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Sample records for brachial plexus injury

  1. Adult traumatic brachial plexus injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankine, J.J. E-mail: james.rankine@leedsth.nhs.uk

    2004-09-01

    Injury to the brachial plexus in the adult is usually a closed injury and the result of considerable traction to the shoulder. Brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques have improved the outlook for patients with brachial plexus injuries. The choice of surgical procedure depends on the level of the injury and the radiologist has an important role in guiding the surgeon to the site of injury. This article will describe the anatomy and pathophysiology of traction brachial plexus injury in the adult. The neurosurgical options available will be described with emphasis on the information that the surgeon wants from imaging studies of the brachial plexus. The relative merits of MRI and CT myelography are discussed.

  2. Management of Brachial Plexus Injuries

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of early neurosurgical treatment of 58 infants with various types of brachial plexus birth injury have been compared with non-surgical intervention in 91 patients followed by a multidisciplinary team at the Brachial Plexus Program, Miami Children’s Hospital, FL.

  3. Lateral progression of brachial plexus avulsion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yudong

    2007-01-01

    @@ All reports on brachial plexus injury which were presented on the 9th International Hand Surgery Meeting (2004),the 5th Asia-Pacific Area Hand Surgery Meeting (2005),the 10th Europe Hand Surgery Meeting (2005) and 49th Japan Hand Surgery Meeting (2006),were collected and reviewed.We also went through our own research on brachial plexus injury,and a cumulative review of all these reports and researches was made.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranci, F; Briganti, F; La Porta, M; Antinolfi, G; Cesarano, E; Fonio, P; Brunese, L; Coppolino, F

    2013-08-01

    Brachial plexus injury represents the most severe nerve injury of the extremities. While obstetric brachial plexus injury has showed a reduction in the number of cases due to the improvements in obstetric care, brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. The therapeutic measures depend on the pathologic condition and the location of the injury: Preganglionic avulsions are usually not amenable to surgical repair; function of some denervated muscles can be restored with nerve transfers from intercostals or accessory nerves and contralateral C7 transfer. Postganglionic avulsions are repaired with excision of the damaged segment and nerve autograft between nerve ends or followed up conservatively. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for depicting the anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus: It demonstrates the location of the nerve damage (crucial for optimal treatment planning), depicts the nerve continuity (with or without neuroma formation), or may show a completely disrupted/avulsed nerve, thereby aiding in nerve-injury grading for preoperative planning. Computed tomography myelography has the advantage of a higher spatial resolution in demonstration of nerve roots compared with MR myelography; however, it is invasive and shows some difficulties in the depiction of some pseudomeningoceles with little or no communication with the dural sac. PMID:23949940

  5. Nerve transfer in brachial plexus traction injuries

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    Samardžić Miroslav M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous and axillary nerves, using some technical modalities such as intercostal, spinal accessory or intraplexal transfer, and on the basis of the results to try to clarify the most common controversies concerning these operations. Methods. The study included 82 patients with brachial plexus traction injuries, who were operated on using various techniques of nerve transfer. The follow-up period was at least two years. The analysis of biceps and deltoid muscles recovery was performed according to the type of the donor nerve. Results. The corresponding rates of recovery for the musculocutaneous and axillary nerves were 46.7% and 68.1% in intercostal nerve transfer, 71.4% and 75% in accessory nerve transfer, 93.1% and 88.8% in nerve transfer of the brachial plexus collateral branches, and 55.5% and 60% in classical intraplexal nerve transfer, respectively. Comparative statistical analysis demonstrated significantly better final outcome and quality of recovery in regional nerve transfers in comparison to the other methods. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that nerve transfer of collateral branches, where possible, (such as in cases with upper or extended upper brachial plexus palsy might be a method of choice, offering better results and quality of recovery.

  6. Brachial plexus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that originate from the neck region and branch off to give rise ... movement in the upper limb. Injuries to the brachial plexus are common and can be debilitating. If the ...

