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Sample records for bradykinin-induced interleukin-8 release

  1. PKA and Epac cooperate to augment bradykinin-induced interleukin-8 release from human airway smooth muscle cells

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    Halayko Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway smooth muscle contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases by secreting inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8. IL-8 production is in part regulated via activation of Gq-and Gs-coupled receptors. Here we study the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP effectors protein kinase A (PKA and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac1 and Epac2 in the bradykinin-induced IL-8 release from a human airway smooth muscle cell line and the underlying molecular mechanisms of this response. Methods IL-8 release was assessed via ELISA under basal condition and after stimulation with bradykinin alone or in combination with fenoterol, the Epac activators 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP and Sp-8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMPS, the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cGMP. Where indicated, cells were pre-incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors Clostridium difficile toxin B-1470 (GTPases, U0126 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 and Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (PKA. The specificity of the cyclic nucleotide analogs was confirmed by measuring phosphorylation of the PKA substrate vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. GTP-loading of Rap1 and Rap2 was evaluated via pull-down technique. Expression of Rap1, Rap2, Epac1 and Epac2 was assessed via western blot. Downregulation of Epac protein expression was achieved by siRNA. Unpaired or paired two-tailed Student's t test was used. Results The β2-agonist fenoterol augmented release of IL-8 by bradykinin. The PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP significantly increased bradykinin-induced IL-8 release. The hydrolysis-resistant Epac activator Sp-8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMPS mimicked the effects of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, whereas the negative control 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cGMP did not. Fenoterol, forskolin and 6-Bnz-cAMP induced VASP phosphorylation, which was diminished by the PKA inhibitor Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS. 6-Bnz-cAMP and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP induced GTP

  2. Effect of bradykinin antagonists on bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation, venoconstriction, prostaglandin E2 release, nociceptor stimulation and contraction of the iris sphincter muscle in the rabbit.

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    Griesbacher, T.; Lembeck, F.

    1987-01-01

    1 The inhibition of the bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by six bradykinin (Bk) antagonists was tested on rabbit skin. All of them showed inhibitory effects without an agonistic action in the does used. B4310 (Lys-Lys-3-Hyp-5,8-Thi-7-DPhe-Bk) was the most active antagonist and was therefore used in the subsequent experiments. 2 B4310 (5-500 nM) antagonized the bradykinin-induced reduction of the venous outflow from the rabbit isolated ear in dose-dependent manner without affecting the arterial vasoconstriction induced by angiotensin II. 3 The bradykinin-induced release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from the perfused rabbit ear was reduced by 63% when B4310 (800 nM) was infused before, during and after the bradykinin injection. 4 Bradykinin was injected into the ear artery of anaesthetized rabbits and the reflex hypotensive response was used as indicator of the nociception. The response was antagonized by a local infusion of B4310 (50 and 500 nM). The antagonism was dose-dependent and reversible. The parallel shift of the dose-response curve to bradykinin suggests a competitive inhibition. However, B4310 did not antagonize acetylcholine-induced nociceptor stimulation. 5 B4310 inhibited bradykinin-induced stimulation of the trigeminal nerve which results in a substance P-mediated contraction of the iris sphincter muscle. A pA2 of 7.59 was calculated. B4310 did not inhibit capsaicin-induced contractions. 6 It is concluded that B4310 inhibits specifically five different actions of bradykinin which are related to its possible pathophysiological role. PMID:3479223

  3. The major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii induces release and gene expression of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Bettina; Levine, S J

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may play a central role in host defense and pathogenesis during Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In order to investigate whether the major surface antigen (MSG) of human P. carinii is capable of eliciting...... the release of IL-8 and TNF-alpha, human monocytes were cultured in the presence of purified MSG. MSG-stimulated cells released significant amounts of IL-8 within 4 h, and at 20 h, cells stimulated with MSG released 45.5 +/- 9.3 ng of IL-8/ml versus 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for control cultures (P = 0.......01). In a similar fashion, MSG elicited release of TNF-alpha. Initial increases were also seen at 4 h, and at 20 h, TNF-alpha levels reached 6.4 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, compared to 0.08 +/- 0.01 ng/ml for control cultures (P alpha secretion was observed at 20 h...

  4. Toxicity of jet fuel aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures on human epidermal Keratinocytes: evaluation based on in vitro cytotoxicity and interleukin-8 release

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    Yang, Jen-Hung (Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C); Lee, Chia-Hue; Tsang, Chau-Loong [National Chung-Hsing University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Taichung (Taiwan); Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Riviere, Jim E. [North Carolina State University, Center for Chemical Toxicology Research and Pharmacokinetics (CCTRP), Raleigh, NC (United States); Chou, Chi-Chung [National Chung-Hsing University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Taichung (Taiwan); National Chung-Hsing University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2006-08-15

    Jet fuels are complex mixtures of aliphatic (ALI) and aromatic (ARO) hydrocarbons that vary significantly in individual cytotoxicity and proinflammatory activity in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). In order to delineate the toxicological interactions among individual hydrocarbons in a mixture and their contributions to cutaneous toxicity, nine ALI and five ARO hydrocarbons were each divided into five (high/medium/low cytotoxic and strong/weak IL-8 induction) groups and intra/inter-mixed to assess for their mixture effects on HEK mortality and IL-8 release. Addition of single hydrocarbon to JP-8 fuel was also evaluated for their changes in fuel dermatotoxicity. The results indicated that when hydrocarbons were mixed, HEK mortality and IL-8 release were not all predictable by their individual ability affecting these two parameters. The lowest HEK mortality (7%) and the highest IL-8 production were induced with mixtures including high cytotoxic and weak IL-8 inductive ARO hydrocarbons. Antagonistic reactions not consistently correlated with ALI carbon chain length and ARO structure were evident and carried different weight in the overall mixture toxicities. Single addition of benzene, toluene, xylene or ethylbenzene for up to tenfold in JP-8 did not increase HEK mortality while single addition of ALI hydrocarbons exhibited dose-related differential response in IL-8. In an all ALI environment, no single hydrocarbon is the dominating factor in the determination of HEK cytotoxicity while deletion of hexadecane resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in IL-8 production. Overall, decane, undecane and dodecane were the major hydrocarbons associated with high cytotoxicity while tetradecane, pentadecane and hexadecane were those which had the greatest buffering effect attenuating dermatotoxicity. The mixture effects must be considered when evaluating jet fuel toxicity to HEK. (orig.)

  5. Effects of peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients on interferon-gamma-induced protein-10 (CXCL10) and interleukin-8 (CXCL8) released by neutrophils and CD4+ T cells.

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    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Joo, Jong-Kil; Jin, Jun-O; Wang, Ji-Won; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kwak, Jong-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2009-09-01

    Intraperitoneal immuno-inflammatory changes may be associated with the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We evaluated the effects of peritoneal fluid obtained from patients with endometriosis (ePF) on the release of interferon-gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10) and interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) by neutrophils, CD4(+) T cells, and monocytes. Neutrophils, CD4(+) T cells, and monocytes were cultured with ePF and the chemokine levels in the supernatants were then measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The addition of ePF to cultures of CD4(+) T cells led to a significant increase in the release of IP-10 when compared with control PF without endometriosis (cPF). There was a positive correlation between the levels of IL-8 and IP-10 in ePF (R = 0.89, P = 0.041), but not between the levels of IP-10 and IL-8 released by neutrophils, CD4(+) T cells, and monocytes. The levels of IP-10 in ePF were positively correlated with the release of IP-10 by ePF-treated neutrophils (R = 0.89, P ePF significantly enhanced the interferon-gamma-induced release of IP-10 by nuetrophils and CD4(+) T cells. These findings suggest that neutrophils and T cells release differential levels of IP-10 and IL-8 in response to stimulation with ePF, and that these cells are a major source of IP-10 in the PF of endometriosis patients.

  6. Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract and its bioactive component penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose decreased production of reactive oxygen species and inhibited release of leukotriene B4, interleukin-8, elastase, and myeloperoxidase in human neutrophils.

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    Kiss, Anna K; Filipek, Agnieszka; Czerwińska, Monika; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2010-09-22

    In this study, we analyzed ex vivo the effect of an aqueous extract of Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds on the formation of neutrophil-derived oxidants. For defining active compounds, we also tested lypophilic extract constituents such as gallic acid, (+)-catechin, ellagic acid, and penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose and a hydrophilic fraction containing polymeric procyanidins. The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract and compounds was tested by determining the release from activated neutrophils of elastase, myeloperoxidase, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which are considered relevant for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The extract of O. paradoxa defatted seeds displays potent antioxidant effects against both 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-α13-acetate- and formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine-induced reactive oxygen species production in neutrophils with IC50 values around 0.2 μg/mL. All types of polyphenolics present in the extract contributed to the extract antioxidant activity. According to their IC50 values, penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose was the more potent constituent of the extract. In cell-free assays, we demonstrated that this effect is partially due to the scavenging of O2- and H2O2 oxygen species. The extract and especially penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose significantly inhibit elastase, myeloperoxidase IL-8, and LTB4 release with an IC50 for penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose of 17±1, 15±1, 6.5±2.5, and around 20 μM, respectively. The inhibition of penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose on reactive oxygen species and especially on O2- production, myeloperoxidase, and chemoattractant release may reduce the interaction of polymorphonuclear leukocyte with the vascular endothelium and by that potentially diminish the risk of progression of atherosclerosis development.

  7. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

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    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  8. Involvement of interleukin-8 in dialysis-related arthritis.

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    Takayama, F; Miyazaki, T; Aoyama, I; Tsukushi, S; Sato, M; Yamazaki, C; Shimokata, K; Niwa, T

    1998-04-01

    To elucidate the role of interleukin (IL)-8, a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, in dialysis-related arthritis (DRA) of patients on long-term hemodialysis, the concentration of IL-8 was measured in the synovial fluids of DRA patients with acute arthralgia and joint swelling, and was compared with those in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and patients with osteoarthritis (OA). We noted a marked elevation of IL-8 in the joint fluids of patients with DRA and RA as compared with OA. Furthermore, to determine the role of IL-8 in synovitis, we examined the in vivo effect of intra-articular injection of human recombinant IL-8 on leukocyte infiltration into the joint space of rabbits. A single injection of IL-8 to the joints of rabbits induced rapid infiltration of neutrophils into the joint space and synovial tissues, which reached a maximum in four hours. The oral administration of indometacin farnesil (a prodrug that is converted to indomethacin after intestinal absorption) before the injection of IL-8 alleviated the infiltration of neutrophils. When human synovial cells were incubated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, the expression of IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 production in the cultured synovial cells were increased. The TNF-alpha-stimulated expression of IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 production in the cultured synovial cells were markedly inhibited by dexamethasone. In conclusion, IL-8 levels were markedly elevated in the joint fluids of patients with DRA. Interleukin-8 released from synovial cells may be an important factor to induce acute inflammation in DRA. Dexamethasone and indomethacin may be effective for DRA by inhibiting the production and chemotactic actions of IL-8, respectively.

  9. Ketamine alleviates bradykinin-induced disruption of the mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cell-constructed tight junction barrier via a calcium-mediated redistribution of occludin polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jui-Tai; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Ta-Liang; Tai, Yu-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ketamine could suppress bradykinin-induced intracellular calcium mobilization. • Ketamine induced B1R protein and mRNA expressions but did not change B2R protein levels. • Ketamine attenuated bradykinin-induced redistribution of occludin tight junctions. • Ketamine prevented bradykinin-induced breakage of the MCEC-constructed tight junction barrier. - Abstract: Following brain injury, a sequence of mechanisms leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent cerebral edema, which is thought to begin with activation of bradykinin. Our previous studies showed that ketamine, a widely used intravenous anesthetic agent, can suppress bradykinin-induced cell dysfunction. This study further aimed to evaluate the protective effects of ketamine against bradykinin-induced disruption of the mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cell (MCEC)-constructed tight junction barrier and the possible mechanisms. Exposure of MCECs to bradykinin increased intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentrations in a time-dependent manner. However, pretreatment of MCECs with ketamine time- and concentration-dependently lowered the bradykinin-induced calcium influx. As to the mechanisms, although exposure of MCECs to ketamine induced bradykinin R1 receptor protein and mRNA expression, this anesthetic did not change levels of the bradykinin R2 receptor, a major receptor that responds to bradykinin stimulation. Bradykinin increased amounts of soluble occludin in MCECs, but pretreatment with ketamine alleviated this disturbance in occludin polymerization. Consequently, exposure to bradykinin decreased the transendothelial electronic resistance in the MCEC-constructed tight junction barrier. However, pretreatment with ketamine attenuated the bradykinin-induced disruption of the tight junction barrier. Taken together, this study shows that ketamine at a therapeutic concentration can protect against bradykinin-induced breakage of the BBB via suppressing calcium

  10. Immunohistochemical detection of interleukin-8 in inflamed porcine tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Henriette; Jensen, Henrik Elkær; Leifsson, Páll S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the specific localization of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in cells in situ in a variety of inflammatory processes in different tissues from pigs. Our hypothesis was that IL-8 primarily is a neutrophil related cytokine present in all extravascular neutrophils...... while expression also occurs in other cell types in response to an inflammatory stimulus. Using IL-8 immunohistochemistry we discovered that neutrophils were the predominant IL-8 positive cell population while epithelial cell types and endothelium of postcapillary venules could be positive when situated...... in close vicinity of an inflammatory lesion. Furthermore, endothelial cells of newly formed vessels in granulation tissue were positive in some specimens. Some sub-populations of inflammatory neutrophils were, however, IL-8 negative which could reflect some phase of neutrophil swarming....

  11. Characterization of interleukin-8 receptors in non-human primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, V.; Coto, E.; Gonzalez-Roces, S.; Lopez-Larrea, C. [Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Interleukin-8 is a chemokine with a potent neutrophil chemoatractant activity. In humans, two different cDNAs encoding human IL8 receptors designated IL8RA and IL8RB have been cloned. IL8RA binds IL8, while IL8RB binds IL8 as well as other {alpha}-chemokines. Both human IL8Rs are encoded by two genes physically linked on chromosome 2. The IL8RA and IL8RB genes have open reading frames (ORF) lacking introns. By direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction products, we sequenced the IL8R genes of cell lines from four non-human primates: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and macaca. The IL8RB encodes an ORF in the four non-human primates, showing 95%-99% similarity to the human IL8RB sequence. The IL8RA homologue in gorilla and chimpanzee consisted of two ORF 98%-99% identical to the human sequence. The macaca and orangutan IL8RA homologues are pseudogenes: a 2 base pair insertion generated a sequence with several stop codons. In addition, we describe the physical linkage of these genes in the four non-human primates and discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Interleukin-8 is a prognostic indicator in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma

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    Sun, Qi; Li, Fanni; Sun, Fengkai; Niu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and neovascularization have been implicated to be associated with biological processes, especially cancer progression. However, few studies have investigated the role of IL-8 in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma. In this study we detected the expression of IL-8 combined with MMP-9 and microvessel density (MVD) in hilar cholangiocarcinoma to evaluate their clinicopathological significance and prognostic value. A total of 62 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma who underwent curative surgery were enrolled in this study. The expression of IL-8, MMP-9 and MVD were examined immunohistochemically. The correlation of IL-8 with MMP-9 expression, MVD, clinicopathological features and survival time of patients were then analyzed. Expression of IL-8 was observed in 56.5% tumors, which was related to advanced TNM stage (P = 0.026) and tumor recurrence (P = 0.018). IL-8 had a positive correlation with MMP-9 expression and MVD. Furthermore, patients with high IL-8 expression had a significantly shorter overall survival than those with low IL-8 expression (P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis confirmed IL-8 as an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.005). In conclusion, IL-8 expression significantly correlated with MMP-9 expression and MVD, and IL-8 was a valuable prognostic factor for human hilar cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26339407

  13. Three-dimensional structure of interleukin 8 in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clore, G.M.; Appella, E.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Yamada, Masaki; Matsushima, Kouji

    1990-01-01

    The solution structure of the interleukin 8 (IL-8) dimer has been solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing calculations. The structure determination is based on a total of 1,880 experimental distance restraints (of which 82 are intersubunit) and 362 torsion angle restraints (comprising φ, ψ, and χ 1 torsion angles). A total of 30 simulated annealing structures were calculated, and the atomic rms distribution about the mean coordinate positions (excluding residues 1-5 of each subunit) is 0.41 ± 0.08 angstrom for the backbone atoms and 0.90 ± 0.08 angstrom for all atoms. The three-dimensional solution structure of the IL-8 dimer reveals a structural motif in which two symmetry-related antiparallel α-helices, approximately 24 angstrom long and separated by about 14 angstrom, lie on top of six-stranded antiparallel β-sheet platform derived from two three-stranded Greek keys, one from each monomer unit. The general architecture is similar to that of the α1/α2 domains of the human class I histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2. It is suggested that the two α-helices form the binding site for the cellular receptor and that the specificity of IL-8, as well as that of a number of related proteins involved in cell-specific chemotaxis, mediation of cell growth, and the inflammatory response, is achieved by the distinct distribution of charged and polar residues at the surface of the helices

  14. Three-dimensional structure of interleukin 8 in solution.

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    Clore, G M; Appella, E; Yamada, M; Matsushima, K; Gronenborn, A M

    1990-02-20

    The solution structure of the interleukin 8 (IL-8) dimer has been solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing calculations. The structure determination is based on a total of 1880 experimental distance restraints (of which 82 are intersubunit) and 362 torsion angle restraints (comprising phi, psi, and chi 1 torsion angles). A total of 30 simulated annealing structures were calculated, and the atomic rms distribution about the mean coordinate positions (excluding residues 1-5 of each subunit) is 0.41 +/- 0.08 A for the backbone atoms and 0.90 +/- 0.08 A for all atoms. The three-dimensional solution structure of the IL-8 dimer reveals a structural motif in which two symmetry-related antiparallel alpha-helices, approximately 24 A long and separated by about 14 A, lie on top of a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet platform derived from two three-stranded Greek keys, one from each monomer unit. The general architecture is similar to that of the alpha 1/alpha 2 domains of the human class I histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2. It is suggested that the two alpha-helices form the binding site for the cellular receptor and that the specificity of IL-8, as well as that of a number of related proteins involved in cell-specific chemotaxis, mediation of cell growth, and the inflammatory response, is achieved by the distinct distribution of charged and polar residues at the surface of the helices.

  15. Glutamine deprivation induces interleukin-8 expression in ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts.

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    Kim, Min-Hyun; Kim, Aryung; Yu, Ji Hoon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether glutamine deprivation induces expression of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by determining NF-κB activity and levels of oxidative indices (ROS, reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; GSH, glutathione) in fibroblasts isolated from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). We used A-T fibroblasts stably transfected with empty vector (Mock) or with human full-length ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cDNA (YZ5) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) transiently transfected with ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) or with non-specific control siRNA. The cells were cultured with or without glutamine or GSH. ROS levels were determined using a fluorescence reader and confocal microscopy. IL-8 or murine IL-8 homolog, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and hydrogen peroxide levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric assay. GSH level was assessed by enzymatic assay, while IL-8 (KC) mRNA level was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or quantitative real-time PCR. NF-κB DNA-binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Catalase activity and ATM protein levels were determined by O2 generation and Western blotting. While glutamine deprivation induced IL-8 expression and increased NF-κB DNA-binding activity in Mock cells, both processes were decreased by treatment of cells with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. Glutamine deprivation had no effect on IL-8 expression or NF-κB DNA-binding activity in YZ5 cells. Glutamine-deprived Mock cells had higher oxidative stress indices (increases in ROS and hydrogen peroxide, reduction in GSH) than glutamine-deprived YZ5 cells. In Mock cells, glutamine deprivation-induced oxidative stress indices were suppressed by treatment with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. GSH levels and catalase activity were lower in Mock cells than YZ5 cells. MEFs transfected with ATM siRNA and

  16. Variants in the interleukin 8 gene and the response to inhaled bronchodilators in cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Lazzarini Furlan

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: This study highlighted the importance of the rs4073 variant of the interleukin 8 gene, regarding response to inhaled bronchodilators, and of the assessment of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene.

  17. Elevated interleukin-8 enhances prefrontal synaptic transmission in mice with persistent inflammatory pain

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    Cui Guang-bin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-8 (IL-8 is known for its roles in inflammation and plays critical roles in the development of pain. Its expression increases in the brain after peripheral inflammation. Prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, is a forebrain structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Painful stimuli potentiate the prefrontal synaptic transmission, however, little is known about the expression of IL-8 and its role in the enhanced ACC synaptic transmission in animals with persistent inflammatory pain. Findings In the present study, we examined IL-8 expression in the ACC, somatosensory cortex (SSC, and the dorsal horn of lumbar spinal cord following hind-paw administration of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA in mice and its effects on the ACC synaptic transmission. Quantification of IL-8 at protein level (by ELISA revealed enhanced expression in the ACC and spinal cord during the chronic phases of CFA-induced peripheral inflammation. In vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that IL-8 significantly enhanced synaptic transmission through increased probability of neurotransmitter release in the ACC slice. ACC local infusion of repertaxin, a non-competitive allosteric blocker of IL-8 receptors, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in mice. Conclusions Our findings suggest that up-regulation of IL-8 in the ACC partly attributable to the enhanced prefrontal synaptic transmission in the mice with persistent inflammatory pain.

  18. Perinatal development influences mechanisms of bradykinin-induced relaxations in pulmonary resistance and conduit arteries differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, P J; Deutsch, J; Gao, B; Haworth, S G

    2001-07-01

    prostaglandin- and NO-synthesis whereas those to SP (at all ages) and ACH (in the adult) do not. In RPA, BYK-relaxations develop from being completely dependant on the sole release of NO (foetus) to being almost completely independent of it (adult), a situation mimicked partially by SP but not by ACH, which, in new-born RPA is completely dependent on NO. BYK-relaxations in postnatal RPA depend on the release of a hyperpolarising factor generated through an SKF525a-sensitive pathway in conjunction with NO. The mechanisms of endothelium-dependent BYK-relaxations in the pulmonary vascular bed undergo diverging alterations, depending on the stage of development and arterial size/function. These changes are specific for BYK as they differ from those obtained from ACH or SP.

  19. The effects of interleukin-8 on airway smooth muscle contraction in cystic fibrosis

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    Safka Katherine

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cystic fibrosis (CF patients display airway hyperresponsiveness and have symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheezing and reversible airway obstruction. Chronic airway bacterial colonization, associated with neutrophilic inflammation and high levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8 is also a common occurrence in these patients. The aim of this work was to determine the responsiveness of airway smooth muscle to IL-8 in CF patients compared to non-CF individuals. Methods Experiments were conducted on cultured ASM cells harvested from subjects with and without CF (control subjects. Cells from the 2nd to 5th passage were studied. Expression of the IL-8 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 was assessed by flow cytometry. The cell response to IL-8 was determined by measuring intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i, cell contraction, migration and proliferation. Results The IL-8 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 were expressed in both non-CF and CF ASM cells to a comparable extent. IL-8 (100 nM induced a peak Ca2+ release that was higher in control than in CF cells: 228 ± 7 versus 198 ± 10 nM (p 20 in CF than in control cells. In addition, MLC20 expression was also increased in CF cells. Exposure to IL-8 induced migration and proliferation of both groups of ASM cells but was not different between CF and non-CF cells. Conclusion ASM cells of CF patients are more contractile to IL-8 than non-CF ASM cells. This enhanced contractility may be due to an increase in the amount of contractile protein MLC20. Higher expression of MLC20 by CF cells could contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness to IL-8 in CF patients.

  20. Characterization of a receptor for human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grob, P.M.; David, E.; Warren, T.C.; DeLeon, R.P.; Farina, P.R.; Homon, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8 (MDNCF/IL-8) is an 8,000-dalton protein produced by monocytes which exhibits activity as a chemoattractant for neutrophils with maximal activity achieved at a concentration of 50 ng/ml. This polypeptide has been iodinated by chloramine-T methodology (350 Ci/mM), and specific receptors for MDNCF/IL-8 have been detected on human neutrophils, U937 cells, THP-1 cells, and dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells. The binding of MDNCF/IL-8 to human neutrophils is not inhibited by interleukin-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, insulin, or epidermal growth factor. In addition, chemoattractants such as C5a, fMet-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, and platelet-activating factor fail to inhibit binding, suggesting that MDNCF/IL-8 utilizes a unique receptor. The receptor for MDNCF/IL-8 is apparently glycosylated since ligand binding is inhibited by the presence of wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin with a binding specificity for N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid. Steady state binding experiments indicate Kd values of 4 and 0.5 nM and receptor numbers of 75,000 and 7,400 for human neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 cells, respectively. 125I-MDNCF/IL-8 bound to human neutrophils is rapidly internalized and subsequently released from cells as trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity. Affinity labeling experiments suggest that the human neutrophil MDNCF/IL-8 receptor exhibits a mass of approximately 58,000 daltons

  1. Interleukin-8 induces motile behavior and loss of focal adhesions in primary fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunlevy, J R; Couchman, J R

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a proinflammatory cytokine that promotes neutrophil migration. Although fibroblasts are known to secrete IL-8, the actions of this cytokine on fibroblasts have not been previously reported. We have found that in subconfluent populations of cultured primary fibroblasts, IL-8...

  2. Intraperitoneal interleukin-8 and neutrophil influx in the initial phase of a CAPD peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betjes, M. G.; Visser, C. E.; Zemel, D.; Tuk, C. W.; Struijk, D. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.; Beelen, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not a change in dialysate interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration precedes the onset of clinically overt peritonitis and is significant in the recruitment of granulocytes during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-related peritonitis. DESIGN: CAPD

  3. Variants in the interleukin 8 gene and the response to inhaled bronchodilators in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Larissa Lazzarini; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Salomão Junior, João Batista; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima

    Interleukin 8 protein promotes inflammatory responses, even in airways. The presence of interleukin 8 gene variants causes altered inflammatory responses and possibly varied responses to inhaled bronchodilators. Thus, this study analyzed the interleukin 8 variants (rs4073, rs2227306, and rs2227307) and their association with the response to inhaled bronchodilators in cystic fibrosis patients. Analysis of interleukin 8 gene variants was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction. The association between spirometry markers and the response to inhaled bronchodilators was evaluated by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The analysis included all cystic fibrosis patients, and subsequently patients with two mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene belonging to classes I to III. This study included 186 cystic fibrosis patients. There was no association of the rs2227307 variant with the response to inhaled bronchodilators. The rs2227306 variant was associated with FEF 50% in the dominant group and in the group with two identified mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. The rs4073 variant was associated with spirometry markers in four genetic models: co-dominant (FEF 25-75% and FEF 75% ), dominant (FEV 1 , FEF 50% , FEF 75% , and FEF 25-75% ), recessive (FEF 75% and FEF 25-75% ), and over-dominant (FEV 1 /FVC). This study highlighted the importance of the rs4073 variant of the interleukin 8 gene, regarding response to inhaled bronchodilators, and of the assessment of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones on maximal normalized rate of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in the presence of calcium channel blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Virych

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern organic chemistry and molecular modeling technologies simplify the search for potential inhibitors of various receptor systems and biological processes. The one of the directions is the development of analgesics of broad spectrum and low toxicity. It is important to search for inhibitors of the kinin-kallikrein system that regulates many functions: inflammation, pain, carcinogenesis, vascular tone, smooth muscle contraction and other. Derivatives of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones have a unique spatial conformation that allows one to simulate β-structures of bioactive peptides. The functional activity of compounds is determined by properties of their peripheral chemical radicals. We analyzed the effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones derivatives on the normalized maximal rate of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction and relaxation of the stomach in the presence of calcium channel blockers: verapamil (1 μM, gadolinium (300 μM and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (0.1 μM. The levels of bradykinin and 3-arylamino-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones in incubation solution were 10–6 M. Data processing on dynamics of contraction was performed according to the method of Burdyha and Kosterin. Compounds MX-1775 and MX-1925 reduced maximal normalized rate (Vn of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in the presence of Gd3+ by 21.2% and 31.0% respectively. Compound MX-1925 increased Vn of relaxation by 11.6%. A similar effect is typical for MX-2011, where there is an increase by 34.6%. In the presence of verapamil this compound additionally decreased Vn contraction by 20.5%. Substances MX-1775, MX-2004 and MX-1925 restored maximal normalized rate of relaxation to original values of bradykinin-induced contraction. In the presence of 2-aminoethyldiphenylborinate MX-1775 additionally reduced Vn of contractions by 7.5%. 3-substituted 1,4-benzo­diazepine-2-ones did not change the maximal

  5. Effect of 3-arylamino-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones on the bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Virych

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to tissue, inflammation and disruption of normal functioning of organs are often accompanied by pain. In pain perceptions, the kinin-kallikrein system with bradykinin as mediator is very important. Regulatory activity of the kinin-kallikrein system permits the control of inflammation, pain, vascular tone and other functions. A new group of substances that may used for this purpose are 3-substituted 1,4-benzdiazepinones. We analyzed the effect of 3-aryl amino-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones derivatives on the normalized maximal rate of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction of the stomach in the presence of calcium channel blockers verapamil (1 μM and gadolinium (300 μM. The levels of bradykinin and 3-arylamino-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones in the incubation solution were 10–6 M. Data processing on the dynamics of contraction was performed according to the method of T. Burdyha and S. Kosterin. Statistically significant changes were found for MX-1828. This compound reduced the maximal normalized rate of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in the presence of Gd3+ and verapamil by 19.3% and 32.0%, respectively. Also, MX-1828 demonstrated effects similar to those of the competitive inhibitor bradykinin B2-receptor – des-Arg9-bradykinin-acetate, which is possible evidence of its interaction with the receptor or signal transduction pathways. MX-1828 additionally reduced the maximum normalized rate of relaxation by 6.2% in the presence of Gd3+. This effect was demonstrated for MX-1906 in the presence of verapamil with additional reduction of the maximal normalized rate of relaxation, which was 26.4%. The results suggest the presence of inhibitory interaction between MX-1828 and kinin-kallikrein system receptors or signal transduction pathways. The effects which were found for MX-1906 require further studies to clarify the mechanisms of influence on bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction.

  6. A ROLE FOR INTERLEUKIN 8 IN DIRECT REGULATION OF T CELL FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Meniailo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CD3+T lymphocytes were isolated from normal donors by positive magnetic separation. Activation of the T cells with particles conjugated with antibodies to CD3, СD28 and СD2 molecules led to substantial increase in T cell production of interleukin-8 (IL-8. An interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR1, CD181 was initially expressed in 13.3% of T lymphocytes. Activation of T lymphocytes resulted into a detectable increase of CD181+ cell number among CD4+ naïve cells and CD4+ terminally-differentiated effector cells, and, conversely, into decrease of their number among CD4+ effector memory cells. Activation of T lymphocytes was assessed by membrane expression of CD25 molecule (receptor for IL-2. IL-8 (0.01-10.0 ng/ml was shown to markedly reduce activation of both CD4- and CD4+ effector memory T cells, as well as terminallydifferentiated T effectors, without significantly affecting activation of naive T lymphocytes and central memory T cells. IL-8 noticeably increased IL-2 production by activated Т cells, caused a reduced IL-10 production, and did not significantly affect the secretion of IFNγ and IL-4. The data obtained suggest a significance of IL-8 for direct regulation of adaptive T cell responses.

  7. Increased circulating interleukin-8 in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone receptor α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H van der Spek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune cells have recently been identified as novel thyroid hormone (TH target cells in which intracellular TH levels appear to play an important functional role. The possible involvement of TH receptor alpha (TRα, which is the predominant TR in these cells, has not been studied to date. Studies in TRα0/0 mice suggest a role for this receptor in innate immune function. The aim of this study was to determine whether TRα affects the human innate immune response. We assessed circulating interleukin-8 concentrations in a cohort of 8 patients with resistance to TH due to a mutation of TRα (RTHα and compared these results to healthy controls. In addition, we measured neutrophil and macrophage function in one of these RTHα patients (mutation D211G. Circulating interleukin-8 levels were elevated in 7 out of 8 RTHα patients compared to controls. These patients harbor different mutations, suggesting that this is a general feature of the syndrome of RTHα. Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis, bacterial killing, NAPDH oxidase activity and chemotaxis were unaltered in cells derived from the RTHαD211G patient. RTHα macrophage phagocytosis and cytokine induction after LPS treatment were similar to results from control cells. The D211G mutation did not result in clinically relevant impairment of neutrophil or pro-inflammatory macrophage function. As elevated circulating IL-8 is also observed in hyperthyroidism, this observation could be due to the high-normal to high levels of circulating T3 found in patients with RTHα.

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of interleukin 8 in skin biopsies from patients with inflammatory acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Maged Rabee A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the immunohistochemical (IHC expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8 in skin biopsies of inflammatory acne vulgaris (IAV in an attempt to understand the disease pathogenesis. Materials and methods A total of 58 biopsies, 29 from lesional IAV and 29 normal non lesional sites were immunostained for IL-8. The intensity of staining was evaluated in the epidermis and dermis and was scored as mild, moderate and severe. The expression was correlated with the clinical grade, disease course and histological changes. Results IL-8 immunoreactivity was expressed in lesional IAV compared to non lesional skin biopsies (p Conclusion We were able to demonstrate altered immunoreactivity of IL-8 in IAV compared to normal skin. Targeted therapy to block IL-8 production may hold promise in limiting the deleterious effects of IL-8-mediated inflammatory response and angiogenesis.

  9. Interleukin-8 stimulates progesterone production via the MEK pathway in ovarian theca cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Imamura, Eri; Magata, Fumie; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio

    2013-02-01

    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemoattractant associated with ovulation in the mammalian ovary. This chemokine is also involved in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils. Using bovine tissue, we examined the possible role of IL-8 in steroid production by theca cells of the large ovarian follicles. IL-8 promoted progesterone production and stimulated StAR expression in cultured theca cells. The inhibitor of p38 did not disturb the P4 production and StAR expression in IL-8-treated theca cells. On the other hand, the inhibitor of MEK disturbed the P4 production and expression of StAR in theca cells treated with IL-8. These results suggest that IL-8 is associated with progesterone production in bovine theca cells via the MEK pathway.

  10. The changes of interleukin-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jian; Li Hairu

    2011-01-01

    To explore the changes of interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and their clinical significance in periodontitis patients. The IL-8 level in GCF from 67 teeth of 52 patients with adult periodontitis (AP), 37 teeth of 23 patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) and 49 teeth of 31 normal controls were determined by RIA, and the clinical periodontoclasia indices of PD and AL were recorded. The results showed that the IL-8 levels in patients with AP and RPP were significantly higher than that of in health controls (P<0.01). The IL-8 was positively correlated to PD and AL. The results indicate that IL-8 may be one of the important cytokines in alveolar resorption of periodontoclasia. (authors)

  11. Prognostic value of interleukin-8 in AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Vestbo, Jørgen; Junge, Jette

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent neutrophil chemoattractant and activator. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is associated with an accumulation of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Thus, we hypothesized that IL-8 is involved in the pathogenesis of P. carinii pneumonia. BAL fluid...... and serum were prospectively collected in 76 consecutive HIV-infected patients with a primary episode of P. carinii pneumonia, as well as in 10 healthy control subjects. Patients were found to have elevated levels of IL-8 in BAL fluid compared with control subjects (p ... the course of P. carinii pneumonia. Comparing survivors with nonsurvivors, the median IL-8 level in BAL fluid was 127 (0 to 3,900) versus 584 (127 to 6,100) pg/ml (p

  12. Hypo-responsiveness of interleukin-8 production in human embryonic epithelial intestine 407 cells independent of NF-κB pathway: New lessons from endotoxin and ribotoxic deoxynivalenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Yuseok; Yang, Hyun; Park, Seung-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Mucosal epithelium senses external toxic insults and transmits the danger signals into the epithelial cells in order to activate a broad range of inflammatory responses. However, pre-exposure to the commensal endotoxins can induce inflammatory tolerance and maintain the homeostasis without excessive immune responses. We recently reported that ribotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives elicited the pro-inflammatory response as the mucosal insults in human epithelial cells. Taking the knowledge into consideration, we tested the hypothesis that endotoxin pre-exposure can attenuate ribotoxin-induced epithelial interleukin-8 (IL-8) production via a tolerance mechanism. Pre-exposure to endotoxin repressed IL-8 release and its gene expression. However, inflammatory tolerance was not mediated by the attenuated NF-κB activation which has been generally recognized as the major mediator of LPS-mediated toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. Instead, pre-exposure to endotoxin was observed to trigger the delayed induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) which contributed to the diminished IL-8 production in the human epithelial cells. Moreover, endogenous PPAR-γ agonist suppressed toxicant-mediated interleukin-8 production and IL-8 mRNA stability. Taken together, endotoxin induced hypo-production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in the human epithelial cells, which was associated with the delayed activation of PPAR-γ expression by pre-existing endotoxin

  13. Peptide IC-20, encoded by skin kininogen-1 of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, antagonizes bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives were to determine if the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata, in common with other related species, contains a bradykinin inhibitor peptide and to isolate and structurally characterize this peptide. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized skin secretion obtained from this toad was subjected to reverse phase HPLC fractionation with subsequent bioassay of fractions for antagonism of the bradykinin activity using an isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle preparation. Subsequently, the primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy, and molecular cloning, following which a synthetic replicate was chemically synthesised for bioassay. Results: A single peptide of molecular mass 2300.92 Da was resolved in HPLC fractions of skin secretion and its primary structure determined as IYNAIWP-KH-NK-KPGLL-. Database interrogation with this sequence indicated that this peptide was encoded by skin kininogen-1 previously cloned from B. variegata. The blank cycles were occupied by cysteinyl (C residues and the peptide was located toward the C-terminus of the skin kininogen, and flanked N-terminally by a classical -KR- propeptide convertase processing site. The peptide was named IC-20 in accordance (I = N-terminal isoleucine, C = C-terminal cysteine, 20 = number of residues. Like the natural peptide, its synthetic replicate displayed an antagonism of bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Conclusion: IC-20 represents a novel bradykinin antagonizing peptide from amphibian skin secretions and is the third such peptide found to be co-encoded with bradykinins within skin kininogens.

  14. Thromboxane A2 increases endothelial permeability through upregulation of interleukin-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su-Ryun; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Park, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Koanhoi; Park, Shi-Young; Jang, Hye-Ock; Yun, Il; Kim, Yung-Jin; Yoo, Mi-Ae; Bae, Moon-Kyoung

    2010-01-01

    Thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ), a major prostanoid formed from prostaglandin H 2 by thromboxane synthase, is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of vascular diseases. In this study, we report that TXA 2 mimetic U46619 significantly increases the endothelial permeability both in vitro and in vivo. U46619 enhanced the expression and secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a major inducer of vascular permeability, in endothelial cells. Promoter analysis showed that the U46619-induced expression of IL-8 was mainly regulated by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). U46619 induced the activation of NF-κB through IκB kinase (IKK) activation, IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, the inhibition of IL-8 or blockade of the IL-8 receptor attenuated the U46619-induced endothelial cell permeability by modulating the cell-cell junctions. Overall, these results suggest that U46619 promotes vascular permeability through the production of IL-8 via NF-κB activation in endothelial cells.

  15. Interleukin 8 as a vaso-occlusive marker in Brazilian patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M S; Queiroz, I L; Cardoso, S A; Zanetti, A; Strapazoni, A C; Adorno, E; Albuquerque, A; Sant'Ana, A; dos Reis, M G; Barral, A; Barral Netto, M

    2001-10-01

    Sickle cell disease has a worldwide distribution and is a public health problem in Brazil. Although vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is one of the most important clinical features of the disease, there are still several steps of its pathogenesis which are unknown. The increase of the chemotactic factor interleukin 8 (IL-8) has been reported to be involved in sickle cell disease crisis, but this has not been demonstrated conclusively. In the present study we analyzed serum IL-8 levels by ELISA and hematological parameters and hemoglobin patterns by standard techniques in 23 (21 SS and 2 SC) Brazilian patients with sickle cell syndromes during VOC caused by different inducing factors, 22 (21 SS and 1 SC) sickle cell patients out of crisis, and 11 healthy controls. Increased IL-8 levels were observed in 19 of 23 VOC patients (79.2%), 3 of them with more than 1,000 pg/ml. Seventeen of 22 (77.3%) non-crisis patients showed low IL-8 levels (less than 15 pg/ml). Healthy controls had low IL-8 levels. A significant difference in serum IL-8 levels was observed between crisis and non-crisis sickle cell patients (Pcrisis-inducing factor. We conclude that in the studied population, IL-8 concentration may be a useful VOC marker, although the mechanism of the pathogenic process of sickle cell VOC syndromes remains unclear.

  16. Stimulation of epithelial cell matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, -9, -13) and interleukin-8 secretion by fusobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, U K; Könönen, E; Uitto, V-J

    2008-10-01

    Bacterial pathogens involved in periodontal diseases exert their destructive effects primarily by stimulating the host cells to increase their secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study aimed to determine the epithelial cell matrix metalloproteinase and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion upon exposure to fusobacteria. Eight different oral and non-oral Fusobacterium strains were incubated with HaCaT epithelial cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blot analysis were performed to detect collagenase 3 (MMP-13), gelatinase A (MMP-2), gelatinase B (MMP-9), and IL-8 secretion by epithelial cells. All Fusobacterium strains, especially Fusobacterium necrophorum ATCC 25286, Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586, and Fusobacterium varium ATCC 51644, increased MMP-9 and MMP-13 secretion. Fusobacterium simiae ATCC 33568, and to a lesser extent F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum, increased epithelial MMP-2 secretion. F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum also increased IL-8 secretion. F. varium ATCC 27725, a strain that only weakly stimulated MMP production, strongly increased the IL-8 production, suggesting that their expression is differently regulated. We conclude that the pathogenic potential of fusobacteria may partly result from their ability to stimulate secretion of MMP-9, MMP-13, and IL-8 from epithelial cells.

  17. A computational study of the chemokine receptor CXCR1 bound with interleukin-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Severin Lupala, Cecylia; Wang, Ting; Li, Xuanxuan; Yun, Ji-Hye; Park, Jae-hyun; Jin, Zeyu; Lee, Weontae; Tan, Leihan; Liu, Haiguang

    2018-03-01

    CXCR1 is a G-protein coupled receptor, transducing signals from chemokines, in particular the interleukin-8 (IL8) molecules. This study combines homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation methods to study the structure of CXCR1-IL8 complex. By using CXCR4-vMIP-II crystallography structure as the homologous template, CXCR1-IL8 complex structure was constructed, and then refined using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Through extensive simulations, CXCR1-IL8 binding poses were investigated in detail. Furthermore, the role of the N-terminal of CXCR1 receptor was studied by comparing four complex models differing in the N-terminal sequences. The results indicate that the receptor N-terminal affects the binding of IL8 significantly. With a shorter N-terminal domain, the binding of IL8 to CXCR1 becomes unstable. The homology modeling and simulations also reveal the key receptor-ligand residues involved in the electrostatic interactions known to be vital for complex formation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11575021, U1530401, and U1430237) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant Nos. NRF-2017R1A2B2008483 and NRF-2016R1A6A3A04010213).

  18. Chronic Antipsychotic Treatment in the Rat – Effects on Brain Interleukin-8 and Kynurenic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus K. Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with activation of the brain immune system as reflected by increased brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA and proinflammatory cytokines. Although antipsychotic drugs have been used for decades in the treatment of the disease, potential effects of these drugs on brain immune signaling are not fully known. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs on brain levels of cytokines and KYNA. Rats were treated daily by intraperitoneally administered haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg, n = 6, olanzapine (2 mg/kg, n = 6, and clozapine (20 mg/kg, n = 6 or saline ( n = 6 for 30 days. Clozapine, but not haloperidol or olanzapine-treated rats displayed significantly lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of interleukin-8 compared to controls. Whole brain levels of KYNA were not changed in any group. Our data suggest that the superior therapeutic effect of clozapine may be a result of its presently shown immunosuppressive action. Further, our data do not support the possibility that elevated brain KYNA found in patients with schizophrenia is a result of antipsychotic treatment.

  19. Association of interleukin-8 and neutrophils with nasal symptom severity during acute respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Kelsey M; Hayney, Mary S; Xie, Yaoguo; Zhang, Zhengjun; Barrett, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    Using a large data set (n = 811), the relationship between acute respiratory infection illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers was investigated to determine whether certain symptoms are correlated more closely than others with the inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and nasal neutrophils. Participants with community acquired acute respiratory infection underwent nasal lavage for IL-8 and neutrophil testing, in addition to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the detection and identification of respiratory viruses. Information about symptoms was obtained throughout the duration of the illness episode using the well-validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). Global symptom severity was calculated by the area under the curve (AUC) plotting duration versus WURSS total. Of the specimens tested, 56% were positively identified for one or more of nine different respiratory viruses. During acute respiratory infection illness, both IL-8 and neutrophils positively correlate with AUC (r(s) = 0.082, P = 0.022; r(s)  = 0.080, P = 0.030). IL-8 and neutrophils correlate with nasal symptom severity: runny nose (r = 0.13, P = acute respiratory infection. Further research is necessary to determine if the concentration of these or other biomarkers can predict the overall duration and severity of acute respiratory infection illness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Epigenetic dysregulation of interleukin 8 (CXCL8) hypersecretion in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poghosyan, Anna, E-mail: pannagos@yahoo.com; Patel, Jamie K.; Clifford, Rachel L.; Knox, Alan J., E-mail: alan.knox@nottingham.ac.uk

    2016-08-05

    Airway epithelial cells in cystic fibrosis (CF) overexpress Interleukin 8 (CXCL8) through poorly defined mechanisms. CXCL8 transcription is dependent on coordinated binding of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)β, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and activator protein (AP)-1 to the promoter. Here we show abnormal epigenetic regulation is responsible for CXCL8 overexpression in CF cells. Under basal conditions CF cells had increased bromodomain (Brd)3 and Brd4 recruitment and enhanced NF-κB and C/EBPβ binding to the CXCL8 promoter compared to non-CF cells due to trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and DNA hypomethylation at CpG6. IL-1β increased NF-κB, C/EBPβ and Brd4 binding. Furthermore, inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain family (BET) proteins reduced CXCL8 production in CF cells suggesting a therapeutic target for the BET pathway. -- Highlights: •A regulatory mechanism of CXCL8 transcriptional control in CF airways is proposed. •There was an increased binding of NF-κB and C/EBPβ transcription factors. •There was enhanced recruitment of BET proteins to the CXCL8 promoter. •Epigenetic modifications are responsible for the aberrant CXCL8 transcription.

