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Sample records for brachyspira pilosicoli attaches

  1. Brachyspira pilosicoli-induced avian intestinal spirochaetosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline I. Le Roy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon, which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. Consequently, the number of outbreaks of AIS has dramatically increased in the UK resulting in significant economic losses. This review summarises the current knowledge about AIS infection caused by B. pilosicoli and discusses various treatments and prevention strategies to control AIS.

  2. Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

    2006-02-01

    There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified.

  3. Extensive intestinal spirochaetosis in pigs challenged with Brachyspira pilosicoli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette; Møller, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    A field isolate of Brachyspira pilosicoli, the aetiological agent of porcine intestinal spirochaetosis, was inoculated by stomach tube into six 6-week-old pigs. All animals developed loose to watery faeces and were killed successively on days 8,114 or 17 post-inoculation (day 17 being the end...

  4. In vitro antagonistic activities of Lactobacillus spp. against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardeau, Marion; Gueguen, Micheline; Smith, David G E; Corona-Barrera, Enrique; Vernoux, Jean Paul

    2009-07-02

    The sensitivity of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli, respectively the causative agents of Swine Dysentery and Porcine Intestinal Spirochaetosis to two probiotic Lactobacillus strains, L. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and L. farciminis CNCM-I-3699 was studied through viability, motility and coaggregation assays. The cell-free supernatant of these lactobacilli contains lactic acid, that is stressful for Brachyspira (leading to the formation of spherical bodies), and lethal. It was demonstrated for the first time the in vitro coaggregation properties of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains (active or heat-treated) with two pathogenic strains of Brachyspira, leading to (1) trapping of spirochaetal cells in a physical network as demonstrated by SEM; (2) inhibition of the motility of Brachyspira. Such in vitro studies should encourage in vivo studies in animal model to evaluate the potential of the use of probiotic lactobacilli through a feeding strategy for the prevention of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli.

  5. The Exposed Proteomes of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Vanessa; Vadillo, Santiago; San Juan, Carlos; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli are well-known intestinal pathogens in pigs. B. hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a disease with an important impact on pig production while B. pilosicoli is responsible of a milder diarrheal disease in these animals, porcine intestinal spirochetosis. Recent sequencing projects have provided information for the genome of these species facilitating the search of vaccine candidates using reverse vaccinology approaches. However, practically no experimental evidence exists of the actual gene products being expressed and of those proteins exposed on the cell surface or released to the cell media. Using a cell-shaving strategy and a shotgun proteomic approach we carried out a large-scale characterization of the exposed proteins on the bacterial surface in these species as well as of peptides and proteins in the extracellular medium. The study included three strains of B. hyodysenteriae and two strains of B. pilosicoli and involved 148 LC-MS/MS runs on a high resolution Orbitrap instrument. Overall, we provided evidence for more than 29,000 different peptides pointing to 1625 and 1338 different proteins in B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli, respectively. Many of the most abundant proteins detected corresponded to described virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The level of expression of these proteins, however, was different among species and strains, stressing the value of determining actual gene product levels as a complement of genomic-based approaches for vaccine design. PMID:27493641

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010

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    Pringle Märit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. Methods The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Results The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T, showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. Conclusions The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial

  7. Survival of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B-pilosicoli in terrestrial microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Baloda, Suraj; Leser, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The survival of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli was investigated at 10 degreesC in laboratory microcosms consisting of soil, porcine faeces, and in soil mixed with 10% porcine faeces. respectively. By plate spreading, survival of B. hyodysenteriae was found to be 10, 78 and ...

  8. Neither hippurate-negative Brachyspira pilosicoli nor Brachyspira pilosicoli type strain caused diarrhoea in early-weaned pigs by experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossi, M.; Ahlsten, K.; Pohjanvirta, T.

    2005-01-01

    and strain Br1622 was negative. However, in situ detection for members of the genus Leptospira was positive for spirochaete-like bacteria in the colonic epithelium of several pigs in both infected groups as well as in the control group. L. intracellularis, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp. and intestinal...... of spirochaetal diarrhoea were detected; only one pig, inoculated with P43/6/78, had soft faeces from day 9 to 10 post inoculation. The pigs were necropsied between days 7 and 23 after inoculation. Live pigs were culture-negative for Brachyspira spp., but B. pilosicoli(hipp-) was reisolated from necropsy samples...

  9. Influence of diet on the experimental infection of pigs with Brachyspira pilosicoli.

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    Lindecrona, R H; Jensen, T K; Møller, K

    2004-02-28

    The effects of five different diets on the experimental infection of pigs with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira pilosicoli were investigated. The diets tested were a pelleted and a non-pelleted standard diet based on wheat and barley, the standard diet supplemented with 2 per cent lactic acid, a fermented liquid feed and a diet based on cooked rice. Two trials were conducted, each with six groups of six pigs; in each, two of the groups were fed the standard diet. One of these groups and the other four groups were challenged after two weeks on the diets and euthanased four weeks later. The clinical signs of B pilosicoli infection varied from loose stools to watery, mucoid diarrhoea. The group fed the rice diet excreted B pilosicoli in their faeces for a significantly shorter period than the group fed the standard diet (P fermented liquid feed and the diet containing lactic acid had no significant effect on the excretion of B pilosicoli or on the numbers of pigs showing clinical signs of disease.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization of experimental Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli infection in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian; Boye, Mette

    2000-01-01

    Two groups of six 8-week-old pigs were challenged with 1X10(9) cfu Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli or Serpulina intermedia daily for 3 consecutive days to study the pathology of porcine colonic spirochetosis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility test in Brachyspira pilosicoli strains isolated from commercial layers farms in Colombia PRUEBAS DE SENSIBILIDAD FRENTE A AGENTES ANTIMICROBIANOS EN CEPAS DE Brachyspira pilosicoli AISLADAS A PARTIR DE PONEDORAS COMERCIALES EN COLOMBIA

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    Figueroa Ramìrez Judith

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Spirochaetes of the genus Brachyspira cause important diseases in swine and poultry. An increasing problem in the presentation of resistant strains to the antimicrobial drugs usually used to treat the intestinal spirochaetosis in swine has been evidenced and this could be applicable to the isolations from poultry. There are very few reports of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. isolated from birds. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of twelve Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates obtain from commercial layers was evaluated against tiamulin, tylosin and lincomycin establishing the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC by agar dilution technique. All bacteria analyzed were sensitive to tiamulin (MIC ≤0,1μg/ml, and lincomycin (MIC 1μg/ml and resistant to tylosin (MIC 5μg/ml.Las espiroquetas intestinales del género Brachyspira ocasionan enfermedades importantes en porcinos y aves. Se ha evidenciado un problema de incremento en la presentación de cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos utilizados normalmente para tratar las espiroquetosis intestinales en porcinos, y esto podría ser aplicable a los aislamientos de aves. Hay muy pocos reportes de sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Brachyspira spp. Aisladas en aves. En este estudio se evaluó la sensibilidad de doce aislamientos de Brachyspira pilosicoli obtenidos de granjas de ponedoras comerciales a los agentes antimicrobianos tiamulina, tilosina y lincomicina, y se estableció la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI mediante la técnica de dilución en agar. Todas las bacterias analizadas fueron sensibles a tiamulina (CMI ≤0,1 μg/ml y lincomicina (CMI 1 μg/ml y resistentes a tilosina (CMI 5 μg/ml.

  12. Isolation of the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli from long-term residents and Indonesian visitors to Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margawani, K Rini; Robertson, Ian D; Hampson, David J

    2009-02-01

    Brachyspira pilosicoli is an anaerobic spirochaete that colonizes the large intestine of humans and various species of animals and birds. The spirochaete is an important enteric pathogen of pigs and poultry, but its pathogenic potential in humans is less clear. In the current study, the occurrence of B. pilosicoli in faecal samples from 766 individuals in two different population groups in Perth, Western Australia, was investigated by selective anaerobic culture. Of 586 individuals who were long-term residents of Perth, including children, elderly patients in care and in hospital and individuals with gastrointestinal disease, only one was culture positive. This person had a history of diverticulitis. In comparison, faeces from 17 of 180 (9.4 %) Indonesians who were short- or medium-term visitors to Perth were positive for B. pilosicoli. The culture-positive individuals had been in the city for between 10 days and 4.5 years (median 5 months). Resampling of subsets of the Indonesians indicated that all negative people remained negative and that some positive individuals remained positive after 5 months. Two individuals had pairs of isolates recovered after 4 and 5 months that had the same PFGE types, whilst another individual had isolates with two different PFGE types that were identified 2 months apart. Individuals who were culture-positive were likely to have been either colonized in Indonesia before arriving in Perth or infected in Perth following contact with other culture-positive Indonesians with whom they socialized. Colonization with B. pilosicoli was not significantly associated with clinical signs at the time the individuals were tested, although faeces with wet-clay consistency were 1.5 times more likely (confidence interval 0.55-4.6) than normal faeces to contain B. pilosicoli.

  13. PRUEBAS DE SENSIBILIDAD FRENTE A AGENTES ANTIMICROBIANOS EN CEPAS DE Brachyspira pilosicoli AISLADAS A PARTIR DE PONEDORAS COMERCIALES EN COLOMBIA

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    DM Álvarez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las espiroquetas intestinales del género Brachyspira ocasionan enfermedades importantes en porcinos y aves. Se ha evidenciado un problema de incremento en la presentación de cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos utilizados normalmente para tratar las espiroquetosis intestinales en porcinos, y esto podría ser aplicable a los aislamientos de aves. Hay muy pocos reportes de sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Brachyspira spp. aisladas en aves. En este estudio se evaluó la sensibilidad de doce aislamientos de Brachyspira pilosicoli obtenidos de granjas de ponedoras comerciales a los agentes antimicrobianos tiamulina, tilosina y lincomicina, y se estableció la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMImediante la técnica de dilución en agar. Todas las bacterias analizadas fueron sensibles a tiamulina (CMI ≤0,1 μg/ml y lincomicina (CMI 1 μg/ml y resistentes a tilosina (CMI 5 μg/ml.

  14. The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Marie; Kokotovic, Branko; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2011-01-01

    of using specific standard curves, where each pathogen is analysed in the same matrix as sample DNA. The qPCRs were compared to traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods and found to be more sensitive than cultivation for E. coli and B. pilosicoli. The qPCR assay for Lawsonia was also more sensitive......Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from...... the spiking experiments were 102 bacteria/g feces for BpiloqPCR and Laws-qPCR, 103 CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R2 above 0.993. Standard curves, slopes and elevation, varied between assays and between measurements from pure...

  15. Comparison of agar dilution and antibiotic gradient strip test with broth microdilution for susceptibility testing of swine Brachyspira species.

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    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-03-01

    Production-limiting diseases in swine caused by Brachyspira are characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea (B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii") or mild colitis (B. pilosicoli), while B. murdochii is often isolated from healthy pigs. Emergence of novel pathogenic Brachyspira species and strains with reduced susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials has reinforced the need for standardized susceptibility testing. Two methods are currently used for Brachyspira susceptibility testing: agar dilution (AD) and broth microdilution (BMD). However, these tests have primarily been used for B. hyodysenteriae and rarely for B. pilosicoli. Information on the use of commercial susceptibility testing products such as antibiotic gradient strips is lacking. Our main objective was to validate and compare the susceptibility results, measured as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), of 6 antimicrobials for 4 Brachyspira species (B. hyodysenteriae, "B. hampsonii", B. pilosicoli, and B. murdochii) by BMD and AD (tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, tylosin, and carbadox) or antibiotic gradient strip (doxycycline) methods. In general, the results of a high percentage of all 4 Brachyspira species differed by ±1 log2 dilution or less by BMD and AD for tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylosin, and by BMD and antibiotic gradient strip for doxycycline. The carbadox MICs obtained by BMD were 1-5 doubling dilutions different than those obtained by AD. BMD for Brachyspira was quicker to perform with less ambiguous interpretation of results when compared with AD and antibiotic gradient strip methods, and the results confirm the utility of BMD in routine diagnostics.

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

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    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:27252458

  17. First identification of "Brachyspira hampsonii" in wild European waterfowl.

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    Francisco Javier Martínez-Lobo

    Full Text Available Anseriformes deserve special attention in the epidemiology of Brachyspira spp. because diverse Anseriformes species have been described to act as highly efficient carriers of several Brachyspira spp. that can also infect livestock. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and diversity of Brachyspira spp. in waterfowl that winter in Spain. Brachyspira spp. were isolated from 51 of the 205 faecal samples collected from graylag geese and mallards in the Villafáfila Lagoons Nature Reserve (Northwestern Spain. The Brachyspira species identified through phenotyping, PCR and sequencing of the nox gene were B. pilosicoli (5.9%, B. alvinipulli (11.8%, "B. hampsonii" (19.6%, B. murdochii (23.5% and B. innocens (39.2%. The most relevant finding of this study is the description of "B. hampsonii" in specimens from birds for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the nox gene sequences grouped all of the obtained "B. hampsonii" isolates into a cluster with Brachyspira strains previously identified by others as "B. hampsonii" and separated from other Brachyspira spp. isolates and reference strains. Additionally, this cluster was related to clades that grouped B. murdochii and B. innocens isolates. The identification of "B. hampsonii" was also achieved in 8 of the 10 isolates by sequencing the16S rRNA gene and tlyA gene. Regardless of the species identified, no antimicrobial resistance was observed in any of the enteropathogenic isolates recovered. This is the first description of "B. hampsonii" in European waterfowl, which might represent hosts that serve as natural reservoirs of this Brachyspira species. This finding indicates that this spirochete is not limited to North America, and its presence in wild birds in Europe poses a risk of transmission to livestock.

  18. Species characterization and minimum inhibitory concentration patterns of Brachyspira species isolates from swine with clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Kristin A; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Timothy S; Naberhaus, Nadine; Bower, Leslie; Strait, Erin L; Schwartz, Kent

    2011-11-01

    Typhlocolitis and dysentery due to Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection represent an economically important disease syndrome in growing pigs. Largely disappearing from U.S. swine herds in the late 1990 s and early 2000s, Brachyspira-associated disease and bacterial isolation from swine with clinical disease has increased in the last several years, and non-B. hyodysenteriae isolates are commonly identified. Antimicrobial resistance has been demonstrated in Brachyspira spp. isolates from Europe and Asia, and may be the reason for the resurgence in U.S. herds. Seventy-nine clinical isolates identified at the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Lab were tested with multiple polymerase chain reaction assays to establish species identity, and evaluated for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using an agar dilution method against lincomycin, gentamicin, valnemulin, tiamulin, salinomycin, and carbadox. Only 38.0% of isolates could be confirmed as the known pathogens B. hyodysenteriae (30.4%) or Brachyspira pilosicoli (7.6%). Twenty of the 79 isolates (25.3%) were identified as Brachyspira murdochii, and 13.9% could not be identified to species. The MIC values were consistently high against lincomycin and moderately high against gentamicin. The remaining antimicrobials had MICs that were at the low end of the test ranges. Brachyspira murdochii and Brachyspira spp. had significantly greater MIC values against several of these drugs than other Brachyspira spp. examined. The increased incidence of these less definitively characterized Brachyspira species with increased MIC values to commonly prescribed antimicrobials may, at least in part, explain the increased prevalence and severity of this disease complex in recent years. Further research is necessary to understand these changes.

  19. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.; Boer, de R.F.; Roelfsema, J.H.; Friesema, I.H.M.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Kusters, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were no

  20. Influence of diet on the experimental infection of pigs with Brachyspira pilosicoli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, Rikke H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    , 6 fermented liquid feed and a diet based on cooked rice. Two trials were conducted, each with six groups of six pigs; in each, two of the groups were fed the standard diet. One of these groups and the other four groups were challenged after two weeks on the diets and euthanased four weeks later...

  1. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  2. Investigation of the impact of increased dietary insoluble fiber through the feeding of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the incidence and severity of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberts, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Tim S; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R; Madson, Darin M; Patience, John F; Burrough, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including "B. hampsonii" has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or "B. hampsonii") and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the "B. hampsonii" groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery.

  3. Multiresistentie van Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinhof, T.F.; Dierikx, C.M.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Koene, M.G.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Winne, de R.; Beers, van H.

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes the isolation of a multiresistant strain of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in April 2007 in a Dutch sow herd with recurrent diarrhoea. Examination of faecal samples taken from 7-month-old breeding gilts with diarrhoea revealed the presence of resistance against tiamulin, lincom

  4. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and pulsed field gel electrophoresis for subspecies differentiation of Serpulina pilosicoli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette;

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were compared for their ability to differentiate between 50 porcine Serpulina pilosicoli isolates. Both techniques were highly sensitive, dividing the isolates into 36 and 38 groups, respectively. Due...

  5. Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli, pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups 0138, 0139, 0141 and 0149) and Salmonella enterica in Danish...

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from 21 Polish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudzki, J; Szczotka, A; Nowak, A; Strzelecka, H; Grzesiak, A; Pejsak, Z

    2012-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a common disease among pigs worldwide, which contributes to major production losses. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae, the etiological agent of SD, is mainly performed by the agar dilution method. This method has certain limitations due to difficulties in interpretation of results. The aim of this study was the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) Polish field isolates by broth microdilution procedure. The study was performed on 21 isolates of B. hyodysenteriae, collected between January 2006 to December 2010 from cases of swine dysentery. VetMIC Brachyspira panels with antimicrobial agents (tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, tylosin and ampicillin) were used for susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth dilution procedure. The lowest antimicrobial activity was demonstrated for tylosin and lincomycin, with inhibition of bacterial growth using concentrations > 128 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively. In the case of doxycycline, the MIC values were MIC values for this antibiotic did not exceed 1.0 microg/ml. The results of the present study confirmed that Polish B. hyodysenteriae isolates were susceptible to the main antibiotics (tiamulin and valnemulin) used in treatment of swine dysentery. Further studies are necessary to evaluate a possible slow decrease in susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Poland.

  7. The in vitro effect of Garden Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutasi, József; Jakab, László; Jurkovich, Viktor; Rafai, Pál

    2016-12-01

    Filtrates of a water extract of commercially available garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were used for studying its possible bactericidal effect on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, by agar-diffusion technique. Five of the six studied Brachyspira strains have proven to be sensitive and one moderately sensitive in the in vitro tests. It was concluded that water extract of garden thyme possesses inhibitory effects against B. hyodysenteriae. In vivo experiments are needed to check the validity of this conclusion.

  8. The prevalence of Serpulina pilosicoli in humans and domestic animals in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, D J; Combs, B G; Mikosza, A S; Oxberry, S L; Robertson, I D; Passey, M; Taime, J; Sehuko, R; Alpers, M P; Hampson, D J

    1997-12-01

    In a survey of five villages in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, Serpulina pilosicoli was isolated from rectal swabs from 113 of 496 individuals (22.8%). Colonization rates ranged from 22.6-30.1% in four of the villages but was only 8.6% in the other village. In comparison colonization was demonstrated in only 5 of 54 indigenous people (9.3%) and none of 76 non-indigenous people living in an urban environment in the same region. Colonization did not relate to reported occurrence of diarrhoea, age, sex, or length of time resident in a village. A second set of 94 faecal specimens was collected from 1 village 6 weeks after the first set. S. pilosicoli was isolated from 27 of 29 individuals (93.1%) who were positive on the first sampling and from 7 of 65 individuals (10.8%) who previously were negative. In this case, isolates were significantly more common in watery stools than in normal stools. The annual incidence of infection in the village was calculated as 93.6%, with an average duration of infection of 117 days. S. pilosicoli could not be isolated from any village pig (n = 126) despite its confirmed presence in 17 of 50 commercial pigs (34.0%) sampled at a local piggery. Four of 76 village dogs (5.3%) and 1 of 2 village ducks were colonized with S. pilosicoli, suggesting the possibility of cross transmission between humans and animals.

  9. [Multiresistant Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in a Dutch sow herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinhof, T F; Dierikx, C M; Koene, M G J; van Bergen, M A P; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; van Beers-Schreurs, H M G; de Winne, R T J A

    This case study describes the isolation ofa multiresistant strain ofBrachyspira hyodysenteriae in April 2007 in a Dutch sow herd with recurrent diarrhoea. Examination of faecal samples taken from 7-month-old breeding gilts with diarrhoea revealed the presence of resistance against tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin, doxycycline, and tylvalosin (the active substance in Aivlosin) in four of five samples. Tiamulin resistance has not been reported in The Netherlands before. The repeated use of tiamulin on the affected farm was assumed to be the main cause of the development of resistance to the drug. The farmer was advised to adopt a medication strategy and to implement management practices that would prevent an ongoing cycle of infection on the farm. It is important that the Dutch swine industry appreciates that tiamulin-resistant strains of B. hyodysenteriae may be found on other farms as well. The appropriate and prudent use of antibiotics is essential in order to prevent the development of resistance against the last option left to cure B. hyodysenteriae infections: valnemulin.

  10. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée S. Jansson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Method: Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox, and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus, three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum, and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills, and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills. Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species ‘B. pulli’ and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to

  11. Population genetic analysis of Serpulina pilosicoli and its molecular epidemiology in villages in the eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, D J; Mikosza, A S; Combs, B G; Oxberry, S L; Hampson, D J

    1998-07-01

    The population genetics of Serpulina pilosicoli and its molecular epidemiology in villages in the Eastern Highlands province of Papua New Guinea were investigated. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) was used to analyse 164 isolates from humans and animals. These were divided into 33 electrophoretic types (ETs), four of which contained 65% of the isolates. The mean genetic diversity (n = number of ETs) for 145 human isolates was 0.18, and the mean number of alleles at five polymorphic loci was 2.6. The species appeared to be recombinant, as there was a lack of linkage disequilibrium, and 25% of all the possible combinations of alleles was present in the population. PFGE analysis using the enzymes M/ul and Sa/l divided 157 of the isolates into 99 PFGE types, demonstrating the existence of considerable strain diversity in a geographically restricted area. The two techniques were in excellent agreement; however, PFGE was more discriminatory for strain typing than was MLEE. Nine out of 19 (47.4%) culture-positive individuals were colonized by the same PFGE type of S. pilosicoli when retested after 6 weeks. For three individuals, the PFGE profiles of the second isolate differed from the first in only one or two DNA bands, while the other seven individuals were colonized with distinct PFGE types on each occasion. In two cases, strains with the same PFGE pattern were isolated from humans and dogs, suggesting that cross-species transmission of S. pilosicoli may occur naturally and that the infection can be zoonotic.

  12. Specific detection of the genus Serpulina, S-hyodysenteriae and S-pilosicoli in porcine intestines by fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian;

    1998-01-01

    , for the detection of Serpulina isolates at genus level as well as for specific detection of S. hyodysenteriae and S. pilosicoli in formalin-fixed colon tissue sections from pigs suffering from swine dysentery and porcine colonic spirochaetosis, respectively. Tissue sections were also used from pigs without any......A fluorescent-labelled in situ hybridization method targeting rRNA was devised to facilitate specific identification and diagnosis of diarrhoea and colitis in pigs caused by the genus Serpulina, as well as to distinguish the species Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Serpulina pilosicoli in formalin......-fixed colon tissue sections. A genus-specific oligonucleotide probe SER1410 targeting the five species of porcine Serpulina was thus designed. Furthermore, species specific oligonucleotide probes (Hyo1210, Pilosi209 and Pilosi1405) were also designed to detect, identify and differentiate S. hyodysenteriae...

  13. Characterization of the fecal microbiota of pigs before and after inoculation with "Brachyspira hampsonii".

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    Matheus O Costa

    Full Text Available "Brachyspira hampsonii" causes disease indistinguishable from swine dysentery, and the structure of the intestinal microbiome likely plays a role in determining susceptibility of individual pigs to infection and development of clinical disease. The objectives of the current study were to determine if the pre-inoculation fecal microbiota differed between inoculated pigs that did (INOC MH or did not (INOC non-MH develop mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea following challenge with "B. hampsonii", and to quantify changes in the structure of the microbiome following development of clinical disease. Fecal microbiota profiles were generated based on amplification and sequencing of the cpn60 universal target sequence from 89 samples from 18 pigs collected at -8, -5, -3 and 0 days post-inoculation, and at termination. No significant differences in richness, diversity or taxonomic composition distinguished the pre-inoculation microbiomes of INOC MH and INOC non-MH pigs. However, the development of bloody diarrhea in inoculated pigs was associated with perturbation of the microbiota relative to INOC non-MH or sham-inoculated control pigs. Specifically, the fecal microbiota of INOC MH pigs was less dense (fewer total 16S rRNA copies per gram of feces, and had a lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio. Further investigation of the potential long-term effects of Brachyspira disease on intestinal health and performance is warranted.

  14. Effect of soy on faecal dry matter content and excretion of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahofer, Alexander; Overesch, Gudrun; Nathues, Heiko; Zeeh, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a soy diet on the excretion of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in five farms with subclinically infected pigs. The effects on general health, faecal consistency and dry matter were analysed. In total, 200 pigs of different ages (group 1 feed ration was replaced by pure soy on two consecutive days. Faecal scores were used to determine faecal consistency and a microwave method to assess faecal dry matter content (FDMC). In age group 1, soy feeding resulted in a statistically significant decrease of the FDMC of 2.5 per cent compared with group C and in age group 2 in a significant increase of 2.2 per cent compared with group C at day 2. Overall seven (T: 5, C: 2) out of 597 faecal samples tested positive for B hyodysenteriae by PCR. In conclusion, a high soy diet applied over two days influenced the faecal consistency and the FDMC in growers, finishers and sows under field conditions. Further investigations with more sensitive diagnostic methods are needed to prove a potential influence of a high soy diet on the detection rate of B hyodysenteriae in subclinically infected herds. PMID:27239320

  15. Further characterization of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, M; Aspán, A; Landén, A; Franklin, A

    2004-04-01

    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a severe diarrhoeal disease in pigs. Few drugs are available to treat the disease, owing to both antimicrobial resistance and withdrawal of drugs authorized for use in pigs. Tiamulin is the drug of choice in many countries, but isolates with decreased susceptibility have recently been reported. The mechanism of tiamulin resistance in B. hyodysenteriae is not known and this facet is essential to understand the dissemination of the trait. To study the resistance epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae, further characterization of a set of isolates from Germany (n = 16) and the UK (n = 6) with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin was performed. The relatedness between the isolates was studied by comparing PFGE patterns, and the in vitro susceptibility to five other antimicrobials (aivlosin, doxycycline, salinomycin, chloramphenicol and avilamycin) was also determined. For comparison of the antimicrobial-susceptibility pattern, Swedish (n = 20) and British (n = 4) tiamulin-susceptible isolates were tested. The German isolates represented several different PFGE patterns, indicating that tiamulin usage has been sufficient to select clones with decreased tiamulin susceptibility at different farms in Germany. The PFGE pattern for the six British isolates with decreased tiamulin susceptibility was identical to that of the German isolates, and they had a similar antimicrobial-susceptibility pattern, except for resistance to aivlosin, which was only found in a few German isolates. No other co-resistance with tiamulin was found.

  16. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  17. Multilocus sequence typing as a tool for studying the molecular epidemiology and population structure of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Harland, Belinda L; Wanchanthuek, Phatthanaphong; Bellgard, Matthew I; Hampson, David J

    2009-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to study the molecular epidemiology of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the aetiological agent of swine dysentery. Sequences of seven conserved genomic loci were examined in 111 B. hyodysenteriae strains. Fifty-eight of these previously had been analysed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and for some the results of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and/or serotyping also were available. The discriminatory power of these methods was compared. The strains were divided into 67 sequence types (STs) and 46 amino acid types (AATs) by MLST. The Index of Association value was significantly different from zero, indication that the population was clonal. Eleven clonal complexes (Cc) comprising between 2 and 10 STs were recognised. A population snapshot based on AATs placed 77.5% of the isolates from 30 of the AATs into one major cluster. The founder type AAT9 included 13 strains from nine STs that were isolated in Australia, Sweden, Germany and Belgium, including one from a mallard. The MLST results were generally comparable to those produced by MLEE. The MLST system had a similar discriminatory power to PFGE, but was more discriminatory than REA, MLEE or serotyping. MLST data provided evidence for likely transmission of strains between farms, but also for the occurrence of temporal "micro-evolution" of strains on individual farms. Overall, the MLST system proved to be a useful new tool for investigating the molecular epidemiology and diversity of B. hyodysenteriae.

  18. Demonstration of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 in human colonic biopsies with intestinal spirochaetosis by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Teglbjærg, Peter S.; Lindboe, Christian F.;

    2004-01-01

    of these organisms in human intestinal spirochaetosis. Seventeen human colonic biopsies from Norway and Denmark with intestinal spirochaetosis caused by Brachyspira-like organisms different from the type strain of B. aalborgi (lineage 1) were examined. Application of the probe gave a positive signal in two Norwegian...... biopsies, whereas the 15 other biopsies were hybridization-negative. The positive reaction visualized the spirochaetes as a fluorescent, 3-5 mum-high fringe on the surface epithelium, extending into the crypts. The study verified the presence of B. aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 and identified the bacteria...

