthesis of opioid peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossier, J

    1988-01-01

    The endogenous opioid peptides all contain the enkephalin sequence Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met and Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu at their aminoterminus. Three distinct families of these peptides (endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins) are present in different neuronal pathways within the central nervous system. Molecular genetics have shown that these three families of opioid peptides are derived from three distinct precursors. Pro-opiomelanocortin gives rise to the endorphins, as well as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the melanotropic hormones (MSH's). [Met] enkephalin, [Leu] enkephalin and the related heptapeptide [Met] enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and octapeptide [Met] enkephalin-Arg6-Gly7-Leu8 are derived from proenkephalin. The third family is derived from prodynorphin and includes dynorphin A, dynorphin B (also known as rimorphin) and alpha- and beta-neo-endorphin. The structure of the genes coding for these precursors are similar, suggesting the possibility of one common ancestral gene. The most common scheme for enzymatic maturation of precursors proposes the action of a trypsin-like endopeptidase followed by a carboxypeptidase B-like exopeptidase. However, we have provided evidence that this combination of trypsin-like and carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes may not be the only mechanism for liberating enkephalin from low molecular weight enkephalin-containing peptides. Indeed, endo-oligopeptidase A, an enzyme, known to hydrolyze the Phe5-Ser6 bond of bradykinin and the Arg8-Arg9 bond of neurotensin, has been shown to produce, by a single cleavage, [Leu] enkephalin or [Met] enkephalin from small enkephalin-containing peptides, (Camargo et al., 1987, J. Neurochem. 48, 1258-1263).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Suênia de Araújo Vilar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%, Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, Bradykinin (6 nmol and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o. for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p. for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase.

  16. Protective effect of proteins derived from Calotropis procera latex against acute inflammation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V L; Guruprasad, B; Chaudhary, P; Fatmi, S M A; Oliveira, R S B; Ramos, M V

    2015-07-01

    The non-dialysable proteins present in the latex of plant Calotropis procera possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of latex proteins (LP) on the level of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and tissue histology in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. This study also aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory efficacy of LP against different mediators and comparing it with their respective antagonists. Paw inflammation was induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan, and the effect of LP was evaluated on oedema volume, level of TNF-α, PGE(2), myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and tissue histology at the time of peak inflammation. Paw inflammation was also induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin and PGE(2), and the inhibitory effect of LP against these mediators was compared with their respective antagonists at the time of peak effect. Treatment with LP produced a dose-dependent inhibition of oedema formation, and its anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw inflammation was accompanied by reduction in the levels of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and normalization of tissue architecture. LP also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of oedema formation induced by different inflammatory mediators, and its efficacy was comparable to their respective antagonists and more pronounced than that of diclofenac. Thus, our study shows that LP has a potential to be used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions where the role of these mediators is well established. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Calotropis procera latex-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia - effect of bradyzide and morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay L; Sehgal, Raman

    2007-07-01

    1 The milky white latex of the plant Calotropis procera induces inflammatory response upon accidental exposure and on local administration that could be effectively ameliorated by antihistaminic and standard anti-inflammatory drugs. 2 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-oedematogenic and analgesic effect of the bradykinin antagonist, bradyzide (BDZ) and the opioidergic analgesic, morphine (Mor) against inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by the dried latex (DL) of C. procera in the rat paw oedema model. 3 An aqueous solution of DL (0.1 ml of 1% solution) was injected into the sub-plantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured at different time intervals. The inhibitory effect of bradyzide and morphine on oedema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with that of cyproheptadine (CPH), a potent inhibitor of DL-induced oedema formation. 4 The hyperalgesic response was evaluated by the dorsal flexion pain test, compression test and by observing motility, stair-climbing ability, and the grooming behaviour of the rats. 5 The effect of these drugs was also evaluated against DL-induced writhings in the mouse model. 6 Both bradyzide and morphine inhibited DL-induced oedema formation by 30-40% and CPH was more effective in this regard (81% inhibition). The antihyperalgesic effect of both the drugs was more pronounced than that of CPH. Both bradyzide and morphine markedly inhibited the grooming behaviour and the effect of morphine could be reversed by pretreatment with naloxone. 7 Thus, our study shows that DL-induced oedema formation is effectively inhibited by antihistaminic/antiserotonergic drug and associated hyperalgesia by analgesic drugs.

  18. Hereditary angioedema: Assessing the hypothesis for underlying autonomic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Maddalena A; Casella, Francesco; Perego, Francesca; Suffritti, Chiara; Afifi Afifi, Nada; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Zanichelli, Andrea; Cogliati, Chiara; Montano, Nicola; Cicardi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Attacks of Hereditary Angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE)are often triggered by stressful events/hormonal changes. Our study evaluates the relationship between autonomic nervous system (ANS) and contact/complement system activation. Twenty-three HAE patients (6 males, mean age 47.5±11.4 years) during remission and 24 healthy controls (8 males, mean age 45.3±10.6 years) were studied. ECG, beat-by-beat blood pressure, respiratory activity were continuously recorded during rest (10') and 75-degrees-head-up tilt (10'). C1-INH, C4, cleaved high molecular weight kininogen (cHK) were assessed; in 16 patients and 11 controls plasma catecholamines were also evaluated. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability allowed extraction of low-(LF) and high-(HF) frequency components, markers of sympathetic and vagal modulation respectively. HAE patients showed higher mean systolic arterial pressure (SAP) than controls during both rest and tilt. Tilt induced a significant increase in SAP and its variability only in controls. Although sympathetic modulation (LFnu) increased significantly with tilt in both groups, LF/HF ratio, index of sympathovagal balance, increased significantly only in controls. At rest HAE patients showed higher noradrenaline values (301.4±132.9 pg/ml vs 210.5±89.6pg/ml, p = 0.05). Moreover, in patients tilt was associated with a significant increase in cHK, marker of contact system activation (49.5 ± 7.5% after T vs 47.1 ± 7.8% at R, p = 0.01). Our data are consistent with altered ANS modulation in HAE patients, i.e. increased sympathetic activation at rest and blunted response to orthostatic challenge. Tilt test-induced increased HK cleavage suggests a link between stress and bradykinin production.

  19. Calcium mobilization in permeabilized fibroblasts: effects of inositol trisphosphate, orthovanadate, mitogens phorbol ester, and guanosine triphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, L.L.; Jamieson, G.A. Jr.; Villereal, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Utilizing a digitonin-permeabilized cell system, the authors have studied the release of calcium from a non-mitochondrial intracellular compartment in cultured human fibroblasts (HSWP cells). Addition of 1 mM MgATP to a monolayer of permeabilized cells in a cytosolic media buffered to 150 nM Ca with EGTA rapidly stimulates /sup 45/Ca uptake, and the subsequent addition of the putative intracellular messenger inositol trisphosphate (InsP/sub 3/) induces rapid release of 85% of the /sup 45/Ca taken up in response to ATP. Mitogenic peptides (bradykinin, vasopressin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin) and orthovanadate, which are effective in mobilizing intracellular Ca in intact cells, have little or no effect when added alone to permeabilized cells. However, in the presence of GTP these agents stimulate accumulation of inositol phosphates and release Ca from the InsP/sub 3/-sensitive pool. These data suggest that a GTP binding protein is involved in receptor mediated activation of phospholipase C, which leads to release of inositol phosphates. The GTP-dependent release of InsP/sub 3/ and the mobilization of /sup 45/Ca from the intracellular compartment are inhibited by pretreatment of cells, prior to permeabilization, with the protrein kinase C activator 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). These results suggest that protein kinase C is involved in down-regulation or inhibition of phospholipase C, or the GTP binding protein responsible for relaying the mitogenic signal from the cell surface receptor to the phospholipase C activity.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of pain in crystal-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonda, R; Oliviero, F; Galozzi, P; Frallonardo, P; Lorenzin, M; Ortolan, A; Scanu, A; Punzi, L

    2015-02-01

    Crystal-induced arthritis (CIA) is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction triggered by the deposition of monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate, and basic calcium phosphate crystals in articular and periarticular tissues. Severe, acute pain constitutes the most important clinical symptom in patients affected by these diseases. Pain along with redness, warmness, swelling, and stiffness in the affected joint arises abruptly in gout and disappears when the acute phase of the attack resolves. While an acute joint attack caused by calcium pyrophosphate crystals can mimic a gout flare, basic calcium phosphate crystal arthritis gives rise to a series of clinical manifestations, the most severe of which are calcific periarthritis, mostly asymptomatic, and a highly destructive arthritis known as Milwaukee shoulder syndrome, which is characterized by painful articular attacks. Pain development in CIA is mediated by several inflammatory substances that are formed after cell injury by crystals. The most important of these molecules, which exert their effects through different receptor subtypes present in both peripheral sensory neurons and the spinal cord, are prostaglandins, bradykinin, cytokines (in particular, interleukin (IL)-1β), and substance P. The pharmacological treatment of pain in CIA is strictly associated with the treatment of acute phases and flares of the disease, during which crystals trigger the inflammatory response. According to international guidelines, colchicines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and/or corticosteroids are first-line agents for the systemic treatment of acute CIA, while biologics, namely anti-IL-1β agents, should be used only in particularly refractory cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of three isoforms of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) in the kidney and regulation by dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazuko; Izumi, Yuichiro; Inoue, Takeaki; Inoue, Hideki; Nakayama, Yushi; Uematsu, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Takashi; Yamazaki, Taiga; Yasuoka, Yukiko; Makino, Takeshi; Nagaba, Yasushi; Tomita, Kimio; Kobayashi, Noritada; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Mukoyama, Masashi; Nonoguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-10-24

    Sodium reabsorption via Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) in the thick ascending limbs has a major role for medullary osmotic gradient and subsequent water reabsorption in the collecting ducts. We investigated intrarenal localization of three isoforms of NKCC2 mRNA expressions and the effects of dehydration on them in rats. To further examine the mechanisms of dehydration, the effects of hyperosmolality on NKCC2 mRNA expression in microdissected renal tubules was studied. RT-PCR and RT-competitive PCR were employed. The expressions of NKCC2a and b mRNA were observed in the cortical thick ascending limbs (CAL) and the distal convoluted tubules (DCT) but not in the medullary thick ascending limbs (MAL), whereas NKCC2f mRNA expression was seen in MAL and CAL. Two-day dehydration did not affect these mRNA expressions. In contrast, hyperosmolality increased NKCC2 mRNA expression in MAL in vitro. Bradykinin dose-dependently decreased NKCC2 mRNA expression in MAL. However, dehydration did not change NKCC2 protein expression in membrane fraction from cortex and outer medulla and in microdissected MAL. These data show that NKCC2a/b and f types are mainly present in CAL and MAL, respectively. Although NKCC2 mRNA expression was stimulated by hyperosmolality in vitro, NKCC2 mRNA and protein expressions were not stimulated by dehydration in vivo. These data suggest the presence of the inhibitory factors for NKCC2 expression in dehydration. Considering the role of NKCC2 for the countercurrent multiplier system, NKCC2f expressed in MAL might be more important than NKCC2a/b. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Redox-Dependent Modulation of T-Type Ca2+ Channels in Sensory Neurons Contributes to Acute Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Substance P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongyang; Huang, Sha; Gao, Haixia; Liu, Yani; Qi, Jinlong; Chen, Pingping; Wang, Caixue; Scragg, Jason L.; Vakurov, Alexander; Peers, Chris; Du, Xiaona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Neuropeptide substance P (SP) is produced and released by a subset of peripheral sensory neurons that respond to tissue damage (nociceptors). SP exerts excitatory effects in the central nervous system, but peripheral SP actions are still poorly understood; therefore, here, we aimed at investigating these peripheral mechanisms. Results: SP acutely inhibited T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in nociceptors. The effect was mediated by neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-induced stimulation of intracellular release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as it can be prevented or reversed by the reducing agent dithiothreitol and mimicked by exogenous or endogenous ROS. This redox-mediated T-type Ca2+ channel inhibition operated through the modulation of CaV3.2 channel sensitivity to ambient zinc, as it can be prevented or reversed by zinc chelation and mimicked by exogenous zinc. Elimination of the zinc-binding site in CaV3.2 rendered the channel insensitive to SP-mediated inhibition. Importantly, peripherally applied SP significantly reduced bradykinin-induced nociception in rats in vivo; knock-down of CaV3.2 significantly reduced this anti-nociceptive effect. This atypical signaling cascade shared the initial steps with the SP-mediated augmentation of M-type K+ channels described earlier. Innovation: Our study established a mechanism underlying the peripheral anti-nociceptive effect of SP whereby this neuropeptide produces ROS-dependent inhibition of pro-algesic T-type Ca2+ current and concurrent enhancement of anti-algesic M-type K+ current. These findings will lead to a better understanding of mechanisms of endogenous analgesia. Conclusion: SP modulates T-type channel activity in nociceptors by a redox-dependent tuning of channel sensitivity to zinc; this novel modulatory pathway contributes to the peripheral anti-nociceptive effect of SP. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 233–251. PMID:27306612

  3. Control of somatic membrane potential in nociceptive neurons and its implications for peripheral nociceptive transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaona; Hao, Han; Gigout, Sylvain; Huang, Dongyang; Yang, Yuehui; Li, Li; Wang, Caixue; Sundt, Danielle; Jaffe, David B; Zhang, Hailin; Gamper, Nikita

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral sensory ganglia contain somata of afferent fibres conveying somatosensory inputs to the central nervous system. Growing evidence suggests that the somatic/perisomatic region of sensory neurons can influence peripheral sensory transmission. Control of resting membrane potential (Erest) is an important mechanism regulating excitability, but surprisingly little is known about how Erest is regulated in sensory neuron somata or how changes in somatic/perisomatic Erest affect peripheral sensory transmission. We first evaluated the influence of several major ion channels on Erest in cultured small-diameter, mostly capsaicin-sensitive (presumed nociceptive) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The strongest and most prevalent effect on Erest was achieved by modulating M channels, K2P and 4-aminopiridine-sensitive KV channels, while hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated, voltage-gated Na(+), and T-type Ca(2+) channels to a lesser extent also contributed to Erest. Second, we investigated how varying somatic/perisomatic membrane potential, by manipulating ion channels of sensory neurons within the DRG, affected peripheral nociceptive transmission in vivo. Acute focal application of M or KATP channel enhancers or a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel blocker to L5 DRG in vivo significantly alleviated pain induced by hind paw injection of bradykinin. Finally, we show with computational modelling how somatic/perisomatic hyperpolarization, in concert with the low-pass filtering properties of the t-junction within the DRG, can interfere with action potential propagation. Our study deciphers a complement of ion channels that sets the somatic Erest of nociceptive neurons and provides strong evidence for a robust filtering role of the somatic and perisomatic compartments of peripheral nociceptive neuron. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation are elevated in sites near to and remote from active myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay P; Danoff, Jerome V; Desai, Mehul J; Parikh, Sagar; Nakamura, Lynn Y; Phillips, Terry M; Gerber, Lynn H

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the biochemical milieu of the upper trapezius muscle in subjects with active, latent, or absent myofascial trigger points (MTPs) and to contrast this with that of the noninvolved gastrocnemius muscle. We used a microanalytic technique, including needle insertions at standardized locations in subjects identified as active (having neck pain and MTP), latent (no neck pain but with MTP), or normal (no neck pain, no MTP). We followed a predetermined sampling schedule; first in the trapezius muscle and then in normal gastrocnemius muscle, to measure pH, bradykinin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, serotonin, and norepinephrine, using immunocapillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography. Pressure algometry was obtained. We compared analyte concentrations among groups with 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. A biomedical research facility. Nine healthy volunteer subjects. Not applicable. Preselected analyte concentrations. Within the trapezius muscle, concentrations for all analytes were higher in active subjects than in latent or normal subjects (Pactive group were always higher (pH not different) than concentrations in the gastrocnemius muscle. At all times within the gastrocnemius, the active group had higher concentrations of all analytes than did subjects in the latent and normal groups (Pactive MTPs in the trapezius muscle have a biochemical milieu of selected inflammatory mediators, neuropeptides, cytokines, and catecholamines different from subjects with latent or absent MTPs in their trapezius. These concentrations also differ quantitatively from a remote, uninvolved site in the gastrocnemius muscle. The milieu of the gastrocnemius in subjects with active MTPs in the trapezius differs from subjects without active MTPs.