  7. Obstetrical brachial plexus injuries: a MRI diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the utility of Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging in the evaluation of the obstetric injuries of the brachial plexus. Material and methods: 23 patients with semiology of brachial plexus palsy have been evaluated with high field MR. Patients were evaluated with a brain coil in axial, oblique coronal and sagittal planes with T1, T2 and STIR sequences. Results: In four patients (17%) the study was normal. In 19 patients (83%) we got pathological findings (pseudomeningoceles, neuromas, tumour and arachnoid cyst). Conclusion: The MR is a non-invasive method that permits to determinate the site and range of the brachial plexus damage, allowing to plan therapy. (author)

  8. Idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis after laparoscopic treatment of endometriosis: a complication that may mimic position-related brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Vasileios; Aust, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 37-year-old woman who developed idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis, also referred to as Parsonage-Turner syndrome, after laparoscopic excision of endometriosis. The differential diagnosis between this non-position-related neuritis and brachial plexus injury is discussed. The aim of this report was to raise awareness on this distressing postoperative complication. PMID:24183278

  9. Brachial plexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that run from the lower neck through the upper shoulder area. These ... Damage to the brachial plexus nerves can cause muscle and sensation problems that are often associated with pain in the same area. Symptoms may ...

  10. Electroacupuncture attenuates neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenyu Zhang; Hailiang Tang; Junming Zhou; Yudong Gu

    2014-01-01

    Electroacupuncture has traditionally been used to treat pain, but its effect on pain following brachial plexus injury is still unknown. In this study, rat models of an avulsion injury to the left brachial plexus root (associated with upper-limb chronic neuropathic pain) were given electroacu-puncture stimulation at bilateralQuchi(LI11),Hegu(LI04),Zusanli(ST36) andYanglingquan (GB34). After electroacupuncture therapy, chronic neuropathic pain in the rats’ upper limbs was signiifcantly attenuated. Immunolfuorescence staining showed that the expression of β-endorphins in the arcuate nucleus was signiifcantly increased after therapy. Thus, experimental ifndings indi-cate that electroacupuncture can attenuate neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury through upregulatingβ-endorphin expression.

  11. Traumatic injuries of brachial plexus: present methods of surgical treatment Part II. Treatment policy for brachial plexus injuries

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    M. L. Novikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to familiarize practicing neurologists, neurosurgeons, traumatologists, and orthopedists with the current principles of diagnosis and treatment of different brachial plexus (BP injuries. Part I describes the anatomy of BP in detail, considers the main mechanisms of its injuries, and gives their current classification (Nervno-Myshechnye Bolezni (Neuromuscular Diseases 2012;4:19–27.Part II presents the author's approach to treatment of brachial plexus injuries according to the type of lesion and period of denervation: nonoperative methods; rehabilitation; preoperative management; indications for surgical treatment. The tactics and techniques of primary brachial plexus reconstructions are discussed in detail.

  12. Electrodiagnosis in traumatic brachial plexus injury

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    K A Mansukhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodiagnosis (EDX is a useful test to accurately localize the site, determine the extent, identify the predominant pathophysiology, and objectively quantify the severity of brachial plexopathies. It can also be used to examine muscles not easily assessed clinically and recognize minimal defects. Post-operatively and on follow up studies, it is important for early detection of re-innervation. It can be used intra-operatively to assess conduction across a neuroma, which would help the surgeon to decide further course of action. Localization of the site of the lesion can be very challenging as there may be multiple sites of involvement and hence the electroneuromyographic evaluation must be adequate. The unaffected limb also needs to be examined for comparison. The final impression must be co-related with the type and severity of injury.

  13. Electrodiagnosis in traumatic brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansukhani, K A

    2013-01-01

    Electrodiagnosis (EDX) is a useful test to accurately localize the site, determine the extent, identify the predominant pathophysiology, and objectively quantify the severity of brachial plexopathies. It can also be used to examine muscles not easily assessed clinically and recognize minimal defects. Post-operatively and on follow up studies, it is important for early detection of re-innervation. It can be used intra-operatively to assess conduction across a neuroma, which would help the surgeon to decide further course of action. Localization of the site of the lesion can be very challenging as there may be multiple sites of involvement and hence the electroneuromyographic evaluation must be adequate. The unaffected limb also needs to be examined for comparison. The final impression must be co-related with the type and severity of injury.

  14. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury:pathological and biomechanical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yang; Min Luo; Peng Li; Hai Jin

    2014-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Imme-diately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were signiifcantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treat-ment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies.