  19. Dissemination of clonal groups of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae amongst pig farms in Spain, and their relationships to isolates from other countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Osorio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swine dysentery (SD is a widespread diarrhoeal disease of pigs caused by infection of the large intestine with the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Understanding the dynamics of SD, and hence being able to develop more effective measures to counter its spread, depends on the ability to characterise B. hyodysenteriae variants and trace relationships of epidemic strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A collection of 51 Spanish and 1 Portuguese B. hyodysenteriae isolates was examined using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme based on the sequences of seven conserved genomic loci. The isolates were allocated to 10 sequence types (STs in three major groups of descent. Isolates in four of the STs were widely distributed in farms around Spain. One farm was infected with isolates from more than one ST. Sequence data obtained from PubMLST for 111 other B. hyodysenteriae strains from other countries then were included in the analysis. Two of the predominant STs that were found in Spain also were present in other European countries. The 73 STs were arranged in eleven clonal complexes (Cc containing between 2 and 26 isolates. A population snapshot based on amino acid types (AATs placed 75% of the isolates from 32 of the 48 AATs into one major cluster. The founder type AAT9 included 22 isolates from 10 STs that were recovered in Spain, Australia, Sweden, Germany, Belgium, the UK, Canada, and the USA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This MLST scheme provided sufficient resolution power to unambiguously characterise B. hyodysenteriae isolates, and can be recommended as a routine typing tool that rapidly enables comparisons of isolates. Using this method it was shown that some of the main genetic lineages of B. hyodysenteriae in Spain also occurred in other countries, providing further evidence for international transmission. Finally, analysis of AATs appeared useful for deducing putative ancestral relationships between

  20. Sequence types and pleuromutilin susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Italian pigs with swine dysentery: 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugna, G; Bonilauri, P; Carra, E; Bergamini, F; Luppi, A; Gherpelli, Y; Magistrali, C F; Nigrelli, A; Alborali, G L; Martelli, P; La, T; Hampson, D J; Merialdi, G

    2015-01-01

    Swine dysentery is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of pigs caused by infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The disease can be controlled by treatment with antimicrobial agents, with the pleuromutilins tiamulin and valnemulin being widely used. In recent years, the occurrence of B. hyodysenteriae with reduced susceptibility to these drugs has been increasing. The aim of this study was to determine temporal changes in genetic groups and pleuromutilin susceptibility amongst B. hyodysenteriae isolates from Italy. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on 108 isolates recovered from 87 farms in different regions of Italy from 2003 to 2012, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for tiamulin and valnemulin were determined. Logistic regression was performed to assess associations between susceptibility to the two antimicrobial agents and genetic group, year and region of isolation. The isolates were allocated to 23 sequence types (STs), with five clonal clusters (Ccs) and seven singletons. More than 50% of isolates were resistant to both pleuromutilins (MIC >2.0 µg/mL for tiamulin and >1.0 µg/mL for valnemulin). All 10 isolates in ST 83 were resistant; these were first isolated in 2011 and came from nine farms, suggesting recent widespread dissemination of a resistant strain. Significant associations were found between the proportion of pleuromutilin susceptible isolates and the genetic group and year of isolation. Although resistant isolates were found in all Ccs, isolates in Ccs 2 and 7 were over five times more likely to be susceptible than those in the other Ccs. A significant trend in the reduction of susceptibility over time also was observed.

  1. Mechanisms of antibacterial action of Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides against Clostridium perfringens and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanfan Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs are a class of bioreductive compounds, however their antibacterial mechanisms are still unclarified. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of two representative QdNO drugs, cyadox (CYA and olaquindox (OLA, to produce reactive oxide species (ROS in Gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens CVCC1125 and Gram-negative anaerobe Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204. In addition, the effects of QdNOs on the integrity of bacterial cell walls and membranes as well as the morphological alterations and DNA oxidative damage in C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae were analyzed. It was demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions, QdNOs were metabolized into the reduced products which did not show any antibacterial activity. A significant dose-related increase of intracellular ROS level and intracellular hydroxyl radicals were evident in bacteria exposed to QdNOs. The result of biochemical assay showed that the cell walls and membranes of the bacteria treated with QdNOs were damaged. After exposure to 1/2MIC to 4MIC of CYA and OLA, C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae became elongated and filamentous. Morphological observation with scanning and transmission electron microscopes revealed rupture, loss of cytoplasmic material and cell lysis in QdNO-treated bacteria, indicating serious damage of cells. There was an increase of 8-OHdG in the two strains treated by QdNOs, but it was lower in Gram-positive than in Gram-negative bacteria. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed the degradation of chromosomal DNA in both of the two anaerobes treated by QdNOs. The results suggest that QdNOs may kill C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae via the generation of ROS and hydroxyl radicals from the bacterial metabolism of QdNOs, which cause oxidative damage in bacteria under anaerobic conditions.

  2. Mechanisms of Antibacterial Action of Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides against Clostridium perfringens and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fanfan; Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Xu; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui; Dai, Menghong

    2016-01-01

    Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) are a class of bioreductive compounds, however, their antibacterial mechanisms are still unclarified. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of two representative QdNO drugs, cyadox (CYA) and olaquindox (OLA), to produce reactive oxide species (ROS) in Gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens CVCC1125 and Gram-negative anaerobe Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204. In addition, the effects of QdNOs on the integrity of bacterial cell walls and membranes as well as the morphological alterations and DNA oxidative damage in C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae were analyzed. It was demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions, QdNOs were metabolized into the reduced products which did not show any antibacterial activity. A significant dose-related increase of intracellular ROS level and intracellular hydroxyl radicals were evident in bacteria exposed to QdNOs. The result of biochemical assay showed that the cell walls and membranes of the bacteria treated with QdNOs were damaged. After exposure to 1/2MIC to 4MIC of CYA and OLA, C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae became elongated and filamentous. Morphological observation with scanning and transmission electron microscopes revealed rupture, loss of cytoplasmic material and cell lysis in QdNO-treated bacteria, indicating serious damage of cells. There was an increase of 8-OHdG in the two strains treated by QdNOs, but it was lower in C. perfringens CVCC1125 than in B. hyodysenteriae B204. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed the degradation of chromosomal DNA in both of the two anaerobes treated by QdNOs. The results suggest that QdNOs may kill C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae via the generation of ROS and hydroxyl radicals from the bacterial metabolism of QdNOs, which cause oxidative damage in bacteria under anaerobic conditions.

  3. Estimating diagnostic test accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae accounting for the complexities of population structure in food animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hartnack

    Full Text Available For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test ("gold standard" is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect, robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9 and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3, respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8. For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals.

  4. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  5. Identification of the gene encoding BmpB, a 30 kDa outer envelope lipoprotein of Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae, and immunogenicity of recombinant BmpB in mice and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B J; La, T; Mikosza, A S; Hampson, D J

    2000-10-01

    A gene encoding a 30kDa outer envelope protein of the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli strain XLOLR. Five phagemids containing DNA inserts encoding the protein were established and one clone (pSHA) was sequenced. An 816bp hypothetical open reading frame (ORF) was identified, with a potential ribosome binding site (AGGAG), and putative -10 (TATAAT) and -35 (TTGAAA) promoter regions upstream from the ATG start of the ORF. A 12bp inverted repeat sequence, possibly serving as a transcription terminator, was identified downstream from the TAA stop codon. Analysis of the amino acid sequence identified a 19 residue hydrophobic signal peptide, incorporating a potential signal peptidase cleavage site and membrane lipoprotein lipid attachment site. Further analysis of the amino acid usage of this lipoprotein, designated BmpB, showed its possible outer membrane localisation. Comparison of the gene encoding the lipoprotein, bmpB, with GenBank nucleotide sequences showed that it has homology with the gene (plp3) encoding Plp3, an outer membrane lipoprotein of Pasteurella haemolytica (54% identity in 735bp). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the SWISS-PROT amino acid database revealed greatest homology with the outer membrane lipoproteins (Plp1, 2, 3) of P. haemolytica (34% identity in 242 aa, 37% identity in 250 aa, and 39% identity in 272 aa, respectively), and lipoproteins (rcsF and lipoprotein-28) of E. coli (40% identity in 267 aa and 36% identity in 263 aa, respectively). Three of the recombinant E. coli clones (pSHA, pSHD, and pSHE) were formalinised and used to immunise mice. A bacterin preparation of one recombinant E. coli clone (pSHA) was used to immunise pigs. Sera from these mice and pigs recognised the 30kDa lipoprotein in outer membrane preparations of B. hyodysenteriae, indicating the immunogenicity of recombinant BmpB. Sera from pigs naturally infected with B

  6. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that the

  7. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; M. West; Mahoney, A; Keller, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  8. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  9. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  10. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  11. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  12. Attachment Without Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2009-12-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, openness, and dependence interact with the caregiving elements of caring, empathy, and responsibility.

  13. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  14. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  15. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We...... found that ex-POWs showed higher levels of clinical pain and attachment insecurities compared to controls. Moreover, attachment avoidance and soothing effect of attachment (SEA) were both associated with lower levels of clinical pain. Most importantly, PTSS moderated the associations between attachment...

  16. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  17. GenBank blastx search result: AK243389 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243389 J100063K09 AY345132.1 AY345132 Brachyspira pilosicoli ACP reductase (fabG)... and acyl carrier protein (hlyA) genes, complete cds; and ACP synthase (fabF) gene, partial cds. BCT 8e-56 1 ...

  18. GenBank blastx search result: AK287869 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287869 J065203M24 AY345132.1 AY345132 Brachyspira pilosicoli ACP reductase (fabG)... and acyl carrier protein (hlyA) genes, complete cds; and ACP synthase (fabF) gene, partial cds. BCT 5e-13 0 ...

  19. GenBank blastx search result: AK060515 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060515 001-020-A01 AY345132.1 Brachyspira pilosicoli ACP reductase (fabG) and acy...l carrier protein (hlyA) genes, complete cds; and ACP synthase (fabF) gene, partial cds.|BCT BCT 5e-80 +3 ...

  20. GenBank blastx search result: AK287805 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287805 J065178C08 AY345132.1 AY345132 Brachyspira pilosicoli ACP reductase (fabG)... and acyl carrier protein (hlyA) genes, complete cds; and ACP synthase (fabF) gene, partial cds. BCT 2e-25 0 ...

  1. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic sym

  2. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  3. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  4. Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Written by a British parent, this case study tells the story of an adopted child who experienced many difficulties adjusting to life at home and school. It describes attachment disorder, possible causes of attachment difficulties, the bonding cycle, therapeutic parenting, and how schools can support the re-nurturing process. (Contains references.)…

  5. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  6. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  7. Attachment-related psychodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Phillip R; Mikulincer, Mario

    2002-09-01

    Because there has been relatively little communication and cross-fertilization between the two major lines of research on adult attachment, one based on coded narrative assessments of defensive processes, the other on simple self-reports of 'attachment style' in close relationships, we here explain and review recent work based on a combination of self-report and other kinds of method, including behavioral observations and unconscious priming techniques. The review indicates that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation. The combination of self-report assessment of attachment style and experimental manipulation of other theoretically pertinent variables allows researchers to test causal hypotheses. We present a model of normative and individual-difference processes related to attachment and identify areas in which further research is needed and likely to be successful. One long-range goal is to create a more complete theory of personality built on attachment theory and other object relations theories.

  8. The neurobiology of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, T R; Young, L J

    2001-02-01

    It is difficult to think of any behavioural process that is more intrinsically important to us than attachment. Feeding, sleeping and locomotion are all necessary for survival, but humans are, as Baruch Spinoza famously noted, "a social animal" and it is our social attachments that we live for. Over the past decade, studies in a range of vertebrates, including humans, have begun to address the neural basis of attachment at a molecular, cellular and systems level. This review describes some of the important insights from this work.

  9. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  10. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  11. A high dietary concentration of inulin is necessary to reduce the incidence of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally challenged with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christian F; Hernández, Aracely; Mansfield, Josie; Hidalgo, Álvaro; La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J; Pluske, John R

    2011-11-01

    A total of sixty surgically castrated male pigs (Large White × Landrace) weighing 31·2 (sd 4·3) kg were used in a randomised block experiment to examine the effect of added dietary inulin (0, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg) on the occurrence of swine dysentery (SD) and on fermentation characteristics in the large intestine after experimental challenge with the causative spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The pigs were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 weeks before each pig was challenged orally four times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Increasing dietary levels of inulin linearly (P = 0·001) reduced the risk of pigs developing SD; however, eight out of fifteen pigs fed the diet with 80 g/kg inulin still developed the disease. The pH values in the caecum (P = 0·072) tended to decrease, and in the upper colon, the pH values did decrease (P = 0·047) linearly with increasing inulin levels in the diets, most probably due to a linear increase in the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the caecum (P = 0·018), upper colon (P = 0·001) and lower colon (P = 0·013). In addition, there was a linear reduction in the proportion of the branched-chain fatty acids isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in the caecum (P = 0·015 and 0·026) and upper colon (P = 0·011 and 0·013) with increasing levels of dietary inulin. In conclusion, the present study showed that a diet supplemented with a high level of inulin (80 g/kg) but not lower levels reduced the risk of pigs developing SD, possibly acting through a modification of the microbial fermentation patterns in the large intestine.

  12. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  13. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  14. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  15. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Korstanje, Maximiliano

    2007-01-01

    The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to jou...

  16. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  17. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  18. Day Care and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Fern C.; Simmons, Carolyn H.

    1978-01-01

    The attachment behavior of 35 white, middle-class 3 1/2- to 4-year-olds who had experienced different rearing histories was observed through a series of standardized episodes involving separations and reunions with the mother and a stranger. (Author/JMB)

  19. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  20. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  1. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    in the plural’ in the city. In particular, we stress the role assumed in such engagements by various image-making practices, as means for activists to express, share and render publicly visible a range of embodied urban attachments. Pragmatic sociology, we conclude, may contribute to a novel understanding......In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor...... of urban politics as inclusive learning processes, more hospitable to a wider diversity of familiar attachments to cities and their ecologies....

  2. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  3. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  4. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  5. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event representation can be…

  6. Report of the APSAC task force on attachment therapy, reactive attachment disorder, and attachment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Hanson, Rochelle; Saunders, Benjamin E; Nichols, Todd; Barnett, Douglas; Zeanah, Charles; Berliner, Lucy; Egeland, Byron; Newman, Elana; Lyon, Tom; LeTourneau, Elizabeth; Miller-Perrin, Cindy

    2006-02-01

    Although the term attachment disorder is ambiguous, attachment therapies are increasingly used with children who are maltreated, particularly those in foster care or adoptive homes. Some children described as having attachment disorders show extreme disturbances. The needs of these children and their caretakers are real. How to meet their needs is less clear. A number of attachment-based treatment and parenting approaches purport to help children described as attachment disordered. Attachment therapy is a young and diverse field, and the benefits and risks of many treatments remain scientifically undetermined. Controversies have arisen about potentially harmful attachment therapy techniques used by a subset of attachment therapists. In this report, the Task Force reviews the controversy and makes recommendations for assessment, treatment, and practices. The report reflects American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children's (APSAC) position and also was endorsed by the American Psychological Association's Division 37 and the Division 37 Section on Child Maltreatment.

  7. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  8. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  9. Borderline disorder and attachment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Keller, A; Links, P; Patrick, J

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the theoretical and empirical association between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline personality disorder. Attachment theory focuses on the maintenance of a sense of safety and security through a close personal relationship with a particular person. Based on a biological behavioural system, functional attachment relationships in adulthood rely on experiences and expectations of security within the relationship. These issues are also important to the definition and dynamics of borderline personality disorder. The dimensions and patterns of reciprocal attachment were compared with other scales measuring components of psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. In a sample of 85 female outpatients, only four of the attachment scales--feared loss, secure base, compulsive care-seeking and angry withdrawal--identified patients with high scores on a measure of borderline disorder. Of these four scales, feared loss had the predominant effect. These empirical results support the hypothesized relationship between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline disorder.

  10. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  11. Attachment and Outcomes in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslim Guvendeger Doksat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The term and ldquo;attachment and rdquo; is used to imply the bonding between mother and child or the relationship between parents and child. Establishment of secure attachment is the healthiest way for the mental and physical development of the child. Secure attachment system constitutes a protection mechanism from high levels of stress. Insecurely attached children are presented with mental and physical developmental delays and problems in identity formation and personality in the future. To avoid all these, all the requirements of the child by means of affection, nutrition, protection, shelter and health are required to be met in a consistent and healthy way by the caregiver. This review article discuss the term attachment; features associated with insecure attachment and its negative influences in adulthood. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 489-501

  12. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult attachment and psychosocial functioning, predominately in the realm of close relationships. In the first part of the thesis, the focus lay on the assessment of the adult attachment construct. In Cha...

  13. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  14. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  15. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  16. Estudio clínico, anatomopatológico y de biología molecular de cuadros entéricos en cerdos de crecimiento y terminación

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Estefanía Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Se evaluó la participación de Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli y Salmonella spp. en el desarrollo de infecciones clínicas y subclínicas en cerdos de la etapa de engorde. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo histopatológico de casos de archivo en el que se relacionaron las lesiones histopatológicas con los agentes etiológicos identificados por IHQ, WS y PCR a partir de tejidos embebidos en parafina. Se detectó asociación estadística entre las lesiones...

  17. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2 ex

  18. Attachment styles in alcoholic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rick, Ann; Vanheule, Stijn

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that addiction has often been identified as an attachment disorder, empirical studies on this topic are rather scarce. In our study we explore attachment style (secure vs. insecure) in alcoholic inpatients and its relationship with perceived parenting and alcohol-related and psychiatric problems in a sample of 101 alcoholic inpatients (Belgium). Our results reveal that in comparison to the securely-attached group, insecurely-attached alcoholic inpatients perceived their mother as more controlling, reported more severe psychiatric problems in the European Addiction Severity Index, had higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, showed more schizotypal and depressive personality traits and had more difficulties with communicating emotions (alexithymia). We argue that it makes sense to differentiate alcoholic inpatients on the basis of attachment style and that both groups (secure/insecure) need different treatment approaches.

  19. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  20. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction.

  1. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    in a regional study in South Australia. Our research objectives were to (1) analyze and present the spatial results of the mapping method as a benchmark for future research, (2) compare mapped place attachment to the more common practice of mapping landscape values in PPGIS that comprise a values home range, (3......-based measures. The area of place attachment is influenced by occupational roles such as farming or conservation, as well as home location, especially in coastal versus non-coastal contexts. The spatial distribution of mapped landscape values or values home range is related to, but not identical to mapped place......The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment...

  2. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  3. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Preferential Attachment

    CERN Document Server

    Zuev, Konstantin; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment, known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton's equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in preferential attachment. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by preferential attachment is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree d...

  4. Attachment Processes in Eating Disorder and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Detke, Holland; Kobak, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between attachment strategies and symptom reporting among college women (N=61). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered and interview transcripts were rated with the Attachment Interview Q-Sort. Findings support the hypothesis that secondary or defensive attachment strategies predispose individuals toward…

  5. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  6. Bar overdentures utilizing the Locator attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A L; Kurtzman, G M

    2001-01-01

    Implant-retained overdentures are a restorative option for both the fully and partially edentulous arches. A new attachment, the Locator, which features a reduced interarch requirement and the advantage of built-in guide planes providing precise insertion, is described. The Locator is an advancement in attachment technology, with an improved design combined from the best features of a ball attachment, an ERA attachment, and a cap attachment.

  7. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  8. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult a

  9. Risk factors for intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian;

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify risk factors for infection with the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli and swine-pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups O138, O139, O141......) or culture (all other agents). Information on feed and management procedures was collected by filling in questionnaires at the herd visits. The questionnaire, included information on 29 dichotomous variables and three continuous variables. Variables with P ...-test) were selected for the statistical modelling. Our conclusions, based on the results of multifactorial logistic regression (out-off: P = 0.05), were the following: 1. Consistent batch production was associated with reduced prevalences of L. intracellularis and weakly beta -haemolytic spirochetes (S...

  10. Attachable rock bolters for roadheaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weibezahn, K. [Wirth Maschinen- und Bohrgeraete-Fabrik GmbH, Erkelenz (Germany); West, M. [Deilmann-Haniel Mining Systems GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Roadheaders are used in mining and tunnelling in medium hard rock formations. The excavated space is made safe either by NATM-technology or a steel support system. The application of a rock bolting system up to now was restricted to formations that can cope with at least some support lag. A new system was developed in close cooperation between WIRTH Maschinen- und Bohrgeraetefabrik GmbH and deilmann-haniel mining systems gmbh that allows to carry out rock bolting with two drill rigs whicht are attached to the cutting boom of the roadheader even in front of the cutter head directly after cutting. Alternatively a robot may be attached to above named system that enables remotely controlled shot-creting close to the face.

  11. Adult attachment processes: individual and couple perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, K

    1997-09-01

    This paper overviews a new approach to understanding the range of difficulties experienced in close attachment relationships in adulthood. Drawing on the work of Bowlby, four prototypic adult attachment patterns are defined in terms of the intersection of two underlying dimensions, the positivity of the person's self-image and the positivity of the person's image of others (Bartholomew, 1990; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The distinct interpersonal difficulties associated with each attachment pattern are described. Findings are presented indicating that individual differences in attachment have implications for the quality of adults' romantic relationships, and that attachment theory may be helpful in understanding violent spousal relationships. Five current issues in the study of adult attachment are addressed: the stability of attachment patterns, the associations between attachment and general personality factors, the relative merits of categorical and prototype assessments of attachment, the identification of multiple attachments in adulthood, and the specificity of adult attachment patterns. It is suggested that the four-category model of adult attachment is especially sensitive to the range and complexity of attachment-related difficulties experienced in adulthood.

  12. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment Insecurity, Disinhibited Attachment, and Attachment Disorders--Where Do Research Findings Leave the Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the evidence on anomalous attachment patterns, there has been a tendency to interpret most of these as reflecting differences in security/insecurity. Methods: Empirical research findings are reviewed in relation to attachment/insecurity as evident in both infancy and later childhood, disorganised attachment, inhibited…

  13. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  14. Loneliness and Attachment Patterns in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Diana Taylor; Baum, Steven K.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between loneliness and patterns of attachment in 47 college students. Results revealed a moderate to strong relationship between feeling lonely and early disrupted attachment, consistent with the notion that underlying attachment disorders may affect psychological development and social behavior. (JAC)

  15. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups sho

  16. Cesarean Births and Attachment Behaviors of Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Apgar scores are 7 or greater at both 1 and 5...status, indications for cesarean delivery, anesthesis, and infant’s gestational age, birth weight, and apgar scores . Prior to meeting the father, the...delivery and attachment score ; highest school grade completed and attachment score ; and age and child care experience of the father and attachment score

  17. Secondary Attachments and Adolescent Self Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Price, Carolyn; Greene, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    In a study examining attachments to celebrity figures, 79 male and female fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders and college sophomores described themselves and their favorite celebrities. It was found that such attachments are equally important to males and females, and that gender and age affect the nature of the attachment. (DM)

  18. Easy Attachment Of Panels To A Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark; Gralewski, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual antenna dish, solar collector, or similar structure consists of hexagonal panels supported by truss erected in field. Truss built in increments to maintain access to panel-attachment nodes. Each panel brought toward truss at angle and attached to two nodes. Panel rotated into attachment at third node.

  19. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Recommendations for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susanna H.

    1997-01-01

    Using a case study, explores a unique counseling relationship. Examines how the quality of parent-child attachment and care of a child during the formative preschool years affects interpersonal relationship skills and school adjustment. Discusses reactive attachment disorders, the pervasiveness of attachment disorders, and recommendations for…

  20. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  1. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75...

  2. Reactive attachment disorder--a theoretical model beyond attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Helen; Marwick, Helen; Arthur, Julie; McLaughlin, Alexis

    2006-09-01

    Despite its importance in public health, reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is an under-researched and little used clinical category. Abnormalities of social relatedness have long been documented in children who have been abused, neglected or institutionalised, but there have been more recent efforts to define these behaviours within the psychiatric nosology. There has been an implicit assumption that the central deficit in RAD is in the attachment system, but this has caused controversy and may have blocked research. We propose that RAD is better construed within the framework of intersubjectivity, which has a central role in the development of core brain and social functions and may also have had an important role in the evolution of a key human characteristic-complex social functioning. This broader framework may potentially explain apparently diverse symptoms such as indiscriminate friendliness and negative or unpredictable reunion responses. Finally, we suggest that a change of name may be useful in progressing the field, but accept that this may be difficult until there is better agreement in the clinical and scientific communities about the core features and aetiology of this disorder.

  3. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  4. Wear simulation effects on overdenture stud attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate wear effects on overdenture resilient attachments. Six commercially available attachments were investigated: ERA orange and white (EO and EW), Locator pink, white and blue (LRP, LRW and LRB) and OP anchor (OP). Five specimens were used for wear simulation while other two specimens served as controls. Fifteen thousands insertion-removal cycles were simulated. Dimensional changes and surface characteristics were evaluated using light microscopy and SEM, respectively. Sudden decrease of retentive force was characteristic for EO and EW attachments. Retentive force of Locator attachments fluctuated throughout the wear simulation period. Dimensional changes and surface wear was more expressed on plastic cores than on plastic rings of attachment males. Based on SEM analysis, some of the specimens obtained smoother surface after wear simulation. Mechanism of retention loss of resilient overdenture attachments can be only partially explained by dimensional changes and surface alterations.

  5. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  6. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  7. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  8. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neerja; Thakkur, Rahul K

    2013-10-01

    Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40° of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  9. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  10. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  11. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  12. Biliprotein maturation: the chromophore attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, H; Zhao, K-H

    2008-04-01

    Biliproteins are a widespread group of brilliantly coloured photoreceptors characterized by linear tetrapyrrolic chromophores, bilins, which are covalently bound to the apoproteins via relatively stable thioether bonds. Covalent binding stabilizes the chromoproteins and is mandatory for phycobilisome assembly; and, it is also important in biliprotein applications such as fluorescence labelling. Covalent binding has, on the other hand, also considerably hindered biliprotein research because autocatalytic chromophore additions are rare, and information on enzymatic addition by lyases was limited to a single example, an EF-type lyase attaching phycocyanobilin to cysteine-alpha84 of C-phycocyanin. The discovery of new activities for the latter lyases, and of new types of lyases, have reinvigorated research activities in the subject. So far, work has mainly concentrated on cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins. Methodological advances in the process, however, as well as the finding of often large numbers of homologues, opens new possibilities for research on the subsequent assembly/disassembly of the phycobilisome in cyanobacteria and red algae, on the assembly and organization of the cryptophyte light-harvesting system, on applications in basic research such as protein folding, and on the use of phycobiliproteins for labelling.

  13. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  14. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.

    2007-01-01

    Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy pr

  15. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  16. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted…

  17. Separation-individuation theory and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2004-01-01

    Separation-individuation and attachment theories are compared and assessed in the context of psychoanalytic developmental theory and their application to clinical work. As introduced by Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby, respectively, both theories were initially regarded as diverging from traditional views. Separation-individuation theory, though it has had to be corrected in important respects, and attachment theory, despite certain limitations, have nonetheless enriched psychoanalytic thought. Without attachment an infant would die, and with severely insecure attachment is at greater risk for serious disorders. Development depends on continued attachment to a responsive and responsible caregiver. Continued attachment to the primary object was regarded by Mahler as as intrinsic to the process of separation-individuation. Attachment theory does not account for the essential development of separateness, and separation-individuation is important for the promotion of autonomy, independence, and identity. Salient historical and theoretical issues are addressed, including the renewed interest in attachment theory and the related decline of interest in separation-individuation theory.

  18. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  19. Attachment, emotion regulation and adult crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Laan, A.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment serves to facilitate the contact with and proximity to the primary caregiver, in that way contributing to a safe exploration of the environment. However, due to inconsistencies in the reaction of the caregiver or her/his absence, insecure attachment styles may develop. This chapter summar

  20. Forgiveness and health: The role of attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawler-Row, K.A.; Hyatt-Edwards, L.; Wünsch, K.L.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment was examined for its association to forgiveness and health. Young adults were interviewed about a time of conflict with a parent; during rest and interview periods, readings of blood pressure and heart rate were taken. Participants completed surveys of forgiveness, attachment, relationshi

  1. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  2. Attachment Disorder, Basic Trust and Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael G.; Newnham, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    The label Attachment Disorder (AD) is used as either a description of a child's presentation, or as a diagnostic category. It is unclear whether this label is intended to be identical with the DSM-IV Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) diagnostic category, or if it is a separate diagnosis based on Randolph's Questionnaire and the premises…

  3. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  4. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…

  5. An Attachment Model of University Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steffen; Gore, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Students with high levels of connectedness to the university have been found to be more likely to complete their college degree than are students with low levels of university connectedness. This study examined the role of parental and peer attachment as distal predictors of school connectedness. As predicted, it was found that attachment style to…

  6. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  7. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  8. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  9. Attachment to groups: theory and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E R; Murphy, J; Coats, S

    1999-07-01

    Aspects of people's identification with groups may be understood by borrowing theoretical ideas and measurement strategies from research on attachment in close relationships. People have mental models of the self as a group member and of groups as sources of identity and esteem. These models affect thoughts, emotions, and behaviors related to group membership. Three studies show that two dimensions of attachment to groups, attachment anxiety and avoidance, can be assessed with good reliability, validity, and over-time stability. These factors are distinct from relationship attachment and from other measures of group identification. Group attachment predicts several important outcomes, including emotions concerning the group, time and activities shared with a group, social support, collective self-esteem, and ways of resolving conflict. This conceptualization provides new insights into the nature of people's psychological ties to groups.

  10. Security of attachment and preschool friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K A; Waters, E

    1989-10-01

    Attachment theory proposes that the quality of the mother-child tie predicts the quality of a child's other close relationships. The purpose of this study was to test whether security of attachment to mother is related to the quality of a preschooler's best friendships. 33 4-year-old and their best friends participated (mean age = 46 months). Attachment Q-set data were collected to score security of mother-child attachment. Security data were used to classify the friend pairs as secure-secure or secure-insecure. Best friend dyads were observed for a 1-hour free-play session. Each pair's behavior was described with the Dyadic Relationships Q-set, a measure designed to describe the behavior of a pair of children. Secure-secure pairs were more harmonious, less controlling, more responsive, and happier than secure-insecure pairs. The results are related to previous work on attachment and social competence.

  11. The Antimicrobial Activity of Porphyrin Attached Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lesley

    2008-03-01

    We are interested in testing the antimicrobial activity of a porphyrin that is attached to a polymer. The porphyrin (5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pryridyl)) was synthesized from methyl 4-formyl benzoate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and pyrrole and attached to a copolymer of polystyrene/poly(vinyl benzyl chloride), which was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The antimicrobial activity of the polymer-attached porphyrin was then determined for gram-negative E. Coli grown to 0.80 OD. In this procedure, glass slides were coated with polymer-attached porphyrin via dip-coating, and the E. Coli bacteria were plated in Luria Broth media. The plates were subsequently exposed to light overnight before they were incubated as porphyrins act as photo-sensitizers when irradiated with light. The polymer-attached porphyrin did exhibit antimicrobial activity and parameters that affect its efficiency will be discussed.

  12. Job Cognition and Justice Influencing Organizational Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sahu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational attachment echoes the psychological bond between employee and employer relations, differing from affective component of commitment in terms of employees’ psychological and behavioral involvement. This study examines the extent to which employee perception about procedural, distributive justice and job cognition contributes toward organizational attachment in India. The effect of justice and job cognition variables relates differently to previous studies from western part of the globe. First, in past studies, procedural justice predicted commitment, whereas, for Indian employees, distributive justice contributed to organizational attachment. Second, the contribution of extrinsic job cognition in organizational attachment was evident in the model developed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; AMOS. Organizations must take cognizance of the outcomes exhibited by the behavior of managers while following the laid down policies and processes. Cognition of fairness at workplace and attachment can play key role in limiting retention. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  13. Longitudinal association between adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, Katherine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci. Results indicated that greater insecurity to parents and peers in adolescence predicted a more anxious romantic attachment style and greater use of emotion-oriented strategies in adulthood. Concurrently, anxious adult attachment style was related to more emotion-oriented strategies, whereas an avoidant attachment style was related to less support-seeking. Analyses also identified emotion-oriented coping strategies as a partial mediator of the link between adolescent attachment insecurity to parents and adult anxious attachment, and a complete mediator of the association between adolescent attachment insecurity to peers and adult anxious attachment. These findings support the core assumption of continuity in attachment theory, where relationships to parents influence close romantic relationships in adulthood.