  5. Redundant signaling mechanisms contribute to the vasodilatory response of the afferent arteriole to proteinase-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Hollenberg, Morley D; Loutzenhiser, Rodger

    2005-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that stimulation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) by SLIGRL-NH(2) elicits afferent arteriolar vasodilation, in part, by elaborating nitric oxide (NO), suggesting an endothelium-dependent mechanism (Trottier G, Hollenberg M, Wang X, Gui Y, Loutzenhiser K, and Loutzenhiser R. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 282: F891-F897, 2002). In the present study, we characterized the NO-independent component of this response, using the in vitro perfused hydronephrotic rat kidney. SLIGRL-NH(2) (10 mumol/l) dilated afferent arterioles preconstricted with ANG II, and the initial transient component of this response was resistant to NO synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase inhibition. This NO-independent response was not prevented by treatment with 10 nmol/l charybdotoxin and 1 mumol/l apamin, a manipulation that prevents the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like response of the afferent arteriole to acetylcholine, nor was it blocked by the addition of 1 mmol/l tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 50 mumol/l 17-octadecynoic acid, treatments that block the EDHF-like response to bradykinin. To determine whether the PAR-2 response additionally involves the electrogenic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, responses were evaluated in the presence of 3 mmol/l ouabain. In this setting, SLIGRL-NH(2) induced a biphasic dilation in control and a transient response after NOS inhibition. The latter was not prevented by charybdotoxin plus apamin or by TEA alone but was abolished by combined treatment with charybdotoxin, apamin, and TEA. This treatment did not prevent the NO-dependent dilation evoked in the absence of NOS inhibition. Our findings indicate a remarkable redundancy in the signaling cascade mediating PAR-2 -induced afferent arteriolar vasodilation, suggesting an importance in settings such as inflamation or ischemia, in which vascular mechanisms might be impaired and the PAR system is thought to be activated.

  6. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHuart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease. Currently, inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system (RAS remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors.

  7. Consequences of reduced production of NO on vascular reactivity of porcine coronary arteries after angioplasty: importance of EDHF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thollon, Catherine; Fournet-Bourguignon, Marie Pierre; Saboureau, Delphine; Lesage, Ludovic; Reure, Hélène; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Vilaine, Jean Paul

    2002-01-01

    The consequences of the reduced production of nitric oxide (NO) by cells from regenerated endothelium were investigated by measuring membrane potential of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), isometric tension and cyclic nucleotides content in porcine coronary arteries with intimal thickening, four weeks following angioplasty. Under basal conditions, SMCs of coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium were depolarized by 10 mV. This depolarization was associated with 82% decreased level of cGMP without alteration in cAMP. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 μM) repolarized SMCs of the previously denuded coronary arteries. This repolarization was abolished by 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 μM) and not suppressed by glibenclamide (10 μM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 100 nM) and the combination of charybdotoxin (ChTX, 40 nM) plus apamin (100 nM). Four-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1-5 mM) generated spontaneous rhythmic activities only in coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium which were abolished by SNP. Nevertheless, 4-AP did not suppress the repolarization induced by SNP. In vascular segments with regenerated endothelium, contracted with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), relaxation to bradykinin (BK, 30 nM) was unaltered despite a reduced production of cGMP (−70%). Indomethacin (10 μM) plus Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, 30 μM) reduced relaxation (−12% and −35% for native and regenerated endothelium, respectively) but did not abolish it. The hyperpolarizations induced by BK were not altered by the presence of indomethacin and L-NA and were unchanged in segments with regenerated endothelium. These data are consistent with a contribution of impairment in NO production to the depolarization of SMCs. Nevertheless, EDHF responses to BK are sufficient to maintain a normal relaxation after angioplasty. PMID:12163348

  8. Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Muntingia calabura leaves: further elucidation of the possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Mohd Sani, Mohd Hijaz; Cheema, Manraj Singh; Kader, Arifah Abdul; Kek, Teh Lay; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2014-02-20

    Muntingia calabura (Elaecoparceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used, particularly, by the Peruvian people to alleviate headache and cold, pain associated with gastric ulcers or to reduce the prostate gland swelling. Following the recent establishment of antinociceptive activity of M. calabura leaf, the present study was performed to further elucidate on the possible mechanisms of antinociception involved. The methanol extract of M. calabura (MEMC) was prepared in the doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg. The role of bradykinin, protein kinase C, pottasium channels, and various opioid and non-opioid receptors in modulating the extract's antinociceptive activity was determined using several antinociceptive assays. Results are presented as Mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). The one-way ANOVA test with Dunnett's multiple comparison was used to analyze and compare the data, with P opioid receptors (namely 10 mg/kg β-funaltrexamine, 1 mg/kg naltrindole and 1 mg/kg nor-binaltorphimine), and the non-opioid receptor antagonists (namely 3 mg/kg caffeine (a non-selective adenosinergic receptor antagonist), 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine (an α2-noradrenergic antagonist), and 1 mg/kg pindolol (a β-adrenoceptor antagonist)) significantly (p opioid (particularly the μ-, δ- and κ-opioid) and non-opioid (particularly adenosinergic, α2-noradrenergic, and β-adrenergic) receptors, modulation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, and inhibition of bradikinin and protein kinase C actions. The discrepancies in MEMC antinociception could be due to the presence of various phytochemicals.

  9. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huart, Antoine; Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Neau, Eric; Delage, Christine; Calise, Denis; Ribes, David; Schanstra, Joost P.; Bascands, Jean-Loup

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra) with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a) in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However, bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors. PMID:25698969

  10. The landscape of copy number variations in Finnish families with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduri, Chakravarthi; Kantojärvi, Katri; Salo, Paula M; Vanhala, Raija; Buck, Gemma; Blancher, Christine; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Järvelä, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Rare de novo and inherited copy number variations (CNVs) have been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. However, the genetic underpinnings of ASD remain unknown in more than 80% of cases. Therefore, identification of novel candidate genes and corroboration of known candidate genes may broaden the horizons of determining genetic risk alleles, and subsequent development of diagnostic testing. Here, using genotyping arrays, we characterized the genetic architecture of rare CNVs (1 Mb) CNVs and rare, exonic CNVs. The exonic rare de novo CNV rate (∼22.5%) seemed higher compared to previous reports. We identified several CNVs in well-known ASD regions including GSTM1-5, DISC1, FHIT, RBFOX1, CHRNA7, 15q11.2, 15q13.2-q13.3, 17q12, and 22q11.21. Additionally, several novel candidate genes (BDKRB1, BDKRB2, AP2M1, SPTA1, PTH1R, CYP2E1, PLCD3, F2RL1, UQCRC2, LILRB3, RPS9, and COL11A2) were identified through gene prioritization. The majority of these genes belong to neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways, and calcium signaling pathways, thus suggesting that a subset of these novel candidate genes may contribute to ASD risk. Furthermore, several metabolic pathways like caffeine metabolism, drug metabolism, retinol metabolism, and calcium-signaling pathway were found to be affected by the rare exonic ASD CNVs. Additionally, biological processes such as bradykinin receptor activity, endoderm formation and development, and oxidoreductase activity were enriched among the rare exonic ASD CNVs. Overall, our findings may add data about new genes and pathways that contribute to the genetic architecture of ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Light-Emitting Diode Phototherapy Reduces Nocifensive Behavior Induced by Thermal and Chemical Noxious Stimuli in Mice: Evidence for the Involvement of Capsaicin-Sensitive Central Afferent Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatto, Glauce Regina; Coelho, Igor Santos; Aquino, Rosane Schenkel; Bauermann, Liliane Freitas; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2017-07-01

    Low-intensity phototherapy using light fonts, like light-emitting diode (LED), in the red to infrared spectrum is a promising alternative for the treatment of pain. However, the underlying mechanisms by which LED phototherapy reduces acute pain are not yet well understood. This study investigated the analgesic effect of multisource LED phototherapy on the acute nocifensive behavior of mice induced by thermal and chemical noxious stimuli. The involvement of central afferent C fibers sensitive to capsaicin in this effect was also investigated. Mice exposed to multisource LED (output power 234, 390, or 780 mW and power density 10.4, 17.3, and 34.6 mW/cm2, respectively, from 10 to 30 min of stimulation with a wavelength of 890 nm) showed rapid and significant reductions in formalin- and acetic acid-induced nocifensive behavior. This effect gradually reduced but remained significant for up to 7 h after LED treatment in the last model used. Moreover, LED (390 mW, 17.3 mW/cm2/20 min) irradiation also reduced nocifensive behavior in mice due to chemical [endogenous (i.e., glutamate, prostaglandins, and bradykinin) or exogenous (i.e., formalin, acetic acid, TRPs and ASIC agonist, and protein kinase A and C activators)] and thermal (hot plate test) stimuli. Finally, ablating central afferent C fibers abolished LED analgesia. These experimental results indicate that LED phototherapy reduces the acute painful behavior of animals caused by chemical and thermal stimuli and that LED analgesia depends on the integrity of central afferent C fibers sensitive to capsaicin. These findings provide new information regarding the underlying mechanism by which LED phototherapy reduces acute pain. Thus, LED phototherapy may be an important tool for the management of acute pain.

  12. Ensemble QSAR: a QSAR method based on conformational ensembles and metric descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Khedkar, Vijay M; Iyer, Radhakrishnan P; Coutinho, Evans C

    2011-07-30

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is the most versatile tool in computer-assisted molecular design. One conceptual drawback seen in QSAR approaches is the "one chemical-one structure-one parameter value" dogma where the model development is based on physicochemical description for a single molecular conformation, while ignoring the rest of the conformational space. It is well known that molecules have several low-energy conformations populated at physiological temperature, and each conformer makes a significant impact on associated properties such as biological activity. At the level of molecular interaction, the dynamics around the molecular structure is of prime essence rather than the average structure. As a step toward understanding the role of these discrete microscopic states in biological activity, we have put together a theoretically rigorous and computationally tractable formalism coined as eQSAR. In this approach, the biological activity is modeled as a function of physicochemical description for a selected set of low-energy conformers, rather than that's for a single lowest energy conformation. Eigenvalues derived from the "Physicochemical property integrated distance matrices" (PD-matrices) that encompass both 3D structure and physicochemical properties, have been used as descriptors; is a novel addition. eQSAR is validated on three peptide datasets and explicitly elaborated for bradykinin-potentiating peptides. The conformational ensembles were generated by a simple molecular dynamics and consensus dynamics approaches. The eQSAR models are statistically significant and possess the ability to select the most biologically relevant conformation(s) with the relevant physicochemical attributes that have the greatest meaning for description of the biological activity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Vasoinhibins regulate the inner and outer blood-retinal barrier and limit retinal oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eArredondo Zamarripa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins are prolactin fragments present in the retina, where they have been shown to prevent the hypervasopermeability associated with diabetes. Enhanced bradykinin (BK production contributes to the increased transport through the blood-retina barrier (BRB in diabetes. Here, we studied if vasoinhibins regulate BRB permeability by targeting the vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE components of this barrier. Intravitreal injection of BK in male rats increased BRB permeability. Vasoinhibins prevented this effect, as did the B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140. BK induced a transient decrease in mouse retinal and brain capillary endothelial monolayer resistance that was blocked by vasoinhibins. Both vasoinhibins and the nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, but not the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, blocked the transient decrease in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cell (BUVEC monolayer resistance induced by BK; this block was reversed by the NO donor DETANONOate. Vasoinhibins also prevented the BK-induced actin cytoskeleton redistribution, as did L-NAME. BK transiently decreased human RPE (ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, and this effect was blocked by vasoinhibins, L-NAME, and NAC. DETANONOate reverted the blocking effect of vasoinhibins. Similar to BK, the radical initiator Luperox induced a reduction in ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, which was prevented by vasoinhibins. These effects on RPE resistance coincided with actin cytoskeleton redistribution. Intravitreal injection of vasoinhibins reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, particularly in the RPE and capillary-containing layers. Thus, vasoinhibins reduce BRB permeability by targeting both its main inner and outer components through NO- and ROS-dependent pathways, offering potential treatment strategies against diabetic retinopathies.

  14. Effects of autacoid inhibitors and of an antagonist on malaria infection in mice

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    E.O. Iwalewa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of p-chlorophenylalanine, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, cyproheptadine, a serotonin, bradykinin and histamine antagonist, were assessed separately and in combination with chloroquine (CQ in Vom strains of Swiss albino mice (18-22 g of either sex infected intraperitoneally with 1 x 10(7 Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis-induced malaria. As prophylactic, these agents reduced from 31.9 ± 4.5 to 16.1 ± 8.1% the level of parasitemia relative to control but had no appreciable activity as curative agents when administered subcutaneously once daily for 4 days after 72 h of parasites innoculum in vivo. However, CQ alone and the combination of these agents with CQ in curative and prophylactic treatments significantly reduced (from 50.3 ± 5.8 to 4.9 ± 0.75% the level of parasitemia (P < 0.05, which was taken only once 72 h after the parasites innoculum. The prophylactic result was shown to produce better results than the curative treatment. The data indicate that inhibitors and an antagonist can reduce the parasitemia load (the extent of damage and the severity of infection as well as enhance the effects of CQ when combined with it for malaria therapy. The study reveals that the production of autacoids in established infection renders autacoid inhibitors and an antagonist ineffective for radical cure in malarial mice; however, selective inhibition of local hormones implicated in the pathological manifestations of malaria infection by autacoid inhibitors and an antagonist may be a possible pathway to reduce the severity of infection and the associated tissue damage and to enhance the efficacy of available anti-malarials.

