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Sample records for brachyspira liikide identifitseerimine

  1. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L J; de Boer, R F; Roelfsema, J H; Friesema, I H M; Kortbeek, L M; Wagenaar, J A; Bonten, M J M; Kusters, J G

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were

  2. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.; Boer, de R.F.; Roelfsema, J.H.; Friesema, I.H.M.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Kusters, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were

  3. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  4. Proteome characterization of Brachyspira strains. Identification of bacterial antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Casas López, Mª Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    El género Brachyspira incluye varias especies patogénicas que afectan a cerdos, perros, pájaros y humanos. En cerdos, Brachyspira (anteriormente Serpulina y Treponema) hyodysenteriae y Brachyspira pilosicoli son patógenos intestinales bien conocidos. Estas especies son espiroquetas gram-negativas, flageladas y anaeróbicas, las cuales viven en el intestino grueso y que tienen una asociación estrecha con la mucosa del colon. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae es el agente causante de la disentería porc...

  5. Proteome characterization of Brachyspira strains: identification of bacterial antigens /

    OpenAIRE

    Casas López, Ma. Vanessa,

    2017-01-01

    El género Brachyspira incluye varias especies patogénicas que afectan a cerdos, perros, pájaros y humanos. En cerdos, Brachyspira (anteriormente Serpulina y Treponema) hyodysenteriae y Brachyspira pilosicoli son patógenos intestinales bien conocidos. Estas especies son espiroquetas gram-negativas, flageladas y anaeróbicas, las cuales viven en el intestino grueso y que tienen una asociación estrecha con la mucosa del colon. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae es el agente causante de la disentería porc...

  6. First identification of "Brachyspira hampsonii" in wild European waterfowl.

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    Francisco Javier Martínez-Lobo

    Full Text Available Anseriformes deserve special attention in the epidemiology of Brachyspira spp. because diverse Anseriformes species have been described to act as highly efficient carriers of several Brachyspira spp. that can also infect livestock. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and diversity of Brachyspira spp. in waterfowl that winter in Spain. Brachyspira spp. were isolated from 51 of the 205 faecal samples collected from graylag geese and mallards in the Villafáfila Lagoons Nature Reserve (Northwestern Spain. The Brachyspira species identified through phenotyping, PCR and sequencing of the nox gene were B. pilosicoli (5.9%, B. alvinipulli (11.8%, "B. hampsonii" (19.6%, B. murdochii (23.5% and B. innocens (39.2%. The most relevant finding of this study is the description of "B. hampsonii" in specimens from birds for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the nox gene sequences grouped all of the obtained "B. hampsonii" isolates into a cluster with Brachyspira strains previously identified by others as "B. hampsonii" and separated from other Brachyspira spp. isolates and reference strains. Additionally, this cluster was related to clades that grouped B. murdochii and B. innocens isolates. The identification of "B. hampsonii" was also achieved in 8 of the 10 isolates by sequencing the16S rRNA gene and tlyA gene. Regardless of the species identified, no antimicrobial resistance was observed in any of the enteropathogenic isolates recovered. This is the first description of "B. hampsonii" in European waterfowl, which might represent hosts that serve as natural reservoirs of this Brachyspira species. This finding indicates that this spirochete is not limited to North America, and its presence in wild birds in Europe poses a risk of transmission to livestock.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010

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    Pringle Märit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. Methods The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Results The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T, showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. Conclusions The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial

  8. Assessment of diagnostics and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Brachyspira species using a ring test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasback, T.; Fellstrøm, C.; Bergsjo, B.

    2005-01-01

    There is no ring test for quality assessment available in Europe for diagnostics and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious, anaerobic bacteria of the genus Brachyspira. Therefore, an international ring test for Brachyspira spp. was performed once a year during 2002-2004. Two sets...

  9. The in vitro effect of Garden Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutasi, József; Jakab, László; Jurkovich, Viktor; Rafai, Pál

    2016-12-01

    Filtrates of a water extract of commercially available garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were used for studying its possible bactericidal effect on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, by agar-diffusion technique. Five of the six studied Brachyspira strains have proven to be sensitive and one moderately sensitive in the in vitro tests. It was concluded that water extract of garden thyme possesses inhibitory effects against B. hyodysenteriae. In vivo experiments are needed to check the validity of this conclusion.

  10. Comparison of sesion severity, distribution, and colonic mucin expression in pigs with acute swine dysentery following oral inoculation with "Brachyspira hampsonii" or Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberts, B L; Arruda, P H; Kinyon, J M; Madson, D M; Frana, T S; Burrough, E R

    2014-11-01

    Swine dysentery is classically associated with infection by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the only current officially recognized Brachyspira sp. that consistently imparts strong beta-hemolysis on blood agar. Recently, several strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira have been isolated from swine with clinical dysentery that are not identified as B. hyodysenteriae by PCR including the recently proposed species "Brachyspira hampsonii." In this study, 6-week-old pigs were inoculated with either a clinical isolate of "B. hampsonii" (EB107; n = 10) clade II or a classic strain of B. hyodysenteriae (B204; n = 10) to compare gross and microscopic lesions and alterations in colonic mucin expression in pigs with clinical disease versus controls (n = 6). Gross lesions were similar between infected groups. No histologic difference was observed between infected groups with regard to neutrophilic inflammation, colonic crypt depth, mucosal ulceration, or hemorrhage. Histochemical and immunohistochemical evaluation of the apex of the spiral colon revealed decreased expression of sulphated mucins, decreased expression of MUC4, and increased expression of MUC5AC in diseased pigs compared to controls. No difference was observed between diseased pigs in inoculated groups. This study reveals significant alterations in colonic mucin expression in pigs with acute swine dysentery and further reveals that these and other microscopic changes are similar following infection with "B. hampsonii" clade II or B. hyodysenteriae. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The use of culture, pooled samples and PCR for identification of herds infected with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellström, C; Zimmerman, U; Aspan, A; Gunnarsson, A

    2001-06-01

    The sensitivity of culturing Brachyspira hyodysenteriae was determined after sampling with swabs from porcine fecal specimens inoculated with tenfold dilutions of a field strain of these microbes. After storage of swabs, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae was recovered throughout the first 3 weeks after inoculation from feces with more than 140 cells/g. Viable spirochetes could still be recovered after up to 83 days of storage from feces, with 1.4 x 10(6) cells or more per gram. Culture for Brachyspira spp. was performed on 285 rectal swabs, which were pooled in batches of five. The number of pooled samples positive for B. hyodysenteriae corresponded with the sum results of individual analysis of the corresponding collections of five samples. A PCR system based on the tlyA gene of B. hyodysenteriae was developed and tested on primary cultures of pooled samples. The results of the PCR assay showed a 97% correlation with the culture results. The prevalence of Brachyspira spp. was determined in five swine herds and found to be highest among breeding gilts and boars aged 13-16 weeks and among 6-12-week-old weaned pigs. In contrast, Brachyspira spp. were only rarely found in sows, which may reflect the development of immunity by adult pigs to all species of the genus.

  12. Minimum inhibitory concentration of Brazilian Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strains

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    Amanda G.S. Daniel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to characterize Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of strains obtained from pigs in Brazil based on the minimal inhibitory concentration test (MIC. The MIC was performed for 22 B. hyodysenteriae isolates obtained from 2011 to 2013 using the following antimicrobial drugs: tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin and tylvalosin. Outbreaks of swine dysentery were diagnosed based on clinical presentation, bacterial isolation, gross and microscopic lesions, duplex PCR for B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli and nox gene sequencing. All obtained MIC values were consistently higher or equal to the microbiological cut-off described in the literature. The MIC 90 values for the tested drugs were 8μg/ml for doxycycline, >4μg/ml for valnemulin, 8μg/ml for tiamulin, 32μg/ml for tylvalosin, >64μg/ml for lincomycin and >128μg/ml for tylosin. These results largely corroborate those reported in the literature. Tiamulin, doxycycline and tylvalosin showed the lowest MIC results. All of the samples subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on the nox gene sequence exhibited similar results, showing 100% identity to B. hyodysenteriae. This is the first study describing the MIC pattern of B. hyodysenteriae isolated in Brazil.

  13. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica

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    Désirée S. Jansson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Method: Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox, and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus, three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum, and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills, and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills. Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species ‘B. pulli’ and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to

  14. Emergence of Brachyspira species and strains: reinforcing the need for surveillance.

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    Hampson, David J; La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D

    2015-01-01

    This short review discusses the increasing complexity that has developed around the understanding of Brachyspira species that infect pigs, and their ability to cause disease. It describes the recognition of new weakly haemolytic Brachyspira species, and the growing appreciation that Brachyspira pilosicoli and some other weakly haemolytic species may be pathogenic in pigs. It discusses swine dysentery (SD) caused by the strongly haemolytic Brachyspira hyodysenteriae , particularly the cyclical nature of the disease whereby it can largely disappear as a clinical problem from a farm or region, and re-emerge years later. The review then describes the recent emergence of two newly described strongly haemolytic pathogenic species, " Brachyspira suanatina " and " Brachyspira hampsonii " both of which appear to have reservoirs in migratory waterbirds, and which may be transmitted to and between pigs. " B. suanatina " seems to be confined to Scandinavia, whereas " B. hampsonii " has been reported in North America and Europe, causes a disease indistinguishable from SD, and has required the development of new routine diagnostic tests. Besides the emergence of new species, strains of known Brachyspira species have emerged that vary in important biological properties, including antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence. Strains can be tracked locally and at the national and international levels by identifying them using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and comparing them against sequence data for strains in the PubMLST databases. Using MLST in conjunction with data on antimicrobial susceptibility can form the basis for surveillance programs to track the movement of resistant clones. In addition some strains of B. hyodysenteriae have low virulence potential, and some of these have been found to lack the B. hyodysenteriae 36 kB plasmid or certain genes on the plasmid whose activity may be associated with colonization. Lack of the plasmid or the genes can be identified using PCR

  15. Reproduction of mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea and colitis indistinguishable from swine dysentery following experimental inoculation with "Brachyspira hampsonii" strain 30446.