  14. The attachment system in fledgling relationships: an activating role for attachment anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2008-09-01

    Is it sensible to study attachment dynamics between potential romantic partners before they share a full-fledged attachment bond? The present data indicate that such an approach may reveal novel insights about initial attraction processes. Four studies suggest that the state-like experience of attachment anxiety has functional implications within fledgling (i.e., desired or undeveloped) romantic relationships, well before the formation of an attachment bond. Studies 1 and 3 reveal that attachment anxiety directed toward a particular romantic interest is elevated before (in comparison with after) participants report being in an established relationship. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that such partner-specific attachment anxiety predicts attachment-relevant outcomes in fledgling relationships, including proximity seeking, safe haven, secure base, passionate love, and other approach behaviors. These associations were reliable above and beyond (and were typically as strong as or stronger than) the effect of sexual desire. Finally, Study 4 presents evidence that partner-specific attachment anxiety may cause several of these attachment-relevant outcomes. Attachment anxiety seems to be a normative experience and may signal the activation of the attachment system during the earliest stages of romantic relationships.

  15. Preschool teacher attachment and attention skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodari, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Attention underlies and energizes all cognitive and behavioral activities. Many studies showed that the quality of child attachment (both to parental and non parental figures) influences cognitive functions and attention. This study aimed to investigate the relationships among attachment to preschool teachers and attention in a sample of preschoolers. In particular, the study analyzed whether child attachment security to preschool teachers influences the different aspects of their attention skills. In addition, gender- and age-related differences in attention and teacher attachment were explored. Research was conducted using two standardized instruments: the Attention and Concentration Battery, and the Attachment Q Sort. Participants were 279 children (147 male, 132 female) who attended two preschools in a town in Southern Italy. Descriptive analyses, t-tests analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Findings highlighted several interesting points concerning the relationships that occur among attachment to preschool teachers and attention. Children with secure attachments presented higher reaction time and better auditory, visual, and visual spatial selectivity and maintenance.

  16. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervai Judit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief.

  17. An attachment research perspective on ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissgen, Ruediger; Franke, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Since the beginning of clinical attachment research in the mid-1980s the number of research projects in this area has been continuously increasing. The research questions so far can be allocated to numerous medical disciplines such as psychosomatic medicine, adult psychiatry or child and adolescent psychiatry. Recently, children with ADHD and their families have also become subjects of this branch of research. Their specific behavioral characteristics from early childhood on constitute unique challenges on the parent-child interaction. If these interactions develop in a suboptimal way, children may develop an insecure or even a disorganized attachment quality. The latter represents a risk factor for a clinically significant psychopathological development.This article initially presents basic principles of attachment theory and discusses the relevance of the cardinal symptoms of ADHD for clinical attachment research. Subsequently, it outlines and discusses the main results of existing research regarding attachment and ADHD. It concludes with a perspective on research questions that need to be addressed in the future with regard to a transgenerational model that highlights the importance of parental attachment representations to the development of children's attachment quality.

  18. On the attached length of orifices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Yudin, S. I.

    2012-11-01

    The attached length of orifices in reactive mufflers has been estimated based on numerical calculations by the finite-element method. The numerical results for a diaphragm in a duct are compared with the theoretical data obtained by Rayleigh, Fock, Karal, and Ingard. The dependence of the attached length on the diaphragm thickness is given. The results obtained are generalized for the case in which the orifice is a Helmholtz resonator neck. The effect of the resonator length on the attached length of the neck is analyzed.

  19. Combined Prosthesis with Extracoronal Castable Precision Attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfactory restoration in a patient with a partially edentulous situation can be challenging especially when unilateral or bilateral posterior segment of teeth is missing. Successful restoration can be done with various conventional and contemporary treatment options. One such treatment modality is attachment-retained cast partial dentures. This paper describes a case report of a patient with maxillary bilateral distal extension edentulous span restored with a cast partial denture having an extracoronal castable precision attachment (RHEIN 83 OT CAP attachments system.

  20. Vibrationally Resolved Electron Attachment to Oxygen Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Stampfli, P.; Stamatovic, A.; Märk, T. D.

    1996-10-01

    Highly monochromatized electrons (with 30 meV FWHM) are used in a crossed beam experiment to investigate electron attachment to oxygen clusters \\(O2\\)n at electron energies from approximately 0 to 2 eV. At energies close to zero, the attachment cross section for the reaction \\(O2\\)n+e-->O-2 rises strongly with decreasing electron energy compatible with s-wave electron capture to \\(O2\\)n. Peaks in the attachment cross section present at higher energies can be ascribed to vibrational levels of the oxygen anion. The vibrational spacings observed can be quantitatively accounted for by model calculations.

  1. Give Them Roots, Then Let Them Fly: Understanding Attachment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Carole A., Ed.

    This book describes attachment theory, presents the attachment therapy program in place at the Evergreen Attachment Center at Evergreen, Colorado, and examines the implications of attachment therapy. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Carole A. McKelvey, John Alston); (2) "Attachment Theory and Assessment" (Michael Orlans, Terry Levy); (3)…

  2. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... anchor bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist...

  3. Magnetically Attached Multifunction Maintenance Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Joffe, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A versatile mobile telerobot, denoted the magnetically attached multifunction maintenance rover (MAGMER), has been proposed for use in the inspection and maintenance of the surfaces of ships, tanks containing petrochemicals, and other large ferromagnetic structures. As its name suggests, this robot would utilize magnetic attraction to adhere to a structure. As it moved along the surface of the structure, the MAGMER would perform tasks that could include close-up visual inspection by use of video cameras, various sensors, and/or removal of paint by water-jet blasting, laser heating, or induction heating. The water-jet nozzles would be mounted coaxially within compressed-air-powered venturi nozzles that would collect the paint debris dislodged by the jets. The MAGMER would be deployed, powered, and controlled from a truck, to which it would be connected by hoses for water, compressed air, and collection of debris and by cables for electric power and communication (see Figure 1). The operation of the MAGMER on a typical large structure would necessitate the use of long cables and hoses, which can be heavy. To reduce the load of the hoses and cables on the MAGMER and thereby ensure its ability to adhere to vertical and overhanging surfaces, the hoses and cables would be paid out through telescopic booms that would be parts of a MAGMER support system. The MAGMER would move by use of four motorized, steerable wheels, each of which would be mounted in an assembly that would include permanent magnets and four pole pieces (see Figure 2). The wheels would protrude from between the pole pieces by only about 3 mm, so that the gap between the pole pieces and the ferromagnetic surface would be just large enough to permit motion along the surface but not so large as to reduce the magnetic attraction excessively. In addition to the wheel assemblies, the MAGMER would include magnetic adherence enhancement fixtures, which would comprise arrays of permanent magnets and pole pieces

  4. Clinical evaluation of mandibular implant overdentures via Locator implant attachment and Locator bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong-Ho; Bae, Eun-Bin; Kim, Jung-Woo; Lee, So-Hyoun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and patient satisfaction on implant overdenture designed with Locator implant attachment or Locator bar attachment in mandibular edentulous patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implant survival rate, marginal bone loss, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, complications, and satisfaction were evaluated on sixteen patients who were treated with mandibular overdenture and have used it for at least 1 year (Locator implant attachment: n=8, Locator bar attachment: n=8). RESULTS Marginal bone loss, probing depth, plaque index of the Locator bar attachment group were significantly lower than the Locator implant attachment group (P.05). The replacement of the attachment components was the most common complication in both groups. Although there was no correlation between marginal bone loss and plaque index, a significant correlation was found between marginal bone loss and probing depth. CONCLUSION The Locator bar attachment group indicates lesser marginal bone loss and need for maintenance, as compared with the Locator implant attachment group. This may be due to the splinting effect among implants rather than the types of Locator attachment. PMID:27555901

  5. Are anxiously attached women better mindreaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This research was aimed at providing first evidence concerning the relationship between adults' self-reported attachment style and their performance on a standard 'theory of mind' task. Based on adult attachment theory, we hypothesized that the two dimensions of self-reported adult attachment, anxiety and avoidance, are differently related to 'theory of mind,' and that this relationship is moderated by variables concerning the 'theory of mind' stimuli. The 'Experiences in Close Relationships' questionnaire and the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test were administered to 132 young women. In line with our expectations, women's attachment-related anxiety was associated with better mind reading concerning stimuli that were emotionally neutral or difficult to recognize.

  6. Personality disorders, attachment and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lissa; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Siever, Larry

    2014-01-01

    While attachment has been a fruitful and critical concept in understanding enduring individual templates for interpersonal relationships, it does not have a well-understood relationship to personality disorders, where impairment of interpersonal functioning is paramount. Despite the recognition that attachment disturbances do not simply reflect nonoptimal caretaking environments, the relationship of underlying temperamental factors to these environmental insults has not been fully explored. In this paper we provide an alternate model for the role of neurobiological temperamental factors, including brain circuitry and neuropeptide modulation, in mediating social cognition and the internalization and maintenance of attachment patterns. The implications of these altered attachment patterns on personality disorders and their neurobiological and environmental roots for psychoanalytically based treatment models designed to ameliorate difficulties in interpersonal functioning through the medium of increased access to mature forms of mentalization is discussed.

  7. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag

  8. Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Cheng MA; Ning LUN; Shu Lin WEN

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were initially chemically modified with an H2SO4-HNO3 treatment,and subsequently activated with Pd-Sn catalytic nuclei via a one-step activation approach. These activated nanotubes were used as precursors for obtaining gold nanoparticles-attached nanotubes via simple electroless plating. This approach provides an efficient method for attachment of metal nanostructures to carbon nanotubes. Such novel hybrid nanostructures are attractive for many applications.

  9. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences...... and competitive mentality towards others within SNSs. We further construct a theoretical model of members’ communal attachments within SNSs that is then empirically validated via an online survey of 787 active members of SNSs. Empirical findings suggest that members’ communal attachments play an instrumental role...

  10. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-02-16

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  11. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  12. The relationship between attachment and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  13. Attachment Theory and the Social Work Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Page

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory, as developed by Bowlby and Ainsworth, represented a major departure from the current theories of human development of the time, particularly in its rejection of the major tenets of psychoanalytic theory and its integration of core ideas from evolution theory and cybernetics (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991. Attachment theory posits that a foundational human instinct, the desire to achieve safety and protection through proximity to a protective figure, is responsible for the formation of a special class of life-long affectional bonds, referred to as “attachments.” Emotional security is derived to a great extent, according to the theory, from experience with caregivers who are consistently responsive to the developing infant’s expression of attachment behavior toward them. Forty years of empirical research has shown that attachment is a universal characteristic that predicts children’s development of cognitive and social competence, emotional regulation, and positive self-image (Weinfield, Sroufe, Egeland, & Carlson, 1999. Social work educators are currently challenged to better integrate the findings of attachment research into their curricula to reflect more the current state of developmental science.

  14. Attachment to the Romantic Partner and Sibling: Attachment Hierarchies of Twins and Non-Twin Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Schwarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.

  15. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: the influence of attachment primes on the content of state attachment representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David P.; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  16. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: The Influence of Attachment Primes on the Content of State Attachment Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  17. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  18. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  19. Parental incarceration, attachment and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Murray, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    Theory and evidence relating parental incarceration, attachment, and psychopathology are reviewed. Parental incarceration is a strong risk factor for long-lasting psychopathology, including antisocial and internalizing outcomes. Parental incarceration might threaten children's attachment security because of parent-child separation, confusing communication about parental absence, restricted contact with incarcerated parents, and unstable caregiving arrangements. Parental incarceration can also cause economic strain, reduced supervision, stigma, home and school moves, and other negative life events for children. Thus, there are multiple possible mechanisms whereby parental incarceration might increase risk for child psychopathology. Maternal incarceration tends to cause more disruption for children than paternal incarceration and may lead to greater risk for insecure attachment and psychopathology. Children's prior attachment relations and other life experiences are likely to be of great importance for understanding children's reactions to parental incarceration. Several hypotheses are presented about how prior insecure attachment and social adversity might interact with parental incarceration and contribute to psychopathology. Carefully designed longitudinal studies, randomized controlled trials, and cross-national comparative research are required to test these hypotheses.

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  1. The Secure-Base Hypothesis: Global Attachment, Attachment to Counselor, and Session Exploration in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Vera; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn; Janzen, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This study explored J. Bowlby's (1988) secure-base hypothesis, which predicts that a client's secure attachment to the therapist, as well as the client's and the therapist's global attachment security, will facilitate in-session exploration. Volunteer clients (N = 59) and trainee counselors (N = 59) in short-term therapy completed the Experiences…

  2. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  3. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  4. Vibrationally Resolved Electron Attachment to Oxygen Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Stampfli, P.; Stamatovic, A.; Maerk, T.D. [Intitut fuer Ionenphysik, Leopold Franzens Universitaet, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    1996-10-01

    Highly monochromiatized electrons (with 30meV FWHM) are used in a crossed beam experiment to investigate electron attachment to oxygen clusters (O{sub 2}){sub {ital n}} at electron energies from approximately 0 to 2eV.At energies close to zero, the attachment cross section for the reaction (O{sub 2}){sub {ital n}}+{ital e}{r_arrow}O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} rises strongly with decreasing electron energy compatible with {ital s}-wave electron capture to (O{sub 2}){sub {ital n}}. Peaks in the attachment cross section present at higher energies can be ascribed to vibrational levels of the oxygen anion. The vibrational spacings observed can be quantitatively accounted for by model calculations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  5. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  6. [ADHD and attachment processes: are they related?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, N; Maury, M; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2009-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined on the basis of developmentally inappropriate inattention, motor activity and impulsivity that emerges early in development and causes impairment in social and academic functioning. ADHD is described as a multifactorial disease, with a well studied genetic vulnerability, and early environmental factors also playing an important role in the development and course of the disorder. Current aetiological models emphasize interaction between genes and environment. The concept of attachment, as proposed by John Bowlby, reflects quality of early interactions, and should therefore be considered as an early developmental factor. First, clinical findings emphasize similitude between both disorders; emotional dysregulation is an important feature in reactive attachment disorder as well as in ADHD. Emotion regulation is highly related to attachment security in young children and could play a part in the development of early attention processes. Moreover, difficult temperament is associated with higher risk for ADHD on the one hand, and can disturb the process of attachment on the other. Parental caregiving - including maternal sensitivity, positive parenting practices - is a main factor involved in the development of attachment, and has shown to be associated with better outcomes in ADHD children, especially with less oppositional/conduct disorders. Second, the aim of our review is to present clinical studies that have looked for a link between ADHD and attachment: the type of attachment could play a part in the course of the disorder: insecure and disorganised attachment types tend to be associated with a higher risk of externalised behaviors in children. For ADHD, this effect seems to be weaker than for other externalised disorders, and has been shown only in populations of at-risk children. Clinical studies also raise the question of possible links between reactive attachment disorder and ADHD. In children suffering

  7. Attachment relationships as determinants of physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Robert G; Hunter, Jonathan J

    2008-01-01

    Childhood adversity alters the relational world of the child and inhibits the development of secure attachment bonds. The purpose of this article is to survey recent evidence that attachment insecurity has the potential to impair physical health throughout the lifespan. It is proposed that attachment insecurity contributes to disease risk through a range of mechanisms which include (1) disturbances in arousal and recovery within physiological systems that respond to stress; (2) physiological links between the mediators of social relationships, stress, and immunity; (3) links between relationship style and various health behaviors; and (4) disease risk factors that serve as external regulators of dysphoric affect, such as nicotine and alcohol. The evidence for these mechanisms, particularly the evidence that has accumulated since the model was first proposed in 2000, is presented and discussed.

  8. Family systems theory, attachment theory, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Fred; Rosen, Karen; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Uchida, Nobuko

    2002-01-01

    Family systems theory and attachment theory have important similarities and complementarities. Here we consider two areas in which the theories converge: (a) in family system theorists' description of an overly close, or "enmeshed," mother-child dyad, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of children's ambivalent attachment and mothers' preoccupied attachment; (b) in family system theorists' description of the "pursuer-distance cycle" of marital conflict, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of preoccupied and dismissive partners. We briefly review family systems theory evidence, and more extensively review attachment theory evidence, pertaining to these points of convergence. We also review cross-cultural research, which leads us to conclude that the dynamics described in both theories reflect, in part, Western ways of thinking and Western patterns of relatedness. Evidence from Japan suggests that extremely close ties between mother and child are perceived as adaptive, and are more common, and that children experience less adverse effects from such relationships than do children in the West. Moreover, in Japan there is less emphasis on the importance of the exclusive spousal relationship, and less need for the mother and father to find time alone to rekindle romantic, intimate feelings and to resolve conflicts by openly communicating their differences. Thus, the "maladaptive" pattern frequently cited by Western theorists of an extremely close mother-child relationship, an unromantic, conflictual marriage characterized by little verbal communication and a peripheral, distant father, may function very differently in other cultures. While we believe that both theories will be greatly enriched by their integration, we caution against the application of either theory outside the cultures in which they were developed.

  9. Effect of attachment strategies on bipartite networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganguly, N.; Saha, S.; Maiti, A.;

    2013-01-01

    rate. Here, we focus on the case where one of the partitions can be assumed to be fixed while the other partition grows in time as observed in the codon-gene or alphabet-word network. We show that subtle changes in growth dynamics, particularly in the attachment kernel, can lead to drastic changes...... of the emergent topological properties. We present a detail analysis of various growth strategies, including sequential and parallel addition of nodes, as well as with and without replacement attachment kernels. Analytical results have been compared with stochastic simulations as well as with real systems showing...

  10. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term “Child Attachment Interview” in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  11. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...... contact times using cells coming from either a planktonic or an immobilized state of growth. The results showed that the probability of detachment generally decreased when the contact time increased and that the highest difference between contact times was achieved when the cells were grown planktonic....

  12. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Separated 72 5.6 Divorced 76 5.9 Widowed 3 0.2 ADULT ATTACHMENT STYLE, HARDINESS, AND MOOD 131 D ow nl oa de d by [ Pa ul T . B ar to ne ] at 1 2: 35...Kobak, R. R., & Sceery, A. (1988). Attachment in late adolescence : Work- ing models, affect regulation, and representations of self and others. Child...Reassessing the dimensions of tem- peramental individuality across the lifespan: The revised dimensions of temperament survey (DOTS-R). Journal of Adolescent

  13. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term "Child Attachment Interview" in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  14. Assortativity in generalized preferential attachment models

    CERN Document Server

    Krot, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze assortativity of preferential attachment models. We deal with a wide class of preferential attachment models (PA-class). It was previously shown that the degree distribution in all models of the PA-class follows a power law. Also, the global and the average local clustering coefficients were analyzed. We expand these results by analyzing the assortativity property of the PA-class of models. Namely, we analyze the behavior of $d_{nn}(d)$ which is the average degree of a neighbor of a vertex of degree $d$.

  15. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  16. Attachment and the Processing of Social Information in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2007-01-01

    A key proposition of attachment theory is that experience-based cognitive representations of attachment, often referred to as internal working models of attachment, influence the manner in which individuals process attachment-relevant social information (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980; Bretherton & Munholland, 1999; Main, Kaplan, & Cassidy, 1985).…

  17. Attachment Disorder: An Emerging Concern for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kandis Cooke; Forrest, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Explains attachment theory and posits that, if proper bonding and subsequent attachment, usually between mother and child, does not occur, the child develops mistrust and deep-seated rage. Presents evidence of the problem of attachment disorders, lists symptoms of unattached children, examines treatment of attachment disorders, and discusses…

  18. Role of Attachment in Response to Pet Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P.; Orsini, Lisa; Gavish, Roni; Packman, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of attachment on grief severity following the death of a pet. Seventy-one participants who had lost a dog or cat within the past year completed a set of measures that included an attachment measure assessing individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance, strength of the past attachment to the pet, the…

  19. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  20. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design feature means either the...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  2. Adult attachment and incidental memory for emotional words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanxin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A dual task of attachment priming and memory recognition was proposed to explore the effect of adult attachment styles on the incidental memory for emotional words. Subjects completed an attachment priming task which intends to activate internal working model of attachment by describing attachment-related scenes, and then an incidental memory recognition test of words which differ in emotional meaning and relevance of attachment styles. Signal detection theory was used to compare the discriminability index and decision criterion of emotional words in subjects of different attachment style. Results showed that subjects with secure attachment styles performed better than insecure-attached subjects in the memory recognition test, in terms of higher hit rate, lower false alarm rate, and higher discriminability index. We extended the influence of attachment styles on cognition to lower level of incidental memory, not just on higher cognitive level with emotional arousal as suggested by previous research.

  3. [Attachment behavior with respect to mothers and fathers and attachment representations in five and seven-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Lilith; Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Zweyer, Karen

    2007-01-01

    During preschool and early school age attachment quality can be assessed by different means: at the behavioral level by the Strange Situation (SS), at the representational level by semiprojective methods using story stems or pictures. Both methods gain access to different levels of a theoretically assumed inner working model of attachment, in which attachment at the behavioral level is supposed to be person specific, attachment at the representational level generalized. This study aimed at analyzing whether attachment behavior to mother and father is associated, and how it is linked to the generalized attachment representation. It was also examined whether in the case of no association between mother and father attachment behavior towards the major attachment figure is linked to the attachment representation. In the Duesseldorf study 67 children aged 5 years were observed in the SS with mother, 31 of them also in the SS with father. At the age of 6.5 years an attachment story completion task was conducted. When person specific attachment to mother and father was congruent (SS secure n=6, or insecure n=8) the attachment representation was consistent as well, when father and mother attachment were discrepant no association with attachment representation could be found. The findings did not confirm a stronger influence of the major attachment figure on the formation of the attachment representation.

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Association between Reactive Attachment Disorder and Attachment Narratives in Early School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Helen; Green, Jonathan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Liew, Ashley; Glaser, D.; Taylor, E.; Follan, M.; Young, D.; Barnes, J.; Gillberg, C.; Pelosi, A.; Arthur, J.; Burston, A.; Connolly, B.; Sadiq, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore attachment narratives in children diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: We compared attachment narratives, as measured by the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, in a group of 33 children with a diagnosis of RAD and 37 comparison children. Results: The relative risk (RR) for children with RAD having…

  5. Bowlby's attachment theory: implications for health visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partis, M

    2000-10-01

    This article reviews the current state of research in attachment theory. It also examines the relations between attachment, child care and development, and the significance of attachment to adult functioning and well-being. It seems likely that humans need close emotional relationships or bonds with others. This need applies particularly to infants, who look to parents or other care givers for love and security. The best-known psychological explanation of this need is attachment theory, which has been influential in increasing our understanding of the early mother-infant relationship, and in the formulation of guidelines for child care (Melhuish, 1998). Good-quality parental care may be difficult to define, and questions remain regarding the nature of child care and the consequences that it can have for later development. This article concludes with a discussion of the possible implications for health-visitor intervention within families, which are intended to improve the quality of the relationship between parents or care givers and the infant.

  6. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety leve

  7. No Strings Attached: Open Source Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Imagine downloading a new software application and not having to worry about licensing, finding dollars in the budget, or incurring additional maintenance costs. Imagine finding a Web design tool in the public domain--free for use. Imagine major universities that provide online courses with no strings attached. Imagine online textbooks without a…

  8. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  9. What is preferential to preferential attachment?

    CERN Document Server

    Small, Michael; Stemler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Preferential attachment --- where new nodes are added and attached to existing nodes with probability proportional to the existing nodes' degree --- has become the standard growth model for scale-free networks, where the asymptotic probability of a node having degree $k$ is proportional to $k^{-\\gamma}$. However, the motivation for this model is entirely {\\em ad hoc}. We use exact likelihood arguments and show that the optimal way to build a scale-free network is to preferentially attach to low degree nodes. Asymptotically, the optimal strategy is to attach the new node to one of the nodes of degree $k$ (in a network with $N$ nodes) with probability proportional to $\\frac{1}{N+\\zeta(\\gamma)(k+1)^\\gamma}$. The algorithm we propose to do this can be employed to generate optimally scale-free networks (maximum likelihood realisations) as well as a random sampling of the space of all scale-free networks with a given degree exponent $\\gamma$. While we focus on scale free networks, these methods can be applied to a ...

  10. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  11. Reactive attachment disorder as an evolutionary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbernie, Robin

    2010-05-01

    This paper suggests that the behaviours associated with the formal diagnosis of the "disinhibited" form of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) might be seen as a functional adaptation rather than a mental health problem, a facultative response enhancing the probability of survival that is triggered by certain conditions. Although disinhibited RAD is most commonly observed in institutionalised children, similar behaviours may also be a part of the emotional difficulties displayed by some fostered and adopted children (the latter includes those once institutionalised), and these may demonstrate not so much a discrete attachment disorder as either the need to fend for oneself following loss of dedicated caregiving or a lack of opportunity to build specific intimate relationships with dedicated caregivers. In many cases this may be inextricably mixed with the neurobiological and psychological seqelae of maltreatment. Indiscriminate attachment behaviour, from this proposed evolutionary perspective, is less a syndrome of mental ill-health than an astute survival manoeuvre following being orphaned, abandoned or fecklessly reared. Such a response, allied to the innate facility to access caregiving from different adults, could be expected to be initiated by specific events as are the other attachment configurations. Classing disinhibited RAD as an adaptation has implications for helping children brought up under extreme duress when their caregiving environment has changed for the better.

  12. Reactive Attachment Disorder in Maltreated Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Scheeringa, Michael; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl S.; Smyke, Anna T.; Trapani, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) can be reliably identified in maltreated toddlers in foster care, if the two types of RAD are independent, and to estimate the prevalence of RAD in these maltreated toddlers. Methods: Clinicians treating 94 maltreated toddlers in foster care were interviewed regarding signs of…

  13. Hidden Regulators in Attachment, Separation, and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Myron A.

    1994-01-01

    This essay discusses the similarities between animal behavior and human attachment behavior demonstrated by infants and their mothers. The provision of warmth, the tactile and olfactory stimulation of the mother's physical interactions, and the oral sensory and absorptive consequences of nursing are found to provide specific and independent…

  14. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  15. Should Charity Donations Have Strings Attached?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commonly held belief among most people is that acts of charity are carried out with no thought of getting something in return, or of attaching conditions to those who receive donations. It’s perhaps for this rea- son that events surrounding the Henan Charity Federation’s recent decision to add an agenda to students’ financial aid caused such a public outcry.

  16. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  17. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists.

  18. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  19. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.

  20. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  1. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature.

  2. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Fumiko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp, the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp, is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were

  3. Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtland, Kevin; Cox, Robert; Immer, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Two simple, effective techniques for attaching thermocouples to metal substrates have been devised for high-temperature applications in which attachment by such conventional means as welding, screws, epoxy, or tape would not be effective. The techniques have been used successfully to attach 0.005- in. (0.127-mm)-diameter type-S thermocouples to substrates of niobium alloy C-103 and stainless steel 416 for measuring temperatures up to 2,600 F (1,427 C). The techniques are equally applicable to other thermocouple and substrate materials. In the first technique, illustrated in the upper part of the figure, a hole slightly wider than twice the diameter of one thermocouple wire is drilled in the substrate. The thermocouple is placed in the hole, then the edge of the hole is peened in one or more places by use of a punch (see figure). The deformed material at the edge secures the thermocouple in the hole. In the second technique a hole is drilled as in the first technique, then an annular relief area is machined around the hole, resulting in structure reminiscent of a volcano in a crater. The thermocouple is placed in the hole as in the first technique, then the "volcano" material is either peened by use of a punch or crimped by use of sidecutters to secure the thermocouple in place. This second technique is preferable for very thin thermocouples [wire diameter .0.005 in. (.0.127 mm)] because standard peening poses a greater risk of clipping one or both of the thermocouple wires. These techniques offer the following advantages over prior thermocouple-attachment techniques: . Because these techniques involve drilling of very small holes, they are minimally invasive . an important advantage in that, to a first approximation, the thermal properties of surrounding areas are not appreciably affected. . These techniques do not involve introduction of any material, other than the substrate and thermocouple materials, that could cause contamination, could decompose, or oxidize

  4. Mentalization and attachment representations: a theoretical contribution to the understanding of reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Natalie; Terradas, Miguel M

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an understanding of children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) through psychoanalytic thought and mentalization theory. RAD is presented followed by a discussion on attachment and the need for a better understanding of this disorder. Theories from British psychoanalytic thinkers are used to describe what might be transpiring in the early relationship between mother and child. Particular attention is given to how children's internal objects are influenced by a compromised early mother-child relationship.

  5. Assessing Attachment Representations in Adolescents: Discriminant Validation of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Buchheim, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of attachment to human development and clinical risk is well established for children and adults, yet there is relatively limited knowledge about attachment in adolescence due to the poor availability of construct valid measures. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a reliable and valid instrument to assess adult attachment status. This study examines for the first time the discriminant validity of the AAP in adolescents. In our sample of 79 teenagers between 15 and 18 years, 42 % were classified as secure, 34 % as insecure-dismissing, 13 % as insecure-preoccupied and 11 % as unresolved. The results demonstrated discriminant validity for using the AAP in that age group, with no associations between attachment classifications and verbal intelligence, social desirability, story length or sociodemographic variables. These results poise the AAP to be used in clinical intervention and large-scale research investigating normative and atypical developmental correlates and sequelae of attachment, including psychopathology in adolescence.

  6. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy: Validation of the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I F

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioural, cognitive-behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis by monitoring clients' verbal activity. These results also provide information regarding the ways in which differences in attachment status play out in therapy sessions and further the study of attachment in psychotherapy from a pre-treatment client factor to a process variable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Locator or ball attachment: a guide for clinical decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttel, Adrian E; Bühler, Nico M; Marinello, Carlo P

    2009-01-01

    Various attachments are available to retain overdentures on natural roots or implants. Technical aspects, the clinical handling, the capability to adapt or repair and the costs are parameters to be considered when choosing the appropriate attachment. Ball attachments and bars are clinically established and well documented. Ball attachments as prefabricated, unsplinted units are easily replaceable and show hygienic advantages, while bars show favorable stability. The Locator is a newer, popular clinical alternative to these established attachments. The ball attachment and the Locator are compared from a technical and clinical point of view.