  1. Expression of antimicrobial peptides and interleukin-8 during early stages of inflammation: An experimental gingivitis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommisch, H; Staufenbiel, I; Schulze, K; Stiesch, M; Winkel, A; Fimmers, R; Dommisch, J; Jepsen, S; Miosge, N; Adam, K; Eberhard, J

    2015-12-01

    In the oral cavity, the epithelial surface is constantly exposed to a number of different microorganisms that are organized in a well-structured biofilm. The aim of this study was to monitor gingival expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in an early gingivitis model. Experimental gingivitis was allowed to develop in healthy volunteers (n = 17). Bleeding on probing (BOP%) and gingival crevicular fluid volume (GCF) were assessed at baseline and day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Expression of AMPs (human beta-defensin-2, hBD-2; CC-chemokine ligand 20, CCL20; psoriasin, pso/S100A7) and IL-8 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in gingival biopsies. In addition, hBD-2 and IL-8 protein expression was monitored in GCF using the ELISA technology. Experimental gingivitis gradually developed with an increase in BOP scores and GCF volume over time. In GCF, elevated concentrations of hBD-2 and IL-8 were monitored at day 1, 5 and 7 (p ≤ 0.0002). Immunohistochemical analysis of gingival sections demonstrated increased staining for hBD-2 at day 3, whereas the CCL20, pso/S100A7, and IL-8 expression was increased at later time points (p gingival inflammation. Differential temporal expression for AMPs may ensure a constant antimicrobial activity against changes in the bacterial composition of the growing dental biofilm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Epigenetic dysregulation of interleukin 8 (CXCL8) hypersecretion in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poghosyan, Anna; Patel, Jamie K.; Clifford, Rachel L.; Knox, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells in cystic fibrosis (CF) overexpress Interleukin 8 (CXCL8) through poorly defined mechanisms. CXCL8 transcription is dependent on coordinated binding of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)β, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and activator protein (AP)-1 to the promoter. Here we show abnormal epigenetic regulation is responsible for CXCL8 overexpression in CF cells. Under basal conditions CF cells had increased bromodomain (Brd)3 and Brd4 recruitment and enhanced NF-κB and C/EBPβ binding to the CXCL8 promoter compared to non-CF cells due to trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and DNA hypomethylation at CpG6. IL-1β increased NF-κB, C/EBPβ and Brd4 binding. Furthermore, inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain family (BET) proteins reduced CXCL8 production in CF cells suggesting a therapeutic target for the BET pathway. -- Highlights: •A regulatory mechanism of CXCL8 transcriptional control in CF airways is proposed. •There was an increased binding of NF-κB and C/EBPβ transcription factors. •There was enhanced recruitment of BET proteins to the CXCL8 promoter. •Epigenetic modifications are responsible for the aberrant CXCL8 transcription.

  3. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 Levels in Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalina Goutoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyse the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with chronic periodontitis prior to and following surgical and/or nonsurgical periodontal therapy for a period of 32 weeks. Methods. GCF samples were obtained from 24 nondiseased and 72 diseased sites of 12 periodontal patients prior to as well as at 6, 16, and 32 weeks following non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Periodontal treatment improved all clinical parameters. Both treatment modalities resulted in similar IL-6 as well as IL-8 levels. Mean IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were significantly higher in non-diseased compared to diseased sites and increased significantly following treatment in diseased sites. Mean total amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 (TAIL-6, TAIL-8 did not differ significantly between diseased and nondiseased sites, while following therapy TAIL-8 levels decreased significantly. Conclusions. The data suggest that periodontal therapy reduced the levels of IL-8 in GCF. However, a strong relationship between IL-6, IL-8 amounts in GCF and periodontal destruction and inflammation was not found.

  4. Interleukin-8 for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis (NS is a life-threatening disorder and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Previous studies showed that interleukin 8 (IL-8 may effectively and rapidly diagnose NS.We conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the diagnostic value of the IL-8 in NS.The literature was searched in PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP and other Chinese Medical Databases during October 1998 to January 2014 using set search criteria. Each included study was evaluated by quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Two investigators independently extracted the data and study characteristics, and disagreements, if any, were resolved by consensus. Meta-disc software was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity and summary diagnostic odds ratio (SDOR, I² or Cochrane Q to test heterogeneity, and meta-regression to investigate the source of heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to test the potential presence of publication bias. False-positive report probability (FPRP was calculated to confirm the significance of the results.Eight studies (548 neonates were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of IL-8 were 0.78 and 0.84, respectively, which had moderate accuracy in the diagnosis of NS. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR and area under curve (AUC was 21.64 and 0.8908 (Q*=0.8215, respectively. The diagnostic threshold analysis showed that there was no threshold effect. The meta-regression analysis showed the cut-off, QUADAS and onset time have no effect on the heterogeneity. The funnel plots showed the existence of publication bias.Meta-analysis showed IL-8 had a moderate accuracy (AUC=0.8908 for the diagnosis of NS. IL-8 is a helpful biomarker for early diagnosis of NS. However, we should combine the results with clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory and microbial results.

  5. Role of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae/Interleukin-8/Neutrophil Axis in the Pathogenesis of Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengrong Chen

    Full Text Available Neutrophil infiltration is the characteristic pathological feature of M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP. This study aimed to explore the associations among neutrophil activity, clinical presentation, and role of the M. pneumoniae/interleukin-8 (IL-8/neutrophil axis in the pathogenesis of MPP. A total of 42 patients with MPP were prospectively enrolled in the study. Neutrophil activity, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and neutrophil elastase (NE, were measured. Clinical information was collected for all patients and control group. In vitro, IL-8 production was measured at different time points after M. pneumoniae infection of bronchial epithelial cells, and neutrophil activity was analyzed after IL-8 stimulation. The percentage of neutrophil in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was higher in the group of patients with high levels of M. pneumoniae DNA than in those with low levels of M. pneumoniae DNA (P < 0.05. IL-8, MMP-9, and NE in patients with MPP significantly increased compared with controls and decreased after treatment (P < 0.05. MPO and MMP-9 were associated with duration of fever (r = 0.332, P < 0.05 and length of stay (r = 0.342, P < 0.05, respectively. In vitro, M. pneumoniae induced IL-8 production by bronchial epithelial cells in a time dependent manner. MPO, MMP-9 and NE production by neutrophils significantly increased compared with medium controls after IL-8 stimulation. In summary, the M. pneumoniae/IL-8/neutrophil axis likely plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of MPP.

  6. Mechanisms underlying differential expression of interleukin-8 in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Ariane; Jolivel, Valérie; Durand, Sébastien; Kersual, Nathalie; Chalbos, Dany; Chavey, Carine; Vignon, Françoise; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2004-01-01

    We have recently reported that Interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression was inversely correlated to estrogen-receptor (ER)-status and was overexpressed in invasive breast cancer cells. In the present study, we show that IL-8 overexpression in breast cancer cells involves a higher transcriptional activity of IL-8 gene promoter. Cloning of IL-8 promoter from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells expressing high and low levels of IL-8, respectively, shows the integrity of the promoter in both cell lines. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis of the promoter demonstrate that NF-κB and AP-1 and to a lesser extent C/EBP binding sites play a crucial role in the control of IL-8 promoter activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. Knock-down of NF-κB and AP-1 activities by adenovirus-mediated expression of a NF-κB super-repressor and RNA interference, respectively, decreased IL-8 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. On the contrary, restoration of Fra-1, Fra-2, c-Jun, p50, p65, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ expression levels in MCF-7 cells led to a promoter activity comparable to that observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data constitute the first extensive study of IL-8 gene overexpression in breast cancer cells and suggest that the high expression of IL-8 in invasive cancer cells requires a complex cooperation between NF-κB, AP-1 and C/EBP transcription factors. PMID:15208657

  7. Plasma Interleukin-8 and Endothelin-1 in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, Z.; El-Abiad, N.; Soliman, M. S.; Ali, A.I.; Ali, G.S.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the extent to which IL-8 and endothelin-1 are involved in the development of acute exacerbation of atopic asthma. Two asthmatic groups, each of 20 patients were studied, the asymptomatic group where patients were free of symptoms and the symptomatic group where patients were suffering from acute exacerbation of their asthma. Both of asthmatic groups were subclassified into mild and moderate subgroups, each of 10 patients according to the asthma severity. All subjects were subjected to chest X-ray and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) recording for sub-classification of patients, skin prick testing using common allergens (patients only) for the identification of atopic asthmatic patients and laboratory investigations including complete blood count (CBC), absolute eosi-nophil count (AEC), urine and stool exam-ination, total serum 1 gE level, plasma inter-leukin-8 (IL-8) level and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) level. The data obtained revealed non-significant differences between the studied groups as regards AEC, while serum total 1 gE of the asthmatic groups showed highly significant elevations in comparison to control group. Also, There were highly significant elevations in plasma endothelin-1 and plasma IL-8 levels of the symptomatic asthmatic subgroups in comparison to control group and asymptomatic asthmatic subgroups in comparison to control group and asymptomatic asthmatic subgroups. In conclusion: although it is clear now that IL-8 and ET-1 are involved in acute exacerbation of atopic asthmatic patients, a causal link between those mediators and development of the exacerbation has not been definitively established. Surely, those mediators, their receptors, synthesis and degradation pathways offer potentially important therapeutic targets

  8. Cleavage/alteration of interleukin-8 by matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the female lower genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariffard, M Reza; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Cohen, Mardge; Landay, Alan L; Spear, Gregory T

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) plays important roles in immune responses at mucosal sites including in the lower genital tract. Since several types of bacteria produce proteases that cleave IL-8 and many types of bacteria can be present in lower genital tract microbiota, we assessed genital fluids for IL-8 cleavage/alteration. Genital fluids collected by lavage from 200 women (23 HIV-seronegative and 177 HIV-seropositive) were tested for IL-8 cleavage/alteration by ELISA. IL-8 cleaving/altering activity was observed in fluids from both HIV-positive (28%) and HIV-negative women (35%). There was no clear relationship between the activity and the types of bacteria present in the lower genital tract as determined by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Protease inhibitors specific for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) reduced the activity and a multiplex assay that detects both inactive and active MMPs showed the presence of multiple MMPs, including MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10 and -12 in genital secretions from many of the women. The IL-8-cleaving/altering activity significantly correlated with active MMP-9 as well as with cleavage of a substrate that is acted on by several active MMPs. These studies show that multiple MMPs are present in the genital tract of women and strongly suggest that MMP-9 in genital secretions can cleave IL-8 at this mucosal site. These studies suggest that MMP-mediated cleavage of IL-8 can modulate inflammatory responses in the lower genital tract.

  9. Interleukin-8 promotes canine hemangiosarcoma growth by regulating the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk, E-mail: jhkim@umn.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Frantz, Aric M.; Anderson, Katie L.; Graef, Ashley J.; Scott, Milcah C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Robinson, Sally [Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Sharkey, Leslie C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); O' Brien, Timothy D. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Dickerson, Erin B. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Modiano, Jaime F., E-mail: modiano@umn.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into “IL-8 high” and “IL-8 low” groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the “IL-8 high” tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a “reactive microenvironment,” including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. - Highlights: • IL-8 is expressed in canine hemangiosarcoma tumor samples and cell lines. • IL-8 transduces a relevant biological signal in canine hemangiosarcoma cells. • IL-8 gene signature is associated

  10. Molecular characterization of Legionella pneumophila-induced interleukin-8 expression in T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaida Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of human Legionnaire's disease. During infection, the bacterium invades macrophages and lung epithelial cells, and replicates intracellularly. However, little is known about its interaction with T cells. We investigated the ability of L. pneumophila to infect and stimulate the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8 in T cells. The objective of this study was to assess whether L. pneumophila interferes with the immune system by interacting and infecting T cells. Results Wild-type L. pneumophila and flagellin-deficient Legionella, but not L. pneumophila lacking a functional type IV secretion system Dot/Icm, replicated in T cells. On the other hand, wild-type L. pneumophila and Dot/Icm-deficient Legionella, but not flagellin-deficient Legionella or heat-killed Legionella induced IL-8 expression. L. pneumophila activated an IL-8 promoter through the NF-κB and AP-1 binding regions. Wild-type L. pneumophila but not flagellin-deficient Legionella activated NF-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and transforming growth factor β-associated kinase 1 (TAK1. Transfection of dominant negative mutants of IκBα, IκB kinase, NF-κB-inducing kinase, TAK1, MyD88, and p38 MAPK inhibited L. pneumophila-induced IL-8 activation. Inhibitors of NF-κB, p38 MAPK, and JNK blocked L. pneumophila-induced IL-8 expression. In addition, c-Jun, JunD, cyclic AMP response element binding protein, and activating transcription factor 1, which are substrates of p38 MAPK and JNK, bound to the AP-1 site of the IL-8 promoter. Conclusions Taken together, L. pneumophila induced a flagellin-dependent activation of TAK1, p38 MAPK, and JNK, as well as NF-κB and AP-1, which resulted in IL-8 production in human T cells, presumably contributing to the immune response in Legionnaire's disease.

  11. Interleukin-8 promotes canine hemangiosarcoma growth by regulating the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Frantz, Aric M.; Anderson, Katie L.; Graef, Ashley J.; Scott, Milcah C.; Robinson, Sally; Sharkey, Leslie C.; O'Brien, Timothy D.; Dickerson, Erin B.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into “IL-8 high” and “IL-8 low” groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the “IL-8 high” tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a “reactive microenvironment,” including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. - Highlights: • IL-8 is expressed in canine hemangiosarcoma tumor samples and cell lines. • IL-8 transduces a relevant biological signal in canine hemangiosarcoma cells. • IL-8 gene signature is associated

  12. Placental macrophage contact potentiates the complete replicative cycle of human cytomegalovirus in syncytiotrophoblast cells: role of interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor-beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bácsi, A; Aranyosi, J; Beck, Z; Ebbesen, P; Andirkó, I; Szabó, J; Lampé, L; Kiss, J; Gergely, L; Tóth, F D

    1999-10-01

    Although syncytiotrophoblast (ST) cells can be infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), in vitro studies have indicated that ST cells do not support the complete viral reproductive cycle, or HCMV replication may occur in less than 3% of ST cells. The present study tested the possibility that placental macrophages might enhance activation of HCMV carried in ST cells and, further, that infected ST cells would be capable of transmitting virus to neighboring macrophages. For this purpose, we studied HCMV replication in ST cells grown alone or cocultured with uninfected placental macrophages. Our results demonstrated that HCMV gene expression in ST cells was markedly upregulated by coculture with macrophages, resulting in release of substantial amounts of infectious virus from HCMV-infected ST cells. After having become permissive for viral replication, ST cells delivered HCMV to the cocultured macrophages, as evidenced by detection of virus-specific antigens in these cells. The stimulatory effect of coculture on HCMV gene expression in ST cells was mediated by marked interleukin-8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) release from macrophages, an effect caused by contact between the different placental cells. Our findings indicate an interactive role for the ST layer and placental macrophages in the dissemination of HCMV among placental tissue. Eventually, these interactions may contribute to the transmission of HCMV from mother to the fetus.

  13. Urine interleukin-8 is a marker for urinary tract infection in postoperative patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszyna, D. P.; Vermeulen, H.; Baan, A. H.; Speelman, P.; van Deventer, S. J.; Gouma, D. J.; van der Poll, T.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine of patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) contains high levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. However, knowledge of the kinetics of their release in urine is limited. We therefore compared the appearance of IL-6 and IL-8 in urine after uncomplicated surgery and surgery

  14. Prosthetic radioiodination of interleukin-8 ([{sup 123/131}I]-IL-8): biological behavior in a mouse infection model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amartey, J.K. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: amarty@kfshrc.edu.sa; Esguerra, C. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Otaibi, B. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jammaz, I. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Qahtani, M. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Parhar, R.S. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-01-01

    Numerous molecular entities with diverse structures have been radiolabeled and investigated as potential infection and inflammation detection agents. However, none of these molecules have gained the acceptance of gallium citrate or radiolabeled autologous white blood cells. We have radioiodinated interleukin-8 using two different methods and tested the biological behavior of the products in mice. As expected, the direct radioiodinated material displayed extensive in vivo deiodination. The use of pyridine-based prosthetic label yielded a product with better kinetics than the direct radioiodination method and showed a better target to non-target ratio. Nonetheless, this method is not suited for labeling of bioactive peptides such as the title peptide because of the very high specific activity required to prevent cytotoxic effects in a human application.

  15. Prosthetic radioiodination of interleukin-8 ([123/131I]-IL-8): biological behavior in a mouse infection model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, J.K.; Esguerra, C.; Al-Otaibi, B.; Al-Jammaz, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.; Parhar, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous molecular entities with diverse structures have been radiolabeled and investigated as potential infection and inflammation detection agents. However, none of these molecules have gained the acceptance of gallium citrate or radiolabeled autologous white blood cells. We have radioiodinated interleukin-8 using two different methods and tested the biological behavior of the products in mice. As expected, the direct radioiodinated material displayed extensive in vivo deiodination. The use of pyridine-based prosthetic label yielded a product with better kinetics than the direct radioiodination method and showed a better target to non-target ratio. Nonetheless, this method is not suited for labeling of bioactive peptides such as the title peptide because of the very high specific activity required to prevent cytotoxic effects in a human application

  16. Carrageenan activates monocytes via type-specific binding with interleukin-8: an implication for design of immuno-active biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Weng-I; Zhang, Guangpan; Li, Xin; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Dong, Lei; Wang, Chunming

    2017-02-28

    Polymers that can activate the immune system may become useful biomaterials tools, given that the mechanisms underlying their actions are well understood. Herein, we report a novel type of interaction between polymers and immune cells - in studying the influence of the three major types of carrageenan (CGN) polysaccharides on monocyte behaviour in vitro, we found only the λ-type induced monocyte adhesion and this action requires the presence of an adequate amount of serum. Further analyses indicated λ-CGN bound interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the serum and activated the cultured monocytes through an IL-8-dependent pathway. This is the first demonstration that a polymer, with a renowned immunostimulatory effect, activates the immune system via binding and harnessing the function of a specific cytokine in the microenvironment. This is a new mechanism underlying polymer-immunity interactions that may shed light on future design and application of biomaterials tools targeting the immune system for a wide variety of therapeutic applications.

  17. A novel bacterial transport mechanism of Acinetobacter baumannii via activated human neutrophils through interleukin-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoshida, Go; Tansho-Nagakawa, Shigeru; Kikuchi-Ueda, Takane; Nakano, Ryuichi; Hikosaka, Kenji; Nishida, Satoshi; Ubagai, Tsuneyuki; Higashi, Shouichi; Ono, Yasuo

    2016-12-01

    Hospital-acquired infections as a result of Acinetobacter baumannii have become problematic because of high rates of drug resistance. Although neutrophils play a critical role in early protection against bacterial infection, their interactions with A. baumannii remain largely unknown. To elucidate the interactions between A. baumannii and human neutrophils, we cocultured these cells and analyzed them by microscopy and flow cytometry. We found that A. baumannii adhered to neutrophils. We next examined neutrophil and A. baumannii infiltration into Matrigel basement membranes by an in vitro transmigration assay. Neutrophils were activated by A. baumannii, and invasion was enhanced. More interestingly, A. baumannii was transported together by infiltrating neutrophils. Furthermore, we observed by live cell imaging that A. baumannii and neutrophils moved together. In addition, A. baumannii-activated neutrophils showed increased IL-8 production. The transport of A. baumannii was suppressed by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration by blocking the effect of IL-8. A. baumannii appears to use neutrophils for transport by activating these cells via IL-8. In this study, we revealed a novel bacterial transport mechanism that A. baumannii exploits human neutrophils by adhering to and inducing IL-8 release for bacterial portage. This mechanism might be a new treatment target. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  18. Salmon trypsin stimulates the expression of interleukin-8 via protease-activated receptor-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Anett K.; Seternes, Ole-Morten; Larsen, Merethe; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Bang, Berit

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we focus on salmon trypsin as an activator of inflammatory responses in airway cells in vitro. The rationale behind the investigation is that salmon industry workers are exposed to aerosols containing enzymes, which are generated during industrial processing of the fish. Knowing that serine proteases such as trypsin are highly active mediators with diverse biological activities, the stimulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and interleukin (IL)-8 and the role of protease-activated receptors (PAR) in inflammatory signal mediation were investigated. Protease-activated receptors are considered important under pathological situations in the human airways, and a thorough understanding of PAR-induced cellular events and their consequences in airway inflammation is necessary. Human airway epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to trypsin isolated from fish (Salmo salar), and we observed that purified salmon trypsin could generate secretion of IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PAR-2 activation by salmon trypsin is coupled to an induction of NF-κB-mediated transcription using a PAR-2 transfected HeLa cell model. Finally, we show that the release of IL-8 from A549 following stimulation with purified salmon trypsin is mediated through activation of PAR-2 using specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The results presented suggest that salmon trypsin, via activation of PAR-2, might influence inflammation processes in the airways if inhaled in sufficient amounts

  19. Cytokine Network in Scrub Typhus: High Levels of Interleukin-8 Are Associated with Disease Severity and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Elisabeth; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Otterdal, Kari; Ueland, Thor; Prakash, John A. J.; Lekva, Tove; Strand, Øystein A.; Abraham, O. C.; Thomas, Kurien; Damås, Jan Kristian; Mathews, Prasad; Mathai, Dilip; Aukrust, Pål; Varghese, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high if untreated, and even with treatment as high as 10–20%, further knowledge of the immune response during scrub typhus is needed. The current study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of a variety of inflammatory mediators in scrub typhus patients and controls in South India in order to map the broader cytokine profile and their relation to disease severity and clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined plasma levels of several cytokines in scrub typhus patients (n = 129) compared to healthy controls (n = 31) and infectious disease controls (n = 31), both in the acute phase and after recovery, by multiplex technology and enzyme immunoassays. Scrub typhus patients were characterized by marked changes in the cytokine network during the acute phase, differing not only from healthy controls but also from infectious disease controls. While most of the inflammatory markers were raised in scrub typhus, platelet-derived mediators such as RANTES were markedly decreased, probably reflecting enhanced platelet activation. Some of the inflammatory markers, including various chemokines (e.g., interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) and downstream markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3), were also associated with disease severity and mortality during follow-up, with a particular strong association with interleukin-8. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that scrub typhus is characterized by a certain cytokine profile that includes dysregulated levels of a wide range of mediators, and that this enhanced inflammation could contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome. PMID:24516677

  20. Cytokine network in scrub typhus: high levels of interleukin-8 are associated with disease severity and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Astrup

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high if untreated, and even with treatment as high as 10-20%, further knowledge of the immune response during scrub typhus is needed. The current study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of a variety of inflammatory mediators in scrub typhus patients and controls in South India in order to map the broader cytokine profile and their relation to disease severity and clinical outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined plasma levels of several cytokines in scrub typhus patients (n = 129 compared to healthy controls (n = 31 and infectious disease controls (n = 31, both in the acute phase and after recovery, by multiplex technology and enzyme immunoassays. Scrub typhus patients were characterized by marked changes in the cytokine network during the acute phase, differing not only from healthy controls but also from infectious disease controls. While most of the inflammatory markers were raised in scrub typhus, platelet-derived mediators such as RANTES were markedly decreased, probably reflecting enhanced platelet activation. Some of the inflammatory markers, including various chemokines (e.g., interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β and downstream markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3, were also associated with disease severity and mortality during follow-up, with a particular strong association with interleukin-8. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that scrub typhus is characterized by a certain cytokine profile that includes dysregulated levels of a wide range of mediators, and that this enhanced inflammation could contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome.

  1. Cytokine network in scrub typhus: high levels of interleukin-8 are associated with disease severity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Elisabeth; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Otterdal, Kari; Ueland, Thor; Prakash, John A J; Lekva, Tove; Strand, Øystein A; Abraham, O C; Thomas, Kurien; Damås, Jan Kristian; Mathews, Prasad; Mathai, Dilip; Aukrust, Pål; Varghese, George M

    2014-02-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high if untreated, and even with treatment as high as 10-20%, further knowledge of the immune response during scrub typhus is needed. The current study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of a variety of inflammatory mediators in scrub typhus patients and controls in South India in order to map the broader cytokine profile and their relation to disease severity and clinical outcome. We examined plasma levels of several cytokines in scrub typhus patients (n = 129) compared to healthy controls (n = 31) and infectious disease controls (n = 31), both in the acute phase and after recovery, by multiplex technology and enzyme immunoassays. Scrub typhus patients were characterized by marked changes in the cytokine network during the acute phase, differing not only from healthy controls but also from infectious disease controls. While most of the inflammatory markers were raised in scrub typhus, platelet-derived mediators such as RANTES were markedly decreased, probably reflecting enhanced platelet activation. Some of the inflammatory markers, including various chemokines (e.g., interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) and downstream markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3), were also associated with disease severity and mortality during follow-up, with a particular strong association with interleukin-8. Our findings suggest that scrub typhus is characterized by a certain cytokine profile that includes dysregulated levels of a wide range of mediators, and that this enhanced inflammation could contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome.

  2. Differential expression of interleukin-8 by polymorphonuclear leukocytes of two closely related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries, in response to Mannheimia haemolytica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-08-01

    The pneumonic lesions and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) are more severe than those in the related species, domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries), under both natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin (Lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the most important virulence factors of this organism. One hallmark of pathogenesis of pneumonia is the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs. Lkt-induced cytolysis of PMNs results in the release of cytotoxic compounds capable of damaging lung tissue. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent PMN chemoattractant. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is differential expression of IL-8 by the macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS in response to M. haemolytica. Macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS were stimulated with heat-killed M. haemolytica or LPS. IL-8 expression by the cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PMNs of BHS expressed severalfold higher levels of IL-8 than those of DS upon stimulation. Lesional lung tissue of M. haemolytica-infected BHS contained significantly higher levels of IL-8 than nonlesional tissue. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected BHS also contained higher levels of IL-8 than that of infected DS. Depletion of IL-8 reduced migration of PMNs toward BAL fluid by approximately 50%, indicating that IL-8 is integral to PMN recruitment to the lung during M. haemolytica infection. Excessive production of IL-8, enhanced recruitment of PMNs, and PMN lysis by Lkt are likely responsible for the severity of the lung lesions in M. haemolytica-infected BHS.

  3. Decreased Pulmonary Function in School Children in Western Japan after Exposures to Asian Desert Dusts and Its Association with Interleukin-8

    OpenAIRE

    Masanari Watanabe; Hisashi Noma; Jun Kurai; Hiroyuki Sano; Rumiko Saito; Satoshi Abe; Yutaka Kimura; Setsuya Aiba; Mitsuo Oshimura; Akira Yamasaki; Eiji Shimizu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of Asian dust storms (ADS) on pulmonary function of school children and the relationship of this effect with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children from April to May 2012 and in 384 of these children from March to May 2013. The data were analyzed for an association between ADS events and PEF by linear mixed models. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimul...

  4. Serum interleukin -8 is not a reliable marker for prediction of vesicoureteral reflux in children with febrile urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In view of the side effects of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG, identification of noninvasive markers predicting the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR is important. This study was conducted to determine the predictive value of serum interleukin-8 (IL-8 in diagnosis of VUR in children with first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI. Materials and Methods: Eighty children with first febrile UTI were divided into two groups, with and without VUR, based on the results of VCUG. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value positive and negative likelihood ratio, and accuracy of IL-8 for prediction of VUR were investigated. Results: Of the 80 children with febrile UTI, 30 (37.5% had VUR. There was no significant difference between the children with and without VUR and also between low and high-grade VUR groups in terms of serum concentration of IL-8 (P>0.05. Based on ROC curve, the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio positive, and accuracy of serum IL-8 was lower than those of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed significant positive correlation only between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and VUR. Conclusions: This study showed no significant difference between the children with and without VUR in terms of the serum concentration of IL-8. Therefore, it seems that serum IL-8 is not a reliable marker for prediction of VUR.

  5. HuR/ELAVL1 RNA binding protein modulates interleukin-8 induction by muco-active ribotoxin deoxynivalenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hye Jin; Yang, Hyun; Park, Seong Hwan; Moon, Yuseok

    2009-01-01

    HuR/Elav-like RNA binding protein 1 (ELAVL1) positively regulates mRNA stability of AU-rich elements (ARE)-containing transcript such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ribotoxic stresses can trigger the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by enhancing mRNA stability and the transcriptional activity. We investigated the effects of ribotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on HuR translocation and its involvement in the regulation of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA stability. Exposure to the muco-active DON induced nuclear export of both endogenous and exogenous HuR RNA binding protein in human intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, the interference with HuR protein production suppressed ribotoxic DON-induced IL-8 secretion and its mRNA stability. Cytoplasmic HuR protein interacted with IL-8 mRNA and the complex stabilization was due to the presence of 3'-untranslated region of the transcript. Partly in terms of IL-8-modulating transcription factors, HuR protein was demonstrated to be positively and negatively associated with DON-induced early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), respectively. HuR was a critical mechanistic link between ribotoxic stress and the pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and may have a broader functional significance with regard to mucosal insults since ribotoxic stress responses are also produced upon interactions with the diverse environment of gut.

  6. Differential effects of multiplicity of infection on Helicobacter pylori-induced signaling pathways and interleukin-8 gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Birgit; Kilian, Petra; Reboll, Marc Rene; Resch, Klaus; DiStefano, Johanna Kay; Frank, Ronald; Beil, Winfried; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab

    2011-02-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. We used four different H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer disease to examine their differential effects on signaling pathways and IL-8 gene response in gastric epithelial cells. IL-8 mRNA level is elevated in response to high (100) multiplicity of infection (MOI) independent of cagA, vacA, and dupA gene characteristics. By lower MOIs (1 or 10), only cagA ( + ) strains significantly induce IL-8 gene expression. This is based on differential regulation of IL-8 promoter activity. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways indicates that H. pylori clinical isolates induce IL-8 gene transcription through NF-κB p65, but by a MOI-dependent differential activation of MAPK pathways. Thus, the major virulence factors of H. pylori CagA, VacA, and DupA might play a minor role in the level of IL-8 gene response to a high bacterial load.

  7. Interleukin-8 and Its Receptors in Human Milk from Mothers of Full-Term and Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Adem; Tunc, Turan; Erdem, Galip; Yerebasmaz, Neslihan; Tas, Ahmet; Beken, Serdar; Basbozkurt, Gokalp; Saldir, Mehmet; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Yaman, Halil

    2016-06-01

    In addition to its nutritional benefits, human milk also has bioactive elements. Limited immunological functions of newborns are supported and altered by the immunological elements of mother milk. Chemokines are of importance among these immune factors. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been demonstrated in mother's milk, and its receptors, CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR)-1 and CXCR-2, were detected on cells, responsible for immunological reactions and mammary glandular cells. The soluble forms of these receptors are yet to be described in human milk. In this study, it was aimed to assess the IL-8 levels and the concentrations of its receptors in colostrum and mature mother's milk in regard to preterm and term delivery. The results of this study indicated a decline in IL-8 levels with the lactation stage, but no difference was observed between term and preterm mother's milk. Regarding the CXCR-1 and CXCR-2, the concentrations of these receptors were similar in both colostrum and mature milk. Furthermore, there was not any significant difference between term and preterm mother's milk. In conclusion, this is the first study to investigate the concentrations of CXCR-1 and CXCR-2 with the levels of IL-8 in colostrum and mature human milk of term and preterm newborns. The alterations in IL-8 levels were similar in some of the studies reported. CXCR-1 and CXCR-2 levels did not demonstrate any significant difference. Further studies are required to investigate the soluble forms of these receptors and their relation to IL-8 with larger cohort.

  8. Effects of coligand variation on the in vivo characteristics of Tc-99m-labeled interleukin-8 in detection of infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, H.J.J.M.; Eerd-Vismale, J.E.M. van; Oyen, W.J.G.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Edwards, D.S.; Boerman, O.C.

    2002-01-01

    In our previous studies, interleukin-8 (IL-8) was labeled with (99m)Tc using hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) as bifunctional coupling agent and tricine as coligand. This preparation showed excellent characteristics for imaging of infection in a rabbit model of soft-tissue infection. In the present

  9. Decreased Pulmonary Function in School Children in Western Japan after Exposures to Asian Desert Dusts and Its Association with Interleukin-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of Asian dust storms (ADS on pulmonary function of school children and the relationship of this effect with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF was measured daily in 399 children from April to May 2012 and in 384 of these children from March to May 2013. The data were analyzed for an association between ADS events and PEF by linear mixed models. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by airborne particles collected on ADS days. Seven ADS days were identified: April 23 and 24, 2012; March 8 to 10, 2013; and March 19 and 20, 2013. Changes in PEF after ADS exposure were −8.17 L/min (95% confidence interval, −11.40 to −4.93 in 2012 and −1.17 L/min (−4.07 to 1.74 in 2013, and there was a significant difference between 2012 and 2013. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was significantly higher in 2012 at 10.6±2.9-fold compared to 3.7±0.4 in March 8 to 10, 2013, and 2.3±0.2 in March 19 and 20, 2013. The influence of ADS events on pulmonary function of children differs with each ADS event and may be related to interleukin-8 production.

  10. Variation in the Effect of Particulate Matter on Pulmonary Function in Schoolchildren in Western Japan and Its Relation with Interleukin-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of particulate matter (PM on pulmonary function in schoolchildren, as well as the relationships of these effects with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF was measured daily in 399 children during April–May 2012, and in 384 of these children during March–May 2013. PEF’s association with the daily levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM and PM < 2.5 mm (PM2.5 was estimated using a linear mixed model. Interleukin-8 promoter activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by fallen PM collected at Tottori University Hospital during four periods (two in 2012 and two in 2013. An increase of 14.0 mg/m3 in SPM led to PEF changes of −2.16 L/min in 2012 and −0.81 L/min in 2013, respectively. An increment of 10.7 mg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with PEF changes of −2.58 L/min in 2012 and −0.55 L/min in 2013, respectively. These associations were only significant in 2012. Interleukin-8 promoter activity was significantly higher in both periods of 2012 than in 2013. There was a significant association between pulmonary function in schoolchildren and daily levels of SPM and PM2.5, but this association may differ depending on the PM’s ability to elicit interleukin-8 production.

  11. Decreased Pulmonary Function in School Children in Western Japan after Exposures to Asian Desert Dusts and Its Association with Interleukin-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Saito, Rumiko; Kimura, Yutaka; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of Asian dust storms (ADS) on pulmonary function of school children and the relationship of this effect with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children from April to May 2012 and in 384 of these children from March to May 2013. The data were analyzed for an association between ADS events and PEF by linear mixed models. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by airborne particles collected on ADS days. Seven ADS days were identified: April 23 and 24, 2012; March 8 to 10, 2013; and March 19 and 20, 2013. Changes in PEF after ADS exposure were −8.17 L/min (95% confidence interval, −11.40 to −4.93) in 2012 and −1.17 L/min (−4.07 to 1.74) in 2013, and there was a significant difference between 2012 and 2013. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was significantly higher in 2012 at 10.6 ± 2.9-fold compared to 3.7 ± 0.4 in March 8 to 10, 2013, and 2.3 ± 0.2 in March 19 and 20, 2013. The influence of ADS events on pulmonary function of children differs with each ADS event and may be related to interleukin-8 production. PMID:26060816

  12. High serum interleukin-8 levels in Afro-Caribbean women with pre-eclampsia. Relations with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Duffy negative phenotype and von Willebrand factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, FV; Muskiet, FAJ; van der Dijs, FPL; Duits, AJ

    PROBLEM: Pre-eclampsia is characterized by neutrophil activation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a strong neutrophil chemo-attractant and activator. METHOD OF STUDY: We measured serum IL-8 in 13 pre-eclamptic Afro-Caribbean women and 13 gestational age-, race- and parity-matched normotensive and

  13. Association of Genetic Polymorphism in the Interleukin-8 Gene with Risk of Oral Cancer and Its Correlation with Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Chandra, Girish; Bogra, Jaishri; Gupta, Rajni; Kumar, Vijay; Hussain, Syed Rizwan; Jain, Amita; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer is a multifactorial disease process and involves complex interactions between gene to gene and gene to environmental factors. Interleukin 8 (IL-8), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, having angiogenic activity with elevated expression in tumor cells, is reported to play an essential role in oral cancer development. This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the role of IL-8 (-A251T) gene polymorphism in susceptibility, progression, and self-reporting pain in oral cancer. The single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IL-8 (-A251T) gene were screened in 300 patients with oral cancer and 300 healthy controls, by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Genotype and allele frequencies were evaluated by chi-square test and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of associations. The results of the study demonstrated that IL-8 (-A251T) gene polymorphism was significantly associated with susceptibility of oral cancer, whereas its correlation with clinico-pathological status or pain due to oral cancer could not be established. The AT heterozygous (OR 5.31; CI 3.38-8.34; p 0.0001) and AA homozygous (OR 2.89; CI 1.76-4.75; p 0.0001) had a greater risk for oral cancer compared to TT homozygous. Furthermore, significantly increased values of A allele frequencies compared to T allele were observed in all patients (OR 1.56; CI 1.24-1.96; p 0.0002). Tobacco chewing and smoking were also found to influence the development of oral cancer and increased the incidence of pain in oral cancer patients. The findings of this study suggest that the IL-8 (-A251T) gene polymorphism may be associated with increased risk of oral cancer.

  14. Evidence that polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrate into the developing corpus luteum and promote angiogenesis with interleukin-8 in the cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After ovulation in the cow, the corpus luteum (CL rapidly develops within a few days with angiogenesis and progesterone production. CL formation resembles an inflammatory response due to the influx of immune cells. Neutrophils play a role in host defense and inflammation, and secrete chemoattractants to stimulate angiogenesis. We therefore hypothesized that neutrophils infiltrate in the developing CL from just after ovulation and may play a role in angiogenesis of the CL. Methods and Results Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN were detected in CL tissue by Pas-staining, and interleukin-8 (IL-8, a neutrophil-specific chemoattractant was measured in supernatant of the CL tissue culture: considerable amounts of PMNs and the high level of IL-8 were observed during the early luteal phase (days 1-4 of the estrous cycle. PMNs and IL-8 were low levels in the mid and late luteal phases, but IL-8 was increased during luteal regression. The PMN migration in vitro was stimulated by the supernatant from the early CL but not from the mid CL, and this activity was inhibited by neutralizing with an anti-IL-8 antibody, indicating the major role of IL-8 in inducing active PMN migration in the early CL. Moreover, IL-8 stimulated proliferation of CL-derived endothelial cells (LECs, and both the supernatant of activated PMNs and IL-8 stimulated formation of capillary-like structures of LECs. Conclusion PMNs migrate into the early CL partially due to its major chemoattractant IL-8 produced at high levels in the CL, and PMNs is a potential regulator of angiogenesis together with IL-8 in developing CL in the cow.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels of interleukin-8 in patients with multiple sclerosis and its correlation with Q-albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejčíková, Z; Mareš, J; Sládková, V; Svrčinová, T; Vysloužilová, J; Zapletalová, J; Kaňovský, P

    2017-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Autoimmune inflammation is common in the early stages of MS and is followed by neurodegenerative processes. The result of these changes is axon and myelin breakdown. The paraclinical examination methods are an important part of the diagnostic process. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and the cervical spinal cord and an examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are common paraclinical examinations. An increasing number of studies deal with CSF and serum levels of biomarkers and their role in MS. We hypothesized that the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) could be different in MS patients than in controls. These differences may be related to damage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB damage is quantified by the quotient of albumin (Q-alb). CSF and serum levels of IL-8 were assessed in 102 patients with newly diagnosed MS meeting McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria and in 102 subjects as a control group. We then correlated these results with Q-alb. Levels of IL-8 in CSF were significantly higher in MS patients than in controls (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.0001). Serum levels of IL-8 were significantly lower in MS patients than in controls (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.018). Spearman's correlation analysis proved a significant correlation between levels of IL-8 and Q-alb. As the etiology of MS is only partially known, research dealing with biomarkers in MS should continue. Better knowledge of etiology can provide a new perspective, especially for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenylketonuria is not a risk factor for changes of inflammation status as assessed by interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozrzymas, Renata; Duś-Żuchowska, Monika; Kałużny, Łukasz; Wenska-Chyży, Ewa; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    High oxidative stress and a reduced potential for free radical scavenging in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, a phenomenon confirmed in a few studies, may lead to systemic chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare the inflammation status, as assessed by interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 concentrations, in patients with PKU and in healthy controls. Twenty patients with classical PKU, aged 18-34 years and under dietary control, were enrolled in the study. The control group comprised of 20 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Interleukin 6 and 8 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in all study participants. IL-6 concentrations in the study group ranged from 0.74 pg/ml to 1.34 pg/ml. No significant differences were found between IL-6 concentration between the study group and the control group (p = 0.989). IL-8 concentrations ranged from 17.56 pg/ml to 20.87 pg/ml. The obtained results of IL-8 levels did not differ significantly between the study group and control group (p = 0.192). No significant correlation was observed between Phe blood levels and IL-6 or IL-8 concentrations in the study group (ρ respectively: -0.225, 0.177). In a multivariate analysis, neither IL-6 nor IL-8 concentrations were correlated with sex, age, BMI and Phe levels. Phenylketonuria is not a risk factor for changes of inflammation status as assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations.

  17. Detection of experimental infections with 99mTc-labeled monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α and interleukin-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welling, Mick; Feitsma, Hans I.J.; Calame, Wim; Pauwels, Ernest K.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to assess monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (anti-TNF) or interleukin-8 (anti-IL-8) as radioactive agents for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus- or Klebsiella pneumoniae-infected thighs in mice. At 5 min (acute infection) or 20 h (established) post-infection, 20 μg of the 99m Tc-labeled MAbs were injected. At various time intervals, the accumulation of the radiotracer in the infected thighs was assessed and expressed as a target-to-nontarget (T/NT) ratio. The binding of 99m Tc-labeled MAbs to circulating mononuclear cells and granulocytes was quantitated 20 h after injection. The pharmacokinetics of the MAbs, in relation to the control agents 99m Tc-labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (IgG) and a 99m Tc-labeled nonspecific IgG1 MAb, were also studied. In acute infections, 99m Tc-anti-TNF accumulated to a higher extent (p 99m Tc-IgG and was higher at 0.25 h in K. pneumoniae-infected mice (p 99m Tc-IgG. In established S. aureus and K. pneumoniae infections, 99m Tc-anti-IL-8 detected the infection more intensely than 99m Tc-IgG until 1 h after injection. In both S. aureus and K. pneumoniae infections, localization of sites of infection correlates (p 99m Tc-labeled MAbs to granulocytes and mononuclear cells in both acute and established infections. It was concluded that 99m Tc-labeled MAbs, directed against TNF-α and IL-8, accumulate in bacterial infections in mice to a higher extent than does 99m Tc-IgG after infection and is related to the binding of the antibodies to blood leukocytes. With these 99m Tc-labeled MAbs, information might be gained about the development of an infection

  18. [Expressions of interleukin-17 and interleukin-8 in the prostatic tissue of the patients with BPH or BPH with inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Liu, Qi-Xiang; Zhou, Hui-Liang; Cao, Lin-Sheng; Jiang, Tao; Tang, Song-Xi; Ding, Yi-Lang

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the expressions of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and BPH complicated with histological inflammation and their significance. According to the results of HE staining, we divided 60 cases of BPH treated by transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) into a BPH group (n = 23) and a BPH with inflammation group (n = 37). We analyzed the clinical data of the patients and determined the mRNA and protein expressions of IL-17 and IL-8 by immunohistochemistry, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and Western blot, respectively. Compared with the BPH patients complicated with inflammation, the BPH group showed significantly lower International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) (29.1 ± 6.2 vs 21.6 ± 3.7), quality of life score (QoL) (5.4 ± 1.3 vs 4.4 ± 1.6), postvoid residual urine volume (RUV) ([198.6 ± 15.5] vs [98.2 ± 19.3] ml), prostate volume ([69.2 ± 24.1] vs [49.8 ± 16.5] ml), PSA level ([7.4 ± 1.9] vs [2.8 ± 0.8] μg/L) and serum c-reactive protein content (CRP) ([5.1±2.0] vs [1.5±0.6] mg/L), but a higher maximum urine flow rate (Qmax) ([4.7 ± 2.1] vs [8.2 ± 1.8] ml/s) (all PBPH patients with inflammation, which may play a significant role in the development and progression of BPH.

  19. Modulation of Interleukin-8 and staphylococcal flora by Avène hydrotherapy in patients suffering from chronic inflammatory dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, C; Ribet, V; Alvarez-Georges, S; Sibaud, V; Guerrero, D; Schmitt, A-M; Redoulès, D

    2011-02-01

    A number of studies argue in favour of an important role of microbial colonization, in particular of Staphylococcus aureus, in triggering atopic dermatitis (AD) flare-up and psoriasis, in particular through the superantigenic properties of toxins generated by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a 3-week Avène hydrotherapy on the skin surface of patients suffering from psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. Skin samples were taken from healthy subjects or atopic (n = 18) or psoriatic patients (n = 39) undergoing hydrotherapy at Avène at the beginning (D0) and the end of treatment (D18). The severity of the dermatosis was evaluated according to SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) or Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores at D0 and D18. Marker of inflammation interleukin 8 (IL-8), S. aureus colonization (protein A) and enterotoxins were assessed in skin samples using RT-PCR. At D0, significant differences were observed between healthy subjects and atopic or psoriatic patients in all the parameters evaluated (IL-8, protein A). At the end of the hydrotherapy, a significant decrease in SCORAD was associated with a significant reduction of IL-8, S. aureus colonization and enterotoxin D in patients with atopic dermatitis. Similarly, a significant decrease in PASI was associated with a significant reduction of IL-8, S. aureus colonization and enterotoxin N in patients with psoriasis. This study demonstrates the positive effects of Avène hydrotherapy on the skin of patients suffering from chronic dermatosis, with decreased inflammation and reduced colonization by S. aureus. © 2010 The Authors. JEADV © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  1. Relation Between Interleukin-1-β And Interleukin-8 Levels In Breast Milk (Colostrum) And Neonatal Physiological Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.; Moawad, A.T.; Marei, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    The immune system of neonates is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. Breast-fed neonates have higher incidence of neonatal jaundice and higher level of total serum bilirubin than formula-fed infants. The aim of this study was to find a relationship between neonatal physiological jaundice and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-β) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the colostrum of nursing mothers. Breast milk (colostrum) was collected from 45 nursing mothers of healthy full term neonates. The sharing mothers and their neonates were divided into two groups according to the presence of neonatal jaundice and the level of total serum bilirubin. All jaundiced neonates had total serum bilirubin level more than 12 mg/dl which appeared on the third postpartum day, all of them were breast-fed only. They were subjected to full history through clinical examination and laboratory investigations including determination of colostral levels of IL-1-β and IL-8, by ELISA, and determination of neonatal total serum bilirubin levels. This study revealed that mothers of neonates with physiological jaundice had higher concentrations of IL-1-β and IL-8 in their colostrums as compared with control group. Moreover, it displayed that total serum bilirubin level of jaundiced neonates was higher than its level in non-jaundiced neonates. There were significant correlations between IL- 1-β and IL-8 with mother's age in all groups, while there were inverse correlations between IL-1-β, IL-8 and gestational age of non- jaundiced neonates. Additionally, there was significant correlation between IL-1-β and IL-8 in the colostrum of all mothers enrolled in this study. On the other hand, no correlation was determined between cytokines IL-1-β, IL-8 and total serum bilirubin in all neonates sharing in this study. This study clearly demonstrated that the levels of immunomodulating agents such as cytokines IL-1-β and IL-8 were elevated in the colostrum of mothers with jaundiced neonates

  2. Parapoxvirus orf virus infection induces an increase in interleukin-8, tumour necrosis factor-α, and decorin in goat skin fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lingling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orf virus (ORFV is a prototype Parapoxvirus species in the Poxviridae family that causes serious zoonotic infectious disease. Goat skin fibroblast (GSF cells are the major host targets of ORFV. Interleukin 8 (IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are known to play a vital role in immune response during viral infections. However, the manner of variation over time of their level of expression in GSF cells remains unclear.