  15. Nerve transfer helps repair brachial plexus injury by increasing cerebral cortical plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guixin Sun; Zuopei Wu; Xinhong Wang; Xiaoxiao Tan; Yudong Gu

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of brachial plexus injury, nerves that are functionally less important are trans-ferred onto the distal ends of damaged crucial nerves to help recover neuromuscular function in the target region. For example, intercostal nerves are transferred onto axillary nerves, and accessory nerves are transferred onto suprascapular nerves, the phrenic nerve is transferred onto the musculocutaneous nerves, and the contralateral C7 nerve is transferred onto the median or radial nerves. Nerve transfer has become a major method for reconstructing the brachial plexus after avulsion injury. Many experiments have shown that nerve transfers for treatment of brachi-al plexus injury can help reconstruct cerebral cortical function and increase cortical plasticity. In this review article, we summarize the recent progress in the use of diverse nerve transfer methods for the repair of brachial plexus injury, and we discuss the impact of nerve transfer on cerebral cortical plasticity after brachial plexus injury.

  16. Clinical research of comprehensive rehabilitation in treating brachial plexus injury patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jun-ming; GU Yu-dong; XU Xiao-jun; ZHANG Shen-yu; ZHAO Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Brachial plexus injury is one of the difficult medical problems in the world.The aim of this study was to observe the clinical therapeutic effect of comprehensive rehabilitation in treating dysfunction after brachial plexus injury.Methods Forty-three cases of dysfunction after brachial plexus injury were divided into two groups randomly.The treatment group,which totaled 21 patients (including 14 cases of total brachial plexus injury and seven cases of branch brachial plexus injury),was treated with comprehensive rehabilitation including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation,mid-frequency electrotherapy,Tuina therapy,and occupational therapy.The control group,which totaled 22patients (including 16 cases of total brachial plexus injury and six cases of branch brachial plexus injury),was treated with home-based electrical nerve stimulation and occupational therapy.Each course was of 30 days duration and the patients received four courses totally.After four courses,the rehabilitation effect was evaluated according to the brachial plexus function evaluation standard and electromyogram (EMG) assessment.Results In the treatment group,there was significant difference in the scores of brachial plexus function pre- and post-treatment (P <0.01 ) in both "total" and "branch" injury.The scores of two "total injury" groups had statistical differences (P <0.01),while the scores of two "branch injury" groups had statistical differences (P<0.05) after four courses.EMG suggested that the.appearance of regeneration potentials of the recipient nerves in the treatment group was earlier than the control group and had significant differences (P <0.05).Conclusion Comprehensive rehabilitation was more effective in treating dysfunction after brachial plexus injury thannonintegrated rehabilitation.

  17. Brachial plexus injury in adults: Diagnosis and surgical treatment strategies

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    Mukund R Thatte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult post traumatic Brachial plexus injury is unfortunately a rather common injury in young adults. In India the most common scenario is of a young man injured in a motorcycle accident. Exact incidence figures are not available but of the injuries presenting to us about 90% invole the above combination This article reviews peer-reviewed publications including clinical papers, review articles and Meta analysis of the subject. In addition, the authors′ experience of several hundred cases over the last 15 years has been added and has influenced the ultimate text. Results have been discussed and analysed to get an idea of factors influencing final recovery. It appears that time from injury and number of roots involved are most crucial.

  18. Penile erectile dysfunction after brachial plexus root avulsion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Fu; Xuejia Li; Liqiang Gu; Bengang Qin; Li Jiang; Xijun Huang; Qinsen Lu; Dechun Zhang; Xiaolin Liu; Jiakai Zhu; Jianwen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that some male patients suffering from brachial plexus injury, particularly brachial plexus root avulsion, show erectile dysfunction to varying degrees. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the erectile function after establishing brachial plexus root avulsion models with or without spinal cord injury in rats. After these models were established, we administered apomorphine (via a sub-cutaneous injection in the neck) to observe changes in erectile function. Rats subjected to simple brachial plexus root avulsion or those subjected to brachial plexus root avulsion combined with spinal cord injury had signiifcantly fewer erections than those subjected to the sham operation. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase did not change in brachial plexus root avulsion rats. However, neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression was signiifcantly decreased in brachial plexus root avulsion + spinal cord injury rats. These ifndings suggest that a decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the penis may play a role in erectile dysfunction caused by the combi-nation of brachial plexus root avulsion and spinal cord injury.