  8. Conflict in close relationships: an attachment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J A; Rholes, W S; Phillips, D

    1996-11-01

    This study investigated how perceptions of current dating partners and relationships change after people with different attachment orientations attempt to resolve a problem in their relationship. Dating couples were videotaped while they tried to resolve either a major or a minor problem. Confirming predictions from attachment theory, men and women who had a more ambivalent orientation perceived their partner and relationship in relatively less positive terms after discussing a major problem. Observer ratings revealed that more ambivalent women who tried to resolve a major problem displayed particularly strong stress and anxiety and engaged in more negative behaviors. Conversely, men with a more avoidant orientation were rated as less warm and supportive, especially if they discussed a major problem. These results are discussed in terms of how highly ambivalent and highly avoidant people differentially perceive and respond to distressing events.

  9. Attachment theory and John Bowlby: some reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan

    2007-12-01

    The 100th anniversary of Edward John Mostyn Bowlby's birth (February 26th, 1907) was celebrated at the Tavistock Clinic in London by his family and colleagues, with presentations of ongoing research as well as reflections on both the person and his theory. My own reflections include the influence of ethological thinking on the development of attachment theory, Bowlby's focus on observations followed by explanation, his appreciation of emotional communication as well as behavior, and his recognition of the role of the family as well as the child/caregiver dyad. While always remaining open to new avenues of research, John Bowlby was firmly insistent on the precise use of attachment terminology, and quite rightly too!

  10. DFB laser with attached external intensity modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, D. (AT and T Bell Labs. Holmdel, NJ (US))

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the frequency pulling effect exerted on a DFB laser by an external amplitude modulator that is directly attached to it. The modulator consists of a piece of waveguide whose loss is modulated by means of an externally applied voltage. The modulator affects the laser due to residual reflections from its far end which appear as a variable effective reflectivity to the output end of the DFB laser. Modulation affects the magnitude as well as the phase of the effective reflection coefficient presented to the laser due to the coupling of the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of the modulator waveguide. The tuning problem is formulated as an eigenvalue equation for the DFB laser in the presence of an externally attached lossy cavity.

  11. Attachment of Thiobacillus thiooxidans to sulfur crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHAEFFER, W I; HOLBERT, P E; UMBREIT, W W

    1963-01-01

    Schaeffer, W. I. (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.), P. E. Holbert, and W. W. Umbreit. Attachment of Thiobacillus thiooxidans to sulfur crystals. J. Bacteriol. 85:137-140. 1963.-Electron micrographs of replicas of sulfur crystals before and after attack by Thiobacillus thiooxidans show that the microorganisms erode the crystal in the area immediately adjacent to the cell. When there are many cells, the entire crystal surface appears eroded.

  12. Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.

  13. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels (N = 98). Following Mary Ainsworth's lead, our maternal sensitivity measures were primarily based on ratings of direct observations. Six sets of measures were obtained: positive maternal style at home (a mean of four different ratings); providing a sensitive framework, limit setting, allowing autonomy, criticizing/cutting in (each a mean over two laboratory joint tasks); and tension-making (a mean of three different ratings in a fear-inducing task). Regression analyses showed firstly that maternal anxiety rather than behavioral inhibition or sex of child was the significant predictor of each maternal sensitivity measure; and secondly that these measures rather than maternal anxiety or sex were the significant predictors of security of attachment. Finally, ANOVA's indicated which sets of maternal ratings were associated with each pattern of attachment (Avoidant, Secure, Ambivalent, or Controlling).

  14. Discriminant validity of the adult attachment interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, J A; Waters, E; Treboux, D; O'Connor, E O; Colon-Downs, C; Feider, O; Golby, B; Posada

    1996-10-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview is a semi-structured interview developed to investigate adults' attachment representations. Subjects are asked to describe their parents as caregivers, explain these descriptions, describe how their parents typically responded to distress, and discuss their current relationships with their parents. They are also asked to describe any significant losses and/or instances of abuse during childhood. Scoring focuses on the accessibility of early experiences to memory and the coherence and plausibility of the subject's narrative. Discriminant validity is always an important issue with such measures because IQ and other cognitively loaded variables offer plausible alternative interpretations or represent important correlates that should be treated as covariates when the measure is used. In addition, complex, multifaceted interviews always pose the risk of assessing general social adjustment rather than a more narrowly defined construct. This study examines the discriminant validity of the AAI vis(-)à-vis intelligence, social desirability, discourse style, and general social adjustment in a sample of 53 native-English-speaking, married women with preschool children. They were assessed with the AAI, a written IQ test, the Social Adjustment Scale, the Employment Experience Interview (discourse style), and a measure of social desirability. There were modest but significant correlations with IQ scores and social adjustment. There was no relation between AAI classifications and discourse style or social desirability. These results substantially strengthen the case for interpreting the AAI as an attachment-related measure.

  15. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  16. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  17. Child trauma, attachment and biofeedback mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, N; Zorcec, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the quality of attachment in early infancy and the effects of child trauma, as well as to introduce some innovative therapeutic approaches. For this reason, a group of 10 children manifesting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), diagnosed by ICD-10, was selected. The mean age of the patients was 9 +/- 3.05 years, from both sexes (girls 3, boys 7). Mothers and children were examined by a battery of psychometric instruments Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition to the classical psychotherapeutic methods (supportive, behaviour and play therapy), the multimodal computerised biofeedback technique was introduced for both assessment and therapy. The results for the children showed a high level of anxiety and stress, somatisation and behavioural problems (aggressivity, impulsivity, non-obedience, and nightmares), complemented by hypersensitive and depressive mothers and miss-attachment in the early period of infancy. Consequently, the explanation of the early predisposition to PTSD was related to be the non-developed Right Orbitofrontal Cortex-ROFC. The latter resulted from insecure attachment confirmed in all the children examined. The therapeutic results obtained with biofeedback techniques are very encouraging.

  18. Attachment and autonomy problems in adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, R.G.; van Vroenhoven, S.; Karreman, A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attachment security and autonomy were examined in adults with ADHD. Insecure attachment and autonomy problems were expected to be negatively associated with general psychological functioning. Method: Questionnaires were administered (Relationship Questionnaire, Autonomy-Connectedness Scal

  19. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010). Hazan a Shaver (1987) applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Fe...

  20. Disrupted caring attachments: implications for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2002-01-01

    Caring attachments or social supports are the positive psychological and physical contacts and relationships between people. These attachments have been associated with improved health, well-being, and longevity. It is also true that disrupted caring attachments are associated with impaired health and well-being. This paper reviews the general medical and elder medical findings of disrupted caring attachments and negative health outcomes. The implications of these findings for dementia sufferers, caregivers, and long-term care staff are examined.

  1. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    OpenAIRE

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Based on Bowlby’s attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity.Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew’s attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the re...

  2. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing.

  3. Neurobiology of secure infant attachment and attachment despite adversity: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Raineki, C; Salstein, L; Perry, R; Sullivan-Wilson, T A; Sloan, A; Lalji, B; Hammock, E; Wilson, D A; Levitt, P; Okutani, F; Kaba, H; Sullivan, R M

    2013-10-01

    Attachment to an abusive caregiver has wide phylogenetic representation, suggesting that animal models are useful in understanding the neural basis underlying this phenomenon and subsequent behavioral outcomes. We previously developed a rat model, in which we use classical conditioning to parallel learning processes evoked during secure attachment (odor-stroke, with stroke mimicking tactile stimulation from the caregiver) or attachment despite adversity (odor-shock, with shock mimicking maltreatment). Here we extend this model to mice. We conditioned infant mice (postnatal day (PN) 7-9 or 13-14) with presentations of peppermint odor and either stroking or shock. We used (14) C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to assess olfactory bulb and amygdala metabolic changes following learning. PN7-9 mice learned to prefer an odor following either odor-stroke or shock conditioning, whereas odor-shock conditioning at PN13-14 resulted in aversion/fear learning. 2-DG data indicated enhanced bulbar activity in PN7-9 preference learning, whereas significant amygdala activity was present following aversion learning at PN13-14. Overall, the mouse results parallel behavioral and neural results in the rat model of attachment, and provide the foundation for the use of transgenic and knockout models to assess the impact of both genetic (biological vulnerabilities) and environmental factors (abusive) on attachment-related behaviors and behavioral development.

  4. From secure dependency to attachment: Mary Ainsworth's integration of Blatz's security theory into Bowlby's attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen, Lenny; van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, René

    2016-02-01

    John Bowlby is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, with the help of Mary Ainsworth. Through her Uganda and Baltimore studies Ainsworth provided empirical evidence for attachment theory, and she contributed the notion of the secure base and exploratory behavior, the Strange Situation Procedure and its classification system, and the notion of maternal sensitivity. On closer scrutiny, many of these contributions appear to be heavily influenced by William Blatz and his security theory. Even though Blatz's influence on Ainsworth has been generally acknowledged, this article, partly based on understudied correspondence from several personal archives, is the first to show which specific parts of attachment theory can be traced back directly to Blatz and his security theory. When Ainsworth started working with Bowlby in the 1950s, around the time he turned to evolutionary theory for an explanation of his findings, she integrated much of Blatzian security theory into Bowlby's theory in the making and used her theoretical and practical experience to enrich attachment theory. Even though Blatz is hardly mentioned nowadays, several of his ideas live on in attachment theory.

  5. Mental representations of attachment in eating disorders: a pilot study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Guiducci, Valentina

    2009-07-01

    Mental representations of attachment in a sample of adults with Eating Disorders (ED) were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Sixty subjects participated in the study: 30 non-clinical and 30 clinical. The results obtained showed a specific distribution of attachment patterns in the clinical sample: 10% Free/Autonomous (F), 47% Insecure-Dismissing (Ds), 17% Insecure-Entangled/Preoccupied (E) and about 26% disorganized (CC/U). The two samples differed in their attachment pattern distribution and were significantly different on some coding system scales. Further information was obtained by analyzing differences between the three ED subtypes considered (i.e. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder) and by investigating the differential role of the two parental figures in the definition of attachment representations. Results showed potential benefits in using the AAI coding system scales in addition to the main classifications in order to understand better the developmental issues involved in these disorders. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  6. Anxious attachment may be a vulnerability factor for developing embitterment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, D.; Middendorp, H. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    By predisposing to ego-defensive strategies in social situations, a negative attachment history may promote embitterment. The present study identified attachment anxiety - more than attachment avoidance - as a possible vulnerability factor for the development and maintenance of embitterment. This fa

  7. Associations between Attachment Security and Social Competence in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theorists suggest that attachment security with parents supports the quality of social adaptation in peer groups during early childhood, and numerous studies supporting this conjecture have been published. Most of these studies used enacted representations rather than mental representations of attachment security, and most studies…

  8. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; DeYoreo, James J.; Kwon, Youngeun

    2011-07-05

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  9. 49 CFR 583.9 - Attachment and maintenance of label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attachment and maintenance of label. 583.9 Section 583.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC... Attachment and maintenance of label. (a) Attachment of the label. (1) Except as provided in (a)(2),...

  10. Attachment Representations and Characteristics of Friendship Relations during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and…

  11. Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, William J.; Sherry, Alissa

    2001-01-01

    Using K. Bartholomew's (1990) 4-dimensional model of adult attachment as an organizational framework, 10 developmental personality styles are differentiated regarding their unique attachment experiences, working models of self and other, and feedforward beliefs. Implications of an attachment theory framework for counseling clients with problematic…

  12. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  13. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  14. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  15. Predictive Implications of Secure Mother-Infant Attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Judith Lynn

    The general proposition of attachment theory is that attachment is grounded in an independent, biologically based system. The quality of primary attachment relationships strongly influences a child's early personality organization, particularly the concept of self and others. The theory emphasizes the primary status and biological function of…

  16. Fathers in Attachment Theory and Research: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of attachment research on fathers as a backdrop against which the other contributions to this volume can be viewed. Empirical research on child-father attachment progressed in four phases and began before Bowlby in 1969 published the first volume of his attachment trilogy. During each phase a different set of…

  17. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  18. Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

  19. Parental Attachment and Identity in Portuguese Late Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Paula Mena; Barbosa, Sonia; de Almeida, Helena Milheiro; Costa, Maria Emilia

    1999-01-01

    Based on life span attachment perspective and on identity status paradigm, this study investigated the relationship between attachment and identity in a sample of 361 Portuguese late adolescents as a function of parental and adolescent gender. The results indicated gender differences in the association between attachment variables and identity…

  20. The Development of an Assessment Protocol for Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheperis, Carl J.; Doggett, R. Anthony; Hoda, Nicholas E.; Blanchard, Tracy; Renfro-Michel, Edina L.; Holdiness, Sacky H.; Schlagheck, Robyn

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a battery of semi-structured interviews, global assessment scales, attachment-specific scales, and behavioral observations to help mental health counselors identify Reactive Attachment Disorder, a syndrome associated with extreme attachment problems. (Contains 25 references and 2 tables.) (GCP)

  1. Agoraphobia and anxious-ambivalent attachment: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that internal working models of attachment, that is, mental representations of attachment relationships, are shaped in childhood experiences with primary caregivers. It is hypothesized that an anxious-ambivalent internal working model of attechment is a risk factor for the

  2. 12 CFR 1511.8 - Notice of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of attachment. 1511.8 Section 1511.8....8 Notice of attachment. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by a... or other notice of attachment in any particular case or class of cases....

  3. Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and Uninvolved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiv, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…

  4. Processes involved in client-nominated relationship building incidents: Client attachment, attachment to therapist, and session impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Jennifer; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn; Drapeau, Martin

    2008-09-01

    Thirty volunteer clients of trainee therapists nominated an incident that was critical in the development of their therapeutic relationship. Clients completed the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECRS), and the Session Impacts Scale (SIS). Clients reported an increase in attachment security with their therapists, along with perceptions of support and relief and increasing exploration following the relationship building incident. While clients' avoidant attachment was unrelated to attachment to the therapist prior to the incidents, in subsequent sessions avoidance was related to a change in secure attachment to therapist. Finally, client attachment to therapist but not general attachment was significantly related to in-session exploration. Findings are discussed in light of attachment theory and convergence with findings from the field of social psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Adult attachment status and psychological disorder: the predictive validity of adult attachment in violent, personality-disordered patients

    OpenAIRE

    McGauley, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of attachment in a group of violent, personality-disordered patients in a high secure hospital. The research examines the mental representation of attachment and the perception of parenting, as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview and the Parental Bonding Instrument, in this patient group and examines whether these differ from those of non-violent psychiatric patients. A prospective study examines whether the attachment measures predict change across a rang...

  6. The Relation of Insecure Attachment States of Mind and Romantic Attachment Styles to Adolescent Aggression in Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P; Manning, Nell

    2010-01-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was li...

  7. From detached to attached buildup complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, B.; Elvebakk, G.; Andreassen, K.

    2008-01-01

    warm- and cool-water carbonate buildups from the Finnmark Platform is controlled by faults and the sea floor morphology at the time of their growth. A fluctuating sea level affected the growth of the carbonate buildups, but they also influenced their own environment by forming lagoons, atoll...... deposition and buildup growth bridged the detached platform with the attached platform. In the Bjarmeland Group (Lower Permian) 0.35-4.8 km wide, 1.5-27 km long and 60-420 m thick cool-water bryozoan-dominated straight, sinuous and continuous carbonate ridges or atoll-like ridges are located on top...

  8. Reaching kids with reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Linda

    2008-01-01

    These kids are real. The behavior is real. The work is long and hard, but with patience and perseverance, changes are made. Reactive attachment disorder is a terrible thing. We must never give up on these kids. Every now and then, a success story comes along. The child goes home and in the wake of his or her leaving are letters addressed in uneven script to staff: Deer mister C. I am doing good. School is good. Thank you for helpin me. I luv you.

  9. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  10. Attachment and prejudice: The mediating role of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Elle M; Carnelley, Katherine B

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), empathy subscales (perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress), and prejudice towards Muslims. Across both studies, empathy mediated the relationship between primed attachment security and low prejudice levels. The findings suggest that enhancing felt security and empathic skills in individuals high in attachment-avoidance may lead to reduced prejudice.

  11. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  12. Mussel byssus attachment weakened by ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; George, Matthew N.; Carrington, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials connect organisms to their environments. Their function depends on biological, chemical and environmental factors, both at the time of creation and throughout the life of the material. Shifts in the chemistry of the oceans driven by anthropogenic CO2 (termed ocean acidification) have profound implications for the function of critical materials formed under these altered conditions. Most ocean acidification studies have focused on one biomaterial (secreted calcium carbonate), frequently using a single assay (net rate of calcification) to quantify whether reductions in environmental pH alter how organisms create biomaterials. Here, we examine biological structures critical for the success of ecologically and economically important bivalve molluscs. One non-calcified material, the proteinaceous byssal threads that anchor mytilid mussels to hard substrates, exhibited reduced mechanical performance when secreted under elevated pCO2 conditions, whereas shell and tissue growth were unaffected. Threads made under high pCO2 (>1,200μatm) were weaker and less extensible owing to compromised attachment to the substratum. According to a mathematical model, this reduced byssal fibre performance, decreasing individual tenacity by 40%. In the face of ocean acidification, weakened attachment presents a potential challenge for suspension-culture mussel farms and for intertidal communities anchored by mussel beds.

  13. [Early attachement relationships and epigenetic customization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Giordana; Serio, Valentina; Carluccio, Giuseppe Mattia; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Zaccagni, Michela; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Aceti, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new findings in epigenetic science switched the focus from the observation of physiological intragenomic dynamics to the idea of an environmental co-construction of phenotypic expression. In psichodynamic field, objectual relations and attachement theoreticians emphasized the interpersonal dimension of individual development, focusing the attention on the relational matrix of self organization. The construction of stable affective-behavioral traits throughout different parenting styles has actually found a coincidence in ethological studies, which have explored the epigenetic processes underlying the relationship between caregiving and HPA stress responsiveness. An adequate parenting style seems to support affective regulation throughout psychobiological hidden moderators, which would tend to rebalance the physiological systems homeostasis; an unconfident attachment style would promote, on the other hand, the allostatic load rise. Sites of longlife epigenetic susceptibility have also been identified in humans; although associated with risk of maladaptive developing in adverse environmental conditions, they seem to confer protection under favorable conditions. This persisting possibility of reorganization of stable traits throughout lifetime, which seems to be activated by a relevant environmental input, grant to significant relationships, and to therapeutical one as well, an implicit reconditioning potential which could result into the configuration of new stable affective-behavioral styles.

  14. Points d’attache : Derrida, Cixous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hughes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Les manuscrits échangés entre Hélène Cixous et Jacques Derrida portent les traces de leur amitié, dont le dialogue traverse des décennies d’écriture littéraire et philosophique. Sur les manuscrits du Prénom de Dieu, de Voiles, et de « Circonfession » – qui ont circulé entre les deux auteurs – on peut lire les marginalia, la ponctuation élargie, et la mise en page reconstituée comme des points d’attache entre manuscrit, écrivain, et lecteur. Nous sommes amenés à considérer la surface de l’objet manuscrit comme un lieu de rencontres perpétuelles qui réactivent l’écriture en archive et au-delà – sujet qui regagne en urgence quant aux nouvelles technologies comme les logiciels de traitement de texte et les disques durs. Ces objets textuels servent aussi bien à lier les deux écrivains à la scène de l’écriture, le lecteur étant pris à témoin, qu’à renouer les attaches entre Cixous et Derrida, les solidifiant à travers l’écriture – même de manière posthume.

  15. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O.; Arena, L.; Griffiths, D.

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  16. Complex cooperative networks from evolutionary preferential attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Poncela

    Full Text Available In spite of its relevance to the origin of complex networks, the interplay between form and function and its role during network formation remains largely unexplored. While recent studies introduce dynamics by considering rewiring processes of a pre-existent network, we study network growth and formation by proposing an evolutionary preferential attachment model, its main feature being that the capacity of a node to attract new links depends on a dynamical variable governed in turn by the node interactions. As a specific example, we focus on the problem of the emergence of cooperation by analyzing the formation of a social network with interactions given by the Prisoner's Dilemma. The resulting networks show many features of real systems, such as scale-free degree distributions, cooperative behavior and hierarchical clustering. Interestingly, results such as the cooperators being located mostly on nodes of intermediate degree are very different from the observations of cooperative behavior on static networks. The evolutionary preferential attachment mechanism points to an evolutionary origin of scale-free networks and may help understand similar feedback problems in the dynamics of complex networks by appropriately choosing the game describing the interaction of nodes.

  17. Analysis strategies for longitudinal attachment loss data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J D; Elter, J R

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this invited review is to describe and discuss methods currently in use to quantify the progression of attachment loss in epidemiological studies of periodontal disease, and to make recommendations for specific analytic methods based upon the particular design of the study and structure of the data. The review concentrates on the definition of incident attachment loss (ALOSS) and its component parts; measurement issues including thresholds and regression to the mean; methods of accounting for longitudinal change, including changes in means, changes in proportions of affected sites, incidence density, the effect of tooth loss and reversals, and repeated events; statistical models of longitudinal change, including the incorporation of the time element, use of linear, logistic or Poisson regression or survival analysis, and statistical tests; site vs person level of analysis, including statistical adjustment for correlated data; the strengths and limitations of ALOSS data. Examples from the Piedmont 65+ Dental Study are used to illustrate specific concepts. We conclude that incidence density is the preferred methodology to use for periodontal studies with more than one period of follow-up and that the use of studies not employing methods for dealing with complex samples, correlated data, and repeated measures does not take advantage of our current understanding of the site- and person-level variables important in periodontal disease and may generate biased results.

  18. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair.

  19. The association between state attachment security and state Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Pepping

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions.

  20. Cutting Gordian Knots: Reducing Prejudice Through Attachment Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Prot, Sara; Cikara, Mina; Lam, Ben C P; Anderson, Craig A; Jelic, Margareta

    2015-11-01

    The positive role of secure attachment in reducing intergroup biases has been suggested in prior studies. We extend this work by testing the effects of secure attachment primes on negative emotions and aggressive behaviors toward outgroup members across four experiments. Results from Studies 1A and 1B reveal that secure attachment prime, relative to neutral, can reduce negative outgroup emotions. In addition, Studies 1B and 3 results rule out positive mood increase as an alternative explanation for the observed effects. Results from Studies 2 and 3 reveal that secure attachment primes can reduce aggressive behavior toward an outgroup member. The effect of secure attachment primes on outgroup harm was found to be fully mediated by negative emotions in Studies 2 and 3. An interaction between secure attachment primes and ingroup identification in Study 2 indicated that the positive effects of secure attachment in reducing outgroup harm may be especially beneficial for highly identified ingroup members.

  1. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010. Hazan a Shaver (1987 applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Feeney, 1999. Brennan, Clark a Shaver (1998 created four-dimensional model of attachment which was based on Ainsworth´s theory as well. The model was formed of two dimensions - anxiety and avoidance. The authors identified four types of attachment: secure, fearful, dismissive and preoccupied style of attachment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998. Satisfaction in romantic relationship can be explained as a degree in which is relationship for a human enojyable. Attachment influences satisfaction in relationship in terms of meeting need of proximity and safety (Mikulincer, Florian, Cowan, & Cowan, 2002. Several researches show that safe attachment is associated with higher satisfaction in marriage and on the other hand people with insecure style of attachment show lower degree of satisfaction in relationship (Alexandrov, Cowan, & Cowan, 2005; Treboux, Crowell, & Waters, 2004. At the same time style of attachment of the partner also influences individual a lot, satisfaction does not depend only on his own style of attachment but also on attachment of his partner (Farinelli, & McEwan, 2009. The study examined relations between the relationship attachment and marital satisfaction. The goal was to explain the relationship between the adult attachment and marital satisfaction of the individual and her/his husband/wife. The research examined relationship between adult attachment and marital satisfaction as well. Quantitative questionnaire survey: The battery consisted of

  2. Anxious attachment and psychological distress in cardiac rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Sarah Rose, M; Brewis, C S

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychologically distressed and non-psychologically distressed cardiac patients. Attachment is a biologically based behavioral system in which proximity to a special other is sought or maintained to achieve a sense of safety and security. Anxious attachment, as the name denotes, fails to achieve the function of attachment in the sense of individuals having little or no confidence in the availability of their attachment figures. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking and separation protest) capture the features of anxious attachment as elaborated by Bowlby. These scales were administered to 178 cardiac rehabilitation patients drawn from the cardiac rehabilitation program of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that feared loss and proximity seeking differentiated psychologically distressed from non-psychologically distressed patients. The implications of this finding for the understanding of psychologically distressed cardiac patients are discussed.

  3. Priming the Secure Attachment Schema: Effects on Emotion Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panoraia Andriopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of secure schema activation on selective attention towards attachment-related and emotional information. Seventy two participants were randomly allocated into two conditions–subliminal priming of mental representations of supportive attachment figures (a Picasso sketch of a mother holding a baby and looking into his eyes and a no priming condition followed by an administration of a dot probe task that included positive and negative attachment-related and emotion words. The results showed that the activation of the secure prime in conjunction with chronic attachment orientations affected the processing of positive and negative attachment-unrelated emotional information. Results highlight relationships between higher-order processes of the attachment system (attachment schema activation with early stage information processing (selective attention as assessed by the dot probe task. Methodological issues are discussed with reference to the priming method used and the traditional version of the dot-probe task.

  4. Typhlocolitis associated with spirochaetes in duck flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glávits, Róbert; Ivanics, Eva; Thuma, Akos; Kaszanyitzky, Eva; Samu, Péterné; Ursu, Krisztina; Dencso, László; Dán, Adám

    2011-02-01

    The aetiology of increased mortality observed in two breeder duck flocks (Flock A consisting of 3500 laying ducks and Flock B comprising 4300 laying ducks) during the first egg-laying season was studied. In Flocks A and B, 773 ducks and 715 ducks (18.4% and 16.6%) died within a 24-week and a 20-week period, respectively. Death was preceded by clinical signs including movement difficulties, lack of appetite and depression lasting for 1 to 2 days. Diarrhoea was not observed. On gross pathological examination, the ducks were found to have haemorrhagic to fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis, renal degeneration accompanied by fibrosis and mineralization, hepatic and splenic amyloidosis, and swelling of some of the metatarsal and phalangeal joints. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination consistently demonstrated spirochaetes in the mucous membrane of the affected large intestine. On the basis of their cultural and biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction sequencing analysis, four out of seven spirochaete strains isolated from the ducks (Flock A) by culture on special media under anaerobic conditions were identified as Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and five out of eight strains (Flock B) were identified as Brachyspira pilosicoli. This is the first report on the isolation of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli from laying ducks affected by fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis.

  5. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  6. The relation of insecure attachment states of mind and romantic attachment styles to adolescent aggression in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miga, Erin M; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P; Manning, Nell

    2010-09-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners' romantic attachment anxiety was linked to both psychological and physical aggression perpetration in romantic relationships. Results are interpreted as suggesting the value of assessing aggression in adolescent romantic relationships in the context of broader patterns of regulation of affect and behavior via the attachment system.

  7. Childhood attachment and schizophrenia: the "attachment-developmental-cognitive" (ADC) hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric syndrome whose exact causes remain unclear. However, current scientific consensus has highlighted the importance of neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive processes in the development of schizophrenic symptoms. Research over the past three decades, motivated by the findings of the World Health Organization's large-scale studies, has highlighted the importance of psychosocial adversities - including childhood abuse and neglect - in this disorder. In this paper, I propose a hypothesis based on John Bowlby's framework of attachment theory, which I have termed the attachment-developmental-cognitive (ADC) hypothesis. The ADC hypothesis integrates recent developments related to (1) existing models of schizophrenia, (2) studies examining the effect of attachment on brain biology and cognitive development, and (3) various known facts about the course and outcome of this disorder. In doing so, it explains how disturbed childhood attachment leads to core psychological and neurochemical abnormalities which are implicated in the genesis of schizophrenia and also affect its outcome. The ADC hypothesis compasses and expands on earlier formulations, such as the "social defeat" and "traumagenic" models, and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of schizophrenia. Ways of testing and refining this hypothesis are outlined as avenues for future research. Though provisional, the ADC hypothesis is entirely consistent with both biological and psychosocial research into the origins of schizophrenia.

  8. Technical Scientific Attaches and domotics. A special issue; Technisch Wetenschappelijk Attaches en domotica. Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinenberg, R.A. [Ministerie van Economische Zaken, The Hague (Netherlands); Uythof, B.H. [Invenit, Domotica Platform Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Benedetti, D [Ufficio Tecnico-Scientifico, Ambasciata del Regno dei Paesi Bassi, Rome (Italy); Van Wijngaarden, W.L. [Buero fuer Wissenschaft und Technologie, Kgl. Niederlaendische Botschaft, Bonn (Germany); Leniger, H.D.F. [Bureau du Conseiller Scientifique et Technique, Ambassade des Pays-Bas, Paris (France); Kieboom, J.P. [Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Singapore (Singapore); Van Kooij, E.H. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Tokyo (Japan); Schuurmans, H.J.A. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In this Dutch magazine Dutch businesses and institutes are informed about technological developments in industrialized countries (USA, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Germany, France and Italy). In this special issue attaches in the different countries present information on developments and trends with respect to domotics, building automation, home networks, etc.

  9. Change in attachment to the therapy group generalizes to change in individual attachment among women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Gick, Mary; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    Attachment to groups is analogous to attachment to individuals, and may play an important role in group functioning and in group psychotherapy outcomes. This study examined whether attachment to the therapy group can change during treatment, and whether such change predicts improvements in treatment outcomes, including individual attachment, up to 1 year posttreatment. Eighty-seven women with binge eating disorder (BED) attended Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP). Participants were assigned to one of two conditions in which groups were homogeneously composed of women with either higher or lower individual attachment anxiety. Outcomes were assessed pre, post, 6 months, and 1 year posttreatment. Attachment to the group was assessed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of GPIP. Group attachment insecurity decreased significantly during treatment. Reductions in group attachment avoidance predicted decreases in individual attachment insecurity at 1 year posttreatment. Study condition did not moderate these associations. These results indicate that women with BED who receive GPIP are able to generalize improvements in group attachment security to their individual attachment relationships outside of therapy up to 1 year post group treatment.