  15. Role of central and peripheral chemoreceptors in vasopressin secretion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Michele; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Fiore, Giorgio; Licchelli, Brunella; Iovino, Emanuela; Triggiani, Vincenzo

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we analyzed the role played by central and peripheral chemoreceptors (CHRs) in vasopressin (AVP) secretion control. Central neural pathways subserving osmotic and non-osmotic control of AVP secretion are strictly correlated to brain areas participating in chemoreception mechanisms. Among the different brain areas involved in central chemoreception, the most important site has been localized in the retrotrapezoid nucleus of the rostral ventrolateral medulla. These central CHRs are able to detect very small pH/CO2 fluctuations, participating in brain blood flow regulation, acid-base balance and blood pressure control. Decreases in arterial pH and increases in arterial pCO2 stimulate AVP release by the Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei. Carotid CHRs transduce low arterial O2 tension into increased action potential activity, leading to bradycardia and coronary vasodilatation via vagal stimulation, and systemic vasoconstriction via catecholaminergic stimulation. Stimulation of carotid CHRs by hypoxia increases neurohypophyseal blood flow and AVP release, an effect inhibited by CHRs denervation. Two renal CHRs have been identified: Type R1 CHRs do not have a resting discharge but are activated by renal ischemia and hypotension; Type R2 CHRs have a resting discharge and respond to backflow of urine into the renal pelvis. Signals arising from renal CHRs modulate the activity of hypothalamic AVPergic neurons: activation of R1 and R2 CHRs, following increased intrapelvic pressure with solutions of mannitol, NaCl and KCl, produces a significant increase of AVP secretion and the same effect has been obtained by the intrarenal infusion of bradykinin, which excites afferent renal nerves, as well as by the electrical stimulation of these nerves.

  16. Low extracellular Ca2+ conditions induce an increase in brain endothelial permeability that involves intercellular Ca2+ waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Marijke; Culot, Maxime; Wang, Nan; da Costa, Anaelle; Decrock, Elke; Bol, Mélissa; Bultynck, Geert; Cecchelli, Romeo; Leybaert, Luc

    2012-12-03

    The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) is an important factor determining the permeability of endothelial barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, nothing is known concerning the effect of spatially propagated intercellular Ca(2+) waves (ICWs). The propagation of ICWs relies in large part on channels formed by connexins that are present in endothelia. We hypothesized that ICWs may result in a strong disturbance of endothelial function, because the [Ca(2+)](i) changes are coordinated and involve multiple cells. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of ICWs on endothelial permeability. ICW activity was triggered in immortalized and primary brain endothelial cells by lowering the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Low extracellular Ca(2+) increased the endothelial permeability and this was significantly suppressed by buffering [Ca(2+)](i) with BAPTA-AM, indicating a central role of [Ca(2+)](i) changes. The endothelial permeability increase was furthermore inhibited by the connexin channel blocking peptide Gap27, which also blocked the ICWs, and by inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and actomyosin contraction. We compared these observations with the [Ca(2+)](i) changes and permeability alterations provoked by the inflammatory agent bradykinin (BK), which triggers oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) changes without wave activity. BK-associated [Ca(2+)](i) changes and the endothelial permeability increase were significantly smaller than those associated with ICWs, and the permeability increase was not influenced by inhibition of PKC, CaMKII or actomyosin contraction. We conclude that ICWs significantly increase endothelial permeability and therefore, the connexins that underlie wave propagation form an interesting target to limit BBB alterations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Electrical Synapses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme Gln1069Arg mutation impairs trafficking to the cell surface resulting in selective denaturation of the C-domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei M Danilov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; Kininase II; CD143 hydrolyzes small peptides such as angiotensin I, bradykinin, substance P, LH-RH and several others and thus plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Complete absence of ACE in humans leads to renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD, a severe disorder of renal tubule development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patient with RTD in Lisbon, Portugal, maintained by peritoneal dialysis since birth, was found to have a homozygous substitution of Arg for Glu at position 1069 in the C-terminal domain of ACE (Q1069R resulting in absence of plasma ACE activity; both parents and a brother who are heterozygous carriers of this mutation had exactly half-normal plasma ACE activity compared to healthy individuals. We hypothesized that the Q1069R substitution impaired ACE trafficking to the cell surface and led to accumulation of catalytically inactive ACE in the cell cytoplasm. CHO cells expressing wild-type (WT vs. Q1069R-ACE demonstrated the mutant accumulates intracellularly and also that it is significantly degraded by intracellular proteases. Q1069R-ACE retained catalytic and immunological characteristics of WT-ACE N domain whereas it had 10-20% of the nativity of the WT-ACE C domain. A combination of chemical (sodium butyrate or pharmacological (ACE inhibitor chaperones with proteasome inhibitors (MG 132 or bortezomib significantly restored trafficking of Q1069R-ACE to the cell surface and increased ACE activity in the cell culture media 4-fold. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Homozygous Q1069R substitution results in an ACE trafficking and processing defect which can be rescued, at least in cell culture, by a combination of chaperones and proteasome inhibitors. Further studies are required to determine whether similar treatment of individuals with this ACE mutation would provide therapeutic benefits such as

  18. Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper) snake venom gland: toward a catalog for the full- length transcripts (cDNA) and proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; My-Pham, Van; Harrison, Jim; Garfield, Mark K.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2010-01-01

    The venom gland of the snake Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper) was used for the first time to construct a unidirectional cDNA phage library followed by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Hundreds of cDNAs were obtained and clustered into contigs. We found mostly novel full-length cDNA coding for metalloproteases (P-II and P-III classes), Lys49-phospholipase A2, serine proteases with essential mutations in the active site, Kunitz protease inhibitors, several C-type lectins, bradykinin-potentiating peptide, vascular endothelial growth factor, nucleotidases and nucleases, nerve growth factor, and L-amino acid oxidases. Two new members of the recently described short coding region family of disintegrin, displaying RGD and MLD motifs are reported. In addition, we have identified for the first time a cytokine-like molecule and a multi-Kunitz protease inhibitor in snake venoms. The CLUSTAL alignment and the unrooted cladograms for selected families of B. gabonica venom proteins are also presented. A significant number of sequences were devoid of database matches, suggesting that their biologic function remains to be identified. This paper also reports the N-terminus of the 15 most abundant venom proteins and the sequences matching their corresponding transcripts. The electronic version of this manuscript, available on request, contains spreadsheets with hyperlinks to FASTA-formatted files for each contig and the best match to the GenBank and Conserved Domain Databases, in addition to CLUSTAL alignments of each contig. We have thus generated a comprehensive catalog of the B. gabonica venom gland, containing for each secreted protein: i) the predicted molecular weight, ii) the predicted isoelectric point, iii) the accession number, and iv) the putative function. The role of these molecules is discussed in the context of the envenomation caused by the Gaboon viper. PMID:15276202

  19. Role of sensory nervous system vasoactive peptides in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Watson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present research was to elucidate the roles and mechanisms by which the sensory nervous system, through the actions of potent vasodilator neuropeptides, regulates cardiovascular function in both the normal state and in the pathophysiology of hypertension. The animal models of acquired hypertension studied were deoxycorticosterone-salt (DOC-salt, subtotal nephrectomy-salt (SN-salt, and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME-induced hypertension during pregnancy in rats. The genetic model was the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP are potent vasodilating neuropeptides. In the acquired models of hypertension, CGRP and SP play compensatory roles to buffer the blood pressure (BP increase. Their synthesis and release are increased in the DOC-salt model but not in the SN-salt model. This suggests that the mechanism by which both models lower BP in SN-salt rats is by increased vascular sensitivity. CGRP functions in a similar manner in the L-NAME model. In the SHR, synthesis of CGRP and SP is decreased. This could contribute to the BP elevation in this model. The CGRP gene knockout mouse has increased baseline mean arterial pressure. The long-term synthesis and release of CGRP is increased by nerve growth factor, bradykinin, and prostaglandins and is decreased by alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonists and glucocorticoids. In several animal models, sensory nervous system vasoactive peptides play a role in chronic BP elevation. In the acquired models, they play a compensatory role. In the genetic model, their decreased levels may contribute to the elevated BP. The roles of CGRP and SP in human hypertension are yet to be clarified.

  20. Selective potentiation of histamine H1-receptor stimulated calcium responses by 1,4-dithiothreitol in DDT1MF-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, J M; Hill, S J

    1994-11-01

    The effect of 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT) on agonist-stimulated increases in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been investigated in the smooth muscle cell line, DDT1MF-2, derived from hamster vas deferens. Pretreatment with DTT (1 mM) produced a large leftward parallel shift in concentration-response curve for histamine H1-receptor mediated increases in [Ca2+]i. The EC50 values for H1-receptor stimulated increases in [Ca2+]i in the absence and presence of DTT were 11.3 +/- 1.5 microM (N = 6) and 0.52 +/- 0.15 microM (N = 6), respectively. DTT had no significant effect on the maximum Ca2+ response elicited by histamine (100 microM). In the presence of DTT the partial H1-receptor agonist 2-pyridylethylamine (100 microM) increased [Ca2+]i from 112 +/- 14 nM to 237 +/- 24 nM (N = 10). In control cells 2-pyridylethylamine (100 microM) did not elicit a Ca2+ response. DTT had no significant effect on the maximum Ca2+ response elicited by 1 mM 2-pyridylethylamine. The enhancement of histamine H1-receptor Ca2+ responses by DTT was reversed by the sulphydryl oxidizing agent dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). DTT had no significant effect on adenosine A1-, bradykinin and ATP-receptor stimulated increases in [Ca2+]i. [3H]mepyramine binding experiments confirmed that DTT increased agonist affinity. DTT produced a small, but significant, leftward shift in concentration-response curve for histamine displacement of [3H]mepyramine binding. These data suggest that DTT potentiates H1-receptor mediated Ca2+ responses by increasing agonist affinity.

  1. Phospholipase C-η1 is activated by intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and enhances GPCRs/PLC/Ca(2+) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Choi, Jung Woong; Lim, Seyoung; Kwon, Ohman; Seo, Jeong Kon; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2011-06-01

    Phospholipase C-η1 (PLC-η1) is the most recently identified PLC isotype and is primarily expressed in nerve tissue. However, its functional role is unclear. In the present study, we report for the first time that PLC-η1 acts as a signal amplifier in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated PLC and Ca(2+) signaling. Short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endogenous PLC-η1 reduced lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-, bradykinin (BK)-, and PACAP-induced PLC activity in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A (N2A) cells, indicating that PLC-η1 participates in GPCR-mediated PLC activation. Interestingly, ionomycin-induced PLC activity was significantly decreased by PLC-η1, but not PLC-η2, knockdown. In addition, we found that intracellular Ca(2+) source is enough for PLC-η1 activation. Furthermore, the IP(3) receptor inhibitor, 2-APB, inhibited LPA-induced PLC activity in control N2A cells, whereas this effect was not observed in PLC-η1 knockdown N2A cells, suggesting a pivotal role of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in PLC-η1 activation. Finally, we found that LPA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and expression of the downstream target gene, krox-24, were significantly decreased by PLC-η1 knockdown, and these knockdown effects were abolished by 2-APB. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that PLC-η1 is activated via intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization from the ER, and therefore amplifies GPCR-mediated signaling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of sensory neuron excitability by serotonin involves 5HT2C receptors and Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Isabella; Gantumur, Enkhbileg; Yousuf, Arsalan; Boehm, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Serotonin (5HT) is a constituent of the so-called "inflammatory soup" that sensitizes nociceptors during inflammation. Nevertheless, receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate an excitation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by 5HT remained controversial. Therefore, capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive neurons dissociated from rat DRGs were used to investigate effects of 5HT on membrane excitability and currents through ligand- as well as voltage-gated ion channels. In 58% of the neurons tested, 5HT increased action potential firing, an effect that was abolished by the 5HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin, but not by the 5HT3 antagonist tropisetron. Unlike other algogenic mediators, such as PGE2 and bradykinin, 5HT did not affect currents through TTX-resistant Na(+) channels or Kv7 K(+) channels. In all neurons investigated, 5HT potentiated capsaicin-evoked currents through TRPV1 channels, an effect that was attenuated by antagonists at 5HT2A (4 F 4 PP), 5HT2B (SB 204741), as well as 5HT2C (RS 102221) receptors. 5HT triggered slowly arising inward Cl(-) currents in 53% of the neurons. This effect was antagonized by the 5HT2C receptor blocker only, and the current was prevented by an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels (CaCC). The 5HT-induced increase in action potential firing was also abolished by this CaCC blocker and by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine. Amongst the subtype selective 5HT2 antagonists, only RS 102221 (5HT2C-selectively) counteracted the rise in action potential firing elicited by 5HT. These results show that 5HT excites DRG neurons mainly via 5HT2C receptors which concomitantly mediate a sensitization of TRPV1 channels and an opening of CaCCs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation and desensitization of TRPV1 channels in sensory neurons by the PPARα agonist palmitoylethanolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, Paolo; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Russo, Claudio; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2013-03-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide displaying anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions. To investigate the molecular mechanism responsible for these effects, the ability of PEA and of pain-inducing stimuli such as capsaicin (CAP) or bradykinin (BK) to influence intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i)) in peripheral sensory neurons, has been assessed in the present study. The potential involvement of the transcription factor PPARα and of TRPV1 channels in PEA-induced effects was also studied. [Ca²⁺](i) was evaluated by single-cell microfluorimetry in differentiated F11 cells. Activation of TRPV1 channels was assessed by imaging and patch-clamp techniques in CHO cells transiently-transfected with rat TRPV1 cDNA. In F11 cells, PEA (1-30 μM) dose-dependently increased [Ca²⁺](i). The TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine (1 μM) and SB-366791 (1 μM), as well as the PPARα antagonist GW-6471 (10 μM), inhibited PEA-induced [Ca²⁺](i) increase; blockers of cannabinoid receptors were ineffective. PEA activated TRPV1 channels heterologously expressed in CHO cells; this effect appeared to be mediated at least in part by PPARα. When compared with CAP, PEA showed similar potency and lower efficacy, and caused stronger TRPV1 currents desensitization. Sub-effective PEA concentrations, closer to those found in vivo, counteracted CAP- and BK-induced [Ca²⁺](i) transients, as well as CAP-induced TRPV1 activation. Activation of PPARα and TRPV1 channels, rather than of cannabinoid receptors, largely mediate PEA-induced [Ca²⁺](i) transients in sensory neurons. Differential TRPV1 activation and desensitization by CAP and PEA might contribute to their distinct pharmacological profile, possibly translating into potentially relevant clinical differences. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Redox-Dependent Modulation of T-Type Ca(2+) Channels in Sensory Neurons Contributes to Acute Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongyang; Huang, Sha; Gao, Haixia; Liu, Yani; Qi, Jinlong; Chen, Pingping; Wang, Caixue; Scragg, Jason L; Vakurov, Alexander; Peers, Chris; Du, Xiaona; Zhang, Hailin; Gamper, Nikita

    2016-08-10

    Neuropeptide substance P (SP) is produced and released by a subset of peripheral sensory neurons that respond to tissue damage (nociceptors). SP exerts excitatory effects in the central nervous system, but peripheral SP actions are still poorly understood; therefore, here, we aimed at investigating these peripheral mechanisms. SP acutely inhibited T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in nociceptors. The effect was mediated by neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-induced stimulation of intracellular release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as it can be prevented or reversed by the reducing agent dithiothreitol and mimicked by exogenous or endogenous ROS. This redox-mediated T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibition operated through the modulation of CaV3.2 channel sensitivity to ambient zinc, as it can be prevented or reversed by zinc chelation and mimicked by exogenous zinc. Elimination of the zinc-binding site in CaV3.2 rendered the channel insensitive to SP-mediated inhibition. Importantly, peripherally applied SP significantly reduced bradykinin-induced nociception in rats in vivo; knock-down of CaV3.2 significantly reduced this anti-nociceptive effect. This atypical signaling cascade shared the initial steps with the SP-mediated augmentation of M-type K(+) channels described earlier. Our study established a mechanism underlying the peripheral anti-nociceptive effect of SP whereby this neuropeptide produces ROS-dependent inhibition of pro-algesic T-type Ca(2+) current and concurrent enhancement of anti-algesic M-type K(+) current. These findings will lead to a better understanding of mechanisms of endogenous analgesia. SP modulates T-type channel activity in nociceptors by a redox-dependent tuning of channel sensitivity to zinc; this novel modulatory pathway contributes to the peripheral anti-nociceptive effect of SP. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 233-251.