  3. Variation in the Effect of Particulate Matter on Pulmonary Function in Schoolchildren in Western Japan and Its Relation with Interleukin-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Saito, Rumiko; Kimura, Yutaka; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of particulate matter (PM) on pulmonary function in schoolchildren, as well as the relationships of these effects with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children during April–May 2012, and in 384 of these children during March–May 2013. PEF’s association with the daily levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and PM < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) was estimated using a linear mixed model. Interleukin-8 promoter activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by fallen PM collected at Tottori University Hospital during four periods (two in 2012 and two in 2013). An increase of 14.0 μg/m3 in SPM led to PEF changes of −2.16 L/min in 2012 and −0.81 L/min in 2013, respectively. An increment of 10.7 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with PEF changes of −2.58 L/min in 2012 and −0.55 L/min in 2013, respectively. These associations were only significant in 2012. Interleukin-8 promoter activity was significantly higher in both periods of 2012 than in 2013. There was a significant association between pulmonary function in schoolchildren and daily levels of SPM and PM2.5, but this association may differ depending on the PM’s ability to elicit interleukin-8 production. PMID:26569272

  4. Dissociation of bradykinin-induced prostaglandin formation from phosphatidylinositol turnover in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts: evidence for G protein regulation of phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, R.M.; Axelrod, J.

    1987-01-01

    In Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts bradykinin stimulated inositol phosphate (InsP) formation and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) synthesis. The EC 50 values for stimulation of PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation by bradykinin were similar, 200 pM and 275 pM, respectively. Guanosine-5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate stimulated PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation, and guanosine-5'-[β-thio]diphosphate inhibited both PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation stimulated by bradykinin. Neither bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis nor InsP formation was sensitive to pertussis toxin. Phorbol ester, dexamethasone, and cycloheximide distinguished between bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate enhanced bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis but inhibited bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. Pretreatment of cells with dexamethasone for 24 hr inhibited bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis but was without effect on bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. Cycloheximide inhibited on bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. When bradykinin was added to cells prelabeled with [ 3 H] choline, the phospholipase A 2 products lysophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphocholine were generated. The data suggest that bradykinin receptors are coupled by GTP-binding proteins to both phospholipase C and phospholipase A 2 and that phospholipase A 2 is the enzyme that catalyzes release of arachidonate for prostaglandin synthesis

  5. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-8 (rhIL-8) on the bone marrow cells of normal BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulong; Zhou Jianying; Wang Guoquan; Dai Hong; Duan Yingying; Guo Xiaokui

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the colony formation ability of recombinant human interleukin-8 (rhIL-8) on bone marrow cells (BMCs) of normal mice in vivo. Methods: By means of cells culture and flow cytometry (FCM), the colony-stimulating activity of rhIL-8 on BMCs of normal mice was studied. Results: The experimental studies in vivo demonstrated that rhIL-8 could not changed the counts of CFU-GM and distribution of cell cycle in BMCs. Conclusion: rhIL-8 has no colony-stimulating activity to BMCs of normal mice

  6. Interleukin-8 and eicosanoid production in the lung during moderate to severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS: a role of interleukin-8 in the pathogenesis of P. carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; van Steenwijk, R; Nielsen, T L

    1995-01-01

    (PG) and leukotrienes (LT)] are pro-inflammatory mediators released from arachidonic acid by action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and have been implicated in the host response to micro-organisms. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on patients with PCP as part of a randomized study of adjuvant...... of IL-8 as a mediator in the pathogenesis of PCP, whereas the role of eicosanoids seems less clear....

  7. Oxidative stress by layered double hydroxide nanoparticles via an SFK-JNK and p38-NF-κB signaling pathway mediates induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi SJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Jin Choi, Hee-Jeong Paek, Jin YuDepartment of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: Anionic nanoclays are layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH-NPs that have been shown to exhibit toxicity by inducing reactive oxidative species and a proinflammatory mediator in human lung epithelial A549 cells. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this LDH-NP-induced toxicity and the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammatory events remains unclear. In this study, we focused on intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors induced in response to oxidative stress caused by exposure to LDH-NPs in A549 cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38, were investigated as potential signaling mechanisms responsible for regulation of oxidative stress and cytokine release. Src family kinases (SFKs, which are known to mediate activation of MAPK, together with redox-sensitive transcription factors, including nuclear factor kappa B and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2, were also investigated as downstream events of MAPK signaling. The results obtained suggest that LDH-NP exposure causes oxidative stress, leading to expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, glucose reductase, superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase-1, via a SFK-JNK and p38-nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Further, activation of this signaling was also found to regulate release of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, demonstrating the inflammatory potential of LDH-NP.Keywords: layered double hydroxide, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Src family kinases, nuclear factor kappa B, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine

  8. Maternal and Cord Blood Levels of Serum Amyloid A, C-Reactive Protein, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin -1β, and Interleukin-8 During and After Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Marzzullo Cicarelli

    2005-01-01

    after delivery and try to correlate these proteins with tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin -1β, and interleukin-8. Acute-phase proteins and cytokines were measured by ELISA in 24 healthy pregnant women undergoing vaginal delivery or Cesarean section. Cord blood samples in addition to maternal blood were collected. SAA and CRP reached the maximum maternal serum levels 24 hours after delivery, while cytokines remained constant over time. SAA and CRP were significantly higher in maternal serum than in newborn's (P<.001 at the moment of delivery. SAA and CRP, regardless of the type of delivery, reproduce the common pattern observed in most inflammatory conditions. Proinflammatory cytokine serum levels do not mirror the increase in SAA and CRP levels.

  9. Urinary albumin and interleukin-8 levels are not good indicators of ongoing vesicoureteral reflux in children who have no active urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeli, Hamidreza; khoshnevis, Termeh; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Sadeghi, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a risk factor for kidney scarring, hypertension and declining renal function. Standard diagnostic methods are invasive and can cause exposure to radiation and urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed to investigate urine albumin and interleukin-8 levels as markers of ongoing VUR and renal damage in children without UTIs. Random urine samples were collected from 51 children, including 16 children with VUR (group A), 17 children with resolved VUR (group B) and 18 normal children (group C). The diagnosis of VUR or resolved VUR was confirmed by voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) or direct radionuclide cystography (DRNC). All children had normal kidney function and had no evidence of UTI in the preceding three months. Random urine specimens were assayed for albumin (Alb), creatinine (Cr) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and mean values were compared by one way ANOVA. In groups A and B, the mean age at first UTI was 31.7 ± 2.4 and 27 ± 2.0 months respectively. In group A, the mean duration between VUR diagnosis and study entrance was 30 ± 9.1 months. In group B, the mean duration between VUR diagnosis and recovery was 19.9 ± 1.3 months. Overall, 76.4% of affected children had bilateral VUR and 41.2% had severe VUR. There were no significant differences in urinary Alb, IL-8, Alb/Cr and IL-8/Cr between the three groups. The current study does not support the hypothesis that microalbuminuria or urinary IL-8 are good indicators of ongoing VUR and renal injury in children.

  10. Dopamine attenuates the chemoattractant effect of interleukin-8: a novel role in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sookhai, S

    2012-02-03

    Activated neutrophil (PMN) adherence to vascular endothelium comprises a key step for both transendothelial migration and initiation of potentially deleterious release of PMN products. The biogenic amine, dopamine (DA), has been used for several decades in patients to maintain hemodynamic stability. The effect of dopamine on PMN transendothelial migration and adhesion receptor expression and on the endothelial molecules, E-selectin and ICAM-1, was evaluated. PMN were isolated from healthy controls, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and treated with dopamine. CD 11b and CD 18 PMN adhesion receptor expression were assessed flow cytometrically. In a separate experiment, the chemoattractant peptide, IL-8, was placed in the lower chamber of transwells, and PMN migration was assessed. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were stimulated with LPS\\/TNF-alpha and incubated with dopamine. ICAM-1 and E-selectin endothelial molecule expression were assessed flow cytometrically. There was a significant increase in transendothelial migration in stimulated PMN compared with normal PMN (40 vs. 14%, P < 0.001). In addition, PMN CD11b\\/CD18 was significantly upregulated in stimulated PMN compared with normal PMN (252.4\\/352.4 vs. 76.7\\/139.4, P < 0.001) as were endothelial E-selectin\\/ICAM-1 expression compared with normal EC (8.1\\/9 vs. 3.9\\/3.8, P < 0.05). After treatment with dopamine, PMN transmigration was significantly decreased compared with stimulated PMN (8% vs. 40%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, dopamine also attenuated PMN CD11b\\/CD18 and the endothelial molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1 compared with stimulated PMN\\/EC that were not treated dopamine (174\\/240 vs. 252\\/352, P < 0.05 and 4\\/4.4 vs. 8.1\\/9, P < 0.05. respectively). The chemoattractant effect of IL-8 was also attenuated. These results identify for the first time that dopamine attenuates the initial interaction between PMN and the endothelium

  11. Relationship of serum levels of interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and C-reactive protein with forced expiratory volume in first second in patients with mustard lung and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriary, Alireza; Panahi, Yunes; Shirali, Saeed; Rahmani, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    The chronic systemic inflammation is a result of releasing inflammatory cytokines from the cells relating to the body immunity system and chronic activation of the innate immunity system. To evaluate the relationship among serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), C-reactive protein (CRP) with forced expiratory volume in 1 st s (FEV 1 ) in patients with mustard lung (ML) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). A published literature search was performed through SID, web of science, ISI, Science Direct, Scopus, Medline, and PubMed databases for articles published in English. The correlation coefficient ( r ) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using random or fixed effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using χ 2 and I 2 statistics. In total, 4 published studies were included in the final analysis. Using the random-effect model, meta-analysis showed that the r was -0.052 (95% CI: -0.14-0.049, p = 0.28) at serum level of IL-8, serum levels of CRP and FEV 1 in these results were r = -0.13, p = 0.012, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and FEV 1 levels were r = -0.39, p = 0.03 in the conducted studies on mustard lung patients. The IL-6 serum level was explored in COPD patients. The results of the given studies in these patients are r = -0.006, 95% CI: -0.37-0.15, and p = 0.44. In this meta-analysis, there was evidence that serum levels of CRP and TNF have been significantly increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases compared to the healthy control group, which signifies the presence of systemic inflammation in ML and COPD patients.

  12. Molecular cloning of interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and comparison with those of other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-11-15

    The susceptibility to, and pathology induced by, Mannheimia haemolytica infection in bighorn sheep (BHS) and domestic sheep (DS) are distinctly different. Bighorn sheep are particularly susceptible to pneumonia caused by M. haemolytica, and the pneumonic lesions in infected BHS are more severe than those in DS. The molecular basis for this disparity has not been elucidated. Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple lung diseases of humans and animals. It is possible that the enhanced pathology observed in the pneumonic lungs of M. haemolytica-infected BHS, in comparison to that of DS, is due to comparatively higher levels of proinflammatory cytokine expression in BHS. As the first step towards elucidating this concept, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding the cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of BHS. The cDNA of BHS IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α consists of 801, 306, and 705 base pairs encoding 266, 101, and 234 amino acids, respectively. The availability of cDNA encoding IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α of BHS should facilitate the elucidation of the role of these cytokines in the differential pathology induced by M. haemolytica infection in BHS and DS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduction of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Interleukin-8 Levels by Ticlopidine in TNF-α Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaur-Jong Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis and its associated complications represent major causes of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized or Western countries. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 is critical for the initiating and developing of atherosclerotic lesions. Interleukin-8 (IL-8, a CXC chemokine, stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis. Ticlopidine is one of the antiplatelet drugs used to prevent thrombus formation relevant to the pathophysiology of atherothrombosis. In this study, we found that ticlopidine dose-dependently decreased the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α-stimulated MCP-1, IL-8, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Ticlopidine declined U937 cells adhesion and chemotaxis as compared to TNF-α stimulated alone. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects were neither due to decreased HUVEC viability, nor through NF-kB inhibition. These results suggest that ticlopidine decreased TNF-α induced MCP-1, IL-8, and VCAM-1 levels in HUVECs, and monocyte adhesion. Therefore, the data provide additional therapeutic machinery of ticlopidine in treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis.

  14. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated interleukin-8 production in Cystic Fibrosis airway epithelial cells via the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2010-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder characterised by chronic inflammation of the airways. The lung manifestations of CF include colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus leading to neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and tissue damage. Inflammation in the CF lung is initiated by microbial components which activate the innate immune response via Toll-like receptors (TLRs), increasing airway epithelial cell production of proinflammatory mediators such as the neutrophil chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). Thus modulation of TLR function represents a therapeutic approach for CF. Nicotine is a naturally occurring plant alkaloid. Although it is negatively associated with cigarette smoking and cardiovascular damage, nicotine also has anti-inflammatory properties. Here we investigate the inhibitory capacity of nicotine against TLR2- and TLR4-induced IL-8 production by CFTE29o- airway epithelial cells, determine the role of alpha7-nAChR (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) in these events, and provide data to support the potential use of safe nicotine analogues as anti-inflammatories for CF.

  15. The effect of interleukin-8 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor on the response of neutrophils to formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, M; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Stockley, R A

    1998-08-14

    Neutrophils isolated from patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema have been shown to have enhanced responses to formyl peptides when assessed in vitro compared to age, sex matched controls. It is currently unclear whether the observed differences are due to a 'priming' effect by a second agent in vivo, or whether this is a primary difference in the neutrophils. We have studied the effects of interleukin-8, which is thought to be one of the major pro-inflammatory cytokines in chronic lung disease and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), in order to assess their effects on neutrophil chemotaxis and connective tissue degradation. In addition, we have assessed the effect of preincubation of these agents with neutrophils for 30 min followed by stimulation with F-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP) to investigate any possible 'priming' effect that may be relevant to our clinical data. We report suppression of neutrophil chemotaxis to FMLP following incubation of the neutrophils with both IL-8 and GMCSF. However, we have observed an additive effect of IL-8 and FMLP for neutrophil degranulation leading to fibronectin degradation. The results suggest that IL-8 does not 'prime' neutrophils for subsequent FMLP stimulation as observed in vivo. Although the results for GMCSF were similar for the chemotactic response, the agent also had a synergistic effect on connective tissue degradation. However, it is concluded that neither agent could explain the enhanced neutrophil responses seen in our patients.

  16. Prostaglandin E2 produced by Entamoeba histolytica binds to EP4 receptors and stimulates interleukin-8 production in human colonic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Indranil; Chadee, Kris

    2008-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis in the colon occurs in a stepwise fashion. It begins with colonization of the mucin layer, which is followed by stimulation of a proinflammatory response that causes nonspecific tissue damage that may facilitate parasite invasion of the underlying colonic mucosa. Unfortunately, the parasite and/or host factors that stimulate a proinflammatory response in the gut are poorly understood. In this study, we found that live E. histolytica or secretory or proteins (SP) and soluble ameba components (SAP) can markedly increase interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression and protein production in colonic epithelial cells. The IL-8-stimulating molecule produced by live amebae was identified as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as trophozoites treated with cyclooxygenase inhibitors inhibited the biosynthesis of PGE(2) and eliminated IL-8 production induced by live parasites or ameba components. Moreover, using specific prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptor agonists and antagonists, we found that PGE(2) binds exclusively through EP4 receptors in colonic epithelial cells to stimulate IL-8 production. Silencing of EP4 receptors with EP4 small interfering RNA completely eliminated SP- and SAP-induced IL-8 production. These studies identified bioactive PGE(2) as a one of the major virulence factors produced by E. histolytica that can stimulate the potent neutrophil chemokine and activator IL-8, which can trigger an acute host inflammatory response. Thus, the induction of IL-8 production in response to E. histolytica-derived PGE(2) may be a mechanism that explains the initiation and amplification of acute inflammation associated with intestinal amebiasis.

  17. Effects of interleukin-8 on estradiol and progesterone production by bovine granulosa cells from large follicles and progesterone production by luteinizing granulosa cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Kaji, Ayami; Murayama, Chiaki; Magata, Fumie; Shirasuna, Koumei; Wakamiya, Kaori; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemoattractant involved in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils and is associated with the ovulate process. We examined the possible role of IL-8 in steroid production by bovine granulosa cells before and after ovulation. The concentration of IL-8 in the follicular fluid of estrogen-active dominant (EAD) and pre-ovulatory follicles (POF) was higher than that of small follicles (SF). CXCR1 mRNA expression was higher in the granulosa cells of EAD and POF than that of SF. In contrast, CXCR2 mRNA expression was lower in granulosa cells of EAD and POF than in SF. IL-8 inhibited estradiol (E2) production in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-treated granulosa cells at 48 h of culture. IL-8 also suppressed CYP19A1 mRNA expression in FSH-treated granulosa cells. IL-8 stimulated progesterone (P4) production in luteinizing hormone (LH)-treated granulosa cells at 48 h of culture. Although IL-8 did not alter the expression of genes associated with P4 production, it induced StAR protein expression in LH-treated granulosa cells. The expression of CXCR1 mRNA in corpus luteum (CL) did not change during the luteal phase. In contrast, the expression of CXCR2 mRNA in middle CL was significantly higher than in early and regression CL during the luteal phase. In luteinizing granulosa cells, an in vitro model of granulosa cell luteinization, CXCR2 mRNA expression was downregulated, whereas CXCR1 mRNA expression was unchanged. IL-8 also stimulated P4 production in luteinizing granulosa cells. These data provide evidence that IL-8 functions not only as a chemokine, but also act as a regulator of steroid synthesis in granulosa cells to promote luteinization after ovulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin 8 in Human Adenocarcinoma Cell Line HT-29 by Spore Probiotics: B. coagulans and B. subtilis (natto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimirad, Masoumeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Naji, Tahereh

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics are used as a treatment for different intestinal disorders. They confer health benefits by different ways. This study was aimed to investigate immunomodulatory effect of Bacillus probiotic spores on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) in HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated intestinal epithelial cell line was used as a model for the study of colonization of purified spores (Bacillus subtilis (natto) and B. coagulans) and their anti-inflammatory effects. MTT assay and trypan blue staining were used for the detection of optimal concentration of the purified spores and LPS. Pre-treatment assay was done by treatment of the cells with the purified spores for 2 h, followed by challenges with LPS for 3 and 18 h. Post-treatment assay was done by initial treatment of the cells with LPS for 18 h, followed by the spores for 3 and 6 h. Levels of IL-8 secretion and its mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and relative Q real-time PCR. Our results showed similar rates of adherence to intestinal epithelial cells by the spore probiotics, while displaying no cytotoxic effect. In the pre-treatment assay, a significant decrease in IL-8, at both protein and mRNA levels, was measured for B. coagulans spores after the addition of LPS, which was higher than those observed for Bacillus subtilis (natto) spores. In the post-treatment assay, while Bacillus subtilis (but not B. coagulans) diminished the LPS-stimulated IL-8 levels after 3 h of incubation, the inhibitory effect was not constant. In conclusion, ability of Bacillus spore probiotics for adherence to intestinal epithelial cell and their anti-inflammatory effects, through interference with LPS/IL-8 signaling, was shown in this study. Further studies are needed to characterize responsible bacterial compounds associated with these effects.

  19. Anticancer effect of luteolin is mediated by downregulation of TAM receptor tyrosine kinases, but not interleukin-8, in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ju; Lim, Taeho; Han, Min Su; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Nan, Hong-Yan; Lee, Chuhee

    2017-02-01

    TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Tyro3, Axl and MerTK, transduce diverse signals responsible for cell survival, growth, proliferation and anti-apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of luteolin, a flavonoid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, on the expression and activation of TAM RTKs and the association with its cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We observed the cytotoxic effect of luteolin in parental A549 and H460 cells as well as in cisplatin-resistant A549/CisR and H460/CisR cells. Exposure of these cells to luteolin also resulted in a dose‑dependent decrease in clonogenic ability. Next, luteolin was found to decrease the protein levels of all three TAM RTKs in the A549 and A549/CisR cells in a dose‑dependent manner. In a similar manner, in H460 and H460/CisR cells, the protein levels of Axl and Tyro3 were decreased following luteolin treatment. In addition, Axl promoter activity was decreased by luteolin, indicating that luteolin suppresses Axl expression at the transcriptional level. We next found that luteolin abrogated Axl phosphorylation in response to growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), its ligand, implying the inhibitory effect of luteolin on Gas6-induced Axl activation. Ectopic expression of Axl was observed to attenuate the antiproliferative effect of luteolin, while knockdown of the Axl protein level using a gold nanoparticle-assisted gene delivery system increased its cytotoxicity. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of luteolin on the expression of TAM RTKs, interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was not decreased by luteolin in H460 and H460/CisR cells, while IL-8 production/cell was increased. Collectively, our data suggest that TAM RTKs, but not IL-8, are promising therapeutic targets of luteolin to abrogate cell proliferation and to overcome chemoresistance in NSCLC cells.

  20. Differential Effects of Statins on Inflammatory Interleukin-8 and Antimicrobial Peptide Human Β-Defensin 2 Responses in Salmonella-Infected Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chen Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapies are needed to reduce the use of antibiotics and incidence of drug-resistant Salmonellosis. Previous studies have revealed important roles of statins in regulating innate immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effects of statins on innate immunity in Salmonella-infected intestinal epithelial cells (IECs, which are involved in mucosal innate immunity. SW480 cells and Akt siRNA- or vitamin D receptor (VDR siRNA-transfected SW480 cells were infected by wild-type S. Typhimurium strain SL1344 in the presence or absence of statins. The mRNA or protein expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR or western blot analysis, respectively. Simvastatin or fluvastatin caused IL-8 (interleukin-8 suppression, but increased hBD-2 mRNA expression in Salmonella-infected SW480 cells. Both statins enhanced phosphorylated Akt and VDR expressions. Akt or VDR knockdown by siRNA counteracted the suppressive effect of simvastatin on IL-8 expression, whereas VDR knockdown diminished the enhanced hBD-2 expression in Salmonella-infected SW480 cells. Therefore, we observed differential regulation of statins on inflammatory IL-8 and anti-microbial hBD-2 expressions in Salmonella-infected IECs via PI3K/Akt signaling and VDR protein expression, respectively. The enhanced activity of antimicrobial peptides by statins in Salmonella-infected IECs could protect the host against infection, and modulation of pro-inflammatory responses could prevent the detrimental effects of overwhelming inflammation in the host.

  1. Elevated serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in fibromyalgia syndrome patients correlate with body mass index, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yangming; Haynes, Wanda L; Michalek, Joel E; Russell, I Jon

    2013-05-01

    The levels of several inflammatory cytokines are abnormal in many patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and may play a role in its pathogenesis. The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with the disease activity in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, but its role in FMS is unknown. We undertook this study to determine whether high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) is elevated in FMS and whether its levels relate to key biologic or clinical measures. One hundred and five patients with FMS (1990 ACR criteria) and 61 healthy normal controls (HNC) at a ratio of 2:1 were recruited. The serum concentrations of hsCRP, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The hsCRP levels were marginally higher in FMS than in HNC (p = 0.06) and its abnormality rate (>1.5 SD above the HNC mean) was significantly higher in FMS (25 %) compared with HNC (6.8 %) (p = 0.03). Serum IL-8 levels, IL-6 levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in FMS did not differ from those in HNC. Body mass index (BMI), ESR, IL-8, and IL-6 levels correlated with hsCRP levels in FMS. No associations were found between hsCRP and age, gender, ethnicity, or other clinical measures. Serum CRP levels were higher in FMS and significantly correlated with BMI, ESR, IL-8, and IL-6 levels, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to the symptoms in some FMS patients, particularly those who are obese. Weight loss and therapies directed against inflammation may be useful in the management of FMS patients with elevated hsCRP.

  2. Measurement of tumor necrosis factor-α, leukotriene B4, and interleukin 8 in the exhaled breath condensate in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny WS Ko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fanny WS Ko1, Ting-Fan Leung2, Gary WK Wong2, Jenny Ngai1, Kin W To1, Susanna Ng1, David SC Hui11Department of Medicine and Therapeutics; 2Department of Pediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong KongBackground: Assessment of airway inflammation in the clinical course of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD may advance our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment.Objectives: To assess airway inflammation in patients during the course of AECOPD by serial analyses of their exhaled breath condensates (EBC.Methods: Twenty-six patients with AECOPD (22 males, mean[SD] percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 44.8 [14.3], 11 with stable COPD, and 14 age and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. Patients with AECOPD were treated with systemic steroid and antibiotic for 7 days. EBC was collected from each patient with AECOPD on Day 5, 14, 30, and 60 post-hospitalization using EcoScreen (VIASYS Healthcare, USA during tidal breathing over 10 minutes. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, leukotriene B4 (LTB4, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: The median (IQR of TNF-α level on Day 5 was 5.08 (3.80–6 .32 pg/ml, which was lower than on Day 14 (5.84 [4.91–9.14] pg/ml, p = 0.017, Day 30 (6.14 [3.82–7.67] pg/ml, p = 0.045, and Day 60 (5.60 [4.53–8.80] pg/ml, p = 0.009. On Day 60, subjects receiving inhaled corticosteroid (ICS had a lower level of TNF-α than those who were not (4.82 [4.06–5.65] vs 7.66 [5.48–10.9] pg/ml, p = 0.02. EBC LTB4 level did not change significantly during recovery from AECOPD whereas IL-8 was mostly undetectable.Conclusions: EBC TNF-α level was low in patients receiving systemic steroid and antibiotic therapy for AECOPD. These findings suggest a potential role for serial EBC TNF-α for noninvasive monitoring of disease activity.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, exhaled breath

  3. Enhanced interleukin-8 production in THP-1 human monocytic cells by lipopolysaccharide from oral microorganisms and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqui, A A; Meiller, T F; Falkler, W A

    1999-10-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been used to assist in bone marrow recovery during cancer chemotherapy. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays an important role in macrophage mediated inflammatory processes including exacerbation of periodontal diseases, one of the most common complications in GM-CSF receiving cancer patients. The effect of GM-CSF supplementation on IL-8 production was investigated in a human monocyte cell line THP-1, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide extracted from two oral microorganisms, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Resting THP-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (1 microgram/ml) of P. gingivalis or F. nucleatum and/or GM-CSF (50 IU/ml) for varying time periods. The production of IL-8 in THP-1 cells was measured by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A very low level of the cytokine IL-8 was produced constitutive in THP-1 cells. Starting from 8 h of treatment and afterwards GM-CSF alone significantly increased IL-8 production in THP-1 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (1 microgram/ml) extracts from either F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis amplified IL-8 production 500-800 times in comparison to resting THP-1 cells. When lipopolysaccharide of F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis was supplemented with 50 IU/ml of GM-CSF, there was a statistically significant enhanced production of IL-8 by THP-1 cells after 1 day to 7 days of treatment as compared with lipopolysaccharide treatment alone. GM-CSF (50 IU/ml) also significantly increased IL-8 production from 2-7 days of treatment of THP-1 cells when supplemented with a positive control, phorbol-12-myristate-13 acetate (PMA), as compared to PMA treatment alone. These investigations using the in vitro THP-1 human monocyte cell model indicate that there may be an increase in the response on a cellular level to oral endotoxin following GM-CSF therapy as evidenced by enhanced production of the tissue-reactive inflammatory cytokine, IL-8.

  4. Constructing disease-specific gene networks using pair-wise relevance metric: Application to colon cancer identifies interleukin 8, desmin and enolase 1 as the central elements

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    Jiang Wei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. Results The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8 (p ≈ 0, desmin (DES (p = 2.71 × 10-6 and enolase 1 (ENO1 (p = 4.19 × 10-5], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9 (p = 1.50 × 10-4 and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30 (p = 1.50 × 10-4] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and

  5. Constructing disease-specific gene networks using pair-wise relevance metric: application to colon cancer identifies interleukin 8, desmin and enolase 1 as the central elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia; Rao, Shaoqi; Wang, Lihong; Du, Lei; Li, Chuanxing; Wu, Chao; Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yadong; Yang, Baofeng

    2008-08-10

    With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8) (p approximately 0), desmin (DES) (p = 2.71 x 10(-6)) and enolase 1 (ENO1) (p = 4.19 x 10(-5))], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4)) and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4))] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and the sub-network that

  6. Depletion of intrinsic expression of Interleukin-8 in prostate cancer cells causes cell cycle arrest, spontaneous apoptosis and increases the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs

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    Lokeshwar Bal L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of all cancers is characterized by increased-cell proliferation and decreased-apoptosis. The androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC is the terminal stage of the disease. Many chemokines and cytokines are suspects to cause this increased tumor cell survival that ultimately leads to resistance to therapy and demise of the host. The AIPC cells, but not androgen-responsive cells, constitutively express abundant amount of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, Interleukin-8 (IL-8. The mechanism of IL-8 mediated survival and therapeutic resistance in AIPC cells is unclear at present. The purpose of this report is to show the pervasive role of IL-8 in malignant progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC and to provide a potential new therapeutic avenue, using RNA interference. Results The functional consequence of IL-8 depletion in AIPC cells was investigated by RNA interference in two IL-8 secreting AIPC cell lines, PC-3 and DU145. The non-IL-8 secreting LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells served as controls. Cells were transfected with RISC-free siRNA (control or validated-pool of IL-8 siRNA. Transfection with 50 nM IL-8 siRNA caused >95% depletion of IL-8 mRNA and >92% decrease in IL-8 protein. This reduction in IL-8 led to cell cycle arrest at G1/S boundary and decreases in cell cycle-regulated proteins: Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B1 (both decreased >50% and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity by >50%. Further, the spontaneous apoptosis was increased by >43% in IL-8 depleted cells, evidenced by increases in caspase-9 activation and cleaved-PARP. IL-8 depletion caused significant decreases in anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL-2, BCL-xL due to decrease in both mRNA and post-translational stability, and increased levels of pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD proteins. More significantly, depletion of intracellular IL-8 increased the cytotoxic activity of multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. Specifically, the cytotoxicity of Docetaxel

  7. Evaluation of the role of leptin, interleukin-8 (Il-8) and nitric oxide (No) in children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ll-Nashar, N.A.; Abdel-Latif, A.; Mostafa, A.M.E.; Ahmed, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The autoimmune nature of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), type 1, is well established. The documentation of altered Th 1/Th 2 balance and the finding of antibodies in the circulation directed against the b-cells can indicate the role of the immune system. The stimulating effect of insulin on leptin expression is well identified. The aim of this study is to investigate the profile and the relationships between leptin, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and nitric oxide (NO) and to reveal their possible role in the development and progression of IDDM. Serum leptin was evaluated using radioimmunoassay (RIA), serum concentration of IL-8 was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while serum nitrite level (end product of NO) was determined by Griess reaction. The study was carried out on twenty IDDM children who compared with other twenty healthy non-diabetic ones with the same age and sex. The data revealed that children with IDDM established high weight-for-age (W/A)Z (P < 0.001) , high weight-for-height (W/H)Z (P < 0.05) and high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c% ) (P < 0.0001). Both diabetic boys and girls showed higher serum leptin levels (7.48 ± 1.86 ng/ml) than the control group (5.92 ± 1.39 ng/ml). Leptin levels were higher in diabetic girls (8.46 ± 2.29 ng/ml) than diabetic boys (6.68 ± 0.91 ng/ml). Significant high level of serum IL-8 concentration (23 ± 11.92 pg/ml) was detected in IDDM children versus the control group (5.69 ± 1.67 pg/ml). On the other hand, serum nitrite values showed significant reduction in the IDDM children (430.78 ± 155.14 Μmol/l) compared to the control group (610.08 ± 192.82 Μmol/l). Correlation analysis showed positive correlation between leptin with age, (W/H)Z and fasting glucose level, furthermore, a positive correlation was established between IL-8 with (W/H)Z, hinting the adipose tissue as a site of its production and no association between NO and other relevant variables was detected. It could be concluded that

  8. Activation of human gingival epithelial cells by cell-surface components of black-pigmented bacteria: augmentation of production of interleukin-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, A; Uehara, A; Iki, K; Matsushita, K; Nakamura, R; Ogawa, T; Sugawara, S; Takada, H

    2002-01-01

    Black-pigmented anaerobic bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, are amongst the predominant bacteria in periodontal pockets and have been implicated in periodontal diseases. To elucidate the roles of gingival keratinocytes, which are the first cells encountered by oral bacteria in periodontal diseases, human gingival keratinocytes in primary culture were stimulated with cell-surface components of P gingivalis and Pr. intermedia. A glycoprotein fraction from Pr. intermedia (PGP) clearly augmented the release of interleukin-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This PGP also induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), as determined by flow cytometry. The augmentation of mRNA expression for these molecules was also confirmed by reverse transcription PCR. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Pr. intermedia and Escherichia coli was completely inactive in these assays. LPS fraction and purified fimbriae from P gingivalis exhibited weak activities. Cytokine production and ICAM-1 expression by gingival keratinocytes might cause accumulation and activation of neutrophils in the epithelium and, therefore, may be involved in the initiation and development of inflammation in periodontal tissues.

  9. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway pathology is a fatal, autosomal, recessive genetic disease characterized by extensive lung inflammation. After induction by TNF-α, elevated concentrations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-6, IL-1β) and chemokines (i.e. IL-8) are released from airway epithelial cells. In order to reduce the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients, new therapies have been developed and in this respect, medicinal plant extracts have been studied. In this article we have investigated the possible use of bergamot extracts (Citrus bergamia Risso) and their identified components to alter the expression of IL-8 associated with the cystic fibrosis airway pathology. Methods The extracts were chemically characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector), GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography). Both bergamot extracts and main detected chemical constituents were assayed for their biological activity measuring (a) cytokines and chemokines in culture supernatants released from cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells treated with TNF-α by Bio-Plex cytokine assay; (b) accumulation of IL-8 mRNA by real-time PCR. Results The extracts obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) epicarps contain components displaying an inhibitory activity on IL-8. Particularly, the most active molecules were bergapten and citropten. These effects have been confirmed by analyzing mRNA levels and protein release in the CF cellular models IB3-1 and CuFi-1 induced with TNF-α or exposed to heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions These obtained results clearly indicate that bergapten and citropten are strong inhibitors of IL-8 expression and could be proposed for further studies to verify possible anti-inflammatory properties to reduce lung inflammation in CF patients. PMID:21496221

  10. Effects of methyl gallate and gallic acid on the production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 by oral epithelial cells stimulated with Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Jang, Hee-Sook; Oh, Jong-Suk; Yang, Kyu-Ho; Choi, Nam-Ki; Lim, Hoi-Soon; Kim, Seon-Mi

    2009-12-01

    Interactions between periodontal bacteria and human oral epithelial cells can lead to the activation and expression of a variety of inflammatory mediators in epithelial cells. Fusobacterium nucleatum is a filamentous human pathogen that is strongly associated with periodontal diseases. This study examined the effects of methyl gallate (MG) and gallic acid (GA) on the production of inflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, by oral epithelial cells stimulated by F. nucleatum. In a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, live F. nucleatum induced high levels of gene expression and protein release of IL-6 and IL-8. The effects of MG and GA were examined by treating KB oral epithelial cells with MG and GA and stimulating them with F. nucleatum. MG and GA inhibited significantly the increases in the IL-6 and IL-8 gene and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. These Compounds also inhibited the growth of F. nucleatum. No visible effects of MG and GA on the adhesion and invasion of KB cells by F. nucleatum were observed. In conclusion, both MG and GA inhibit IL-6 and IL-8 production from F. nucleatum-activated KB cells.

  11. Antiphospholipid antibody-induced miR-146a-3p drives trophoblast interleukin-8 secretion through activation of Toll-like receptor 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysler, Stefan M; Mulla, Melissa J; Guerra, Marta; Brosens, Jan J; Salmon, Jane E; Chamley, Lawrence W; Abrahams, Vikki M

    2016-07-01

    What is the role of microRNAs (miRs) in antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-induced trophoblast inflammation? aPL-induced up-regulation of trophoblast miR-146a-3p is mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and miR-146a-3p in turn drives the cells to secrete interleukin (IL)-8 by activating the RNA sensor, TLR8. Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by circulating aPL and an increased risk of pregnancy complications. We previously showed that aPL recognizing beta2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) elicit human first trimester trophoblast secretion of IL-8 by activating TLR4. Since some miRs control TLR responses, their regulation in trophoblast cells by aPL and functional role in the aPL-mediated inflammatory response was investigated. miRs can be released from cells via exosomes, and therefore, miR exosome expression was also examined. A panel of miRs was selected based on their involvement with TLR signaling: miR-9; miR-146a-5p and its isomiR, miR-146a-3p; miR-155, miR-210; and Let-7c. Since certain miRs can activate the RNA sensor, TLR8, this was also investigated. For in vitro studies, the human first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR8 was studied. HTR8 cells transfected to express a TLR8 dominant negative (DN) were also used. Plasma was evaluated from pregnant women who have aPL, either with or without systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) (n = 39); SLE patients without aPL (n = 30); and healthy pregnant controls (n = 20). Trophoblast HTR8 wildtype and TLR8-DN cells were incubated with or without aPL (mouse anti-human β2GPI mAb) for 48-72 h. HTR8 cells were also treated with or without aPL in the presence and the absence of a TLR4 antagonist (lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides; LPS-RS), specific miR inhibitors or specific miR mimics. miR expression levels in trophoblast cells, trophoblast-derived exosomes and exosomes isolated from patient plasma were measured by qPCR. Trophoblast IL-8 secretion was

  12. Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: Stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1β effect and increase in the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresca, Marc; Yahi, Nouara; Younes-Sakr, Lama; Boyron, Marilyn; Caporiccio, Bertrand; Fantini, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites responsible of food-mediated intoxication in animals and humans. Deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin are the best known enteropathogenic mycotoxins able to alter intestinal functions resulting in malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Although their effects on intestinal barrier and transport activities have been extensively characterized, the mechanisms responsible for their pro-inflammatory effect are still poorly understood. Here we investigated if mycotoxin-induced intestinal inflammation results from a direct and/or indirect pro-inflammatory activity of these mycotoxins on human intestinal epithelial cells, using differentiated Caco-2 cells as model and interleukin 8 (IL-8) as an indicator of intestinal inflammation. Deoxynivalenol was the only mycotoxin able to directly increase IL-8 secretion (10- to 15-fold increase). We also investigated if these mycotoxins could indirectly stimulate IL-8 secretion through: (i) a modulation of the action of pro-inflammatory molecules such as the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and/or (ii) an increase in the transepithelial passage of non-invasive commensal Escherichia coli. We found that deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin all potentiated the effect of IL-1β on IL-8 secretion (ranging from 35% to 138% increase) and increased the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria (ranging from 12- to 1544-fold increase). In addition to potentially exacerbate established intestinal inflammation, these mycotoxins may thus participate in the induction of sepsis and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins is mediated by both direct and indirect effects

  13. Prevalence of scrub typhus in pyrexia of unknown origin and assessment of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma levels in scrub typhus-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Meher; Sultan, Asfia; Chowdhry, Madhav; Azam, Mohd; Khan, Fatima; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Haris M

    2018-01-01

    Scrub typhus is lesser known cause of fever of unknown origin in India. Even if there have been reports documenting the prevalence of scrub typhus in different parts of India, it is still an unknown entity, and clinicians usually do not consider it as differential diagnosis. The present study was performed to document the prevalence of scrub typhus among febrile patients in western part of Uttar Pradesh and to assess the clinical profile of infected patients on the one hand and knowledge, attitude, and practices among clinicians on the other. A total of 357 adult patients with fever of more than 5-day duration were recruited. All patients underwent complete physical examination, and detailed clinical history was elicited as per predesigned pro forma. After primary screening to rule out malaria, enteric fever, and leptospirosis infection, secondary screening for scrub typhus was done by rapid screen test and IgM ELISA. Scrub typhus infection was positive in 91 (25.5%) cases. The most common symptoms among the patients were fever (100%), pain in abdomen (79.1%), pedal edema 56 (61.5%), rash 44 (48.3%), headache 44 (48.3%), vomiting 42 (46.1%), constipation 33 (36.2%), cough 28 (30.7%), and lymphadenopathy 20 (21.9%). The median values of interleukin-8, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in healthy controls were 15.54 pg/ml, 7.77 pg/ml, and 54.1 pg/ml, respectively, while the median values of these cytokines in scrub typhus-positive patients were 21.04 pg/ml, 8.74 pg/ml, and 73.8 pg/ml, respectively. Our results highlight that scrub typhus infection is an important cause of pyrexia of unknown origin, and active surveillance is necessary to assess the exact magnitude and distribution of the disease.

  14. Effect of 1.2% of simvastatin gel as a local drug delivery system on Gingival Crevicular Fluid interleukin-6 & interleukin-8 levels in non surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjiganur Vemanaradhya, Gayathri; Emani, Shilpa; Mehta, Dhoom Singh; Bhandari, Shilpy

    2017-10-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 1.2% simvastatin gel as local drug delivery (LDD) system on Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) Interleukin -6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in chronic periodontitis patients, in addition to scaling and root planing (SRP). A total of 46 chronic periodontitis patients were equally divided into two groups. Group I patients were treated by SRP; Group II patients were treated by SRP followed by LDD of 1.2% simvastatin (SMV) gel. Plaque index (PI), Gingival index(GI), Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI), Probing pocket depth (PPD) and Relative clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded & GCF samples were collected at baseline (0day) and at 45th day from both the groups. The collected GCF samples were analysed for IL-6 and IL-8 levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both the groups showed significant reduction in all the clinical parameters scores and IL-6 and IL-8 levels after non-surgical periodontal therapy (SRP for group I/SRP+1.2% SMV gel for group II) in contrast to baseline values. However, a greater reduction was observed in group II. A non-significant positive correlation was observed between clinical parameters and IL-6 and IL-8 levels except at baseline, a significant correlation was observed between PPD &IL 6 levels in group II. In adjunct to SRP, 1.2% Simvastatin gel acts as an effective local drug delivery agent for the management of chronic periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral supplementation of turmeric attenuates proteinuria, transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-8 levels in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy: a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehdehi, Parviz; Pakfetrat, Maryam; Javidnia, Katayoun; Azad, Fariborz; Malekmakan, Leila; Nasab, Mahshid Hashemi; Dehghanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-11-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to type 2 diabetic nephropathy is a very common condition which is increasing in prevalence, and is associated with high global levels of mortality and morbidity. Both proteinuria and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) may contribute to the development of ESRD in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Experimental studies indicate that turmeric improves diabetic nephropathy by suppressing TGF-β. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of turmeric on serum and urinary TGF-β, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as proteinuria, in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy. A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study was carried out in the Diabetes Clinic of the Outpatient Department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences on 40 patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy, randomized into a trial group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20). Each patient in the trial group received one capsule with each meal containing 500 mg turmeric, of which 22.1 mg was the active ingredient curcumin (three capsules daily) for 2 months. The control group received three capsules identical in colour and size containing starch for the same 2 months. Serum levels of TGF-β and IL-8 and urinary protein excretion and IL-8 decreased significantly comparing the pre- and post-turmeric supplementation values. No adverse effects related to turmeric supplementation were observed during the trial. Short-term turmeric supplementation can attenuate proteinuria, TGF-β and IL-8 in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy and can be administered as a safe adjuvant therapy for these patients.

  16. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1 is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Hussein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8 secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU and duodenal ulcer (DU was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01. The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7% and GU (70% than in those with NUD (13.3% (p 0.01. The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8% than those with GU (10% and NUD (8.9% (p 0.01. Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1. We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6. While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01. Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure.

  17. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1) is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, N R; Tunjel, I; Majed, H S; Yousif, S T; Aswad, S I; Assafi, M S

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD) (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01). The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7%) and GU (70%) than in those with NUD (13.3%) (p 0.01). The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8%) than those with GU (10%) and NUD (8.9%) (p 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1). We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6). While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01). Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure.

  18. СHARACTERISTICS OF THE HEART FATTY ACID-BINDING PROTEIN, INTERLEUKIN-6 AND INTERLEUKIN-8 AS ALTERNATIVE MARKERS OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY PROGRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Ryzhikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the levels of the heart fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP, interleukin6 (IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8, in diabetic nephropathy (DN in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Material and methods. We examined 87 patients aged 18 to 54 with T1DM within the study group. 30 patients with type 1 diabetes were diagnosed with normoalbuminuria, 29 patients – with microalbuminuria and 28 patients – with proteinuria. The control group consisted of 24 healthy donor aged 22 to 29. The comparison group included 22 patients aged 20 to 42 with verified diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension (AH without carbohydrate metabolism disorders. The daily urinary albumin excretion was determined by immunoturbidimetric technique. 30 patients with type 1 diabetes were diagnosed with normoalbuminuria, 29 patients – with microalbuminuria and 28 patients with proteinuria.Calculation of glomerular filtration rate was performed according to the Hoek formula with the use of cystatinС serum concentrations. Contents of h-FABP, IL-6 and cystatin C in serum and h-FABP, IL-8 inurine were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Analysis of the h-FABP content in serum showed that the concentration of this marker in individuals with T1DM was higher than in patients of the control group and the comparison group. Analysis of the h-FABP content in the urine revealed that individuals with essential hypertension showed an increased level of h-FABP while patients with T1DM demonstrated the highest concentration of h-FABP. The concentration of IL-6 inindividuals with T1DM and in individuals with AH significantly exceeded the control values. The contents of h-FABP and IL-6 inserum and h-FABP and IL-8 inurine increased with the progression of DN and reached maximum in individuals of the proteinuria subgroup. At the same time, the levels of h-FABP and IL-8 inthe urine of patients in the microalbuminuria (MAU subgroup were

  19. Pulmonary proteases in the cystic fibrosis lung induce interleukin 8 expression from bronchial epithelial cells via a heme/meprin/epidermal growth factor receptor/Toll-like receptor pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cosgrove, Sonya

    2012-02-01

    A high intrapulmonary protease burden is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), and the resulting dysregulation of the protease\\/anti-protease balance has serious implications for inflammation in the CF lung. Because of this inflammation, micro-bleeds can occur releasing hemoglobin into the lung. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the protease-rich environment of the CF lung on human hemoglobin and to assess the proinflammatory effect of heme on CF bronchial epithelium. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas proteases (Pseudomonas elastase and alkaline protease) and the neutrophil proteases (neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3) are capable of almost complete degradation of hemoglobin in vitro but that NE is the predominant protease that cleaves hemoglobin in vivo in CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One of the effects of this is the release of heme, and in this study we show that heme stimulates IL-8 and IL-10 protein production from DeltaF508 CFBE41o(-) bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, heme-induced IL-8 expression utilizes a novel pathway involving meprin, EGF receptor, and MyD88. Meprin levels are elevated in CF cell lines and bronchial brushings, thus adding to the proinflammatory milieu. Interestingly, alpha(1)-antitrypsin, in addition to its ability to neutralize NE and protease-3, can also bind heme and neutralize heme-induced IL-8 from CFBE41o(-) cells. This study illustrates the proinflammatory effects of micro-bleeds in the CF lung, the process by which this occurs, and a potential therapeutic intervention.