  19. Upright MRI of glenohumeral dysplasia following obstetric brachial plexus injury.

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    Nath, Rahul K; Paizi, Melia; Melcher, Sonya E; Farina, Kim L

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of upright magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shoulder scanning in the diagnosis of glenohumeral deformity following obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI). Eighty-nine children (ages 0.4 to 17.9 years) with OBPI who have medial rotation contracture and reduced passive and active lateral rotation of the shoulder were evaluated via upright MRI of the affected glenohumeral joint. Qualitative impressions of glenoid form were recorded, and quantitative measurements were made of glenoid version and posterior subluxation. Glenoid version of the affected shoulder averaged -16.8 +/- 11.0 degrees (range, -55 degrees to 1 degrees ), and percentage of the humeral head anterior to the glenoid fossa (PHHA) averaged 32.6 +/- 16.5% (range, -17.8% to 52.4%). The glenoid form was normal in 43 children, convex in 19 children and biconcave in 27 children. Standard MRI protocols were used to obtain bilateral images from 14 of these patients. Among the patients with bilateral MR images, glenoid version and PHHA were significantly different between the involved and uninvolved shoulders (P<.000). Glenoid version in the involved shoulder averaged -19.0 +/- 13.1 degrees (range, -52 degrees to -3 degrees ), and PHHA averaged 29.7 +/- 18.4% (range, -16.2% to 48.7%). In the uninvolved shoulder, the average glenoid version and PHHA were -5.2 +/- 3.7 degrees (range, -12 degrees to -1 degrees ) and 47.7 +/- 3.0% (range, 43% to 54%), respectively. The relative beneficial aspects of upright MRI include lack of need for sedation, low claustrophobic potential and, most important, natural, gravity-influenced position, enabling the surgeon to visualize the true preoperative picture of the shoulder. It is an effective tool for demonstrating glenohumeral abnormalities resulting from brachial plexus injury worthy of surgical exploration. PMID:17448618

  20. Correspondence in relation to the case report "Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note." published in May issue of Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakta Pradipta

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Comment on 'Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note' Bhagat H, Agarwal A, Sharma MS Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 2008, 3:14 (22 May 2008)

  1. Neonatal brachial plexus injury: comparison of incidence and antecedents between 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2011-04-01

    We sought to compare the incidence and antecedents of neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI) in 2 different 5-year epochs a decade apart following the introduction of specific staff training in the management of shoulder dystocia.

  2. Potentialities Of Tendomyoplasty In Rehabilitation Of Patients With Rough Injuries Of Brachial Plexus Trunks

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    G.A.Korshunova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve functional results after surgical treatment of consequences of brachial plexus trunks rough injuries rehabilitation results of 111 patients with consequences of brachial plexus trunks rough injuries were studied. Thanks to the adequate tendomyoplasty rehabilitation of shoulder abduction, forearm flexion and of hand grasping is obtained in 85% of patients. The suggested method of treatment may be recommended for wide usage in practical health care

  3. Changes in Spinal Cord Architecture after Brachial Plexus Injury in the Newborn

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    Korak, Klaus J.; Tam, Siu Lin; Gordon, Tessa; Frey, Manfred; Aszmann, Oskar C.

    2004-01-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus palsy is a devastating birth injury. While many children recover spontaneously, 20-25% are left with a permanent impairment of the affected limb. So far, concepts of pathology and recovery have focused on the injury of the peripheral nerve. Proximal nerve injury at birth, however, leads to massive injury-induced…