  5. Hereditary angioedema: Assessing the hypothesis for underlying autonomic dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena A Wu

    Full Text Available Attacks of Hereditary Angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAEare often triggered by stressful events/hormonal changes.Our study evaluates the relationship between autonomic nervous system (ANS and contact/complement system activation.Twenty-three HAE patients (6 males, mean age 47.5±11.4 years during remission and 24 healthy controls (8 males, mean age 45.3±10.6 years were studied. ECG, beat-by-beat blood pressure, respiratory activity were continuously recorded during rest (10' and 75-degrees-head-up tilt (10'. C1-INH, C4, cleaved high molecular weight kininogen (cHK were assessed; in 16 patients and 11 controls plasma catecholamines were also evaluated. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability allowed extraction of low-(LF and high-(HF frequency components, markers of sympathetic and vagal modulation respectively.HAE patients showed higher mean systolic arterial pressure (SAP than controls during both rest and tilt. Tilt induced a significant increase in SAP and its variability only in controls. Although sympathetic modulation (LFnu increased significantly with tilt in both groups, LF/HF ratio, index of sympathovagal balance, increased significantly only in controls. At rest HAE patients showed higher noradrenaline values (301.4±132.9 pg/ml vs 210.5±89.6pg/ml, p = 0.05. Moreover, in patients tilt was associated with a significant increase in cHK, marker of contact system activation (49.5 ± 7.5% after T vs 47.1 ± 7.8% at R, p = 0.01.Our data are consistent with altered ANS modulation in HAE patients, i.e. increased sympathetic activation at rest and blunted response to orthostatic challenge. Tilt test-induced increased HK cleavage suggests a link between stress and bradykinin production.

  6. Pruritus in selected dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olek-Hrab, K; Hrab, M; Szyfter-Harris, J; Adamski, Z

    2016-09-01

    Pruritus is a natural defence mechanism of the body and creates the scratch reflex as a defensive reaction to potentially dangerous environmental factors. Together with pain, pruritus is a type of superficial sensory experience. Pruritus is a symptom often experienced both in healthy subjects and in those who have symptoms of a disease. In dermatology, pruritus is a frequent symptom associated with a number of dermatoses and is sometimes an auxiliary factor in the diagnostic process. Apart from histamine, the most popular pruritus mediators include tryptase, endothelins, substance P, bradykinin, prostaglandins and acetylcholine. The group of atopic diseases is characterized by the presence of very persistent pruritus. It is found in almost all patients with atopic dermatitis or urticaria. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is another group of pruritic diseases where the symptom of pruritus develops at an early stage and becomes intensified as the disease progresses. Other dermatoses include psoriasis, parasitic diseases and also systemic diseases in which pruritus is often the first and the only symptom suggesting an internal health problem. Cases of pruritus in healthy subjects, possibly associated with skin dryness or pregnancy in women, have also been reported. This paper presents mechanisms responsible for pruritus and the most important dermatoses in which this symptom is found. Treatment of pruritic dermatoses is difficult and always requires an interdisciplinary approach. Not all dermatoses can be successfully treated with antihistamine drugs, particularly if patients suffer from cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, liver or kidney diseases. For this reason, the problem of pruritus is the focus of attention of many scientists, and the subject of interdisciplinary studies.

  7. Antinociceptive Activity of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Aggregatin D Isolated from Sinningia aggregata Tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Geórgea V.; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L.; Frois, Gisele R. A.; Ribas, João L. C.; Verdan, Maria H.; Kassuya, Cândida A. L.; Stefanello, Maria E.; Zampronio, Aleksander R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs. PMID:25719394

  8. [A memoir of my research on pain and analgesia for 39 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    This review describes my research for the past 39 years regarding the pharmacology of pain and analgesia. We have demonstrated that the descending noradrenergic system is involved in the analgesic effect of morphine injected into the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis, and that noradrenaline exerts antinociception mediated by α-adrenoceptors. We have found that noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli to the skin increase the release of substance P and somatostatin, respectively, from the dorsal horn in situ, and that noradrenaline inhibits the release of substance P and glutamate from primary afferents. We developed an animal model of cancer pain using melanoma cells. We have shown that the suppression of cancer pain results in the inhibition of tumor growth and lung metastasis, and that melanoma cells release several algogenic substances including ATP, endothelin-1, and bradykinin. We investigated neuropathic allodynia induced by the chemotherapeutic drugs paciltaxel, oxaliplatin, vincristine, and bortezomib. Single administration of these drugs caused allodynia with similar time-courses. However, antiallodynic actions of adjuvant analgesics, including gabapentin and limaprost, were dependent on the chemotherapeutic drugs used. Limaprost experiments have revealed that a decrease in peripheral blood flow is involved in allodynia exacerbation after the administration of paciltaxel and oxaliplatin. We have developed animal models of herpetic pain and postherpetic neuralgia using herpes simplex virus 1. We have demonstrated that nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and galectin-3 are involved in herpetic allodynia, that risk factors associated with postherpetic allodynia include severe herpetic pain, nociceptin, and major histocompatibility complex, and that deafferentation and nitric oxide are involved in postherpetic allodynia.

  9. Activated central galanin type 1 receptor alleviated insulin resistance in diabetic rat muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Le; Chang, Xusheng; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Yao, Qian; Su, Bin; Sheng, Chunjun; Qu, Shen

    2016-10-01

    Evidence indicates that central galanin is involved in regulation of insulin resistance in animals. This study investigates whether type 1 galanin receptor (GAL1) in the brain mediates the ameliorative effect of galanin on insulin resistance in skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic rats. Rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with galanin(1-13)-bradykinin(2-9) amide (M617), a GAL1 agonist, and/or Akti-1/2, an Akt inhibitor, via caudal veins once per day for 10 days. Insulin resistance in muscle tissues was evaluated by glucose tolerance and 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) tests, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression levels, Akt phosphorylation, and GLUT4 and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) concentration at plasma membranes in muscle cells. The results show that i.c.v. treatment with M617 increased glucose tolerance, 2-NBDG uptake, PPARγ levels, Akt phosphorylation, GLUT4 protein, and GLUT4 mRNA expression levels as well as GLUT4 and VAMP2 concentration at plasma membranes. All increases may be blocked by pretreatment with Akti-1/2. These results suggest that activated central GAL1 may trigger the Akt signaling pathway to alleviate insulin resistance in muscle cells. Therefore, the impact of galanin on insulin resistance is mediated mainly by GAL1 in the brain, and the GAL1 agonist may be taken as a potential antidiabetic agent for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Role of prostaglandin/cAMP pathway in the diuretic and hypotensive effects of purified fraction of Maytenus ilicifolia Mart ex Reissek (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Thiago dos Santos Vilhena; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Gasparotto, Francielly Mourão; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Gasparotto, Arquimedes

    2013-10-28

    Although Maytenus ilicifolia is used in Brazilian folk medicine as a diuretic drug, no study has been conducted to this date in order to evaluate this ethnopharmacological statement. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate possible mechanisms involved in acute diuretic activity of the ethanolic supernatant of the infusion (SEI) obtained from Maytenus ilicifolia and to assess its relationship with a hypotensive activity by a bioassay-guided fractionation using normotensive Wistar rats. The preparation obtained from the infusion (SEI) and their respective fractions (Fr·H2O and Fr·EtOAc) were orally administered in a single dose to rats. The urine excretion rate, pH, density, conductivity and content of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and HCO3(-) were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. Samples of the concentration of electrolytes, urea, creatinine, aldosterone, vasopressin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were evaluated in collected serum. The hypotensive activity and the involvement of nitric oxide, bradykinin and prostaglandin/cAMP pathway in the hypotensive and diuretic effects were also determined. Water and Na(+) excretion rate were significantly increased by Fr·EtOAc and the arterial pressure was significantly reduced, while the urinary excretion of potassium and chloride were reduced. Pre-treatment with indomethacin or DDA (2',5'-dideoxyadenosine) significantly reduced the hypotensive and diuretic activity observed. All other parameters evaluated were not affected by any treatment. The present study reveals that Fr·EtOAc obtained from Maytenus ilicifolia may present compounds responsible for diuretic and hypotensive activities, and this effect, could involve the prostaglandin/cAMP pathway. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antinociceptive effect of a novel tosylpyrazole compound in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Gewehr, Camila; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Cechinel, Cleber A; Wentz, Alexandre; Lourega, Rogério V; Sehnem, Ronan C; Zanatta, Nilo; Martins, Marcos A P; Rubin, Maribel A; Bonacorso, Helio G; Ferreira, Juliano

    2009-02-01

    Pain is the most common complaint in the medical field and the identification of compounds that can effectively treat painful states without induction of side-effects remains a major challenge in biomedical research. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive effect of a novel compound, 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-1-tosylpyrazole (compound A) in several models of pain in mice and compare with those produced by the known trifluoromethyl-containing pyrazole compound celecoxib. Compound A or celecoxib were administrated by oral (78-780 micromol/kg), intrathecal (9-22.5 nmol/site) or intracerebroventricular (9-22.5 nmol/site) routes. Oral administration of either compound A or celecoxib abolished the mechanical allodynia, but not the oedema caused by intraplantar injection of carrageenan. Similarly, compound A reduced the overt nociception, but not the oedema, produced by bradykinin or capsaicin. However, compound A (500 micromol/kg, orally) did not alter nociception nor oedema caused by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E(2 )or glutamate, whereas celecoxib reduced only the nociception induced by the former. Moreover, oral and intrathecal administration of compound A or celecoxib also reduced the nociception induced by acetic acid. However, only celecoxib reduced the acetic acid-induced nociception when it was injected by the intracerebroventricular route. Finally, neither compound A nor celecoxib was able to produce antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick test or to alter the motor performance and the body temperature. Besides, compound A or celecoxib did not induce gastric lesion. Thus, compound A seems to be an interesting prototype for the development of novel analgesic drugs.

  12. Brain network alterations in the inflammatory soup animal model of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Lino; Bishop, James; Barmettler, Gabi; Kainz, Vanessa; Burstein, Rami; Borsook, David

    2017-04-01

    Advances in our understanding of the human pain experience have shifted much of the focus of pain research from the periphery to the brain. Current hypotheses suggest that the progression of migraine depends on abnormal functioning of neurons in multiple brain regions. Accordingly, we sought to capture functional brain changes induced by the application of an inflammatory cocktail known as inflammatory soup (IS), to the dura mater across multiple brain networks. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether IS alters additional neural networks indirectly related to the primary nociceptive pathways via the spinal cord to the thalamus and cortex. IS comprises an acidic combination of bradykinin, serotonin, histamine and prostaglandin PGE2 and was introduced to basic pain research as a tool to activate and sensitize peripheral nociceptors when studying pathological pain conditions associated with allodynia and hyperalgesia. Using this model of intracranial pain, we found that dural application of IS in awake, fully conscious, rats enhanced thalamic, hypothalamic, hippocampal and somatosensory cortex responses to mechanical stimulation of the face (compared to sham synthetic interstitial fluid administration). Furthermore, resting state MRI data revealed altered functional connectivity in a number of networks previously identified in clinical chronic pain populations. These included the default mode, sensorimotor, interoceptive (Salience) and autonomic networks. The findings suggest that activation and sensitization of meningeal nociceptors by IS can enhance the extent to which the brain processes nociceptive signaling, define new level of modulation of affective and cognitive responses to pain; set new tone for hypothalamic regulation of autonomic outflow to the cranium; and change cerebellar functions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Multiple roles for NaV1.9 in the activation of visceral afferents by noxious inflammatory, mechanical, and human disease–derived stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, James R.F.; Boundouki, George; Cibert-Goton, Vincent; McGuire, Cian; Yip, Ping K.; Chan, Christopher; Tranter, Michael; Wood, John N.; Nassar, Mohammed A.; Blackshaw, L. Ashley; Aziz, Qasim; Michael, Gregory J.; Baker, Mark D.; Winchester, Wendy J.; Knowles, Charles H.; Bulmer, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic visceral pain affects millions of individuals worldwide and remains poorly understood, with current therapeutic options constrained by gastrointestinal adverse effects. Visceral pain is strongly associated with inflammation and distension of the gut. Here we report that the voltage-gated sodium channel subtype NaV1.9 is expressed in half of gut-projecting rodent dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons. We show that NaV1.9 is required for normal mechanosensation, for direct excitation and for sensitization of mouse colonic afferents by mediators from inflammatory bowel disease tissues, and by noxious inflammatory mediators individually. Excitatory responses to ATP or PGE2 were substantially reduced in NaV1.9−/− mice. Deletion of NaV1.9 substantially attenuates excitation and subsequent mechanical hypersensitivity after application of inflammatory soup (IS) (bradykinin, ATP, histamine, PGE2, and 5HT) to visceral nociceptors located in the serosa and mesentery. Responses to mechanical stimulation of mesenteric afferents were also reduced by loss of NaV1.9, and there was a rightward shift in stimulus–response function to ramp colonic distension. By contrast, responses to rapid, high-intensity phasic distension of the colon are initially unaffected; however, run-down of responses to repeat phasic distension were exacerbated in NaV1.9−/− afferents. Finally colonic afferent activation by supernatants derived from inflamed human tissue was greatly reduced in NaV1.9−/− mice. These results demonstrate that NaV1.9 is required for persistence of responses to intense mechanical stimulation, contributes to inflammatory mechanical hypersensitivity, and is essential for activation by noxious inflammatory mediators, including those from diseased human bowel. These observations indicate that NaV1.9 represents a high-value target for development of visceral analgesics. PMID:24972070