  20. Pulmonary Proteases in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Induce Interleukin 8 Expression from Bronchial Epithelial Cells via a Heme/Meprin/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Toll-like Receptor Pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cosgrove, Sonya

    2011-03-04

    A high intrapulmonary protease burden is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), and the resulting dysregulation of the protease\\/anti-protease balance has serious implications for inflammation in the CF lung. Because of this inflammation, micro-bleeds can occur releasing hemoglobin into the lung. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the protease-rich environment of the CF lung on human hemoglobin and to assess the proinflammatory effect of heme on CF bronchial epithelium. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas proteases (Pseudomonas elastase and alkaline protease) and the neutrophil proteases (neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3) are capable of almost complete degradation of hemoglobin in vitro but that NE is the predominant protease that cleaves hemoglobin in vivo in CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One of the effects of this is the release of heme, and in this study we show that heme stimulates IL-8 and IL-10 protein production from ΔF508 CFBE41o(-) bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, heme-induced IL-8 expression utilizes a novel pathway involving meprin, EGF receptor, and MyD88. Meprin levels are elevated in CF cell lines and bronchial brushings, thus adding to the proinflammatory milieu. Interestingly, α(1)-antitrypsin, in addition to its ability to neutralize NE and protease-3, can also bind heme and neutralize heme-induced IL-8 from CFBE41o(-) cells. This study illustrates the proinflammatory effects of micro-bleeds in the CF lung, the process by which this occurs, and a potential therapeutic intervention.

  1. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  2. Inhibitory effect of fentanyl citrate on the release of endothlin-1 induced by bradykinin in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Tsugunobu; Shinohara, Akira; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2017-02-01

    Our previous study showed that the μ-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl citrate inhibits endothelin-1-and bradykinin-mediated pain responses in mice orthotopically inoculated with melanoma cells. We also demonstrated that bradykinin induces endothelin-1 secretion in melanoma cells. However, the analgesic mechanisms of fentanyl citrate remain unclear. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine whether fentanyl citrate affects bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion in B16-BL6 melanoma cells. The amount of endothelin-1 in the culture medium was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The expression of endothelin-1, kinin B 2 receptors, and μ-opioid receptors in B16-BL/6 melanoma cells was determined using immunocytochemistry. Fentanyl citrate inhibited bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion. The inhibitory effect of fentanyl citrate on the secretion of endothelin-1 was attenuated by the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide. The immunoreactivities of endothelin-1, kinin B 2 receptors, and μ-opioid receptors in B16-BL6 melanoma cells were observed. These results suggest that fentanyl citrate regulates bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion through μ-opioid receptors in melanoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Shear stress and interleukin-8 (IL-8) on the proliferation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from bone marrow, are also found ... into tissues and neovascularization, the cells are exposed to fluid shear stress. ... Both shear stress and IL-8 can influence the process of EPCs repair in wound.

  4. Evaluation of Interleukin 8 gene polymorphism for predicting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rajasree Shanmuganathan

    2016-07-09

    Jul 9, 2016 ... b Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam, Thanjavur 613 403, ... Peer review under responsibility of Alexandria University Faculty of Medicine. Alexandria Journal of Medicine (2017) 53, 215–220 ..... Press; 1989. 18. Carrero JJ, Park SH, Axelsson J, Lindholm B, Stenvinkel P.

  5. Identification of interleukin-8 converting enzyme as cathepsin L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Kensaku; Naruto, Masanobu; Nakaki, Toshio; Sano, Emiko

    2003-06-26

    IL-8 is produced by various cells, and the NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence of IL-8 displays heterogeneity among cell types. The mature form of IL-8 has 72 amino acids (72IL-8), while a precursor form (77IL-8) of IL-8 has five additional amino acids to the 72IL-8 NH(2)-terminal. However, it has been unclear how IL-8 is processed to yield the mature form. In this study, converting enzyme was purified as a single 31-kDa band on silver-stained polyacrylamide gel from 160 l of cultured fibroblast supernatant by sequential chromatography. NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed a sequence, EAPRSVDWRE, which was identified as a partial sequence of cathepsin L. Polyclonal antibodies raised against cathepsin L recognized the purified converting enzyme on Western blot. Moreover, human hepatic cathepsin L cleaved 77IL-8 between Arg(5) and Ser(6), which is the same cleavage site as the putative converting enzyme, resulting in 72IL-8 formation. These data indicate that the converting enzyme of the partially purified fraction of the human fibroblast culture supernatant was cathepsin L. Furthermore, 72IL-8 was sevenfold more potent than 77IL-8 in a neutrophil chemotaxis assay. These results show that cathepsin L is secreted from human fibroblasts in response to external stimuli and plays an important role in IL-8 processing in inflammatory sites.

  6. Interleukin-8: an expanding universe beyond neutrophil chemotaxis and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaida, N

    2000-12-01

    Since the discovery 13 years ago of interleukin (IL)-8 as a potent neutrophil chemotactic factor, accumulating evidence has established it as a crucial mediator in neutrophil-dependent acute inflammation. Numerous observations have demonstrated that various types of cells can produce a large amount of IL-8, either in response to various stimuli or constitutively, after malignant transformation. Recent studies of IL-8-mediated signaling have revealed that IL-8 activates a wide range of signaling molecules in a coordinate manner. IL-8 has been proven to have diverse actions on various types of leukocytic and nonleukocytic cells besides neutrophils. The author reviews recent progress in IL-8 signal transduction and biological actions on nonneutrophilic leukocytes, including T lymphocytes, monocytes, and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Potential involvement of IL-8 in viral infections and tumor progression is also discussed.

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLE Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    24

    monothioglycerol and 1,5 mM EDTA, centrifugation at 800-1000 g for 30 min, followed by .... with low IL8 levels had lower percentage of relapses and longer RFS ... diagnose women with breast cancer and to identify patients with poor ..... 20. 71. 0. 22,0. 78,0. 0. Progesterone receptor status. PRlow. PRhigh. NA. 70. 21. 0.

  8. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors attenuate bradykinin-induced vasoconstriction in septic isolated rat lungs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, L. G.; Hollmann, M. W.; Horstman, D. J.; Rich, G. F.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) products play an important role in modulating sepsis and subsequent endothelial injury. We hypothesized that COX inhibitors may attenuate endothelial dysfunction during sepsis, as measured by receptor-mediated bradykinin (BK)-induced vasoconstriction and/or receptor-independent

  9. Studies on the Biological Effects of Ozone: 10. Release of Factors from Ozonated Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valacchi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work we have shown that heparin, in the presence of ozone (O3, promotes a dose-dependent platelet aggregation, while after Ca2+ chelation with citrate, platelet aggregation is almost negligible. These results led us to think that aggregation may enhance the release of platelet components. We have here shown that indeed significantly higher amount of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-8(IL-8 are released in a dose-dependent manner after ozonation of heparinised platelet-rich plasma samples. These findings may explain the enhanced healing of torpid ulcers in patients with chronic limbischemia treated with O3 autohaemoteraphy (O3-AHT.

  10. Ozone Enhances Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP-Induced Interleukin-8 (IL-8 Gene Expression in Human Airway Epithelial Cells through Activation of Nuclear Factors- κB (NF-κB and IL-6 (NF-IL6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kelley

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, a highly reactive oxidant gas is a major component of photochemical smog. As an inhaled toxicant, ozone induces its adverse effects mainly on the lung. Inhalation of particulate matter has been reported to cause airway inflammation in humans and animals. Furthermore, epidemiological evidence has indicated that exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10, including diesel exhaust particles (DEP has been correlated with increased acute and chronic respiratory morbidity and exacerbation of asthma. Previously, exposure to ozone or particulate matter and their effect on the lung have been addressed as separate environmental problems. Ozone and particulate matter may be chemically coupled in the ambient air. In the present study we determined whether ozone exposure enhances DEP effect on interleukin-8 (IL-8 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. We report that ozone exposure (0.5 ppm x 1 hr significantly increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression in A549 cells (117 ± 19 pg/ml, n = 6, p < 0.05 as compared to cultures treated with DEP (100 μg/ml x 4 hr alone (31 ± 3 pg/ml, n = 6, or cultures exposed to purified air (24 ± 6 pg/ml, n = 6. The increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression following ozone exposure was attributed to ozone-induced increase in the activity of the transcription factors NF-κB and NF-IL6. The results of the present study indicate that ozone exposure enhances the toxicity of DEP in human airway epithelial cells by augmenting IL-8 gene expression, a potent chemoattractant of neutrophils in the lung.

  11. Acidic pH stimulates the production of the angiogenic CXC chemokine, CXCL8 (interleukin-8), in human adult mesenchymal stem cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-kappaB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, David S; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Makhijani, Nalini S; Yamaguchi, Dean T

    2008-07-01

    Blood vessel injury results in limited oxygen tension and diffusion leading to hypoxia, increased anaerobic metabolism, and elevated production of acidic metabolites that cannot be easily removed due to the reduced blood flow. Therefore, an acidic extracellular pH occurs in the local microenvironment of disrupted bone. The potential role of acidic pH and glu-leu-arg (ELR(+)) CXC chemokines in early events in bone repair was studied in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) treated with medium of decreasing pH (7.4, 7.0, 6.7, and 6.4). The cells showed a reciprocal increase in CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8) mRNA levels as extracellular pH decreased. At pH 6.4, CXCL8 mRNA was induced >60x in comparison to levels at pH 7.4. hMSCs treated with osteogenic medium (OGM) also showed an increase in CXCL8 mRNA with decreasing pH; although, at a lower level than that seen in cells grown in non-OGM. CXCL8 protein was secreted into the medium at all pHs with maximal induction at pH 6.7. Inhibition of the G-protein-coupled receptor alpha, G(alphai), suppressed CXCL8 levels in response to acidic pH; whereas phospholipase C inhibition had no effect on CXCL8. The use of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction inhibitors indicated that the pH-dependent increase in CXCL8 mRNA is due to activation of ERK and p38 pathways. The JNK pathway was not involved. NF-kappaB inhibition resulted in a decrease in CXCL8 levels in hMSCs grown in non-OGM. However, OGM-differentiated hMSCs showed an increase in CXCL8 levels when treated with the NF-kappaB inhibitor PDTC, a pyrrolidine derivative of dithiocarbamate. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  13. Rupatadine inhibits inflammatory mediator release from human laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cultured mast cells stimulated by platelet-activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizos, Michail; Karagkouni, Anna; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Sismanopoulos, Nikolaos; Makris, Michael; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2013-12-01

    Mast cells are involved in allergy and inflammation by the secretion of multiple mediators, including histamine, cytokines, and platelet-activating factor (PAF), in response to different triggers, including emotional stress. PAF has been associated with allergic inflammation, but there are no clinically available PAF inhibitors. To investigate whether PAF could stimulate human mast cell mediator release and whether rupatadine (RUP), a dual histamine-1 and PAF receptor antagonist, could inhibit the effect of PAF on human mast cells. Laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cultured mast cells were stimulated with PAF (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 μmol/L) and substance P (1 μmol/L) with or without pretreatment with RUP (2.5 and 25 μmol/L), which was added 10 minutes before stimulation. Release of β-hexosaminidase was measured in supernatant fluid by spectrophotoscopy, and histamine, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PAF stimulated a statistically significant release of histamine, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor (0.001-0.1 μmol/L) that was comparable to that stimulated by substance P. Pretreatment with RUP (25 μmol/L) for 10 minutes inhibited this effect. In contrast, pretreatment of laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cells with diphenhydramine (25 μmol/L) did not inhibit mediator release, suggesting that the effect of RUP was not due to its antihistaminic effect. PAF stimulates human mast cell release of proinflammatory mediators that is inhibited by RUP. This action endows RUP with additional properties in treating allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. IL-8、 MMP-9、 INF-γ的检测对结核性脑膜炎及病毒性脑膜炎发病的意义%Detection of interleukin-8, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and interferon gamma levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tuberculous meningitis and viral meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱飞; 张家堂; 邢小微; 贺路星; 赵威; 郎森阳; 于生元

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨脑脊液中白细胞介素-8(IL-8)、基质金属蛋白酶-9(MMP-9)、干扰素-γ(INF-γ)含量的检测对结核性脑膜炎及病毒性脑膜炎的临床诊断价值. 方法 选取解放军总医院、解放军第三0九医院自2010年8月至2011年11月住院的患者,其中结核性脑膜炎组20例,病毒性脑膜炎组15例,非感染性神经系统疾病组20例.用ELISA法检测3组患者脑脊液IL-8、MMP-9、INF-γ含量,并进行比较分析. 结果 结核性脑膜炎组患者脑脊液中IL-8、MMP-9、INF-γ的含量高于病毒性脑膜炎组和非感染性神经系统疾病组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).病毒性脑膜炎组患者脑脊液中IL-8、MMP-9含量高于非感染性神经系统组(P<0.05).病毒性脑膜炎组患者脑脊液中INF-γ含量与非感染性神经系统疾病组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论 脑脊液中IL-8、MMP-9、INF-γ含量的检测对结核性脑膜炎具有一定的辅助诊断意义.IL-8、MMP-9在病毒性脑膜炎的发病和进展中亦起到一定作用.临床上若在患者脑脊液中检测到高水平的INF-γ,较之IL-8、MMP-9对于结核性脑膜炎更具诊断价值.%Objective To investigate the diagnostic values of interleukin-8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and interferon gamma (INF-γ) levels in patients with tuberculous meningitis and viral meningitis by detecting the contents of these biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of IL-8,MMP-9 and INF-γ in the CSF of patients with tuberculous meningitis (n=20),viral meningitis (n=15) and noninfectious neurologic diseases (n=20) who admitted to our hospital from August 2010 to November 2011. Results The IL-8,MMP-9 and INF-γlevels in the samples from the tuberculous meningitis patients were significantly higher than those from either viral meningitis or noninfectious neurologic diseases (P<0.05).The contents of IL-8

  15. Neutral endopeptidase up-regulation in isolated human umbilical artery: involvement in desensitization of bradykinin-induced vasoconstrictor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Facundo Germán; Halperin, Ana Verónica; Palma, Alejandro Martín; Nowak, Wanda; Errasti, Andrea Emilse; Rothlin, Rodolfo Pedro

    2007-02-01

    Previous reports show that bradykinin B(2) receptors mediate contractile responses induced by bradykinin (BK) in human umbilical artery (HUA). However, although it has been reported that BK-induced responses can desensitize in several inflammatory models, the effects of prolonged in vitro incubation on BK-induced vasoconstriction in HUA have not been studied. In isolated HUA rings, BK-induced responses after a 5-h in vitro incubation showed a marked desensitization compared with responses at 2 h. Inhibition of either angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or neutral endopeptidase (NEP), both BK-inactivating enzymes, failed to modify responses to BK at 2 h. After 5 h, ACE inhibition produced only a slight potentiation of BK-induced responses. In contrast, BK-induced vasoconstriction at 5 h was markedly potentiated by NEP inhibition. Moreover, NEP activity, measured by hydrolysis of its synthetic substrate (Z-Ala-Ala-Leu-p-nitroanilide), showed a 2.4-fold increase in 5-h incubated versus 2-h incubated tissues, which was completely reversed by cycloheximide (CHX) treatment. Furthermore, CHX significantly potentiated BK-induced responses, suggesting that NEP-mediated kininase activity increase at 5 h depends on de novo protein synthesis. In addition, under NEP inhibition, CHX treatment failed to produce an additional potentiation of BK-induced vasoconstriction. Still, NEP up-regulation was confirmed by Western blot, showing a 2.1-fold increase in immunoreactive NEP in 5-h incubated versus 2-h incubated HUA. In summary, the present study provides strong pharmacological evidence that NEP is up-regulated and plays a key role in desensitization of BK-induced vasoconstriction after prolonged in vitro incubation in HUA. Our results provide new insights into the possible mechanisms involved in BK-induced response desensitization during sustained inflammatory conditions.

  16. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels with small conductance in bradykinin-induced vasodilation of porcine retinal arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel; Bek, Toke

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasodilation may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal vascular diseases. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying bradykinin vasodilation were examined and whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK...

  17. Bradykinin induced a positive chronotropic effect via stimulation of T- and L-type calcium currents in heart cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bizri, Nesrine; Bkaily, Ghassan; Wang, Shimin; Jacques, Danielle; Regoli, Domenico; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro; Sukarieh, Rami

    2003-03-01

    Using Fluo-3 calcium dye confocal microscopy and spontaneously contracting embryonic chick heart cells, bradykinin (10(-10) M) was found to induce positive chronotropic effects by increasing the frequency of the transient increase of cytosolic and nuclear free Ca2+. Pretreatment of the cells with either B1 or B2 receptor antagonists (R126 and R817, respectively) completely prevented bradykinin (BK) induced positive chronotropic effects on spontaneously contracting single heart cells. Using the whole-cell voltage clamp technique and ionic substitution to separate the different ionic current species, our results showed that BK (10(-6) M) had no effect on fast Na+ inward current and delayed outward potassium current. However, both L- and T-type Ca2+ currents were found to be increased by BK in a dose-dependent manner (10(-10)-10(-7) M). The effects of BK on T- and L-type Ca2+ currents were partially blocked by the B1 receptor antagonist [Leu8]des-Arg9-BK (R592) (10(-7) M) and completely reversed by the B2 receptor antagonist D-Arg[Hyp3,D-Phe7,Leu8]BK (R-588) (10(-7) M) or pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX). These results demonstrate that BK induced a positive chronotropic effect via stimulation of T- and L-type Ca2+ currents in heart cells mainly via stimulation of B2 receptor coupled to PTX-sensitive G-proteins. The increase of both types of Ca2+ current by BK in heart cells may explain the positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of this hormone.

  18. Bradykinin-induced lung inflammation and bronchoconstriction: role in parainfluenze-3 virus-induced inflammation and airway hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Kenneth J; Blair, Alan E; Kidd, Emma J; Bugert, Joachim J; Ford, William R

    2010-12-01

    Inhaled bradykinin causes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects but not nonasthmatics. To date, animal studies with inhaled bradykinin have been performed only in anesthetized guinea pigs and rats, where it causes bronchoconstriction through sensory nerve pathways. In the present study, airway function was recorded in conscious guinea pigs by whole-body plethysmography. Inhaled bradykinin (1 mM, 20 s) caused bronchoconstriction and influx of inflammatory cells to the lungs, but only when the enzymatic breakdown of bradykinin by angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase was inhibited by captopril (1 mg/kg i.p.) and phosphoramidon (10 mM, 20-min inhalation), respectively. The bronchoconstriction and cell influx were antagonized by the B(2) kinin receptor antagonist 4-(S)-amino-5-(4-{4-[2,4-dichloro-3-(2,4-dimethyl-8-quinolyloxymethyl)phenylsulfonamido]-tetrahydro-2H-4-pyranylcarbonyl}piperazino)-5-oxopentyl](trimethyl)ammonium chloride hydrochloride (MEN16132) when given by inhalation (1 and 10 μM, 20 min) and are therefore mediated via B(2) kinin receptors. However, neither intraperitioneal MEN16132 nor the peptide B(2) antagonist icatibant, by inhalation, antagonized these bradykinin responses. Sensitization of guinea pigs with ovalbumin was not sufficient to induce airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to the bronchoconstriction by inhaled bradykinin. However, ovalbumin challenge of sensitized guinea pigs caused AHR to bradykinin and histamine. Infection of guinea pigs by nasal instillation of parainfluenza-3 virus produced AHR to inhaled histamine and lung influx of inflammatory cells. These responses were attenuated by the bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist MEN16132 and H-(4-chloro)DPhe-2'(1-naphthylalanine)-(3-aminopropyl)guanidine (VA999024), an inhibitor of tissue kallikrein, the enzyme responsible for lung synthesis of bradykinin. These results suggest that bradykinin is involved in virus-induced inflammatory cell influx and AHR.

  19. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  20. Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rim; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Kleman, Jean-Philippe; Millet, Arnaud; Frachet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a well-known “eat-me” signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes. We observed that exogenous CRT is endocytosed by THP1 macrophages through macropinocytosis and that internalization is associated with a particular phenotype characterized by an increase of cell spreading and migration, an upregulation of CD14, an increase of interleukin-8 release, and a decrease of early apoptotic cell uptake. Importantly, CRT-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype was confirmed on human monocytes-derived macrophages by the overexpression of CD40 and CD274, and we found that monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to CRT display a peculiar polarization notably associated with a downregulation of the histocompatibility complex of class II molecules hampering its description through the classical M1/M2 dichotomy. Altogether our results highlight the role of soluble CRT with strong possible consequences on the macrophage-mediated immune response to dying cell. PMID:28878781

  1. Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Osman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT is a well-known “eat-me” signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes. We observed that exogenous CRT is endocytosed by THP1 macrophages through macropinocytosis and that internalization is associated with a particular phenotype characterized by an increase of cell spreading and migration, an upregulation of CD14, an increase of interleukin-8 release, and a decrease of early apoptotic cell uptake. Importantly, CRT-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype was confirmed on human monocytes-derived macrophages by the overexpression of CD40 and CD274, and we found that monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to CRT display a peculiar polarization notably associated with a downregulation of the histocompatibility complex of class II molecules hampering its description through the classical M1/M2 dichotomy. Altogether our results highlight the role of soluble CRT with strong possible consequences on the macrophage-mediated immune response to dying cell.

  2. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  3. fMLP-Induced IL-8 Release Is Dependent on NADPH Oxidase in Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Hidalgo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available N-Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP and platelet-activating factor (PAF induce similar intracellular signalling profiles; but only fMLP induces interleukin-8 (IL-8 release and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH oxidase activity in neutrophils. Because the role of ROS on IL-8 release in neutrophils is until now controversial, we assessed if NADPH oxidase is involved in the IL-8 secretions and PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB pathways activity induced by fMLP. Neutrophils were obtained from healthy volunteers. IL-8 was measured by ELISA, IL-8 mRNA by qPCR, and ROS production by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, reduction of ferricytochrome c, and FACS. Intracellular pH changes were detected by spectrofluorescence. ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation were analysed by immunoblotting and NF-κB was analysed by immunocytochemistry. Hydroxy-3-methoxyaceto-phenone (HMAP, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, and siRNA Nox2 reduced the ROS and IL-8 release in neutrophils treated with fMLP. HMAP, DPI, and amiloride (a Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor inhibited the Akt phosphorylation and did not affect the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activity. DPI and HMAP reduced NF-κB translocation induced by fMLP. We showed that IL-8 release induced by fMLP is dependent on NADPH oxidase, and ROS could play a redundant role in cell signalling, ultimately activating the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways in neutrophils.

  4. Thymosin beta-4 promotes mesenchymal stem cell proliferation via an interleukin-8-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byung-Joon; Yang, Yoolhee; Kyung Shim, Su; Yang, Heung-Mo; Cho, Daeho; Ik Bang, Sa

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise for the field of tissue regeneration. Because only a limited number of MSCs can be obtained from each donor site, it is important to establish standard methods for MSC expansion using growth and trophic factors. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a novel trophic factor that has antimicrobial effects and the potential to promote tissue repair. Tβ4 is a ubiquitous, naturally-occurring peptide in the wound bed. Therefore, the relationship between Tβ4 and MSCs, especially adjacent adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs), merits consideration. Exogenous Tβ4 treatment enhanced the proliferation of human ASCs, resulting in prominent nuclear localization of PCNA immunoreactivity. In addition, exogenous Tβ4 also increased IL-8 secretion and blocking of IL-8 with neutralizing antibodies decreased Tβ4-induced ASC proliferation, suggesting that IL-8 is a critical mediator of Tβ4-enhanced proliferation. Moreover, Tβ4 activated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and increased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These observation provide that Tβ4 promotes the expansion of human ASCs via an IL-8-dependent mechanism that involves the ERK and NF-κB pathways. Therefore, Tβ4 could be used as a tool for MSC expansion in cell therapeutics. - Highlights: • This is fundamental information required to correlate Tβ4 with MSC expansion. • MSC expansion by Tβ4 is involved in enhancement of IL-8 and ERK/NF-κB pathway. • Tβ4 could be used as a tool for MSC expansion in cell therapeutics

  5. Interleukin-2 and Interleukin-8 Gene Polymorphisms and Acquired Aplastic Anemia Risk in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Lin, Shengyun; Yang, Yan; Rong, Liucheng; He, Guangsheng; He, Hailong; Xue, Yao; Fang, Yongjun; Wang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines IL-2 and IL-8 both participate in immune regulation. However, the relationship between polymorphisms in these two cytokines and the risk of acquired aplastic anemia (acquired AA) has not been explored. We selected five SNPs including rs11575812, rs2069772 and rs2069762 of IL-2, rs2227306 and rs2227543 of IL-8. SNaPshot genotyping was used to test the genotypes of IL-2 and IL-8 polymorphisms in a population of 101 acquired AA patients and 165 healthy controls. The rs2069762 G allele appeared to be a protective mutation, but no significant differences were found in other four SNPs. We also found that rs2069762 had an impact on the transcriptional regulation. It could be assumed that the rs2069762 polymorphism might reduce the risk of acquired aplastic anemia, while the remaining four SNPs might not contribute to susceptibility to acquired AA in a Chinese population. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 Levels Correlate With the Severity of Aplastic Anemia in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vineeta; Kumar, Sushil; Sonowal, Rimjhim; Singh, Surya K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in patients with aplastic anemia and its correlation with severity of the disease. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in 40 patients with aplastic anemia in the age group of 4 to 14 years. A total of 40 healthy children served as controls. Quantitative estimation of IL-6 and IL-8 was performed using a solid-phase sandwich ELISA kit. Results were presented as IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in pg/mL. Patients received immunosuppressive therapy per the British Committee for Standards in Haematology Guidelines 2009. Mean age of the patients was 9.78±2.74 years. IL-6 level of patients was elevated compared with controls (193.48±352.3 vs. 4.58±3.39; Paplastic anemia (724.33±519.42), followed by severe aplastic anemia (80.51±66.28 pg/mL), and non-severe aplastic anemia (6.01±1.89). Differences were statistically significant. A similar trend was also observed for IL-8 levels, where the levels were 41.02±24.23, 11.34±8.0, and 1.67±0.71 for very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and non-severe aplastic anemia, respectively. The differences were again statistically significant. IL levels were also correlated with the treatment outcome. Responders had lower levels compared with nonresponders, but the difference was not statistically significant (186.36±322.45 vs. 198.74±368.10). Levels of ILs decreased in responders, but were not comparable with that of controls 6 months after therapy. High levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were observed in children with aplastic anemia. Increased levels showed correlation with disease severity and therefore appear to play an important role in aplastic anemia. However, levels had no significant correlation with the treatment outcome.

  7. Serum levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 as diagnostic markers of acute pyelonephritis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Early diagnosis and treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children is of special importance in order to prevent serious complications. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic value of serum interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 in children with acute pyelonephritis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; Eighty seven patients between 1 month to 12 years old with urinary tract infection (UTI were divided into 2 groups based on the result of 99m-technetium dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA renal scan: acute pyelonephritis (n=37 and lower UTI (n=50 groups. White blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil (Neutl count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP concentration, platelet count, and serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations of both groups were measured and compared . &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; There was a significant difference between two groups regarding WBC count, Neutl count, ESR, and CRP concentration (P&lt;0.05. In addition, the difference between the two groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations was not significant (IL-6, 60 and 35.4 pg/mL and IL-8, 404 and 617 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of serum IL-6 and IL-8 for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis were 73%, 42% and 78%, 32%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of serum IL-6 and IL-8 were less than those of acute phase serum reactants such as CRP. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; This study showed that there was no significant difference between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels. Therefore, despite confirming results of previous studies, it seems that IL-6 and IL-8 are not suitable markers for differentiating between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI.

  8. Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone-dependent early breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The only way to perceive the real clinical course of disease and the prognostic significance of potential biomarkers is follow-up of patients who did not receive any kind of adjuvant therapy. Many studies have confirmed high levels ofinterleukin 8 (IL8) in HER2-enriched and basal-like (ER–) primary breast tumours, but less is ...

  9. Withania somnifera targets interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 in human prostate cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Setty Balakrishnan

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that inherent metastatic and selective inhibitory potential of W. somnifera against PC. W. somnifera may be a good therapeutic agent in addition to the existing drugs for PC. Further studies with more prostate tissue samples are warranted.

  10. Risk modification of colorectal cancer susceptibility by interleukin-8 -251T>A polymorphism in Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mohd Aminudin; Shahpudin, Siti Nurfatimah Mohd; Aziz, Ahmad Aizat Abdul; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2012-06-07

    To investigate the allele and genotype frequencies and associated risk of interleukin (IL)-8 -251T>A polymorphism on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility risk. Peripheral blood samples of 255 normal controls and 255 clinically and histopathologically confirmed CRC patients were genotyped for IL-8 -251T>A polymorphism employing allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. The relative association of variant allele and genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk was determined by calculating the odds ratios (ORs). Corresponding χ² tests on the CRC patients and controls were carried out and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using Fisher's exact test. The allele frequencies and its risk association were calculated using FAMHAP, haplotype association analysis software. On comparing the frequencies of genotypes of patients and controls, the homozygous variant AA was significantly higher in CRC patients (P = 0.002) compared to controls. Investigation on the association of the polymorphic genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk, showed that the homozygous variant IL-8 -251AA had a significantly increased risk with OR 3.600 (95% CI: 1.550-8.481, P = 0.001). In the case of allele frequencies, variant allele A of IL-8 -251 showed a significantly increased risk of CRC predisposition with OR 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03-1.69, P = 0.003). Variant allele and genotype of IL-8 (-251T>A) was significantly associated with CRC susceptibility risk and could be considered as a high-risk variant for CRC predisposition.

  11. Osteoblasts derived from osteophytes produce interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and matrix metalloproteinase-13 in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, Kei; Takahashi, Kenji A; Arai, Yuji; Saito, Masazumi; Honjo, Kuniaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyuki; Asada, Hidetsugu; Shin-Ya, Masaharu; Imanishi, Jiro; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the significance of the osteophytes that appear during the progression of osteoarthritis (OA), we investigated the expression of inflammatory cytokines and proteases in osteoblasts from osteophytes. We also examined the influence of mechanical stress loading on osteoblasts on the expression of inflammatory cytokines and proteases. Osteoblasts were isolated from osteophytes in 19 patients diagnosed with knee OA and from subchondral bone in 4 patients diagnosed with femoral neck fracture. Messenger RNA expression and protein production of inflammatory cytokines and proteases were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. To examine the effects of mechanical loading, continuous hydrostatic pressure was applied to the osteoblasts. We determined the mRNA expression and protein production of IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-13, which are involved in the progression of OA, were increased in the osteophytes. Additionally, when OA pathological conditions were simulated by applying a nonphysiological mechanical stress load, the gene expression of IL-6 and IL-8 increased. Our results suggested that nonphysiological mechanical stress may induce the expression of biological factors in the osteophytes and is involved in OA progression. By controlling the expression of these genes in the osteophytes, the progression of cartilage degeneration in OA may be reduced, suggesting a new treatment strategy for OA.

  12. Expression of interleukine-8 as an independent prognostic factor for sporadic colon cancer dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastase, A; Paslaru, L; Herlea, V; Ionescu, M; Tomescu, D; Bacalbasa, N; Dima, S; Popescu, I

    2014-06-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate the gene and serum protein expression profiles of IL-8 in colon cancer and associated hepatic metastasis and to correlate these results with clinicopathologic variables of the patients. IL-8 was evaluated by qPCR and ELISA in a total number of 62 colon cancer patients (n=42 by qPCR and n=20 by ELISA) in normal and tumoral tissue specimens and serum samples respectively. Additionally synchronous metastasis from 5 of these patients were also collected at the time of surgery and analyzed by qPCR. IL-8 was up regulated in all analyzed tumoral samples compared with normal tissue (P-value = 0.01) and higher expressed in metastatic tissues compared with tumoral tissues (P -value= 0.03). The median expression of IL-8 in patients over 60 years old was found to be higher compared with the median expression of IL8 in patients less than 60 years old (3.89 compared with 14.69, P -value= 0.005). According to tumor grading, we found that IL-8 in tumors with well differentiated adenocarcinoma have a median mRNA expression of 9.78 compared with a median mRNA IL8 expression of 26.63 in moderate or poor differentiated adenocarcinoma. Levels of IL-8 determined in serum were statistically significant correlated with preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level (P -value= 0.003, R=0.57) and with distant metastasis (P-value =0.008). Serum level of IL-8 increased proportionally along with TNM tumor stage and was found to be statistically significant correlated with C-reactive protein (P -value, R=0.64). Colon cancer patients had higher IL-8 levels as determined by ELISA (median value= 29.64 pg/ml) compared with healthy controls (median value= 4.86 pg/ml). Our results provide additional support for the role of inflammation in colon cancer and indicate that IL-8 could be further validated in association with other already used markers for prognostic and diagnostic of evolutional disease in colon cancer patients.

  13. Thymosin beta-4 promotes mesenchymal stem cell proliferation via an interleukin-8-dependent mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byung-Joon [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Korea University Medical Center, Gojan 1-dong, Danwon-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Yoolhee; Kyung Shim, Su [Department of Plastic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Heung-Mo [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Daeho, E-mail: cdhkor@sookmyung.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Hyochangwon-gil 52, Yongsan-gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ik Bang, Sa, E-mail: si55.bang@samsung.com [Department of Plastic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise for the field of tissue regeneration. Because only a limited number of MSCs can be obtained from each donor site, it is important to establish standard methods for MSC expansion using growth and trophic factors. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a novel trophic factor that has antimicrobial effects and the potential to promote tissue repair. Tβ4 is a ubiquitous, naturally-occurring peptide in the wound bed. Therefore, the relationship between Tβ4 and MSCs, especially adjacent adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs), merits consideration. Exogenous Tβ4 treatment enhanced the proliferation of human ASCs, resulting in prominent nuclear localization of PCNA immunoreactivity. In addition, exogenous Tβ4 also increased IL-8 secretion and blocking of IL-8 with neutralizing antibodies decreased Tβ4-induced ASC proliferation, suggesting that IL-8 is a critical mediator of Tβ4-enhanced proliferation. Moreover, Tβ4 activated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and increased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These observation provide that Tβ4 promotes the expansion of human ASCs via an IL-8-dependent mechanism that involves the ERK and NF-κB pathways. Therefore, Tβ4 could be used as a tool for MSC expansion in cell therapeutics. - Highlights: • This is fundamental information required to correlate Tβ4 with MSC expansion. • MSC expansion by Tβ4 is involved in enhancement of IL-8 and ERK/NF-κB pathway. • Tβ4 could be used as a tool for MSC expansion in cell therapeutics.

  14. Increased circulating interleukin-8 in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone receptor alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Anne H.; Surovtseva, Olga V.; Aan, Saskia; Tool, Anton T. J.; van de Geer, Annemarie; Demir, Korcan; van Gucht, Anja L. M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; van den Berg, Timo K.; Fliers, Eric; Boelen, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Innate immune cells have recently been identified as novel thyroid hormone (TH) target cells in which intracellular TH levels appear to play an important functional role. The possible involvement of TH receptor alpha (TR alpha), which is the predominant TR in these cells, has not been studied to

  15. Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone-dependent early breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-18

    Apr 18, 2017 ... significance of IL8 in hormone-dependent breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic ... types characterized by a particularly poor prognosis (Aceto et al. ... Progesterone receptor status. PRlow. 70. 76.9. PRhigh. 21. 23.1. NA .... (M<88.82 pg/mg) had lower percentage of relapses and.

  16. 99mTc-labeled interleukin-8 for imaging of infection and inflammation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, H.J.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with presumed or established inflammatory disorders may pose a diagnostic problem to their physicians. Rapid and accurate detection of inflammatory foci may have important implications for the treatment of these patients. Over the last 30 years various approaches to visualize inflammatory

  17. Increase in interleukin-8 production from circulating neutrophils upon antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemurro, Pasqualina; Mariggiò, Maria A; Barbuti, Giovanna; Cassano, Amalia; Vincenti, Alessandra; Serio, Gabriella; Guerra, Lorenzo; Diana, Anna; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela; Fumarulo, Ruggiero; Casavola, Valeria; Manca, Antonio; Conese, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    It is not known whether antibiotic therapy for lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) has an influence on circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) function and apoptosis. Blood PMNs were obtained from 14 CF patients before and after antibiotic treatment for an acute exacerbation, and from 10 healthy controls. PMNs were evaluated for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by spectrophotometry, of cytokines in the conditioned medium by ELISA, and apoptotic response by cytofluorimetry. ROS and interleukin (IL)-8 were produced at higher levels by CF PMNs pre-therapy than control PMNs under basal conditions. IL-8 levels further increased after therapy. Early apoptotic response was higher in CF PMNs pre-therapy than in control PMNs, and this pattern did not change after antibiotic treatment. Circulating PMNs are primed in CF acute patients. Further studies are needed to consider PMN-produced IL-8 as a biomarker to evaluate response to antibiotic therapy in CF patients. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  19. The 2017 Release Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  20. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  1. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  2. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  3. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  4. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cell Wall Fragments Released upon Bacterial Contact with the Human Lung Mucosa Alter the Neutrophil Response to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordo, Julia M; Arcos, Jesús; Kelley, Holden V; Diangelo, Lauren; Sasindran, Smitha J; Youngmin, Ellie; Wewers, Mark D; Wang, Shu-Hua; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Torrelles, Jordi B

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the World Health Organization reported that one person dies of tuberculosis (TB) every 21 s. A host environment that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.tb ) finds during its route of infection is the lung mucosa bathing the alveolar space located in the deepest regions of the lungs. We published that human lung mucosa, or alveolar lining fluid (ALF), contains an array of hydrolytic enzymes that can significantly alter the M.tb surface during infection by cleaving off parts of its cell wall. This interaction results in two different outcomes: modifications on the M.tb cell wall surface and release of M.tb cell wall fragments into the environment. Typically, one of the first host immune cells at the site of M.tb infection is the neutrophil. Neutrophils can mount an extracellular and intracellular innate immune response to M.tb during infection. We hypothesized that exposure of neutrophils to ALF-induced M.tb released cell wall fragments would prime neutrophils to control M.tb infection better. Our results show that ALF fragments activate neutrophils leading to an increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative radicals. However, neutrophil exposure to these fragments reduces production of chemoattractants (i.e., interleukin-8), and degranulation, with the subsequent reduction of myeloperoxidase release, and does not induce cytotoxicity. Unexpectedly, these ALF fragment-derived modulations in neutrophil activity do not further, either positively or negatively, contribute to the intracellular control of M.tb growth during infection. However, secreted products from neutrophils primed with ALF fragments are capable of regulating the activity of resting macrophages. These results indicate that ALF-induced M.tb fragments could further contribute to the control of M.tb growth and local killing by resident neutrophils by switching on the total oxidative response and limiting migration of neutrophils to the infection site.

  6. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  7. APASS Data Release 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Arne A.; Levine, Stephen; Terrell, Dirk; Welch, Douglas L.; Munari, Ulisse; Kloppenborg, Brian K.

    2018-06-01

    The AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) has been underway since 2010. This survey covers the entire sky from 7.5 knowledge of the optical train distortions. With these changes, DR10 includes many more stars than prior releases. We describe the survey, its remaining limitations, and prospects for the future, including a very-bright-star extension.

  8. Release the Prisoners Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  9. Decontamination for free release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, K A; Elder, G R [Bradtec Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    Many countries are seeking to treat radioactive waste in ways which meet the local regulatory requirements, but yet are cost effective when all contributing factors are assessed. In some countries there are increasing amounts of waste, arising from nuclear plant decommissioning, which are categorized as low level waste: however with suitable treatment a large part of such wastes might become beyond regulatory control and be able to be released as non-radioactive. The benefits and disadvantages of additional treatment before disposal need to be considered. Several processes falling within the overall description of decontamination for free release have been developed and applied, and these are outlined. In one instance the process seeks to take advantage of techniques and equipment used for decontaminating water reactor circuits intermittently through reactor life. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  11. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  12. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  13. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  14. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students

  15. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  16. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  17. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  18. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  19. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  20. Endothelin-1 shifts the mediator of bradykinin-induced relaxation from NO to H2 O2 in resistance arteries from patients with cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leurgans, Thomas M; Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    -activated K(+) -channels, but markedly blunted by catalase during ET-1-induced contraction. This catalase-sensitive relaxation was not modified by inhibitors of NADPH oxidases or allopurinol. Exogenous H2 O2 caused significantly larger relaxation of ET-1- than K(+) - or U46619-induced contraction...... in the presence of inhibitors of other endothelium-derived relaxing factors. Catalase-sensitive staining of cellular reactive oxygen species with CellROX Deep Red was significantly increased in presence of both 1 μM BK and 2 nM ET-1 but not either peptide alone. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In patient resistance...

  1. Riola release report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  2. Riola release report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables

  3. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  4. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    . Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future......Objectives: The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items...

  5. New Insights into the Pro-Inflammatory Activities of Ang1 on Neutrophils: Induction of MIP-1β Synthesis and Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dumas

    Full Text Available We reported the expression of angiopoietin Tie2 receptor on human neutrophils and the capacity of angiopoietins (Ang1 and Ang2 to induce pro-inflammatory activities, such as platelet-activating factor synthesis, β2-integrin activation and neutrophil migration. Recently, we observed differential effects between both angiopoietins, namely, the capacity of Ang1, but not Ang2, to promote rapid interleukin-8 synthesis and release, as well as neutrophil viability. Herein, we addressed whether Ang1 and/or Ang2 could modulate the synthesis and release of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β by neutrophils. Neutrophils were isolated from blood of healthy volunteers; intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β protein concentrations were assessed by ELISA. After 24 hours, the basal intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β protein concentrations were ≈500 and 100 pg/106 neutrophils, respectively. Treatment with Ang1 (10 nM increased neutrophil intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β concentrations by 310 and 388% respectively. Pretreatment with PI3K (LY294002, p38 MAPK (SB203580 and MEK (U0126 inhibitors completely inhibited Ang1-mediated increase of MIP-1β intracellular and extracellular protein levels. Pretreatment with NF-κB complex inhibitors, namely Bay11-7085 and IKK inhibitor VII or with a transcription inhibitor (actinomycin D and protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide, did also abrogate Ang1-mediated increase of MIP-1β intracellular and extracellular protein levels. We validated by RT-qPCR analyses the effect of Ang1 on the induction of MIP-1β mRNA levels. Our study is the first one to report Ang1 capacity to induce MIP-1β gene expression, protein synthesis and release from neutrophils, and that these effects are mediated by PI3K, p38 MAPK and MEK activation and downstream NF-κB activation.

  6. Released radioactivity reducing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeaki.

    1992-01-01

    Upon occurrence of a reactor accident, penetration portions of a reactor container, as a main leakage source from a reactor container, are surrounded by a plurality of gas-tight chambers, the outside of which is surrounded by highly gas-tightly buildings. Branched pipelines of an emergency gas processing system are introduced to each of the gas-tight chambers and they are joined and in communication with an emergency gas processing device. With such a constitution, radioactive materials are prevented from leaking directly from the buildings. Further, pipeline openings of the emergency gas processing facility are disposed in the plurality highly gas-tight penetration chambers. If the radioactive materials are leaked from the reactor to elevate the pressure in the penetration chambers, the radioactive materials are introduced to a filter device in the emergency gas processing facility by way of the branched pipelines, filtered and then released to the atmosphere. Accordingly, the reliability and safety of the system can be improved. (T.M.)

  7. Containment and release management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Reducing the risk from potentially severe accidents by appropriate accident management strategies is receiving increased attention from the international reactor safety community. Considerable uncertainty still surrounds some of the physical phenomena likely to occur during a severe accident. The USNRC, in developing its research plan for accident management, wants to ensure that both the developers and implementers of accident management strategies are aware of the uncertainty associated with the plant operators' ability to correctly diagnose an accident, as well as the uncertainties associated with various preventive and mitigative strategies. The use of a particular accident management strategy can have both positive and negative effects on the status of a plant and these effects must be carefully weighed before a particular course of action is chosen and implemented. By using examples of severe accident scenarios, initial insights are presented here regarding the indications plant operators may have to alert them to particular accident states. Insights are also offered on the various management actions operators and plant technical staff might pursue for particular accident situations and the pros and cons associated with such actions. The examples given are taken for the most part from the containment and release phase of accident management, since this is the current focus of the effort in the accident management area at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 2 refs

  8. Released radioactivity reducing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yumi.

    1995-01-01

    A water scrubber is disposed in a scrubber tank and a stainless steel fiber filter is disposed above the water scrubber. The upper end of the scrubber tank is connected by way of a second bent tube to a capturing vessel incorporating a moisture removing layer and an activated carbon filter. The exit of the capturing vessel is connected to a stack. Upon occurrence of an accident of a BWR-type power plant, gases containing radioactive materials released from a reactor container are discharged into the water scrubber from a first bent tube through a venturi tube nozzle, and water soluble and aerosol-like radioactive materials are captured in the water. Aerosol and splashes of water droplets which can not be captured thoroughly by the water scrubber are captured by the stainless steel fiber filter. Gases passing through the scrubber tank are introduced to a capturing vessel through a second bent tube, and organic iodine is captured by the activated carbon filter. (I.N.)

  9. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  10. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  11. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  12. Flash release an alternative for releasing complex MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  13. Sustained release of radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.

    1980-11-01

    New pharmaceutical formulations for the sustained release into the G.I. tract of radioprotective agents have been developed by the authors. The experimental method initially consisted in the production of methylcellulose microcapsules. This method failed apparently because of the premature ''explosion'' of the microcapsules and the consequent premature release of massive amounts of the drug. A new method has been developed which consists in drying and pulverising cysteamine and cysteine preparations, mixing them in various proportions with stearic acid and ethylcellulose as carriers. The mixture is then compressed into cylindrical tablets at several pressure values and the leaching rate of the radioprotective agents is then measured by spectrophotometry. The relation between the concentration of the active drug and its rate of release, and the effect on the release rate of the pressure applied to the tablet during its formation were also investigated. Results indicating that the release rate was linearly related to the square root of ''t'' seem to be in agreement with what is predictable, according to Higuchi's equation, save for the very initial and terminal phases. A clear correlation was also established between the stearic acid/ethylcellulose ratios and the release of 20% cysteine, namely a marked decrease in the rate of cysteine release was observed with increasing concentrations of stearic acid. Finally, it was observed that a higher formation pressure results in quicker release of the drug

  14. Press Oil Final Release Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-11

    There are forty-eight 55 gallon barrels filled with hydraulic oil that are candidates for release and recycle. This oil needs to be characterized prior to release. Principles of sampling as provided in MARSAME/MARSSIM approaches were used as guidance for sampling.