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    Joseph E Rubin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, swine dysentery, is a severe production limiting disease of swine. Recently, pigs in western Canada with clinical signs indistinguishable from swine dysentery were observed. Despite the presence of spirochetes on fecal smears, recognized Brachyspira spp. including B. hyodysenteriae could not be identified. A phylogenetically distinct Brachyspira, called "B. hampsonii" strain 30446, however was isolated. The purpose of this study was to experimentally reproduce mucohaemorrhagic colitis and characterize strain 30446 shedding following inoculation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Eighteen 13-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to inoculation (n = 12 or control (n = 6 groups in each of two trials. In trial 1, pigs were inoculated with a tissue homogenate collected from clinically affected field cases. In trial 2, pigs were inoculated with a pure broth culture of strain 30446. In both trials, mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea was significantly more common in inoculated pigs than controls, all of which remained healthy. In animals with mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea, significantly more spirochetes were observed on Gram stained fecal smears, and higher numbers of strain 30446 genome equivalents were detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR. Strain 30446 was cultured from colon and/or feces of all affected but no control animals at necropsy. CONCLUSIONS: "Brachyspira hampsonii" strain 30446 causes mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea in pigs following a 4-9 day incubation period. Fecal shedding was detectable by day 4 post inoculation, and rarely preceded the onset of mucoid or haemorrhagic diarrhea by more than 2 days. Culture and 30446-specific qPCR are reliable methods of detection of this organism in feces and tissues of diarrheic pigs. The emergence of a novel Brachyspira spp., such as "B. hampsonii", creates diagnostic challenges including higher risk of false negative diagnostic tests. We therefore

  16. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Brachyspira spp. isolated from laying hens in different housing systems.

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    Jansson, D S; Fellström, C; Råsbäck, T; Vågsholm, I; Gunnarsson, A; Ingermaa, F; Johansson, K-E

    2008-08-25

    Several species of intestinal spirochaetes, Brachyspira (B.) alvinipulli, B. intermedia and B. pilosicoli, may cause reduced egg production and faecal staining of eggshells in chickens. The aim of this study was to characterize potentially pathogenic and presumably non-pathogenic Brachyspira spp. from commercial laying hens. Selective culture, phenotyping, PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used and clinical data were collected. Phenotypic profiles were obtained for 489 isolates and 351 isolates obtained after subculture, and 30 isolates were selected for molecular characterization. Seven isolates were positive by a B. intermedia-specific PCR based on the nox gene, and two were positive in a B. hyodysenteriae-specific 23S rRNA gene based PCR. By comparative phylogenetic analysis in combination with PCR and phenotyping, seven isolates were identified as B. intermedia, eight isolates as B. innocens, five as B. murdochii, and three isolates each as B. alvinipulli and "B. pulli". The remaining four isolates could not be assigned to any presently recognized species. Co-infection with several species or genetic variants of Brachyspira spp. were detected in some flocks and samples, suggesting a high level of diversity. Organic flocks with access to outdoor areas were at higher risk (RR=2.3; 95% CI 1.5-3.6) for being colonized than chickens in other housing systems. No significant differences between colonized and non-colonized flocks were found regarding clinical parameters, i.e. mortality, egg production, faecally contaminated eggshells, and wet litter. Our results show that a combination of traditional laboratory diagnostics, molecular tests and phylogeny is needed for identification of Brachyspira sp. from chickens.

  17. A review of methods used for studying the molecular epidemiology of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

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    Zeeh, Friederike; Nathues, Heiko; Frey, Joachim; Muellner, Petra; Fellström, Claes

    2017-08-01

    Brachyspira (B.) spp. are intestinal spirochaetes isolated from pigs, other mammals, birds and humans. In pigs, seven Brachyspira spp. have been described, i.e. B. hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. innocens, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is especially relevant in pigs as it causes swine dysentery and hence considerable economic losses to the pig industry. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae to antimicrobials is of increasing concern. The epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae infections is only partially understood, but different methods for detection, identification and typing have supported recent improvements in knowledge and understanding. In the last years, molecular methods have been increasingly used. Molecular epidemiology links molecular biology with epidemiology, offering unique opportunities to advance the study of diseases. This review is based on papers published in the field of epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae in pigs. Electronic databases were screened for potentially relevant papers using title and abstract and finally, Barcellos et al. papers were systemically selected and assessed. The review summarises briefly the current knowledge on B. hyodysenteriae epidemiology and elaborates on molecular typing techniques available. Results of the studies are compared and gaps in the knowledge are addressed. Finally, potential areas for future research are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility test in Brachyspira pilosicoli strains isolated from commercial layers farms in Colombia PRUEBAS DE SENSIBILIDAD FRENTE A AGENTES ANTIMICROBIANOS EN CEPAS DE Brachyspira pilosicoli AISLADAS A PARTIR DE PONEDORAS COMERCIALES EN COLOMBIA

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    Figueroa Ramìrez Judith

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Spirochaetes of the genus Brachyspira cause important diseases in swine and poultry. An increasing problem in the presentation of resistant strains to the antimicrobial drugs usually used to treat the intestinal spirochaetosis in swine has been evidenced and this could be applicable to the isolations from poultry. There are very few reports of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. isolated from birds. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of twelve Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates obtain from commercial layers was evaluated against tiamulin, tylosin and lincomycin establishing the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC by agar dilution technique. All bacteria analyzed were sensitive to tiamulin (MIC ≤0,1μg/ml, and lincomycin (MIC 1μg/ml and resistant to tylosin (MIC 5μg/ml.Las espiroquetas intestinales del género Brachyspira ocasionan enfermedades importantes en porcinos y aves. Se ha evidenciado un problema de incremento en la presentación de cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos utilizados normalmente para tratar las espiroquetosis intestinales en porcinos, y esto podría ser aplicable a los aislamientos de aves. Hay muy pocos reportes de sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Brachyspira spp. Aisladas en aves. En este estudio se evaluó la sensibilidad de doce aislamientos de Brachyspira pilosicoli obtenidos de granjas de ponedoras comerciales a los agentes antimicrobianos tiamulina, tilosina y lincomicina, y se estableció la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI mediante la técnica de dilución en agar. Todas las bacterias analizadas fueron sensibles a tiamulina (CMI ≤0,1 μg/ml y lincomicina (CMI 1 μg/ml y resistentes a tilosina (CMI 5 μg/ml.

  19. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization of experimental Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli infection in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian; Boye, Mette

    2000-01-01

    Two groups of six 8-week-old pigs were challenged with 1X10(9) cfu Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli or Serpulina intermedia daily for 3 consecutive days to study the pathology of porcine colonic spirochetosis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH......) with oligonucleotide probes targeting ribosomal RNA specific for B. pilosicoli and the genus Brachyspira/Serpulina. Six pigs served as noninoculated controls. The animals were euthanatized successively between postinoculation days 14 and 24. B. pilosicoli was reisolated in feces from all of the inoculated pigs...

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae to organic acids and essential oil components

    Science.gov (United States)

    VANDE MAELE, Lien; HEYNDRICKX, Marc; MAES, Dominiek; DE PAUW, Nele; MAHU, Maxime; VERLINDEN, Marc; HAESEBROUCK, Freddy; MARTEL, An; PASMANS, Frank; BOYEN, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of organic acids and essential oil components against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative pathogen of swine dysentery, was evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 15 compounds were determined at pH 7.2 and pH 6.0, using a broth microdilution assay. In addition, possible synergism was determined. MIC values for the three tested strains were similar. For organic acids, MIC values at pH 6.0 were lower than at pH 7.2. B. hyodysenteriae was most sensitive to cinnamaldehyde and lauric acid, with MIC values acids against B. hyodysenteriae. PMID:26369432

  1. Metabolic response of porcine colon explants to in vitro infection by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae : a leap into disease pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, Thijs; Hoekstra, Anna T.; Daemen, Ineke A.J.J.M.; Berkers, Celia R.; de Oliveira Costa, Matheus

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is a production limiting disease in pig farming. Currently antimicrobial therapy is the only treatment and control method available. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the metabolic response of porcine colon

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Brachyspira spp. from Dogs in the Czech Republic

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    Daniel Šperling

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of intestinal Spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira in Czech dogs and to determine the susceptibility of obtained B. pilosicoli isolates to selected antibacterial substances. Spirochetes were diagnosed microscopically in 23 out of 1139 samples of dogs’ excrements, primarily intended for a parasitological testing. The cultivation of positive samples provided 10 brachyspira isolates, which were, on the basis of their biochemical activity and the results of the species-specific PCR, identified as B. pilosicoli (9 isolates and B. hyodysenteriae (1 isolate. These dogs came from households. All the 7 tested isolates B. pilosicoli were sensitive to metronidazole and doxycycline, uniformly resistant to erythromycin, partly sensitive to cefazoline, lincomicine and ampicilline except for one isolate of B. pilosicoli, which was resistant to ampicilline. The second part of study was focused on dogs with diarrhoea that came from animal shelters, where a high prevalence of 58% (10/17 of B. pilosicoli was found.

  3. Characterization of the fecal microbiota of pigs before and after inoculation with "Brachyspira hampsonii".

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    Matheus O Costa

    Full Text Available "Brachyspira hampsonii" causes disease indistinguishable from swine dysentery, and the structure of the intestinal microbiome likely plays a role in determining susceptibility of individual pigs to infection and development of clinical disease. The objectives of the current study were to determine if the pre-inoculation fecal microbiota differed between inoculated pigs that did (INOC MH or did not (INOC non-MH develop mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea following challenge with "B. hampsonii", and to quantify changes in the structure of the microbiome following development of clinical disease. Fecal microbiota profiles were generated based on amplification and sequencing of the cpn60 universal target sequence from 89 samples from 18 pigs collected at -8, -5, -3 and 0 days post-inoculation, and at termination. No significant differences in richness, diversity or taxonomic composition distinguished the pre-inoculation microbiomes of INOC MH and INOC non-MH pigs. However, the development of bloody diarrhea in inoculated pigs was associated with perturbation of the microbiota relative to INOC non-MH or sham-inoculated control pigs. Specifically, the fecal microbiota of INOC MH pigs was less dense (fewer total 16S rRNA copies per gram of feces, and had a lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio. Further investigation of the potential long-term effects of Brachyspira disease on intestinal health and performance is warranted.