  4. Diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury

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    Medina, L.S. [Miami Children' s Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Brain Institute, Health Outcomes, Policy, and Economics (HOPE) Center, Miami, FL (United States); Miami Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Yaylali, Ilker [Miami Children' s Hospital, Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program, Miami, FL (United States); Zurakowski, David [Harvard Medical School, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ruiz, Jennifer; Altman, Nolan R. [Miami Children' s Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Brain Institute, Health Outcomes, Policy, and Economics (HOPE) Center, Miami, FL (United States); Grossman, John A.I. [Miami Children' s Hospital, Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program, Miami, FL (United States); New York University, Hospital for Joint Disease, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Detailed evaluation of a brachial plexus birth injury is important for treatment planning. To determine the diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury. Included in the study were 31 children with perinatal brachial plexus injury who underwent surgical intervention. All patients had cervical and brachial plexus MRI. The standard of reference was the combination of intraoperative (1) surgical evaluation and (2) electrophysiological studies (motor evoked potentials, MEP, and somatosensory evoked potentials, SSEP), and (3) the evaluation of histopathological neuronal loss. MRI findings of cord lesion, pseudomeningocele, and post-traumatic neuroma were correlated with the standard of reference. Diagnostic performance characteristics including sensitivity and specificity were determined. From June 2001 to March 2004, 31 children (mean age 7.3 months, standard deviation 1.6 months, range 4.8-12.1 months; 19 male, 12 female) with a brachial plexus birth injury who underwent surgical intervention were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of an MRI finding of post-traumatic neuroma were 97% (30/31) and 100% (31/31), respectively, using the contralateral normal brachial plexus as the control. However, MRI could not determine the exact anatomic area (i.e. trunk or division) of the post-traumatic brachial plexus neuroma injury. Sensitivity and specificity for an MRI finding of pseudomeningocele in determining exiting nerve injury were 50% and 100%, respectively, using MEP, and 44% and 80%, respectively, using SSEP as the standard of reference. MRI in infants could not image well the exiting nerve roots to determine consistently the presence or absence of definite avulsion. In children younger than 18 months with brachial plexus injury, the MRI finding of pseudomeningocele has a low sensitivity and a high specificity for nerve root avulsion. MRI and MR myelography cannot image well the exiting nerve roots to determine

  5. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  6. A Case of Scapulothoracic Dissociation with Brachial Plexus Injury: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

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    Lee, G.K.; Suh, K.J.; Choi, J.A.; Oh, O.Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-11-15

    Scapulothoracic dissociation is defined as violent lateral or rotational displacement of the shoulder girdle from its thoracic attachments with severe neurovascular injury. We describe the radiographic and associated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a case of scapulothoracic dissociation with brachial plexus injury in a 17-year-old man, and include a review of the relevant literature.

  7. An epidemiological study of traumatic brachial plexus injury patients treated at an Indian centre

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    Darshan Kumar A Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies on traumatic brachial plexus injuries are few and these studies help us to improve the treatment, rehabilitation of these patients and to allocate the resources required in their management. Epidemiological factors can vary in different countries. We wanted to know the situation in an Indian centre. Materials and Methods: Data regarding age, sex, affected side, mode of injury, distribution of paralysis, associated injuries, pain at the time of presentation and the index procedure they underwent were collected from 304 patients. Additional data like the vehicle associated during the accident, speed of the vehicle during the accident, employment status and integration into the family were collected in 144 patients out of the 304 patients. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 94% of patients and of the road traffic accidents 90% involved two wheelers. Brachial plexus injury formed a part of multitrauma in 54% of this study group and 46% had isolated brachial plexus injury. Associated injuries like fractures, vascular injuries and head injuries are much less probably due to the lower velocity of the vehicles compared to the western world. The average time interval from the date of injury to exploration of the brachial plexus was 127 days and 124 (40.78% patients presented to us within this duration. Fifty-seven per cent had joined back to work by an average of 8.6 months. It took an average of 6.8 months for the global brachial plexus-injured patients to write in their non-dominant hand.

  8. Functional reconstruction following brachial plexus root avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guixin Sun; Cunyi Fan; Yudong Gu

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To sum up the treatment of brachial plexus root avulsion and the progress in functional reconstruction and rehabilitation following brachial plexus root avulsion.DATA SOURCES: A search of Medline was performed to select functional reconstruction and rehabilitation following brachial plexus injury-related English articles published between January 1990 and July 2006, with key words of "brachial plexus injury, reconstruction and rehabilitation". Meanwhile, a computer-based search of CBM was carried out to select the similar Chinese articles published between January 1998 and July 2006,with key words of "brachial plexus injury, reconstruction and rehabilitation".STUDY SELECTION: The materials were checked primarily, and the literatures of functional reconstruction and rehabilitation of brachial plexus injury were selected and the full texts were retrieved.Inclusive criteria: ① Functional reconstruction following brachial plexus injury. ② Rehabilitation method of brachial plexus injury. Exclusive criteria: Reviews, repetitive study, and Meta analytical papers.DATA EXTRACTION: Forty-six literatures about functional reconstruction following brachial plexus injury were collected, and 36 of them met the inclusive criteria.DATA SYNTHESIS: Brachial plexus injury causes the complete or incomplete palsy of muscle of upper extremity. The treatment of brachial plexus is to displace not very important nerves to the distal end of very important nerve, called nerve transfer, which is an important method to treat brachial plexus injury.Postoperative rehabilitations consist of sensory training and motor functional training. It is very important to keep the initiativeness of exercise. Besides recovering peripheral nerve continuity by operation, combined treatment and accelerating neural regeneration, active motors of cerebral cortex is also the important factor to reconstruct peripheral nerve function.CONCLUSION: Consciously and actively strengthening functional