  10. Attachment mental states and inferred pathways of development in borderline personality disorder: a study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Fossati, Andrea; Guiducci, Valentina

    2011-09-01

    We report the outcome of an investigation on how specific attachment states of mind and corresponding risk factors related to different DSM Axis I comorbidities in subjects with BPD. Mental representations of attachment in four BPD sub-groups (BPD and Anxiety/Mood Disorders, BPD and Substance Use and Abuse Disorders, BPD and Alcohol Use and Abuse Disorders, and BPD and Eating Disorders) were assessed in 140 BPD subjects using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). In addition to the global attachment picture in which Insecure organized (Dismissing 51% and Enmeshed 35%) and Insecure disorganized categories (40%) were overrepresented, significant differences in attachment category were found between the four BPD sub-groups. Axis I comorbidities corresponded with attachment features on the internalizing/externalizing functioning dimension of the disorder. Furthermore, specific constellations of inferred developmental antecedents and attachment states of mind corresponded differentially with the BPD sub-groups. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  11. Quantifying the attachment strength of climbing plants: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Danninger, Elisabeth; Harder, Deane; Speck, Thomas; Kraft, Oliver; Schwaiger, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    In order to grow vertically, it is essential for climbing plants to firmly attach to their supporting structures. In climbing plants, different strategies for permanent attachment can be distinguished. Besides twining stems and tendrils, many plants use attachment pads or attachment roots for this purpose. Using a novel custom-built tensile testing setup, the mechanical properties of different permanent attachment structures of self-clinging plant species were investigated, namely the attachment pads of Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata), the attachment roots of ivy (Hedera helix) and the clustered attachment roots of trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans). Force-displacement measurements of individual attachment pads as well as of complete structures consisting of several pads or roots were conducted for both natural and laboratory growth conditions. The shapes of the curves and the maximum forces determined indicate clear differences in the detachment process for the different plants and structures tested. Based on these findings, it is argued that the attachment structures are displacement-optimized rather than force-optimized.

  12. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  13. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC). A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing attachment styles. This may

  14. Growth fluctuation in preferential attachment dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    In the Yule-Simon process, creation and selection of words follows the preferential attachment mechanism, resulting in a power-law growth in the cumulative number of individual word occurrences as well as the power-law population distribution of the vocabulary. This is derived using mean-field approximation, assuming a continuum limit of both the time and number of word occurrences. However, time and word occurrences are inherently discrete in the process, and it is natural to assume that the cumulative number of word occurrences has a certain fluctuation around the average behavior predicted by the mean-field approximation. We derive the exact and approximate forms of the probability distribution of such fluctuation analytically, and confirm that those probability distributions are well supported by the numerical experiments.

  15. The Turkish version of Maternal Attachment Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Kavlak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research has been designed as methodological with purpose of the validity and the reliability of the Turkish language version of Maternal Attachment Inventory on mothers within one and four months postpartum. Method: This study was carried out with mothers registered at 19 Health Clinics and three Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning Clinics in which connected to Bornova Health Presidency in Izmir. The sample of research has been composed three clinics in which determined with the purposive sampling technique. First stage, the research was studied on 165 mothers when their babies were approximately 30-40 days old in these registered clinics.At the second stage of research has been interviewed again with 78 mothers when their babies were approximately 90-105 days old.Results: It is determined that experts consensuses about content of items as a result of analysis (Kendall’s W=0.274, p=0.001

  16. Dissociative electron attachment studies on acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S., E-mail: vaibhav@tifr.res.in; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Ghosh, Sanat; Gope, Krishnendu; Davis, Daly; Krishnakumar, E. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-10-28

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetone is studied in terms of the absolute cross section for various fragment channels in the electron energy range of 0–20 eV. H{sup −} is found to be the most dominant fragment followed by O{sup −} and OH{sup −} with only one resonance peak between 8 and 9 eV. The DEA dynamics is studied by measuring the angular distribution and kinetic energy distribution of fragment anions using Velocity Slice Imaging technique. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of H{sup −} and O{sup −} fragments suggest a many body break-up for the lone resonance observed. The ab initio calculations show that electron is captured in the multi-centered anti-bonding molecular orbital which would lead to a many body break-up of the resonance.

  17. Handcrafting Attachment: A User-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Lowry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Management, above all, is the controlling element responsible for coordinating the three basic business functions; production, marketing, and finance.  Mechanisms exist to facilitate the finance function with influence coming from outside regulatory bodies such as the AICPA, IIA, SEC, and other regulators.  Integrating the finance function into organizations, then, becomes somewhat generic (although some would argue this point.  Coordinating the functions of marketing and production is a much more difficult endeavor because it lacks the standardization seen in finance.  This paper suggests employing a more user-focused approach as a means to improving the overall quality of products, and eventually, the success of the organization.  Specifically, this paper explores the role of the human brain in the calculus of choice, discusses the role of consumer involvement as it leads to product attachment, and offers suggestions for employing contextual research to improve product design and quality.

  18. My Story has No Strings Attached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    cards can even be “gardening” tools. Sowing is the name used in Chile’s retail industry to call the data management strategy that consists of extending the credit limit of low income customers depending on their payment behavior. Data on previous transactions and behavior replaces collateral. Credit......In the retail industry, consumer credit is sometimes seen as a dangerous parasite that can become bigger than its host. Credit cards are marketing devices that aim at easing the attachment between consumers and goods. Credit cards are also value meters that trace every single transaction. Credit...... cards are not only used by the persons whose names are on the cards; People borrow and loan their cards, or, more precisely, their cards’ credit limits. Credit cards do not trace behavior but hidden networks. Can social relations act as parasites on credit – uninvited guests whose host is already...

  19. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-03-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface.

  20. Electron attachment to indole and related molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modelli, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.modelli@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Universitá di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), Universitá di Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Jones, Derek, E-mail: d.jones@isof.cnr.it [ISOF, Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattività, C.N.R., via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A., E-mail: sapsh@anrb.ru [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, 450075 Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-14

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0–6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of indoline (I), indene (II), indole (III), 2-methylen-1,3,3-trimethylindoline (IV), and 2,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0–14 eV energy range. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method is also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The loss of a hydrogen atom from the parent molecular anion ([M-H]{sup −}) provides the most intense signal in compounds I-IV. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo involving initial hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen atom of the indole moiety, present in a variety of biologically important molecules.

  1. 49 CFR Attachment 4 - State and Local Agency Review of Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 4 Attachment 4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL..., Attach. 4 Attachment 4—State and Local Agency Review of Impact Statements 1. OBM Revised Circular No. A... have been requested, as specified in Attachment 1....

  2. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  3. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years). This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  4. Attachment and Reflective Functioning in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoud, Deborah; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Germond, Charlotte; Luyten, Patrick; Perroud, Nader; Debbané, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Insecure attachment and impairments in reflective functioning (RF) are thought to play a critical role in borderline personality disorder (BPD). In particular, the mentalization-based model argues that insecure attachment indirectly accounts for increased BPD features, notably via disruption of RF capacities. Although the mediation relationship between attachment, RF, and BPD is supported by previous evidence, it remains to be directly tested in adults with BPD. In the current study, a sample of 55 female adult BPD patients and 105 female healthy controls completed a battery of self-report measures to investigate the interplay between attachment, RF capacities, and BPD clinical status. Overall, the results showed that BPD patients predominantly reported insecure attachment, characterized by negative internal working models of the self as unlovable and unimportant to others, and decreased RF abilities. Our findings further indicated that actual RF capacities mediated the relationships between adult insecure attachment and BPD clinical status.

  5. Social position, early deprivation and the development of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Head, Jenny; Bartley, Mel; Fonagy, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The effects of childhood social adversity on developing parent/child attachments may partially explain the effects of less advantaged childhood social position on adulthood mental health. Associations between social position, retrospectively recalled parental style and childhood emotional and physical deprivation and attachment were examined in 7,276 civil servants from the Whitehall II Study. Depressive symptoms were associated with insecure attachment style. Social position was not associated with attachment styles. However, fathers' social class was strongly associated with material and emotional deprivation. In turn, deprivation was associated with lower parental warmth. High parental warmth was associated with decreased risk of insecure attachment styles. Despite the methodological shortcomings of retrospective childhood data the results suggest material and emotional adversity influence the development of attachment through parental style, notably parental warmth.

  6. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency.

  7. Electron Attachment to DNA and RNA Nucleobases: An EOMCC Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Chintya Kumar; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    We report a benchmark theoretical investigation of both adiabatic and vertical electron affinities of five DNA and RNA nucleobases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil using state-of-the-art equation of motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) method. We have calculated the vertical electron affinity values of first five electron attached states of the DNA and RNA nucleobases and only the first electron attached state is found to be energetically accessible in gas phase. An analysis of the natural orbitals shows that the first electron attached states of uracil and thymine are valence-bound type and undergo significant structural changes on attachment of excess electron, which is reflected in the deviation of the adiabatic electron affinity from the vertical one. On the other hand, the first electron attached state of cytosine, adenine and guanine are dipole-bound type and their structure remain unaffected on attachment of an extra electron, which results in small deviation of adiabatic electron affinity fro...

  8. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  9. Hubungan Attachment Terhadap Ayah Dengan Kecerdasan Emosi Pada Remaja Laki-Laki

    OpenAIRE

    Asyava, Tengku Shella

    2011-01-01

    Ainsworth (1969) Attachment is the emotional bond that formed an individual with specific other people, they tied Dalan eternal attachment all the time. . Attachments will survive long enough in human life span that begins with the attachment of children to the mother or substitute mother figure (the father) This study aims to determine the relationship attachment (secure attachment, anxious attachment and avoidant attachment) with father male adolescent emotional intelligence male. Sampling ...

  10. The role of brand attachment strength in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Charles; Papagiannidis, Savvas; Alamanos, Eleftherios; Bourlakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of brand attachment and its antecedents on commitment, satisfaction, trust and brand equity in the context of Higher Education Institutions. The findings from an online survey with students and recent graduates (n=605) in the United States indicate that brand meaning is the main antecedent of brand attachment strength that affects satisfaction, trust, and commitment as well as brand equity. The effect of the brand attachment antecedents on satisfaction is strong...

  11. The Role of Brand Attachment Strength in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of brand attachment and its antecedents on commitment, satisfaction, trust, and brand equity in the context of higher education institutions. The findings from an online survey with students and recent graduates (n = 605) in the United States indicate that brand meaning is the main antecedent of brand attachment strength that affects satisfaction, trust, and commitment as well as brand equity. The effect of the brand attachment antecedents on satisfaction is str...

  12. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  13. Hypnosis, attachment, and oxytocin:an integrative perspective (1.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Vladimir; Cojan, Yann; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers links between clinical hypnosis, attachment theory, and oxytocin. First, it proposes that commonalities between clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may improve our understanding of the hypnotherapeutic process. Then, it suggests that an integrative model unifying clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may constitute a link between clinical hypnosis and a neurobiological factor such as oxytocin. Finally, it discusses the implications of these hypotheses for clinical practice and future researches.

  14. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Senija Tahirovic; Adela Bajric

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992). Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998). The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) describe th...

  15. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection) and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility) among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver...

  16. 10 Inventions on keyboard attachments-A TRIZ based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2013-01-01

    Although the primary objective of the keyboard to input data into the computer, the advanced keyboards keep various other things in mind, such as, how to use the same keyboard for various other purposes, or how to use the same keyboard efficiently by using various other attachments to the keyboard. This objective led to various inventions on keyboard attachments, some of which are illustrated below in this article. This article illustrates 10 inventions on various keyboard attachments from US...

  17. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Paul DJ Murphy; S Jeffrey Bailey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dim...

  18. Attachment of epithelial cells and fibroblasts to ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederauer, G G; McGee, T D; Keller, J C; Zaharias, R S

    1994-04-01

    This study examined in vitro gingival epithelial and fibroblast cell attachment to ceramic materials made of tricalcium phosphate and/or magnesium aluminate spinel. The composite made of tricalcium phosphate and spinel is called 'osteoceramic'. These ceramics had various compositions and surface structures, which were initially characterized. Cell attachment assays were performed using both cell types to compare cellular response to the ceramic materials. Specimens were also prepared for scanning electron microscopy to investigate cellular morphology. The highest levels of cell attachment for gingival epithelial cells were observed on the rough osteoceramic surface, whereas gingival fibroblasts attached least to the rough osteoceramic surface.

  19. The freedom to choose secure attachment relationships in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Einat; Mayseless, Ofra

    2013-01-01

    This study was based on the attachment-security hypothesis (H. Latty-Mann & K. E. Davis, 1996) that predicts that all individuals, regardless of attachment style, should demonstrate a preference for secure partners who are most likely to offer attachment security. It was therefore expected that with the transfer of attachment functions from parents, who are mostly not freely chosen as attachment figures, to other figures outside of the family of origin, individuals will try to establish secure relationships with these new figures and to assign them a high position in the attachment hierarchy. Participants were 149 Israelis (97 women and 52 men 20-72 years of age) and they completed questionnaires related to their attachment relationships and network. As expected, with age the attachment hierarchy included a higher proportion of chosen figures (r = .38, p figures were characterized by higher security and lower insecurity compared to relationships with nonchosen figures with moderate to high effect sizes. In addition, the higher the figure's level of importance and centrality in the hierarchy, the greater the level of security with that figure (low to moderate effect sizes). Results were discussed in light of attachment-security hypothesis and correction versus replication processes.

  20. Flagellar generated flow mediates attachment of Giardia Lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Theodore; Polackwich, Jamie; Burrola Gabilondo, Beatriz; McAllister, Ryan; Powers, Tom; Elmendorf, Heidi; Urbach, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite responsible for widespread diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. Attachment to the host intestinal mucosa and resistance to peristalsis is necessary for establishing infection, but the physical basis for this attachment is poorly understood. We report results from confocal fluorescence microscopy that demonstrate that the regular beating of the posterior flagella generate a flow through the ventral disk, a suction-cup shaped structure that is against the substrate during attachment. Finite element simulations show that the negative pressure generated by the flow is consistent with the measured force of attachement between the parasite and its substrate.

  1. Tooth Supported Overdenture Retained with Custom Attachments: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Siddharth; Aras, Meena A; Chitre, Vidya

    2014-12-01

    Overdenture is a favored treatment modality for elderly patients with few remaining teeth. Roots maintained under the denture base preserve the alveolar ridge, provide sensory feedback and improve the stability of the dentures. Furthermore, the use of copings and precision attachments on the remaining teeth enhances the retention of the denture. This clinical report describes a novel method of fabricating a tooth supported overdenture retained with custom made ball attachments using orthodontic separators as a female component. Customized ball attachments with orthodontic separators are a simple and cost effective alternative treatment to the use of prefabricated attachments for enhancing the retention of tooth supported overdentures.

  2. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.

  3. Improved Attachment in a Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Patterson, Ross; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid structure. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a restraint layer that comprises a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. The present improvements are intended to overcome deficiencies in those aspects of the original design that pertain to attachment of the inflatable shell to the rigid structure. In a typical intended application, such attachment(s) would be made at one or more window or hatch frames to incorporate the windows or hatches as integral parts of the overall vessel.

  4. Attachment to Mother and Father at Transition to Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Folco, Simona; Messina, Serena; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare; Psouni, Elia

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated concordance between representations of attachment to mother and attachment to father, and convergence between two narrative-based methods addressing these representations in middle childhood: the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) and the Secure Base Script Test (SBST). One hundred and twenty 6-year-old children were assessed by separate administrations of the MCAST for mother and father, respectively, and results showed concordance of representations of attachment to mother and attachment to father at age 6.5 years. 75 children were additionally tested about 12 months later, with the SBST, which assesses scripted knowledge of secure base (and safe haven), not differentiating between mother and father attachment relationships. Concerning attachment to father, dichotomous classifications (MCAST) and a continuous dimension capturing scripted secure base knowledge (MCAST) converged with secure base scriptedness (SBST), yet we could not show the same pattern of convergence concerning attachment to mother. Results suggest some convergence between the two narrative methods of assessment of secure base script but also highlight complications when using the MCAST for measuring attachment to father in middle childhood.

  5. Substratum interfacial energetic effects on the attachment of marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ista, Linnea Kathryn

    Biofilms represent an ancient, ubiquitous and influential form of life on earth. Biofilm formation is initiated by attachment of bacterial cells from an aqueous suspension onto a suitable attachment substratum. While in certain, well studied cases initial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation is mediated by specific ligand-receptor pairs on the bacteria and attachment substratum, in the open environment, including the ocean, it is assumed to be non-specific and mediated by processes similar to those that drive adsorption of colloids at the water-solid interface. Colloidal principles are studied to determine the molecular and physicochemical interactions involved in the attachment of the model marine bacterium, Cobetia marina to model self-assembled monolayer surfaces. In the simplest application of colloidal principles the wettability of attachment substrata, as measured by the advancing contact angle of water (theta AW) on the surface, is frequently used as an approximation for the surface tension. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach for attachment of C. marina and algal zoospores and extend it to the development of a means to control attachment and release of microorganisms by altering and tuning surface thetaAW. In many cases, however, thetaAW does not capture all the information necessary to model attachment of bacteria to attachment substrata; SAMs with similar thetaAW attach different number of bacteria. More advanced colloidal models of initial bacterial attachment have evolved over the last several decades, with the emergence of the model proposed by van Oss, Chaudhury and Good (VCG) as preeminent. The VCG model enables calculation of interfacial tensions by dividing these into two major interactions thought to be important at biointerfaces: apolar, Lifshitz-van der Waals and polar, Lewis acid-base (including hydrogen bonding) interactions. These interfacial tensions are combined to yield DeltaGadh, the free energy associated with

  6. Attachment in cultural context: Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differences between Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland. In this chapter we also introduce A theoretical basis of acculturation and attachment theory. In Chapter 2 we focused on the replicability ...

  7. Relationship duration moderates associations between attachment and relationship quality: meta-analytic support for the temporal adult romantic attachment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D

    2014-02-01

    Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.

  8. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.

  9. Attachment and God representations among lay Catholics, priests, and religious: a matched comparison study based on the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Granqvist, Pehr; Costantini, Alessandro; Gatto, Sergio

    2008-11-01

    Based on the idea that believers' perceived relationships with God develop from their attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, the authors explored the quality of such experiences and their representations among individuals who differed in likelihood of experiencing a principal attachment to God. Using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), they compared attachment-related experiences and representations in a group of 30 Catholic priests and religious with a matched group of lay Catholics and with the worldwide normal distribution of AAI classifications. They found an overrepresentation of secure-autonomous states regarding attachment among those more likely to experience a principal attachment to God (i.e., the priests and religious) compared with the other groups and an underrepresentation of unresolved-disorganized states in the two groups of Catholics compared with the worldwide normal distribution. Key findings also included links between secure-autonomous states regarding attachment and estimated experiences with loving or nonrejecting parents on the one hand and loving God imagery on the other. These results extend the literature on religion from an attachment perspective and support the idea that generalized working models derived from attachment experiences with parents are reflected in believers' perceptions of God.

  10. A Novel Single-Stage Procedure for Increasing the Width of Attached Gingiva and Eliminating the Aberrant Frenal Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common treatment for buccal gingival recession caused by an aberrant frenal attachment includes elimination of the frenum and treatment of the gingival reces-sion by soft tissue graft to increase the width of the attached gingiva that in turn results in root coverage. Keratinised gingival, if present in adequate amount, maintains the gingival health by protecting the marginal gingiva. This not only considers the desires of the patient but also explores the potential regenerative capacity of the tissues. This report describes a novel single-stage procedure for increasing the width of the attached gingiva and eliminating the aberrant frenal attachment.

  11. A new method of evaluating attachment representations in young school-age children: the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J; Stanley, C; Smith, V; Goldwyn, R

    2000-04-01

    We describe a new instrument, using a doll-play vignette completion method, which applies concepts and methodologies from infant and adult attachment research to enable identification and detailed classification of internal representations of attachment relationships in young school-age children. Validation of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) in a normal population (N = 53) shows good interrater reliability and content validity. Patterns of attachment representation identified show stability over time. Comparisons are made with existing methodologies, and potential applications of the instrument and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Handle-attachments from nubia. A note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William CULICAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Information on the distinctive bronze handle - attachments in the shape of a pair of human hands has been painstakingly collected by Dr. E. Cuadrado in his Refertorio de los Recipientes Rituales metálicos con "Asas de Manos" de la Península Ibérica (Trabajos de Prehistoria XXI, Madrid 1966. There is little room to doubt that metal vessels with this form of handle, whether we regard them as braziers (braserillos in the older terminology or 'ritual vessels' as does Cuadrado, are related to the distribution of Phoenician or Punic trade and influence in the Iberian peninsula. The southerly 'Tartessian' distribution speaks for itself; for the western 'Levantine' distribution (from Murcia, Alicante, Valencia, Teruel, Tarragona, Málaga, Ibiza we can postulate Ibiza, Málaga or Cartagena as a probable distribution centre. The examples in the west central meseta (Sanchorreja, El Berrueco, La Osera come as no surprise in view of the fact that such obviously Phoenician objects as the Sanchorreja belt-buckle, the Berrueco bronzes reached the regions of Avila and Salamanca respectively. Even for the outlying spot on the hand-handle distribution map at Santa Olaya, the cèltic oppidum at the mouth of the River Mondego, a context of Phoenician trade is likely, since pottery of Carmona and later types was found there and is now in the museum at Figueira da Foz.

  13. Photosensitive chitosan to control cell attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nan; Cao, Xudong

    2011-09-01

    An approach to control cell adhesion using a photocleavable molecule on chitosan has been developed and studied. Photocleavable 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl chloroformate (NVOC) was introduced into chitosan to control the surface properties. The two UV illuminations with a photomask controlled the cleavage of NVOC and the presentation of deprotected amines on one chitosan surface spatially and temporally. The following immobilizations of cell repulsive poly(ethylene glycol) after the first illumination and cell adhesive sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) after the second illumination on the surface helped create surface heterogeneity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle, and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to characterize the surfaces and photoactivation during the process. To study the cell attachment and morphology on our designed surfaces, NIH/3T3 fibroblast cell was used. Cell number and morphology on the surfaces were investigated. The cell study demonstrated the feasibility of the surfaces on the control of cell adhesion and the formation of cell patterns by UV illuminations and the following immobilizations of different biomolecules.

  14. Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.

  15. Structural insights into calicivirus attachment and uncoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhella, David; Gatherer, Derek; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Pink, Rebecca; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2008-08-01

    The Caliciviridae family comprises positive-sense RNA viruses of medical and veterinary significance. In humans, caliciviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, while in animals respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, and hemorrhagic disease are documented. Investigation of virus-host interactions is limited by a lack of culture systems for many viruses in this family. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a member of the Vesivirus genus, provides a tractable model, since it may be propagated in cell culture. Feline junctional adhesion molecule 1 (fJAM-1) was recently identified as a functional receptor for FCV. We have analyzed the structure of this virus-receptor complex by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction, combined with fitting of homology modeled high-resolution coordinates. We show that domain 1 of fJAM-1 binds to the outer face of the P2 domain of the FCV capsid protein VP1, inducing conformational changes in the viral capsid. This study provides the first structural view of a native calicivirus-protein receptor complex and insights into the mechanisms of virus attachment and uncoating.

  16. Monitoring device for attachment to a surface of a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides a monitoring device (1) for attachment to a surface of a subject. The device comprises a data collector (2) and a processor (3) as two separate parts which can be detachably joined such that physiological signals which are detected by the data collector can be transferred...... surface, and may comprise an adapter (6) for the detachable attachment of the processor....

  17. Teacher-child relationships from an attachment perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, K.; Koomen, H.M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to prompt reflection on the mutual contribution of attachment theory, on the one hand, and teacher-child relationship research, on the other, by bringing together conceptual and empirical contributions taking an attachment perspective on teacher-child relationships. In this i

  18. Some quantitative data on bacterial attachment to pyrite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florian, B.; Noël, N.; Thyssen, C.; Felschau, I.; Sand, W.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation are important for microbial bioleaching of metal sulfides, however, many details of the role played by bacteria are still unknown. Attachment as the first step in biofilm formation is critical. Our investigations are focused on these processes to control ba

  19. Commentary--Culture and Attachment during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Culture has an important impact on attachment. This commentary highlights three aspects about culture and attachment in middle childhood: (1) the need to have a more sophisticated consideration of the implication of cultural values, (2) the need to incorporate the role of societal or political ecological contexts, and (3) the need to solve the…

  20. Attachment, Entitlement, and the Impostor Phenomenon in Female Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Beverly, Gina; Schwartz, Jonathan R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the utility of attachment and entitlement as predictors of the impostor phenomenon in female graduate students. Findings suggested that individuals with high levels of self-reliance/self-assurance entitlement are able to associate positive feedback with stable internal attributes. Those with anxious attachment and narcissistic…

  1. Protege Anxiety Attachment and Feedback in Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Poteat, Laura

    2010-01-01

    A model focused on protege anxious attachment and feedback in mentoring relationships was tested with a sample of matched doctoral student proteges and their faculty mentors. Results show that protege anxious attachment was associated with less feedback seeking and less feedback acceptance. Protege feedback acceptance was associated with both the…

  2. The Link between Types of Attachment and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between childhood trauma and types of attachment and the predictive role of childhood trauma on types of attachment. The sample was composed of 911 (492 female; 419 male) university students at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, in Turkey. Data were collected using the brief screening version of the Childhood…

  3. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  4. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868.5955 Section 868.5955 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)...

  5. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  6. 8 CFR 333.2 - Attachment of photographs to documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attachment of photographs to documents. 333.2 Section 333.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS PHOTOGRAPHS § 333.2 Attachment of photographs to documents. A signed photograph of the applicant must...

  7. Attachment and Student Success during the Transition to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurland, Robert M.; Siegel, Harold I.

    2013-01-01

    We used 2 studies to examine attachment security and college student success. In the 1st study, 85 first-semester students provided information on attachment dimensions and psychological, ethical, and social indices. More anxious students performed worse academically in college than they had in high school and indicated they would be more willing…

  8. 47 CFR 1.1110 - Attachment of charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attachment of charges. 1.1110 Section 1.1110 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1110 Attachment of charges. The charges required to accompany a request for...

  9. Attachment styles, personality, and Dutch emigrants ' intercultural adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W; Van Oudenhoven, JP; Van Der Zee, KI

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship of adult attachment styles with personality and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. A sample of 847 first-generation Dutch emigrants filled out measures for attachment styles, the Big Five, and indicators of psychological and sociocultural adjustme

  10. Attachment of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells on coal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu-Yu Chen; Skidmore, D.R.

    1988-03-01

    Attachment of the thermophilic microorganism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was studied on Kentucky No. 9 coal, an Ohio coal mixtures, Ohio No. 6, a European coal designated as Sulzer coal, activated carbon and iron pyrite to define the effects of initial cell density, prior acid leaching, pyrite content, and surface area on rate and extent of preleaching attachment. The results showed that the rate of preleaching attachment was so high that equilibrium was reached in less than 5 min in most cases. Attached cells increased in number with increasing initial cell density. Prior nitric acid leaching of coal reduced the extent of cell adsorption while hydrochloric acid leaching did not affect cell attachment. Some adsorption isotherms fit the Langmuir model. The specific adsorption (cells/cm/sup 3/ coal) increased with increasing surface areas measured by nitrogen adsorption. Pyrite gave the highest extent of cell attachment based on per unit surface area comparison. Adsorption isotherms of a pyrite-selective chemical adsorbate revealed that preleaching attachment of cells was affected further by altered surface properties of the coals and that the concept of selective attachment of cells on pyrite surfaces was also supported. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude, Ed.; Shaver, Phillip R., Ed.

    The theoretical work on attachment behavior by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth spawned one of the broadest, most creative lines of research in twentieth century psychology. This volume compiles articles discussing attachment theory and research, measurement issues, and contributions of recent theoretical and empirical developments to the study of…

  12. Relationships between Caregiver-Child Attachment Attitudes and Personality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, John E.

    Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, which hypothesized that the caregiver-child relationship may play an important role in the social and academic adjustment of the child, this pilot study assessed the attitudes of student teachers regarding attachment issues. The subjects for this study were 38 graduate students in a teacher preparation program.…

  13. "You Live 'Where'?!" Lesbian Mothers' Attachment to Nonmetropolitan Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Lazarevic, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    A positive attachment to one's residential community has been linked to better mental health (McLaren, 2009), stronger social support (Young, Russell, & Powers, 2004), and a higher quality of life (Mak, Cheung, & Law, 2009). Attachment to residential community has been understudied in research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)…

  14. Attachment avoidance modulates neural response to masked facial emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Kugel, Harald; Rauch, Astrid Veronika; Dannlowski, Udo; Bauer, Jochen; Konrad, Carsten; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Ohrmann, Patricia

    2009-11-01

    According to recent models of individual differences in attachment organization, a basic dimension of adult attachment is avoidance. Attachment-related avoidance corresponds to tendencies to withdraw from close relationships and to an unwillingness to rely on others. In the formation of attachment orientation during infancy facial emotional interaction plays a central role. There exists an inborn very rapid decoding capacity for facial emotional expression. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine differences in automatic brain reactivity to facial emotions as a function of attachment avoidance in a sample of 51 healthy adults. Pictures of sad and happy faces (which are approach-related interpersonal signals) were presented masked by neutral faces. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) was used to assess the attachment avoidance. Masked sad faces activated the amygdala, the insula, occipito-temporal areas, and the somatosensory cortices. Independently from trait anxiety, depressivity, and detection performance, attachment avoidance was found to be inversely related to responses of the primary somatosensory cortex (BA 3) to masked sad faces. A low spontaneous responsivity of the primary somatosensory cortex to negative faces could be a correlate of the habitual unwillingness to deal with partners' distress and needs for proximity. The somatosensory cortices are known to be critically involved in the processes of emotional mimicry and simulation which have the potential to increase social affiliation. Our data are consistent with the idea that people who withdraw from close relationships respond spontaneously to a lesser extent to negative interpersonal emotional signals than securely attached individuals.

  15. Narrative Processes and Attachment Representations: Issues of Development and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, David; Waters, Harriet Salatas

    1995-01-01

    Reviews attachment research based on narrative assessments, noting that these assessments rely on subjective variables as well as working models as determinants of children's narrative productions. Reviews John Bowlby's ideas regarding the importance of parent-child verbal communications in attachment security. Reviews recent cognitive research…

  16. [Attaching single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A single- or multi-unit fixed dental prosthesis can be attached to the abutment teeth through mechanical retention and gap sealing or by adhesion. For sealing the gap, water-soluble cements are appropriate, such as zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, and (resin-modified) glasionomer cement. Attachment

  17. Aging, Neighborhood Attachment, and Fear of Crime: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Sangmoon

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the reciprocal effects between fear of crime and neighborhood attachment because aging is a critical factor in both discussions of fear of crime and neighborhood attachment (friendship, neighboring, social cohesion and trust, informal social control, and participation in neighborhood watch program). Using data from…

  18. Patterns of Attachment and Emotional Competence in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Del Giudice, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between patterns of attachment and emotional competence at the beginning of middle childhood in a sample of 122 seven-year-olds. A new battery of tasks was developed in order to assess two facets of emotional competence (emotion recognition and knowledge of regulation strategies). Attachment was related to…

  19. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  20. Effects of Infant Massage on Attachment Security: An Experimental Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Vonda K.