  4. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli Proteins Recognized by Sera of Challenged Pigs

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    Vanessa Casas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli are pig intestinal pathogens that are the causative agents of swine dysentery (SD and porcine intestinal spirochaetosis (PIS, respectively. Although some inactivated bacterin and recombinant vaccines have been explored as prophylactic treatments against these species, no effective vaccine is yet available. Immunoproteomics approaches hold the potential for the identification of new, suitable candidates for subunit vaccines against SD and PIS. These strategies take into account the gene products actually expressed and present in the cells, and thus susceptible of being targets of immune recognition. In this context, we have analyzed the immunogenic pattern of two B. pilosicoli porcine isolates (the Spanish farm isolate OLA9 and the commercial P43/6/78 strain and one B. hyodysenteriae isolate (the Spanish farm V1. The proteins from the Brachyspira lysates were fractionated by preparative isoelectric focusing, and the fractions were analyzed by Western blot with hyperimmune sera from challenged pigs. Of the 28 challenge-specific immunoreactive bands detected, 21 were identified as single proteins by MS, while the other 7 were shown to contain several major proteins. None of these proteins were detected in the control immunoreactive bands. The proteins identified included 11 from B. hyodysenteriae and 28 from the two B. pilosicoli strains. Eight proteins were common to the B. pilosicoli strains (i.e., elongation factor G, aspartyl-tRNA synthase, biotin lipoyl, TmpB outer membrane protein, flagellar protein FlaA, enolase, PEPCK, and VspD, and enolase and PEPCK were common to both species. Many of the identified proteins were flagellar proteins or predicted to be located on the cell surface and some of them had been previously described as antigenic or as bacterial virulence factors. Here we report on the identification and semiquantitative data of these immunoreactive proteins which

  5. Prophage-like gene transfer agents-novel mechanisms of gene exchange for Methanococcus, Desulfovibrio, Brachyspira, and Rhodobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Thad B

    2007-04-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are novel mechanisms for bacterial gene transfer. They resemble small, tailed bacteriophages in ultrastructure and act like generalized transducing prophages. In contrast to functional prophages, GTAs package random fragments of bacterial genomes and incomplete copies of their own genomes. The packaged DNA content is characteristic of the GTA and ranges in size from 4.4 to 13.6kb. GTAs have been reported in species of Brachyspira, Methanococcus, Desulfovibrio, and Rhodobacter. The best studied GTAs are VSH-1 of the anaerobic, pathogenic spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and RcGTA of the nonsulfur, purple, photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. VSH-1 and RcGTA have likely contributed to the ecology and evolution of these bacteria. The existence of GTAs in phylogenetically diverse bacteria suggests GTAs may be more common in nature than is now appreciated.

  6. Quality-control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae type strain (ATCC 27164(T))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bergsjø, B.

    2006-01-01

    There are no approved standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. An interlaboratory study was performed to establish MIC quality control ranges for six antimicrobial agents for the type strain of B. hyodysenteriae using broth diluti....... The results showed that B. hyodysenteriae B78(T) ATCC 27164(T) is a suitable quality control strain. This is a first step toward standardization of methods regarding this anaerobe....

  7. Changes in bacterial community structure in the colon of pigs fed different experimental diets and after infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leser, Thomas D.; Lindecrona, Rikke Hvid; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial communities in the large intestines of pigs were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis targeting the 16S ribosomal DNA. The pigs were fed different experimental diets based on either modified standard feed or cooked rice supplemented with die...... between two independent but identical experiments. When the animals were experimentally infected with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, causing swine dysentery, many of the T-RFs fluctuated, suggesting a destabilization of the microbial community....

  8. PRUEBAS DE SENSIBILIDAD FRENTE A AGENTES ANTIMICROBIANOS EN CEPAS DE Brachyspira pilosicoli AISLADAS A PARTIR DE PONEDORAS COMERCIALES EN COLOMBIA

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    DM Álvarez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las espiroquetas intestinales del género Brachyspira ocasionan enfermedades importantes en porcinos y aves. Se ha evidenciado un problema de incremento en la presentación de cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos utilizados normalmente para tratar las espiroquetosis intestinales en porcinos, y esto podría ser aplicable a los aislamientos de aves. Hay muy pocos reportes de sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Brachyspira spp. aisladas en aves. En este estudio se evaluó la sensibilidad de doce aislamientos de Brachyspira pilosicoli obtenidos de granjas de ponedoras comerciales a los agentes antimicrobianos tiamulina, tilosina y lincomicina, y se estableció la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMImediante la técnica de dilución en agar. Todas las bacterias analizadas fueron sensibles a tiamulina (CMI ≤0,1 μg/ml y lincomicina (CMI 1 μg/ml y resistentes a tilosina (CMI 5 μg/ml.

  9. Distribution and phylogeny of Brachyspira spp. in human intestinal spirochetosis revealed by FISH and 16S rRNA-gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Pablo; Petrich, Annett; Schulze, Julia; Wiessner, Alexandra; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Epple, Hans-Jörg; Sterlacci, William; Vieth, Michael; Kikhney, Judith; Moter, Annette

    2017-10-01

    During six years as German National Consultant Laboratory for Spirochetes we investigated 149 intestinal biopsies from 91 patients, which were histopathologically diagnosed with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS), using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing. Aim of this study was to complement histopathological findings with FISH and PCR for definite diagnosis and species identification of the causative pathogens. HIS is characterized by colonization of the colonic mucosa of the human distal intestinal tract by Brachyspira spp. Microbiological diagnosis of HIS is not performed, because of the fastidious nature and slow growth of Brachyspira spp. in culture. In clinical practice, diagnosis of HIS relies solely on histopathology without differentiation of the spirochetes. We used a previously described FISH probe to detect and identify Brachyspira spp. in histological gut biopsies. FISH allowed rapid visualization and identification of Brachyspira spp. in 77 patients. In most cases, the bright FISH signal already allowed rapid localization of Brachyspira spp. at 400× magnification. By sequencing, 53 cases could be assigned to the B. aalborgi lineage including "B. ibaraki" and "B. hominis", and 23 cases to B. pilosicoli. One case showed mixed colonization. The cases reported here reaffirm all major HIS Brachyspira spp. clusters already described. However, the phylogenetic diversity seems to be even greater than previously reported. In 14 cases, we could not confirm HIS by either FISH or PCR, but found colonization of the epithelium by rods and cocci, indicating misdiagnosis by histopathology. FISH in combination with molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing has proved to be a valuable addition to histopathology. It provides definite diagnosis of HIS and allows insights into phylogeny and distribution of Brachyspira spp. HIS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in diarrhea of unknown

  10. The use of ELISAs for monitoring exposure of pig herds to Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

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    Song Yong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine dysentery (SD, a mucohaemorrhagic diarrhoeal disease of pigs, results from infection of the large intestine with the spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. ELISA systems using whole spirochaete cells (WC and the B. hyodysenteriae outer membrane lipoprotein Bhlp29.7 previously have been established as potential diagnostic tools for SD. However, their true value in identifying infected herds remains unclear. The present study aimed to compare the performance of whole-cell and Bhlp29.7 based ELISAs in detecting specific immunoglobulin class IgG and IgM to B. hyodysenteriae in growing pigs, and additionally evaluated whether meat juice could serve as a source of specific antibodies. Results Levels of circulating IgG and IgM reacting with WC spirochaete preparations and recombinant Bhlp29.7 peaked 4-6 weeks post-infection in the experimentally challenged pigs, and remained elevated in the present study. In a cohort of pigs on an infected farm levels of antibody directed against both antigens showed a progressive increase with time. However, other than for the level of IgG against WC antigen, a significant increase in antibody levels also was observed in a cohort of pigs on a non-infected farm. In addition, assays using meat juice had 100% specificity and equivalent sensitivity to those based on serum, and likewise the best performance was achieved using the WC IgG ELISA. Conclusions IgG ELISAs using either WC or Bhlp29.7 as plate-coating antigens were shown to be useful for monitoring the dynamics of B. hyodysenteriae infection in grower pigs. Of the two antigens, the WC preparation tended to give better discrimination between pigs from infected and non-infected farms. Testing of meat juice was shown to have potential for identifying infected herds.

  11. Genome sequence of the pathogenic intestinal spirochete brachyspira hyodysenteriae reveals adaptations to its lifestyle in the porcine large intestine.

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    Matthew I Bellgard

    Full Text Available Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is an anaerobic intestinal spirochete that colonizes the large intestine of pigs and causes swine dysentery, a disease of significant economic importance. The genome sequence of B. hyodysenteriae strain WA1 was determined, making it the first representative of the genus Brachyspira to be sequenced, and the seventeenth spirochete genome to be reported. The genome consisted of a circular 3,000,694 base pair (bp chromosome, and a 35,940 bp circular plasmid that has not previously been described. The spirochete had 2,122 protein-coding sequences. Of the predicted proteins, more had similarities to proteins of the enteric Escherichia coli and Clostridium species than they did to proteins of other spirochetes. Many of these genes were associated with transport and metabolism, and they may have been gradually acquired through horizontal gene transfer in the environment of the large intestine. A reconstruction of central metabolic pathways identified a complete set of coding sequences for glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, a non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, nucleotide metabolism, lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis, and a respiratory electron transport chain. A notable finding was the presence on the plasmid of the genes involved in rhamnose biosynthesis. Potential virulence genes included those for 15 proteases and six hemolysins. Other adaptations to an enteric lifestyle included the presence of large numbers of genes associated with chemotaxis and motility. B. hyodysenteriae has diverged from other spirochetes in the process of accommodating to its habitat in the porcine large intestine.