  9. Hand Function in Children with an Upper Brachial Plexus Birth Injury: Results of the Nine-Hole Peg Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerman, Igor; Alfonso, Daniel T.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Grossman, Leslie A.; Alfonso, Israel; Ditaranto, Patricia; Grossman, John A. I.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate hand function in children with Erb upper brachial plexus palsy. Method: Hand function was evaluated in 25 children (eight males; 17 females) with a diagnosed upper (C5/C6) brachial plexus birth injury. Of these children, 22 had undergone primary nerve reconstruction and 13 of the 25 had undergone…

  10. Brachial plexus injury after transfer of free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周友清; 陈亮; 胡韶楠; 顾玉东

    2002-01-01

    @@ Free latissimus dorsi muscle transfer is widely used for functional reconstruction of flexion of elbow and fingers after brachial plexus injury at later stage, as well as for soft tissue coverage because of its large size and long and reliable pedicle with adequate vessel diameter.

  11. Magnetic resonance neurography in children with birth-related brachial plexus injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Alice B. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neuroradiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gupta, Nalin [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neurosurgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Strober, Jonathan [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatric Neurology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chin, Cynthia [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neuroradiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) enables visualization of peripheral nerves. Clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies have been used in the evaluation of birth-related brachial plexus injury. These are limited in their demonstration of anatomic detail and severity of injury. We investigated the utility of MRN in evaluating birth-related brachial plexus injury in pediatric patients, and assessed the degree of correlation between MRN findings and physical examination and electromyographic (EMG) findings. The MRN findings in 11 infants (age 2 months to 20 months) with birth-related brachial plexus injury were evaluated. A neuroradiologist blinded to the EMG and clinical examination findings reviewed the images. Clinical history, examination, EMG and operative findings were obtained. All infants had abnormal imaging findings on the affected side: seven pseudomeningoceles, six neuromas, seven abnormal nerve T2 signal, four nerve root enlargement, and two denervation changes. There was greater degree of correlation between MRN and physical examination findings (kappa 0.6715, coefficient of correlation 0.7110, P < 0.001) than between EMG and physical examination findings (kappa 0.5748, coefficient of correlation 0.5883, P = 0.0012). MRN in brachial plexus trauma enables localization of injured nerves and characterization of associated pathology. MRN findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with physical examination and EMG findings, and might be a useful adjunct in treatment planning. (orig.)

  12. 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging in children with brachial plexus birth injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinong Pan; Qiyong Guo; Lijie Tian; Wei Liao; Feng Tian; Jian Mao; Fei Wang; Rongjie Bai; Qi Li; Zhian Chen

    2011-01-01

    Brachial plexus birth injuries in children are usually diagnosed using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging, while the application of high-field magnetic resonance imaging is rarely reported. Therefore, a retrospective comparison of 18 cases of children with brachial plexus injury was performed to investigate the characteristics of 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative observations. Magnetic resonance examinations in 18 cases of children showed that pseudo-meningocele sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positivity rates were 83.3%, 79.6%, 81.1%, and 40.0%, respectively. As for the neuroma and fibrous scar encapsulation, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positivity rates were 92.9%, 50.0%, 83.3%, and 77.8%, respectively. These results confirm that 3.0-T high-field magnetic resonance imaging can clearly reveal abnormal changes in brachial plexus injury, in which pseudo-meningocele, fibrous scar encapsulation, and neuroma are the characteristic changes of obstetric brachial plexus preganglionic and postganglionic nerve injury.