  15. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  16. Toxic releases from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results

  17. Release plan for Big Pete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    This release plan is to provide instructions for the Radiological Control Technician (RCT) to conduct surveys for the unconditional release of ''Big Pete,'' which was used in the removal of ''Spacers'' from the N-Reactor. Prior to performing surveys on the rear end portion of ''Big Pete,'' it shall be cleaned (i.e., free of oil, grease, caked soil, heavy dust). If no contamination is found, the vehicle may be released with the permission of the area RCT Supervisor. If contamination is found by any of the surveys, contact the cognizant Radiological Engineer for decontamination instructions

  18. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  19. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  20. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Euan A; Cunnea, Paula; Turner, Christina; Guney, Tankut; Aiyappa, Radhika; Jeyapalan, Senthuran; de Sousa, Camila H; Browne, Alacoque; Magdy, Nesreen; Studd, James B; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2015-10-13

    Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL-8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, both platinum sensitive (PEA1, PEO14) and resistant (PEA2, PEO23) show increased expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors. IL-8RA shows nuclear and cytoplasmic expression, whilst IL-8RB is present solely in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of IL-8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL-8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL-8RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL-8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease. Nuclear IL-8RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease.

  1. Early serum interleukin-8 evaluation may prove useful in localizing abnormally implanted human gestations after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Sara S; Keegan, Debbra A; Krey, Lewis C; Katz, Joseph; Liu, Mengling; Noyes, Nicole

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether early measurement of the serum cytokines interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, and IL-8 along with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone (P(4)) can differentiate an ectopic from an intrauterine gestation. Retrospective analysis. University-based fertility center. 75 women who underwent treatment with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and subsequently had an ectopic gestation (n = 15), spontaneous abortion (SAB) (n = 30), or term delivery (TD) (n = 30). Serum samples were obtained 14 (day 28) and 21 (day 35) days after oocyte retrieval. Serum concentrations of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, P(4), and hCG. Median hCG readings on day 28 and day 35 were statistically significantly lower in the ectopic gestation group than in those with spontaneous abortion or term delivery. On day 28, median IL-8 levels were lower in the ectopic gestation group when compared with all intrauterine gestations combined. No statistically significant differences in IL-2R or IL-6 levels were noted between groups. Despite P(4) supplementation, median day-35 P(4) levels were lower in ectopic gestation than in the spontaneous abortion and term delivery cycles. In the setting of a rise or plateau in hCG levels, low day-28 IL-8 and day-35 P(4) levels suggested an extrauterine implantation. This assay combination may facilitate earlier diagnosis of an ectopic gestation when pregnancy location is unclear.

  2. Urine interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor β1 in infants with urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemień, Grażyna; Turczyn, Agnieszka; Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs in 1.1% of girls and 1.4% of boys during the first year of life. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is usually detected incidentally in 0.9% of girls and 2.5% of boys at this age. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of measurement of pro-inflammatory urine interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 concentrations and anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) level in infants with febrile UTI, non-febrile UTI and ABU. Material and methods A total of 35 children, mean age 6.14 ±3.47 months, were divided into three groups: group I – febrile UTI (n = 13), group II – non-febrile UTI (n = 13) and group III – ABU (n = 9). At the time of enrollment urine IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1 and serum C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and white blood cell count (WBC) were measured. Renal ultrasound was performed in all children, 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) and voiding cystourethrography in children with UTI. Results Urine concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in febrile UTI compared to those with non-febrile UTI and ABU (p children with febrile UTI compared to those with ABU (p children with UTI. No significant difference in frequency of an abnormal DMSA scan compared to a normal scan was found in groups with febrile and non-febrile UTI. No relations between urine cytokines, systemic inflammatory markers and changes in DMSA scan were observed. The cutoff value for detection of inflammatory changes in the DMSA scan for IL-8 was 120 pg/mg creatinine (Cr) and 40 pg/mg Cr for TGF-β1. Based on this value, the sensitivity for IL-8 was 58.3%, specificity 100% and for TGF-β1 66.7% and 83.7%, respectively. Conclusions We found significant differences in children with febrile UTI and ABU regarding urine IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β1 levels. Urine cytokines and systemic inflammatory markers do not differentiate between upper and lower UTI in infants. PMID:27833443

  3. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2011-02-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated.

  4. EGFRvIII promotes glioma angiogenesis and growth through the NF-κB, interleukin-8 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavia, R; Inda, M M; Vandenberg, S; Cheng, S-Y; Nagane, M; Hadwiger, P; Tan, P; Sah, D W Y; Cavenee, W K; Furnari, F B

    2012-09-06

    Sustaining a high growth rate requires tumors to exploit resources in their microenvironment. One example of this is the extensive angiogenesis that is a typical feature of high-grade gliomas. Here, we show that expression of the constitutively active mutant epidermal growth factor receptor, ΔEGFR (EGFRvIII, EGFR*, de2-7EGFR) is associated with significantly higher expression levels of the pro-angiogenic factor interleukin (IL)-8 in human glioma specimens and glioma stem cells. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of ΔEGFR in different glioma cell lines caused up to 60-fold increases in the secretion of IL-8. Xenografts of these cells exhibit increased neovascularization, which is not elicited by cells overexpressing wild-type (wt)EGFR or ΔEGFR with an additional kinase domain mutation. Analysis of the regulation of IL-8 by site-directed mutagenesis of its promoter showed that ΔEGFR regulates its expression through the transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)-κB, activator protein 1 (AP-1) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP). Glioma cells overexpressing ΔEGFR showed constitutive activation and DNA binding of NF-κB, overexpression of c-Jun and activation of its upstream kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and overexpression of C/EBPβ. Selective pharmacological or genetic targeting of the NF-κB or AP-1 pathways efficiently blocked promoter activity and secretion of IL-8. Moreover, RNA interference-mediated knock-down of either IL-8 or the NF-κB subunit p65, in ΔEGFR-expressing cells attenuated their ability to form tumors and to induce angiogenesis when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. On the contrary, the overexpression of IL-8 in glioma cells lacking ΔEGFR potently enhanced their tumorigenicity and produced highly vascularized tumors, suggesting the importance of this cytokine and its transcription regulators in promoting glioma angiogenesis and tumor growth.

  5. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 levels in urine and serum of patents with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Setten, P A; van Hinsbergh, V W; van den Heuvel, L P; Preyers, F; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; van der Velden, T J; Monnens, L A

    1998-06-01

    The epidemic form of the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children is hallmarked by endothelial cell damage, most predominantly displayed by the glomerular capillaries. The influx of mononuclear (MO) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) into the glomeruli may be an important event in the initiation, prolongation, and progression of glomerular endothelial cell damage in HUS patients. The molecular mechanisms for the recruitment of these leukocytes into the kidney are unclear, but monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8 are suggested to be prime candidates. In this study, we analyzed the presence of both chemokines in 24-h urinary (n = 15) and serum (n = 14) samples of HUS children by specific ELISAs. Furthermore, kidney biopsies of three different HUS children were examined for MO and PMN cell infiltration by histochemical techniques and electron microscopy. Whereas the chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8 were present in only very limited amounts in urine of 17 normal control subjects, serial samples of HUS patients demonstrated significantly elevated levels of both chemokines. HUS children with anuria showed higher initial and maximum chemokine levels than their counterparts without anuria. A strong positive correlation was observed between urinary MCP-1 and IL-8 levels. Whereas initial serum IL-8 levels were significantly increased in HUS children, serum MCP-1 levels were only slightly elevated compared with serum MCP-1 in control children. No correlation was found between urinary and serum chemokine concentrations. Histologic and EM studies of HUS biopsy specimens clearly showed the presence of MOs and to a lesser extent of PMNs in the glomeruli. The present data suggest an important local role for MOs and PMNs in the process of glomerular endothelial-cell damage. The chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8 may possibly be implicated in the pathogenesis of HUS through the recruitment and activation of MOs and PMNs, respectively.

  6. Transforming growth factor-β2 and endotoxin interact to regulate homeostasis via interleukin-8 levels in the immature intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Sangild, Per Torp; Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    2014-01-01

    A balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals from the milk and microbiota controls intestinal homeostasis just after birth, and an optimal balance is particularly important for preterm neonates that are sensitive to necrotizing enterocolis (NEC). We suggest that the intestinal cytokine IL...

  7. The role of serum and urine interleukin-8 on acute pyelonephritis and subsequent renal scarring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Ji-Nan; Chen, Shan-Ming; Meng, Meng-Hsiao; Lue, Ko-Huang

    2009-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 acts as a potent neutrophils chemoattractant responsible for the migration of neutrophils into the infected renal tissue to protect against invading pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the role of IL-8 on acute-phase pyelonephritis and later renal scarring in children. A total of 124 children with a first-time febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) were studied. The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis was confirmed by Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan. Serum and urine samples were obtained from 124 children with UTI and 20 healthy children for IL-8 measurement. The 124 children were divided into acute pyelonephritis (n = 70) and lower UTI (n = 54) groups according to the results of DMSA scans. The initial serum and urine IL-8 values of children with acute pyelonephritis were significantly higher when compared with lower UTI and healthy controls (all P or =III all were independent predictors of renal scarring. Those children younger than 2 years of age with the highest IL-8 concentrations during the acute phase of pyelonephritis as well as children with reflux grades of III or greater are at a high-risk for developing renal scarring in the future.

  8. SRC-mediated EGF Receptor Activation Regulates Ozone-induced Interleukin 8 Expression in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Human exposure to ozone (03) results in pulmonary function decrements and airway inflammation. The mechanisms underlying these adverse effects remain unclear. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation. ...

  9. Role of interleukin-8 in onset of the immune response in intravesical BCG therapy for superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, E. C.; Somogyi, L.; de Ruiter, G. J.; de Reijke, T. M.; Kurth, K. H.; Schamhart, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    In intravesical therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma urothelial cells may, through the production of cytokines, contribute to the bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced local immunological reaction and associated antitumor efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate such a role for the

  10. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The SR dosage forms that release drugs pH independently in .... were determined; Post compression parameters such as weight variation test, hardness, ... Based on the ICH guidelines 12, the stability studies were carried out ...

  12. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  13. Hydraulic running and release tool with mechanical emergency release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a setting tool for connection in a well string to position a tubular member in a well bore. It comprises: a mandrel adapted to be connected to the well string; an outer sleeve surrounding the mandrel and releasably secured thereto; a latch nut releasably connected to the outer sleeve; piston means sealingly engaging the mandrel; shear means releasably securing the piston to the latch nut to maintain the latch nut releasably connected to the tubular member; the mandrel having port means for conducting fluid pressure from the well string to release the piston means from and the latch nut; cooperating engageable surfaces on the piston and latch nut to reengage them together after the piston moves a predetermined longitudinal distance relative to the latch nut; and additional cooperating engageable surfaces on the latch nut and the outer sleeve which are engageable when the piston and engaged latch nut are moved a predetermined additional longitudinal distance by fluid pressure to secure the engaged piston and latch nut with the outer sleeve for retrieval along with the mandrel from the well bore

  14. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  15. GEWEX SRB Shortwave Release 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The new Release 4 uses the newly processed ISCCP HXS product as its primary input for cloud and radiance data. The ninefold increase in pixel number compared to the previous ISCCP DX allows finer gradations in cloud fraction in each grid box. It will also allow higher spatial resolutions (0.5 degree) in future releases. In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made since Release 3. These include recalculated atmospheric transmissivities and reflectivities yielding a less transmissive atmosphere. The calculations also include variable aerosol composition, allowing for the use of a detailed aerosol history from the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC). Ocean albedo and snow/ice albedo are also improved from Release 3. Total solar irradiance is now variable, averaging 1361 Wm-2. Water vapor is taken from ISCCP's nnHIRS product. Results from GSW Release 4 are presented and analyzed. Early comparison to surface measurements show improved agreement.

  16. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  17. Training Materials for Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wake, Jo Dugstad; Hansen, Cecilie; Debus, Kolja

    This document, D7.4 – training materials for release 3, provides an overview of the training material for version 3 of the NEXT-TELL tools and methods. Previous documents submitted as part of work package 7, which is about teacher training, are D7.1 – Training Concept, D7.2 – Training Materials...... for Release 1 and D7.3 – Training Materials for Release 2. D7.4 builds on D7.1 and D7.2 and D7.3. D7.4 contains further development of previous work within WP7, essentially a revised theoretical approach to the teacher training, and expansion of the notion of tool training. The media in use have been expanded...

  18. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  19. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  20. Limited Releases of Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kovac, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Krsko Nuclear Power Plant is about 700 MW Pressurised Water Reactor plant located in Slovenia close to the border with Croatia. The authorised limit for the radioactive releases is basically set to 50 μSv effective dose per year to the members of the public. There is also additional limitation of total activities released in a year and concentration. The poster presents the effluents of the year 2000 and evaluated dose referring to the limits and to the natural and other sources of radiation around the plant. (author)

  1. Energy Release in Solar Flares,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Plasma Research, Stanford University P. Kaufmanu CRAA/CNPq -Conseiho lacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico, Slo Paulo, SP, Brasil D.F...three phases of energy release in solar flares (Sturrock, 1980). However, a recent article by Feldman e a.. (1982) points to a significant

  2. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  3. Controlled Release from Zein Matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Jacob; Belton, Peter; Venema, Paul; Linden, Van Der Erik; Vries, De Renko; Qi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In earlier studies, the corn protein zein is found to be suitable as a sustained release agent, yet the range of drugs for which zein has been studied remains small. Here, zein is used as a sole excipient for drugs differing in hydrophobicity and isoelectric point: indomethacin,

  4. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.

    2004-01-01

    , the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  5. 28 CFR 2.83 - Release planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release planning. 2.83 Section 2.83... Release planning. (a) All grants of parole shall be conditioned on the development of a suitable release... parole date for purposes of release planning for up to 120 days without a hearing. If efforts to...

  6. Controlled-release tablet formulation of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N K; Kulkarni, K; Talwar, N

    1992-04-01

    Guar (GG) and Karaya gums (KG) alone and in combination with hydroxy-propylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were evaluated as release retarding materials to formulate a controlled-release tablet dosage form of isoniazid (1). In vitro release of 1 from tablets followed non-Fickian release profile with rapid initial release. Urinary excretion studies in normal subjects showed steady-state levels of 1 for 13 h. In vitro and in vivo data correlated (r = 0.9794). The studies suggested the potentiality of GG and KG as release retarding materials in formulating controlled-release tablet dosage forms of 1.

  7. Massive radiological releases profoundly differ from controlled releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascucci-Cahen, Ludivine; Patrick, Momal

    2012-11-01

    Preparing for a nuclear accident implies understanding potential consequences. While many specialized experts have been working on different particular aspects, surprisingly little effort has been dedicated to establishing the big picture and providing a global and balanced image of all major consequences. IRSN has been working on the cost of nuclear accidents, an exercise which must strive to be as comprehensive as possible since any omission obviously underestimates the cost. It therefore provides (ideally) an estimate of all cost components, thus revealing the structure of accident costs, and hence sketching a global picture. On a French PWR, it appears that controlled releases would cause an 'economical' accident with limited radiological consequences when compared to other costs; in contrast, massive releases would trigger a major crisis with strong radiological consequences. The two types of crises would confront managers with different types of challenges. (authors)

  8. Role of p38 MAPK in the selective release of IL-8 induced by chemical allergen in naive THp-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjans, Montserrat; Viviani, Barbara; Lucchi, Laura; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina; Corsini, Emanuela

    2008-03-01

    At present, the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals is carried out using animal models. Over the last decade, several in vitro methods mainly using primary dendritic cells have been proposed to identify the potential of chemicals to induce skin sensitization to meet current animal welfare and public opinions. The major limitations of such tests are the donor-to-donor variability, the low levels in the source, and a possible shortage of human sources. The aim of the present investigation was to establish an in vitro test to identify chemical allergens using the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1 in order to avoid some of these difficulties. We investigated whether the chemokine interleukin-8 or CXCL8 (IL-8) production could provide a methodology for the detection of both respiratory and contact allergens. THP-1 cells were exposed to contact allergens (cinnamaldehyde, dinitrochlorobenzene, nickel sulfate, penicillin G, p-phenylenediamine, tetramethylthiuram disulfide), to respiratory allergens (ammonium hexachloroplatinate, diphenylmethane diisocyanate, trimellitic anhydride) and to irritants (salicylic acid, phenol, sodium lauryl sulphate). Following 48 h of incubation, the release of IL-8 was evaluated by sandwich ELISA. IL-8 production was significantly increased after stimulation with all allergens tested, with the exception of trimellitic anhydride, whereas irritants exposure failed to induce IL-8 release. The lack of IL-8 production by trimellitic anhydride can be explained by the rapid hydrolysis of this chemical in water to trimellitic acid, which is not an allergen. In contrast to IL-8 release, CD54 and CD86 expression did not provide a sensitive method failing to correctly identify approximately 30% of the tested compounds. Although CD86 appears to be a more sensitive marker than CD54 when discriminating allergens from irritants neither of these markers provided robust methodology. We also investigated if a common activation pathway in

  9. Microwave Activation of Drug Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór

    Due to current limitations in control of pharmaceutical drug release in the body along with increasing medicine use, methods of externally-controlled drug release are of high interest. In this thesis, the use of microwaves is proposed as a technique with the purpose of externally activating...... setup, called the microwave activation system has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. The system presented in this thesis, operates unobtrusively, i.e. without physically interfering with the target (patient). The torso phantom is a simple dual-layered cylindrical...... the phantom is of interest for disclosing essential information about the limitations of the concept, the phantom and the system. For these purposes, a twofold operation of the microwave activation system was performed, which are reciprocal of each other. In the first operation phase, named mapping...

  10. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines rise rapidly during ECMO-related SIRS due to the release of preformed stores in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McILwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Holt, David W; Kelly, David R; Hartman, Yolanda E; Neel, Mary Lauren; Karnatak, Rajendra K; Schelonka, Robert L; Anantharamaiah, G M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving support system used in neonates and young children with severe cardiorespiratory failure. Although ECMO has reduced mortality in these critically ill patients, almost all patients treated with ECMO develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) characterized by a 'cytokine storm', leukocyte activation, and multisystem organ dysfunction. We used a neonatal porcine model of ECMO to investigate whether rising plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO reflect de novo synthesis of these mediators in inflamed tissues, and therefore, can be used to assess the severity of ECMO-related SIRS. Previously healthy piglets (3-week-old) were subjected to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 h. SIRS was assessed by histopathological analysis, measurement of neutrophil activation (flow cytometry), plasma cytokine concentrations (enzyme immunoassays), and tissue expression of inflammatory genes (PCR/western blots). Mast cell degranulation was investigated by measurement of plasma tryptase activity. Porcine neonatal ECMO was associated with systemic inflammatory changes similar to those seen in human neonates. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations rose rapidly during the first 2 h of ECMO, faster than the tissue expression of these cytokines. ECMO was associated with increased plasma mast cell tryptase activity, indicating that increased plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO may result from mast cell degranulation and associated release of preformed cytokines stored in mast cells. TNF-alpha and IL-8 concentrations rose faster in plasma than in the peripheral tissues during ECMO, indicating that rising plasma levels of these cytokines immediately after the initiation of ECMO may not reflect increasing tissue synthesis of these cytokines. Mobilization of preformed cellular stores of inflammatory cytokines such as in mucosal mast cells may have

  11. NK cell-released exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that human natural killer (NK) cells release exosomes that express both NK-cell markers and cytotoxic molecules. Similar results were obtained with circulating exosomes from human healthy donors. Both NK-cell derived and circulating exosomes exerted a full functional activity and killed both tumor and activated immune cells. These findings indicate that NK-cell derived exosomes might constitute a new promising therapeutic tool. PMID:23482694

  12. Release from 'prison' in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Anita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In my study I introduce the Hungarian conditional release and presidential pardon and new compulsory presidential pardon system. This study is based on research carried out in the Ministry of Justice at the Pardon Department in which I analyzed several dozen petition pardons. In connection with the new compulsory presidential pardon I examined the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, which has condemned Hungary because of its adoption of real (whole life imprisonment.

  13. Ririe Dam Release Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes 1420 Ririe Dam Ririe Dam 119,880 Gates opened and initial release started. 1455 115th St...16°F air temperature. Table A2. Observations made on 11 February 2013. Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes...ERDC/CRREL TR-13-10 52 Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes Travel Time* (sec) Vel.** (fps) 1224 5th

  14. Pollutant Release and Transfer Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Since 1974 a number of organisations have been working closely together in this pollutant register (PRTR) project to collect and formally establish the yearly releases of pollutants to air, water and soil in the Netherlands. Results of this project serve to underpin the national environmental policy. Data is in this way also provided for the many environmental reports to international organisations such as the European Union and the United Nations, e.g. the National Inventory Report for the Kyoto Protocol. This website shows the yearly releases (emissions) of the most important pollutants in the Netherlands. You can explore the emission data through various channels, such as maps, graphs and tables. But you can also download all the details into your own database. The data shown in this website is updated 2 to 3 times a year. The current release shows emissions for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005 and 2006 The 2006 emissions are preliminary data and not yet shown in the maps. We expect to add an extra year in August 2008 [nl

  15. Modelling isothermal fission gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffelen, P. van

    2002-01-01

    The present paper presents a new fission gas release model consisting of two coupled modules. The first module treats the behaviour of the fission gas atoms in spherical grains with a distribution of grain sizes. This module considers single atom diffusion, trapping and fission induced re-solution of gas atoms associated with intragranular bubbles, and re-solution from the grain boundary into a few layers adjacent to the grain face. The second module considers the transport of the fission gas atoms along the grain boundaries. Four mechanisms are incorporated: diffusion controlled precipitation of gas atoms into bubbles, grain boundary bubble sweeping, re-solution of gas atoms into the adjacent grains and gas flow through open porosity when grain boundary bubbles are interconnected. The interconnection of the intergranular bubbles is affected both by the fraction of the grain face occupied by the cavities and by the balance between the bubble internal pressure and the hydrostatic pressure surrounding the bubbles. The model is under validation. In a first step, some numerical routines have been tested by means of analytic solutions. In a second step, the fission gas release model has been coupled with the FTEMP2 code of the Halden Reactor Project for the temperature distribution in the pellets. A parametric study of some steady-state irradiations and one power ramp have been simulated successfully. In particular, the Halden threshold for fission gas release and two simplified FUMEX cases have been computed and are summarised. (author)

  16. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Muccioli, G; Camanni, F

    1997-05-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a natural GHRP-like ligand which, however, has not yet been found. The mechanisms underlying the GHRP effect are still unclear. At present, several data favor the hypothesis that GHRPs could act by counteracting somatostatinergic activity both at the pituitary and the hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that GHRPs act via an unknown hypothalamic factor (U factor) is still open. GHRP-6 was the first hexapeptide to be extensively studied in humans. More recently, a heptapeptide, GHRP-1, and two other hexapeptides, GHRP-2 and Hexarelin, have been synthesized and are now available for human studies. Moreover, non-peptidyl GHRP mimetics have been developed which act via GHRP receptors and their effects have been clearly demonstrated in animals and in humans in vivo. Among non-peptidyl GHRPs, MK-0677 seems the most interesting molecule. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is marked and dose-related after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHRPs is reproducible and undergoes partial desensitization, more during continuous infusion, less during intermittent administration: in fact, prolonged administration of GHRPs increases IGF-1 levels both in animals and in humans. The GH-releasing effect of GHRPs does not depend on sex but undergoes age-related variations. It increases from birth to puberty, persists at a similar level in adulthood and

  17. Massive radiological releases profoundly differ from controlled releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascucci-Cahen, Ludivine; Patrick, Momal

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors report identification and assessment of different types of costs associated with nuclear accidents. They first outline that these cost assessments must be as exhaustive or comprehensive as possible. While referring to past accidents, they define the different categories of costs: on-site costs (decontamination and dismantling, electricity not produced on the site), off-site costs (health costs, psychological costs, farming losses), image-related costs (impact on food and farm product exports, decrease of other exports), costs related to energy production, costs related to contaminated areas (refugees, lands). They give an assessment of a severe nuclear accident (i.e. an accident with important but controlled radiological releases) in France and outline that it would be a national catastrophe which could be however managed. They discuss the possible variations of the estimated costs. Then, they show that a major accident (i.e. an accident with massive radiological releases) in France would be an unmanageable European catastrophe because of the radiological consequences, of high economic costs, and of huge losses

  18. Gastrin-releasing peptide stimulates glycoconjugate release from feline trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, J.D.; Baraniuk, J.N.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Kaliner, M.A.; Shelhamer, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on respiratory glycoconjugate (RGC) secretion was investigated in a feline tracheal organ culture model. RGC secretion was stimulated by GRP in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M (range 15-38% increase above control) with a peak effect within 0.5-1 h of incubation. GRP-(14-27), the receptor binding portion of GRP, and the related molecule, bombesin, also stimulated RGC secretion by approximately 20% above control. Acetyl-GRP-(20-27) stimulated RGC release by 10%, whereas GRP-(1-16) was inactive. Autoradiographic studies with 125I-GRP revealed that specific binding was restricted to the submucosal glands and the surface epithelium. A specific radioimmunoassay showed the content of GRP in feline trachea after extraction with ethanol-acetic acid to be 156 +/- 91 fmol/g wet wt. Indirect immunohistochemistry indicated that ganglion cells located just outside the cartilage contained GRP-immunoreactive materials. GRP is a novel mucus secretagogue that may participate in regulating airway mucosal gland secretion

  19. Formulation and Release Characteristics of Zidovudine- Loaded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug Delivery Research Unit, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of ... The results show that drug content has influence on drug release from the SLMs, but not ... poor bioavailability [1, 2]. ..... et al [21] this initial in vitro burst release could be.

  20. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released...

  1. Safety Precautions for Total Release Foggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total release foggers, also known as bug bombs, are pesticide products containing aerosol propellants that release their contents at once to fumigate an area. They can pose a hazard if used incorrectly. Find safety information and videos on this page.

  2. Techniques for Reaeration of Hydropower Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    release improvement. However, selected reservoir aeration studies not conducted primarily for improving hydroturbine releases but which have application...for hydroturbine release reaeration were also reviewed. Because oxygen transfer mechanisms are vitally important to the development of more efficient...the key words turbine aeration, turbine vent, turbine I’ aspiration, hydroturbine aeration, tailrace aeration, draft tube vent, and vacuum breaker. A

  3. 21 CFR 178.3860 - Release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 178.3860 Section 178.3860 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3860 Release agents. Substances listed in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as release agents in petroleum wax complying with § 178.3710 and in polymeric resins...

  4. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Release agents. Substances classified as release agents, when migrating from food-packaging material shall...

  5. ATP Release and Effects in Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Amstrup, Jan; Henriksen, Katrine Lütken

    2003-01-01

    ATP and other nucleotides are released from various cells, but the pathway and physiological stimulus for ATP release are often unclear. The focus of our studies is the understanding of ATP release and signaling in rat exocrine pancreas. In acinar suspension mechanical stimulation, hypotonic shock...

  6. 40 CFR 281.33 - Release detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipped with release detection that detects a release within an hour by restricting or shutting off flow... designed to allow the contents of the pipe to drain back into the storage tank if the suction is released... UST systems must use interstitial monitoring within secondary containment of the tanks and the...

  7. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsang, M.B. [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U are around 0.7–0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  8. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  9. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    The chief purpose of ARAC data acquisition program is to provide site officials, who are responsible for ensuring maximum health protection for the endangered site personnel and public, with estimates of the effects of atmospheric releases of hazardous material as rapidly and accurately as possible. ARAC is in the initial stages of being implemented and is therefore susceptible to changes before it reaches its final form. However the concept of ARAC is fully developed and was successfully demonstrated during a feasibility study conducted in June 1974, as a joint effort between the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). Additional tests between SRL and LLL are scheduled for December 1975. While the immediate goal is the application of ARAC to assist a limited number of ERDA sites, the system is designed with sufficient flexibility to permit expanding the service to a large number of sites. Success in ARAC application should provide nuclear facilities with a means to handle better the urgent questions concerning the potential accidental hazards from atmospheric releases in addition to providing the sites with a capability to assess the effort of their normal operations

  10. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik; Aven, Terje

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures

  11. Release of segregated nuclides from spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Laboratories

    1997-10-01

    The potential release of fission and activation products from spent nuclear fuel into groundwater after container failure in the Swedish deep repository is discussed. Data from studies of fission gas release from representative Swedish BWR fuel are used to estimate the average fission gas release for the spent fuel population. Information from a variety of leaching studies on LWR and CANDU fuel are then reviewed as a basis for estimating the fraction of the inventory of key radionuclides that could be released preferentially (the Instant Release Fraction of IRF) upon failure of the fuel cladding. The uncertainties associated with these estimates are discussed. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  12. Screw-released roller brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  13. Release of RANKERN 16A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Adam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RANKERN 16 is the latest version of the point-kernel gamma radiation transport Monte Carlo code from AMEC Foster Wheeler’s ANSWERS Software Service. RANKERN is well established in the UK shielding community for radiation shielding and dosimetry assessments. Many important developments have been made available to users in this latest release of RANKERN. The existing general 3D geometry capability has been extended to include import of CAD files in the IGES format providing efficient full CAD modelling capability without geometric approximation. Import of tetrahedral mesh and polygon surface formats has also been provided. An efficient voxel geometry type has been added suitable for representing CT data. There have been numerous input syntax enhancements and an extended actinide gamma source library. This paper describes some of the new features and compares the performance of the new geometry capabilities.

  14. Release of RANKERN 16A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Adam; Murphy, Christophe; Dobson, Geoff

    2017-09-01

    RANKERN 16 is the latest version of the point-kernel gamma radiation transport Monte Carlo code from AMEC Foster Wheeler's ANSWERS Software Service. RANKERN is well established in the UK shielding community for radiation shielding and dosimetry assessments. Many important developments have been made available to users in this latest release of RANKERN. The existing general 3D geometry capability has been extended to include import of CAD files in the IGES format providing efficient full CAD modelling capability without geometric approximation. Import of tetrahedral mesh and polygon surface formats has also been provided. An efficient voxel geometry type has been added suitable for representing CT data. There have been numerous input syntax enhancements and an extended actinide gamma source library. This paper describes some of the new features and compares the performance of the new geometry capabilities.

  15. Colloid Release from Soil Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils......, using laser diffraction, by agitating the samples using a wet-dispersion unit. This approach eliminated the need for long sedimentation times required by the more classical end-over-end shaking approach and provided information about the time-dependent release of WDC. The total clay content of the soils...... ranged from 0.1 to 0.44 kg kg−1. The WDC content was measured on air-dry and moist 1- to 2-mm aggregates. The WDC content at a reference time was highly correlated to the total clay content (r > 0.91, P soils. Only for two sites was the WDC content correlated to the content of clay...

  16. Drug release kinetic analysis and prediction of release data via polymer molecular weight in sustained release diltiazem matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibkia, K; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, G; Khiavi, H Z; Sabzevari, A; Barzegar-Jalali, M

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of HPMC (K4M and K100M) as well as tragacanth on the drug release rate of diltiazem (DLTZ) from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression method.Mechanism of drug transport through the matrices was studied by fitting the release data to the 10 kinetic models. 3 model independent parameters; i. e., mean dissolution time (MDT), mean release rate (MRR) and release rate efficacy (RE) as well as 5 time point approaches were established to compare the dissolution profiles. To find correlation between fraction of drug released and polymer's molecular weight, dissolution data were fitted into two proposed equations.All polymers could sustain drug release up to 10 h. The release data were fitted best to Peppas and Higuchi square root kinetic models considering squared correlation coefficient and mean percent error (MPE). RE and MRR were decreased when polymer to drug ratio was increased. Conversely, t60% was increased with raising polymer /drug ratio. The fractions of drug released from the formulations prepared with tragacanth were more than those formulated using the same amount of HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M.Preparation of DLTZ matrices applying HPMCK4M, HPMC K100M and tragacanth could effectively extend the drug release. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. A fission gas release model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, A; Piotrkowski, R [Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-08-01

    The hypothesis contained in the model developed in this work are as follows. The UO{sub 2} is considered as a collection of spherical grains. Nuclear reactions produce fission gases, mainly Xe and Kr, within the grains. Due to the very low solubility of these gases in UO{sub 2}, intragranular bubbles are formed, of a few nanometers is size. The bubbles are assumed to be immobile and to act as traps which capture gas atoms. Free atoms diffuse towards the grain boundaries, where they give origin to intergranular, lenticular bubbles, of the order of microns. The gas atoms in bubbles, either inter or intragranular, can re-enter the matrix through the mechanism of resolution induced by fission fragment impact. The amount of gas stored in intergranular bubbles grows up to a saturation value. Once saturation is reached, intergranular bubbles inter-connect and the gas in excess is released through different channels to the external surface of the fuel. The resolution of intergranular bubbles particularly affects the region of the grain adjacent to the grain boundary. During grain growth, the grain boundary traps the gas atoms, either free or in intragranular bubbles, contained in the swept volume. The grain boundary is considered as a perfect sink, i.e. the gas concentration is zero at that surface of the grain. Due to the spherical symmetry of the problem, the concentration gradient is null at the centre of the grain. The diffusion equation was solved using the implicit finite difference method. The initial solution was analytically obtained by the Laplace transform. The calculations were performed at different constant temperatures and were compared with experimental results. They show the asymptotic growth of the grain radius as a function of burnup, the gas distribution within the grain at every instant, the growth of the gas content at the grain boundary up to the saturation value and the fraction of gas released by the fuel element referred to the total gas generated

  18. Fission-product release during accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.E.L.; Cox, D.S.

    1991-09-01

    One of the aims when managing a reactor accident is to minimize the release of radioactive fission products. Release is dependent not only on the temperature, but also on the partial pressure of oxygen. Strongly oxidizing atmospheres, such as those that occurred during the Chernobyl accident, released semi-volatile elements like ruthenium, which has volatile oxides. At low temperatures, UO 2 oxidization to U 3 O 8 can result in extensive breakup of the fuel, resulting in the release of non-volatile fission products as aerosols. Under less oxidizing conditions, when hydrogen accumulates from the zirconium-water reaction, the resulting low oxygen partial pressure can significantly reduce these reactions. At TMI-2, only the noble gases and volatile fission products were released in significant quantities. A knowledge of the effect of atmosphere as well as temperature on the release of fission products from damaged reactor cores is therefore a useful, if not necessary, component of information required for accident management

  19. Sustained Release Drug Delivery Applications of Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Lowinger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction over 50 years ago, polyurethanes have been applied to nearly every industry. This review describes applications of polyurethanes to the development of modified release drug delivery. Although drug delivery research leveraging polyurethanes has been ongoing for decades, there has been renewed and substantial interest in the field in recent years. The chemistry of polyurethanes and the mechanisms of drug release from sustained release dosage forms are briefly reviewed. Studies to assess the impact of intrinsic drug properties on release from polyurethane-based formulations are considered. The impact of hydrophilic water swelling polyurethanes on drug diffusivity and release rate is discussed. The role of pore formers in modulating drug release rate is examined. Finally, the value of assessing mechanical properties of the dosage form and approaches taken in the literature are described.

  20. IDSA releases updated coccidioidomycosis guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA has released updated Guidelines for the Treatment of Coccidioidomycosis, also known as cocci or Valley Fever (1. Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to the southwestern United States and a common cause of pneumonia and pulmonary nodules in this area. However, the infection can disseminate systemically especially in immunocompromised hosts and certain ethnic populations resulting in a variety of pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications. In addition to recommendations for these complications, the new guidelines address management of special at-risk populations, preemptive management strategies in at-risk populations and after unintentional laboratory exposure. The guidelines also suggest shorter courses of antibiotics for hospitalized patients and more ambulatory treatment for most individuals who have contracted Valley Fever. The panel was led by John N. Galgiani, MD, director of the Valley Fever Center for Excellence at the University of Arizona Health Sciences. Galgiani led a panel of 16 ...

  1. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made

  2. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-07-31

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  3. Cumulative release to the accessible environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Fractional Release Subgroup are presented

  4. Modelling vesicular release at hippocampal synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhita Nadkarni

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We study local calcium dynamics leading to a vesicle fusion in a stochastic, and spatially explicit, biophysical model of the CA3-CA1 presynaptic bouton. The kinetic model for vesicle release has two calcium sensors, a sensor for fast synchronous release that lasts a few tens of milliseconds and a separate sensor for slow asynchronous release that lasts a few hundred milliseconds. A wide range of data can be accounted for consistently only when a refractory period lasting a few milliseconds between releases is included. The inclusion of a second sensor for asynchronous release with a slow unbinding site, and thereby a long memory, affects short-term plasticity by facilitating release. Our simulations also reveal a third time scale of vesicle release that is correlated with the stimulus and is distinct from the fast and the slow releases. In these detailed Monte Carlo simulations all three time scales of vesicle release are insensitive to the spatial details of the synaptic ultrastructure. Furthermore, our simulations allow us to identify features of synaptic transmission that are universal and those that are modulated by structure.

  5. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  6. Effluent release limits, sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of radiation protection in relation to releases. Environmental transfer models for radionuclides. Relationship between releases, environmental levels and doses to persons. Establishment of release limits: Limits based on critical population group concept critical pathway analysis and identification of critical group. Limits based on optimization of radiation protection individual dose limits, collective doses and dose commitments 1) differential cost benefit analysis 2) authorized and operational limits taking account of future exposures. Monitoring of releases to the environment: Objectives of effluent monitoring. Typical sources and composition of effluents; design and operation of monitoring programmes; recording and reporting of monitoring results; complementary environmental monitoring. (orig.) [de

  7. Analysis of accidental UF6 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yumao; Tan Rui; Gao Qifa

    2012-01-01

    As interim substance in the nuclear fuel enrichment process, Uranium Hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is widely applied in nuclear processing, enrichment and fuel fabrication plants. Because of its vivid chemical characteristics and special radiological hazard and chemical toxicity, great attention must be paid to accident of UF 6 leakage. The chemical reactions involved in UF 6 release processes were introduced, therewith potential release styles, pathways and characteristics of diffusion were analyzed. The results indicated that the accidental release process of UF 6 is not a simple passive diffusion. So, specific atmospheric diffusion model related to UF 6 releases need be used in order to analyze and evaluate accurately the accidental consequences. (authors)

  8. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  9. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  10. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  11. Selection of Hydrological Model for Waterborne Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    This evaluation will aid in determining the potential impacts of liquid releases to downstream populations on the Savannah River. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the two available models and determine the appropriate model for use in following waterborne release analyses. Additionally, this report will document the Design Basis and Beyond Design Basis accidents to be used in the future study

  12. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti Freire

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.

  13. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda e; Genre, Julieta; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability. PMID:28773009

  14. DETERMINATION OF METAL IONS RELEASED BY STAINLESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The study indicated that the reused wires released more ions than new ones at all time points. ... recycled brackets released more ions than the new ones, reduction of the pH of artificial saliva resulted in ... Nickel(II) and vanadium(V) reduce.

  15. Method for releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Arvind; Diwan, Moiz; Shafirovich, Evgeny; Hwang, Hyun-Tae; Al-Kukhun, Ahmad

    2013-02-19

    A method of releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane is disclosed. The method comprises heating an aqueous ammonia borane solution to between about 80-135.degree. C. at between about 14.7 and 200 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) to release hydrogen by hydrothermolysis.

  16. Analysis of drug effects on neurotransmitter release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, P.; Garner, A.

    1986-01-01

    The release of neurotransmitter is routinely studied in a superfusion system in which serial samples are collected and the effects of drugs or other treatments on the amount of material in the superfusate is determined. With frequent sampling interval, this procedure provides a mechanism for dynamically characterizing the release process itself. Using automated data collection in conjunction with polyexponential computer analysis, the equation which describes the release process in each experiment is determined. Analysis of the data during the nontreated phase of the experiment allows an internal control to be used for accurately assessing any changes in neurotransmitter release which may occur during a subsequent treatment phase. The use of internal controls greatly improves the signal to noise ratio and allows determinations of very low concentrations of drugs on small amounts of tissue to be made. In this presentation, the effects of 10 μM nicotine on 3 H-dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens is described. The time course, potency and efficacy of the drug treatment is characterized using this system. Determinations of the exponential order of the release as well as the rate constants allow one to study the mechanism of the release process. A description of 3 H-dopamine release in normal as well as Ca ++ -free medium is presented

  17. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  18. Biofortified varieties released under HarvestPlus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chapter 5: Annex 1 - Biofortified varieties released under HarvestPlus (as of December 2016). Crop. Micronutrient. Country. Variety. Year of Release. Origin. Type. Baseline. (ppm). Target increment. (ppm). Increment. (ppm). % Target. Increment. (ppm). Micronutrient. Content. (ppm). 11940. BRRI dhan64. 2014. BRRI. Boro.

  19. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated. ...

  20. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda E; Genre, Julieta; Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes de; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do

    2017-06-13

    Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas-Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.

  1. 27 CFR 27.185 - Customs release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs release. 27.185... Distilled Spirits From Customs Custody Free of Tax for Use of the United States § 27.185 Customs release. (a) Upon receipt of appropriate customs entry and a photocopy of a permit, Form 5150.33 or previous...

  2. 49 CFR 236.791 - Release, value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, value. 236.791 Section 236.791 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Release, value. The electrical value at which the movable member of an electromagnetic device will move to...

  3. Insulin release by glucagon and secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans; Andreu, D; Thams, P

    1988-01-01

    Secretin and glucagon potentiate glucose-induced insulin release. We have compared the effects of secretin and glucagon with that of four hybrid molecules of the two hormones on insulin release and formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. All six peptides potentiated...... the release of insulin at 10 mM D-glucose, and their effects were indistinguishable with respect to the dynamics of release, dose-response relationship, and glucose dependency. However, measurements of cAMP accumulation in the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (10(-4) M...... potentiating effects of secretin and glucagon on glucose-induced insulin release, their modes of action may be different....

  4. Fuel morphology effects on fission product release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of fission product release behavior observed during four severe fuel damage tests on bundles of UO 2 fuel rods. Transient temperatures up to fuel melting were obtained in the tests that included both rapid and slow cooldown, low and high (36 GWd/t) burnup fuel and the addition of Ag-In-Cd control rods. Release fractions of major fission product species and release rates of noble gas species are reported. Significant differences in release behavior are discussed between heatup and cooldown periods, low and high burnup fuel and long- and short-lived fission products. Explanations for the observed differences are offered that relate fuel morphology changes to the releases

  5. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  6. Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)

  7. Controlled drug release for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhia, Kunal J; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-10

    Tissue engineering is often referred to as a three-pronged discipline, with each prong corresponding to 1) a 3D material matrix (scaffold), 2) drugs that act on molecular signaling, and 3) regenerative living cells. Herein we focus on reviewing advances in controlled release of drugs from tissue engineering platforms. This review addresses advances in hydrogels and porous scaffolds that are synthesized from natural materials and synthetic polymers for the purposes of controlled release in tissue engineering. We pay special attention to efforts to reduce the burst release effect and to provide sustained and long-term release. Finally, novel approaches to controlled release are described, including devices that allow for pulsatile and sequential delivery. In addition to recent advances, limitations of current approaches and areas of further research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermoresponsive latexes for fragrance encapsulation and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, N; Popadyuk, A; Kohut, A; Voronov, A

    2016-04-01

    To synthesize cross-linked latex particles protecting the encapsulated fragrance at ambient temperatures and facilitating the release of cargo at the temperature of the surface of the skin that varies in different regions of the body between 33.5 and 36.9°C. Poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA), a polymer with long crystallizable alkyl side chains (undergoes order-disorder transitions at 45°C), was chosen as the main component of the polymer particles. As a result, new thermoresponsive polymer particles for fragrance encapsulation were synthesized and characterized, including assessing the performance of particles in triggered release by elevated temperature. To obtain network domains of various crystallinity, stearyl acrylate was copolymerized with dipropylene glycol acrylate caprylate (DGAC) (comonomer) in the presence of a dipropylene glycol diacrylate sebacate (cross-linker) using the miniemulsion process. Comonomers and a cross-linker were mixed directly in a fragrance during polymerization. Fragrance release was evaluated at 25, 31, 35 and 39°C to demonstrate a new material potential in personal/health care skin-related applications. Particles protect the fragrance from evaporation at 25°C. The fragrance release rate gradually increases at 31, 35 and 39°C. Two slopes were found on release plots. The first slope corresponds to a rapid fragrance release. The second slope indicates a subsequent reduction in the release rate. Crystalline-to-amorphous transition of PSA triggers the release of fragrances from cross-linked latex particles at elevated temperatures. The presence of the encapsulated fragrance, as well as the inclusion of amorphous fragments in the polymer network, reduces the particle crystallinity and enhances the release. Release profiles can be tuned by temperature and controlled by the amount of loaded fragrance and the ratio of comonomers in the feed mixture. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Drug release from non-aqueous suspensions. II. The release of methylxanthines from paraffin suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Fokkens, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The release of 3 methylxanthines, i.e. caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, from suspensions in liquid paraffin to an aqueous phase was determined in an in vitro apparatus. The release rates were determined as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase. It was proved that the release process was

  10. Tritium sorption by cement and subsequent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, F.; Yamawaki, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a fusion reactor or tritium-handling facilities, contamination of concrete by tritium and subsequent release from it to the reator or experimental room is a matter of problem for safe control of tritium and management of operational environment. In order to evaluate this tritium behavior, interaction of tritiated water with concrete or cement should be clarified. In the present study, HTO sorption and subsequent release from cement were experimentally studied.(1)Sorption experiments were conducted using columns packed with cement particles of different sizes. From the analysis of the breakthrough curve, tritium diffusivity in macropores and microparticles were evaluated.(2)From the short-term tritium release experiments, effective desorption rate constants were evaluated and the effects of temperature and moisture were studied.(3)In the long-term tritium release experiments to 6000h, the tritium release mechanism was found to be composed of three kinds of water: initially from capillary water, and in the second stage from gel water and from the water in the cement crystal.(4)Tritium release behavior by heat treatment to 800 C was studied. A high temperature above 600 C was required for the tritium trapped in the crystal water to be released. (orig.)