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Czech swine farms: a 10-year follow-up study

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    Josef Prášek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery. Loss of clinical efficacy of some antimicrobial agents authorized for treating swine dysentery was observed on certain Czech pig farms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity of six antibiotics using a set of 202 randomly selected B. hyodysenteriae isolates obtained from farms in the Czech Republic between years 1997 and 2006. Minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics tylosin, lincomycin, tylvalosin, chlortetracyclin, tiamulin and valnemulin were tested, using an agar dilution method. All antibiotics tested showed an increase in minimal inhibitory concentrations. Continual decrease in susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae isolates to tiamulin and valnemulin was observed. Multiresistant B. hyodysenteriae were isolated more frequently in the past years. Only a careful use of antibiotics can ensure their efficacy, especially in case of pleuromutilins, in the strategic therapy of swine dysentery. This rare study demonstrates the minimal inhibitory concentration changes of selected antidysenterics among Czech isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae during a ten-year period.

  13. The role of transportation in the spread of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in fattening farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Enrico; Gasparrini, Sara; Lazzaro, Massimiliano; Scali, Federico; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Corradi, Attilio; Pasquali, Paolo; Alborali, Giovanni Loris

    2018-01-10

    Direct and indirect contact among animals and holdings are important in the spread of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of slaughterhouse vehicles in spreading B. hyodysenteriae between unconnected farms. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) were used to characterize B. hyodysenteriae strains isolated from trucks. Before cleaning, 976 batches of finishing pigs transported by 174 trucks from 540 herds were sampled. After cleaning, 763 of the 976 batches were also sampled. Sixty-one of 976 and 4 of 763 environmental swabs collected from trucks before and after cleaning and disinfection operations, respectively, were positive for B. hyodysenteriae. The 65 isolates in this study originated from 48 farms. Trucks were classified into five categories based on the number of visited farms as follows: category 1: 1-5 farms, category 2: 6-10 farms, category 3: 11-15 farms, category 4: 16-20 farms, category 5: >21 farms. Although the largest number of vehicles examined belonged to category 1, the highest percentage of vehicles positive for B. hyodysenteriae was observed in categories 3, 4 and 5. Specifically, 90.9% of trucks belonging to category 5 were positive for B. hyodysenteriae, followed by categories 4 and 3 with 85.7% and 83.3%, respectively. The results of MLST and MLVA suggest that trucks transporting pigs from a high number of farms also play a critical role in spreading different B. hyodysenteriae genetic profiles. STVT 83-3, which seems to be the current dominant type in Italy, was identified in 56.25% of genotyped isolates. The genetic diversity of isolated strains from trucks was high, particularly, in truck categories 3, 4 and 5. This result confirmed that MLST and MLVA can support the study of epidemiological links between different B. hyodysenteriae farm strains. This study highlights the potential role of shipments in B. hyodysenteriae spread

  14. Trends towards Lower Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Acquired Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Alvaro; Carvajal, Ana; Vester, Birte

    2011-01-01

    with a change of the neighboring base pair at positions 2057 to 2611. The role of additional point mutations in the vicinity of the peptidyl transferase center and mutations in the L3 at amino acids 148 and 149 and their possible involvement in antimicrobial susceptibility are considered. An association between......The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain was monitored, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance were investigated. MICs of tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylvalosin were determined for 87 B. hyodysenteriae isolates...... by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. A comparison with antimicrobial susceptibility data from 2000 to 2007 showed an increase in pleuromutilin resistance over time, doubling the number of isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin. No alteration in susceptibility was detected...

  15. Hibridização in situ fluorescente para diagnóstico de Brachyspira hyodysenteriae e B. pilosicoli em suínos

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    Saira M.N. Neves

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Disenteria Suína e Colite Espiroquetal são duas enfermidades importantes em suínos causados pela Brachyspira hyodysenteriae e Brachyspira pilosicoli, respectivamente. O diagnóstico eficaz dessas espécies é extremamente importante para a adoção de estratégias adequadas para o controle. Propõe-se avaliar a técnica de hibridização in situ de fluorescência (FISH para detecção de B. hyodysenteriae e B. pilosicoli em fragmentos histopatológicos de intestino de suínos e compará-la ao PCR duplex. Foram analisadas amostras de fezes e intestinos de suínos de terminação com histórico de diarreia pelas técnicas de reação em cadeia da polimerase duplex (dPCR, hibridização in situ fluorescente (FISH para diagnóstico dessas bactérias. Foram utilizadas 34 amostras de intestino de suínos de campo positivos para alguma das duas espécies de Brachyspira sp. nos testes de FISH ou PCR. Das 34 amostras analisadas, foram detectadas 28 (82,35% positivas na PCR e no FISH. Dentre as 29 amostras positivas para B. hyodysenteriae, 23 (79,3% foram positivas à PCR e 21 (72,4% no FISH. Os resultados de FISH e PCR não diferiram estatisticamente entre si. Baseado no fato dessa técnica poder ser realizada em tecidos formolizados, ser prática, rápida e associar a marcação especifica do agente com lesões histológicas, o FISH demonstrou ser mais uma alternativa no diagnóstico de Brachyspira hyodysenteriae e B. pilosicoli.

  16. Demonstration of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 in human colonic biopsies with intestinal spirochaetosis by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Teglbjærg, Peter S.; Lindboe, Christian F.

    2004-01-01

    Sequences of known 16S rRNA genes, derived from sequence analysis of cloned 16S rDNA, were used to design a specific oligonucleotide probe targeting spirochaetes of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3. The probe was used with fluorescent in situ hybridization to study the involvement of these o......Sequences of known 16S rRNA genes, derived from sequence analysis of cloned 16S rDNA, were used to design a specific oligonucleotide probe targeting spirochaetes of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3. The probe was used with fluorescent in situ hybridization to study the involvement...... of these organisms in human intestinal spirochaetosis. Seventeen human colonic biopsies from Norway and Denmark with intestinal spirochaetosis caused by Brachyspira-like organisms different from the type strain of B. aalborgi (lineage 1) were examined. Application of the probe gave a positive signal in two Norwegian...... biopsies, whereas the 15 other biopsies were hybridization-negative. The positive reaction visualized the spirochaetes as a fluorescent, 3-5 mum-high fringe on the surface epithelium, extending into the crypts. The study verified the presence of B. aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 and identified the bacteria...

  17. Phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence gene profiles of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerling, Jessica; Barth, Stefanie A; Schlez, Karen; Willems, Hermann; Herbst, Werner; Ewers, Christa

    2018-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is an economically important diarrheal disease in pigs caused by different strongly hemolytic Brachyspira (B.) species, such as B. hyodysenteriae, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Possible associations of epidemiologic data, such as multilocus sequence types (STs) to virulence gene profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility are rather scarce, particularly for B. hyodysenteriae isolates from Germany. In this study, B. hyodysenteriae (n = 116) isolated from diarrheic pigs between 1990 and 2016 in Germany were investigated for their STs, susceptibility to the major drugs used for treatment of SD (tiamulin and valnemulin) and genes that were previously linked with virulence and encode for hemolysins (tlyA, tlyB, tlyC, hlyA, BHWA1_RS02885, BHWA1_RS09085, BHWA1_RS04705, and BHWA1_RS02195), outer membrane proteins (OMPs) (bhlp16, bhlp17.6, bhlp29.7, bhmp39f, and bhmp39h) as well as iron acquisition factors (ftnA and bitC). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that 79.4% of the isolates belonged to only three STs, namely ST52 (41.4%), ST8 (12.1%), and ST112 (25.9%) which have been observed in other European countries before. Another 24 isolates belonged to twelve new STs (ST113-118, ST120-123, ST131, and ST193). The temporal distribution of STs revealed the presence of new STs as well as the regular presence of ST52 over three decades (1990s-2000s). The proportion of strains that showed resistance to both tiamulin und valnemulin (39.1%) varied considerably among the most frequent STs ranging from 0% (0/14 isolates resistant) in ST8 isolates to 46.7% (14/30), 52.1% (25/48), and 85.7% (6/7) in isolates belonging to ST112, ST52, and ST114, respectively. All hemolysin genes as well as the iron-related gene ftnA and the OMP gene bhlp29.7 were regularly present in the isolates, while the OMP genes bhlp17.6 and bhmp39h could not be detected. Sequence analysis of hemolysin genes of selected isolates revealed co-evolution of tlyB, BHWA1_RS02885, BHWA1_RS

  18. Dissemination of clonal groups of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae amongst pig farms in Spain, and their relationships to isolates from other countries.

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    Jesús Osorio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swine dysentery (SD is a widespread diarrhoeal disease of pigs caused by infection of the large intestine with the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Understanding the dynamics of SD, and hence being able to develop more effective measures to counter its spread, depends on the ability to characterise B. hyodysenteriae variants and trace relationships of epidemic strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A collection of 51 Spanish and 1 Portuguese B. hyodysenteriae isolates was examined using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme based on the sequences of seven conserved genomic loci. The isolates were allocated to 10 sequence types (STs in three major groups of descent. Isolates in four of the STs were widely distributed in farms around Spain. One farm was infected with isolates from more than one ST. Sequence data obtained from PubMLST for 111 other B. hyodysenteriae strains from other countries then were included in the analysis. Two of the predominant STs that were found in Spain also were present in other European countries. The 73 STs were arranged in eleven clonal complexes (Cc containing between 2 and 26 isolates. A population snapshot based on amino acid types (AATs placed 75% of the isolates from 32 of the 48 AATs into one major cluster. The founder type AAT9 included 22 isolates from 10 STs that were recovered in Spain, Australia, Sweden, Germany, Belgium, the UK, Canada, and the USA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This MLST scheme provided sufficient resolution power to unambiguously characterise B. hyodysenteriae isolates, and can be recommended as a routine typing tool that rapidly enables comparisons of isolates. Using this method it was shown that some of the main genetic lineages of B. hyodysenteriae in Spain also occurred in other countries, providing further evidence for international transmission. Finally, analysis of AATs appeared useful for deducing putative ancestral relationships between

  19. Estimating diagnostic test accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae accounting for the complexities of population structure in food animals.

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    Sonja Hartnack

    Full Text Available For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test ("gold standard" is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect, robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9 and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3, respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8. For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals.