  13. The usefulness of MR myelography for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiura, Yasumasa; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Miyauchi, Yukio; Niitsu, Mamoru [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2002-10-01

    Myelography has been the most popular and reliable method for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury. However, it is invasive because it requires the use of contrast medium, dural puncture and exposure to radiation. In addition, it has a fault. When a nerve rootlet is not filled with contrast medium, it is impossible to evaluate it. It has sometimes been a problem in the injury to upper roots. Recently, MRI also has been used for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. But it was not until recently that it has had a high resolution to detect affected nerve rootlets. We have used MR myelography with high resolution for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of it. MR myelography was preoperatively performed in 14 cases, consisting of 13 traumatic brachial plexus injuries and an obstetrical palsy. In them, 12 cases had root avulsion injuries and 2 cases had infraclavicular injuries. A 1.5 Tesla MR system (Philips) and a cervical coil were used. Coronal sections with 2 mm-overcontiguous thickness were obtained by heavily T2-weighted sequence fast spin echo (TR/TE=3000/450). The fat signal was suppressed by a presaturation inversion-pulse. The scanning time was about five minutes. The three-dimensional image was reconstructed by using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. MIP images and individual coronal images were used for evaluation for root avulsion. In evaluation the shape of a nerve sleeve and nerve rootlets was compared on both sides. The abnormal shape of a nerve sleeve or the defect of nerve rootlets was diagnosed as root avulsion. The brachial plexus lesions were exposed operatively and examined with electrophysiologic methods (SEP and/or ESCP) in all cases. Operative findings were compared with MR myelography. Twenty-four roots had been diagnosed as normal and 46 roots had been diagnosed as root avulsion with MR myelography preoperatively. In the former only one root was

  14. The usefulness of MR myelography for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myelography has been the most popular and reliable method for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury. However, it is invasive because it requires the use of contrast medium, dural puncture and exposure to radiation. In addition, it has a fault. When a nerve rootlet is not filled with contrast medium, it is impossible to evaluate it. It has sometimes been a problem in the injury to upper roots. Recently, MRI also has been used for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. But it was not until recently that it has had a high resolution to detect affected nerve rootlets. We have used MR myelography with high resolution for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of it. MR myelography was preoperatively performed in 14 cases, consisting of 13 traumatic brachial plexus injuries and an obstetrical palsy. In them, 12 cases had root avulsion injuries and 2 cases had infraclavicular injuries. A 1.5 Tesla MR system (Philips) and a cervical coil were used. Coronal sections with 2 mm-overcontiguous thickness were obtained by heavily T2-weighted sequence fast spin echo (TR/TE=3000/450). The fat signal was suppressed by a presaturation inversion-pulse. The scanning time was about five minutes. The three-dimensional image was reconstructed by using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. MIP images and individual coronal images were used for evaluation for root avulsion. In evaluation the shape of a nerve sleeve and nerve rootlets was compared on both sides. The abnormal shape of a nerve sleeve or the defect of nerve rootlets was diagnosed as root avulsion. The brachial plexus lesions were exposed operatively and examined with electrophysiologic methods (SEP and/or ESCP) in all cases. Operative findings were compared with MR myelography. Twenty-four roots had been diagnosed as normal and 46 roots had been diagnosed as root avulsion with MR myelography preoperatively. In the former only one root was

  15. Correspondence in relation to the case report "Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note." published in May issue of Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta Pradipta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comment on 'Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note' Bhagat H, Agarwal A, Sharma MS Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 2008, 3:14 (22 May 2008

  16. Treatment of Brachial Plexus Injury by Exterior- and Interior Meridian Acupoints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰

    2007-01-01

    Exterior-and interior-meridian acupoints were used, mainly by selection of local acupoints along meridian. According to the state of disease, electroacupuncture and acupoint injection were combined to treat brachial plexus injury. Among 12 patients, 6 cases were basically cured, 4 cases got effectiveness and 2 cases had no effectiveness. The therapeutic effect of exterior- and interior-meridian acupoints in brachial plexus injury was satisfactory.%采用表里配穴法,按经脉循行部位取穴为主.根据病情配合电针、穴位注射治疗臂丛神经损伤.12例患者中,6例基本治愈,4例有效,2例无效.运用表里经配穴法,治疗臂丛神经损伤疗效满意.