  11. Investigation of delayed fission gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayet, Nicolas

    1996-05-01

    The study of the fission gas release process in the high burnup rig IFA-562 has revealed a particular fuel behaviour: a delay in the fission gas release process. It appeared that an important release of gas was measured by the pressure transducers once the power had decreased, whereas, during steady-state operation, the pressure did not increase very much. After examinations, the gap size has been concluded to be the main parameter involving this delay. However the burnup could have been a potential factor, its role is mainly to close the gap by swelling. The observations of low burnup rods have shown the same delayed fission gas release, the gap being small by design and closed essentially by thermal expansion. The study of the kinetics has demonstrated the time-independency of the phenomenon. Thus the proposed mechanism driving this delayed fission gas release would involve three consecutives stages. During steady-state, the gas is released into the interlinkage network of grain boundary bubbles and cracks. Due to the closed gap, the gas is trapped in some void volumes, unable to escape the pellet. During power reduction, the gap and some old/new cracks open, immediately providing a path for the gas to the pressure transducers and explaining this delay in the fission gas release. (author)

  12. Cargo Release from Polymeric Vesicles under Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the release of cargo from polymeric nano-carriers under shear. Vesicles formed by two star block polymers— A 12 B 6 C 2 ( A B C and A 12 B 6 A 2 ( A B A —and one linear block copolymer— A 14 B 6 ( A B , are investigated using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations. A - and C -blocks are solvophobic and B -block is solvophilic. The three polymers form vesicles of different structures. The vesicles are subjected to shear both in bulk and between solvophobic walls. In bulk shear, the mechanisms of cargo release are similar for all vesicles, with cargo travelling through vesicle membrane with no preferential release location. When sheared between walls, high cargo release rate is only observed with A B C vesicle after it touches the wall. For A B C vesicle, the critical condition for high cargo release rate is the formation of wall-polymersome interface after which the effect of shear rate in promoting cargo release is secondary. High release rate is achieved by the formation of solvophilic pathway allowing cargo to travel from the vesicle cavity to the vesicle exterior. The results in this paper show that well controlled target cargo release using polymersomes can be achieved with polymers of suitable design and can potentially be very useful for engineering applications. As an example, polymersomes can be used as carriers for surface active friction reducing additives which are only released at rubbing surfaces where the additives are needed most.

  13. Feeding Releases Endogenous Opioids in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-08-23

    The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding

  14. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods for extended-release parenteral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J

    2012-07-01

    This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in-vitro drug release testing of extended-release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in-situ depot-forming systems and implants. Extended-release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, 'real-time' in-vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in-vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in-vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended-release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in-vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended-release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in-vitro-in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable; however, for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Accelerated in vitro release testing methods for extended release parenteral dosage forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in vitro drug release testing of extended release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in situ depot-forming systems, and implants. Key findings Extended release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, “real-time” in vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Conclusions Accelerated in vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable, however for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. PMID:22686344

  16. Selection of Hydrological Model for Waterborne Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Following a request from the States of South Carolina and Georgia, downstream radiological consequences from postulated accidental aqueous releases at the three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be examined. This evaluation will aid in determining the potential impacts of liquid releases to downstream populations on the Savannah River. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the two available models and determine the appropriate model for use in following waterborne release analyses. Additionally, this report will document the accidents to be used in the future study

  17. Fission product release mechanisms and groupings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, F.C.; Brito, A.C.; Liu, Y.

    1995-01-01

    During CANDU postulated accidents the reactor fuel is estimated to be exposed to a variety of conditions. These conditions are dynamic and, during the course of an accident, the fuel may experience a wide range of temperatures and conditions from highly oxidizing to mildly reducing environments. The exposure of the reactor fuel to these environments and temperatures may affect its stoichiometry and release performance. In this paper a review of the important fission product release mechanisms is presented, the results of three out-of-pile experimental programs are summarized, and fission product release groups, for both oxidizing and reducing conditions are proposed. (author)

  18. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...

  19. Tritium sorption by cement and subsequent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, F.; Tanaka, S.; Yamawaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    In a fusion reactor or tritium handling facilities, contamination of concrete by tritium and subsequent release from it to the reactor or experimental rooms is a matter of problem for safety control of tritium and management of operational environment. In order to evaluate these tritium behavior, interaction of tritiated water with concrete or cement should be clarified. In the present study, HTO sorption and subsequent release from cement were studied by combining various experimental methods. From the basic studies on tritium-cement interactions, it has become possible to evaluate tritium uptake by cement or concrete and subsequent tritium release behavior as well as tritium removing methods from them

  20. Fission product release mechanisms and groupings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesia, F C; Brito, A C; Liu, Y [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); and others

    1996-12-31

    During CANDU postulated accidents the reactor fuel is estimated to be exposed to a variety of conditions. These conditions are dynamic and, during the course of an accident, the fuel may experience a wide range of temperatures and conditions from highly oxidizing to mildly reducing environments. The exposure of the reactor fuel to these environments and temperatures may affect its stoichiometry and release performance. In this paper a review of the important fission product release mechanisms is presented, the results of three out-of-pile experimental programs are summarized, and fission product release groups, for both oxidizing and reducing conditions are proposed. (author) 92 refs., 6 tabs.

  1. Nuclear trafficking latest statistics released

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Countries reported 121 incidents to the IAEA in 2004 of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials, newly released statistics from the Agency's Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB) show. The ITDB report also shows that one incident was reported since 2003 that involved fissile material - highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium - that is needed to make a nuclear weapon. It occurred in June 2003 when an individual was arrested in possession of 170 grams of HEU, attempting to illegally transport it across the border. During the two-year period 2003-2004, the number of incidents reported by States substantially increased compared with previous years. 'Improved reporting may in part account for it,' the report said. 'The majority of the incidents reported in 2003-2004 showed no evidence of criminal activity.' The Past Twelve Years: 1993 - 2004 Nuclear Weapons Grade Material. Since the database started in 1993, there have been eighteen confirmed incidents involving trafficking in HEU and plutonium. A few of these incidents involved seizures of kilogram quantities of weapons-usable nuclear material but most involved very small quantities. In some of the cases the seized material was allegedly a sample of larger quantities available for illegal sale or at risk of theft. More than two dozens incidents involved trace amounts of plutonium sources. Table can be viewed: Incidents involving HEU and Pu confirmed to the ITDB (1993-2004). Nuclear Materials. In the past twelve years, 220 incidents involved nuclear materials. The majority of confirmed cases with nuclear materials involved low-grade nuclear materials, mostly in the form of reactor fuel pellets, and natural uranium, depleted uranium and thorium. While the quantities of these materials have been rather small to be significant for nuclear proliferation or use in a terrorist nuclear explosive device, these cases are indicative of gaps in the control

  2. Formulation and Characterization of Sustained Release Floating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate sustained release gastroretentive microballoons of metformin hydrochloride with the objective of improving its bioavailability. Methods: Microballoons of metformin hydrochloride were formulated by solvent evaporation and diffusion method using varying mixtures of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ...

  3. Investigators find hundreds of intentional nuclear releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Investigators with the federal Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments have said that the category of intentional releases is now known to be larger, in variety and quantity, than the 13 releases identified prior to the committee's formation in January 1994 by President Clinton. The committee is now aware of hundreds of additional intentional releases. In addition to the intentional releases, the committee said it had compiled documents on 400 biomedical experiments involving radiation prior to 1975, and had at least fragmentary evidence of more than 1,000 more. The committee also discovered a top secret 1953 Defense Department policy statement on human experimentation that was based on the World War II-era Nuremberg Code. The committee said it was looking into how or whether the policy was implemented. The committee is expected to issue a final report, including recommendations on possible compensation for victims by April 1995

  4. EPA Releases Neonicotinoid Assessments for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Release of preliminary ecological and human health risk assessments for the neonicotinoid insecticides clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, and a preliminary ecological risk assessment for imidacloprid, assessing risks to birds,mammals, non-target

  5. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2010 Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2011 Release is a composite index for 174 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  6. Release From Proactive Interference with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Linda F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This demonstration of release from proactive interference with young children confirms the suggestion that the technique is appropriate for the study of developmental changes in the encoding of information. (Authors/CB)

  7. Release and attenuation of fluorocarbons in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    Several halocarbons with very high global warming and ozone depleting potentials have been used as blowing agent for insulation foam in refrigerators and freezers. Many appliances are shredded after the end of their useful life. Release experiments carried out in the laboratory on insulation foam...... blown with CFC-11, HCFC-141b, HFC- 134a, and HFC-245fa revealed that most of the blowing agent is not released to the atmosphere during a six-week period following the shredding process. The fraction which is released in the six-week period is highly dependent on how fine the foam is shredded....... The residual blowing agent remaining after the six-week period may be very slowly released if the integrity of the foam particles with respect to diffusional properties is kept after disposal of the foam waste in landfills. Laboratory experiments simulating attenuation processes in the landfilled waste...

  8. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2009 Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2009 Release is a composite index for 171 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  9. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2011 Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2011 Release is a composite index for 174 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  10. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2010 Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2010 Release is a composite index for 157 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  11. A Methodology for Assessing Software Releasibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kochan, Matthew

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis proposes a new methodology which addresses this tradeoff. The term "releasable" Software is introduced as a product which demonstrates a fault content acceptable to users in the field...

  12. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-01-01

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 97 Mo, and 90 Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the 99 Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Antibiotics: Tylvalosin Induces Apoptosis of Porcine Neutrophils and Macrophages, Promotes Efferocytosis, and Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory CXCL-8, IL1α, and LTB4 Production, While Inducing the Release of Pro-Resolving Lipoxin A4 and Resolvin D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Ruth; De Lamache, Dimitri Desmonts; Sajedy, Saman; Renaux, Bernard S; Hollenberg, Morley D; Muench, Gregory; Abbott, Elizabeth M; Buret, Andre G

    2018-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of neutrophils and their uncontrolled death by necrosis at the site of inflammation exacerbates inflammatory responses and leads to self-amplifying tissue injury and loss of organ function, as exemplified in a variety of respiratory diseases. In homeostasis, neutrophils are inactivated by apoptosis, and non phlogistically removed by neighboring macrophages in a process known as efferocytosis, which promotes the resolution of inflammation. The present study assessed the potential anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution benefits of tylvalosin, a recently developed broad-spectrum veterinary macrolide derived from tylosin. Recent findings indicate that tylvalosin may modulate inflammation by suppressing NF-κB activation. Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from fresh blood samples obtained from 12- to 22-week-old pigs. Leukocytes exposed to vehicle or to tylvalosin (0.1, 1.0, or 10 µg/mL; 0.096-9.6 µM) were assessed at various time points for apoptosis, necrosis, efferocytosis, and changes in the production of cytokines and lipid mediators. The findings indicate that tylvalosin increases porcine neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, without altering levels of necrosis or reactive oxygen species production. Importantly, tylvalosin increased the release of pro-resolving Lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ) and Resolvin D1 (RvD 1 ) while inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory Leukotriene B4 (LTB 4 ) in Ca 2+ ionophore-stimulated porcine neutrophils. Tylvalosin increased neutrophil phospholipase C activity, an enzyme involved in releasing arachidonic acid from membrane stores. Tylvalosin also inhibited pro-inflammatory chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL-8, also known as Interleukin-8) and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) protein secretion in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Together, these data illustrate that tylvalosin has potent immunomodulatory effects in porcine

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Antibiotics: Tylvalosin Induces Apoptosis of Porcine Neutrophils and Macrophages, Promotes Efferocytosis, and Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory CXCL-8, IL1α, and LTB4 Production, While Inducing the Release of Pro-Resolving Lipoxin A4 and Resolvin D1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Moges

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Excessive accumulation of neutrophils and their uncontrolled death by necrosis at the site of inflammation exacerbates inflammatory responses and leads to self-amplifying tissue injury and loss of organ function, as exemplified in a variety of respiratory diseases. In homeostasis, neutrophils are inactivated by apoptosis, and non phlogistically removed by neighboring macrophages in a process known as efferocytosis, which promotes the resolution of inflammation. The present study assessed the potential anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution benefits of tylvalosin, a recently developed broad-spectrum veterinary macrolide derived from tylosin. Recent findings indicate that tylvalosin may modulate inflammation by suppressing NF-κB activation. Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from fresh blood samples obtained from 12- to 22-week-old pigs. Leukocytes exposed to vehicle or to tylvalosin (0.1, 1.0, or 10 µg/mL; 0.096–9.6 µM were assessed at various time points for apoptosis, necrosis, efferocytosis, and changes in the production of cytokines and lipid mediators. The findings indicate that tylvalosin increases porcine neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, without altering levels of necrosis or reactive oxygen species production. Importantly, tylvalosin increased the release of pro-resolving Lipoxin A4 (LXA4 and Resolvin D1 (RvD1 while inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in Ca2+ ionophore-stimulated porcine neutrophils. Tylvalosin increased neutrophil phospholipase C activity, an enzyme involved in releasing arachidonic acid from membrane stores. Tylvalosin also inhibited pro-inflammatory chemokine (C–X–C motif ligand 8 (CXCL-8, also known as Interleukin-8 and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α protein secretion in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Together, these data illustrate that tylvalosin has potent immunomodulatory effects

  15. Release of fission products in transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.; Lundqwist, R.

    1979-07-01

    A station for automatic sampling of coolant has been put in operation at the Oskarshamn-1 reactor. The release of 131 J and other fission products in spikes in connection with reactor trips and scheduled shutdowns has been measured. A model developed at General Electric has been used to predict the spike release in Oskarshamn-1 and the predicted values have been compared with experimental values. Literature data of iodine spikes in BWR and PWR have been reviewed. (author)

  16. Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    David Sánchez; Montserrat Batet

    2017-01-01

    Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees DOI: 10.1016/j.engappai.2016.12.013 URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0952197616302408 Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI Privacy has become a serious concern for modern Information Societies. The sensitive nature of much of the data that are daily exchanged or released to untrusted parties requires that responsible organizations undertake appropriate privacy protection measures. Nowadays, much...

  17. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs

  18. Expansion of ARAC for chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, R.L.; Blair, M.D.; Foster, C.S.; Taylor, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed an effort to expand its national emergency response modeling system for chemical releases. Key components of the new capability include the integration of (1) an extensive chemical property database, (2) source modeling for tanks and evaporating pools, (3) denser-than-air dispersion, (4) public exposure guidelines, and (5) an interactive graphical user interface (GUI). Recent use and the future of the new capability are also discussed

  19. Guidance for Evaluating the Safety of Experimental Releases of Mosquitoes, Emphasizing Mark-Release-Recapture Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Mark Q; Charlwood, J Derek; Harrington, Laura C; Lounibos, L Philip; Reisen, William K; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2018-01-01

    Experimental releases of mosquitoes are performed to understand characteristics of populations related to the biology, ability to transmit pathogens, and ultimately their control. In this article, we discuss considerations related to the safety of experimental releases of living mosquitoes, applying principles of good practice in vector biology that protect human health and comfort. We describe specific factors of experimental releases of mosquitoes that we believe are critical to inform institutional biosafety committees and similar review boards to which proposals to conduct mosquito release experiments have been submitted. In this study, "experimental releases" means those that do not significantly increase vector capacity or nuisance biting relative to the unperturbed natural baseline. This document specifically does not address releases of mosquitoes for ongoing control programs or trials of new control methods for which broader assessments of risk are required. It also does not address releases of transgenic or exotic (non-native) mosquito species, both of which require particular regulatory approval. Experimental releases may include females and males and evaluation must consider their effects based on the number released, their genotype and phenotype, the environment into which they are released, and postrelease collection activities. We consider whether increases of disease transmission and nuisance biting might result from proposed experimental releases against the backdrop of natural population size variation. We recommend that experimental releases be conducted in a manner that can be reasonably argued to have insignificant negative effects. Reviewers of proposals for experimental releases should expect applicants to provide such an argument based on evidence from similar studies and their planned activities. This document provides guidance for creating and evaluating such proposals.

  20. Correlation of recent fission product release data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.; Lorenz, R.A.; Nakamura, T.; Osborne, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    For the calculation of source terms associated with severe accidents, it is necessary to model the release of fission products from fuel as it heats and melts. Perhaps the most definitive model for fission product release is that of the FASTGRASS computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. There is persuasive evidence that these processes, as well as additional chemical and gas phase mass transport processes, are important in the release of fission products from fuel. Nevertheless, it has been found convenient to have simplified fission product release correlations that may not be as definitive as models like FASTGRASS but which attempt in some simple way to capture the essence of the mechanisms. One of the most widely used such correlation is called CORSOR-M which is the present fission product/aerosol release model used in the NRC Source Term Code Package. CORSOR has been criticized as having too much uncertainty in the calculated releases and as not accurately reproducing some experimental data. It is currently believed that these discrepancies between CORSOR and the more recent data have resulted because of the better time resolution of the more recent data compared to the data base that went into the CORSOR correlation. This document discusses a simple correlational model for use in connection with NUREG risk uncertainty exercises. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  2. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  3. Pressure releasing device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Mika.

    1994-01-01

    In the present invention, dose rate to public caused by radioactive rare gases can be decreased. That is, a reactor container contains a reactor pressure vessel incorporating a reactor core. There are disposed a pressure releasing system for releasing the pressure in the reactor pressure vessel to the outside, and a burning device for burning gases released from the pressure releasing system. An exhaustion pipe is disposed to the pressure releasing system. A burning device is disposed to the exhaustion pipe. It is effective to dispose a ventilation port at a portion of the exhaustion pipe upstream of the burning device. In addition, the burning device may preferably be disposed in a multi-stage in the axial direction of the exhaustion pipe. With such procedures, hydrogen in gases discharged along with the release of the pressure in the container is burned. Buoyancy is caused to the exhaustion gases by heat energy upon burning. Since the exhaustion gases can reach a higher level by the buoyancy, the dose rate due to the rare gases can be reduced. (I.S.)

  4. Controlled release studies of calcium alginate hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendevski, S.; Andonovski, A.; Mahmudi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Controlled release of substances in many cases may be achieved from calcium alginate hydrogels. In this research, the time dependence of the mass of released model substance bovine serum albumin (BSA) from calcium alginate spherical hydrogels of three different types (G/M ratio) have been investigated. The hydrogels were prepared with the drop-wise method of sodium alginate aqueous solutions with concentration of 0.02 g/cm 3 with 0.01 g/cm 3 BSA and a gelling water bath of chitosan in 0.2 M CH 3 COOH/0.4 M CH 3 COONa with added 0.2 M CaCl 2 .The hydrogel structures were characterized by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The controlled release studies were conducted by UV-Vis spectrophotometry of the released medium with p H=7 at 37 °C. The results showed that the model of osmotic pumping is the dominant mechanism of the release. Also, large dependences of the release profile on the homogeneity of the hydrogels were found. (Author)

  5. Atmospheric dispersion models of radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the rapid industrialization in recent time, atmospheric dispersion models have become indispensible 'tools' to ensure that the effects of releases are well within the acceptable limits set by the regulatory authority. In the case of radioactive releases from the nuclear facility, though negligible in quantity and many a times not even measurable, it is required to demonstrate the compliance of these releases to the regulatory limits set by the regulatory authority by carrying out radiological impact assessment. During routine operations of nuclear facility, the releases are so low that environmental impact is usually assessed with the help of atmospheric dispersion models as it is difficult to distinguish negligible contribution of nuclear facility to relatively high natural background radiation. The accidental releases from nuclear facility, though with negligible probability of occurrence, cannot be ruled out. In such cases, the atmospheric dispersion models are of great help to emergency planners for deciding the intervention actions to minimize the consequences in public domain and also to workout strategies for the management of situation. In case of accidental conditions, the atmospheric dispersion models are also utilized for the estimation of probable quantities of radionuclides which might have got released to the atmosphere. Thus, atmospheric dispersion models are an essential tool for nuclear facility during routine operation as well as in the case of accidental conditions

  6. Tritium behavior intentionally released in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Yamanishi, T.; Willms, R. S.; Carlson, R. V.

    2008-01-01

    To construct a fusion reactor with high safety and acceptability, it is necessary to establish and to ensure tritium safe handling technology. Tritium should be well-controlled not to be released to the environment excessively and to prevent workers from excess exposure. It is especially important to grasp tritium behavior in the final confinement area, such as the room and/or building. In order to obtain data for actual tritium behavior in a room and/or building, a series of intentional Tritium Release Experiments (TREs) were planned and carried out within a radiologically controlled area (main cell) at Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) in Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under US-JAPAN collaboration program. These experiments were carried out three times. In these experiments, influence of a difference in the tritium release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope for the initial tritium behavior in the room were suggested. Tritium was released into the main cell at TSTA/LANL. The released tritium reached a uniform concentration about 30 - 40 minutes in all the experiments. The influence of the release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope were not found to be important in these experiments. The experimental results for the initial tritium behavior in the room were also simulated well by the modified three-dimensional eddy flow analysis code FLOW-3D. (authors)

  7. Stereoselectivity of presynaptic autoreceptors modulating dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbilla, S.; Langer, S.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol were studied on the spontaneous and field stimulation-evoked release of total radioactivity from slices of rabbit caudate nucleus prelabelled with [ 3 H]dopamine. (S)-Sulpiride in concentrations ranging from 0.01-1μM enhanced the electrically evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine while (R)-sulpiride was 10 times less potent than (S)-sulpiride. Exposure to (S)-butaclamol (0.1-1 μM) but not to (R)-butaclamol (0.1-10μM) enhanced the field-stimulated release of [ 3 H]dopamine. The facilitatory effects of (S)- and (R)-sulpiride and (S)-butaclamol on the stimulated release of the labelled neurotransmitter were observed under conditions in which these drugs did not modify the spontaneous outflow of radioactivity. Only the active enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol antagonized the inhibition by apomorphine (1μM) of the stimulated release of [ 3 H]dopamine. Our results indicate that the presynaptic inhibitory dopamine autoreceptors modulating the stimulation-evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine in the caudate nucleus are, like the classical postsynaptic dopamine receptors, chemically stereoselective. (Auth.)

  8. Electrosprayed nanoparticle delivery system for controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Megdi, E-mail: megdi.eltayeb@sustech.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan); Stride, Eleanor, E-mail: eleanor.stride@eng.ox.ac.uk [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Headington OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Harker, Anthony, E-mail: a.harker@ucl.ac.uk [London Centre for Nanotechnology, Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    This study utilises an electrohydrodynamic technique to prepare core-shell lipid nanoparticles with a tunable size and high active ingredient loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and controlled release. Using stearic acid and ethylvanillin as model shell and active ingredients respectively, we identify the processing conditions and ratios of lipid:ethylvanillin required to form nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a mean size ranging from 60 to 70 nm at the rate of 1.37 × 10{sup 9} nanoparticles per minute were prepared with different lipid:ethylvanillin ratios. The polydispersity index was ≈ 21% and the encapsulation efficiency ≈ 70%. It was found that the rate of ethylvanillin release was a function of the nanoparticle size, and lipid:ethylvanillin ratio. The internal structure of the lipid nanoparticles was studied by transmission electron microscopy which confirmed that the ethylvanillin was encapsulated within a stearic acid shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that the ethylvanillin had not been affected. Extensive analysis of the release of ethylvanillin was performed using several existing models and a new diffusive release model incorporating a tanh function. The results were consistent with a core-shell structure. - Highlights: • Electrohydrodynamic spraying is used to produce lipid-coated nanoparticles. • A new model is proposed for the release rates of active components from nanoparticles. • The technique has potential applications in food science and medicine. • Electrohydrodynamic processing controlled release lipid nanoparticles.

  9. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    release patterns, but with variations in the total amount released. Chewing gum formulated with cetirizine alone, demonstrated a release of 75% after 8 min of chewing. The presence of CDs resulted in increased cetirizine release. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that parameters with the most...... the statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated significance in the release (P

  10. Field study of the long-term release of block copolymers from fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, A.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The addition of block copolymers (i.e. oils) is a common technique to enhance the biofouling-resistance properties of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based fouling-release coatings. These copolymers diffuse from the bulk to the surface of the coating, thus modifying the properties of the surface an...... fouling-release coatings. Finally, the potential of long-term field-studies is discussed, as compared to short-term laboratory experiments usually performed within fouling-release coatings studies....

  11. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan

    2008-04-01

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  12. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan (Enviros Consulting Ltd, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom))

    2008-04-15

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  13. Metal release from simulated fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, C J; Shin, J S; Cha, J Y

    2001-10-01

    Most orthodontic appliances and archwires are stainless steel or nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys that can release metal ions, with saliva as the medium. To measure metal released from the fixed orthodontic appliances currently in use, we fabricated simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that corresponded to half of the maxillary arch and soaked them in 50 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.75 +/- 0.15, 37 degrees C) for 3 months. We used brackets, tubes, and bands made by Tomy (Tokyo, Japan). Four groups were established according to the appliance manufacturer and the type of metal in the .016 x .022-in archwires. Groups A and B were stainless steel archwires from Ormco (Glendora, Calif) and Dentaurum (Ispringen, Germany), respectively, and groups C and D were both NiTi archwires with Ormco's copper NiTi and Tomy's Bioforce sentalloy, respectively. Stainless steel archwires were heat treated in an electric furnace at 500 degrees C for 1 minute and quenched in water. We measured the amount of metal released from each group by immersion time. Our conclusions were as follows: (1) there was no increase in the amount of chromium released after 4 weeks in group A, 2 weeks in group B, 3 weeks in group C, and 8 weeks in group D; (2) there was no increase in the amount of nickel released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, 7 days in group C, and 3 weeks in group D; and (3) there was no increase in the amount of iron released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, and 1 day in groups C and D. In our 3-month-long investigation, we saw a decrease in metal released as immersion time increased.

  14. Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 1--development of sustained-release granule--.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Furuhashi, Kaoru; Ohno, Yukiko; Ito, Mikio

    2009-02-01

    Progesterone (P) is an important hormone for the establishment of pregnancy, and its administration is useful for luteal insufficiency. Considering the problems of commercially available oral and injection drugs, hospital-formulated vaginal suppositories are clinically used. However, since the half-life of P suppositories is short, it is difficult to maintain its constant blood concentration. To sustain drug efficacy and prevent side-effects, we are attempting to develop sustained-release suppositories by examining the degree of sustained-release of active ingredients. In this study, we examined the combinations of granulation methods and release systems for the preparation of sustained-release granules of P, and produced 13 types of sustained-release granules. We also examined the diameter, content, and dissolution of each type of granules, and confirmed that the sustained-release of all types of granules was satisfactory. Among the sustained-release granules, we selected granules with a content and a degree of sustained-release suitable for sustained-release suppositories.

  15. Minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, R.W.; Stobbe, T.J.; Mogensen, J.E.; Jeram, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes procedures for minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases and suggested personal protective equipment (PPE) to be used in the event of such chemical release. How individuals, employees, supervisors, or companies perceive the risks of chemical exposure (risk meaning both probability of exposure and effect of exposure) determines to a great extent what precautions are taken to avoid risk. In Part I, the authors develop and approach which divides the project into three phases: kinds of procedures currently being used; the types of toxic chemical release accidents and injuries that occur; and, finally, integration of this information into a set of recommended procedures which should decrease the likelihood of a toxic chemical release and, if one does occur, will minimize the exposure and its severity to employees. Part II covers the use of personal protective equipment. It addresses the questions: what personal protective equipment ensembles are used in industry in situations where the release of a toxic or dangerous chemical may occur or has occurred; and what personal protective equipment ensembles should be used in these situations

  16. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

  17. Gas Release as a Deformation Signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Radiogenic noble gases are contained in crustal rock at inter and intra granular sites. The gas composition depends on lithology, geologic history, fluid phases, and the aging effect by decay of U, Th, and K. The isotopic signature of noble gases found in rocks is vastly different than that of the atmosphere which is contributed by a variety of sources. When rock is subjected to stress conditions exceeding about half its yield strength, micro-cracks begin to form. As rock deformation progresses a fracture network evolves, releasing trapped noble gases and changing the transport properties to gas migration. Thus, changes in gas emanation and noble gas composition from rocks could be used to infer changes in stress-state and deformation. The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the effect of deformation/strain rate upon noble gas release. Four triaxial experiments were attempted for a strain rate range of %7E10-8 /s (180,000s) to %7E 10-4/s (500s); the three fully successful experiments (at the faster strain rates) imply the following: (1) helium is measurably released for all strain rates during deformation, this release is in amounts 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than that present in the air, and (2) helium gas release increases with decreasing strain rate.

  18. Local control of striatal dopamine release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger eCachope

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine (DA systems play a key role in the physiology of reward seeking, motivation and motor control. Importantly, they are also involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia and addiction. Control of DA release in the striatum is tightly linked to firing of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the substantia nigra (SN. However, local influences in the striatum affect release by exerting their action directly on axon terminals. For example, endogenous glutamatergic and cholinergic activity is sufficient to trigger striatal DA release independently of cell body firing. Recent developments involving genetic manipulation, pharmacological selectivity or selective stimulation have allowed for better characterization of these phenomena. Such termino-terminal forms of control of DA release transform considerably our understanding of the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems, and have strong implications as potential mechanisms to modify impaired control of DA release in the diseased brain. Here, we review these and related mechanisms and their implications in the physiology of ascending DA systems.

  19. Validation of software releases for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsche, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The CMS software stack currently consists of more than 2 Million lines of code developed by over 250 authors with a new version being released every week. CMS has setup a validation process for quality assurance which enables the developers to compare the performance of a release to previous releases and references. The validation process provides the developers with reconstructed datasets of real data and MC samples. The samples span the whole range of detector effects and important physics signatures to benchmark the performance of the software. They are used to investigate interdependency effects of all CMS software components and to find and fix bugs. The release validation process described here is an integral part of CMS software development and contributes significantly to ensure stable production and analysis. It represents a sizable contribution to the overall MC production of CMS. Its success emphasizes the importance of a streamlined release validation process for projects with a large code basis and significant number of developers and can function as a model for future projects.

  20. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    Diffusion of helium in 238 PuO 2 fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel

  1. Elastase, α1-Proteinase Inhibitor, and Interleukin-8 in Children and Young Adults with End-Stage Kidney Disease Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Polańska, Bożena; Augustyniak, Daria; Makulska, Irena; Niemczuk, Maria; Jankowski, Adam; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is one of the main modality of treatment in end-stage kidney diseases (ESKD) in children. In our previous work in chronic kidney disease patients, in pre-dialyzed period and on hemodialysis, the neutrophils were highly activated. The aim of this study was to assess an inflammatory condition and neutrophil activation in ESKD patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Thirteen CAPD patients without infection, both sexes, aged 2.5–24 years, and grou...

  2. Performance of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 serum levels in pediatric oncology patients with neutropenia and fever for the assessment of low-risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontny Udo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chemotherapy-related neutropenia and fever are usually hospitalized and treated on empirical intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens. Early diagnosis of sepsis in children with febrile neutropenia remains difficult due to non-specific clinical and laboratory signs of infection. We aimed to analyze whether IL-6 and IL-8 could define a group of patients at low risk of septicemia. Methods A prospective study was performed to assess the potential value of IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein serum levels to predict severe bacterial infection or bacteremia in febrile neutropenic children with cancer during chemotherapy. Statistical test used: Friedman test, Wilcoxon-Test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Mann-Whitney U-Test and Receiver Operating Characteristics. Results The analysis of cytokine levels measured at the onset of fever indicated that IL-6 and IL-8 are useful to define a possible group of patients with low risk of sepsis. In predicting bacteremia or severe bacterial infection, IL-6 was the best predictor with the optimum IL-6 cut-off level of 42 pg/ml showing a high sensitivity (90% and specificity (85%. Conclusion These findings may have clinical implications for risk-based antimicrobial treatment strategies.

  3. Duration of wound fluid secretion from chronic venous leg ulcers is critical for interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 levels and fibroblast activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zillmer, Rikke; Trøstrup, Hannah; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Wound fluid collected from chronic wounds may be used as a simple gauge of the processes taking place in the tissue. There is lack of information on the optimal conditions for wound fluid procurement. We have studied possible diurnal variations and duration of wound fluid accumulation using reten...

  4. Effect of the use of snuff on the levels of interleukin-1 β and interleukin-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayendra Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of smokeless tobacco in the form of moist snuff placed in the oral cavity is popular in rural India. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the effect of snuff on periodontitis by assessing interleukin (IL-1 β and IL-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects were selected for this study. 40 subjects presented with periodontitis, which included 20 snuff users (SP and 20 nonsnuff users (NS. 20 periodontally healthy patients formed the controls (healthy control: HC. The clinical parameters recorded were gingival index (GI, plaque index, calculus index, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD, recession (RC, and clinical attachment level (CAL. The IL-1 β and IL-8 levels were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Quantikine ®. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey′s, Kruskal-Walli′s ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison among groups and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: No significant difference was seen in levels of IL-1 β and IL-8 between SP and NS groups (P = 0.16, 0.97. However, both the periodontitis groups (SP and NS had increased IL-β levels when compared to HC group (P = 0.01, 0.001. The snuff users showed significant increase in GI, BOP, RC, and CAL when compared with NS (P = 0.002, 0.001, 0.012, 0.002 whereas NS group had significant increase in PD (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, use of snuff does not affect the host inflammatory response associated with periodontitis and leads to RC and increased CAL due to local irritant effect.

  5. Impact of chorioamnionitis on exhaled nitric oxide and endotracheal aspirate levels of nitrites-nitrates and interleukin-8 in mechanically ventilated preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Salvia-Roiges, Maria Dolors; Rodriguez-Miguélez, J Manuel; Miracle-Echegoyen, Xavier; Botet-Mussons, Francesc; Marín-Soria, J Luís; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    To assess the influence of maternal chorioamnionitis on early exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and levels of nitrites-nitrates and interleukin (IL)-8 in endotracheal aspirate fluid in mechanically ventilated preterm neonates. Cross-sectional study. PATIENT-SUBJECT SELECTION: Between September 2007 and August 2009, 54 mechanically ventilated preterm neonates were included. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of maternal chorioamnionitis, and those without chorioamnionitis (controls) were further stratified into two subgroups by birth weight nitrates were significantly higher in the chorioamnionitis group than in controls (3.6 vs. 1.07 µmol/L; P = 0.035). Nitrites-nitrates levels were positively correlated with exhaled NO in ppb (ρ = 0.367; P = 0.006). Minute exhaled endogenous NO was significantly higher in the chorioamnionitis group (0.48 vs. 0.27 nl/min/kg; P = 0.021). In mechanically ventilated preterm infants weighing nitrates in endotracheal aspirate fluid. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Cafestol Inhibits Cyclic-Strain-Induced Interleukin-8, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Production in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wen-Rui; Sung, Li-Chin; Chen, Chun-Chao; Chen, Jin-Jer

    2018-01-01

    Moderate coffee consumption is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease mortality; however, mechanisms underlying this causal effect remain unclear. Cafestol, a diterpene found in coffee, has various properties, including an anti-inflammatory property. This study investigated the effect of cafestol on cyclic-strain-induced inflammatory molecule secretion in vascular endothelial cells. Cells were cultured under static or cyclic strain conditions, and the secretion of inflammatory molecules was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of cafestol on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) signaling pathways were examined using Western blotting and specific inhibitors. Cafestol attenuated cyclic-strain-stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1, and interleukin- (IL-) 8 secretion. Cafestol inhibited the cyclic-strain-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 MAPK. By contrast, cafestol upregulated cyclic-strain-induced HO-1 and Sirt1 expression. The addition of zinc protoporphyrin IX, sirtinol, or Sirt1 silencing (transfected with Sirt1 siRNA) significantly attenuated cafestol-mediated modulatory effects on cyclic-strain-stimulated ICAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-8 secretion. This is the first study to report that cafestol inhibited cyclic-strain-induced inflammatory molecule secretion, possibly through the activation of HO-1 and Sirt1 in endothelial cells. The results provide valuable insights into molecular pathways that may contribute to the effects of cafestol. PMID:29854096

  7. A Soft Coral Natural Product, 11-Episinulariolide Acetate, Inhibits Gene Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Interleukin-8 through Attenuation of Calcium Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chiao Chang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells. EGFR-mediated signaling involves inflammatory gene expression including cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and interleukin (IL-8, and is associated with cancer pathogenesis. In a search of phytochemicals with anti-inflammatory activity, the COX-2 and IL-8 inhibitory activities of some marine compounds were examined. After screening these compounds 11-episinulariolide acetate (1 from soft coral exhibited the most potent activity. Reverse-transcription PCR; western blotting; ELISA and luciferase assays were used to test the effect of compound 1 on EGF-stimulated expressions of COX-2 and IL-8 in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. After exposure to 10 μM of compound 1, expression levels of COX-2 and IL-8 were reduced. In addition; intracellular Ca2+ increase and Ca2+-dependent transcription factor activation were blocked by compound 1. Thus, compound 1 can potentially serve as a lead compound for targeting Ca2+ signaling-dependent inflammatory diseases.

  8. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) inhibits vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and interleukin-8 production in human coronary arterial endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Keiko; Hasegawa, Shunji; Suzuki, Yasuo; Hirano, Reiji; Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kittaka, Setsuaki; Ichiyama, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile vasculitis of childhood that is associated with elevated production of inflammatory cytokines, causing damage to the coronary arteries. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules in human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) is regulated by nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. We have previously reported that the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activation. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) on TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression (vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)) and cytokine production (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8) in HCAECs. Pretreatment with 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression and IL-8 production in HCAECs. Our results suggest that adjunctive 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) therapy may modulate the inflammatory response during Kawasaki disease vasculitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: association with toll-like receptor 4 expression and plasma levels of interleukin 8.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanab, Ahmed Abu

    2011-05-01

    Experimental and clinical studies suggest an association between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver injury and fibrosis could be related to exposure to bacterial products of intestinal origin and, most notably, endotoxin, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

  10. Interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-I in the cord blood as predictors of chronic lung disease in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hiromi; Nishimaki, Shigeru; Ohyama, Makiko; Haruki, Atsushi; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Sugai, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Mori, Masaaki; Seki, Kazuo; Yokota, Shumpei

    2004-11-01

    In order to predict the late-development of chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD), cytokines in the cord blood were assessed in this study. Eighteen premature infants with CLD were enrolled. Cord blood plasma levels of cytokines of these infants and 12 control infants without CLD were measured including interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, soluble TNF receptor-I, and soluble IL-6 receptor using a cytometric bead array and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cord blood IL-6, IL-8, and sTNFR-I levels were significantly elevated in CLD infants compared with those in control (P < .05). IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma were undetectable in both groups. CLD infants with maternal chorioamnionitis had higher IL-6 than those without chorioamnionitis (P < .01). In CLD infants, IL-6 was higher in the infants who required prolonged oxygen therapy (P < .05). Elevated inflammatory cytokines in the cord blood are associated with the progression to CLD.

  11. Prognostic significance of interleukin-8 and CD163-positive cell-infiltration in tumor tissues in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Fujita

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We investigated whether serum interleukin (IL-8 reflects the tumor microenvironment and has prognostic value in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fifty OSCC patients who received radical resection of their tumor(s were enrolled. Preoperative sera were measured for IL-8 by ELISA. Expression of IL-8 and the infiltration of immune cells in tumor tissues were analyzed by an immunohistochemical staining of surgical specimens. RESULTS: We found that disease-free survival (DFS was significantly longer in the Stage I/II OSCC patients with low serum IL-8 levels compared to those with high levels (p = 0.001. The tumor expression of IL-8, i.e., IL-8(T and the density of CD163-positive cells in the tumor invasive front, i.e., CD163(IF were correlated with the serum IL-8 level (p = 0.033 and p = 0.038, respectively, and they were associated with poor clinical outcome (p = 0.007 and p = 0.002, respectively, in DFS in all patients. A multivariate analysis revealed that N status, IL-8(T and CD163(IF significantly affected the DFS of the patients. Further analysis suggested that combination of N status with serum IL-8, IL-8(T or CD163(IF may be a new criterion for discriminating between OSCC patients at high and low risk for tumor relapse. Interestingly, the in vitro experiments demonstrated that IL-8 enhanced generation of CD163-positive M2 macrophages from peripheral blood monocytes, and that the cells produced IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that IL-8 may be involved in poor clinical outcomes via generation of CD163-positive M2 macrophages, and that these factors in addition to N status may have prognostic value in patients with resectable OSCSS.

  12. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) over-production and autocrine cell activation are key factors in monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)]-induced malignant transformation of urothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero-Lourdes, C.; Wu, T.; Camarillo, J.M.; Gandolfi, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The association between chronic human exposure to arsenicals and bladder cancer development is well recognized; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully determined. We propose that inflammatory responses can play a pathogenic role in arsenic-related bladder carcinogenesis. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that chronic exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsenous acid [MMA(III)] leads to malignant transformation of an immortalized model of urothelial cells (UROtsa), with only 3 mo of exposure necessary to trigger the transformation-related changes. In the three-month window of exposure, the cells over-expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8), consistent with the sustained activation of NFKβ and AP1/c-jun, ERK2, and STAT3. IL-8 was over-expressed within hours after exposure to MMA(III), and sustained over-expression was observed during chronic exposure. In this study, we profiled IL-8 expression in UROtsa cells exposed to 50 nM MMA(III) for 1 to 5 mo. IL-8 expression was increased mainly in cells after 3 mo MMA(III) exposure, and its production was also found increased in tumors derived from these cells after heterotransplantation in SCID mice. UROtsa cells do express both receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, suggesting that autocrine cell activation could be important in cell transformation. Supporting this observation and consistent with IL-8 over-expression, CXCR1 internalization was significantly increased after three months of exposure to MMA(III). The expression of MMP-9, cyclin D1, bcl-2, and VGEF was significantly increased in cells exposed to MMA(III) for 3 mo, but these mitogen-activated kinases were significantly decreased after IL-8 gene silencing, together with a decrease in cell proliferation rate and in anchorage-independent colony formation. These results suggest a relevant role of IL-8 in MMA(III)-induced UROtsa cell transformation. -- Highlights: ► IL-8 is over-expressed in human MMA(III)-exposed urothelial cells. ► Internal CXCR1 and tumor progression markers are also increased. ► IL-8 silencing decreased malignant transformation markers in MMA(III)-exposed cells.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF INTERLEUKIN-8 (IL -8), SOLUBLE INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1(SICAM-1) AND EOSINOPHIL CATIONIC PROTEIN (ECP) IN PATHOGENESIS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-NASHAR, N.A.; MOSTAFA, A.M.E.; AHMED, S.M.; ABDEL-LATIF, A.

    2008-01-01

    Bronchial asthma remains a leading cause of chronic illness in children. Current theories of the pathogenesis of asthma suggest that airway inflammation is an important determinant of bronchial hyperactivity .The interaction of several inflammatory cells, soluble mediators and adhesion molecules may be important determinants of asthma. Since a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to asthma pathology may yield more specific immunological strategies for the treatment of this disease, this study was designed to investigate the contribution of these markers to airway inflammation. The present study included 25 children with asthma and 15 control children. The asthma cases were 18 males and 7 females ( mean age= 9.36 ± 2.16 years). According to the severity of asthma, patients were classified as mild (n=10), moderate (n=9) and severe (n=6) asthma. They were further classified into allergic asthmatics (extrinsic atopic, n=10) and non-allergic (intrinsic asthmatics, n=15). Estimations of serum levels of IL-8, sICAM-1(by ELISA) and ECP (by flouroimmunoassay) were done. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of IL-8 were significantly higher in asthmatics than in controls. Also, serum levels of it were significantly higher in cases with severe and cases with moderate asthma than in cases with mild asthma. Serum levels of sICAM-1 were significantly higher in asthmatic than in control children, in severe than in moderate, and in both than in mild asthma cases. Levels of ECP were significantly higher in asthmatics than in controls. Also, serum levels of it were related to asthma severity. Furthermore, the three biomarkers showed higher expression in allergic asthmatics versus non- allergies. There were positive correlations of IL-8, sICAM-1, ECP and IgE with each other in asthmatic children that may indicate interaction of these markers in regulation and persistence of inflammatory cascade in asthma through different mechanisms. In conclusion, the present study supports that IL-8 and sICAM may help in predicting prognosis, diagnosis and in monitoring childhood asthma. Moreover, they may indicate the nature of the inflammatory processes with respect to stage and severity. In a view of ECP, it remains a potential biomarker of airway inflammation that is useful in asthma management

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha but not interleukin-1 beta or interleukin-8 concentrations correlate with angiogenic activity of peritoneal fluid from patients with minimal to mild endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J. W.; Calhaz-Jorge, C.; ter Riet, G.; Dunselman, G. A.; de Goeij, A. F.; Struijker-Boudier, H. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the angiogenic activity of peritoneal fluid in women with minimal to mild endometriosis and to investigate the relationship between this activity and the concentration of macrophage-derived angiogenic factors and clinical variables, such as phase of menstrual cycle, type of

  15. INTERLEUKIN-8, TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA, AND LACTOFERRIN IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT HOSTS WITH EXPERIMENTAL AND BRAZILIAN CHILDREN WITH ACQUIRED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS. (R829180)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. INTERLEUKIN-8, TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA, AND LACTOFERRIN IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT HOSTS WITH EXPERIMENTAL AND BRAZILIAN CHILDREN WITH ACQUIRED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS. (R828035)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Vectorial secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8) mediates homeostatic effects on the intestinal epithelium via apically located CXCR1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarlen, van Peter; Rossi, Oriana; Wells, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    CXCL8 is produced by many cell types including epithelial, endothelial, fibroblasts and macrophages in response to TLR recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or inflammatory cytokines and recruits phagocytes from the vasculature to sites of infection via interaction with its

  18. Effect of the use of snuff on the levels of interleukin-1 β and interleukin-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vijayendra; Salam, Sharib Abdus; Moda, Aman; Agarwal, Preeti; Nath, Sonia; Pulikkotil, Shaju Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco in the form of moist snuff placed in the oral cavity is popular in rural India. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the effect of snuff on periodontitis by assessing interleukin (IL)-1 β and IL-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. A total of 60 subjects were selected for this study. 40 subjects presented with periodontitis, which included 20 snuff users (SP) and 20 nonsnuff users (NS). 20 periodontally healthy patients formed the controls (healthy control: HC). The clinical parameters recorded were gingival index (GI), plaque index, calculus index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), recession (RC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). The IL-1 β and IL-8 levels were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Quantikine(®)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), post-hoc Tukey's, Kruskal-Walli's ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison among groups and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. No significant difference was seen in levels of IL-1 β and IL-8 between SP and NS groups (P = 0.16, 0.97). However, both the periodontitis groups (SP and NS) had increased IL-β levels when compared to HC group (P = 0.01, 0.001). The snuff users showed significant increase in GI, BOP, RC, and CAL when compared with NS (P = 0.002, 0.001, 0.012, 0.002) whereas NS group had significant increase in PD (P = 0.003). Within the limitations of this study, use of snuff does not affect the host inflammatory response associated with periodontitis and leads to RC and increased CAL due to local irritant effect.

  19. Arct'Alg release from hydrogel membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Renata H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogel properties make them attractive for a variety of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, primarily in drug delivery system. Synthetic hydrogels have been studied to develop new devices for drugs or cosmetic active agents release. Arct'Alg R is an extract derived from red algae biomass which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and tissue regeneration stimulant properties. This extract was incorporated to poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel membranes obtained by gamma rays crosslinking technique. The ionizing radiation presents the advantage to occur polymerization and sterilization simultaneously in the same process. The aim of this work was the in vitro release kinetic study of Arct'Alg R from hydrogel membranes during 24 hours to verify the possibility of use in cosmetic and dermatological treatments. Results showed that about 50% and 30% of incorporated Arct'Alg R was released from PVP and PVA hydrogel membrane devices respectively. (author)

  20. Environmental releases for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report. The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the entire Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance of the Hanford Site with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public about the impact of Hanford operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1994 from these facilities

  1. Dams release methane even in temperate zoned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarchand, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Wohlen lake (near Bern) is a retaining dam built 90 years ago that has undergone a campaign to measure the quantity of methane released. The campaign lasted 1 year and the result was unexpected: 0.15 g/m 2 *day which one of the highest release rates in temperate zones. This result is all the more stunning since water stays only 2 days in average in the reservoir and that the drowned area is not important. In fact the river Aar that feeds the lake is loaded with organic matter coming from humane activities: agriculture and 3 sewage plants. This organic matter decays in the lake releasing methane. (A.C.)