  14. Multiple roles for NaV1.9 in the activation of visceral afferents by noxious inflammatory, mechanical, and human disease-derived stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, James R F; Boundouki, George; Cibert-Goton, Vincent; McGuire, Cian; Yip, Ping K; Chan, Christopher; Tranter, Michael; Wood, John N; Nassar, Mohammed A; Blackshaw, L Ashley; Aziz, Qasim; Michael, Gregory J; Baker, Mark D; Winchester, Wendy J; Knowles, Charles H; Bulmer, David C

    2014-10-01

    Chronic visceral pain affects millions of individuals worldwide and remains poorly understood, with current therapeutic options constrained by gastrointestinal adverse effects. Visceral pain is strongly associated with inflammation and distension of the gut. Here we report that the voltage-gated sodium channel subtype NaV1.9 is expressed in half of gut-projecting rodent dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons. We show that NaV1.9 is required for normal mechanosensation, for direct excitation and for sensitization of mouse colonic afferents by mediators from inflammatory bowel disease tissues, and by noxious inflammatory mediators individually. Excitatory responses to ATP or PGE2 were substantially reduced in NaV1.9(-/-) mice. Deletion of NaV1.9 substantially attenuates excitation and subsequent mechanical hypersensitivity after application of inflammatory soup (IS) (bradykinin, ATP, histamine, PGE2, and 5HT) to visceral nociceptors located in the serosa and mesentery. Responses to mechanical stimulation of mesenteric afferents were also reduced by loss of NaV1.9, and there was a rightward shift in stimulus-response function to ramp colonic distension. By contrast, responses to rapid, high-intensity phasic distension of the colon are initially unaffected; however, run-down of responses to repeat phasic distension were exacerbated in NaV1.9(-/-) afferents. Finally colonic afferent activation by supernatants derived from inflamed human tissue was greatly reduced in NaV1.9(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that NaV1.9 is required for persistence of responses to intense mechanical stimulation, contributes to inflammatory mechanical hypersensitivity, and is essential for activation by noxious inflammatory mediators, including those from diseased human bowel. These observations indicate that NaV1.9 represents a high-value target for development of visceral analgesics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inflammatory mediators increase Nav1.9 current and excitability in nociceptors through a coincident detection mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingret, François; Coste, Bertrand; Padilla, Françoise; Clerc, Nadine; Crest, Marcel; Korogod, Sergiy M; Delmas, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    Altered function of Na+ channels is responsible for increased hyperexcitability of primary afferent neurons that may underlie pathological pain states. Recent evidence suggests that the Nav1.9 subunit is implicated in inflammatory but not acute pain. However, the contribution of Nav1.9 channels to the cellular events underlying nociceptor hyperexcitability is still unknown, and there remains much uncertainty as to the biophysical properties of Nav1.9 current and its modulation by inflammatory mediators. Here, we use gene targeting strategy and computer modeling to identify Nav1.9 channel current signature and its impact on nociceptors' firing patterns. Recordings using internal fluoride in small DRG neurons from wild-type and Nav1.9-null mutant mice demonstrated that Nav1.9 subunits carry the TTX-resistant "persistent" Na+ current called NaN. Nav1.9(-/-) nociceptors showed no significant change in the properties of the slowly inactivating TTX-resistant SNS/Nav1.8 current. The loss in Nav1.9-mediated Na+ currents was associated with the inability of small DRG neurons to generate a large variety of electrophysiological behaviors, including subthreshold regenerative depolarizations, plateau potentials, active hyperpolarizing responses, oscillatory bursting discharges, and bistable membrane behaviors. We further investigated, using CsCl- and KCl-based pipette solutions, whether G-protein signaling pathways and inflammatory mediators upregulate the NaN/Nav1.9 current. Bradykinin, ATP, histamine, prostaglandin-E2, and norepinephrine, applied separately at maximal concentrations, all failed to modulate the Nav1.9 current. However, when applied conjointly as a soup of inflammatory mediators they rapidly potentiated Nav1.9 channel activity, generating subthreshold amplification and increased excitability. We conclude that Nav1.9 channel, the molecular correlate of the NaN current, is potentiated by the concerted action of inflammatory mediators that may contribute to

  16. Temperature dependence of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolemma in the ventricle of catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sabry Abu-Amra

    2015-10-01

    The sarcolemmal Ca2+ contribution of activator Ca2+ was greater at a test temperature of 30 °C as assessed by verapamil. Whereas the SR-Ca2+ contribution was higher at 20 and 30 °C and a frequency rate of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz as assessed by caffeine and adrenaline, respectively. Bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF7 which was isolated from jelly fish (Cassiopea andromeda decreased the cardiac force developed at a frequency rate of 0.2 Hz and a temperature of 20 °C, whereas it increased the force developed at frequency rates of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz at 30 °C. These results indicate that BPF7 may act like verapamil in reducing the cardiac force through blocking the sarcolemmal Ca2+ channels at low temperature and like adrenaline in an increase of the cardiac force developed at warm temperature and the high frequency rate through stimulation of SR-Ca2+ activator. Therefore, this study indicates that the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx and the SR-Ca2+ release contributors of activator Ca2+ for cardiac force development in the catfish heart were significantly greater at warm temperature and at the pacing frequency rates of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz as assessed by verapamil, adrenaline, caffeine and BPF7. However, the relative contribution of the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx in the development of cardiac force in the catfish heart was greater than that of SR-Ca2+ release.

  17. Sustained release nitrite therapy results in myocardial protection in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome with peripheral vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jessica M; Islam, Kazi N; Polhemus, David J; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brewster, Luke P; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Goodchild, Traci T; Lefer, David J

    2015-07-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) reduces endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and exacerbates vascular dysfunction in patients with preexisting vascular diseases. Nitrite, a storage form of NO, can mediate vascular function during pathological conditions when endogenous NO is reduced. The aims of the present study were to characterize the effects of severe MetS and obesity on dyslipidemia, myocardial oxidative stress, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) regulation in the obese Ossabaw swine (OS) model and to examine the effects of a novel, sustained-release formulation of sodium nitrite (SR-nitrite) on coronary vascular reactivity and myocardial redox status in obese OS subjected to critical limb ischemia (CLI). After 6 mo of an atherogenic diet, obese OS displayed a MetS phenotype. Obese OS had decreased eNOS functionality and NO bioavailability. In addition, obese OS exhibited increased oxidative stress and a significant reduction in antioxidant enzymes. The efficacy of SR-nitrite therapy was examined in obese OS subjected to CLI. After 3 wk of treatment, SR-nitrite (80 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1) bid po) increased myocardial nitrite levels and eNOS function. Treatment with SR-nitrite reduced myocardial oxidative stress while increasing myocardial antioxidant capacity. Ex vivo assessment of vascular reactivity of left anterior descending coronary artery segments demonstrated marked improvement in vasoreactivity to sodium nitroprusside but not to substance P and bradykinin in SR-nitrite-treated animals compared with placebo-treated animals. In conclusion, in a clinically relevant, large-animal model of MetS and CLI, treatment with SR-nitrite enhanced myocardial NO bioavailability, attenuated oxidative stress, and improved ex vivo coronary artery vasorelaxation.

  18. Emerging Role for TNF-α in Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Fernando S.; Webb, Robert Clinton; Tostes, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A role for cytokines in the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction (ED) has emerged. Cytokines induce genes that synthesize other peptides in the cytokine family and several mediators, such as prostanoids, leukotrienes, nitric oxide, bradykinin, reactive oxygen species, and platelet-activating factor, all of which can affect vascular function. Consistent with the fact that the cavernosal tissue is a complex extension of the vasculature, risk factors that affect the vasculature have been shown to affect cavernosal function as well. Accordingly, the penile tissue has been recognized as an early sentinel for atherosclerosis that underlies coronary artery disease and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Aim To review the literature pertaining to the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in ED. Methods PubMed search for pertinent publications on the role of cytokines, particularly TNF-α, in CVD and ED. Main Outcome Measures Clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that TNF-α may play a role in ED. Results TNF-α has been shown to play an important role in CVD, mainly due to its direct effects on the vasculature. In addition, high levels of TNF-α were demonstrated in patients with ED. In this review, we present a short description of the physiology of erection and the cytokine network. We focus on vascular actions of TNF-α that support a role for this cytokine as a potential candidate in the pathophysiology of ED, particularly in the context of CVD. A brief overview of its discovery, mechanisms of synthesis, receptors, and its main actions on the systemic and penile vasculature is also presented. Conclusions Considering that ED results from a systemic arterial defect not only confined to the penile vasculature, implication of TNF-α in the pathophysiology of ED offers a humoral linking between CVD and ED. PMID:20345734

  19. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2008.

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    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T

    2009-02-01

    We reviewed selected reports in the field of basic and clinical immunology published in 2008. Research progress in the immunologic mechanisms of allergic disease included the modulation of T(H)2 responses by specific transcription factors and receptors associated with the innate immunity, underscoring the importance of the interactions between adaptive and innate immune mechanisms. Investigations of the pathophysiology of hereditary angioedema included a variety of host factors with roles in bradykinin metabolism and vasomotor activity, explaining the variable severity of the clinical presentation. The research focus in HIV infection has shifted from control of disease progression to the barriers for viral eradication, and the search for vaccine designs that provide immunity in the short window between infection and establishment of viral reservoirs. HIV-infected individuals who receive antiviral treatment develop a high incidence of asthma, resembling the inflammatory processes associated with immunoreconstitution. The correlation of molecular diagnosis and clinical presentation was analyzed in 4 relatively rare primary immunodeficiencies: hyper-IgE syndrome; immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked disease; cartilage-hair hypoplasia; and nuclear factor-kappaB essential modulator deficiency. Studies of patients with partial DiGeorge syndrome and chronic granulomatous disease unveiled subclinical deficiencies that might have an impact in their care. Long-term outcomes from patients with severe combined immunodeficiency who received bone marrow transplants were considered successful compared with the alternative of no intervention. However, the occurrence of adverse events reinforces the need for coordinate efforts to develop optimal protocols for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe immune defects.

  20. Hormonal therapy with estradiol and drospirenone improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the coronary bed of ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgo, M.V.; Claudio, E.R.G.; Silva, F.B.; Romero, W.G.; Gouvea, S.A.; Moysés, M.R.; Santos, R.L.; Almeida, S.A. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Podratz, P.L.; Graceli, J.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Abreu, G.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2015-11-17

    Drospirenone (DRSP) is a progestin with anti-aldosterone properties and it reduces blood pressure in hypertensive women. However, the effects of DRSP on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation have not been evaluated. This study investigated the effects of combined therapy with estrogen (E2) and DRSP on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the coronary bed of ovariectomized (OVX) spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=87) at 12 weeks of age were randomly divided into sham operated (Sham), OVX, OVX treated with E2 (E2), and OVX treated with E2 and DRSP (E2+DRSP) groups. Hemodynamic parameters were directly evaluated by catheter insertion into the femoral artery. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to bradykinin in the coronary arterial bed was assessed using isolated hearts according to a modified Langendorff method. Coronary protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) was assessed by Western blotting. Histological slices of coronary arteries were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and morphometric parameters were analyzed. Oxidative stress was assessed in situ by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Ovariectomy increased systolic blood pressure, which was only prevented by E2+DRSP treatment. Estrogen deficiency caused endothelial dysfunction, which was prevented by both treatments. However, the vasodilator response in the E2+DRSP group was significantly higher at the three highest concentrations compared with the OVX group. Reduced ER-α expression in OVX rats was restored by both treatments. Morphometric parameters and oxidative stress were augmented by OVX and reduced by E2 and E2+DRSP treatments. Hormonal therapy with E2 and DRSP may be an important therapeutic option in the prevention of coronary heart disease in hypertensive post-menopausal women.

  1. Integrative Metabolic Signatures for Hepatic Radiation Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Jack Kurland

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD is a dose-limiting factor in curative radiation therapy (RT for liver cancers, making early detection of radiation-associated liver injury absolutely essential for medical intervention. A metabolomic approach was used to determine metabolic signatures that could serve as biomarkers for early detection of RILD in mice.Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice received 0, 10 or 50 Gy Whole Liver Irradiation (WLI and were contrasted to mice, which received 10 Gy whole body irradiation (WBI. Liver and plasma samples were collected at 24 hours after irradiation. The samples were processed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.Twenty four hours after WLI, 407 metabolites were detected in liver samples while 347 metabolites were detected in plasma. Plasma metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included several amino acids, purine and pyrimidine metabolites, microbial metabolites, and most prominently bradykinin and 3-indoxyl-sulfate. Liver metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included pentose phosphate, purine, and pyrimidine metabolites in liver. Plasma biomarkers in common between WLI and WBI were enriched in microbial metabolites such as 3 indoxyl sulfate, indole-3-lactic acid, phenyllactic acid, pipecolic acid, hippuric acid, and markers of DNA damage such as 2-deoxyuridine. Metabolites associated with tryptophan and indoles may reflect radiation-induced gut microbiome effects. Predominant liver biomarkers in common between WBI and WLI were amino acids, sugars, TCA metabolites (fumarate, fatty acids (lineolate, n-hexadecanoic acid and DNA damage markers (uridine.We identified a set of metabolomic markers that may prove useful as plasma biomarkers of RILD and WBI. Pathway analysis also suggested that the unique metabolic changes observed after liver irradiation was an integrative response of the intestine, liver and kidney.