  20. Mechanisms of antibacterial action of Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides against Clostridium perfringens and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

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    Fanfan Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs are a class of bioreductive compounds, however their antibacterial mechanisms are still unclarified. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of two representative QdNO drugs, cyadox (CYA and olaquindox (OLA, to produce reactive oxide species (ROS in Gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens CVCC1125 and Gram-negative anaerobe Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204. In addition, the effects of QdNOs on the integrity of bacterial cell walls and membranes as well as the morphological alterations and DNA oxidative damage in C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae were analyzed. It was demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions, QdNOs were metabolized into the reduced products which did not show any antibacterial activity. A significant dose-related increase of intracellular ROS level and intracellular hydroxyl radicals were evident in bacteria exposed to QdNOs. The result of biochemical assay showed that the cell walls and membranes of the bacteria treated with QdNOs were damaged. After exposure to 1/2MIC to 4MIC of CYA and OLA, C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae became elongated and filamentous. Morphological observation with scanning and transmission electron microscopes revealed rupture, loss of cytoplasmic material and cell lysis in QdNO-treated bacteria, indicating serious damage of cells. There was an increase of 8-OHdG in the two strains treated by QdNOs, but it was lower in Gram-positive than in Gram-negative bacteria. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed the degradation of chromosomal DNA in both of the two anaerobes treated by QdNOs. The results suggest that QdNOs may kill C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae via the generation of ROS and hydroxyl radicals from the bacterial metabolism of QdNOs, which cause oxidative damage in bacteria under anaerobic conditions.

  1. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Tom; Rohde, Judith; Phillips, Nyree Dale; Hampson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134), with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have made pigs in the

  2. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom La

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134, with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have

  3. Liha tootmine : [2000-2004 Eestis liikide kaupa, s.h. ka kitseliha] / Matti Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Matti, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 20-22. 2004. a. vähenes sealihatoodang 3%, lamba- ja kitseliha toodang 25%.Veise- ja linnuliha tootmine kasvas kubki 5%. Tabel: Lihatoodang aastatel 2000-2004

  4. The exposed proteomes of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Casas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli are well-known intestinal pathogens in pigs. B. hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a disease with an important impact on pig production while B. pilosicoli is responsible of a milder diarrheal disease in these animals, porcine intestinal spirochetosis. Recent sequencing projects have provided information for the genome of these species facilitating the search of vaccine candidates using reverse vaccinology approaches. However, practically no experimental evidence exists of the actual gene products being expressed and of those proteins exposed on the cell surface or released to the cell media. Using a cell-shaving strategy and a shotgun proteomic approach we carried out a large-scale characterization of the exposed proteins on the bacterial surface in these species as well as of peptides and proteins in the extracellular medium. The study included 3 strains of B. hyodysenteriae and 2 strains of B. pilosicoli and involved 148 LC-MS/MS runs on a high resolution Orbitrap instrument. Overall, we provided evidence for more than 29000 different peptides pointing to 1625 and 1338 different proteins in B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli, respectively. Many of the most abundant proteins detected corresponded to described virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The level of expression of these proteins, however, was different among species and strains, stressing the value of determining actual gene product levels as a complement of genomic-based approaches for vaccine design.

  5. Neither hippurate-negative Brachyspira pilosicoli nor Brachyspira pilosicoli type strain caused diarrhoea in early-weaned pigs by experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossi, M.; Ahlsten, K.; Pohjanvirta, T.

    2005-01-01

    and strain Br1622 was negative. However, in situ detection for members of the genus Leptospira was positive for spirochaete-like bacteria in the colonic epithelium of several pigs in both infected groups as well as in the control group. L. intracellularis, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp. and intestinal...

  6. Risk factors for intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify risk factors for infection with the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli and swine-pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups O138, O139, O141...

  7. Disease: H01454 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Brachyspira genus, Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli. B. pilosicoli induces disease in both humans and animals... A04.9 A69.9 PMID:16013401 (description) ... AUTHORS ... Smith JL ... TITLE ... Colonic spirochetosis in animals

  8. Haruldaste liikide visuaalse loendamise metoodilistest probleemidest keskkonnakorralduses = Methodical problems of species`visual counting in environmental management : I koht bakalaureusetööde kategoorias / Livia Pošlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pošlin, Livia

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaureusetöö eesmärgiks oli imitatsioonilise matemaatilise modelleerimise meetodeid kasutades anda soovitusi suletud maastikul liikuva väikese arvukusega populatsiooni tiheduse määramise optimaalse strateegia leidmiseks

  9. Elektrooniline identiteet - elektroonilise isikutuvastuse aspekte : [bakalaureusetöö] / Erik Peterson ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Jaan Ginter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Elektroonilise identiteedi mõiste, isiku tuvastamine, arvutikasutaja identifitseerimine, avaliku võtme infrastruktuur, biomeetrial põhinevad isiku tuvastamise meetodid (sõrmejäljed, silmad, geenitest, allikiri), privaatsuse kaitse

  10. Fusarium ründab igast asendist / Elina Akk, Heino Lõiveke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Akk, Elina, 1968-

    2012-01-01

    Seeneperekond Fusarium spp. toodab toksilisi mükotoksiine ja põhjustab üle maailma suuri saagikadusid. Uute ning ohtlikumate Fusarium'i liikide levik teraviljakasvatuses üha laieneb, ka Põhja- ja Baltimaades

  11. Nägemine piltide kaudu : Fotograafia antropoloogiast / Jay Ruby

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruby, Jay, 1935-

    2010-01-01

    Fotograafia ja sotsiaalteaduste suhtest visuaalse etnograafia seisukohalt. Uurimisprojektist, mille sihiks on mõista kõikide fotograafia liikide kultuurilist rolli ja funktsioone inimeste elus antropoloogilisest vaatenurgast, olles huvitatud kultuurilisest ja kommunikatiivsest, mitte hinnangulisest algest

  12. Positivistliku inimese negatiividest : fotograafilise portree tunnusjooni XIX sajandil / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2001-01-01

    Liikide teke ja areng XIX sajandi visuaalkultuuris. XIX sajandi panoptikum. Skoopiline printsiip kriminoloogias. Benettoni vs. Bismarcki stsenaarium etnograafilises fotoportrees. Etnoportree Eestis. Fotograafia naturaliseerimine. Ilmunud ka raamatus: Linnap, P. Silmakirjad. Tartu, 2007, lk. 70-74

  13. Õigusrikkumised [1997] = Violation of jurisdiction

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Politseis registreeritud kuriteod, 1997, kuritegevuse tase 10 000 elaniku kohta 1993-1997, kuriteod liikide lõikes, 1997, väljaselgitatud kuritegudes süüdistatavad isikud Tallinnas, 1997, kuritegevus ja selle avastamine Tallinna asumites

  14. 21 CFR 558.600 - Tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dysentery associated with Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina or Treponema) hyodysenteriae susceptible to... Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina or Treponema) hyodysenteriae susceptible to tiamulin Feed continuously as sole... or Treponema) hyodysenteriae susceptible to tiamulin Feed continuously as the sole feed for 14...

  15. Probleme der Nachhaltigkeit der Immobilienpolitik des Estnischen staates / Janno Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Janno, 1951-2018

    2006-01-01

    Eesti riigi tegevus oma kinnisvara arendamisel ja majandamisel on kujunenud ilma tervikliku kavata erinevate reformide kaasproduktina vastavalt konkreetsete huvigruppide mõjukusele reformiprotsessides. Jätkusuutliku kinnisvarapoliitika eelduseks on probleemide olemuse identifitseerimine ja süsteemne analüüs

  16. The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Marie; Kokotovic, Branko; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2011-01-01

    DNA from reference strains and feces spiked with the respective strains. The linear ranges found for spiked fecal samples differed both from the linear ranges from pure culture of the reference strains and between the qPCR tests. The linear ranges were five log units for F4- qPCR, and Laws-qPCR, six...... log units for F18-qPCR and three log units for Bpilo-qPCR in spiked feces. When measured on pure DNA from the reference strains used in spiking experiments, the respective log ranges were: seven units for Bpilo-qPCR, Laws-qPCR and F18-qPCR and six log units for F4-qPCR. This shows the importance...... of using specific standard curves, where each pathogen is analysed in the same matrix as sample DNA. The qPCRs were compared to traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods and found to be more sensitive than cultivation for E. coli and B. pilosicoli. The qPCR assay for Lawsonia was also more sensitive...

  17. Toll avastas lemmikloomapoest 700 kilo kaitsealuseid koralle / Triin Olvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olvet, Triin

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. aug. lk. 2 Maksu- ja tolliameti töötajad avastasid Põhja-Tallinna lemmikloomapoest pea 300 ohustatud liikide hulka kuuluvat kivikoralli, mis olid toodud Indoneesiast. Vt. samas: Toll võtab ära nii kaaviari kui ka topised

  18. Jaebrändid astuvad üleriigilistele brändidele üha kiiremini kandadele / Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Jaebrändi mõiste ja liikide tutvustus. Oma jaebrändide turule toomisest ja edukusest räägivad Rimi turundusjuht Ruta Kallaspoolik, Selveri ostudirektor Iivi Saar ja Stockmanni ostujuht Marge Türner. Kommenteerib EMORi suunajuht Aivar Voog. Lisa: Private label-tooteid on kolme liiki. Vt. samas: Inglismaal ja Šveitsis 70% private label-tooteid

  19. Põhiharidus on oluline / Kristjan Paas, Kaire Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kristjan

    2003-01-01

    Seosed haridustaseme ja majandusliku aktiivsuse vahel; põhihariduseta inimeste kooli tagasitoomise probleeme. Tab.: tööealise elanikkona majanduslik seisund hariduse ja vanuse järgi, sissetuleku liikide osakaal keskmises netosissetulekus haridustaseme lõikes, täiskasvanute gümnaasiumi ja eelkutseõppe õpilaste toimetulek

  20. Õigusrikkumised [2001] = Violation of jurisdiction

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Tabelid. Registreeritud kuriteod, 2001, kuritegevuse tase 10 000 elaniku kohta, 1993-2001, kuriteod liikide lõikes, 2001, narkokuriteod, 2000-2001, tapmisi 10 000 elaniku kohta, 1996-2001, Tallinna avaliku korra rikkumised, 1992-2001, väljasõidud, 2001, hukkunud, vigastatud ja päästetud tulekahjudes, 2001, kuritegevus ja selle avastamine Tallinnas, 2001. - Rööptekst ing. keeles

  1. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown ingredie......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown...