  2. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1997-01-01

    During the history of SRS, continual improvements in facilities, process, and operations, and changes in the site''s mission have reduced the amount of radioactive liquid releases. In the early years of SRS (1958 to 1965), the amount of tritium discharged to the Savannah River averaged approximately 61,000 curies a year. During the mid-1980''s (1983 to 1988), liquid releases of tritium averaged 27,000 curies a year. By 1996, liquid releases of tritium are projected to be just 3000 curies for the year. This large projected decrease is the result of the planned shut-down of all reactors and the anticipated significant decline in the amount of tritium migrating from the site seepage basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility

  3. Gravitational vacuum and energy release in microworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, V.N.; Nikolaev, Yu.M.; Stanyukovich, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that gravitati.onal interaction can be connected with the processes of energy release in microworld. Suggested is a planckeon model within the frames of which gradual production of the observed substance of the Universe during the whole evolution is explained. Burst processes in nuclei of the Galaxy are explained. It is concluded that the theory of gravitational vacuum creates preconditions for developing the general theory of the field explaining the basic peculiarities of the micro- and macroworld, reveals significant applications in the physics of elementary particles and atomic nucleus. The process of 235 U fission is considered for testing the hypothesis that the coefficient of energy release depends on the nature of the reaction in different processes of energy release in the micro- and macroworld [ru

  4. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 μ Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly 2 S. - We provide direct evidence for the release of silver nanoparticles from exterior paints to the aquatic environment.

  5. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  6. Nanocomposites for controlled release of nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Viviane J.M. da; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V.

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at the development of nano structured materials capable of reducing the rate of release of nitrogen in the soil from an agricultural nitrogen fertilizer. Four different systems of polymer composites were prepared: (1) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, (2) montmorillonite clay/thermoplastic starch and fertilizer, (3) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and also (4) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone. It was confirmed the formation of nano structured materials by elemental analysis (CHN) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetics of nitrogen release was detected by enzymatic colorimetric analysis and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet/visible. The results showed that all materials evaluated were able to reduce the rate of release of nitrogen in the fertilizers. (author)

  7. Quick release latch for reactor scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.L.; Shawver, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and fast-acting means for releasing a control element and allowing it to be inserted rapidly into the core region of a nuclear reactor for scram purposes is described. A latch mechanism grips a coupling head on a nuclear control element to connect the control element to the control drive assembly. The latch mechanism is closed by tensioning a cable or rod with an actuator. The control element is released by de-energizing the actuator, providing fail-safe, rapid release of the control element to effect reactor shutdown. A sensing rod provides indication that the control element is properly positioned in the latch. Two embodiments are illustrated, one involving a collet-type latch mechanism, the other a pliers-type latch mechanism with the actuator located inside the reactor vessel

  8. Quick release latch for reactor scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.L.; Shawver, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and fast-acting means for releasing a control element and allowing it to be inserted rapidly into the core region of a nuclear reactor for scram purposes is described. A latch mechanism grips a coupling head on a nuclear control element to connect the control element to the control drive assembly. The latch mechanism is closed by tensioning a cable or rod with an actuator. The control element is released by de-energizing the actuator, providing fail-safe, rapid release of the control element to effect reactor shutdown. A sensing rod provides indication that the control element is properly positioned in the latch. Two embodiments are illustrated, one involving a collet-type latch mechanism, the other a pliers-type latch mechanism with the actuator located inside the reactor vessel

  9. Release strategies for rehabilitated sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bayha, Keith; Williams, Terrie M.; Davis, Randall W.

    1995-01-01

    According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services’ (USFWS) Response Plan for sea otters (USFWS, in preparation), in the event of an oil spill, the decision to release sea otters from rehabilitation centers following treatment will be linked to the decision on whether to capture sea otters for treatment. Assuming a scenario similar to the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), once the decision to capture sea otters is made, the ultimate goal is to return as many sea otters to the wild as possible, even though the rescue may not be expected to produce results significant at the population level. The decision by the USFWS to proceed with capture, rehabilitation, and release will be made on a case-by-case basis (USFWS, in preparation). Many factors will influence the decision. Perhaps the most important factors in deciding when and where to release sea otters are the location and availability of suitable release sites and verification that the otters are free of diseases that might be transmitted to the wild population.Alternative release strategies for sea otters will be contained in the sea otter response portion of the USFWS’s oil spill contingency plans for Alaska and California that are being developed as required by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Public review of these plans before they are implemented will help to reduce public concern about the survival of rehabilitated otters, their biological effect on the release area, and the potential introduction or spread of disease into the wild sea otter population.The objective of this chapter is to review alternative strategies for the disposition of rehabilitated sea otters. Our assumption is that returning as many animals to the wild as possible, whether it be for humanitarian or biological reasons, is the ultimate goal of this effort (Figure 10.1).

  10. TURVA-2012: Formulation of radionuclide release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, Nuria; Hjerpe, Thomas; Snellman, Margit; Ikonen, Ari; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This paper gives a summary of the scenarios and the methodology followed in formulating them as described in TURVA-2012: Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios (Posiva, 2013). The scenarios are further analysed in TURVA-2012: Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment (Posiva, 2012a, 2012b). The formulation of scenarios takes into account the safety functions of the main barriers of the repository system and the uncertainties in the features, events, and processes (FEP) that may affect the entire disposal system (i.e. repository system plus the surface environment) from the emplacement of the first canister until the far future. In the report TURVA-2012: Performance Assessment (2012d), the performance of the engineered and natural barriers has been assessed against the loads expected during the evolution of the repository system and the site. Uncertainties have been identified and these are taken into account in the formulation of radionuclide release scenarios. The uncertainties in the FEP and evolution of the surface environment are taken into account in formulating the surface environment scenarios used ultimately in estimating radiation exposure. Formulating radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system links the reports Performance Assessment and Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System. The formulation of radionuclide release scenarios for the surface environment brings together biosphere description and the surface environment FEP and is the link to the assessment of the surface environment scenarios summarised in TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment. (authors)

  11. Treatment-Continuity of ADHD Compared Using Immediate-Release and Extended-Release MPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of methylphenidate (MPH therapy for ADHD in young Medicaid beneficiaries (ages 6 to 17 years treated with immediate-release (IR or extended-release (ER MPH formulations was compared in an analysis of statewide California Medicaid claims (2000-2003 conducted at Columbia University, New York; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA.

  12. Stimulatory effects of neuronally released norepinephrine on renin release in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yasuo; Kawazoe, Shinka; Ichihara, Toshio; Shinyama, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Masaaki; Morimoto, Shiro (Osaka Univ. of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan))

    1988-10-01

    Extracellular high potassium inhibits renin release in vitro by increasing calcium concentrations in the juxtaglomerular cells. The authors found that the decreased response of renin release from rat kidney cortical slices in high potassium solution changed to a strikingly increased one in the presence of nifedipine at doses over 10{sup {minus}6} M. They then examined the stimulatory effect of extracellular high potassium in the presence of nifedipine on renin release. The enhancement of release was significantly suppressed either by propranolol or by metoprolol but not by prazosin. High potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release was markedly attenuated by renal denervation. The enhancing effect was not observed when the slices were incubated in calcium-free medium. Divalent cations such as Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} blocked this enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. High potassium elicited an increase in {sup 3}H efflux from the slices preloaded with ({sup 3}H)-norepinephrine. The increasing effect was not influenced by nifedipine but was abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium or by the addition of divalent cations. These observations suggest to us that the high potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release from the slices is mediated by norepinephrine derived from renal sympathetic nerves and that this neuronally released norepinephrine stimulates renin release via activation of {beta}-adrenoceptors.

  13. Silver release from coated particle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.E.; Nabielek, H.

    1977-03-01

    The fission product Ag-110 m released from coated particles can be the dominant source of radioactivity from the core of a high temperature reactor in the early stages of the reactor life and possibly limits the accessability of primary circuit components. It can be shown that silver is retained in oxide fuel by a diffusion process (but not in carbide or carbon-diluted fuel) and that silver is released through all types of pyrocarbon layers. The retention in TRISO particles is variable and seems to be mainly connected with operating temperature and silicon carbide quality. (orig.) [de

  14. Limitation of releases and filtration by sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schektman, N.

    1986-01-01

    In the highly hypothetic case of a severe reactor accident, it may lead to an increase of pressure within the containment and up to a value above the calculated pressure. A procedure is necessary in this case to maintain the integrity of the containment to prevent a release of radioactive products to the environment, while controlling in the best way releases. So, EDF and the CEA have developed a device of decompression-filtration of the containment atmosphere, using a free penetration of the containment and a sand box; the device and its operation constitute the U5 procedure [fr

  15. Sulphur release from alternative fuel firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The cement industry has long been dependent on the use of fossil fuels, although a recent trend in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels has arisen. 1, 2 However, when unconverted or partly converted alternative fuels are admitted directly in the rotary kiln inlet, the volatiles released...... from the fuels may react with sulphates present in the hot meal to form SO 2 . Here Maria del Mar Cortada Mut and associates describe pilot and industrial scale experiments focusing on the factors that affect SO 2 release in the cement kiln inlet....

  16. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  17. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1984-03-13

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  18. Mechanisms of renin release from juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Salomonsson, Max; Sellerup Persson, Anja

    1991-01-01

    In microdissected, nonperfused afferent arterioles changes in intravascular pressure did not affect renin secretion. On the contrary, renin release from isolated afferent arterioles perfused in a free-flow system has been reported to be sensitive to simultaneous changes in luminal pressure and fl....... Hence local blood flow may be involved in the baroreceptor control of renin release. If flow is sensed, the sensor is likely to be located near the endothelial cell layer, where ion channels have been shown to be influenced by variations in shear stress....

  19. Fluorescence imaging of glutamate release in neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ziqiang; Yeung, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    A noninvasive detection scheme based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymatic assay combined with microscopy was developed to measure the glutamate release in cultured cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The enzyme reaction is very specific and sensitive. The detection limit with charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging is down to μM levels of glutamate with reasonable response time (∼30 s). The standard glutamate test shows a linear response over 3 orders of magnitude, from μM to 0.1 mM range. The in vitro monitoring of glutamate release from cultured neuron cells demonstrated excellent spatial and temporal resolution. (c) 1999 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  20. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  1. Release of powdered material from waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Gruendler, D.; Peiffer, F.; Seehars, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Possible incidents in the operational phase of the planned German repository KONRAD for radioactive waste with negligible heat production were investigated to assess the radiological consequences. For these investigations release fractions of the radioactive materials are required. This paper deals with the determination of the release of powdered material from waste packages under mechanical stress. These determinations were based on experiments. The experimental procedure and the process parameters chosen in accordance with the conditions in the planned repository will be described. The significance of the experimental results is discussed with respect to incidents in the planned repository. 8 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Analysis of an LPG accidental release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demichela, M.; Piccinini, N.; Poggio, A.

    2004-03-01

    An industrial LPG storage accident due to the release of propane from a tanker is described in this paper and the sequence of events that led to the collapse of a storage tank is examined using simulation software. A model taking both released flows into account as a radiant thermal contribution in the presence of flames is presented. The progression of the accident is assessed through digitalization and processing of the film of the fireball produced by about 500 L of LPG, whose diameter was calculated as approximately 50 m. (author)

  3. Biological processes influencing contaminant release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reible, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of biological processes, including bioturbation, on the mobility of contaminants in freshwater sediments is described. Effective mass coefficients are estimated for tubificid oligochaetes as a function of worm behavior and biomass density. The mass transfer coefficients were observed to be inversely proportional to water oxygen content and proportional to the square root of biomass density. The sediment reworking and contaminant release are contrasted with those of freshwater amphipods. The implications of these and other biological processes for contaminant release and i n-situ remediation of soils and sediments are summarized. 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes

  5. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...

  6. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Li, Wengang; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate

  7. Work Release In A Rural State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, John L.; Pasewark, Richard A.

    1977-01-01

    Work release in a rural state has functioned successfully for two years with a halfway-house-type model. Initial results suggest there is greater success in units isolated from the prison and participation should be restricted to persons having six months or less to serve on prison terms. (Author)

  8. Studies on renin release in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O

    1989-01-01

    1) Measurements of renin secretion from single arterioles at time intervals down to 20 seconds showed that the renin secretion is episodic, the amount of renin released during each episode corresponding to the estimated content of one secretory granule. 2) A decrease in osmolality elicits episodi...

  9. Transcriptome of extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Royo

    Full Text Available The discovery that the cells communicate through emission of vesicles has opened new opportunities for better understanding of physiological and pathological mechanisms. This discovery also provides a novel source for non-invasive disease biomarker research. Our group has previously reported that hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles with protein content reflecting the cell-type of origin. Here, we show that the extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes also carry RNA. We report the messenger RNA composition of extracellular vesicles released in two non-tumoral hepatic models: primary culture of rat hepatocytes and a progenitor cell line obtained from a mouse foetal liver. We describe different subpopulations of extracellular vesicles with different densities and protein and RNA content. We also show that the RNA cargo of extracellular vesicles released by primary hepatocytes can be transferred to rat liver stellate-like cells and promote their activation. Finally, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that liver-damaging drugs galactosamine, acetaminophen, and diclofenac modify the RNA content of these vesicles. To summarize, we show that the extracellular vesicles secreted by hepatocytes contain various RNAs. These vesicles, likely to be involved in the activation of stellate cells, might become a new source for non-invasive identification of the liver toxicity markers.

  10. Nanoformulation and antibiotic releasing property of cefotaxime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to design nano-antibiotic to enhance their release from biomaterial agents. Cefotaxime was used as a model antibiotic substance in this carrier system. These nanoparticles were preformulated using different concentrations of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly (vinyl alcohol) as coating material ...

  11. MCNP Version 6.2 Release Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, C. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKinney, Gregg Walter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martz, Roger Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cox, Lawrence James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zukaitis, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, J. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forster, Robert Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Casswell, Laura [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-05

    Monte Carlo N-Particle or MCNP® is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. This MCNP Version 6.2 follows the MCNP6.1.1 beta version and has been released in order to provide the radiation transport community with the latest feature developments and bug fixes for MCNP. Since the last release of MCNP major work has been conducted to improve the code base, add features, and provide tools to facilitate ease of use of MCNP version 6.2 as well as the analysis of results. These release notes serve as a general guide for the new/improved physics, source, data, tallies, unstructured mesh, code enhancements and tools. For more detailed information on each of the topics, please refer to the appropriate references or the user manual which can be found at http://mcnp.lanl.gov. This release of MCNP version 6.2 contains 39 new features in addition to 172 bug fixes and code enhancements. There are still some 33 known issues the user should familiarize themselves with (see Appendix).

  12. DETERMINATION OF METAL IONS RELEASED BY STAINLESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amounts of cobalt, iron, manganese, nickel and chromium ions released from new and reused stainless steel arch bar used for maxillomandibular fixation was determined in Hank's solutions of different hydrogen and chloride ions concentrations, whole blood serum and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in vitro, over a ...

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Sustained Release Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tablet formulations showed a percent drug release ranging from 92.54 ± 1.02 to 98.56 ± 1.26 % at the end of 12 h. Using the spinal injury rat model, ... very common and significant problem. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ... animal studies, its mechanism of action involves depressing polysynaptic reflexes ...

  14. Controlled drug release from bifunctionalized mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wujun; Gao, Qiang; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan; Shen, Wanling; Deng, Feng

    2008-10-01

    Serial of trimethylsilyl-carboxyl bifunctionalized SBA-15 (TMS/COOH/SBA-15) have been studied as carriers for controlled release of drug famotidine (Famo). To load Famo with large capacity, SBA-15 with high content of carboxyl groups was successfully synthesized by one-pot synthesis under the assistance of KCl. The mesostructure of carboxyl functionalized SBA-15 (COOH/SBA-15) could still be kept even though the content of carboxyl groups was up to 57.2%. Increasing carboxyl content could effectively enhance the loading capacity of Famo. Compared with pure SBA-15, into which Famo could be hardly adsorbed, the largest drug loading capacity of COOH/SBA-15 could achieve 396.9 mg/g. The release of Famo from mesoporous silica was studied in simulated intestine fluid (SIF, pH=7.4). For COOH/SBA-15, the release rate of Famo decreased with narrowing pore size. After grafting TMS groups on the surface of COOH/SBA-15 with hexamethyldisilazane, the release of Famo was greatly delayed with the increasing content of TMS groups.

  15. Impact of Industrial Releases on Inshas Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Messiry, A.M.; Aly, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two Egyptian research reactors are located within the nuclear research center at Inshas area, 30 km north east of Cairo. This area are crowded by different industrial plants. The releases from them has a hazardous and economical effects on the research center workers and the surrounding inhabitancy. In the present work we study these effects. A meteorological regional specific data is considered all over the year, including a wind rose characterization. The study considered both normal operating conditions and an accidental releases. The results shows that there are a considerable risk due to normal releases in some areas downwind direction of the major releases, and a highly risk in areas subjected to major exposure. Regional maps of emission distribution, economical damage , pollutant concentration are obtained. The study helps to identify solutions to problems of atmospheric protection. It can be used as a decision support for the environmental, economic, and innovation planning at the national levels taking into consideration the national pollution standards and variety of existing emission sources

  16. Shock compression and quasielastic release in tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.N.; Hixson, R.S.; Tonks, D.L.; Gray, G.T. III

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies of quasielastic release in shock-loaded FCC metals have shown a strong influence of the defect state on the leading edge, or first observable arrival, of the release wave. This is due to the large density of pinned dislocation segments behind the shock front, their relatively large pinning separation, and a very short response time as determined by the drag coefficient in the shock-compressed state. This effect is entirely equivalent to problems associated with elastic moduli determination using ultrasonic methods. This is particularly true for FCC metals, which have an especially low Peierls stress, or inherent lattice resistance, that has little influence in pinning dislocation segments and inhibiting anelastic deformation. BCC metals, on the other hand, have a large Peierls stress that essentially holds dislocation segments in place at low net applied shear stresses and thus allows fully elastic deformation to occur in the complete absence of anelastic behavior. Shock-compression and release experiments have been performed on tantalum (BCC), with the observation that the leading release disturbance is indeed elastic. This conclusion is established by examination of experimental VISAR records taken at the tantalum/sapphire (window) interface in a symmetric-impact experiment which subjects the sample to a peak longitudinal stress of approximately 7.3 GPa, in comparison with characteristic code calculations. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  17. Development of the Pintle Release Fork Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.; DALE, R.

    1999-01-01

    An improved method of attachment of the pintle to the piston in the universal sampler is being developed. The mechanism utilizes a forked release disk which captures two balls in a cavity formed by a hole in the piston and a groove in the pintle rod

  18. Tool Releases Optical Elements From Spring Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Threaded hooks retract bracket arms holding element. Tool uses three hooks with threaded shanks mounted in ring-shaped holder to pull on tabs to release optical element. One person can easily insert or remove optical element (such as prism or lens) from spring holder or bracket with minimal risk of damage.

  19. Modelling biocide release based on coating properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, S.J.F.; Baukh, V.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of micro-organisms on coated substrates is a common problem, since it reduces the performance of materials, in terms of durability as well as aesthetics. In order to prevent microbial growth biocides are frequently added to coatings. Unfortunately, early release of these biocides reduces the

  20. Amphiphilic copolymers for fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    of the coatings [9,10,11]. This work shows the effect of an amphiphilic copolymer that induces hydrophilicity on the surface of the silicone-based fouling release coatings. The behaviour of these copolymers within the coating upon immersion and the interaction of these surface-active additives with other...

  1. Bioadhesive Controlled Release Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablets | Bhat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study indicates the possible use of suitable mixtures of natural and semi-synthetic cellulosic polymers for the preparation of clotrimazole mucoadhesive tablets for application as a vaginal controlled delivery system. Keywords: Clotrimazole, Swelling, Cellulosic polymers, Guar gum, Bioadhesion, Release ...

  2. Iodine release from sodium pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Yokota, N.; Akagane, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine release associated with sodium pool combustion was determined by heating 20 gr sodium containing sodium iodide, which was labelled with 131 I and dissolved in the sodium in concentration of 1∼1,000 ppm, to burn on a nickel crucible in conditioned atmosphere in a closed vessel of 0.4 m 3 . Oxygen concentration was changed in 5∼21% and humidity in 0∼89% by mixing nitrogen gas and air. Combustion products were trapped by a Maypack filter composed of particle filters, copper screens and activated charcoal beds and by a glass beads pack cooled by liquid argon. Iodine collected on these filter elements was determined by radio-gas chromatography. When the sodium sample burned in the atmosphere of air at room temperature, the release fractions observed were 6∼33% for sodium and 1∼20% for iodine added in the sodium. The release iodine was present in aerosol at a ratio of 98%, and the remainder in the gas form. The release fraction of iodine trended to decrease as oxygen concentration and humidity in the atmosphere increased. No organic iodide was detected in the combustion products. (author)

  3. Outcome of open carpal tunnel release surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Ali, H.; Muhammad, G.; Gul, N.; Zardan, K.K.; Mushtaq, M.; Ali, S.; Bhatti, S.N.; Ali, K.; Rashid, B.; Saboor, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carpel tunnel syndrome is a common compression neuropathy of the median nerve causing pain, numbness and functional dysfunction of the hand. Among the available treatments, surgical release of the nerve is the most effective and acceptable treatment option. The aim of this study was to see the outcomes of surgical release of carpel tunnel using open technique. Method: This descriptive case series was conducted at the Department of neurosurgery, Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from April 2013 to March 2014. One hundred consecutive patients with carpel tunnel syndrome were included who underwent open carpel tunnel release surgery. They were followed up at 1, 3 and 6 months. Residual pain, numbness and functional improvement of the hand were the main outcome measures. Results: Out of 100 patients, 19 were males. The age ranged from 32 to 50 years with a mean of 39.29±3.99 years. The duration of symptoms was from 5 to 24 months. In the entire series patient functional outcome and satisfaction was 82 percentage at 1 month, 94 percentage at 3 months and 97 percentage at 6 months. 18 percentage patient had residual pain at 1 month post-operative follow-up, 6percentage at 3 months and 3 percentage at 6 month follow-up. Conclusion: Open carpel tunnel release surgery is an effective procedure for compression neuropathy of the median nerve. It should be offered to all patients with moderate to severe pain and functional disability related to carpel tunnel syndrome. (author)

  4. Release of dissolved 85Kr by standing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Norikatsu; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Tsukui, Kohei

    1986-01-01

    The experiments on the release of dissolved 85 Kr by standing at room temperature were carried out to examine the influence of liquid level in a sampler and properties of solvent on the release efficiency. Six kinds of organic solvents as well as water were taken as solvents. The half-life period in case of the decrease in concentration of the dissolved 85 Kr which was used as an index of release efficiency, was proportional to the liquid level in the sampler and was inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient of Kr gas in solvent. For organic solvents belonging to homologous series, the half-life period became longer with increasing the carbon number of solvent molecule. From the relationship between the half-life period and the carbon number, the release efficiency in the dissolved 85 Kr can be predicted for any commonly used solvent as a practical application. This method was found to be an effective means of removing the dissolved 85 Kr of low level though it takes rather long time. (author)

  5. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  6. Features of the extended-release metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T O Yalochkina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи Ali S, Fonseca V. Overview of metformin: special focus on metformin extended release. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012 Aug;13(12:1797-805.

  7. Physical and Release Properties of Metronidazole Suppositories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    80, sodium salicylate and methylcellulose as adjuvants. The setting time, solidification point and melting range of the suppositories were determined, along with their crushing strength, disintegration time and the time for 80% of metronidazole to be released from the suppositories (t80). Results: The ranking of setting time for ...

  8. Gaia Data Release 1. Catalogue validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenou, F.; Luri, X.; Babusiaux, C.; Fabricius, C.; Helmi, A.; Robin, A. C.; Vallenari, A.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Findeisen, K.; Reylé, C.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sordo, R.; Turon, C.; Walton, N. A.; Shih, I.-C.; Antiche, E.; Barache, C.; Barros, M.; Breddels, M.; Carrasco, J. M.; Costigan, G.; Diakité, S.; Eyer, L.; Figueras, F.; Galluccio, L.; Heu, J.; Jordi, C.; Krone-Martins, A.; Lallement, R.; Lambert, S.; Leclerc, N.; Marrese, P. M.; Moitinho, A.; Mor, R.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Sartoretti, P.; Soria, S.; Soubiran, C.; Souchay, J.; Veljanoski, J.; Ziaeepour, H.; Giuffrida, G.; Pancino, E.; Bragaglia, A.

    Context. Before the publication of the Gaia Catalogue, the contents of the first data release have undergone multiple dedicated validation tests. Aims: These tests aim to provide in-depth analysis of the Catalogue content in order to detect anomalies and individual problems in specific objects or in

  9. Hydrogen retention and release from uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, D.F.

    1987-08-01

    The ceramic samples (UO 2 ) are exposed to high pressure hydrogen gas at a fixed temperature for a time sufficient to achieve equilibrium. After rapid quenching, the hydrogen-saturated sample is transferred to a vacuum-outgassing furnace. The sample is outgassed in a linear temperature ramp and the released hydrogen is detected by an in-situ mass spectrometer. This technique measures the rate of release of hydrogen with a sensitivity level of about 2 ng of hydrogen (as D 2 ) per hour. In this study, experiments were conducted on both polycrystalline and single-crystal UO 2 . Experimental variables included temperature (1000 to 1600 0 C) and infusion pressure (5 to 32 atm D 2 ), and for the polycrystalline specimen, stoichiometry. Dissolution of H 2 in both single-crystal and polycrystalline UO 2 was found to obey Seivert's law. The Sievert's law constant of deuterium in single-crystal UO 2 was determined to be: 3.0 x 10 7 exp(-235 kJ/RT) ppM atomic/√atm and for polycrystalline UO 2 : 5.5 x 10 4 exp(-100 kJ/RT) ppM atomic/√atm. The solubility of hydrogen in hypostoichiometric urania was found to be up to three orders of magnitude greater than in stoichiometric UO 2 depending on the O/U ratios, implying the anion vacancy is the primary solution site in the UO 2 lattice. The release-rate curves for the single crystal and polycrystalline UO 2 specimens exhibited multiple peaks, with most of the deuterium released between 600 and 1200 0 C for the polycrystalline samples, and between 700 and 1800 0 C in the single-crystal specimens. This release of hydrogen from UO 2 could not be adequately modeled as diffusion or diffusion with trapping and resolution. It was determined that release was governed by release from traps in both the polycrystalline and single crystal UO 2 specimens. 40 refs., 72 figs., 6 tabs

  10. 27 CFR 24.159 - Release of collateral security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of collateral... § 24.159 Release of collateral security. Collateral security pledged and deposited will be released only in accordance with the provisions of 31 CFR part 225. The collateral security will not be released...

  11. 32 CFR 635.10 - Release of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Release of information. 635.10 Section 635.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Release of Information § 635.10 Release of information. (a) Release of information from Army...

  12. Preparation of temperature responsive fragrance release membranes by UV curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao; Okuda, Jyunya; Kitami, Toshiaki; Matsubara, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    The authors have studied the preparation and the function of intelligent drug release membranes by UV curing. Temperature responsive fragrance release membranes were prepared by UV curing process and the release functions were investigated as the function of thickness and composition of membrane. Microscopic observations were used to prove the postulated release mechanism

  13. The ALICE Software Release Validation cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzano, D; Krzewicki, M

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important steps of software lifecycle is Quality Assurance: this process comprehends both automatic tests and manual reviews, and all of them must pass successfully before the software is approved for production. Some tests, such as source code static analysis, are executed on a single dedicated service: in High Energy Physics, a full simulation and reconstruction chain on a distributed computing environment, backed with a sample “golden” dataset, is also necessary for the quality sign off. The ALICE experiment uses dedicated and virtualized computing infrastructures for the Release Validation in order not to taint the production environment (i.e. CVMFS and the Grid) with non-validated software and validation jobs: the ALICE Release Validation cluster is a disposable virtual cluster appliance based on CernVM and the Virtual Analysis Facility, capable of deploying on demand, and with a single command, a dedicated virtual HTCondor cluster with an automatically scalable number of virtual workers on any cloud supporting the standard EC2 interface. Input and output data are externally stored on EOS, and a dedicated CVMFS service is used to provide the software to be validated. We will show how the Release Validation Cluster deployment and disposal are completely transparent for the Release Manager, who simply triggers the validation from the ALICE build system's web interface. CernVM 3, based entirely on CVMFS, permits to boot any snapshot of the operating system in time: we will show how this allows us to certify each ALICE software release for an exact CernVM snapshot, addressing the problem of Long Term Data Preservation by ensuring a consistent environment for software execution and data reprocessing in the future. (paper)

  14. Resveratrol immobilization and release in polymeric hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momesso, Roberta Grazzielli Ramos Alves Passarelli

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol (3, 4', 5-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic produced by a wide variety of plants in response to injury and found predominantly in grape skins. This active ingredient has been shown to possess benefits for the health, such as the antioxidant capacity which is related to the prevention of several types of cancer and skin aging. However, the oral bioavailability of resveratrol is poor and makes its topical application interesting. The purpose of this study was to immobilize resveratrol in polymeric hydrogels to obtain a release device for topical use. The polymeric matrices composed of poli(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) and agar or PVP and glycerol irradiated at 20 kGy dose were physical-chemically characterized by gel fraction and swelling tests and its preliminary biocompatibility by in vitro test of cytotoxicity using the technique of neutral red uptake. Due to low solubility of resveratrol in water, the addition of 2% ethanol to the matrices was verified. All matrices showed a high crosslinking degree, capacity of swelling and the preliminary cytotoxicity test showed nontoxicity effect. The devices were obtained by resveratrol immobilization in polymeric matrices, carried out in a one-or-two-steps process, that is, before or after irradiation, respectively. The one step resveratrol devices were characterized by gel fraction, swelling tests and preliminary biocompatibility, and their properties were maintained even after the resveratrol incorporation. The devices containing 0,05% of resveratrol obtained by one-step process and 0,1% of resveratrol obtained by two-steps process were submitted to the release test during 24 h. Resveratrol quantification was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results obtained in the kinetics of release showed that only the devices obtained by two-step process release the resveratrol, which demonstrate antioxidant capacity after the release. (author)

  15. The Dark Energy Survey First Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I will announce and highlight the main components of the first public data release (DR1) coming from the Dark Energy Survey (DES).In January 2016, the DES survey made available, in a simple unofficial release to the astronomical community, the first set of products. This data was taken and studied during the DES Science Verification period consisting on roughly 250 sq. degrees and 25 million objects at a mean depth of i=23.7 that led to over 80 publications from DES scientist.The DR1 release is the first official release from the main survey and it consists on the observations taken during the first 3 seasons from August 2013 to February 2016 (about 100 nights each season) of the survey which cover the entire DES footprint. All of the Single Epoch Images and the Year 3 Coadded images distributed in 10223 tiles are available for download in this release. The catalogs provide astrometry, photometry and basic classification for near 400M objects in roughly 5000 sq. degrees on the southern hemisphere with a approximate mean depth of i=23.3. Complementary footprint, masking and depth information is also available. All of the software used during the generation of these products are open sourced and have been made available through the Github DES Organization. Images, data and other sub products have been possible through the international and collaborative effort of all 25 institutions involved in DES and are available for exploration and download through the interfaces provided by a partnership between NCSA, NOAO and LIneA.

  16. Officially released mutant varieties in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Van Zanten, L.; Shu, Q.Y.; Maluszynski, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of mutation techniques for crop improvement in China has a long and well-established tradition of more than 50 years. As the result of intensive research in many institutes dealing with application of nuclear technologies more than 620 cultivars of 44 crop species have been released. Numerous mutant varieties have been grown on a large scale bringing significant economic impact, sustaining crop production and greatly contributing to increase of food production also in stress prone areas of the country. However, there is still missing information not only on the number of mutant varieties released in particular crop species but also on mutagens applied, selection approaches and on the use of mutants in cross breeding. Numerous Chinese scientists collected and systematized this information. Results of their work were often published in local scientific journals in the Chinese language and as such were unavailable to breeders from other countries. Having this in mind, we requested Dr. Liu Luxiang, the Director of the Department of Plant Mutation Breeding and Genetics, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing to help us in finding as much information as possible on mutant varieties officially released in China. The data has been collected in close collaboration with his colleagues from various institutions all over the country and then evaluated, edited and prepared for publication by our team responsible for the FAO/IAEA Database of Officially Released Mutant Varieties. We would like to thank all Chinese colleagues who contributed to this list of Chinese mutant varieties. We hope that this publication will stimulate plant breeders in China to collect more information on released mutant varieties and especially on the use of mutated genes in cross breeding. (author)

  17. Relative Release-to-Birth Indicators for Investigating TRISO Fuel Fission Gas Release Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Jason M.; Hawari, Ayman I.

    2008-01-01

    TRISO microsphere fuel is the fundamental fuel unit for Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). A single TRISO particle consists of an inner kernel of uranium dioxide or uranium oxycarbide surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. If the silicon carbide layer fails, fission products, especially the noble fission gases Kr and Xe, will begin to escape the failed particle. The release of fission gas is usually quantified by measuring the ratio of the released activity (R) to the original birth activity (B), which is designated as the R/B ratio. In this work, relative Release-to-Birth indicators (I) are proposed as a technique for interpreting the results of TRISO irradiation experiments. By implementing a relative metric, it is possible to reduce the sensitivity of the indicators to instrumental uncertainties and variations in experimental conditions. As an example, relative R/B indicators are applied to the interpretation of representative data from the Advanced Gas Reactor-1 TRISO fuel experiment that is currently taking place at the Advanced Test Reactor of Idaho National Laboratory. It is shown that the comparison of measured to predicted relative R/B indicators (I) gives insight into the physics of release and helps validate release models. Different trends displayed by the indicators are related to the mechanisms of fission gas release such as diffusion and recoil. The current analysis shows evidence for separate diffusion coefficients for Kr and Xe and supports the need to account for recoil release. (authors)

  18. Study on large release frequency of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Song Wei; Li Chaojun; Fu Zhiwei; Wang Zhe; Zuo Jiaxu; Tong Jiejuan

    2014-01-01

    There are several definitions of large release frequency of nuclear power plant. This paper reviews the meanings of large release and requirement of large release frequency provided by IAEA, NRC and WENRA, analyses the relationship between the meanings of large release, compares the calculations of several large release frequencies, It is different frequency that the definition of LRF is not same. Last we discuss the difference between large release frequency and large early release frequency and explore the suitable definitions of LRF for nuclear power plants in China. (authors)

  19. Analysis of in-pile tritium release experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopasz, J.P.; Tam, S.W.; Johnson, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize tritium release behavior from lithium ceramics and develop insight into the underlying tritium release mechanisms. Analysis of tritium release data from recent laboratory experiments with lithium aluminate has identified physical processes which were previously unaccounted for in tritium release models. A new model that incorporates the recent data and provides for release from multiple sites rather than only one site was developed. Calculations of tritium release using this model are in excellent agreement with the tritium release behavior reported for the MOZART experiment

  20. ARSENITE ACTIVATES KB-DEPENDENT IL-8 GENE EXPRESSION IN AIRWAY EPITHELIM IN THE ABSENCE OF NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATION OF NF-KB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airway epithelial cells respond to certain environmental stresses by mounting a proinflammatory response, which is characterized by enhanced synthesis and release of the neutrophil chemotactic and activating factor interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 expression is regulated at the transcr...

  1. The release of fission products from uranium metal: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minshall, P.C.

    1989-03-01

    The literature on the release of fission products as gaseous species from irradiated uranium metal in oxidising atmospheres has been reviewed. Release of actinides and of fission products as spalled particulate were not considered. Data is given on the release in air, carbon dioxide, steam and mixtures of steam and air. The majority of data discussed lie between 800 and 1200 0 C though some results for xenon, krypton and iodine releases below 800 0 C are given. Two measures of fission product release are discussed: the release fraction, F(tot), which is the ratio of the total release to the initial inventory, and the fractional release, F(ox), which is the fraction released from the oxidised metal. The effect of burn-up, atmosphere and temperature on F(tot) and F(ox) is examined and the conditions under which the release fraction, F(tot) is proportional to the extent of oxidation discussed. (author)

  2. Gas release from pressurized closed pores in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.; Donnelly, S.E.; Armour, D.G.; Matzke, H.

    1988-01-01

    Gas release from the nuclear fuels UO 2 and UN out of pressurized closed pores produced by autoclave anneals has been studied by Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS). Investigation of gas release during heating and cooling has indicated stress related mechanical effects leading to gas release. This release occurred in a narrow temperature range between about 1000 and 1500 K for UO 2 , but it continued down to ambient temperature for UN. No burst release was observed above 1500 K for UO 2 . (orig.)

  3. Breeding blanket development. Tritium release from breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2006-01-01

    Engineering data on neutron irradiation performance of tritium breeders are needed to design the breeding blanket of fusion reactor. In this study, tritium release experiments of the breeders were carried out to examine the effects of various parameters (such as sweep gas flow rate, hydrogen content in sweep gas, irradiation temperature and thermal neutron flux) on tritium generation and release behavior. Lithium titanate (Li 2 TiO 3 ) is considered as a candidate tritium breeder in the blanket design of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). As for the shape of the breeder material, a small spherical form is preferred to reduce the thermal stress induced in the breeder. Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles of about 170g in total weight and with 0.3 and 2 mm in diameter were manufactured by a wet process, and an assembly packed with the binary Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles was irradiated in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The tritium was generated in the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed and released from the pebble bed, and was swept downstream using the sweep gas for on-line analysis of tritium content. Concentration of total tritium and gaseous tritium (HT or T 2 gas) released from the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed were measured by ionization chambers, and the ratio of (gaseous tritium)/(total tritium) was evaluated. The sweep gas flow rate was changed from 100 to 900cm 3 /min, and hydrogen content in the sweep gas was changed from 100 to 10000 ppm. Furthermore, thermal neutron flux was changed using a window made of hafnium (Hf) neutron absorber. The irradiation temperature at an outer region of the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed was held between 200 and 400degC. The main results of this experiment are summarized as follows. 1) When the temperature at the outside edge of the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed exceeded 100degC, the tritium release from the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed started. The ratio of the tritium release rate and the tritium generation rate (normalized tritium release rate: R/G) reached

  4. Determination of accident related release data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Nolte, O.; Lange, F.; Martens, R.

    2004-01-01

    For accident safety analyses, for the assessment of potential radiological consequences, for the review of current requirements of the Transport Regulations and for their possible further development as well as for the demonstration that radioactive materials such as LDM candidate material fulfil the regulatory requirements reliable release data following mechanical impact are required. This is definitely one of the demanding issues in the field of transport safety of radioactive materials. In this context special attention has to be paid to radioactive wastes immobilised in brittle materials, e.g. cement/concrete, glass, ceramics or other brittle materials such as fresh and spent fuel. In this presentation we report on a long-term experimental program aiming at improving the general physical understanding of the release process as well as the quantity and the quality of release data. By combining laboratory experiments using small scale test specimens with a few key scaling experiments with large scale test objects significant progress was achieved to meet this objective. The laboratory equipment enables the in-situ determination of the amount and aerodynamic size distribution of the airborne particles generated upon impact of the test specimen on a hard target. Impact energies cover the range experienced in transport accidents including aircraft accidents. The well defined experimental boundary conditions and the good reproducibility of the experimental procedure allowed for systematic studies to exactly measure the amount and aerodynamic size distribution of the airborne release and to quantify its dependence on relevant parameters such as energy input, material properties, and specimen geometry. The experimental program was performed within the scope of various national and international (e.g. EU-funded) projects. The small scale experiments with brittle materials revealed a pronounced universality of the airborne release in view of the material properties and

  5. Epinephrine in the heart: uptake and release, but no facilitation of norepinephrine release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Th.W. Lameris (Thomas); P.A. de Zeeuw (Sandra); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); W. Tietge; G. Alberts; F. Boomsma (Frans); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that epinephrine augments the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals through stimulation of presynaptic receptors, but evidence pertaining to this mechanism in the heart is scarce and conflicting. Using

  6. Altered Elementary Calcium Release Events and Enhanced Calcium Release by Thymol in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Szentesi, Péter; Szappanos, Henrietta; Szegedi, Csaba; Gönczi, Monika; Jona, István; Cseri, Julianna; Kovács, László; Csernoch, László

    2004-01-01

    The effects of thymol on steps of excitation-contraction coupling were studied on fast-twitch muscles of rodents. Thymol was found to increase the depolarization-induced release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which could not be attributed to a decreased calcium-dependent inactivation of calcium release channels/ryanodine receptors or altered intramembrane charge movement, but rather to a more efficient coupling of depolarization to channel opening. Thymol increased ryanodine bind...

  7. On the sequence of core-melt accidents: Fission product release, source terms and Chernobyl release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, H

    1986-01-01

    There is a sketch of our ideas on the course of a core melt-out accident in a PWR. There is then a survey of the most important results on fission product release, which were obtained by experiments on the SASCHA melt-out plant. The 3rd part considers questions which are important for determining source terms for the environment and the last part contains some considerations on radioactivity release from the Chernobyl reactor.

  8. Release kinetics of tocopherol and quercetin from binary antioxidant controlled-release packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Lee, Dong Sun; Zhu, Xuntao; Yam, Kit L

    2012-04-04

    This paper investigated the feasibility of manipulating packaging polymers with various degrees of hydrophobicity to release two antioxidants, tocopherol and quercetin, at rates suitable for long-term inhibition of lipid oxidation in food. For example, one antioxidant can be released at a fast rate to provide short-term/intermediate protection, whereas the other antioxidant can be released at a slower rate to provide intermediate/long-term protection of lipid oxidation. Controlled-release packaging films containing tocopherol and quercetin were produced using ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP) polymers; the release of these antioxidants to 95% ethanol (a fatty food simulant) was measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry, and Fickian diffusion models with appropriate initial and boundary conditions were used to fit the data. For films containing only quercetin, the results show that the release of quercetin was much faster but lasted for a much shorter time for hydrophilic polymers (EVOH and EVA) than for hydrophobic polymers (LDPE and PP). For binary antioxidant films containing tocopherol and quercetin, the results show that tocopherol released more rapidly but for a shorter period of time than quercetin in LDPE and EVOH films, and the difference is more pronounced for LDPE films than EVOH films. The results also show the presence of tocopherol can accelerate the release of quercetin. Although none of the films produced is acceptable for long-term lipid oxidation inhibition, the study provides encouraging results suggesting that acceptable films may be produced in the future using polymer blend films.

  9. Fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets by fluoride-releasing composite containing nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mary A S; Morais, Weslanny A; Passos, Vanara F; Lima, Juliana P M; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2014-05-01

    Fluoride-containing materials have been suggested to control enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets during the treatment with fixed appliances. The improvement of their properties has been made through innovations, such as the application of nanotechnology by incorporation of nanofillers. This in vitro study evaluated the capacity of fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization inhibition of fluoride-releasing nanofilled cement around orthodontic brackets using an artificial caries biofilm model. Forty bovine enamel discs were selected by evaluating surface microhardness and randomized into four groups (n = 10): non-fluoride-releasing microfilled composite, fluoride-releasing microfilled composite, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI), and fluoride-releasing nanofilled composite (FN). After brackets bonding in each disc, the specimens were subjected to a cariogenic challenge through a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. After the experimental period, the biofilm formed around the brackets was collected for fluoride analysis and the mineral loss around the brackets was determined by integrated demineralization via cross-sectional microhardness measurement at 20 and 70 μm from the bracket margin. Additionally, samples of each group were subjected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis examined under a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ANOVA followed by Tukey test were applied for fluoride concentration and mineral loss data, respectively. At both distances, only RMGI statistically differed from the other groups presenting the lowest demineralization, although there was a trend to a lower demineralization of enamel around brackets in FN group. Similar condition was found to fluoride concentration and EDX/SEM analysis. Under the cariogenic exposure condition of this study, the fluoride-releasing nanofilled material had similar performance to fluoride-releasing microfilled materials. The presence of nanofillers in the fluoride-releasing

  10. Iliopsoas Tendon Reformation after Psoas Tendon Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.

  11. Work plan: transient release from LMFBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.; Fontana, M.H.

    1975-09-01

    The proposed LMFBR Transient Release Program at ORNL is designed to investigate, by means of ex-reactor experiments and analytical modeling, the release and transport of fuel, fission products, and transuranic elements from fast reactor cores in the event of certain hypothetical accidents. It is desired to experimentally produce energy depositions that are characteristic of severe hypothetical reactor transients by the application of direct electrical current to mixed-oxide fuels under sodium. The experimental program includes tests with and without sodium, investigations of alternative methods of generating fuel and sodium aerosols, the use of UO 2 as a fuel simulant, additions of tracers as fission product simulants, effects of radiation, and under-water and under-sodium efforts to study the behavior of the vapor bubble itself. Analytical modeling will accompany all phases of the program, and the data will be correlated with models developed. 21 references. (auth)

  12. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, 'Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge'). The purpose of this technical

  13. Manual of dose evaluation from atmospheric releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Abrol, V [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-07-01

    The problem of dose evaluation from atmospheric releases is reduced to simple arithmetic by giving tables of concentrations and time integrated concentrations for instantaneous plumes and long time (1 year), sector averaged plumes for distances upto 10 km, effective release heights of upto 200 m and the six Pasquill stability classes. Correction factors for decay, depletion due to deposition and rainout are also given. Inhalation doses, immersion doses and contamination levels can be obtained from these by using multiplicative factors tabulated for various isotopes of significance. Tables of external gamma doses from plume are given separately for various gamma energies. Tables are also given to evaluate external beta and gamma dose rates from contaminated surfaces. The manual also discusses the basic diffusion model relevant to the problem. (author)

  14. Release of volatile mercury from vascular plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.; Puerner, N. J.; Speitel, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Volatile, organic solvent soluble mercury has been found in leaves and seeds of several angiosperms. Leaves of garlic vine, avocado, and haole-koa release mercury in volatile form rapidly at room temperature. In garlic vine, the most active release is temperature dependent, but does not parallel the vapor-pressure temperature relationship for mercury. Mercury can be trapped in nitric-perchloric acid digestion fluid, or n-hexane, but is lost from the hexane unless the acid mixture is present. Seeds of haole-koa also contain extractable mercury but volatility declines in the series n-hexane (90%), methanol (50%), water (10%). This suggests that reduced volatility may accompany solvolysis in the more polar media.

  15. EPICS application source/release control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieman, B.; Anderson, J.; Kraimer, M.