    The formation of attachments is an important phenomenon occurring in the realm of socioemotional development. This study examined the impact of infant massage on infants' subsequent attachment security. Fifty-seven mother-infant dyads (48 dyads from Head Start, 9 from the community at large) were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group…

  1. Stories of Parents and Self: Relations to Adolescent Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Widaad; Fivush, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    How individuals construct narratives involving attachment figures (e.g., parents) should reflect their representation of those individuals as either comforting or unsupportive (Bowlby, 1969). Similarly, how individuals talk about parents' childhood experiences may also reflect their attachment representation. Sixty-five 13- to 16-year-old…

  2. Attachment, Acculturation, and Psychosomatic Complaints among Hispanic American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Barajas-Munoz, I. Alejandro; Julio, Kathy; Gomez, Ayleen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated adult attachment and acculturation frameworks of reported psychosomatic complaints related to perceived discrimination among a sample of Latino/Hispanic university students (N = 160). The model supported by the data suggests that attachment anxiety, acculturation toward the dominant cultural norms, and adherence to…

  3. Prediction of Problematic Internet Use by Attachment in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, Hatice Irem Ozteke; Kesici, Sahin; Buyukbayraktar, Cagla Girgin; Yalcin, S. Barbaros

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this research is to examine the predictive power of attachment style on problematic internet use among university students. Participants of study consist of 481 university students (230 girls). Results indicate that there is a negative correlation between secure attachment style and social benefit/social comfort and there is a positive…

  4. Attachment styles at work: Measurement, collegial relationships, and burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Leiter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the potential deleterious effects of negative social interactions at work have been well established in the literature, the impact of personal factors in forming work relationships has been relatively neglected. Therefore, using a survey of 1624 Canadian healthcare providers, we examined the extent to which attachment styles at work were associated with the quality of social relationships. We found support for a new measure of attachment styles at work that differentiated between anxiety and avoidance attachment. Avoidance was negatively correlated with positive social constructs (civility, psychological safety, and trust and with the efficacy dimension of burnout. Overall, compared to attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety was more strongly correlated with experienced and instigated workplace incivility, exhaustion, and cynicism. Attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with positive social constructs (civility, psychological safety, and trust and with the efficacy dimension of burnout. Adding these two attachment dimensions to a model of burnout as a function of workload, value congruence, and coworker incivility significantly improved its fit. This study suggests that employees with high attachment anxiety tend to be more closely involved in work relationships and processes, but this closeness comes at a cost in that they experience more strain when participating in social encounters.

  5. The Mother-Infant Attachment Process in Adoptive Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portello, Jacqueline Y.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews literature on attachment process between adopted children and their mothers. Explains empirical research in relation to Bowlby's theoretical formulation of attachment, basic thesis of which is that infants develop affectional bonds at specific ages of their development and, therefore, child's age at time of adoption is important…

  6. Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S; Willheim, Erica

    2009-07-01

    As the field of attachment has expanded over the past four decades, the perturbations in the relational context which give rise to disturbances of attachment are increasingly, though by no means conclusively, understood. In Part I, this article reviews the historical and current state of research regarding normative attachment classification, the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder, and the proposed categories of Secure Base Distortions and Disrupted Attachment Disorder. In Part II, the article explores the role of parental psychopathology and the manner in which disturbed caregiver self-regulation leads to disturbances in the mutual regulation between caregiver and infant. The question of the relationship between particular types of maternal pathology and particular forms of attachment disturbance is examined through recent research on the association between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Atypical Maternal Behavior, and child scores on the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). The authors present original research findings to support that the presence and severity of maternal violence-related PTSD were significantly associated with secure base distortion in a community pediatrics sample of 76 mothers and preschool-age children. Clinical implications and recommendations for treatment of attachment disturbances conclude the article.

  7. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, L.R.; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person's "inner working model". Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic reson

  8. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001547.htm Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Reactive attachment disorder is a problem in which a child is ...

  9. Attachment and Externalizing Disorders: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Crowell, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Attachment theory offers an intriguing formulation of protection and risk that ties together key aspects of behavior, emotion, and cognition. The authors present links among attachment status, other developmental domains, and the development and maintenance of externalizing disorders to illustrate an approach to integrating attachment…

  10. Beyond Insecurity: A Reconceptualization of Attachment Disorders of Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews and critiques the approaches of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases to attachment disorders and finds that they have not made use of findings from developmental research on attachment in developing their criteria. Presents an alternative system of classifying attachment…

  11. Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Gunilla; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and…

  12. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  13. Addressing the Complex Needs of Students with Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; White, Sherry; Wiseman, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Attachment disorders are a relatively rare condition affecting children. This is particularly true for those who are adopted or living in foster care, and are thought to be attributed to an interruption in the bonding between a child and his or her caregiver. Attachment disorders are divided into two distinct categories: a predominately withdrawn…

  14. Secondary traumatization and attachment among wives of former POWs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahav, Yael; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the directionality of the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and attachment insecurities across time among indirect trauma survivors. Wives of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs), with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...... that attachment anxiety might act as a risk factor for secondary traumatic reactions....

  15. Anxious attachment as a determinant of adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Rose, M S; Sheldon, A

    1993-07-01

    Traditionally, an excess of interpersonal dependency has been used to characterize disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults. This approach stands in sharp contrast to that of attachment theorists who conceptualize attachment as functionally distinct from dependency. Attachment theory focuses on anxious attachment in the definition and dynamics of disturbed adult interpersonal relationships. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychiatric outpatients from nonpatients. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking, and separation protest) measure the components of anxious attachment as defined by Bowlby. The scales were administered to two research samples. Sample 1 was composed of 136 respondents to a survey within the Calgary community. Sample 2 consisted of 110 psychiatric outpatients drawn from the psychotherapy clinic of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that the three components of anxious attachment offer a clinically relevant system for differentiating between psychiatric outpatients and nonpatients. Of these three components, feared loss has the predominant effect. The implications of this finding for the delineation of disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults is discussed.

  16. 32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 2800 - Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800—Sample EC25OC91.012...

  17. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Associations with Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory suggests that internal working models of self and significant others influence adjustment during development by controlling information processing and self-regulation. We provide a conceptual overview on possible mechanisms linking attachment and information processing and review the current literature in middle childhood.…

  18. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855—Sample...

  19. Attachment in Middle Childhood: An Evolutionary-Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Middle childhood is a key transitional stage in the development of attachment processes and representations. Here I discuss the middle childhood transition from an evolutionary-developmental perspective and show how this approach offers fresh insight into the function and organization of attachment in this life stage. I begin by presenting an…

  20. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 2800 - Security Termination Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Termination Statement 2 Attachment 2 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  1. Attachment, Autonomy, and Emotional Reliance: A Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a test of a multilevel model investigating how attachment security and autonomy contribute to emotional reliance, or the willingness to seek interpersonal support. Participants ("N" = 247) completed online measures of attachment, autonomy, emotional reliance, and vitality with respect to several everyday…

  2. 27 CFR 53.2 - Attachment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Attachment of tax. 53.2 Section 53.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... § 53.2 Attachment of tax. (a) For purposes of this part, the manufacturers excise tax...

  3. 27 CFR 19.22 - Attachment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Attachment of tax. 19.22 Section 19.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Gallonage Taxes § 19.22 Attachment of...

  4. 32 CFR Attachment D to Subpart B... - Decision Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision Tables D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY... Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147—Decision Tables Table...

  5. To attach or not to attach? The effect of carrier surface morphology and topography on attachment of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropoda orbicularis (Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerlein, Daria; Adamski, Zbigniew; Kacalak, Wojciech; Tandecka, Katarzyna; Wiesner, Maciej; Jurga, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on preferences of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropodina for attachment sites have shown that they frequently select smooth and hydrophobic surfaces. The aim of our study was to provide the detailed morphological and topographical characteristics of beetle body surfaces to which deutonymphs frequently attach and to verify how the presence of setae and surface sculpture affects deutonymph attachment. The study was conducted on Uropoda orbicularis (Müller, 1776) and its common beetle carriers: Aphodius prodromus (Brahm, 1790), Aphodius fimetarius (Linnaeus, 1758), Onthophagus nuchicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Margarinotus carbonarius (Hoffmann, 1803). Morphology and topography of elytra, femora, propygidia and pygidia of beetles were analysed mainly using SEM methods supported with CLSM and AFM techniques. The hypothesis that deutonymphs may attach to surfaces covered with setae, if seta density is low enough not to disturb mite movement, was tested. The study revealed that deutonymphs attach to surfaces of various types as follows: (i) smooth, (ii) hairy, i.e., covered with setae, (iii) flat and (iv) sculptured. Smooth body parts and body parts covered with setae of low density were most frequently and intensively occupied with deutonymphs. Surfaces of high seta density were avoided by mites. Within elytra of Aphodius beetles, deutonymphs definitely preferred flat surfaces of elytral intervals. On the contrary, densely punctuated propygidium and pygidium in M. carbonarius were heavily infested with deutonymphs. We conclude that carrier surface morphology and topography are important for Uropodina deutonymph attachment, but these two factors cannot fully explain the observed relation.

  6. Synthetic Adhesive Attachment Discs based on Spider Pyriform Silk Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dharamdeep; Sahni, Vasav; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-03-01

    Among the variety of silks produced by spiders, pyriform silk is used in conjunction with the dragline silk to attach webs to different surfaces. Cob weaver spiders employ different architectural patterns to utilize the pyriform silk and form attachment joints with each pattern having a characteristic adhesive performance. The staple pin architecture is a one of the strongest attachment designs employed by spiders to attach their webs. Here we use a synthetic approach to create the a similar patterned architecture attachment discs on aluminum substrate using thermoplastic polyurethane. Measurable pull off forces are generated when the synthetic discs are peeled off a surface. This innovative adhesive strategy can be a source of design in various biomedical applications. Financial Support from National Science Foundation.

  7. Perinatal Depression and Patterns of Attachment: A Critical Risk Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to verify if the presence and severity of perinatal depression are related to any particular pattern of attachment. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, who were administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 89 subjects was selected and compared with a control group (C, regarding psychopathological variables and attachment patterns. Results. The ECR showed a prevalence of “Fearful-Avoidant” attachment style in PND group (29.2% versus 1.1%, p<0.001; additionally, the EPDS average score increases with the increasing of ECR dimensions (Avoidance and Anxiety. Conclusion. The severity of depression increases proportionally to attachment disorganization; therefore, we consider attachment as both an important risk factor as well as a focus for early psychotherapeutic intervention.

  8. Adult attachment in the clinical management of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with severe functional impairment, high rates of suicide and comorbid psychiatric illness, intensive use of treatment, and high costs to society. The etiology and pathogenesis of BPD are still uncertain, although an interaction between biological and psychosocial factors has been proposed to explain how the condition develops. Attachment disturbances represent one of the developmental risk factors that have been most consistently found to be associated with BPD, with a number of studies reporting a significant strong association between insecure attachment and BPD, notwithstanding the variety of measures and attachment types employed in these studies. In this article, the author first reviews clinical descriptions and research findings concerning the association between attachment disturbances and BPD and then discusses how attachment theory may help clinicians who work with patients with BPD better understand the psychopathology of the illness and plan treatment.

  9. Insecure maternal attachment is associated with depression in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Seco, F; Mundo-Cid, P; Aguado-Gracia, J; Gaviria-Gómez, A M; Acosta-García, S; Martí-Serrano, S; Vilella, E; Masana-Marín, A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the possible association between maternal attachment style and comorbidity associated with childhood ADHD. We evaluated a total of 103 children with ADHD treated at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre and their mothers. Comorbidity was evaluated using the MINI-KID interview. Maternal attachment was evaluated using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. We considered child variables that could be associated with the clinical course of ADHD, such as symptom severity, age, gender, evolution time, academic level, and current pharmacological treatment; parental variables, such as the mother's psychiatric history, current psychopathology, marital status, academic level, income, and employment, were also considered. We found an association between maternal insecure attachment and comorbid depressive disorder in childhood ADHD. An insecure maternal attachment style must be considered in the assessment and treatment of childhood ADHD with comorbid depression.

  10. Attachment relationships and physical activity motivation of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; Smith, Alan L; Cox, Anne E

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the link of attachment relationships with physical activity motivation. Potential mediators of this link were examined in a cross-sectional study targeting college student physical activity motivation and behaviour. Participants completed self-reports of attachment relationships (with mother, father and best friend), self-determined motivation for physical activity, physical activity behaviour and the hypothesised mediator variables of perceived competence, autonomy and relatedness. The results provide support for the mediating role of these variables in the association of father attachment with self-determined motivation. Meaningful variance in self-determined motivation for physical activity and physical activity behaviour was explained. Overall, attachment relationships appear to be relevant, albeit modestly, to physical activity motivation of college students. The findings support continued efforts to integrate attachment and motivational perspectives in the study of college student health behaviour.

  11. Memories of attachment hamper EEG cortical connectivity in dissociative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Trentini, Cristina; Vergano, Carola Maggiora; Liotti, Giovanni; Brunetti, Riccardo; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated cortical connectivity modifications by electroencephalography (EEG) lagged coherence analysis, in subjects with dissociative disorders and in controls, after retrieval of attachment memories. We asked thirteen patients with dissociative disorders and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls to retrieve personal attachment-related autobiographical memories through adult attachment interviews (AAI). EEG was recorded in the closed eyes resting state before and after the AAI. EEG lagged coherence before and after AAI was compared in all subjects. In the control group, memories of attachment promoted a widespread increase in EEG connectivity, in particular in the high-frequency EEG bands. Compared to controls, dissociative patients did not show an increase in EEG connectivity after the AAI. Conclusions: These results shed light on the neurophysiology of the disintegrative effect of retrieval of traumatic attachment memories in dissociative patients.

  12. Clinical disturbances of attachment in infancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, N W; Zeanah, C H

    1998-08-01

    The development of the attachment behavioral system in infancy has been the focus of a wide range of research in the past 30 years. The clinical significance of disturbances in this area of development is currently a major focus for this research. Research on patterns of attachment in infancy has informed understanding of the development of psychopathology in later childhood; insecure-disorganized attachment is recognized as an important risk factor in this regard. The clinical features of reactive attachment disorder in early childhood are also becoming more clear. Finally, knowledge about the intersection between attachment and various risk conditions is growing and should inform clinical judgement about infants and young children requiring intervention. Primary care physicians can use these findings to identify children in need of intervention.

  13. Attachment research and eating disorders: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Ruth; Dallos, Rudi

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this article is to review the clinical literature which examines the association between attachment patterns and eating disorders with a focus on anorexia nervosa, and to examine the varieties of methods and measures employed in attachment research. A literature review was carried out and the relevant articles are examined in terms of their contribution to this area. The literature indicates a number of important considerations when working with this group, including extreme separation anxiety and unresolved loss and trauma, and discusses the implications of these findings for treatment. The results also indicate conflicting evidence regarding associations between attachment style and eating disorder subgroup suggesting that severity of disorder matters more than eating disorder subtype. The different ways of investigating attachment patterns and experiences are explored in this paper. It is suggested that the attachment classification system runs the risk of reducing complex human experience to typologies and that qualitative research might help to address this problem.

  14. Attachment insecurity, personality, and body dissatisfaction in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Gramaglia, Carla; Amianto, Federico; Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is assessing interactions between attachment style and personality in predicting body dissatisfaction (BD). A total of 586 outpatients with eating disorders (EDs) were recruited: 101 with anorexia nervosa, restricting type; 52 with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; 184 with bulimia nervosa, purging type; and 249 with an eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants completed Temperament and Character Inventory, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attachment Style Questionnaire. An insecure attachment was found in all EDs, as well as in eating disorder not otherwise specified. In all diagnostic groups, need for approval, as measured by the Attachment Style Questionnaire and depressive symptomatology, was found to be the best predictor of BD. Personality traits are weaker predictors of BD. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment insecurity is directly correlated with BD, core element in predicting and perpetuating EDs, independently of personality. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  15. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-03

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning.

  16. Arginine deiminase inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis surface attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, Carla; Stephens, Danielle N; Nguyen, Daniel; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Davey, Mary E

    2013-02-01

    The oral cavity is host to a complex microbial community whose maintenance depends on an array of cell-to-cell interactions and communication networks, with little known regarding the nature of the signals or mechanisms by which they are sensed and transmitted. Determining the signals that control attachment, biofilm development and outgrowth of oral pathogens is fundamental to understanding pathogenic biofilm development. We have previously identified a secreted arginine deiminase (ADI) produced by Streptococcus intermedius that inhibited biofilm development of the commensal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis through downregulation of genes encoding the major (fimA) and minor (mfa1) fimbriae, both of which are required for proper biofilm development. Here we report that this inhibitory effect is dependent on enzymic activity. We have successfully cloned, expressed and defined the conditions to ensure that ADI from S. intermedius is enzymically active. Along with the cloning of the wild-type allele, we have created a catalytic mutant (ADIC399S), in which the resulting protein is not able to catalyse the hydrolysis of l-arginine to l-citrulline. P. gingivalis is insensitive to the ADIC399S catalytic mutant, demonstrating that enzymic activity is required for the effects of ADI on biofilm formation. Biofilm formation is absent under l-arginine-deplete conditions, and can be recovered by the addition of the amino acid. Taken together, the results indicate that arginine is an important signal that directs biofilm formation by this anaerobe. Based on our findings, we postulate that ADI functions to reduce arginine levels and, by a yet to be identified mechanism, signals P. gingivalis to alter biofilm development. ADI release from the streptococcal cell and its cross-genera effects are important findings in understanding the nature of inter-bacterial signalling and biofilm-mediated diseases of the oral cavity.

  17. Attachment to Caregivers and Type 1 Diabetes in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnič Radobuljac, Maja; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael

    2015-06-01

    Attachment is a behavioral and physiological system, which enables individual's dynamic adaptation to its environment. Attachment develops in close interaction between an infant and his/her mother, plays an important role in the development of the infant's brain, and influences the quality of interpersonal relationships throughout life. Security of attachment is believed to influence individual response to stress, exposing insecurely organized individuals to deregulated autonomic nervous system and exaggerated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, which, in turn, produces increased and prolonged exposure to stress-hormones. Such stress responses may have considerable implications for the development of diverse health-risk conditions, such as insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia, shown by numerous studies. Although the mechanisms are not yet fully understood, there is compelling evidence highlighting the role of psychological stress in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). One of the possible contributing factors for the development of T1D may be the influence of attachment security on individual stress reactivity. Thus, the suggestion is that insecurely attached individuals are more prone to experience increased and prolonged influence of stress hormones and other mechanisms causing pancreatic beta-cell destruction. The present paper opens with a short overview of the field of attachment in children, the principal attachment classifications and their historic development, describes the influence of attachment security on individual stress-reactivity and the role of the latter in the development of T1D. Following is a review of recent literature on the attachment in patients with T1D with a conclusion of a proposed role of attachment organization in the etiology of T1D.

  18. Long-term oxytocin administration enhances the experience of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaerts, Sylvie; Prinsen, Jellina; Berra, Emmely; Bosmans, Guy; Steyaert, Jean; Alaerts, Kaat

    2017-04-01

    The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. Previous studies showed that a single-dose of exogenously administered OT can affect trust and feelings of attachment insecurity. With the present study, we explored the effects of two weeks of daily OT administration on measures of state and trait attachment using a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled design. In 40 healthy young adult men state and trait attachment were assessed before and after two weeks of daily intranasal OT (24 IU) or placebo using the State Adult Attachment Scale and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Mood, social responsiveness and quality of life were additionally assessed as secondary outcome measures. Reductions in attachment avoidance and increases in reports of attachment toward peers were reported after two weeks of OT treatment. Further, treatment-induced changes were most pronounced for participants with less secure attachment towards their peers. indicating that normal variance at baseline modulated treatment response. OT treatment was additionally associated with changes in mood, indicating decreases in feelings of tension and (tentatively) anger in the OT group, not in the placebo group. Further, at the end of the two-week trial, both treatment groups (OT, placebo) reported to experience an increase in social responsiveness and quality of life, but the effects were only specific to the OT-treatment in terms of reports on 'social motivation'. In summary, the observed improvements on state and trait dimensions of attachment after a multiple-dose treatment with OT provide further evidence in support of a pivotal role of OT in promoting the experience of attachment.

  19. The Development of Father-Child Attachment: Associations between Adult Attachment Representations, Recollections of Childhood Experiences and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…

  20. A positivity-preserving scheme for the simulation of streamer discharges in non-attaching and attaching gases

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Chijie

    2013-01-01

    Assumed having axial symmetry, the streamer discharge is often described by a fluid model in cylindrical coordinate system, which consists of convection dominated (diffusion) equations with source terms, coupled with a Poisson's equation. Without additional care for a stricter CFL condition or special treatment to the negative source term, popular methods used in streamer discharge simulations, e.g., FEM-FCT, FVM, cannot ensure the positivity of the particle densities for the cases in attaching gases. By introducing the positivity-preserving limiter proposed by Zhang and Shu \\cite{ppl} and Strang operator splitting, this paper proposed a finite difference scheme with a provable positivity-preserving property in cylindrical coordinate system, for the numerical simulation of streamer discharges in non-attaching and attaching gases. Numerical examples in non-attaching gas (N$_2$) and attaching gas (SF$_6$) are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

  1. Attachment Competences in Children With ADHD During the Social-Skills Training and Attachment (SOSTRA) Randomized Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria Annette Annelie; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of social-skills training and a parental training program on children with ADHD as measured by the children's attachment competences. Method: The SOSTRA trial is a randomized, parallel-group, outcome-assessor-blinded, superiority trial evaluating 8 weeks social......-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone for 8- to 12-year old children with ADHD. Results: There were no significant differences in attachment competences at 6 months between the experimental (n = 25) and the control (n = 22) groups (odds ratio = 1.06, 95......% confidence interval = [0.31, 3.58], p = .91). In total, 17 children (36%) changed their entry status, 1 (2%) from secure to insecure attachment, while 16 (34%) changed from insecure to secure attachment. Conclusion: The experimental treatment does not seem to affect attachment competences compared...

  2. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  3. "Helicobacter Pylori Attachment To 7 Mamalian Cell Lines "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rahimi-Fard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Helicobacter pylori is the etiologic agent of chronic –active gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers in humans, and a co-factor in the occurrence of gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tumors, Adhesion of H.pylori to the gastric mucosa is a critical and also initial step in the pathogenesis of the disease. Bacterial adhesion inhibitory agents provide a novel pharmacologic approach to the management of infectious diseases. Materials and Methods: 22 H. pylori strains, isolated from the antral biopsies of 49 patients with dyspepsia, gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer,…were assayed by ELISA (UPRto investigate the diversity of attachment to 7 mamalian cell lines. Results: The concentration of H.pylori and cell suspention ,the condition and temperature, can alter the attachment rate.Best bacterial concentration was equal to 1 Mc farland,and for cell suspension was 5*10 cells/ml.90 minutes in 37C incubation period result in maximum attachment. H.pylori can attach to all 7 cell lines, there are no significant differences between 22 H.pylori strains in attachment to cells. The attachment pattern of H.pylori to the cells showed significant reduction respectly from HepII, HeLa, SW742, AGS,HT29/219, HT29 to Caco-2.Maximum attachment were seen to HepII, HeLa and SW742 cells, and among these HepII was the best cells for this purpose. Conclusion: Our studies suggest that Hep II, HeLa and SW742 cells could serve as a suitable in-vitro model for the study of H.pylori adhesions, attachment, inhibition of attachment and detachment assays and among these Hep II cell is prefer recommended.

  4. Mechanical properties of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jerrod J; Guseila, Loredana M; Saranathan, Archana; Shary, Timothy J; Lippitt, Steven B; Elias, John J

    2013-12-01

    The current study was performed to determine the strength and rigidity of the intact flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon attachment and compare the rigidity at the attachment site to the rigidity within a more proximal part of the tendon. Eight cadaveric index fingers were tested to failure of the FDP tendon. Lines were drawn on each tendon with India ink stain at the position of the attachment to bone and 5 mm and 10 mm proximally. Each test was recorded using a high resolution video camera. A minimum of six images per test were used for analysis of tissue deformation. The centroid of each line was computationally identified to characterize the deformation of the tendon between the lines. Force vs. deformation curves were generated for the 5 mm region representing the tendon attachment and the 5 mm region adjacent to the attachment. Stiffness measurements were generated for each curve, and normalized by the initial length to determine the rigidity. The failure strength ranged from 263 N to 548 N, with rigidity values ranging from 2201 N/(mm/mm) to 8714 N/(mm/mm) and from 3459 N/(mm/mm) to 6414 N/(mm/mm) for the attachment and the tendon proximal to the attachment, respectively. The rigidity did not vary significantly between the attachment and proximal tendon based on a Wilcoxon signed rank test (p = 0.2). The measured strength and rigidity establish biomechanical properties for the FDP tendon attachment to bone.

  5. Love and attachment: the psychobiology of social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Vythilingum, Bavanisha

    2009-05-01

    Basic animal studies and human imaging studies have contributed to our understanding of the psychobiology of love and attachment. There are overlaps and distinctions in the neuronal circuitry of maternal love, romantic love, and long-term attachment. In these circuits, important molecules, which have been demonstrated to play a role in the psychobiology of social bonding include dopamine, serotonin, opioids, oxytocin, and vasopressin. Particular genetic and environmental variations contribute to social-bonding phenotypes, consistent with an evolutionary perspective on the value of these behaviors. Advances in the psychobiology of social bonds have led to hypotheses about the pharmacotherapy of disorders of attachment.

  6. A periodontal attachment mechanism without alveolar bone. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, M J; Polson, A M; Caton, J; Freeman, E; Meitner, S

    1983-02-01

    A 22-year-old black male was referred for periodontal therapy because of radiographic evidence of advanced bone loss associated with the posterior teeth. Clinical examination revealed gingivitis, normal sulcus depths, and minimal loss of clinical attachment. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry, and neutrophil function were within normal limits. Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural analysis of an extracted tooth revealed no loss of attachment; large areas of the cementum were collagen-poor and, ultrastructurally, resembled afibrillar cementum. It is proposed that the periodontal attachment mechanism present in this case was associated with a localized failure in normal periodontal development.

  7. Attachment patterns and Reflective Functioning in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry, Denmark. June 2011-March 2012 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria entered the trial. The present sample consisted of those of the 135 patients who were Arabic-speaking (N=67). Measures involved the Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale......, Working Alliance Inventory, and Feeling Word Checklist-58. Symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety were rated at pre-treatment assessment, beginning of psychotherapy, end of treatment, 6 and 18 months follow-up. Results and Discussion: Preliminary results will be presented. Attachment patterns...

  8. Filament attachment dynamics in actin-based propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2005-01-01

    Theory and experiment have established that F-actin filaments are strongly attached to the intracellular parasites (such as Listeria) they propel with ``comet tails''. We consider the implications of these observations for propulsion. By calculating the motion produced in various models of attachment and comparing to experiment we demonstrate that the attachment must be sliding rather than hinged. By modeling experiments on ActA-coated spheres we draw conclusions regarding the interaction between F-actin and their surfaces that may also be applicable to living systems.

  9. Measuring Traces Of Oxygen By Resonant Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kin Fung; Boumsellek, Said; Chutjian, Ara

    1995-01-01

    Method of detecting trace amounts of oxygen based on dissociative attachment of electrons to oxygen molecules followed by measurement of resulting flux of negative oxygen ions in mass spectrometer. High sensitivity achieved in method by exploiting resonance in dissociative attachment of electrons to oxygen molecules: electron-attachment cross section rises to high peak at incident electron kinetic energy of 6.2 eV. Relative concentrations below 1 ppb detected. Devised to increase sensitivity of detection of oxygen in processing chambers in which oxygen regarded as contaminant; for example, chambers used in making semiconductor devices and in growing high-purity crystals.

  10. Extending the transdiagnostic model of attachment and psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsachi eEin-Dor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has suggested that high levels of attachment insecurities that are formed through interactions with significant others are associated with a general vulnerability to mental disorders. In the present paper, we extend Ein-Dor and Doron's (2015 transdiagnostic model linking attachment orientations with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, to include thought disorder spectrum symptoms. Specifically, we speculate on the processes that mediate the linkage between attachment insecurities and psychosis and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD symptoms, and indicate the different contexts that might set a trajectory of one individual to one set of symptoms while another individual to a different set of symptoms.

  11. BEWARE OF OPENING ATTACHMENTS IN E-MAIL

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Following the recent e-mail viruses you are asked to be cautious when opening e-mail attachments on your PC. Attachments that are apparently harmless might hide active content producing nasty effects as soon as they are opened. Some of these so called 'Trojan horses' can conceal themselves in very attractive pictures and funny slide shows.On the PC Windows infrastructure, CERN runs software to protect users from known viruses, but new ones can sometimes arrive before our software recognises them. They can enter your system when you open an attachment. To remove them it may be necessary to re-install the Windows software on your PC.

  12. Leaders as attachment figures: leaders' attachment orientations predict leadership-related mental representations and followers' performance and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitz, Rivka; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Izsak, Ronit; Popper, Micha

    2007-10-01

    In 3 studies, the authors examined the contribution of leaders' attachment styles to their leadership motives and beliefs and to followers' outcomes. In Study 1, participants completed measures of attachment orientation, leadership motives, self-representations, and leadership style. Studies 2 and 3 were conducted within Israeli military units either during a leadership workshop or during intensive combat training. Israeli military officers and their soldiers (followers) reported on their attachment styles, and the soldiers reported on the officers' leadership qualities and on the soldiers' own performance and mental health. Leaders' attachment anxiety was associated with more self-serving leadership motives and with poorer leadership qualities in task-oriented situations. Leaders' attachment anxiety also predicted followers' poorer instrumental functioning. Leaders' attachment-related avoidance was negatively associated with prosocial motives to lead, with the failure to act as a security provider, and with followers' poorer socioemotional functioning and poorer long-range mental health. Results are discussed with respect to the value of attachment theory for the study of leadership.