  2. Laser capture microdissection of bacterial cells targeted by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2005-01-01

    . By this method, a potentially pathogenic strain of the genus Brachyspira from formalin-fixed human colonic biopsies were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells. Direct 16S r...

  3. Causes of Pig Mortality in Kenya - A Ten Year Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, the etiological agent(s) were not fully characterized, bacteria (B. anthracis, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp, Salmonella spp, Mycoplasma spp, Pasteurella spp, Haemophilus spp and Brachyspira spp), viruses (African swine fever virus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus) and nematode parasites (Trichuris ...

  4. Increased amount of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum and Megasphaera elsdenii in the colonic microbiota of pigs fed a swine dysentery preventive diet containing chicory roots and sweet lupine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Thomsen, L.E.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    has previously been shown to prevent swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The T-RFLP profiling, 16S rRNA gene cloning and in situ hybridization showed that the pigs fed with the fructan-rich diet had a higher proportion of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum...

  5. A cross-sectional study of oral antibacterial treatment patterns in relation to specific diarrhoeal pathogens in weaner pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind; Toft, Nils

    2017-01-01

    of compliance with national guidelines for antibacterial use. The study population includes 1,736 weaner herds (≈65% of all Danish weaner pigs) that were subject to laboratory analysis from the National Veterinary Institute on Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E.coli (F4 and F18) in 2014...

  6. Käitumishälvikute erikooli ja tavakooli antisotsiaalse käitumisega õpilaste isiksuse karakteristikute muutumine sotsiaalsete oskuste treeningu käigus / Mairis Minka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Minka, Mairis

    2002-01-01

    Uurimusest, mille eesmärgiks oli tähelepanu pöörata käitumishälvikute erikooli ja tavakooli antisotsiaalse käitumise õpilaste isiksuse karakteristikute ja mina-pildi muutumisele sotsiaalsete oskuste treeningu käigus. Treeningus osalesid Puiatu Erikooli 12-16-aastased antisotsiaalse käitumisega suurte käitumisprobleemidega noormehed ja Põlva Keskkooli 12-14-aastased antisotsiaalse käitumisega noormehed. Uurimistöös kasutati kolme meetodit : küsimustik lapse väärkohtlemise erinavate liikide esinemissageduse kindlaksmääramiseks, küsimustik isiksuse karakteristikute uurimiseks ja Q-sorteerimine mina-pildi uurimiseks

  7. Laser capture microdissection of bacterial cells targeted by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2005-01-01

    Direct cultivation-independent sequence retrieval of unidentified bacteria from histological tissue sections has been limited by the difficulty of selectively isolating specific bacteria from a complex environment. Here, a new DNA isolation approach is presented for prokaryotic cells....... By this method, a potentially pathogenic strain of the genus Brachyspira from formalin-fixed human colonic biopsies were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells. Direct 16S r......RNA gene PCR was performed from the dissected microcolonies, and the subsequent DNA sequence analysis identified the dissected bacterial cells as belonging to the Brachyspira aalborgi cluster 1. The advantage of this technique is the ability to combine the histological recognition of the specific bacteria...

  8. The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fermented liquid food (FLF) and the addition of lactic acid to a diet based on wheat and barley on the development of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally infected with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Furthermore...... and sugar-beet pulp. The experiment was designed as a randomized-block trial and was performed in triplicate including a total of 192 pigs. After feeding the diets for 2 weeks, six pigs in each group were challenged orally with B. hyodysenteriae and observed for another 4 weeks. After challenge, swine...

  9. Agentes bacterianos enteropatogênicos em suínos de diferentes faixas etárias e perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos de cepas de Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp Enteropathogenic bacterial agents in pigs of different age groups and profile of resistance in strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. to antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As enterites infecciosas bacterianas provocam severas perdas para a indústria suína em todo o mundo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar os agentes bacterianos, associados com a ocorrência de diarréia em suínos, em diferentes faixas etárias, no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e verificar o perfil de resistência das cepas de Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp, frente aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados em granjas de suínos. Os principais gêneros/espécies bacterianos diagnosticados foram Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp, Salmonella spp Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli e Lawsonia intracellularis. Os fatores de virulência de E. coli mais prevalentes na fase de maternidade foram F5 / (K99 20%, F6 / (987P 16,3%, F42 6,8% e F41 5,7%, já nas fases de creche e terminação, predominaram cepas com fimbrias F4 (K88 11,2% e 5,4%, respectivamente. Para E. coli os maiores índices de resistência foram encontrados para oxitetraciclina (94% e tetraciclina (89,5% e os menores índices de resistência para neomicina (55%, ceftiofur (57,4%. Quanto às amostras de Salmonella spp, estas apresentaram maior resistência à oxitetraciclina (77%, e à tetraciclina (42,1% e menor à gentamicina (3,5% e amoxicilina (4,8%.Infectious bacterial enteritis causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiology of bacterial agents that are associated with the occurrence of diarrhea in pigs at different age groups, and to verify the profile of resistance of strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp to the main antimicrobial agents. The main bacterial species diagnosed were Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp, Salmonella spp, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli and Lawsonia intracellularis. The E. coli virulence factors of higher prevalence in preweaning piglets were F5 / (K99 20%, F6 / (987P 16.3%, F42 6.8% and F41 5.7%, whereas at the nursery and with

  10. Blood concentrations of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma during experimentally induced swine dysentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen-Waern Marianne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the cytokine response at infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae can help understanding disease mechanisme involved during swine dysentery. Since this knowledge is still limited the aim of the present study was to induce dysentery experimentally in pigs and to monitor the development of important immunoregulatory cytokines in blood collected at various stages of the disease. Methods Ten conventional pigs (~23 kg were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204T. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general body condition. Blood was sampled before inoculation and repeatedly during acute dysentery and recovery periods and cytokine levels of IL-1β, IL-6, Il-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were measured by ELISA. Results IL-1β was increased at the beginning of the dysentery period and coincided with the appearance of Serum amyloid A and clinical signs of disease. TNF-α increased in all animals after inoculation, with a peak during dysentery, and IL-6 was found in 3 animals during dysentery and in the 2 animals that did not develop clinical signs of disease. IL-10 was found in all sick animals during the recovery period. IFN-γ was not detected on any occasion. Conclusion B. hyodysenteriae inoculation induced production of systemic levels of IL-1β during the dysentery period and increased levels of IL-10 coincided with recovery from dysentery.

  11. An Investigation into the Etiological Agents of Swine Dysentery in Australian Pig Herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom La

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status. This study investigated whether cases of SD in Australia may be caused by the newly described species; how isolates of B. hyodysenteriae recovered from healthy herds compared to isolates from herds with disease; and how contemporary isolates compare to those recovered in previous decades, including in their plasmid gene content and antimicrobial resistance profiles. In total 1103 fecal and colon samples from pigs in 97 Australian herds were collected and tested. Of the agents of SD only B. hyodysenteriae was found, being present in 34 (35.1% of the herds, including in 14 of 24 (58% herds that had been considered to be free of SD. Multilocus sequence typing applied to 96 isolates from 30 herds and to 53 Australian isolates dating from the 1980s through the early 2000s showed that they were diverse, distinct from those reported in other countries, and that the 2014/16 isolates generally were different from those from earlier decades. These findings provided evidence for ongoing evolution of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Australia. In seven of the 20 herds where multiple isolates were available, two to four different sequence types (STs were identified. Isolates with the same STs also were found in some herds with epidemiological links. Analysis of a block of six plasmid virulence-associated genes showed a lack of consistency between their presence or absence and their origin from herds currently with or without disease; however

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01494-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 38 3.9 3 ( EK502865 ) 1095505947941 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-32-01-01-1... 32 3.9 3 ( AP001687 ) Homo sapie...... 36 0.81 FJ006933_17( FJ006933 |pid:none) Brachyspira intermedia strain HB6.....1 ) ENTLN83TF Entamoeba histolytica Sheared DNA Entam... 38 0.024 3 ( AC114258 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map compl...em... 52 0.026 1 ( ER450904 ) 1092963849313 Global-Ocean-Sampli...ng_GS-35-01-01-1... 52 0.026 1 ( EJ507915 ) 1095407013410 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-28-01-01-1... 52 0.026

  13. The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    , to confirm if low non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-containing diets reduce swine dysentery the effect of different dietary levels of NSP and resistant starch (RS) was evaluated. These diets were based on cooked rice and animal protein, cooked rice and potato starch, cooked rice and wheat bran, or cooked rice......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fermented liquid food (FLF) and the addition of lactic acid to a diet based on wheat and barley on the development of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally infected with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Furthermore...... dysentery was observed in all feeding groups. The incidence of disease varied between 94% (rice/wheat bran) and 44% (FLF). The effect of diet on faecal shedding of B. hyodysenteriae was statistically significant (P...

  14. Diagnostic investigation of porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome: lack of compelling evidence linking to common porcine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyun; Gauvreau, Henry; Harding, John

    2012-01-01

    Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS), an increasingly recognized syndrome in the swine industry of North America, is characterized by the anorexia of nursery pigs noticeable within 1 week of weaning, and progressive loss of body condition and lethargy during the next 1-2 weeks. Morbidity caused by PFTS is moderate, but case fatality is high. The etiology of PFTS is presently unknown and may include infectious agent(s), noninfectious factors, or both. PFTS was identified in a high health status farm with good management in early 2007. A diagnostic investigation was undertaken to identify the pathological lesions of, and infectious agents associated with, pigs demonstrating typical clinical signs. Affected (PFTS-SICK) and unaffected (PFTS-HLTHY) pigs from an affected farm, and unaffected pigs from 2 unaffected farms, were examined. The most prevalent lesions in PFTS-SICK pigs were superficial lymphocytic fundic gastritis, atrophic enteritis, superficial colitis, lymphocytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, and thymic atrophy. Rotavirus A and Betacoronavirus 1 (Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus) were identified only in PFTS-SICK pigs, but the significance of the viruses is uncertain because PFTS is not consistent with the typical presentation following infection by these pathogens. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Porcine circovirus-2, Influenza A virus, Alphacoronavirus 1 (Transmissible gastroenteritis virus), Torque teno virus 1, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and Brachyspira pilosicoli were not identified in PFTS-SICK pigs. Suid herpesvirus 2 (Porcine cytomegalovirus), Porcine enteric calicivirus, Torque teno virus 2, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and coccidia were detected in both PFTS-SICK and PFTS-HLTHY pigs. It was concluded that there is a lack of compelling evidence that PFTS is caused by any of these pathogens.