  2. Microdroplet fusion mass spectrometry for fast reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kyoo; Kim, Samuel; Nam, Hong Gil; Zare, Richard N

    2015-03-31

    We investigated the fusion of high-speed liquid droplets as a way to record the kinetics of liquid-phase chemical reactions on the order of microseconds. Two streams of micrometer-size droplets collide with one another. The droplets that fused (13 μm in diameter) at the intersection of the two streams entered the heated capillary inlet of a mass spectrometer. The mass spectrum was recorded as a function of the distance x between the mass spectrometer inlet and the droplet fusion center. Fused droplet trajectories were imaged with a high-speed camera, revealing that the droplet fusion occurred approximately within a 500-μm radius from the droplet fusion center and both the size and the speed of the fused droplets remained relatively constant as they traveled from the droplet fusion center to the mass spectrometer inlet. Evidence is presented that the reaction effectively stops upon entering the heated inlet of the mass spectrometer. Thus, the reaction time was proportional to x and could be measured and manipulated by controlling the distance x. Kinetic studies were carried out in fused water droplets for acid-induced unfolding of cytochrome c and hydrogen-deuterium exchange in bradykinin. The kinetics of the former revealed the slowing of the unfolding rates at the early stage of the reaction within 50 μs. The hydrogen-deuterium exchange revealed the existence of two distinct populations with fast and slow exchange rates. These studies demonstrated the power of this technique to detect reaction intermediates in fused liquid droplets with microsecond temporal resolution.

  3. Acute dilatation to phytoestrogens and estrogen receptor subtypes expression in small arteries from women with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria Natalia; Agewall, Stefan; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin; Kublickiene, Karolina

    2008-01-01

    We tested if endothelial function and estrogen receptor (ER) expression differs between resistance arteries in subcutaneous circulation from postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease (CHD, congruent with 1 year after myocardial infarction, n=12) and aged matched controls (n=14); and if acute effects of phytoestrogens (genistein, resveratrol) could be of relevance for vascular protection. We utilized ex vivo small artery ( congruent with 350 microm) bioassays and found no difference in bradykinin (BK)-mediated dilatation between the groups. One-hour incubation with phytoestrogens (natural ER beta agonists), propyl-pyrazole-triol-trisphenol (PPT-selective ER alpha agonist) and 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)-ER alpha/beta agonist) at 0.01 microM/L had no effect on BK-induced responses. Concentration-response curves (0.01-30 microM/L) to investigated compounds were also obtained and compared in separate arteries. We found that dilatation to phytoestrogens was enhanced in CHD if compared to controls (p<0.05), while responses to 17beta-E(2) remained similar. The dilatation to phytoestrogens was also higher if compared to 17beta-E(2) (p<0.05) in CHD. In controls, only responses to PPT, but not to phytoestrogens, were enhanced in comparison to 17beta-E(2) (p<0.05). Inhibition of NO synthase had no effect on dilatation induced by increasing concentrations of investigated compounds. ER beta expression was enhanced in the vascular wall from CHD women, while ER alpha predominated in the controls (p<0.05). We suggest that diet supplementation by phytoestrogens may provide cardiovascular benefit for postmenopausal women with CHD. The selective targeting of one of the ER subtype may have implications for women's cardiovascular health.

  4. Vivo-morpholinos induced transient knockdown of physical activity related proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Ferguson

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with disease prevention and overall wellbeing. Additionally there has been evidence that physical activity level is a result of genetic influence. However, there has not been a reliable method to silence candidate genes in vivo to determine causal mechanisms of physical activity regulation. Vivo-morpholinos are a potential method to transiently silence specific genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to validate the use of Vivo-morpholinos in a mouse model for voluntary physical activity with several sub-objectives. We observed that Vivo-morpholinos achieved between 60-97% knockdown of Drd1-, Vmat2-, and Glut4-protein in skeletal muscle, the delivery moiety of Vivo-morpholinos (scramble did not influence physical activity and that a cocktail of multiple Vivo-morpholinos can be given in a single treatment to achieve protein knockdown of two different targeted proteins in skeletal muscle simultaneously. Knocking down Drd1, Vmat2, or Glut4 protein in skeletal muscle did not affect physical activity. Vivo-morpholinos injected intravenously alone did not significantly knockdown Vmat2-protein expression in the brain (p = 0.28. However, the use of a bradykinin analog to increase blood-brain-barrier permeability in conjunction with the Vivo-morpholinos significantly (p = 0.0001 decreased Vmat2-protein in the brain with a corresponding later over-expression of Vmat2 coincident with a significant (p = 0.0016 increase in physical activity. We conclude that Vivo-morpholinos can be a valuable tool in determining causal gene-phenotype relationships in whole animal models.

  5. Kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the interactions between the components of human plasma kinin-forming system and isolated and purified cell wall proteins of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seweryn, Karolina; Karkowska-Kuleta, Justyna; Wolak, Natalia; Bochenska, Oliwia; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Cell wall proteins of Candida albicans, besides their best known role in the adhesion of this fungal pathogen to host's tissues, also bind some soluble proteins, present in body fluids and involved in maintaining the biochemical homeostasis of the human organism. In particular, three plasma factors - high-molecular-mass kininogen (HK), factor XII (FXII) and prekallikrein (PPK) - have been shown to adhere to candidal cells. These proteins are involved in the surface-contact-catalyzed production of bradykinin-related peptides (kinins) that contribute to inflammatory states associated with microbial infections. We recently identified several proteins, associated with the candidal cell walls, and probably involved in the binding of HK. In our present study, a list of potential FXII- and PPK-binding proteins was proposed, using an affinity selection (on agarose-coupled FXII or PPK) from a whole mixture of β-1,3-glucanase-extrated cell wall-associated proteins and the mass-spectrometry protein identification. Five of these fungal proteins, including agglutinin-like sequence protein 3 (Als3), triosephosphate isomerase 1 (Tpi1), enolase 1 (Eno1), phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (Gpm1) and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase 1 (Gpi1), were purified and characterized in terms of affinities to the human contact factors, using the surface plasmon resonance measurements. Except Gpm1 that bound only PPK, and Als3 that exhibited an affinity to HK and FXII, the other isolated proteins interacted with all three contact factors. The determined dissociation constants for the identified protein complexes were of 10(-7) M order, and the association rate constants were in a range of 10(4)-10(5) M(-1)s(-1). The identified fungal pathogen-host protein interactions are potential targets for novel anticandidal therapeutic approaches.

  6. Molecular determinants of the interaction between human high molecular weight kininogen and Candida albicans cell wall: Identification of kininogen-binding proteins on fungal cell wall and mapping the cell wall-binding regions on kininogen molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkowska-Kuleta, Justyna; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Rapala-Kozik, Maria; Kamysz, Wojciech; Bielinska, Sylwia; Karafova, Anna; Kozik, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    An excessive production of vasoactive and proinflammatory bradykinin-related peptides, the kinins, is often involved in the human host defense against microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that a major fungal pathogen to humans, Candida albicans, can bind the proteinaceous kinin precursor, the high molecular weight kininogen (HK) and trigger the kinin-forming cascade on the cell surface. In this work, we preliminarily characterized a molecular mechanism underlying the HK adhesion to the fungal surface by (i) identification of major kininogen-binding constituents on the candidial cell wall and (ii) mapping the cell wall-binding regions on HK molecule. A major fraction of total fungal kininogen-binding capacity was assigned to β-1,3-glucanase-extractable cell wall proteins (CWP). By adsorption of CWP on HK-coupled agarose gel and mass spectrometric analysis of the eluted material, major putative HK receptors were identified, including Als3 adhesin and three glycolytic enzymes, i.e., enolase 1, phosphoglycerate mutase 1 and triosephosphate isomerase 1. Using monoclonal antibodies directed against selected parts of HK molecule and synthetic peptides with sequences matching selected HK fragments, we assigned the major fungal cell wall-binding ability to a short stretch of amino acids in the C-terminal part of domain 3 and a large continuous region involving the C-terminal part of domain 5 and N-terminal part of domain 6 (residues 479-564). The latter characteristics of HK binding to C. albicans surface differ from those reported for bacteria and host cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipoxin A4 inhibits acute edema in mice: implications for the anti-edematogenic mechanism induced by aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-de-Lima, Octavio; Kassuya, Cândida A L; Nascimento, Andrey F Z; Henriques, Maria das Graças M O; Calixto, João B

    2006-09-01

    Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in the resolution of inflammation. However, the role of LXA4 and aspirin (ASA)-triggered lipoxins (ATLs) in inflammatory edema formation remains unclear. Here, we investigated the inhibitory role played by LXA4 in the carrageenan-induced and other inflammatory mediator-induced edematogenic response in mice, and also assessed the role of ATLs in the anti-edematogenic action of aspirin. Our results showed that LXA4 (1-20 ng/paw or 5 microg/kg i.p.) was effective in inhibiting carrageenan-induced paw edema from 30 min to 2 h. LXA4 (10 ng/paw) was also able to acutely inhibit PAF-, histamine-, PGE2- or bradykinin-induced paw edema, as well as the PAF-induced myeloperoxidase activity increase in the paws. Likewise, LXA4 (10 ng/cavity) also inhibited the pleural edema triggered by histamine (1h), and this response was not followed by leukocyte accumulation. Of note, the lipoxin receptor (ALX-r) antagonist Boc2 (butoxycarbonyl-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe, 200 ng/paw) significantly reverted the anti-edematogenic effect of ASA (300 mg/kg p.o.) against carrageenan, PAF, PGE2 and BK, without affecting the anti-edematogenic action caused by indomethacin (3 mg/kg i.p.) in the carrageenan-induced paw edema. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that LXA4 displays an acute and rapid onset anti-edematogenic activity that does not discriminate among different pro-inflammatory stimuli, an effect that is most likely independent of its action on the leukocyte influx. Finally, the present study demonstrates that ATLs exert a very important role in the acute anti-edematogenic action of ASA.

  8. Membrane depolarization was required to induce DNA synthesis in murine macrophage cell line PU5-1.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, S K; Suen, Y K; Choy, Y M; Fung, K P; Lee, C Y

    1991-01-01

    The role of membrane potential (Em) on the initiation of DNA synthesis in murine macrophage cell line PU5-1.8 was investigated with fluorescent probes bis-oxonol and diS-C3-(5). Incubation of PU5-1.8 cells in high K(+)-HEPES buffer or with gramicidin at 37 degrees C for 1h that depolarized the membrane induced [3H]-thymidine incorporation and expression of early response gene such as c-myc and c-fos. When PU5-1.8 cells were treated with a number of agents including fetal calf serum (FCS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), epidermal growth factor (EGF), N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and bradykinin (BK), only FCS caused DNA synthesis and membrane depolarization. Other agents had no effect on these events. The FCS-mediated DNA synthesis in PU5-1.8 cells was inhibited by clamping the membrane potential with valinomycin. Moreover, intracellular alkalinization induced by nigericin at pH 7.9, which is believed to be a permissive signal for mitogenesis, caused membrane depolarization. On the other hand, challenge of cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) suppressed the K(+)-mediated DNA synthesis. However, the treatment of cells with PMA did not change the membrane potential but suppressed the gramicidin-mediated membrane depolarization. These observations suggest that there is a correlation between membrane depolarization and initiation of DNA synthesis in PU5-1.8 cells. PKC may be acting as a modulator in this transducing pathway.

  9. A role for the sodium pump in H2O2-induced vasorelaxation in porcine isolated coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, P S; Garle, M J; Alexander, S P H; Randall, M D; Roberts, R E

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been proposed to act as a factor for endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) and EDH may act as a 'back up' system to compensate the loss of the NO pathway. Here, the mechanism of action of H2O2 in porcine isolated coronary arteries (PCAs) was investigated. Distal PCAs were mounted in a wire myograph and pre-contracted with U46619 (1nM-50μM), a thromboxane A2-mimetic or KCl (60mM). Concentration-response curves to H2O2(1μM-1mM), bradykinin (0.01nM-1μM), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10nM-10μM), verapamil (1nM-10μM), KCl (0-20mM) or Ca(2+)-reintroduction (1μM-10mM) were constructed in the presence of various inhibitors. Activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump was measured through rubidium-uptake using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. H2O2 caused concentration-dependent vasorelaxations with a maximum relaxation (Rmax) of 100±16% (mean±SEM), pEC50=4.18±0.20 (n=4) which were significantly inhibited by PEG-catalase at 0.1-1.0mM H2O2 (Ppump activity. We have shown that the vascular actions of H2O2 are sensitive to ouabain and high concentrations of H2O2 are able to modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-pump. This may contribute towards its vascular actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates hypertensive cardiac remodeling via angiotensin-II/sodium-proton pump exchanger-1 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Haruya; Bando, Yasuko K; Nishimura, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Morihiko; Monji, Akio; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-09-01

    To address the impact of antidiabetic drugs on cardiovascular safety is a matter of clinical concern. Preclinical studies revealed that various protective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i) on cardiovascular disease; however, its impact of on hypertension remains controversial. Teneligliptin (TEN; 10mg/kg/day/p.o.) ameliorates hypertension and cardiac remodeling by normalizing a rise of angiotensin-II (AngII) that specifically observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). TEN had no effects on vasculature and concentrations of the DPP4-related vasoactive peptides (bradykinin, neuropeptide Y, and atrial natriuretic peptide). The primary action of TEN on BP lowering was due to restoring the AngII-induced manifestation of congestive heart failure observed in SHR. Sodium-proton pump exchanger type 1 (NHE-1) is a regulator of intracellular acidity (pHi) and implicated pathophysiological role in cardiac remodeling occurred in diseased myocardium. Cardiac NHE-1 expression level was increased in SHR and this was restored in TEN-treated SHR. AngII directly augmented cardiac NHE-1 expression and its activity that contributed to hypertrophic response. TEN attenuated the AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy with decline in pHi via suppression of NHE-1. Loss of NHE-1 activity by specific inhibitor or RNA silencing promoted intracellular acidification and consistently attenuated the AngII-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. The present study revealed the protective actions of TEN on hypertension and comorbid cardiac remodeling via AngII/NHE-1 axis and the novel pathophysiological roles of intracellular acidification via NHE-1 in cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteomic identification of gender molecular markers in Bothrops jararaca venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanis, André; Menezes, Milene C; Kitano, Eduardo S; Liberato, Tarcísio; Tashima, Alexandre K; Pinto, Antonio F M; Sherman, Nicholas E; Ho, Paulo L; Fox, Jay W; Serrano, Solange M T