    1995-01-01

    This manual describes a set of Application Source/Release Control tools (appSR) that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. The Application Source/Release Control System (appSR) has been unbundled from base EPICS and is now available as an EPICS extension. Due to this unbundling, two new directories must be added to a user's path (see section ''Environment'' on page 3 for more information) and a new command getapp must be issued after the getrel command to get a specific version of appSR (see section ''Creating The Initial Application System Area'' on page 7 for more information). It is now required that GNU make version 3.71 or later be used for makes instead of SUN make. Users should now type gmake instead of make

  16. Tritium release reduction and radiolysis gas formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batifol, G.; Douche, Ch.; Sejournant, Ch. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    At CEA Valduc, the usual tritiated waste container is the steel drum. It allows good release reduction performance for middle activity waste but in some cases tritium outgassing from the waste drums is too high. It was decided to over-package each drum in a tighter container called the over-drum. According to good safety practices it was also decided to measure gas composition evolution into the over-drum in order to defect hydrogen formation over time. After a few months, a significant release reduction was observed. Additionally there followed contamination reduction in the roof storage building rainwater. However hydrogen was also observed in some over-drums, in addition to other radiolysis products. Catalyst will be added to manage the hydrogen risk in the over-drums. (authors)

  17. PWR-GALE, Radioactive Gaseous Release and Liquid Release from PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The PWR-GALE (Boiling Water Reactor Gaseous and Liquid Effluents) Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the release of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field tests, laboratory tests, and plant-specific design considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment. 2 - Method of solution: GALE calculates expected releases based on 1) standardized coolant activities derived from ANS Standards 18.1 Working Group recommendations, 2) release and transport mechanisms that result in the appearance of radioactive material in liquid and gaseous waste streams, 3) plant-specific design features used to reduce the quantities of radioactive materials ultimately released to the environs, and 4) information received on the operation of nuclear power plants. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The liquid release portion of GALE uses subroutines taken from the ORIGEN (CCC-217) to calculate radionuclide buildup and decay during collection, processing, and storage of liquid radwaste. Memory requirements for this part of the program are determined by the large nuclear data base accessed by these subroutines

  18. Ultrasound enhanced release of therapeutics from drug-releasing implants based on titania nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2013-02-25

    A non-invasive and external stimulus-driven local drug delivery system (DDS) based on titania nanotube (TNT) arrays loaded with drug encapsulated polymeric micelles as drug carriers and ultrasound generator is described. Ultrasound waves (USW) generated by a pulsating sonication probe (Sonotrode) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.2 as the medium for transmitting pressure waves, were used to release drug-loaded nano-carriers from the TNT arrays. It was demonstrated that a very rapid release in pulsatile mode can be achieved, controlled by several parameters on the ultrasonic generator. This includes pulse length, time, amplitude and power intensity. By optimization of these parameters, an immediate drug-micelles release of 100% that spans a desirable time of 5-50 min was achieved. It was shown that stimulated release can be generated and reproduced at any time throughout the TNT-Ti implant life, suggesting considerable potential of this approach as a feasible and tunable ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system in situ via drug-releasing implants. It is expected that this concept can be translated from an in vitro to in vivo regime for therapeutic applications using drug-releasing implants in orthopedic and coronary stents. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlled release system for ametryn using polymer microspheres: Preparation, characterization and release kinetics in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Renato; Pereira, Anderson do Espirito Santo; Ferreira Silva de Melo, Nathalie; Porto, Raquel Martins; Feitosa, Leandro Oliveira; Tonello, Paulo Sergio; Dias Filho, Newton L.; Rosa, Andre Henrique; Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a modified release system for the herbicide ametryn by encapsulating the active substance in biodegradable polymer microparticles produced using the polymers poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) or poly(hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV), in order to both improve the herbicidal action and reduce environmental toxicity. PHB or PHBV microparticles containing ametryn were prepared and the efficiencies of herbicide association and loading were evaluated, presenting similar values of approximately 40%. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the average sizes of the PHB and PHBV microparticles were 5.92 ± 0.74 μm and 5.63 ± 0.68 μm, respectively. The ametryn release profile was modified when it was encapsulated in the microparticles, with slower and more sustained release compared to the release profile of pure ametryn. When ametryn was associated with the PHB and PHBV microparticles, the amount of herbicide released in the same period of time was significantly reduced, declining to 75% and 87%, respectively. For both types of microparticle (PHB and PHBV) the release of ametryn was by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport (governed by diffusion and relaxation of the polymer chains), which did not follow Fick's laws of diffusion. The results presented in this paper are promising, in view of the successful encapsulation of ametryn in PHB or PHBV polymer microparticles, and indications that this system may help reduce the impacts caused by the herbicide, making it an environmentally safer alternative.

  20. Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability

  1. GENIE Production Release 2.10.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Physics; Andreopoulos, C. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Athar, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Physics; Bodek, A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Christy, E. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Coopersmith, B. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dennis, S. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept .of Physics; Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Gallagher, H. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Geary, N. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Golan, T. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hatcher, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hoshina, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics. Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center; Liu, J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mahn, K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Marshall, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Morrison, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Nirkko, M. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland). Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics. Lab. for High Energy Physics (LHEP); Nowak, J. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Perdue, G. N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yarba, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-12-25

    GENIE is a neutrino Monte Carlo event generator that simulates the primary interaction of a neutrino with a nuclear target, along with the subsequent propagation of the reaction products through the nuclear medium. It additionally contains libraries for fully-featured detector geometries and for managing various types of neutrino flux. This note details recent updates to GENIE, in particular, changes introduced into the newest production release, version 2.10.0.

  2. Minimum Release of Tributyltin to Prevent Macrofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    Thain, J.E., M.J. Waldock, and M.E. Wait, Toxicity and degradation studies of Tributyltin ( TBT ) and Dibutyltin (DBT) in the aquatic environment, in...MATERIALS AND METHODS The test system used was designed to pump a known volume of a tributyltin ( TBT ) solution of known concentration through a porous...ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) nimum Release of Tributyltin to Prevent Macrofoulinq 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  3. Environmental consequences of releases from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1990-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of a four-year Nordic cooperation program in the area of consequence assessment of nuclear accidents with large releases to the environment. This program was completed in 1989. Related information from other research programs has also been described, so that many chapters of the report reflect the current status in the respective areas, in addition to containing the results of the Nordic program. (author) 179 refs

  4. Herwig++ 2.5 release note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieseke, S.; Roehr, C.A.; Siodmok, A.

    2011-02-01

    A new release of the Monte Carlo program Herwig++ (version 2.5) is now available. This version comes with a number of improvements including: new next-to-leading order matrix elements, including weak boson pair production; a colour reconnection model; diffractive processes; additional models of physics beyond the Standard Model; new leading-order matrix elements for hadron-hadron and lepton-lepton collisions as well as photon-initiated processes. (orig.)

  5. Herwig++ 2.5 release note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieseke, S.; Roehr, C.A.; Siodmok, A. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2011-02-15

    A new release of the Monte Carlo program Herwig++ (version 2.5) is now available. This version comes with a number of improvements including: new next-to-leading order matrix elements, including weak boson pair production; a colour reconnection model; diffractive processes; additional models of physics beyond the Standard Model; new leading-order matrix elements for hadron-hadron and lepton-lepton collisions as well as photon-initiated processes. (orig.)

  6. Offsite doses from SRP radioactive releases - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marter, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    This memorandum summarizes the offsite doses from releases of radioactive materials to the environment from SRP operations in 1985. These doses were calculated for inclusion in the environmental report for 1985 to be issued by the Health Protection Department (DPSPU-86-30-1). The environmental report is prepared annually for distribution to state environmental agencies, the news media, and interested members of the public. More detailed data on offsite exposures by radionuclide and exposure pathway will be included in the environmental report

  7. TOXRISK, Toxic Gas Release Accident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.E.; Chanin, D.I.; Shiver, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: TOXRISK is an interactive program developed to aid in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room habitability in the event of a nearby toxic material release. The program uses a model which is consistent with the approach described in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.78. Release of the gas is treated as an initial puff followed by a continuous plume. The relative proportions of these as well as the plume release rate are supplied by the user. Transport of the gas is modeled as a Gaussian distribution and occurs through the action of a constant velocity, constant direction wind. Great flexibility is afforded the user in specifying the release description, meteorological conditions, relative geometry of the accident and plant, and the plant ventilation system characteristics. Two types of simulation can be performed: multiple case (parametric) studies and probabilistic analyses. Upon execution, TOXRISK presents a menu, and the user chooses between the Data Base Manager, the Multiple Case program, and the Probabilistic Study Program. The Data Base Manager provides a convenient means of storing, retrieving, and modifying blocks of data required by the analysis programs. The Multiple Case program calculates resultant gas concentrations inside the control room and presents a summary of information that describes the event for each set of conditions given. Optimally, a time history profile of inside and outside concentrations can also be produced. The Probabilistic Study program provides a means for estimating the annual probability of operator incapacitation due to toxic gas accidents on surrounding transportation routes and storage sites. 2 - Method of solution: Dispersion or diffusion of the gas during transport is described by modified Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficients

  8. GENIE Production Release 2.10.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Athar, M.; Hatcher, R.; Hoshina, K.; Nowak, J.; Yarba, J.

    2015-01-01

    GENIE is a neutrino Monte Carlo event generator that simulates the primary interaction of a neutrino with a nuclear target, along with the subsequent propagation of the reaction products through the nuclear medium. It additionally contains libraries for fully-featured detector geometries and for managing various types of neutrino flux. This note details recent updates to GENIE, in particular, changes introduced into the newest production release, version 2.10.0.

  9. Fission gas release behaviour in MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, U.K.; Anantharaman, S.; Sahoo, K.C.

    2002-01-01

    As a part of plutonium recycling programme MOX (U,Pu)O 2 fuels will be used in Indian boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR). Based on successful test irradiation of MOX fuel in CIRUS reactor, 10 MOX fuel assemblies have been loaded in the BWR of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS). Some of these MOX fuel assemblies have successfully completed the initial target average burnup of ∼16,000 MWD/T. Enhancing the burnup target of the MOX fuels and increasing loading of MOX fuels in TAPS core will depend on the feedback information generated from the measurement of released fission gases. Fission gas release behaviour has been studied in the experimental MOX fuel elements (UO 2 - 4% PuO 2 ) irradiated in pressurised water loop (PWL) of CIRUS. Eight (8) MOX fuel elements irradiated to an average burnup of ∼16,000 MWD/T have been examined. Some of these fuel elements contained controlled porosity pellets and chamfered pellets. This paper presents the design details of the experimental set up for studying fission gas release behaviour including measurement of gas pressure, void volume and gas composition. The experimental data generated is compared with the prediction of fuel performance modeling codes of PROFESS and GAPCON THERMAL-3. (author)

  10. The diabetic frozen shoulder: arthroscopic release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie-Harris, D J; Myerthall, S

    1997-02-01

    Seventeen patients who were diabetics developed frozen shoulders which failed to respond to conservative management. They had persistent pain, stiffness, and limited function. An arthroscopic release was performed by progressively releasing the anterior structures from superior to inferior. Starting from the interval area we progressed to the anterior superior glenohumeral ligament, the intra-articular portion of the subscapularis, the anterior capsule, and the inferior capsule. Postoperatively physiotherapy was carried out daily to maintain the range of movement. At a follow up of 1 to 5 years the patients were assessed using the American Shoulder Society scheme. In addition the patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively on four criteria; pain, external rotation, abduction, and function. We found that the patients were statistically significantly improved in all four categories. Thirteen of the 17 patients had no pain, full range of motion compared with the opposite side, and full function. There was one poor result with no improvement. The remaining three patients had improved but still had residual abnormalities. We consider arthroscopic release to be an effective treatment for the resistant diabetic frozen shoulder.

  11. POLYURETHANE COMPOSITES AS DRUG CARRIERS:: RELEASE PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Grigoreva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polyurethanes attract interest of those developing composite materials for biomedical applications. One of their features is their ability to serve as carriers, or matrixes, for medicines and other bioactive compounds to produce a therapeutic effect in body through targeted and/or prolonged delivery of these compounds in the process of their controlled release from matrix. The review presents polyurethane composites as matrices for a number of drugs. The relation between structure of the composites and their degradability both in vitro and in vivo and the dependence of drug release kinetics on physicochemical properties of polyurethane matrix are highlighted. The release of drugs (cefazolin, naltrexone and piroxicam from the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes (synthesized from laprols, Mw between 1,500 and 2,000 Da and toluylene diisocyanate demonstrated more or less the same pattern (about 10 days in vitro and three to five days in vivo. In contrast, the composites with dioxydine based on a linear polyurethanes (synthesized from oligotetramethilene glycol, Mw 1,000 Da, diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol retained their antimicrobial activity at least 30 days. They also showed a significantly higher breaking strength as compared to that of the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes.

  12. Nuclear refugees after large radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascucci-Cahen, Ludivine; Groell, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    However improbable, large radioactive releases from a nuclear power plant would entail major consequences for the surrounding population. In Fukushima, 80,000 people had to evacuate the most contaminated areas around the NPP for a prolonged period of time. These people have been called “nuclear refugees”. The paper first argues that the number of nuclear refugees is a better measure of the severity of radiological consequences than the number of fatalities, although the latter is widely used to assess other catastrophic events such as earthquakes or tsunami. It is a valuable partial indicator in the context of comprehensive studies of overall consequences. Section 2 makes a clear distinction between long-term relocation and emergency evacuation and proposes a method to estimate the number of refugees. Section 3 examines the distribution of nuclear refugees with respect to weather and release site. The distribution is asymmetric and fat-tailed: unfavorable weather can lead to the contamination of large areas of land; large cities have in turn a higher probability of being contaminated. - Highlights: • Number of refugees is a good indicator of the severity of radiological consequences. • It is a better measure of the long-term consequences than the number of fatalities. • A representative meteorological sample should be sufficiently large. • The number of refugees highly depends on the release site in a country like France.

  13. Surgical Treatment of Trigger Finger: Open Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, open A1 pulley release results were evaluated in patients with a trigger finger diagnosis. 45 patients (29 females, 16 males, mean age 50.7 ± 11.9; range (24-79, 45 trigger fingers were released via open surgical technique. On the 25 of 45 cases were involved in the right hand and 16 of them were at the thumb, 2 at index, 6 at the middle and 1 at ring finger. Similarly, at the left hand, 15 of 20 cases were at the thumb, 1 at the index finger, 2 at middle finger and 2 at ring finger. Average follow-up time was 10.2 ± 2.7 (range, 6-15 months. Comorbidities in patients were; diabetes mellitus at 6 cases (13.3%, hypertension at 11 cases (24.4%, hyperthyroidism at 2 cases (4.4%, dyslipidemia at 2 cases (4.4% and lastly 2 cases had carpal tunnel syndrome operation. The mean time between the onset of symptoms to surgery was 6.9 ± 4.8 (range, 2-24 months. Patient satisfaction was very good in 34 cases (75.4% and good in 11 (24.6% patients. The distance between the pulpa of the operated finger and the palm was normal in every case postoperatively. We have not encountered any postoperative complications. We can recommend that; A1 pulley release via open incision is an effective and reliable method in trigger finger surgery.

  14. Meltable magnetic biocomposites for controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, R., E-mail: robert.mueller@ipht-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), P.O.B. 100239, Jena, D-07702 Germany (Germany); Zhou, M. [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, Jena, D-07743 Germany (Germany); Dellith, A. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), P.O.B. 100239, Jena, D-07702 Germany (Germany); Liebert, T.; Heinze, T. [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, Jena, D-07743 Germany (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    New biocompatible composites with adjustable melting point in the range of 30–140 °C, consisting of magnetite nanoparticles embedded into a matrix of meltable dextran fatty acid ester are presented which can be softened under an induced alternating magnetic field (AMF). The chosen thermoplastic magnetic composites have a melting range close to human body temperature and can be easily shaped into disk or coating film under melting. The composite disks were loaded with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model protein. Controlled release of the protein was realized with high frequent alternating magnetic field of 20 kA/m at 400 kHz. These results showed that under an AMF the release of GFP from magnetic composite was accelerated compared to the control sample without exposure to AMF. Furthermore a texturing of particles in the polymer matrix by a static magnetic field was investigated. - Highlights: • Thermoplastic biocomposite are prepared from dextran ester and magnetite particles. • The composite can be heated by an AC magnetic field above the melting temperature. • In molten state texturing of particles is possible and improves the heating ability. • The biopolymer could be used as a remote controlled matrix for protein release.

  15. Timing crisis information release via television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  16. Controlled release of biofunctional substances by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1978-01-01

    The release behaviour of a drug from flat circular capsules obtained by radiation-induced polymerization at low temperatures and with different hydrophilic properties has been studied. The effect of various factors on release property was investigated. The release process could be divided into three parts, an initial quick release stage, stationary state release stage and a retarded release stage. Release behaviour in the stationary state was examined using Noyes-Whitney and Higuchi equations. It was shown that the hydrophilic property of polymer matrix expressed by water content was the most important effect on diffusion and release rate. Rigidity of the polymer may also affect diffusivity. The first quick release step could be attributed to rapid dissolution of drug in the matrix surface due to polymer swelling. (author)

  17. Release-ability of nano fillers from different nanomaterials (toward the acceptability of nanoproduct)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golanski, L.; Guiot, A.; Pras, M.; Malarde, M.; Tardif, F.

    2012-01-01

    It is of great interest to set up a reproducible and sensitive method able to qualify nanomaterials before their market introduction in terms of their constitutive nanoparticle release-ability in usage. Abrasion was performed on polycarbonate, epoxy, and PA11 polymers containing carbone nanotubes (CNT) up to 4 %wt. Using Taber linear standard tool and standard abrasion conditions no release from polymer coatings containing CNT was measured. In this study, new practical tools inducing non-standardized stresses able to compete with van der Waals forces were developed and tested on model polymers, showing controlled CNT dispersion. These stresses are still realistic, corresponding to scratching, instantaneous mechanical shocks, and abrasion of the surface. They offer an efficient way to quantify if release is possible from nanomaterials under different mechanical stresses and therefore give an idea about the mechanisms that favors it. Release under mechanical shocks and hard abrasion was obtained using these tools but only when nanomaterials present a bad dispersion of CNT within the epoxy matrix. Under the same conditions no release was obtained from the same material presenting a good dispersion. The CNT used in this study showed an external diameter Dext = 12 nm, an internal diameter Din = 5 nm, and a mean length of 1 μm. Release from paints under hard abrasion using a standard rotative Taber tool was obtained from a intentionaly non-optimized paint containing SiO 2 nanoparticles up to 35 %wt. The primary diameter of the SiO 2 was estimated to be around 12 nm. A metallic rake was efficient to remove nanoparticles from a non-woven fabric nanomaterial.

  18. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustained release nimesulide microparticles: evaluation of release modifying property of ethy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Ahmed, M.; Nisar-ur-Rehman; Madni, A.U.; Aamir, M.N.; Murtaza, G.

    2011-01-01

    Microencapsulated controlled-release preparations of nimesulide were formulated. Microparticles were prepared by modified phase separation (non-solvent addition) technique using different ratios of ethylcellulose. The microparticles (M/sub 1/, M/sub 2/, and M/sub 3/) were yellow, free flowing and spherical in shape with the particle size varying from 93.62 +- 14.15 to 104.19 +- 18.15 mu m. The t/sub 60%/of nimesulide release from microparticles was found to be 3 +- 0.6, 5 +- 0.6 and 8 +- 0.8 h for formulations M/sub 1/, M/sub 2/, and M/sub 3/, respectively. FT-IR, XRD, and thermal analysis were done which showed that there is no interaction between the polymer and drug. The mechanism of drug release from nimesulide microparticles was studied by using Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. The value of coefficient of determination (R/sup 2/) for M/sub 1/, M/sub 2/, and M/sub 3/ indicates anomalous and case-II transport release mechanism. The dissolution data of designed system verified its ability to maintain plasma concentration without the need of frequent dosing. The Nimesulide microparticles prolonged drug release for 12 hours or longer. Based on the results of release studies, M/sub 3/ was opted as a suitable microparticulate formulation allowing the controlled release of nimesulide over a prolonged period of time. Moreover, its encapsulation efficiency was also comparable to the other two formulations (M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/). In conclusion, the influence of polymer concentration should be considered during formulation development. (author)

  20. SRTM Data Release for Africa, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This color shaded relief image shows the extent of digital elevation data for Africa recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This release includes data for all of the continent, plus the island of Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. SRTM flew on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000 and used an interferometric radar system to map the topography of Earth's landmass between latitudes 56 degrees south and 60 degrees north. The data were processed into geographic 'tiles,' each of which represents one by one degree of latitude and longitude. A degree of latitude measures 111 kilometers (69 miles) north-south, and a degree of longitude measures 111 kilometers or less east-west, decreasing away from the equator. The data are being released to the public on a continent-by-continent basis. This Africa segment includes 3256 tiles, almost a quarter of the total data set. Previous releases covered North America, South America and Eurasia. Forthcoming releases will include Australia plus an 'Islands' release for those islands not included in the continental releases. Together these data releases constitute the world's first high-resolution, near-global elevation model. The resolution of the publicly released data is three arcseconds (1/1,200 of a degree of latitude and longitude), which is about 90 meters (295 feet). Coverage in the current data release extends from 35 degrees north latitude at the southern edge of the Mediterranean to the very tip of South Africa, encompassing a great diversity of landforms. The northern part of the continent consists of a system of basins and plateaus, with several volcanic uplands whose uplift has been matched by subsidence in the large surrounding basins. Many of these basins have been infilled with sand and gravel, creating the vast Saharan lands. The Atlas Mountains in the northwest were created by convergence of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates. The geography of the central latitudes of

  1. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    Controlled release formulations are applied extensively for the release of active ingredients such as plant protection agents and fertilizers in response to growing concern for ecological problems associated with increased use of plant protection chemicals required for intensive agricultural practices [1]. We synthesized oligomeric mixtures of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid chemically bonded with 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA herbicides (HBA) respectively, and determined their molecular structure and molecular weight dispersion by the size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance spectrometry and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Further we carried out bioassays of herbicidal effectiveness of the HBA herbicides vs. series of dicotyledonous weeds and crop injury tests [2, 3, 4]. Field bioassays were accomplished according to the EPPO standards [5]. Groups of representative weeds (the development stages in the BCCH scale: 10 - 30) were selected as targets. Statistical variabilities were assessed by the Fisher LSD test for plants treated with the studied herbicides in form of HBA oligomers, the reference herbicides in form of dimethyl ammonium salts (DMA), and untreated plants. No statistically significant differences in the crop injuries caused by the HBA vs. the DMA reference formulation were observed. The effectiveness of the HBA herbicides was lower through the initial period (ca. 2 weeks) relative to the DMA salts, but a significant increase in the effectiveness of the HBA systems followed during the remaining fraction of each assay. After 6 weeks all observed efficiencies approached 100%. The death of weeds treated with the HBA herbicides was delayed when compared with the DMA reference herbicides. The delayed uptake observed for the HBA oligomers relative to the DMA salts was due to controlled release phenomena. In case of the DMA salts the total amount of active ingredients was available at the target site. By contrast, the amount of an active

  2. Extended-release naltrexone for pre-release prisoners: A randomized trial of medical mobile treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Vocci, Frank J.; Fitzgerald, Terrence T.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; O'Brien, Charles P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder but is rarely initiated in US prisons or with criminal justice populations. Mobile treatment for chronic diseases have been implemented in a variety of settings. Mobile treatment may provide an opportunity to expand outreach to parolees to surmount barriers to traditional clinic treatment. Methods Male and female prisoners (240) with pre-incarceration histories of opioid use disorder who are within one month of release from prison will be enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. Participants are randomized to one of two study arms: 1) [XR-NTX-OTx] One injection of long-acting naltrexone in prison, followed by 6 monthly injections post-release at a community opioid treatment program; or 2) [XR-NTX+ MMTx] One injection of long-acting naltrexone in prison followed by 6 monthly injections post-release at the patient's place of residence utilizing mobile medical treatment. The primary outcomes are: treatment adherence; opioid use; criminal activity; re-arrest; reincarceration; and HIV risk-behaviors. Results We describe the background and rationale for the study, its aims, hypotheses, and study design. Conclusions The use of long-acting injectable naltrexone may be a promising form of treatment for pre-release prisoners. Finally, as many individuals in the criminal justice system drop out of treatment, this study will assess whether treatment at their place of residence will improve adherence and positively affect treatment outcomes. PMID:28011389

  3. Polymeric nanoparticles containing diazepam: preparation, optimization, characterization, in-vitro drug release and release kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles formulated from biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are being extensively investigated as drug delivery systems due to their two important properties such as biocompatibility and controlled drug release characteristics. The aim of this work to formulated diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles by using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as stabilizing agent. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, and widely used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of various types of epilepsy, insomnia and anxiety. This work investigates the effects of some preparation variables on the size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential study was also performed to understand the surface charge of nanoparticles. The drug release from drug loaded nanoparticles was studied by dialysis bag method and the in vitro drug release data was also studied by various kinetic models. The results show that sonication time, polymer content, surfactant concentration, ratio of organic to aqueous phase volume, and the amount of drug have an important effect on the size of nanoparticles. Hopefully we produced spherical shape Diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a size range under 250 nm with zeta potential -23.3 mV. The in vitro drug release analysis shows sustained release of drug from nanoparticles and follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  4. Post-release monitoring of Antillean manatees: an assessment of the Brazilian rehabilitation and release programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normande, Iran C.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Reid, James P.; Viana Junior, P.C.; Savaget, P. V. S.; Correia, R. A.; Luna, F. O.; R. J. Ladle,

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian reintroduction programmes frequently aim to reconnect isolated sub-populations and restore population viability. However, these long-term objectives are rarely evaluated due to the inadequacy of post-release monitoring. Here, we report the results of a unique long term telemetry-based monitoring programme for rehabilitated Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) reintroduced into selected sites in northeast Brazil with the aim of reconnecting isolated relict populations. Twenty-one satellite-tagged rehabilitated manatees, 13 males and 8 females, were released into the wild from two sites between November 2008 and June 2013. Individual accumulation curves were plotted and home ranges were calculated through the fixed kernel method using 95% of the utilization distribution. The number and size of the Centres of Activity (COAs) were calculated using 50% of the utilization distribution. Manatees displayed a dichotomous pattern of movement, with individuals either characterized by sedentary habits or by much more extensive movements. Moreover, home range size was not significantly influenced by gender, age at release or release site. COAs were strongly associated with sheltered conditions within reefs and estuaries, and also by the presence of freshwater and feeding sites. Our data confirm that manatee reintroductions in Brazil have the potential to reconnect distant sub-populations. However, pre-release identification of potential long-distance migrants is currently unfeasible, and further analysis would be required to confirm genetic mixing of distant sub-populations.

  5. Investigating the in vitro drug release kinetics from controlled release diclofenac potassium-ethocel matrix tablets and the influence of co-excipients on drug release patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shefaat Ullah; Shah, Kifayat Ullah; Rehman, Asimur; Khan, Gul Majid

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the study was to formulate and evaluate controlled release polymeric tablets of Diclofenac Potassium for the release rate, release patterns and the mechanism involved in the release process of the drug. Formulations with different types and grades of Ethyl Cellulose Ether derivatives in several drug-to-polymer ratios (D:P) were compressed into tablets using the direct compression method. In vitro drug release studies were performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) as dissolution medium by using USP Method-1 (Rotating Basket Method). Similarity factor f2 and dissimilarity factor f1 were applied for checking the similarities and dissimilarities of the release profiles of different formulations. For the determination of the release mechanism and drug release kinetics various mathematical/kinetic models were employed. It was found that all of the Ethocel polymers could significantly slow down the drug release rate with Ethocel FP polymers being the most efficient, especially at D:P ratios of 10:03 which lead towards the achievement of zero or near zero order release kinetics.

  6. Statistical sampling method for releasing decontaminated vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively, J.W.; Ware, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Earth moving vehicles (e.g., dump trucks, belly dumps) commonly haul radiologically contaminated materials from a site being remediated to a disposal site. Traditionally, each vehicle must be surveyed before being released. The logistical difficulties of implementing the traditional approach on a large scale demand that an alternative be devised. A statistical method (MIL-STD-105E, open-quotes Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Attributesclose quotes) for assessing product quality from a continuous process was adapted to the vehicle decontamination process. This method produced a sampling scheme that automatically compensates and accommodates fluctuating batch sizes and changing conditions without the need to modify or rectify the sampling scheme in the field. Vehicles are randomly selected (sampled) upon completion of the decontamination process to be surveyed for residual radioactive surface contamination. The frequency of sampling is based on the expected number of vehicles passing through the decontamination process in a given period and the confidence level desired. This process has been successfully used for 1 year at the former uranium mill site in Monticello, Utah (a CERCLA regulated clean-up site). The method forces improvement in the quality of the decontamination process and results in a lower likelihood that vehicles exceeding the surface contamination standards are offered for survey. Implementation of this statistical sampling method on Monticello Projects has resulted in more efficient processing of vehicles through decontamination and radiological release, saved hundreds of hours of processing time, provided a high level of confidence that release limits are met, and improved the radiological cleanliness of vehicles leaving the controlled site

  7. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  8. Pollutant Release and Transfer Register; Emissieregistratie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Since 1974 a number of organisations have been working closely together in this pollutant register (PRTR) project to collect and formally establish the yearly releases of pollutants to air, water and soil in the Netherlands. Results of this project serve to underpin the national environmental policy. Data is in this way also provided for the many environmental reports to international organisations such as the European Union and the United Nations, e.g. the National Inventory Report for the Kyoto Protocol. This website shows the yearly releases (emissions) of the most important pollutants in the Netherlands. You can explore the emission data through various channels, such as maps, graphs and tables. But you can also download all the details into your own database. The data shown in this website is updated 2 to 3 times a year. The current release shows emissions for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005 and 2006 The 2006 emissions are preliminary data and not yet shown in the maps. We expect to add an extra year in August 2008. [Dutch] Sinds 1974 werkt een groot aantal organisaties hecht samen in het project Emissieregistratie. Doel is het jaarlijks verzamelen en vaststellen van de uitstoot van verontreinigende stoffen naar lucht, water en bodem. Het project levert zo de emissiegegevens voor onderbouwing van milieubeleid. Het vormt de basis voor vele rapportages, bijvoorbeeld die in het kader van het Kyoto protocol. Deze website toont de geregionaliseerde uitstoot (emissie) van ruim 300 verontreinigende stoffen in Nederland. U vindt deze emissies op diverse manieren: als kaart, grafiek en tabel maar ook in de vorm van een database voor eigen gebruik. U vindt hier de emissies uit de inventarisatieronde vastgesteld in juli 2007 voor de emissiejaren 1990, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005 en de voorlopige cijfers van 2006. De emissies uit 2006 zijn wel gedetailleerd per bron aanwezig maar u vindt ze nog niet op de kaart gepresenteerd. In augustus 2008 verwachten we de volgende ronde te

  9. Environmental releases for calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-01-01

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (PNNL-11795). The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public concerning the impact of Hanford Site operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (FDH), and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1997. Comprehensive data summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents in 1997 are displayed in Tables ES-1 through ES-5. These tables represent the following: Table ES-1--Radionuclide air emissions data (detailed data on emissions are presented in Section 2.0); Table ES-2--Data on radioactive liquid effluents discharged to the soil (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0); Table ES-3--Radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0); Table ES-4--Nonradioactive air emissions data (detailed data are presented in Section 2.0); Table ES-5--Total Volumes and Flow Rates of 200/600 Area Radioactive Liquid Effluents (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0)

  10. In-vitro Release Study of Carvedilol Phosphate Matrix Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decreased while Starch 1500 and lactose monohydrate increased drug release. Drug release mechanism ... case of antihypertensive agents to maintain constant blood levels ... systems because of their low toxicity, pH- independent swelling ...

  11. 131I release from a HTGR during the LOFC accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, J.E.

    1975-03-01

    The time-dependent release of 131 I from both the core and the containment building of a high temperature gas-cooled (HTGR) reactor during the loss of forced coolant (LOFC) accident is studied. A simplified core release model is combined with a containment building release model so that the total amount of the isotope released to the environment can be calculated. The time-dependent release of 131 I from the core during the LOFC accident is primarily a function of the time-dependent core temperatures and the failed fuel release constants. The most important factor in calculating the amount of the isotope released to the environment is the total amount released into the containment building. (U.S.)

  12. 14 CFR 1274.214 - Inquiries and release of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.214 Inquiries and release of information. NASA personnel shall follow the procedures established in NFS 1805.402 prior to releasing information to the news...

  13. Controlled Release Formulation of Indomethacin Prepared With Bee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... Results: The results show that, although the release rate of formulations F1 - F7 did not show any ... Keywords: Propolis (bee glue), Indomethacin, Controlled release, Zero order kinetics, Waxy materials ... focus of interest.

  14. Herwig++ 2.6 release note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, K.; Gieseke, S.; Roehr, C. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2012-05-15

    A new release of the Monte Carlo event generator Herwig++ (version 2.6) is now available. This version comes with a number of improvements including: a new structure for the implementation of next-to-leading order matrix elements; an improved treatment of wide-angle gluon radiation; new hard-coded next-to-leading order matrix elements for deep inelastic scattering and weak vector boson fusion; additional models of physics beyond the StandardModel, including the production of colour sextet particles; a statistical colour reconnection model; automated energy scaling of underlying-event tunes.

  15. Mass-rearing for sterile insect release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    As the sterile insect technique (SIT) relies upon released sterile male insects efficiently competing with wild males to mate with wild females, it follows that mass-rearing of insects is one of the principal steps in the process. Mass-rearing for the SIT presents both problems and opportunities due to the increased scale involved compared with rearing insects for most other purposes. This chapter discusses facility design, environmental concerns, strain management, quality control, automation, diet, sex separation, marking, and storage in relation to rearing for the SIT. (author)

  16. Dry release of all-polymer structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haefliger, D.; Nordstrøm, M.; Rasmussen, Peter Andreas

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple dry release technique which uses a thin fluorocarbon film for efficient removal of plastic microdevices from a mould or a handling substrate by reducing the adhesion between the two. This fluorocarbon film is deposited on the substrate in an advanced Si dry etch device utilisi...... 100% were demonstrated on wafer-scale. The fluorocarbon film showed excellent compatibility with metal etch processes and polymer baking and curing steps. It further facilitates demoulding of polydimethylsiloxane stamps suitable for soft-lithography....

  17. A tandem queue with delayed server release

    OpenAIRE

    Nawijn, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a tandem queue with two stations. The rst station is an s-server queue with Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. After terminating his service in the rst station, a customer enters the second station to require service at an exponential single server, while in the meantime he is blocking his server in station 1 until he completes service in station 2, whereupon the server in station 1 is released. An analysis of the generating function of the simultaneous probability di...

  18. Histamine release from cord blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent Windelborg; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Herlin, Troels

    1990-01-01

    The histamine release (HR) after challenge with anti-IgE, concanavalin A, N-formyl-met-leu-phe and the calcium ionophore A23187 from 97 cord blood samples was determined by a microfiber-based assay. Maximum HR with anti-IgE showed great inter-individual variation (median: 20.5; range: 1-104 ng...... of less than 0.5 IU/ml, although sensitivity to anti-IgE was universally increased. Preincubation with pharmacologic agents modulating the IgE-mediated HR produced effects generally similar to previous findings in adult blood. However, the effects of inhibiting the cyclooxygenase pathway in cord blood...

  19. Endoluminal release of ureteral ligature after hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic ureteral injury is a well-recognized complication of abdominal total hysterectomy. We report a case of a 57-year-old female who underwent abdominal total hysterectomy for a uterine myoma and experienced severe right flank pain postoperatively. The imaging study displayed an obstruction of the right distal ureter. Under ureteroscopy, an extraluminal ligature was released with a holmium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser. The stenotic segment was immediately relieved. Two months later, the intravenous urogram illustrated patency of the distal ureter with regression of right hydronephrosis. There was no recurrent hydronephrosis during 1 year of follow-up.

  20. Predicting masking release of lateralized speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    . The largest masking release (MR) was observed when all maskers were on the opposite side of the target. The data in the conditions containing only energetic masking and modulation masking could be accounted for using a binaural extension of the speech-based envelope power spectrum model [sEPSM; Jørgensen et...... al., 2013, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130], which uses a short-term equalization-cancellation process to model binaural unmasking. In the conditions where informational masking (IM) was involved, the predicted SRTs were lower than the measured values because the model is blind to confusions experienced...

  1. Efficient reconstruction of contaminant release history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alezander, Francis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anghel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gulbahce, Natali [NON LANL; Tartakovsky, Daniel [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    We present a generalized hybrid Monte Carlo (GHMC) method for fast, statistically optimal reconstruction of release histories of reactive contaminants. The approach is applicable to large-scale, strongly nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties and data corrupted by measurement errors. The use of discrete adjoint equations facilitates numerical implementation of GHMC, without putting any restrictions on the degree of nonlinearity of advection-dispersion-reaction equations that are used to described contaminant transport in the subsurface. To demonstrate the salient features of the proposed algorithm, we identify the spatial extent of a distributed source of contamination from concentration measurements of a reactive solute.

  2. Environmental releases for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.P.; Curn, B.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1993 from facilities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. As part of this executive summary, comprehensive data summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents in 1993 are displayed in tables. These tables represent the following: radionuclide air emissions data; data on radioactive liquid effluents discharged to the soil; radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River; nonradioactive air emissions data; total volumes and flow rates of 200/600 area liquid effluents. Both summary and detailed presentations of these data are given. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made

  3. Bacteria-Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... bacterial lipases are particularly abundant at sites of infection. Herein it is shown how active or proactive compounds attached to polymeric surfaces using lipase‐sensitive linkages, such as fatty acid esters or anhydrides, may be released in response to infection. Proof‐of‐concept of the responsive...

  4. Bacteria‐Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen‐Chi; Tolker‐Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... bacterial lipases are particularly abundant at sites of infection. Herein it is shown how active or proactive compounds attached to polymeric surfaces using lipase‐sensitive linkages, such as fatty acid esters or anhydrides, may be released in response to infection. Proof‐of‐concept of the responsive...

  5. The Goiania accident: release from hospital criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcao, R.C.; Hunt, J.

    1990-01-01

    On the thirteenth of September 1987, a 1357 Ci Cesium source was removed from the 'Instituto de Radiologia de Goiania' - probably two or three days later the source was opened, causing the internal and external contamination of 247 people, and part of the city of Goiania. This paper describes the release from hospital criterion of the contaminated patients, based on radiation protection principles which were developed for this case. The estimate of the biological half-life for cesium is also described. (author) [pt

  6. Herwig++ 2.6 release note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, K.; Gieseke, S.; Roehr, C.

    2012-05-01

    A new release of the Monte Carlo event generator Herwig++ (version 2.6) is now available. This version comes with a number of improvements including: a new structure for the implementation of next-to-leading order matrix elements; an improved treatment of wide-angle gluon radiation; new hard-coded next-to-leading order matrix elements for deep inelastic scattering and weak vector boson fusion; additional models of physics beyond the StandardModel, including the production of colour sextet particles; a statistical colour reconnection model; automated energy scaling of underlying-event tunes.

  7. Effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on rat growth hormone release induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, K; Kato, Y; Ohgo, S; Iwasaki, Y; Maeda, K

    1976-06-01

    The effect of synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the release of growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was investigated in euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid rats under urethane anesthesia. In euthyroid control rats, intravenous injection of TRH (200 ng/100 g BW) resulted in a significant increase in both plasma GH and TSH. In rats made hypothyroid by treatment with propylthiouracil or by thyroidectomy, basal GH and TSH levels were significantly elevated with exaggerated responses to TRH. In contrast, plasma GH and TSH responses to TRH were both significantly inhibited in rats made hyperthyroid by L-thyroxine (T4) treatment. These results suggest that altered thyroid status influences GH release as well as TSH secretion induced by TRH in rats.

  8. Metallic fission product releases from HTR-spherical fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmbold, M.; Amian, W.; Stoever, D.; Hecker, R.

    1978-01-01

    Fission product releases from fuel determines to a large extent the feasibility of a special reactor concept. Basic data describing the diffusion behaviour from coated particle fuel are presented concerning isotopes Cs 137 , Sr 90 and Agsup(110m). Taking into account these data for typical 3000MWth plants release calculations are performed. Sensitive release parameters could be defined and the results show low release figures for all the considered reactor concepts. (author)

  9. Tritium release from lithium ceramics at constant temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrall, R.A.; Miller, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Analytic methods for post-irradiation annealing tests to measure tritium release from lithium ceramics at constant temperature are examined. Modifications to the Bertone (1) relations for distinguishing diffusion-controlled release from desorption-controlled release are shown. The methods are applied to tests on sintered LiA10 2 ; first-order desorption is shown to control tritium release for these tests

  10. Electrochemically controlled release of anticancer drug methotrexate using nanostructured polypyrrole modified with cetylpyridinium: Release kinetics investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Naader; Shamaeli, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    A new simple strategy for direct electrochemical incorporation of chemotherapeutic methotrexate (MTX) into conductive polypyrrole (PPy) has been suggested for an electrochemically controlled loading and release system. Electropolymerization of MTX doped polypyrrole yielded poor quality with low efficiency of doping, but a well-doped, nanostructure and increased capacity of drug loading (24.5 mg g −1 ) has been obtained in the presence of cetylpyridinium (CP) as a modifier. When CP was preloaded onto PPy, the hydrophobic surface of the PPy serves as a backbone to which the hydrophobic chain of the CP can be attached. Electrostatic interaction between cationic CP with anionic MTX and aromatic interaction between pyridinium head of CP with pyrimidine and pyrazine rings of MTX increases drug doping. Then release kinetics were investigated at various applied potentials and temperatures. Kinetics analysis based on Avrami's equation showed that the drug release was controlled and accelerated by increasing temperature and negative potential and sustained by increasing positive potential. At open circuit condition, the release parameter (n) represented a diffusive mechanism and at applying electrochemical potentials, a first-order mode. Activation energy parameters (E a , ΔG ≠ , ΔH ≠ and ΔS ≠ ) and half-life time (t 1/2 ) of drug release are also analyzed as a function of applied potential. The nanostructured polymer films (PPy/CP/MTX) were characterized by several techniques: scanning electron microscopy, Furrier transforms Infrared, UV-vis spectroscopy. Overall, our results demonstrate that the PPy/CP/MTX films, combined with electrical stimulation, permit a programmable release of MTX by altering the interaction strength between the PPy/CP and MTX

  11. Multivesicular release underlies short term synaptic potentiation independent of release probability change in the supraoptic nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Quinlan

    Full Text Available Magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus receive glutamatergic excitatory inputs that regulate the firing activity and hormone release from these neurons. A strong, brief activation of these excitatory inputs induces a lingering barrage of tetrodotoxin-resistant miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs that lasts for tens of minutes. This is known to accompany an immediate increase in large amplitude mEPSCs. However, it remains unknown how long this amplitude increase can last and whether it is simply a byproduct of greater release probability. Using in vitro patch clamp recording on acute rat brain slices, we found that a brief, high frequency stimulation (HFS of afferents induced a potentiation of mEPSC amplitude lasting up to 20 min. This amplitude potentiation did not correlate with changes in mEPSC frequency, suggesting that it does not reflect changes in presynaptic release probability. Nonetheless, neither postsynaptic calcium chelator nor the NMDA receptor antagonist blocked the potentiation. Together with the known calcium dependency of HFS-induced potentiation of mEPSCs, our results imply that mEPSC amplitude increase requires presynaptic calcium. Further analysis showed multimodal distribution of mEPSC amplitude, suggesting that large mEPSCs were due to multivesicular glutamate release, even at late post-HFS when the frequency is no longer elevated. In conclusion, high frequency activation of excitatory synapses induces lasting multivesicular release in the SON, which is independent of changes in release probability. This represents a novel form of synaptic plasticity that may contribute to prolonged excitatory tone necessary for generation of burst firing of magnocellular neurons.

  12. Heat release rate of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. M. Stark; R. H. White; C. M. Clemons

    1997-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites are becoming more important as a material that fulfills recycling needs. In this study, fire performance tests were conducted on several compositions of wood and plastic materials using the Ohio State University rate of heat release apparatus. Test results included five-minute average heat release rate in kW/m2 (HRR avg) and maximum heat release...

  13. Ispaghula Husk-Based Extended Release Tablets of Diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Vels College of Pharmacy, Pallavaram, Chennai, India, 2Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, ... Keywords: Ispaghula husk, Extended release tablet, Diclofenac sodium, Release kinetics. .... release, i.e., Qt vs t, log (Q0-Qt) vs t and Qt vs .... Wallis TE, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, CBS.

  14. Disestablishing Sex: The Case for Released-Time Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2011-01-01

    Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…

  15. Design and evaluation of nicorandil extended-release tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and evaluate extended-release formulations of a model drug, nicorandil, in order to achieve the desired steady-state plasma concentration of drug in vivo. Simulation was employed to estimate optimum dissolution and absorption rate of nicorandil. The dissolution test was employed using pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 buffer solution, or water, to measure the in vitro release behaviors of nicorandil formulations. A single dose (15 mg of each formulation was orally administered to four beagle dogs under fasted conditions, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The in vitro/in vivo relationship of the extended-release formulation was confirmed using in vitro dissolution profiles and plasma concentrations of drug in beagle dogs. Nicorandil was released completely within 30 min from the immediate-release tablets and released for 24 h from the extended-release tablets. The nicorandil plasma concentration could be modified by adjusting the drug release rate from the extended-release formulation. The release rate of nicorandil was the rate-limiting step in the overall absorption of drug from the extended-release formulations. These results highlight the potential of a nicorandil extended-release formulation in the treatment of angina pectoris.

  16. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosjpe, M.; Isaksson, M.; Joensen, H.P.

    - or minor – radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MWth reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the chosen release fractions in the study were: iodine 20% (of the total core inventory), caesium 10%, tellurium 10%, strontium 0...

  17. The Fourteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfathi, Bela; Aguado, D. S.; Aguilar, Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) has been in operation since 2014 July. This paper describes the second data release from this phase, and the 14th from SDSS overall (making this Data Release Fourteen or DR14). This release makes the data taken by SDSS-IV in its firs...

  18. New Open-Source Version of FLORIS Released | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Open-Source Version of FLORIS Released New Open-Source Version of FLORIS Released January 26 , 2018 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers recently released an updated open-source simplified and documented. Because of the living, open-source nature of the newly updated utility, NREL

  19. Sustained Release of a Water-Soluble Drug from Directly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okra gum was evaluated as a controlled-release agent in modified release matrices in comparison with sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) using aspirin as the model drug. Tablets were produced by direct compression and the in vitro drug release was assessed under conditions similar to those in the gastrointestinal ...

  20. Modelling of drug release from ensembles of aspirin microcapsules ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In order to determine the drug release profile of an ensemble of aspirin crystals or microcapsules from its particle distribution a mathematical model that considered the individual release characteristics of the component single particles was developed. The model assumed that under sink conditions the release ...