  15. Artificially designed recombinant protein composed of multiple epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Bin; Piao, Da-Chuan; Lee, Jun-Yeong; Choi, Jae-Yun; Bok, Jin-Duck; Cho, Chong-Su; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2017-02-22

    Concerns regarding the safety of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine have been raised since it is produced from cultured live FMD virus (FMDV). To overcome this issue, recombinant protein has been studied as an alternative vaccine. We designed a chimerical multi-epitope recombinant protein (5BT), which is comprised of tandem repeats of five B cell epitopes (residue of VP1 136-162) derived from different FMDV variants and one T-cell epitope (residue of 3A 21-35). To increase solubility and stability of 5BT, it was conjugated with BmpB, the membrane protein B of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B5BT). Our results indicated that 5BT was susceptible to degradation by host protease and produced with substantial fraction of inclusion body. The stability and solubility of 5BT was greatly increased by conjugating to BmpB. FMDV specific antibodies were observed in the serum of mice immunized with 5BT and B5BT comparable to inactivated FMD vaccine. Sera from 5BT and B5BT groups also exhibited high epitope-specific antibody titers in peptide specific ELISA, indicating that all five epitopes are exposed to the B cell receptor for the antibody reaction. Thus the multi-epitope recombinant protein designed in this study may be a potential candidate as an alternative vaccine against FMDV epidemic variants.

  16. Population abundance of potentially pathogenic organisms in intestinal microbiome of jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) shown with 16S rRNA gene-based microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Isamu; Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Nozawa-Takeda, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Naoki; Tani, Yuri; Naito, Taki; Sugita, Shoei

    2013-01-01

    Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) prefer human habitats because of their versatility in feeding accompanied with human food consumption. Therefore, it is important from a public health viewpoint to characterize their intestinal microbiota. However, no studies have been involved in molecular characterization of the microbiota based on huge and reliable number of data acquisition. In this study, 16S rRNA gene-based microbial community analysis coupled with the next-generation DNA sequencing techniques was applied to the taxonomic classification of intestinal microbiome for three jungle crows. Clustering of the reads into 130 operational taxonomic units showed that at least 70% of analyzed sequences for each crow were highly homologous to Eimeria sp., which belongs to the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa. The microbiotas of three crows also contained potentially pathogenic bacteria with significant percentages, such as the genera Campylobacter and Brachyspira. Thus, the profiling of a large number of 16S rRNA gene sequences in crow intestinal microbiomes revealed the high-frequency existence or vestige of potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

  17. Population Abundance of Potentially Pathogenic Organisms in Intestinal Microbiome of Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos Shown with 16S rRNA Gene-Based Microbial Community Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Maeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos prefer human habitats because of their versatility in feeding accompanied with human food consumption. Therefore, it is important from a public health viewpoint to characterize their intestinal microbiota. However, no studies have been involved in molecular characterization of the microbiota based on huge and reliable number of data acquisition. In this study, 16S rRNA gene-based microbial community analysis coupled with the next-generation DNA sequencing techniques was applied to the taxonomic classification of intestinal microbiome for three jungle crows. Clustering of the reads into 130 operational taxonomic units showed that at least 70% of analyzed sequences for each crow were highly homologous to Eimeria sp., which belongs to the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa. The microbiotas of three crows also contained potentially pathogenic bacteria with significant percentages, such as the genera Campylobacter and Brachyspira. Thus, the profiling of a large number of 16S rRNA gene sequences in crow intestinal microbiomes revealed the high-frequency existence or vestige of potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

  18. Ultrastructural characteristics and molecular identification of Entamoeba suis isolated from pigs with hemorrhagic colitis: implications for pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Suzuta, Fumiko; Terayama, Yoshimi; Shimojo, Kengo; Yui, Takeshi; Haritani, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2014-08-01

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Entamoeba infect many classes of vertebrates and are primarily classified based on morphological criteria. To date, only a few species have been proven to cause disease. Here, we examined the pathology of infected pigs with hemorrhage and detected Entamoeba parasites. Isolates were characterized genetically and ultrastructurally to identify the species. Histopathologically, bleeding and thrombus formation were seen only in the large intestine mucosa, where a large number of trophozoites or some Entamoeba cysts were observed around breakdowns in the lamina propria. No screw-shaped bacteria were detected in the lesions, and no pathogenic bacteria such as Brachyspira spp. were detected in fecal cultures. Interestingly, electron microscopy revealed that the parasites possessed mitochondrial organelles, unlike other Entamoeba spp. The isolates were identified as Entamoeba suis by PCR analysis and sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. In phylogenetic analyses based on the actin gene, the E. suis isolate formed a cluster with Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba invadens, as well as with other parasites of the Amoebidae. Whether the pathogenicity of the E. suis isolate is affected by the severity of infection or host health status remains unclear; however, our results suggest that E. suis could cause or exacerbate clinical symptoms such as hemorrhagic colitis or diarrhea.

  19. [Eradication of swine dysentery as modified partial depopulation in a nucleus sow breeding farm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figi; Goldinger; Fuschini; Hartnack; Sidler

    2014-08-01

    On a Swiss nucleus sow breeding farm with 170 sows and 600 gilts/fatteners, an eradication of swine dysentery as modified partial depopulation was conducted in stages over a period of 12 weeks in 2011 after Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae was detected in the herd. In addition to administering oral medication (8.1 mg tiamulin per kg body weight) for 4 weeks to the pigs remaining on the farm, all stables were cleaned thoroughly and the residual slurry was disinfected with Alzogur(®) (3 l/m(3)) while the surfaces were disinfected with Venno Vet 1 Super(®) (1.5 %). At the same time rodent and fly control was intensified. Upon completion of the eradication programme, the farm was monitored for 6 months by carrying out fecal swab analyses of pigs with diarrhea. All fecal samples were negative for B. hyodysenteriae. The costs of the eradication amounted to approximately CHF 104'500. The eradication yielded significantly higher live daily weight gain (+ 23.8 g, ± 10.1 g, P < 0.0001). This improved performance resulted in an additional economic benefit of CHF 18,500 per year.

  20. Macrolides and lincosamides in cattle and pigs: use and development of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyörälä, Satu; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Greko, Christina; Moreno, Miguel A; Pomba, M Constança Matias Ferreira; Rantala, Merja; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Threlfall, E John; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Törneke, Karolina

    2014-05-01

    Macrolides and lincosamides are important antibacterials for the treatment of many common infections in cattle and pigs. Products for in-feed medication with these compounds in combination with other antimicrobials are commonly used in Europe. Most recently approved injectable macrolides have very long elimination half-lives in both pigs and cattle, which allows once-only dosing regimens. Both in-feed medication and use of long-acting injections result in low concentrations of the active substance for prolonged periods, which causes concerns related to development of antimicrobial resistance. Acquired resistance to macrolides and lincosamides among food animal pathogens, including some zoonotic bacteria, has now emerged. A comparison of studies on the prevalence of resistance is difficult, since for many micro-organisms no agreed standards for susceptibility testing are available. With animal pathogens, the most dramatic increase in resistance has been seen in the genus Brachyspira. Resistance towards macrolides and lincosamides has also been detected in staphylococci isolated from pigs and streptococci from cattle. This article reviews the use of macrolides and lincosamides in cattle and pigs, as well as the development of resistance in target and some zoonotic pathogens. The focus of the review is on European conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Stress hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) effects on the anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila

    2017-04-01

    Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes. The effects are species-specific and perhaps strain-specific. Discrepancies in the results of some studies can be due to the different methods and media used, catecholamine concentrations, measurement techniques and the low number of strains tested. Biological effects of the stress hormones on the anaerobes may range from halitosis and a worsening of periodontal diseases to tissue damages and atherosclerotic plaque ruptures. Optimizations of the research methods and a detailed assessment of the catecholamine effects in conditions mimicking those in affected organs and tissues, as well as the effects on the quorum sensing and virulence of the anaerobes and the full spectrum of biological consequences of the effects are interesting topics for further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Batch medication of intestinal infections in nursery pigs—A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of treatment strategy, type of antibiotic and bacterial load on average daily weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Nicolai Rosager; Pedersen, Ken Steen; Hansen, Christian Fink

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Previous research projects have demonstrated the need for better diagnostic tools to support decisions on medication strategies for infections caused by Escherichia coli F4 (F4) and F18 (F18), Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and Brachyspira pilosicoli (PILO). This study was carried out...... LI-positive pens (p = 0.004), lower excretion levels of LI (p = 0.013), and fewer pens with a high level of LI (p = 0.031) compared to pens treated with tylosine. There was no significant difference in F4, F18 and PILO levels after treatment with the two antibiotic compounds. There was a significant...... difference (p = 0.04) of mean diarrhoea prevalence on day 21 of the study between pens treated with tylosine (0.254, 95% CI: 0.184–0.324), and doxycycline (0.167, 95% CI: 0.124–0.210). The type of antibiotic compound was not found to have a significant effect on ADG (p = 0.209). (3) Pigs starting treatment...