    2016-04-29

    Variation in the snake venom proteome is a well-documented phenomenon; however, sex-based variation in the venom proteome/peptidome is poorly understood. Bothrops jararaca shows significant sexual size dimorphism and here we report a comparative proteomic/peptidomic analysis of venoms from male and female specimens and correlate it with the evaluation of important venom features. We demonstrate that adult male and female venoms have distinct profiles of proteolytic activity upon fibrinogen and gelatin. These differences were clearly reflected in their different profiles of SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and glycosylated proteins. Identification of differential protein bands and spots between male or female venoms revealed gender-specific molecular markers. However, the proteome comparison by in-solution trypsin digestion and label-free quantification analysis showed that the overall profiles of male and female venoms are similar at the polypeptide chain level but show striking variation regarding their attached carbohydrate moieties. The analysis of the peptidomes of male and female venoms revealed different contents of peptides, while the bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs) showed rather similar profiles. Furthermore we confirmed the ubiquitous presence of four BPPs that lack the C-terminal Q-I-P-P sequence only in the female venom as gender molecular markers. As a result of these studies we demonstrate that the sexual size dimorphism is associated with differences in the venom proteome/peptidome in B. jararaca species. Moreover, gender-based variations contributed by different glycosylation levels in toxins impact venom complexity. Bothrops jararaca is primarily a nocturnal and generalist snake species, however, it exhibits a notable ontogenetic shift in diet and in venom proteome upon neonate to adult transition. As is common in the Bothrops genus, B. jararaca shows significant sexual dimorphism in snout-vent length and weight, with females being

  12. An inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission in the mammalian vas deferens by D-lysergic acid diethylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambache, N; Dunk, L P; Verney, J; Zar, M A

    1973-06-01

    1. Under certain conditions D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 10(-9)-10(-6) g/ml., exerted an immediate, prolonged and slowly reversible inhibitory effect upon the post-ganglionic motor transmission in desheathed guinea-pig vas deferens preparations.2. The most critical factor influencing this action of LSD appeared to be the train length. With short trains of less than 4 or 5 pulses the twitch inhibition produced by LSD was often total. With longer trains (5-20 pulses), the degree of inhibition declined with increase in train length. These results suggest the existence of two components in the motor response to post-ganglionic stimulation, distinguished by their susceptibility to LSD.3. The inhibition of the LSD-susceptible component was related to the dose of LSD in the range 10(-9)-10(-6) g/ml., reaching a maximum at 0.5-1 x 10(-6) g/ml. The response remnants elicited by trains of more than 5 pulses under these conditions could not be reduced further by a ten- to twenty-fold increase in LSD concentration to 10(-5) g/ml. and were in fact slightly potentiated.4. The inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission by LSD was not explicable on the basis of an alpha-adrenoceptor blockade because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to noradrenaline.5. The use of propranolol excluded mediation of the LSD-inhibition by beta-adrenoceptors.6. The LSD effect was not due to a non-specific smooth muscle depression because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to acetylcholine, ATP or bradykinin.7. The inhibitory effect of LSD on post-ganglionic transmission resembled that of noradrenaline in that it was antagonized by phentolamine; another alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agent, phenoxybenzamine, was less effective than phentolamine in this respect.8. The LSD-inhibition was obtained in preparations taken from reserpinized guinea-pigs.9. The inhibition of motor transmission in the vas deferens by LSD was confirmed in rats, Meriones

  13. Morphology and Function of the Lamb Ileum following Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Tracey J; Nguyen, Vivian B; Widdop, Robert E; Sutherland, Megan R; Polglase, Graeme R; Abud, Helen E; Black, Mary Jane

    2018-01-01

    For infants born moderately/late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation), immaturity of the intestine has the potential to impact both short- and long-term gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study conducted in sheep was to compare the morphology and smooth muscle contractility of the ileum in term and late preterm lambs. Lambs delivered preterm (132 days gestation; n  = 7) or term (147 days gestation; n  = 9) were milk-fed after birth and euthanased at 2 days of age. A segment of distal ileum was collected for analysis of the length and cellular composition of the villi and crypts, smooth muscle width and contractility, and mRNA expression of the cell markers Ki67, lysozyme, mucin 2, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, olfactomedin 4, axis inhibition protein 2, and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5). There was no difference in the proportion of inflammatory, proliferating, apoptotic, enterocyte, or goblet cells between groups, but preterm lambs exhibited a significant upregulation of the stem cell marker LGR5 ( p  = 0.01). Absolute villus height (term: 1,032 ± 147 µm, preterm: 651 ± 52 µm; p  preterm: 133 ± 17 µm; p  = 0.01) were significantly shorter in the preterm ileums, with a trend ( p  = 0.06) for a reduction in muscularis externa width. There was no difference between groups in the contractile response to acetylcholine, but peak contractility in response to bradykinin ( p  = 0.02) and angiotensin II ( p  = 0.03) was significantly greater in the preterm lambs. Findings demonstrate that the crypt-villus units are shorter in the ileum of late preterm offspring, but functionally mature with an equivalent cellular composition and normal contractile response to acetylcholine compared with term offspring. The exaggerated contractility to inflammatory mediators evident in the preterm ileum, however, may be of concern.

  14. An inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission in the mammalian vas deferens by D-lysergic acid diethylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambache, N.; Dunk, Linda P.; Verney, J.; Zar, M. Aboo

    1973-01-01

    1. Under certain conditions D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 10-9-10-6 g/ml., exerted an immediate, prolonged and slowly reversible inhibitory effect upon the post-ganglionic motor transmission in desheathed guinea-pig vas deferens preparations. 2. The most critical factor influencing this action of LSD appeared to be the train length. With short trains of less than 4 or 5 pulses the twitch inhibition produced by LSD was often total. With longer trains (5-20 pulses), the degree of inhibition declined with increase in train length. These results suggest the existence of two components in the motor response to post-ganglionic stimulation, distinguished by their susceptibility to LSD. 3. The inhibition of the LSD-susceptible component was related to the dose of LSD in the range 10-9-10-6 g/ml., reaching a maximum at 0·5-1 × 10-6 g/ml. The response remnants elicited by trains of more than 5 pulses under these conditions could not be reduced further by a ten- to twenty-fold increase in LSD concentration to 10-5 g/ml. and were in fact slightly potentiated. 4. The inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission by LSD was not explicable on the basis of an α-adrenoceptor blockade because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to noradrenaline. 5. The use of propranolol excluded mediation of the LSD-inhibition by β-adrenoceptors. 6. The LSD effect was not due to a non-specific smooth muscle depression because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to acetylcholine, ATP or bradykinin. 7. The inhibitory effect of LSD on post-ganglionic transmission resembled that of noradrenaline in that it was antagonized by phentolamine; another α-adrenoceptor blocking agent, phenoxybenzamine, was less effective than phentolamine in this respect. 8. The LSD-inhibition was obtained in preparations taken from reserpinized guinea-pigs. 9. The inhibition of motor transmission in the vas deferens by LSD was confirmed in rats, Meriones shawii and

  15. Increased clearance explains lower plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator by estradiol: evidence for potently enhanced mannose receptor expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, M; Jong, M; Bijsterbosch, M; Bekkers, M; Toet, K; Havekes, L; Emeis, J; Kooistra, T

    1999-08-15

    Several clinical studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between circulating levels of estrogen and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that estrogens lower plasma levels of t-PA by increasing its clearance from the bloodstream. 17alpha-Ethinyl estradiol (EE) treatment resulted in a significant increase in the clearance rate of recombinant human t-PA in mice (0.46 mL/min in treated mice v 0. 32 mL/min in controls; P <.01). The clearance of endogenous, bradykinin-released t-PA in rats was also significantly increased after EE treatment (area under the curve [AUC], 24.9 ng/mL. min in treated animals v 31.9 ng/mL. min in controls; P <.05). Two distinct t-PA clearance systems exist in vivo: the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) on liver parenchymal cells and the mannose receptor on mainly liver endothelial cells. Inhibition of LRP by intravenous injection of receptor-associated protein (RAP) as a recombinant fusion protein with Salmonella japonicum glutathione S-transferase (GST) significantly retarded t-PA clearance in control mice (from 0.41 to 0.25 mL/min; n = 5, P <.001) and EE-treated mice (from 0.66 to 0.35 mL/min; n = 5, P <.005), but did not eliminate the difference in clearance capacity between the 2 experimental groups. Similar results were obtained in mice in which LRP was inhibited via overexpression of the RAP gene in liver by adenoviral gene transduction. In contrast, administration of mannan, a mannose receptor antagonist, resulted in identical clearances (0.22 mL/min in controls and 0.24 mL/min in EE-treated mice). Northern blot analysis showed a 6-fold increase in mannose receptor mRNA expression in the nonparenchymal liver cells of EE-treated mice, whereas the parenchymal LRP mRNA levels remained unchanged. These findings were confirmed at the protein level by ligand blotting and Western blotting analysis. Our results demonstrate that EE treatment results in

  16. The genesis of an exceptionally lethal venom in the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) revealed through comparative venom-gland transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokyta, Darin R; Wray, Kenneth P; Margres, Mark J

    2013-06-12

    Snake venoms generally show sequence and quantitative variation within and between species, but some rattlesnakes have undergone exceptionally rapid, dramatic shifts in the composition, lethality, and pharmacological effects of their venoms. Such shifts have occurred within species, most notably in Mojave (Crotalus scutulatus), South American (C. durissus), and timber (C. horridus) rattlesnakes, resulting in some populations with extremely potent, neurotoxic venoms without the hemorrhagic effects typical of rattlesnake bites. To better understand the evolutionary changes that resulted in the potent venom of a population of C. horridus from northern Florida, we sequenced the venom-gland transcriptome of an animal from this population for comparison with the previously described transcriptome of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (C. adamanteus), a congener with a more typical rattlesnake venom. Relative to the toxin transcription of C. adamanteus, which consisted primarily of snake-venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, snake-venom serine proteinases, and myotoxin-A, the toxin transcription of C. horridus was far simpler in composition and consisted almost entirely of snake-venom serine proteinases, phospholipases A2, and bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic peptides. Crotalus horridus lacked significant expression of the hemorrhagic snake-venom metalloproteinases and C-type lectins. Evolution of shared toxin families involved differential expansion and loss of toxin clades within each species and pronounced differences in the highly expressed toxin paralogs. Toxin genes showed significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution than nontoxin genes. The expression patterns of nontoxin genes were conserved between species, despite the vast differences in toxin expression. Our results represent the first complete, sequence-based comparison between the venoms of closely related snake species and reveal in unprecedented detail the rapid evolution of

  17. Comparative venomics of the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from Colorado: Identification of a novel pattern of ontogenetic changes in venom composition and assessment of the immunoreactivity of the commercial antivenom CroFab®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviola, Anthony J; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Castoe, Todd A; Calvete, Juan J; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2015-05-21

    Here we describe and compare the venomic and antivenomic characteristics of both neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) venoms. Although both neonate and adult venoms contain unique components, similarities among protein family content were seen. Both neonate and adult venoms consisted of myotoxin, bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinase (SVMP), serine proteinase, L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) and disintegrin families. Quantitative differences, however, were observed, with venoms of adults containing significantly higher concentrations of the non-enzymatic toxic compounds and venoms of neonates containing higher concentrations of pre-digestive enzymatic proteins such as SVMPs. To assess the relevance of this venom variation in the context of snakebite and snakebite treatment, we tested the efficacy of the common antivenom CroFab® for recognition of both adult and neonate venoms in vitro. This comparison revealed that many of the major protein families (SVMPs, CRISP, PLA2, serine proteases, and LAAO) in both neonate and adult venoms were immunodepleted by the antivenom, whereas myotoxins, one of the major toxic components of C. v. viridis venom, in addition to many of the small peptides, were not efficiently depleted by CroFab®. These results therefore provide a comprehensive catalog of the venom compounds present in C. v. viridis venom and new molecular insight into the potential efficacy of CroFab® against human envenomations by one of the most widely distributed rattlesnake species in North America. Comparative proteomic analysis of venoms of neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from a discrete population in Colorado revealed a novel pattern of ontogenetic shifts in toxin composition for viperid snakes. The observed stage-dependent decrease of the relative content of disintegrins, catalytically active D49-PLA2s

  18. Evolution Stings: The Origin and Diversification of Scorpion Toxin Peptide Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Sunagar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The episodic nature of natural selection and the accumulation of extreme sequence divergence in venom-encoding genes over long periods of evolutionary time can obscure the signature of positive Darwinian selection. Recognition of the true biocomplexity is further hampered by the limited taxon selection, with easy to obtain or medically important species typically being the subject of intense venom research, relative to the actual taxonomical diversity in nature. This holds true for scorpions, which are one of the most ancient terrestrial venomous animal lineages. The family Buthidae that includes all the medically significant species has been intensely investigated around the globe, while almost completely ignoring the remaining non-buthid families. Australian scorpion lineages, for instance, have been completely neglected, with only a single scorpion species (Urodacus yaschenkoi having its venom transcriptome sequenced. Hence, the lack of venom composition and toxin sequence information from an entire continent’s worth of scorpions has impeded our understanding of the molecular evolution of scorpion venom. The molecular origin, phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary histories of most scorpion toxin scaffolds remain enigmatic. In this study, we have sequenced venom gland transcriptomes of a wide taxonomical diversity of scorpions from Australia, including buthid and non-buthid representatives. Using state-of-art molecular evolutionary analyses, we show that a majority of CSα/β toxin scaffolds have experienced episodic influence of positive selection, while most non-CSα/β linear toxins evolve under the extreme influence of negative selection. For the first time, we have unraveled the molecular origin of the major scorpion toxin scaffolds, such as scorpion venom single von Willebrand factor C-domain peptides (SV-SVC, inhibitor cystine knot (ICK, disulphide-directed beta-hairpin (DDH, bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPP, linear non

  19. Unveiling the participation of avian kinin ornithokinin and its receptors in the chicken inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Garrido, Damien; Bailleul, Geoffrey; Trotereau, Angélina; Pinaud, Mélanie; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine; Chanteloup, Nathalie K; Schouler, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Vasoactive peptides are key early mediators of inflammation released through activation of different enzymatic systems. The mammalian kinin-kallikrein (K-KLK) system produces bradykinin (BK) through proteolytic cleavage of a kininogen precursor by enzymes named kallikreins. BK acts through specific ubiquitous G-protein coupled receptors (B1R and B2R) to participate in physiological processes and inflammatory responses, such as activation of mononuclear phagocytes. In chickens, the BK-like nonapeptide ornithokinin (OK) has been shown to promote intracellular calcium increase in embryonic fibroblasts and to be vasodilatory in vivo. Also, one of its receptors (B2R) was already cloned. However, the participation of chicken K-KLK system components in the inflammatory response remains unknown and was therefore investigated. We first showed that B1R, B2R and kininogen 1 (KNG1) are expressed in unstimulated chicken tissues and macrophages. We next showed that chicken B1R and B2R are expressed at transcript and protein levels in chicken macrophages and are upregulated by E. coli LPS or avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) infection. Interestingly, exogenous OK induced internalization and degradation of OK receptors protein, notably B2R. Also, OK induced intracellular calcium increase and potentiated zymosan-induced ROS production and Dextran-FITC endocytosis by chicken macrophages. Exogenous OK itself did not promote APEC killing and had no pro-inflammatory effect. However, when combined with LPS or APEC, OK upregulated cytokine/chemokine gene expression and NO production by chicken macrophages. This effect was not blocked by canonical non-peptide B1R or B2R receptor antagonists but was GPCR- and PI3K/Akt-dependent. In vivo, pulmonary colibacillosis led to upregulation of OK receptors expression in chicken lungs and liver. Also, colibacillosis led to significant upregulation of OK precursor KNG1 expression in liver and in cultured hepatocytes (LMH). We therefore provide hitherto