  13. The first 10,000 Adult Attachment Interviews: distributions of adult attachment representations in clinical and non-clinical groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2009-05-01

    More than 200 adult attachment representation studies, presenting more than 10,500 Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985) classifications, have been conducted in the past 25 years. In a series of analyses on the distributions of the AAI classifications in various cultural and age groups, fathers, and high-risk and clinical samples, we used the distribution of the combined samples of North American non-clinical mothers (23% dismissing, 58% secure, 19% preoccupied attachment representations, and 18% additionally coded for unresolved loss or other trauma) to examine deviations from this normative pattern, through multinomial tests and analyses of correspondence. The analyses were restricted to AAI classifications coded according to the Main, Goldwyn, and Hesse (2003) system. We did not find gender differences in the use of dismissing versus preoccupied attachment strategies, and the AAI distributions were largely independent of language and country of origin. Clinical subjects showed more insecure and unresolved attachment representations than the norm groups. Disorders with an internalizing dimension (e.g., borderline personality disorders) were associated with more preoccupied and unresolved attachments, whereas disorders with an externalizing dimension (e.g., antisocial personality disorders) displayed more dismissing as well as preoccupied attachments. Depressive symptomatology was associated with insecurity but not with unresolved loss or trauma, whereas adults with abuse experiences or PTSD were mostly unresolved. In order to find more reliable associations with clinical symptoms and disorders, future AAI studies may make more fruitful use of continuous AAI scales in addition to the conventionally used categorical classifications.

  14. Narratives of attachment in middle childhood: do gender, age, and risk-status matter for the quality of attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Kappler, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Attachment in middle childhood increasingly attracts the interest of developmental psychologists and clinicians. Recent studies using attachment narratives elicited by story stems reported gender-specific aspects of attachment development, potentially evoked by developmental tasks during this period of the life span. There is evidence that children with risk factors present more insecure and disorganized attachment narratives compared to children without risk. Yet, there is little research concerning the joint effects of gender, risk, and age for attachment classifications. The paper presents a pooled analysis of 22 samples (eight risk samples) including 887 children (411 girls), aged between 4.5 and 8.5 years who were assessed with the same "German Attachment Story Completion Procedure" (GASCP). Girls were 1.8 times more likely to present secure and 0.4 times less likely to present disorganized narratives compared to boys when controlling for risk status and age. Children from risk samples were more likely (odd ratio 5.4) to display disorganized and less likely to show a secure attachment (odd ratio 0.3) compared to those from no-risk samples in multilevel logistic regressions. Remarkably, the effect of risk was not moderated by age and gender, and gender effects were not moderated by age.

  15. Styles of attachment and acquisition of the Theory of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompéia Villachan-Lyra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe goal of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between the theory of mind and mother-child attachment. Two research questions were asked: (1 At what age does a child show the ability to understand and infer the mental states of others? (2 Is there a systematic relationship between "styles of attachment" and "acquisition of the theory of mind"? Forty children from two age groups (3- and 4-year-olds participated in the study. For each child, two tasks of false belief (FB and a task of uncompleted attachment stories were applied. The results indicated a positive correlation between the secure attachment style and good performance on the FB tasks.

  16. Direction-specific interactions control crystal growth by oriented attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; Lee, Jonathan R.I.;

    2012-01-01

    The oriented attachment of molecular clusters and nanoparticles in solution is now recognized as an important mechanism of crystal growth in many materials, yet the alignment process and attachment mechanism have not been established. We performed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy...... using a fluid cell to directly observe oriented attachment of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles. The particles undergo continuous rotation and interaction until they find a perfect lattice match. A sudden jump to contact then occurs over less than 1 nanometer, followed by lateral atom-by-atom addition...... initiated at the contact point. Interface elimination proceeds at a rate consistent with the curvature dependence of the Gibbs free energy. Measured translational and rotational accelerations show that strong, highly direction-specific interactions drive crystal growth via oriented attachment....

  17. Homonegativity and its relationship to religiosity, nationalism and attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Timothy; Brown, Jac

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships between negative attitudes towards homosexuals and two traditional ideologies: religiosity and nationalism, and explored the link with attachment style. An Internet survey yielded 290 participants, of highly diverse ages, nationalities, and religious backgrounds. The participants provided demographic details, and completed measures of adult attachment, nationalism, religiosity, and both explicit and implicit measures of homonegativity. The results indicated that both nationalism and religiosity were highly significant predictors of homonegativity. In the religious group, homonegativity and religiosity were positively related. This finding was greater for less securely attached individuals. Avoidance moderated the relationship in religious females, while anxiety moderated the relationship in religious males. No significant attachment moderation was found between the nationalism-homonegativity relationships.

  18. Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR Polymorphisms and Attachment in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances S Chen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary variations in human infants’ attachment behaviors—their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers—are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred and seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on their behavior in the Strange Situation (Ainsworth et al., 1976. The A allele at OXTR rs2254298 was associated with attachment security in the non-Caucasian infants (p < .005. These findings underscore the importance of oxytocin in the development of human social behavior and support its role in social stress-regulation and the development of trust.

  19. Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Polymorphisms and Attachment in Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances S; Barth, Maria E; Johnson, Stephen L; Gotlib, Ian H; Johnson, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary variations in human infants' attachment behaviors - their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers - are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian) were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on their behavior in the Strange Situation (Ainsworth et al., 1978). The A allele of OXTR rs2254298 was associated with attachment security in the non-Caucasian infants (p < 0.005). These findings underscore the importance of oxytocin in the development of human social behavior and support its role in social stress-regulation and the development of trust.

  20. Characteristics of Preferentially Attached Network Grown from Small World

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seungyoung

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a model for a preferentially attached network which has grown from a small world network. Here, the average path length and the clustering coefficient are estimated, and the topological properties of modeled networks are compared as the initial conditions are changed. As a result, it is shown that the topological properties of the initial network remain even after the network growth. However, the vulnerability of each to preferentially attached nodes being added is not the same. It is found that the average path length rapidly decreases as the ratio of preferentially attached nodes increases and that the characteristics of the initial network can be easily disappeared. On the other hand, the clustering coefficient of the initial network slowly decreases with the ratio of preferentially attached nodes and its clustering characteristic remains much longer.

  1. Externalizing and internalizing problems: contributions of attachment and parental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between attachment and parental practices with externalizing (aggression and delinquency and internalizing (social withdrawal and anxiety/depression behavioral problems were investigated in this study. Participants were 289 children (from 9 to 12 years old and 205 caregivers who answered distinct questionnaires: the formers on attachment and the later on parental practices. Results indicated that poor maternal attachment relationships, high levels of parental rejection and being a boy predicted aggression. Moreover, poor paternal attachment and father's low education predicted social withdrawal. Finally, parental rejection was marginally associated with anxiety/depression. The results reinforce, partially, the existing literature and help to understand the complex relationship between parenting and behavioral problems.

  2. A U-Shaped Relative Clause Attachment Preference in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Edson T.; Gibson, Edward; Pearlmutter, Neal J.; Aikawa, Takako; Miyagawa, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    Presents results from a self-paced reading experiment in Japanese investigating attachment preferences for relative clauses to three ensuing potential nominal heads. Results are discussed in light of two types of parsing models. (Author/VWL)

  3. A simple method to assess bacterial attachment to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The crystal violet microplate adhension assay was modified to evaluate bacterial adhesion to metal and non-metal surfaces. Both viable cell count and the absorbance of the crystal violet stained cells attached to aluminium increased over the period...

  4. Workplace racial composition, perceived discrimination, and organizational attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, Kevin; Irvin, Matthew

    2012-05-01

    Prior research has devoted considerable attention to the relationship between the racial and ethnic composition of jobs and various indicators of organizational attachment. Fewer studies, however, examine how workplace racial composition affects individuals' experiences of racial discrimination or how these experiences impact workers' organizational attachment. To address this lacuna, we first examine the effects of workplace racial composition on perceived racial and ethnic discrimination. Next, we examine whether perceived racial discrimination mediates the association between racial composition and organizational attachment observed in prior studies. Finally, we explore whether these relationships are similar (symmetric) or different (non-symmetric) for non-Whites and Whites. The analyses indicate: (1) working with predominately same-race coworkers tends to diminish perceptions of racial discrimination, (2) perceived racial discrimination mediates some of the effects of racial/ethnic composition on organizational attachment, and (3) some non-symmetric effects between non-Whites and Whites are found. We conclude with implications for future research.

  5. Investigating the influence of attachment styles on anxiety sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilgan Erozkan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine if there are significant relationships between anxiety sensitivity and attachment styles and if attachment styles predict anxiety sensitivity. Descriptive method was used in this study. The study group is composed by 781 (379 females; 402 males students studying in different departments of the Faculties of Education and Technical Education, and department of physical education and sports teaching of School of Physical Education and Sports at Mugla University. The data were collected using the Relationship Scales Questionnaire and Anxiety Sensitivity Index-R. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis was employed. Attachment styles were found to be significantly correlated to anxiety sensitivity. A significant effect of attachment styles, on anxiety sensitivity was detected.

  6. Personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Genise

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment

  7. A Rule-Based Approach To Prepositional Phrase Attachment Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, E; Brill, Eric; Resnik, Philip

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new corpus-based approach to prepositional phrase attachment disambiguation, and present results comparing performance of this algorithm with other corpus-based approaches to this problem.

  8. Adult attachment to transitional objects and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Jill M; Wilson-Murphy, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by tumultuous, unstable personal relationships, difficulty being alone, and an inability to self-soothe. This may explain why patients with BPD tend to develop strong attachments to transitional objects such as stuffed animals. Research in hospital settings has linked the use of transitional objects to the presence of BPD. Using a nonclinical community sample (N = 80) we explored the link between attachments to transitional objects and various aspects of personality pathology, as well as to childhood trauma, and parental rearing styles. People who reported intense current attachments to transitional objects were significantly more likely to meet criteria for a BPD diagnosis than those who did not; they also reported more childhood trauma, rated their early caregivers as less supportive, and had more attachment problems as adults. Heavy emotional reliance on transitional objects in adulthood may be an indicator of underlying pathology, particularly BPD.

  9. Attachment to Inanimate Objects and Early Childcare: A Twin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren eFortuna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive nonmaternal childcare plays an important role in children's development. This study examined a potential coping mechanism for dealing with daily separation from caregivers involved in childcare experience—children's development of attachments toward inanimate objects. We employed the twin design to estimate relative environmental and genetic contributions to the presence of object attachment, and assess whether childcare explains some of the environmental variation in this developmental phenomenon. Mothers reported about 1122 3-year-old twin pairs. Variation in object attachment was accounted for by heritability (48% and shared environment (48%, with childcare quantity accounting for 2.2% of the shared environment effect. Children who spent half-days in childcare were significantly less likely to attach to objects relative to children who attended full-day childcare.

  10. [Importance of attachment in the development of psychism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    John Bowlby refers to attachment as the special affect and trust bond that a child establishes with other emotionally significant people, who constitute a source of security and protection. The main figure of attachment during childhood is generally the person who fulfills the maternal function (primary caregiver), although it is also established with the father, brothers/sisters, grandparents, and others. The approaching behavior could be activated by different stimuli which depends on each person and his/her developing stage. This bond is developed according to experiences and relationships in the first years of life - experiences stored in mental representations (internal working models), which influence the individual's psychic organization. Different instruments allow to make evident the different types of attachment bonds and to establish a correlation between parents and children. The Attachment makes up a valid theoretical and methodological model for the investigation, prevention and treatment in mental health.

  11. Variant attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Marian; Ratajczak, Wojciech; Pytel, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of variants of anomalous insertions of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus in human knee joints. The study was carried out on 78 human lower limbs of both sexes (42 males and 36 females). Out of 78 knee joints, 10 knee joints (12.82%) presented atypical attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. In 9 cases we found that the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the transverse ligament of the knee and in 1 case it was attached to the coronary ligament. In the remaining cases the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia.

  12. Engineered microtopographies and surface chemistries direct cell attachment and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Chelsea Marie

    Harrison, in 1914, first recognized that cells respond to physicochemical cues such as substratum topography when he observed that fibroblasts elongated while cultured on spider silk. Recently, techniques developed in the micro-electronics industry have been used to create molds for producing microscaled topographies with various shapes and spatial arrangements. Although these patterning techniques are well-established, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying cell sensing and response to microtopographies. In this work cellular micro-environments with varying surface topographies and chemistries were evaluated with marine organisms and mammalian cells to investigate cellular sensing and response. Biofouling---the accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on submerged surfaces---is an environmental and economic concern. Engineered topographies, replicated in polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (PDMSe) and functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) hydrogels, were evaluated for inhibition of marine fouling organism attachment. Microtopographies replicated in PDMSe inhibited attachment of the marine bacterium, Cobetia marina up to 99% versus smooth. The average normalized attachment densities of cells of C. marina and zoospores of the green algae Ulva on PDMSe topographies scaled inversely with the Engineered Roughness Index (ERIII), a representation of surface energy. Attachment densities of Ulva from four assays and C. marina from two growth phases to PDMSe surfaces scaled inversely with one equation: ERI II multiplied by the Reynolds number of the organism (Re) (R 2 = 0.77). The same microtopographies created in PDMSe reduced the initial attachment density and attachment strength of cells of the diatoms Navicula incerta and Seminavis robusta compared to smooth PDMSe. The average normalized attachment density of Navicula after exposure to shear stress (48 Pa) was correlated with the contact area between the diatom and a

  13. Short time die attach characterisation of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Szabo, P

    2008-01-01

    Thermal qualification of the die attach of semiconductor devices is a very important element in the device characterization as the temperature of the chip is strongly affected by the quality of the die attach. Voids or delaminations in this layer may cause higher temperature elevation and thus damage or shorter lifetime. Thermal test of each device in the manufacturing process would be the best solution for eliminating the devices with wrong die attach layer. In this paper we will present the short time thermal transient measurement method and the structure function evaluation through simulations and measurements for die attach characterization. We will also present a method for eliminating the very time consuming calibration process. Using the proposed methods even the in-line testing of LEDs can be accomplished.

  14. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment at one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard

    Findings on effects of Postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been contradictory. This may be due to not considering maternal interpersonal difficulties, for example co-morbid personality disorder (PD). We examined the role of PD in the association between postpartum...... depression and infant-mother attachment. Mothers were recruited either during pregnancy (non-clinical group, n=56) or eight weeks postpartum (PPD-group, n=29). Infants of mothers with PPD only or in combination with PD were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were...... assessed with questionnaires and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers with PPD were more likely to have co-morbid PD compared with non-clinical mothers. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only...

  15. Influence of Deterministic Attachments for Large Unifying Hybrid Network Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Large unifying hybrid network model (LUHPM) introduced the deterministic mixing ratio fd on the basis of the harmonious unification hybrid preferential model, to describe the influence of deterministic attachment to the network topology characteristics,

  16. E-mail security: new restriction on attachments

    CERN Multimedia

    The Mail Team

    2006-01-01

    In order to further protect CERN mail users against viruses that spread using malicious files, from 1st March onwards dangerous file types already forbidden as mail attachments will also be forbidden as contents of an archive attachment (.zip and .rar compressed files). More details, including a list of blocked file types, can be found at http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=171010 The Mail Team

  17. E-mail security: new restriction on attachments

    CERN Multimedia

    The Mail Team

    2006-01-01

    In order to further protect CERN mail users against viruses that spread using malicious files, from 1st March onwards dangerous file types already forbidden as mail attachments will also be forbidden as contents of an archive attachment (.zip and .rar compressed files). More details, including a list of blocked file types, can be found at http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=171010. The Mail Team

  18. A HISTORY OF THE THEORY OF PRENATAL ATTACHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby’s theory of human attachment has become widely applied across disciplines and across the stages of human development. This discussion explores the evolution of an application of Bowlby’s theory to the experience of pregnancy, from both maternal and paternal perspectives. Although the theoretical construct of maternal fetal attachment (MFA) requires continued theoretically-driven research, existing studies have associated this proposed construct with health behaviors, marital relat...

  19. Are parents really attached to their adopted children?

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Amber; Abrar, Fariha; Hasan, Syed Akif

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological studies found that adopted children suffer from lack of attachment relationships in life. It is important for new parents to understand the underlying concepts before they begin to comprehend behavior issues arising out of different turbulent situations in an adopted child’s life. Attachment theory facilitates in comprehending the frame of mind of these children, when they come from emotionally turbulent backgrounds and how some, if not all behavior issues can be atte...

  20. Synthesis, Structure and Reactivity of Molecules Attached to Electrode Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Structure and Reactivity of Molecules Attached to Electrode Surfaces", AFOSR #81-0149 III. REPORTING PERIOD: April 15, 1981 through April 14, 1985 IV...Adsorption .... ............... 17 9. Effect of Surface Roughness on Adsorbate Orientation and Reactivity . 20 10. Ordered/ Disordered Packing in Chemisorbed... reactivity only when present in the edge-pendant orientation. Clearly, molecular orientation (i.e., mode of +. .4 o,, -12- attachment to the surface) is a

  1. Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, Dr. Margot Moser; Volkmar, Dr. Fred R.

    1994-01-01

    Since its introduction into DSM-Ill, reactive attachment disorder has stood curiously apart from other diagnoses for two reasons: it remains the only diagnosis designed for infants, and it requires the presence of a specific etiology. This paper describes the pattern of disturbances demonstrated by some children who meet DSM-Ill-R criteria for reactive attachment disorder. Three suggestions are made: (1) the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic concept may be enhanced by including cr...

  2. The connection between adult partner attachment and parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The child-mother relation in infancy was found very important not only as a predictor of a child's social adaptation, personality predisposition and capacity development, but also as a prototype of establishing contacts with others later in life (Bowlby, 1975). These early attachment bondings with the child's mother are the basis for all close relationships with potential partners later in life. The survey covers the attachment factors of two parents (30 to 60 years old) and their sty...

  3. Attachment and Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa J. Donnelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although attachment theory is not new, its theoretical implications for the pediatric chronic pain context have not been thoroughly considered, and the empirical implications and potential clinical applications are worth exploring. The attachment framework broadly focuses on interactions between a child’s developing self-regulatory systems and their caregiver’s responses. These interactions are believed to create a template for how individuals will relate to others in the future, and may help account for normative and pathological patterns of emotions and behavior throughout life. This review outlines relevant aspects of the attachment framework to the pediatric chronic pain context. The theoretical and empirical literature is reviewed regarding the potential role of attachment-based constructs such as vulnerability and maintaining factors of pediatric chronic pain. The nature and targets of attachment-based pediatric interventions are considered, with particular focus on relevance for the pediatric chronic pain context. The potential role of attachment style in the transition from acute to chronic pain is considered, with further research directions outlined.

  4. Combined copper/zinc attachment to prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2013-03-01

    Misfolding of prion protein (PrP) is responsible for diseases such as ``mad-cow disease'' in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jacob in humans. Extensive experimental investigation has established that this protein strongly interacts with copper ions, and this ability has been linked to its still unknown function. Attachment of other metal ions (zinc, iron, manganese) have been demonstrated as well, but none of them could outcompete copper. Recent finding, however, indicates that at intermediate concentrations both copper and zinc ions can attach to the PrP at the octarepeat region, which contains high affinity metal binding sites. Based on this evidence, we have performed density functional theory simulations to investigate the combined Cu/Zn attachment. We consider all previously reported binding modes of copper at the octarepeat region and examine a possibility simultaneous Cu/Zn attachment. We find that this can indeed occur for only one of the known binding sites, when copper changes its coordination mode to allow for attachment of zinc ion. The implications of the simultaneous attachment on neural function remain to be explored.

  5. Adult attachment anxiety: using group therapy to promote change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarosh, Cheri L; Tasca, Giorgio A

    2013-11-01

    Group therapy can facilitate changes for members with greater attachment anxiety who tend to struggle with negative self-perceptions, difficulties regulating emotions, poor reflective functioning, and compromised interpersonal relationships. A clinical example of a therapy group with members who had elevated attachment anxiety and who were diagnosed with binge eating disorder demonstrates how attachment theory can be applied to group treatment. The clinical material from the beginning, middle, and end of group is presented to highlight how attachment anxiety influences members' emotional reactions and behaviors in the group, how group factors facilitate change, and how the leader fosters the development of a secure base within the group. Pre- to posttreatment outcomes indicate positive changes in binge eating, depressive symptoms, and attachment avoidance and anxiety. To facilitate change in individuals with greater attachment anxiety, group therapists may foster a secure base in the group through group cohesion, which will facilitate down regulation of emotions, better reflective functioning, and relationships that are less preoccupied with loss and more secure.

  6. Attachment and the regulation of the right brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, A N

    2000-04-01

    It has been three decades since John Bowlby first presented an over-arching model of early human development in his groundbreaking volume, Attachment. In the present paper I refer back to Bowlby's original charting of the attachment landscape in order to suggest that current research and clinical models need to return to the integration of the psychological and biological underpinnings of the theory. Towards that end, recent contributions from neuroscience are offered to support Bowlby's assertions that attachment is instinctive behavior with a biological function, that emotional processes lie at the foundation of a model of instinctive behavior, and that a biological control system in the brain regulates affectively driven instinctive behavior. This control system can now be identified as the orbitofrontal system and its cortical and subcortical connections. This 'senior executive of the emotional brain' acts as a regulatory system, and is expanded in the right hemisphere, which is dominant in human infancy and centrally involved in inhibitory control. Attachment theory is essentially a regulatory theory, and attachment can be defined as the interactive regulation of biological synchronicity between organisms. This model suggests that future directions of attachment research should focus upon the early-forming psychoneurobiological mechanisms that mediate both adaptive and maladaptive regulatory processes. Such studies will have direct applications to the creation of more effective preventive and treatment methodologies.

  7. Assessing parental empathy: a role for empathy in child attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jessica A; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Although empathy has been associated with helping behavior and relationship quality, little research has evaluated the role of parental empathy in the development of parent-child relationships. The current study (1) establishes preliminary validity of the Parental Affective and Cognitive Empathy Scale (PACES), a method for coding empathy from parents' narrative responses to the Parent Development Interview - Revised for School-Aged Children (PDI-R-SC), and (2) tests a theoretical model of empathy and attachment. Sixty caregivers and their children completed a battery of questionnaire and interview measures, including the PDI-R-SC and the Child Attachment Interview (CAI). Caregivers' interview narratives were scored for empathy using PACES. PACES showed good interrater reliability and good convergent validity with a self-report empathy measure. Parent empathy was positively related to child attachment security (using a continuous score for narrative coherence) and emotional openness on the CAI, as well as to child perceptions of parental warmth. Moreover, parent empathy mediated the relation between parents' self-reported attachment style and their children's attachment security. Implications for attachment theory and future directions for establishing scale validity are discussed.

  8. Attention Bias of Avoidant Individuals to Attachment Emotion Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ding, Yi; Lu, Luluzi; Chen, Xu

    2017-01-01

    How attachment style affects emotion processing is tightly connected with individuals’ attention bias. This experiment explored avoidant individuals’ attentional engagement and attentional disengagement using a cue-target paradigm in fMRI. The experimental group consisted of 17 avoidant participants, while the control group consisted of 16 secure participants; these were identified by the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory and the Relationship Questionnaire. Each reacted to pictures of positive parent-child attachment, negative parent-child attachment, positive romantic attachment, negative romantic attachment, and neutral non-attachment. Behaviorally, avoidant individuals were slower than secure individuals in responding to emotions and their attentional disengagement effect for negative parent-child emotions was stronger than positive ones. fMRI results showed that avoidant compared to secure individuals activated more strongly in the right superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and the left medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cingulate gyrus. They also showed stronger activation in disengaging from positive than negative emotions in the bilateral fusiform and middle occipital gyri. In conclusion, avoidant individuals could detect emotions as effective as secure individuals in attentioal engaging stages. They can disengage from positive emotions with effective cognitive resources and were harder to get rid of negative emotions with insufficient resource. PMID:28128347

  9. Saddle point of attachment in jet-crossflow interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenxing; Shi, Junxiang; Ke, Zhaoqing; Chen, Chung-Lung

    2017-03-01

    Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the upstream topology of a jet-crossflow interaction. The numerical results were validated with mathematical theory as well as a juncture flow structure. The upstream critical point satisfies the condition of occurrence for a saddle point of attachment in the horseshoe vortex system. In addition to the classical topology led by a saddle point of separation, a new topology led by a saddle point of attachment was found for the first time in a jet-crossflow interaction. The degeneration of the critical point from separation to attachment is determined by the velocity ratio of the jet over the crossflow, and the boundary layer thickness of the flat plate. When the boundary layer thickness at the upstream edge of the jet is close to one diameter of the jet, the flow topology is led by a saddle point of attachment. Variation of the velocity ratio does not change the topology but the location of the saddle point. When the boundary layer thickness is less than 0.255 of the jet flow diameter, large velocity ratio can generate a saddle point of attachment without spiral horseshoe vortex; continuously decreasing the velocity ratio will change the flow topology to saddle point of the separation. The degeneration of the critical point from attachment to separation was observed.

  10. ATTACHMENTS IN PROSTHODONTICS: DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuthija Khanam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Attachments are mechanical devices for the fixation and stabilisation of a dental prosthesis and include frictional, internal, intracoronal, extracoronal, key-key way, parallel, precision and slotted types. (Boucher 1976. Attachments are used as alternative to clasps in removable partial denture therapy for both aesthetic and functional purpose. Their application is not only limited to removable partial dentures, but has a broader usage in fixed bridges, overdentures, implant supported dentures as well. Hundreds of attachments are available commercially and significant differences exist between them. In this article, different systems of classification of attachments have been reviewed. They are categorised as precision and semi-precision depending on the method of manufacture, intracoronal and extra coronal depending on their location relative to the abutment tooth, rigid and resilient determined by the amount of movement allowed between the component parts, also as stud and bar attachments depending on the design. A classification system to more accurately evaluate differences among resilient attachments has also been described here.

  11. [Accessing Disturbances of Attachment Symptoms Using Interview Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer-Neumann, Josephine; Bovenschen, Ina; Lang, Katrin; Spangler, Gottfried; Nowacki, Katja; Roland, Inga C

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of attachment represent a clinically significant disorder and seriously impair social behavioural functioning. To date there has been little research and valid diagnostic methods are lacking. In the present study a German Version of the Disturbances of Attachment Interview developed by Smyke and Zeanah (1999) was used to assess disturbances of attachment in a sample of foster children and the validity of the translation is investigated. Furthermore, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997) was used to examine the discriminative validity. The results show a satisfying reliability and the scales of attachment disorders declare the main of the variance. There is a weak association between the disinhibited scale and hyperactivity in the SDQ. Overall the disinhibited disorder can be distinguished from other behaviour patterns. Regarding the inhibited scale there are associations with all SDQ scales and the inhibited category seems harder to distinguish from other deviant developmental issues. The method is evaluated as a qualified approach to the diagnosis of attachment disorders in the context of a multimethodical approach. Furthermore, the findings suggest further examination of the construct of attachment disturbances.

  12. Attachment, parenting styles and bullying during pubertal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Watt, Ronél

    2014-01-01

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship.

  13. Tourette syndrome is associated with insecure attachment and higher aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehning, Sandra; Burger, Max B; Krause, Daniela; Jobst, Andrea; Yundina, Elena; Müller, Norbert; Meyer, Sebastian; Zill, Peter; Buchheim, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the degree to which adult patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) exhibit particular attachment styles and the possible association between the underlying attachment dimensions and forms of aggression. Fifty-three TS patients (ages 17-72 years) and 54 matched healthy controls completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Scale (ECR-R) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). The data were analysed with ANOVA F-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. TS patients showed significantly higher scores in relationship anxiety ( p < 0.001) and relationship avoidance ( p = 0.001) in the ECR-R and significantly higher aggression scores in the AQ ( p < 0.001). The total AQ score correlated significantly with the ECR-R dimension anxiety ( p < 0.001). These are the first findings on TS patients' attachment styles and anger symptoms. It remains unclear whether attachment anxiety and avoidance are risk factors for TS or whether the disorder itself induces attachment disorders. Prospective studies with detailed attachment interviews would help to explore this issue.

  14. Attachment-Focused Psychotherapy and the Wounded Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Eric B

    2016-07-01

    The concept of the "wounded self" (Wolfe, 2005) offers an integrative theoretical framework for self-wounds and their developmental origins. Alladin (2013, 2014, 2016) integrated hypnotherapy into this model to comprehensively address the unconscious protective mechanisms and maladaptive conscious cognitive strategies of the wounded self. The purpose of this article is to propose how an attachment-focused psychotherapy could be utilized in working with the wounded self. With its emphasis on developmental maturation through the frame of the attachment relationship, attachment theory is well-positioned to offer conceptual and treatment insights in treating the wounded self. E. B. Spiegel's (2016) attunement, representation, and mentalization approach to attachment-focused psychotherapy described how hypnosis can be utilized across attachment processes of attunement, representation, and mentalization toward structural maturation and developmental repair of patients with histories of complex relational trauma. In this article, the attunement, representation, and mentalization attachment approach and associated interventions are further explicated in the treatment of self-wounds in the borderline and narcissistic spectrums of personality organization. These principles of conceptualization and treatment interventions are then applied in a case example.

  15. Trust in the medical profession and patient attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klest, Bridget; Philippon, Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Attachment style is a person's approach to interpersonal relationships, which develops from early experiences with primary caregivers and can remain stable into adulthood. Depending on a person's attachment style, the amount of trust one has in others can vary when forming relationships, and trust is important in formation of the patient-physician relationship. The purpose of this study was to see if there is an association between attachment style and trust in physicians in general. Participants were recruited from an emergency department (ED) and an online university participant pool, and completed short questionnaires assessing attachment style and trust in the medical profession. Results revealed that individuals with a fearful attachment style reported significantly lower levels of trust in the medical profession than those with a secure attachment style. ED participants also reported higher levels of trust in the medical profession in comparison to student participants. This study provides a better understanding of trust in the medical profession, and insight into future care for patients who have low trust.

  16. Adolescent attachment security, family functioning, and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Mathias, Charles W; Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual's social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all three types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention.