  3. Intestinal spirochetosis: first cases reported in Brazil and the use of immunohistochemistry as an aid in histopathological diagnosis Espiroquetose intestinal: primeiros casos no Brasil e o uso de técnicas imunohistoquímicas como ajuda no diagnóstico histopatológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. de Brito

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the colon and rectum by intestinal spirochetes is detected for the first time in Brazil in 4 of 282 (1.41% patients who had undergone sigmoidoscopy and/or colonoscopy with a histopathological diagnosis of chronic non specific-colitis. This frequency is probably understimated, since surgically obtained specimens were not considered in the present study. Histopathological diagnosis was performed using routine stains like hematoxylin-eosin which showed the typical, of 3-µm thick hematoxyphilic fringe on the brush border of the surface epithelium, and by silver stains like the Warthin-Starry stain. Immunohistochemical procedures using two, polyclonal, primary antibodies, one against Treponema pallidum and the other against Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae cross-reacted with spirochetal antigen/s producing a marked contrast of the fringe over the colonic epithelium, preserving the spiral-shaped morphology of the parasite. In one case with marked diarrhea, immunohistochemistry detected spirochetal antigen/s within a cell in an intestinal crypt, thus demonstrating that the infection can be more widely disseminated than suspected using routine stains. Immunohistochemical procedures, thus, greatly facilitate the histological diagnosis of intestinal spirochetosis and may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy performed in one case showed that the spirochete closely resembled the species designated as Brachyspira aalborgi.A colonização do colo e reto por espiroquetas intestinais foi detectada pela primeira vez no Brasil em 4 de 282 (1,41% pacientes submetidos a sigmoidoscopia e/ou colonoscopia com o diagnóstico histopatológico de colite crônica inespecífica. A frequência é provavelmente menor que a real, urna vez que espécimens cirúrgicos não foram considerados no presente estudo. O diagnóstico histopatol

  4. Ocorrência e identificação de espiroquetas intestinais em suínos em granjas de porte industrial de duas regiões criatórias do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em relação à medicação da ração Ocurrence and identification of swine intestinal spirochetes in industrial pig herds from two raising areas in the State of Rio Grande do Ssul, Brazil, in relation to feed medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Emilio Barcellos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As infecções intestinais por espiroquetas em suínos, na fase que se segue ao alojamento nos prédios de recria, são predispostas por fatores como o estresse da movimentação, mistura entre animais imunes e excretores com leitões não imunes, deficiências nas condições ambientais e troca no tipo da ração usada. Para contrabalançar esses efeitos, é uma prática rotineira a inclusão de antimicrobianos à ração, em doses de promoção de crescimento ou de controle. O presente trabalho avaliou a ocorrência da infecção por Brachyspira spp. em rebanhos suínos do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, tentando relacionar com o tipo de programa de uso de antimicrobianos adotado. Foram examinados 393 suabes retais colhidos de 38 granjas do RS (22 usando rações medicadas e 16 com ração sem medicação. A B. hyodysenteriae e B. pilosicoli foram detectadas respectivamente em 0% e 6,25% das granjas medicadas e de 31,8% e 45,5% das granjas não medicadas. Entre os suabes examinados, a B. hyodysenteriae e B. pilosicoli estavam presentes respectivamente em 0 e 0,6% dos materiais colhidos de granjas medicadas e de 3,9% e 7,3% em granjas não medicadas. O presente trabalho suporta a opinião de diversos autores que sugeriram a influência direta da inclusão de antimicrobianos à ração em doses de promoção de crescimento ou em dose de controle e a ocorrência de diarréias espiroquetais em leitões. Entretanto, pelas características multifatoriais desse tipo de patologia, seriam necessários estudos adicionais abrangendo um número maior de variáveis entre aquelas possivelmente envolvidas no desencadeamento das diarréias, antes que fosse obtida uma conclusão definitiva.Intestinal spirochaetal infections in pigs following transportation to growing facilities is predisposed by stressful factors such as contact between carriers and non-immune piglets, defficient environment and diet changes. To neutralize such effects, it is a common practice to

  5. The Agricultural Antibiotic Carbadox Induces Phage-mediated Gene Transfer in Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley L. Bearson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used for disease therapeutic or preventative effects in humans and animals, as well as for enhanced feed conversion efficiency in livestock. Antibiotics can also cause undesirable effects in microbial populations, including selection for antibiotic resistance, enhanced pathogen invasion, and stimulation of horizontal gene transfer. Carbadox is a veterinary antibiotic used in the U.S. during the starter phase of swine production for improved feed efficiency and control of swine dysentery and bacterial swine enteritis. Carbadox has been shown in vitro to induce phage-encoded Shiga toxin in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and a phage-like element transferring antibiotic resistance genes in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, but the effect of carbadox on prophages in other bacteria is unknown. This study examined carbadox exposure on prophage induction and genetic transfer in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a human foodborne pathogen that frequently colonizes swine without causing disease. S. Typhimurium LT2 exposed to carbadox induced prophage production, resulting in bacterial cell lysis and release of virions that were visible by electron microscopy. Carbadox induction of phage-mediated gene transfer was confirmed by monitoring the transduction of a sodCIII::neo cassette in the Fels-1 prophage from LT2 to a recipient Salmonella strain. Furthermore, carbadox frequently induced generalized transducing phages in multidrug-resistant phage type DT104 and DT120 isolates, resulting in the transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA that included antibiotic resistance genes. Our research indicates that exposure of Salmonella to carbadox induces prophages that can transfer virulence and antibiotic resistance genes to susceptible bacterial hosts. Carbadox-induced, phage-mediated gene transfer could serve as a contributing factor in bacterial evolution during animal production, with prophages being a reservoir for bacterial fitness

  6. Recombinant interleukin 6 with M cell-targeting moiety produced in Lactococcus lactis IL1403 as a potent mucosal adjuvant for peroral immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Shan; Piao, Da-Chuan; Jiang, Tao; Bok, Jin-Duck; Cho, Chong-Su; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2015-04-15

    Development and application of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants are important to improve immunization efficiency in oral vaccine. Here, we report a novel mucosal adjuvant, IL-6-CKS9, a recombinant cytokine generated by conjugating an M cell-targeting peptide (CKS9) with c-terminus of the murine interleukin 6 (IL-6), which facilitated enhancement of mucosal immune response. Lactococcus lactis IL1403, a food-grade strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which is widely used in dairy industry, was used as a host cell to express and secrete the IL-6-CKS9 for a mucosal vaccine adjuvant. The recombinant L. lactis IL1403 secreting IL-6-CKS9 was orally administered with a model antigen protein, M-BmpB (Brachyspira membrane protein B conjugated with CKS9), to BALB/c mice for mucosal immunization. ELISA analyses showed consistent enhancement tendencies in induction of anti-M-BmpB antibody levels both with mucosal (IgA) and systemic (IgG) immune responses in IL-6-CKS9-LAB treated group compared with other groups tested by conducting two separated mice immunization assays. In addition, we characterized that the oral administration of model protein antigen with live LAB producing IL-6-CKS9 could induce both Th1 and Th2 type immune responses by analysis of the specific anti-BmpB IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes in the sera and also investigated possible oral tolerance in our vaccine strategy. Collectively, our results showed successful production and secretion of recombinant murine IL-6 with M cell-targeting moiety (IL-6-CKS9) from L. lactis IL1403 and demonstrated the live recombinant LAB producing IL-6-CKS9 could have a potential to be used as an efficient adjuvant for peroral vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the risk of pathogen transmission from wild animals to domestic pigs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Hayley E; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Wild animals contribute to endemic infection in livestock as well as the introduction, reintroduction and maintenance of pathogens. The source of introduction of endemic diseases to a piggery is often unknown and the extent of wildlife contribution to such local spread is largely unexplored. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively assess the probability of domestic pigs being exposed to different pathogens from wild animals commonly found around commercial piggeries in Australia. Specifically, this study aims to quantify the probability of exposure to the pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. from European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus); Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Lawsonia intracellularis and Salmonella spp. from rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus); and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Leptospira spp., Brucella suis and L. intracellularis from feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Exposure assessments, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation modelling, were conducted to identify potential pathways of introduction and calculate the probabilities of these pathways occurring. Input parameters were estimated from a national postal survey of commercial pork producers and from disease detection studies conducted for European starlings, rats and feral pigs in close proximity to commercial piggeries in Australia. Based on the results of the exposure assessments, rats presented the highest probability of exposure of pathogens to domestic pigs at any point in time, and L. intracellularis (median 0.13, 5% and 95%, 0.05-0.23) and B. hyodysenteriae (median 0.10, 0.05-0.19) were the most likely pathogens to be transmitted. Regarding European starlings, the median probability of exposure of domestic pigs to pathogenic E. coli at any point in time was estimated to be 0.03 (0.02-0.04). The highest probability of domestic pig exposure to feral pig pathogens at any point in time was found to be for M. hyopneumoniae (median 0.013, 0

  8. Demodex phylloides infection in swine reared in a peri-urban family farm located on the outskirts of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersano, Josete Garcia; Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Duarte, Fernanda Calvo; Del Fava, Claudia; de Oliveira, Sueli Moda; Filha, Elizabeth Spósito; Pinheiro, Eliana Scarcelli; de Castro Nassar, Alessandra Figueiredo; de Vasconcellos Bilynskyj, Maria Cristina; Ogata, Renato Akio; Sampaio, Paulo Henrique Selbmann; Genovez, Margareth Élide

    2016-10-30

    This paper reports the occurrence of porcine demodicosis caused by the mite Demodex phylloides in hogs reared in a peri-urban family farm located in Francisco Morato, a municipality of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, capital city of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In a parcel of forty Landrace - Large White cross hogs, approximately four months old, four animals presented severe skin lesions in the form of small nodules over their entire body, especially in the periocular region, snout, lower abdomen and flanks. Two hogs had to be euthanized for animal welfare reasons, which enabled post-mortem examination. Skin scrapings revealed eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults of D. phylloides. Purulent subcutaneous nodules with intense parasitic folliculitis and intense perifollicular inflammatory reaction were present. Enterobacteria and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from the skin pustules. Necropsy revealed milk spotted liver, enteritis and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes. Protozoa (Eimeria spp. and Balantidium sp.), helminth eggs (Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis and strongyles) and Brachyspira spp. were found in faeces. Staphylococcus spp. and enterobacteria were isolated from internal organs. All remaining hogs were treated with ivermectin at a daily oral dose of 0.45g/kg of feed, during seven days. Fifteen days after treatment, remission of symptoms was observed in the surviving animals with demodicosis; absence of mites was confirmed by skin scraping examinations. The hogs were reared under poor environmental, nutritional and sanitary conditions, resulting in multimorbidity and immunosuppression. Severe clinical porcine demodicosis was triggered when the animals were castrated. Family pig farmers had been suffering economic losses due to the stunted growth of the herd. In addition to that, the lesions found on the skin and in the internal organs would result in condemnation of meat and viscera for human consumption. As part of a Public