  20. [Purification and some physico-chemical and enzymatic properties of tissue kallikrein from human urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, S E; Lobareva, L S; Paskhina, T S

    1990-09-01

    A procedure for obtaining tissue kallikrein (EC 3.4.21.35) from large specimens of human urea (100 l) has been developed. The isolation procedure included primary extraction of the protein with chitosan (a crustacean chitin deacylated by alkaline treatment), desorption from chitosan with 1 M NH3, affinity chromatography on contrical-Sepharose, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. This method permits to obtain tissue kallikrein preparations purified 1080-fold (with respect to AcPheArg-OEt esterase) and 1360-fold (with respect to kininogenase) with 33 and 40% yields, respectively. Tissue kallikrein preparations were homogeneous as could be judged from the results of electrophoresis performed in 12% PAAG in the presence of 0.1% SDS as well as from the presence of one N-terminal amino acid identified as isoleucine. Purified tissue kallikrein had specific activities of 133 mumol/min/mg protein (with respect to AcPheArg-OEt hydrolysis) and 8.8 mumol/min/mg protein (with respect to D-Val-Leu-Arg-pNa hydrolysis) and liberated 462 micrograms equiv. of bradykinin/min/mg protein from heated human blood plasma used as a kininogen source. The protein exhibited the highest stability at pH 8.0-9.0; the pH optimum is at pH 8.0 with AcPheArg-OMe as substrate. The enzyme revealed a high thermostability and was fully inactivated only after 1-hour heating in a boiling water bath. The identity of the urine enzyme to tissue kallikrein could be confirmed by the resistance of the enzyme activity to SIT, high sensitivity to the inhibiting effect of aprotinin (Ki = 0.94 x 10(-10) M) and by an exceedingly low value of the second order inhibition constant for DPP (4.6 M-1 min-1). The fact that this value differs drastically from that for human blood plasma kallikrein (EC 3.4.21.34) which is equal to 360 M-1 min-1 points to marked differences in the structure of the active centers of the both kallikreins as well as to the uniqueness of the tissue

  1. Local gene expression changes after UV-irradiation of human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weinkauf

    Full Text Available UV-irradiation is a well-known translational pain model inducing local inflammation and primary hyperalgesia. The mediators and receptor proteins specifically contributing to mechanical or heat hyperalgesia are still unclear. Therefore, we irradiated buttock skin of humans (n = 16 with 5-fold MED of UV-C and assessed the time course of hyperalgesia and axon reflex erythema. In parallel, we took skin biopsies at 3, 6 and 24 h after UVC irradiation and assessed gene expression levels (RT-PCR of neurotrophins (e.g. NGF, BDNF, GDNF, ion channels (e.g. NaV1.7, TRPV1, inflammatory mediators (e.g. CCL-2, CCL-3 and enzymes (e.g. PGES, COX2. Hyperalgesia to mechanical impact (12 m/s and heat (48 °C stimuli was significant at 6 h (p<0.05 and p<0.01 and 24 h (p<0.005 and p<0.01 after irradiation. Axon reflex erythema upon mechanical and thermal stimuli was significantly increased 3 h after irradiation and particularly strong at 6 h. A significant modulation of 9 genes was found post UV-C irradiation, including NGF (3, 6, 24 h, TrkA (6, 24 h, artemin, bradykinin-1 receptor, COX-2, CCL-2 and CCL-3 (3 and 6 h each. A significant down-regulation was observed for TRPV1 and iNOS (6, 24 h. Individual one-to-one correlation analysis of hyperalgesia and gene expression revealed that changes of Nav1.7 (SCN9A mRNA levels at 6 and 24 h correlated to the intensity of mechanical hyperalgesia recorded at 24 h post UV-irradiation (Pearson r: 0.57, p<0.04 and r: 0.82, p<0.001. Expression of COX-2 and mPGES at 6 h correlated to the intensity of heat-induced erythema 24 h post UV (r: 0.57, p<0.05 for COX-2 and r: 0.83, p<0.001 for PGES. The individual correlation analyses of functional readouts (erythema and pain response with local expression changes provided evidence for a potential role of Nav1.7 in mechanical hyperalgesia.

  2. Vasopeptidase-activated latent ligands of the histamine receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Lajos; Roy, Caroline; Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François

    2013-11-01

    Whether peptidases present in vascular cells can activate prodrugs active on vascular cells has been tested with 2 potential latent ligands of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). First, a peptide consisting of the antihistamine cetirizine (CTZ) condensed at the N-terminus of ε-aminocaproyl-bradykinin (εACA-BK) was evaluated for an antihistamine activity that could be revealed by degradation of the peptide part of the molecule. CTZ-εACA-BK had a submicromolar affinity for the BK B2 receptor (B2R; IC50 of 590 nM, [(3)H]BK binding competition), but a non-negligible affinity for the human H1 receptor (H1R; IC50 of 11 μM for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding). In the human isolated umbilical vein, a system where both endogenous B2R and H1R mediate strong contractions, CTZ-εACA-BK exerted mild antagonist effects on histamine-induced contraction that were not modified by omapatrilat or by a B2R antagonist that prevents endocytosis of the BK conjugate. Cells expressing recombinant ACE or B2R incubated with CTZ-εACA-BK did not release a competitor of [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. Thus, there is no evidence that CTZ-εACA-BK can release free cetirizine in biological environments. The second prodrug was a blocked agonist, L-alanyl-histamine, potentially activated by aminopeptidase N (APN). This compound did not compete for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. The human umbilical vein contractility assay responded to L-alanyl-histamine (EC50 54.7 μM), but the APN inhibitor amastatin massively (17-fold) reduced its apparent potency. Amastatin did not influence the potency of histamine as a contractile agent. One of the 2 tested latent H1R ligands, L-alanyl-histamine, supported the feasibility of pro-drug activation by vascular ectopeptidases. © 2013.

  3. Altered purinergic signaling in uridine adenosine tetraphosphate-induced coronary relaxation in swine with metabolic derangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhichao; Sorop, Oana; de Beer, Vincent J; Heinonen, Ilkka; Cheng, Caroline; Jan Danser, A H; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2017-05-24

    We previously demonstrated that uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) induces potent and partially endothelium-dependent relaxation in the healthy porcine coronary microvasculature. We subsequently showed that Up4A-induced porcine coronary relaxation was impaired via downregulation of P1 receptors after myocardial infarction. In view of the deleterious effect of metabolic derangement on vascular function, we hypothesized that the coronary vasodilator response to Up4A is impaired in metabolic derangement, and that the involvement of purinergic receptor subtypes and endothelium-derived vasoactive factors (EDVFs) is altered. Coronary small arteries, dissected from the apex of healthy swine and swine 6 months after induction of diabetes with streptozotocin and fed a high-fat diet, were mounted on wire myographs. Up4A (10(-9)-10(-5) M)-induced coronary relaxation was maintained in swine with metabolic derangement compared to normal swine, despite impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin and despite blunted P2X7 receptor and NO-mediated vasodilator influences of Up4A. Moreover, a thromboxane-mediated vasoconstrictor influence was unmasked. In contrast, an increased Up4A-mediated vasodilator influence via P2Y1 receptors was observed, while, in response to Up4A, cytochrome P450 2C9 switched from producing vasoconstrictor to vasodilator metabolites in swine with metabolic derangement. Coronary vascular expression of A2A and P2X7 receptors as well as eNOS, as assessed with real-time PCR, was reduced in swine with metabolic derangement. In conclusion, although the overall coronary vasodilator response to Up4A was maintained in swine with metabolic derangement, the involvement of purinergic receptor subtypes and EDVF was markedly altered, revealing compensatory mechanisms among signaling pathways in Up4A-mediated coronary vasomotor influence in the early phase of metabolic derangement. Future studies are warranted to investigate the effects of severe

  4. Differential response of bone and kidney to ACEI in db/db mice: A potential effect of captopril on accelerating bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiao-Li; Sha, Nan-Nan; Shu, Bing; Zhao, Yong-Jian; Wang, Xin-Luan; Xiao, Hui-Hui; Shi, Qi; Wong, Man-Sau; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2017-04-01

    The components of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are expressed in the kidney and bone. Kidney disease and bone injury are common complications associated with diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, on the kidney and bone of db/db mice. The db/db mice were orally administered by gavage with captopril for 8weeks with db/+ mice as the non-diabetic control. Serum and urine biochemistries were determined by standard colorimetric methods or ELISA. Histological measurements were performed on the kidney by periodic acid-schiff staining and on the tibial proximal metaphysis by safranin O and masson-trichrome staining. Trabecular bone mass and bone quality were analyzed by microcomputed tomography. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were applied for molecular analysis on mRNA and protein expression. Captopril significantly improved albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis in db/db mice, and these effects might be attributed to the down-regulation of angiotensin II expression and the expression of its down-stream profibrotic factors in the kidney, like connective tissue growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus markedly increased in db/db mice in response to captopril. Treatment with captopril induced a decrease in bone mineral density and deterioration of trabecular bone at proximal metaphysis of tibia in db/db mice, as shown in the histological and reconstructed 3-dimensional images. Even though captopril effectively reversed the diabetes-induced changes in calcium-binding protein 28-k and vitamin D receptor expression in the kidney as well as the expression of RAS components and bradykinin receptor-2 in bone tissue, treatment with captopril increased the osteoclast-covered bone surface, reduced the osteoblast-covered bone surface, down-regulated the expression of type 1 collagen and transcription factor runt-related transcription

  5. Production of soluble Neprilysin by endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya, E-mail: Sanjaya.Kuruppu@monash.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Building 77, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Rajapakse, Niwanthi W. [Department of Physiology, Building 13F, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Minond, Dmitriy [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, 11350 SW Village Parkway, Port Saint Lucie, FL 34987 (United States); Smith, A. Ian [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Building 77, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • A soluble full-length form of Neprilysin exists in media of endothelial cells. • Exosomal release is the key mechanism for the production of soluble Neprilysin. • Inhibition of ADAM-17 by specific inhibitors reduce Neprilysin release. • Exosome mediated release of Neprilysin is dependent on ADAM-17 activity. - Abstract: A non-membrane bound form of Neprilysin (NEP) with catalytic activity has the potential to cleave substrates throughout the circulation, thus leading to systemic effects of NEP. We used the endothelial cell line Ea.hy926 to identify the possible role of exosomes and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM-17) in the production of non-membrane bound NEP. Using a bradykinin based quenched fluorescent substrate (40 μM) assay, we determined the activity of recombinant human NEP (rhNEP; 12 ng), and NEP in the media of endothelial cells (10% v/v; after 24 h incubation with cells) to be 9.35 ± 0.70 and 6.54 ± 0.41 μmols of substrate cleaved over 3 h, respectively. The presence of NEP in the media was also confirmed by Western blotting. At present there are no commercially available inhibitors specific for ADAM-17. We therefore synthesised two inhibitors TPI2155-14 and TPI2155-17, specific for ADAM-17 with IC{sub 50} values of 5.36 and 4.32 μM, respectively. Treatment of cells with TPI2155-14 (15 μM) and TPI2155-17 (4.3 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in NEP activity in media (62.37 ± 1.43 and 38.30 ± 4.70, respectively as a % of control; P < 0.0001), implicating a possible role for ADAM-17 in NEP release. However, centrifuging media (100,000g for 1 h at 4 °C) removed all NEP activity from the supernatant indicating the likely role of exosomes in the release of NEP. Our data therefore indicated for the first time that NEP is released from endothelial cells via exosomes, and that this process is dependent on ADAM-17.

  6. Antithrombotic Potential of Tormentil Extract in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Marcinczyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Potentilla species that have been investigated so far display pharmacological activity mainly due to the presence of polyphenols. Recently, it was shown that polyphenol-rich extract from rhizome of Potentilla erecta (tormentil extract affects the metabolism of arachidonic acid and exerts both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, suggesting a possible effect on thrombosis. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of tormentil extract on haemostasis in a rat model of thrombosis. Lyophilized water-methanol extract from P. erecta rhizome was administrated per os for 14 days in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg in a volume of 2 mL/kg in a 5% water solution of gummi arabici (VEH. In the in vivo experiment an electrically induced carotid artery thrombosis model with blood flow monitoring was used in Wistar rats. Collected blood samples were analyzed ex vivo functionally and biochemically for changes in haemostasis. Tormentil extract (400 mg/kg significantly decreased thrombus weight and prolonged the time to carotid artery occlusion and bleeding time without changes in the blood pressure. In the ex vivo experiment tormentil extract (400 mg/kg reduced thromboxane production and decreased t-PA activity, while total t-PA concentration, as well as total PAI-1 concentration and PAI-1 activity remained unchanged. Furthermore, tormentil extract (400 mg/kg decreased bradykinin concentration and shortened the time to reach maximal optical density during fibrin generation. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, QUICK index, fibrinogen level, and collagen-induced aggregation remained unchanged. To investigate the involvement of platelets in the antithrombotic effect of tormentil, the extract was administrated per os for 2 days to mice and irreversible platelets activation after ferric chloride induced thrombosis was evaluated under intravital conditions using confocal microscopy system. In this model tormentil

  7. An interaction of renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems contributes to vascular hypertrophy in angiotensin II-induced hypertension: in vivo and in vitro studies.

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    Graziela S Ceravolo

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin and renin-angiotensin systems interact at multiple levels. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the B1 kinin receptor (B1R contributes to vascular hypertrophy in angiotensin II (ANG II-induced hypertension, through a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 activation. Male Wistar rats were infused with vehicle (control rats, 400 ng/Kg/min ANG II (ANG II rats or 400 ng/Kg/min ANG II plus B1 receptor antagonist, 350 ng/Kg/min des-Arg(9-Leu(8-bradykinin (ANGII+DAL rats, via osmotic mini-pumps (14 days or received ANG II plus losartan (10 mg/Kg, 14 days, gavage - ANG II+LOS rats. After 14 days, ANG II rats exhibited increased systolic arterial pressure [(mmHg 184 ± 5.9 vs 115 ± 2.3], aortic hypertrophy; increased ROS generation [2-hydroxyethidium/dihydroethidium (EOH/DHE: 21.8 ± 2.7 vs 6.0 ± 1.8] and ERK1/2 phosphorylation (% of control: 218.3 ± 29.4 vs 100 ± 0.25]. B1R expression was increased in aortas from ANG II and ANG II+DAL rats than in aortas from the