  17. Insecure attachment as a risk factor for psychopathology : The role of stressful events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, S; Gerlsma, C; Schaap, C

    2000-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts that attachment styles 'learned' in previous relational experiences affect the way people cope with stressful events and, consequently, their mental health. The present study tested two mediational models of the relationships between stressful events, attachment style and

  18. Attachment theory and group processes: the association between attachment style and group-related representations, goals, memories, and functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Eldad; Mikulincer, Mario

    2003-06-01

    Four studies examined attachment-style differences in group-related cognitions and behaviors. In Studies 1-2, participants completed scales on group-related cognitions and emotions. In Studies 3-4, participants were divided into small groups, and their performance in group tasks as well as the cohesion of their group were assessed. Both attachment anxiety and avoidance in close relationships were associated with negative group-related cognitions and emotions. Anxiety was also related to the pursuit of closeness goals and impaired instrumental performance in group tasks. Avoidance was related to the pursuit of distance goals and deficits in socioemotional and instrumental performance. Group cohesion significantly moderated the effects of attachment anxiety. The discussion emphasizes the relevance of attachment theory within group contexts.

  19. Prospective effects of interparental conflict on child attachment security and the moderating role of parents' romantic attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Kim, Hyoun K; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the impact of parents' observed conflict behavior on subsequent child attachment security, both as a main effect and as moderated by parents' romantic attachment. Participants were 80 heterosexual couples involving men from the Oregon Youth Study and their first-born children. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling to predict child security with each parent. Interparental psychological aggression predicted lower child security with father, regardless of romantic attachment. If the father was insecure, interparental positive engagement predicted lower child security with him. If either the mother or father was avoidant, interparental withdrawal did not predict lower child security, though it did for more secure parents. Results are discussed in terms of implications of attachment-(in)congruent behavior for parents' emotional availability.

  20. Community dynamics of attached and free cells and the effects of attached cells on chalcopyrite bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailin; Feng, Shoushuai; Xin, Yu; Wang, Wu

    2014-02-01

    The community dynamics of attached and free cells of Acidithiobacillus sp. were investigated and compared during chalcopyrite bioleaching process. In the mixed strains system, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the dominant species at the early stage while Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans owned competitive advantage from the middle stage to the end of bioprocess. Meanwhile, compared to A. ferrooxidans, more significant effects of attached cells on free biomass with A. thiooxidans were shown in either the pure or mixed strains systems. Moreover, the effects of attached cells on key chemical parameters were also studied in different adsorption-deficient systems. Consistently, the greatest reduction of key chemical ion was shown with A. thiooxidans and the loss of bioleaching efficiency was high to 50.5%. These results all demonstrated the bioleaching function of attached cells was more efficient than the free cells, especially with A. thiooxidans. These notable results would help us to further understand the chalcopyrite bioleaching.

  1. Prospective Effects of Interparental Conflict on Child Attachment Security and the Moderating Role of Parents' Romantic Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of parents' observed conflict behavior on subsequent child attachment security, both as a main effect and as moderated by parents' romantic attachment. Participants were 80 heterosexual couples involving men from the Oregon Youth Study and their first-born children. We used hierarchical linear modeling to predict child security with each parent. Interparental psychological aggression predicted lower child security with father, regardless of romantic attachme...

  2. Evaluation of the impact of solder die attach versus epoxy die attach in a state of the art power package

    CERN Document Server

    Czernohorsky, J; Viering, Matthias; Wright, L; Balanon, G

    2008-01-01

    Subject of this paper is the thermal investigation of epoxy (EDA) and solder (SDA) die attaches by a comparison of an ASIC with multiple heat sources in different package assemblies. Static and transient thermal measurements and simulations were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of two samples in a state of the art QFP power package differing only in the die attach material (EDA and SDA).

  3. Dismissing attachment characteristics dynamically modulate brain networks subserving social aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Linda eKrause

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s ‘Inner Working Model’. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described ‘social aversion network’ including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the ‘social aversion network’, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule. Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of direct

  4. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D.; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s “inner working model”. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described “social aversion network” including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG) specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the “social aversion network”, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by

  5. Zoospores of Undaria pinnatifida: their efficiency to attach under different water velocities and conjugation behavior during attachment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Shaojun; SHAN Tifeng

    2008-01-01

    In the invading course of Undaria pinnatifida,zoospore attachment in a dynamically changed subtidal water environment is crucial for the establishment of a potential population in alien waters.Among many abiotic factors that may interfere with the attachment process,water velocity is the most important one.In this investigation,the effect of water velocity on zoospore attachment of U.pinnatifida was investigated in an artificially designed system.It was found that freshly released zoospores that were transported by water flowing at 0 ~ 16 cm/s showed no difficulty in attaching the smooth surface.Zoospore attachment decreased at elevated water flowing rates.At 70 cm/s no spore attachment occurred.Spores that have settled on glass slide for up to 1 h could not be stripped away by flowing water at a rate of 129 cm/s,the same was true of the 20 d old filamentous gametophytes.It was found that more than 70% of free-swimming zoospores tended to settle down adjacent to the settled spores and formed conjugated clusters from two up to a few hundred cells in still culture.

  6. Effect of hot water spray on broiler carcasses for reduction of loosely attached, intermediately attached, and tightly attached pathogenic (Salmonella and Campylobacter) and mesophilic aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Singh, P; Lee, H C; Kang, I

    2013-03-01

    Chickens are known to harbor many bacteria, including pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hot water spray (HWS, 71°C for 1 min) in reducing bacterial contamination of prechilled broiler carcasses. For each of 4 replications, skin samples from 5 broilers were collected at 3 processing stages: after bleeding (feathers removed manually), after evisceration (with/without HWS), and after water chilling. Broiler skin was quantitatively assessed for loosely attached (by rinsing the skin), intermediately attached (by stomaching the rinsed skin), and tightly attached (by grinding the rinsed/stomached skin) mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and Campylobacter as well as for the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. Broiler skins possessed 6.4 to 6.6 log cfu/g, 3.8 to 4.1 log cfu/g, and 2.8 to 3.5 log cfu/g of MAB populations after bleeding, evisceration, and chilling, respectively. The HWS resulted in more than 1 log unit of reduction in MAB immediately after evisceration and immediately after chilling regardless of microbial sampling method. Compared with MAB, the contamination of Campylobacter was low (1.7 to 2.6 log cfu/g) after bleeding, but the level was not reduced throughout the processing steps regardless of HWS. The application of HWS reduced the prevalence of Salmonella after chilling, but not for Campylobacter except for loosely attached cells. After hot water exposure, a partially cooked appearance was seen on both broiler skin and skinless breast surface. More research is required to effectively eliminate pathogenic organisms during processing and suppress any recovery of bacteria regardless of attachment type after chilling.

  7. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  8. Remote handling assessment of attachment concepts for DEMO blanket segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.iglesias@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bastow, Roger; Cooper, Dave; Crowe, Robert; Middleton-Gear, Dave [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sibois, Romain [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Industrial Systems, ROViR, Tampere (Finland); Carloni, Dario [Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Vizvary, Zsolt; Crofts, Oliver [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Harman, Jon [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstaße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Loving, Antony [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Challenges are identified for the remote handling of blanket segments’ attachments. • Two attachment design approaches are assessed for remote handling (RH) feasibility. • An alternative is proposed, which potentially simplifies and speeds-up RH operations. • Up to three different assemblies are proposed for the remote handling of the attachments. • Proposed integrated design of upper port is compatible with the attachment systems. - Abstract: The replacement strategy of the massive Multi-Module Blanket Segments (MMS) is a key driver in the design of several DEMO systems. These include the blankets themselves, the vacuum vessel (VV) and its ports and the Remote Maintenance System (RMS). Common challenges to any blanket attachment system have been identified, such as the need for applying a preload to the MMS manifold, the effects of the decay heat and several uncertainties related to permanent deformations when removing the blanket segments after service. The WP12 kinematics of the MMS in-vessel transportation was adapted to the requirements of each of the supports during 2013 and 2014 design activities. The RM equipment envisaged for handling attachments and earth connections may be composed of up to three different assemblies. An In-Vessel Mover at the divertor level handles the lower support and earth bonding, and could stabilize the MMS during transportation. A Shield Plug crane with a 6 DoF manipulator operates the upper attachment and earth straps. And a Vertical Maintenance Crane is responsible for the in-vessel MMS transportation and can handle the removable upper support pins. A final proposal is presented which can potentially reduce the number of required systems, at the same time that speeds-up the RMS global operations.

  9. Early Interpersonal Neurobiological Assessment of Attachment and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally-laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the emotional brain. Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural nonverbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily-based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implication of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  10. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the "emotional brain." Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant's developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant's emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early intervention.

  11. Attachment and the risk of mental health disorders during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Attachment is one of the more important developmental aspects for predicting a person’s level of adaptation and mental health. Previous research in this area suggests a relationship between insecure attachment and behavioural disorders, deviations as well as depression and other affective disorders. The goal of this study was to determine the relationships between adolescents’ attachment patterns and aggression as well as internalisation and externalisation of problems – expressed as a tendency to assume the role of the victim or the perpetrator. We hypothesised that insecure patterns of attachment foster both aggression (as a personality feature and a tendency towards mental health issues, through increasing the frequency of entering the role of a victim or a perpetrator. participants and procedure One hundred and twenty individuals aged 14-19 took part in the study, mainly high school and university students. The study was conducted in groups, with the consent of participants and their parents. The following methods were used to assess the variables: The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ and the Mini Direct and Indirect Aggression Inventory (Mini-DIA. Results Our results suggest that a relationship exists between aggressiveness and trust in the relationship with one’s mother, as well as between hostility and alienation with regards to one’s mother and father. Insecure attachment is a significant risk factor for mental health disorders, and it fosters both externalisation and internalisation behaviours. Conclusions We interpret the results as suggesting that attachment organisation plays an important role in a wide array of aspects of adolescent psychosocial development.

  12. Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoo Rha; Park, Jae Sun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, self-reliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of children's temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.

  13. Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Rha Hong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, selfreliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of children’s temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.

  14. Dynein prevents erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisic, Marin; Maiato, Helder

    2015-01-01

    Equal distribution of the genetic material during cell division relies on efficient congression of chromosomes to the metaphase plate. Prior to their alignment, the Dynein motor recruited to kinetochores transports a fraction of laterally-attached chromosomes along microtubules toward the spindle poles. By doing that, Dynein not only contributes to chromosome movements, but also prevents premature stabilization of end-on kinetochore-microtubule attachments. This is achieved by 2 parallel mechanisms: 1) Dynein-mediated poleward movement of chromosomes counteracts opposite polar-ejection forces (PEFs) on chromosome arms by the microtubule plus-end-directed motors chromokinesins. Otherwise, they could stabilize erroneous syntelic kinetochore-microtubule attachments and lead to the random ejection of chromosomes away from the spindle poles; and 2) By transporting chromosomes to the spindle poles, Dynein brings the former to the zone of highest Aurora A kinase activity, further destabilizing kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Thus, Dynein plays an important role in keeping chromosome segregation error-free by preventing premature stabilization of kinetochore-microtubule attachments near the spindle poles.

  15. Attachment style, early sexual intercourse, and dating aggression victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkovsky, Nicole; Timmons Fritz, Patti A

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined relations between attachment style, age at first sexual intercourse, and dating aggression (DA) victimization. In all, 137 heterosexual female undergraduate students 18 to 25 years of age (M = 20.76, SD = 1.87) completed an online questionnaire that included questions regarding sexual history, attachment style (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale), and DA (Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory). Initial bivariate correlations revealed that women reported higher rates of DA victimization if they were more anxiously attached (r = .30, p = .000), had an earlier age at vaginal sexual debut (r = -.19, p = .015), and had an earlier age at oral sexual debut (r = -.15, p = .046); however, when entered into a predictive multivariate model, neither the addition of anxious attachment nor an early age at sexual debut accounted for a significant amount of variance above and beyond control variables. Although we were unable to affirm anxious attachment and an early age at first intercourse as risk factors for DA victimization, posthoc analyses emphasized the need to control for social desirability when gathering information on sensitive topics in clinical and research settings.

  16. Development of a Magnetic Attachment Method for Bionic Eye Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kate; Meffin, Hamish; Burns, Owen; Abbott, Carla J; Allen, Penelope J; Opie, Nicholas L; McGowan, Ceara; Yeoh, Jonathan; Ahnood, Arman; Luu, Chi D; Cicione, Rosemary; Saunders, Alexia L; McPhedran, Michelle; Cardamone, Lisa; Villalobos, Joel; Garrett, David J; Nayagam, David A X; Apollo, Nicholas V; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Stacey, Alastair; Escudie, Mathilde; Lichter, Samantha; Shepherd, Robert K; Prawer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Successful visual prostheses require stable, long-term attachment. Epiretinal prostheses, in particular, require attachment methods to fix the prosthesis onto the retina. The most common method is fixation with a retinal tack; however, tacks cause retinal trauma, and surgical proficiency is important to ensure optimal placement of the prosthesis near the macula. Accordingly, alternate attachment methods are required. In this study, we detail a novel method of magnetic attachment for an epiretinal prosthesis using two prostheses components positioned on opposing sides of the retina. The magnetic attachment technique was piloted in a feline animal model (chronic, nonrecovery implantation). We also detail a new method to reliably control the magnet coupling force using heat. It was found that the force exerted upon the tissue that separates the two components could be minimized as the measured force is proportionately smaller at the working distance. We thus detail, for the first time, a surgical method using customized magnets to position and affix an epiretinal prosthesis on the retina. The position of the epiretinal prosthesis is reliable, and its location on the retina is accurately controlled by the placement of a secondary magnet in the suprachoroidal location. The electrode position above the retina is less than 50 microns at the center of the device, although there were pressure points seen at the two edges due to curvature misalignment. The degree of retinal compression found in this study was unacceptably high; nevertheless, the normal structure of the retina remained intact under the electrodes.

  17. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eBosmans

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect-regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (Mage = 10.34 years; SDage = 0.63 filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.

  18. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Children's anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (M age = 10.34 years; SD age = 0.63) filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex, and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.

  19. Psychoanalysis, a bridge between attachment research and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Mario

    2008-06-01

    Attachment theory and neurobiology are at the forefront of scientific research, particularly in the area of child psychiatry. Several authors have encountered a surprising isomorphism between findings in these areas and concepts central in psychoanalysis. The author postulates that attachment theory is an outcome of the history of the transformation of the old concept of libido now applied interpersonally. The author also postulates that the neurobiology of attachment mediates but does not substitute psychoanalysis for the final understanding of the human bond. Findings in both fields, attachment theory and psychobiology, often compellingly lead to psychoanalytic concepts; on the other hand, the neurobiology of the psyche does not make full sense without the wealth of research conducted by psychoanalysts during the 20th century. The concept of seduction in particular, in its broad sense, is akin to mirroring and attachment and a useful tool in this regard. Although some cling to the idea of the purity of psychoanalysis and see these kin areas as a threat to its integrity, the author believes that psychoanalysis, serving as a bridge between them, can only be enriched by their empirical and experimental outcomes. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis (2008) 68, 148-155. doi:10.1057/ajp.2008.4.

  20. Highly Sensitive Assay for Measurement of Arenavirus-cell Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Joseph P; Botten, Jason

    2016-03-02

    Arenaviruses are a family of enveloped RNA viruses that cause severe human disease. The first step in the arenavirus life cycle is attachment of viral particles to host cells. While virus-cell attachment can be measured through the use of virions labeled with biotin, radioactive isotopes, or fluorescent dyes, these approaches typically require high multiplicities of infection (MOI) to enable detection of bound virus. We describe a quantitative (q)RT-PCR-based assay that measures Junin virus strain Candid 1 attachment via quantitation of virion-packaged viral genomic RNA. This assay has several advantages including its extreme sensitivity and ability to measure attachment over a large dynamic range of MOIs without the need to purify or label input virus. Importantly, this approach can be easily tailored for use with other viruses through the use of virus-specific qRT-PCR reagents. Further, this assay can be modified to permit measurement of particle endocytosis and genome uncoating. In conclusion, we describe a simple, yet robust assay for highly sensitive measurement of arenavirus-cell attachment.

  1. Attachment of Escherichia coli and enterococci to particles in runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Michelle L; Mostaghimi, Saied; Dillaha, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Association of Escherichia coli and enterococci with particulates present in runoff from erodible soils has important implications for modeling the fate and transport of bacteria from agricultural sources and in the selection of management practices to reduce bacterial movement to surface waters. Three soils with different textures were collected from the Ap horizon (silty loam, silty clay loam, and loamy fine sand), placed in portable box plots, treated with standard cowpats, and placed under a rainfall simulator. Rainfall was applied to the plots until saturation-excess flow occurred for 30 min, and samples were collected 10, 20, and 30 min after initiation of the runoff event. The attachment of E. coli and enterococci to particles present in runoff was determined by a screen filtration and centrifugation procedure. Percentage of E. coli and enterococci attached to particulates in runoff ranged from 28 to 49%, with few statistically significant differences in attachment among the three soils. Similar partitioning release patterns were observed between E. coli and enterococci from the silty loam (r = 0.57) and silty clay loam soils (r = 0.60). At least 60% of all attached E. coli and enterococci were associated particles within an 8- to 62-microm particle size category. The results indicate that the majority of fecal bacteria attach to and are transported with manure colloids in sediment-laden flow regardless of the soil texture.

  2. More than maternal sensitivity shapes attachment: infant coping and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Santos, Pedro Lopes Dos; Beeghly, Marjorie; Tronick, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a set of factors from multiple levels of influence: infant temperament, infant regulatory behavior, and maternal sensitivity on infant's attachment. Our sample consisted of 48 infants born prematurely and their mothers. At 1 and 3 months of age, mothers described their infants' behavior using the Escala de Temperamento do Bebé. At 3 months of age, infants' capacity to regulate stress was evaluated during Tronick's Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. At 9 months of age, mothers' sensitivity was evaluated during free play using the CARE-Index. At 12 months of age, infants' attachment security was assessed during Ainsworth's Strange Situation. A total of 16 infants were classified as securely attached, 17 as insecure-avoidant, and 15 as insecure-resistant. Mothers of securely attached infants were more likely than mothers of insecure infants to describe their infants as less difficult and to be more sensitive to their infants in free play. In turn, secure infants exhibited more positive responses during the Still-Face. Infants classified as insecure-avoidant were more likely to self-comfort during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more controlling during free play. Insecure-resistant exhibited higher levels of negative arousal during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more unresponsive in free play. These findings show that attachment quality is influenced by multiple factors, including infant temperament, coping behavior, and maternal sensitivity.

  3. Attachment insecurity and psychological resources associated with adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders.

  4. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; Sevecke, Kathrin; Buchheim, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. Articles for inclusion in this review were identified from PsychINFO (1966-2013), Sciencedirect (1970-2013), Psychindex (1980-2013), and Pubmed (1980-2013). First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  5. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eGander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  6. Minimal attachment killing (MAK): a versatile method for susceptibility testing of attached biofilm-positive and -negative Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Johannes K-M; Von Osten, Heimke; Horstkotte, Matthias A; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich

    2002-10-01

    Due to its ability to attach to polymeric surfaces Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen in chronic, medical device-associated infections. Attached S. epidermidis displays reduced susceptibility against a variety of antimicrobial substances, and little correlation between standard susceptibility test results and clinical outcome of antibiotic treatment is observed. In this study we established a new, versatile, and easy method of antimicrobial susceptibility testing for attached Staphylococcus epidermidis, suitable for both biofilm-negative and biofilm-positive attached bacteria using readily available equipment. For three biofilm-positive wild-type strains and their biofilm-negative mutants minimal attachment killing concentrations (MAK) of penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, and gentamicin were determined. Depending on strain and investigated antibiotics, a heterogeneous MAK (MAK(hetero)) could be differentiated from a homogeneous resistance (MAK(homo)), favoring a model of few persisters within attached cells under antibiotic treatment. For the biofilm-negative mutants, a lower MAK(homo) was detected than for the corresponding wild types for some of the tested antibiotics, which probably resulted from higher bacterial inocula of wild-type strains, whereas the MAK(hetero) were comparable for mutants and wild types for most of the tested antibiotics and strains. These data indicate that biofilm formation is not a necessary prerequisite for persistence of attached S. epidermidis cells under antibiotic treatment, which could explain therapeutic failure in foreign body-associated infections due to biofilm-negative S. epidermidis isolates. The highly individual resistance phenotypes of the investigated strains with different antibiotics suggests that MAK determination could help to predict the therapeutic outcome of foreign body-associated infections with both biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis.

  7. Attachment Patterns and Reflective Functioning in traumatised refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Traumatized refugees have often suffered severe, prolonged, repeated traumas and pose a challenge to treatment. Attachment patterns and level of mentalizing seem to work as protection mechanisms in traumatizing events and to be important for positively utilizing the therapeutic alliance which...... psychotherapy research has shown is central to change and effect. Aims: 1) To examine attachment patterns and reflective functioning in traumatised refugees with PTSD, and 2) shed light on their significance to therapeutic alliance and treatment effect. Methods: All Arabic speaking patients in the study...... described above were offered to participate. With approximately 50% Arabic speaking participants, there was an estimated N=50 after 25% dropout. Besides the above mentioned ratings, the Adult Attachment Interview was conducted before the start of psychotherapy, and the quality of the therapeutic alliance...

  8. Prediction of Addiction Potential in Youth According to Attachment Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Adroom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aim is to predict the psychological inclination to drug use in youths by studying their attachment styles. Materials and Methods: The research sample includes male and female students of Zahedan Medical Science University with the average age of 19-24. The proportional cluster random sampling was used for selection of participant. The hypotheses were analyzed, using Pearson correlation method, regression analysis, one way variance analysis and t-test for two independent groups4T. Results: The results indicated positive relationships among addiction aptitude and insecure-avoidant attachment style and negative relationship between addiction aptitude and secure attachment style4T. Conclusion: It is necessary to focus training intervention and prevention on all students4T.

  9. An attachment perspective on therapeutic processes and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Berant, Ety

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of interest in clinical applications of attachment theory. In the present article, we briefly describe John Bowlby's model of therapeutic change, the therapeutic relationship, and the therapist's role in emotional healing. We then review empirical evidence for three key propositions in Bowlby's model. First, a client's sense of security during therapy is crucial for facilitating therapeutic work. Second, a therapist's own sense of security contributes to positive therapeutic outcomes. Third, attachment insecurities can be effectively reduced in therapy, and movement toward greater attachment security is central to achieving favorable therapeutic outcomes. In sum, research evidence confirms the importance of establishing what Bowlby called a safe haven and a secure base within a therapeutic relationship.

  10. Tracing detached and attached care practices in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine B.

    2014-01-01

    of care are not explicated in the curriculum or textbooks; however, they surfaced once this crooked approach to studying care in a simulated practice was applied. The article starts from the assertion that detached engagements are not recognized within the field of nursing education as an equal component...... to attachments. Yet empirical cases from the skills lab and hospitals illustrate how students sometimes felt emotionally attached to plastic dummies and how experienced nurses sometimes practised a degree of detachment in relation to human patients. Detached engagements will therefore be presented as part...... of care practices of nurses rendering the ability to detach in engagement with patients a professional skill that students also need to learn. In the analysis to follow, attached and detached engagements are located on an equal plane by integrating both in to the same conceptual framework, rather than...

  11. Fundamentals in Microalgae Harvesting: From Flocculation to Self-attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan

    envisioned algal attachment, the third objective was to investigate the cell to substrata attachment by a thermodynamic model. Based on the theoretical analysis, when the polar surface energy of the cell is greater than that of water, cellular attachment would be more favorable on materials with higher dispersive surface energy but lower polar surface energy. If the polar surface energy of the cell is smaller than that of water, more cell attachment would be expected on materials that are higher in both dispersive and polar surface energies. The model was also validated its capability in designing, selecting, and matching algal strains and solid carrier materials to enhance cell attachment. The forth objective was to investigate the effect of surface texturing on algal attachment. It was found that surface texturing had a greater effect than surface free energy, by changing the liquid wetting behavior and real contact area. The attachment is preferred when the feature size is close to the diameter of the cell attempting to settle. Larger or smaller feature dimensions have the potential to reduce cellular attachment. The fifth objective was to study the role of carrier materials and their surface roughness in attachment. If the surface chemical composition was similar, the attachment and orientation of algal cells was found to depend on the surface average roughness, wherein rougher surfaces resulted in increased attachment. Whereas, the attachment was strongly related to surface free energy as described by the thermodynamic model if materials were chemically different.

  12. Conformational mechanism for the stability of microtubule-kinetochore attachments

    CERN Document Server

    Bertalan, Zsolt; Maiato, Helder; Zapperi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Regulating the stability of microtubule(MT)-kinetochore attachments is fundamental to avoiding mitotic errors and ensure proper chromosome segregation during cell division. While biochemical factors involved in this process have been identified, its mechanics still needs to be better understood. Here we introduce and simulate a mechanical model of MT-kinetochore interactions in which the stability of the attachment is ruled by the geometrical conformations of curling MT-protofilaments entangled in kinetochore fibrils. The model allows us to reproduce with good accuracy in vitro experimental measurements of the detachment times of yeast kinetochores from MTs under external pulling forces. Numerical simulations suggest that geometrical features of MT-protofilaments may play an important role in the switch between stable and unstable attachments.

  13. Corrosion of coupled metals in a dental magnetic attachment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, F T; Yoneyama, T; Okuno, O

    1993-12-01

    Implants and magnetic attachments are becoming widespread in dental treatment. Their associated use, implants and magnetic attachments, can be seen often too. In those cases, it is difficult to avoid coupling of different metals. The corrosion behavior of the metals is expected to be different depending on whether it is found in an isolated or a coupled condition. Potential corrosion couples in a dental magnetic attachment system among titanium, ferromagnetic stainless steel, gold alloy type IV, and gold-silver-palladium alloy were studied by an immersion test in 1% lactic acid for 7 days and potential/current density curves were measured. Corrosion of titanium and ferromagnetic stainless steel seemed to be accelerated by coupling with gold alloys or gold-silver-palladium alloys. On the other hand, the corrosion amount of gold alloy and gold-silver-palladium alloys were attenuated by coupling.

  14. Russian RSC Energia employees attach trunnions to DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Employees of the Russian aerospace company RSC Energia attach trunnions to the Russian-built docking module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC so that it can be mounted in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles.

  15. Filial attachment and its disruption: insights from the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B

    2014-12-01

    Guinea pigs are precocial rodents that show evidence of a selective attachment to the mother who, in turn, exhibits little active maternal care. Effects of separation in guinea pigs are, therefore, more likely to reflect the disruption of attachment than the removal of, or alterations in, patterns of maternal care. Here, effects in guinea pigs of the presence or absence of the mother on psychobiological endpoints and of maternal separation on depressive-like behavior are reviewed. It is argued that results with guinea pigs often align more closely with those of nonhuman primates than those of laboratory rats and mice, and that the guinea pig offers a valuable translational model for studies of the consequences of attachment and its disruption.

  16. Conflicting attachment and the growth of bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Chung; Weitz, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    Simple growth mechanisms have been proposed to explain the emergence of seemingly universal network structures. The widely-studied model of preferential attachment assumes that new nodes are more likely to connect to highly connected nodes. Preferential attachment explains the emergence of scale-free degree distributions within complex networks. Yet, it is incompatible with many network systems, particularly bipartite systems in which two distinct types of agents interact. For example, the addition of new links in a host-parasite system corresponds to the infection of hosts by parasites. Increasing connectivity is beneficial to a parasite and detrimental to a host. Therefore, the overall network connectivity is subject to conflicting pressures. Here, we propose a stochastic network growth model of conflicting attachment, inspired by a particular kind of parasite-host interactions: that of viruses interacting with microbial hosts. The mechanism of network growth includes conflicting preferences to network dens...

  17. Moderating Effects of Craftourism on Place Attachment and Destination Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Practice of traditional handicrafts play a significant role in enhancing destination attractiveness. Visitors assign considerable weightage to local craft practices to satisfy their desire to participate in the learning and production process, a case of role-reversal. Promoting this scope of role-reversal has been used by the Destination Marketing Organizations as differentiators. Craftourism has gained considerable momentum. This paper focuses on examining the moderating effects of craftourism on place attachment and destination loyalty. Dimensions of craftourism were identified by applying suitable statistical procedure. The results revealed craftourism, with option for visitors to enact role-reversal, improves the chances of destination loyalty following antecedent effects of place attachment. Keywords: craftourism, place attachment, destination loyalty, visitor, moderating

  18. Emotional regulation, attachment to possessions and hoarding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Philip J; Moulding, Richard; Taylor, Jasmine K; Nedeljkovic, Maja

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to test which particular facets of emotion regulation (ER) are most linked to symptoms of hoarding disorder, and whether beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions (EA) mediate this relationship. A non-clinical sample of 150 participants (108 females) completed questionnaires of emotional tolerance (distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency - impulsivity when experiencing negative emotions), depressed mood, hoarding, and beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions. While all emotional tolerance measures related to hoarding, when considered together and controlling for depression and age, anxiety sensitivity and urgency were the significant predictors. Anxiety sensitivity was fully mediated, and urgency partially mediated, via beliefs regarding emotional attachment to possessions. These findings provide further support for (1) the importance of anxiety sensitivity and negative urgency for hoarding symptoms, and (2) the view that individuals with HD symptoms may rely on items for emotion regulation, leading to stronger beliefs that items are integral to emotional wellbeing.

  19. Anorexia and Attachment: Dysregulated Defense and Pathological Mourning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elisa edelvecchio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of Defensive exclusion (Deactivation and Segregated Systems in the development of early relationships and related to subsequent manifestations of symptoms of eating disorders was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Fifty-one DSM-IV diagnosed women with anorexia participated in the study. Anorexic patients were primarily classified as dismissing or unresolved. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of defensive exclusion were carried out. Results showed potential benefits of using the AAP defense exclusion coding system, in addition to the main attachment classifications, in order to better understand the developmental issues involved in anorexia. Discussion concerned the processes, such as pathological mourning, that may underlie the associations between dismissing and unresolved attachment and anorexia. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  20. The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R. Formal operations were tested by Bond's Logical Operations Test. We examined the cultural-pedagogical status of the family, the parental mediation characteristic for the development of formal operations, and family property as the aspects of familial context. The sample consisted of 200 pupils aged 14 to 19. According to the attachment theory, secure attachment provides the feel of security in environment exploration, which is the ground of personality development. We assumed that components of attachment contribute formal-operational thinking development and change the influence of familial cultural-supportive tools. The findings show us that the culturalpedagogical status of the family improves formal operations development and unresolved family traumatisation has negative influence. Capacity for mentalisation has a positive indirect effect on thinking development through the influence of the cultural-pedagogical status of the family. The low control of anger has a negative indirect effect on thinking development; it increases the influence of unresolved family traumatisation. Negative self concept has indirect effects on thinking development through increasing this negative influence of unresolved family traumatisation and decreasing the role of familial cultural-supportive tools.