  17. Sensory Evaluation of the Hands in Children with Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Tove; Peltonen, Jari; Linder, Tove; Rautakorpi, Sanna; Nietosvaara, Yrjana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sensory changes of the hand in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI). Ninety-five patients (43 females, 52 males) comprising two age groups, 6 to 8 years (mean age 7y 6mo) and 12 to 14 years (mean age 13y 2mo), were included. Sixty-four had upper (cervical [C] 5-6), 19 upper and middle (C5-7), and 12 had total…

  18. Degeneration of primary afferent terminals following brachial plexus extensive avulsion injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muñetón-Gómez, Vilma; Taylor, Julian S.; Averill, Sharon; Priestley, John V.; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Important breakthroughs in the understanding regeneration failure in an injured CNS have been made by studies of primary afferent neurons. Dorsal rhizotomy has provided an experimental model of brachial plexus (BP) avulsion. This is an injury in which the central branches of primary afferents are disrupted at their point of entry into the spinal cord, bringing motor and sensory dysfunction to the upper limbs. In the present work, the central axonal organization of primary afferents was examin...

  19. Operative treatment with nerve repair can restore function in patients with traction injuries in the brachial plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiasny, Jerzy; Birkeland, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Brachial plexus injuries are usually a result of road traffic accidents and a cause of severe disability that typically affects young adult males. In 2010, a national centre was established for referral of these cases from Danish trauma centres. In this paper, we report on our...... or transfers for nerve repairs based on the pattern of nerve injury seen intraoperatively. RESULTS: Overall, 24 patients were operated, and 12 patients were included in the outcome analysis. The six patients with upper brachial plexus palsies all regained shoulder function and useful elbow flexion. Of the six...... patients with complete brachial plexus palsies, four regained shoulder function, while only one regained useful elbow function, and this was after nerve transfers. CONCLUSION: Operative treatment provides satisfactory results in patients with upper brachial plexus palsies, while improvement is warranted...

  20. Phrenic Nerve Transfer for Reconstruction of Elbow Extension in Severe Brachial Plexus Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Leandro P; Socolovsky, Mariano

    2016-09-01

    Background Restoring elbow extension is an important objective to pursue when repairing the brachial plexus in patients with a flail arm. Based upon the good results obtained using the phrenic nerve to restore elbow flexion and shoulder stability, we hypothesized that this nerve could also be employed to reconstruct elbow extension in patients with severe brachial plexus injuries. Methods A retrospective study of 10 patients in which the phrenic nerve targeted the radial nerve (7 patients) or the branch to the long head of the triceps (3 patients) as a surgical strategy for reconstruction of the brachial plexus. Results The mean postoperative follow-up time was 34 months. At final follow-up, elbow extension graded as M4 was measured in three patients, Medical Research Council MRC M3 in five patients, and M2 in one patient, while one patient experienced no measurable recovery (M0). No patient complained or demonstrated any signs of respiratory insufficiency postoperatively. Conclusions The phrenic nerve is a reliable donor for reanimation of elbow extension in such cases, and the branch to the long head of the triceps should be considered as a better target for the nerve transfer.

  1. Arthroscopic Release of Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder Complicated With Shoulder Dislocation and Brachial Plexus Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Fiesky A; Papadonikolakis, Anastasios; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of brachial plexus injury after shoulder dislocation or arthroscopic shoulder surgery is low. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an uncommon but painful condition that can develop after nerve injury. Historically, CRPS has been difficult to treat and therapeutic efforts are sometimes limited to ameliorating symptoms. However, if a dystrophic focus can be identified, the condition can be addressed with surgical exploration for potential neurolysis or nerve repair. The present article reports on a case of type II CRPS that developed in the postoperative setting of arthroscopic shoulder surgery complicated with simple shoulder dislocation. PMID:27518297

  2. Diagnostic Value and Surgical Implications of the 3D DW-SSFP MRI On the Management of Patients with Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ben-Gang; Yang, Jian-Tao; Yang, Yi; Wang, Hong-Gang; Fu, Guo; Gu, Li-Qiang; Li, Ping; Zhu, Qing-Tang; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Jia-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (3D DW-SSFP) of high-resolution magnetic resonance has emerged as a promising method to visualize the peripheral nerves. In this study, the application value of 3D DW-SSFP brachial plexus imaging in the diagnosis of brachial plexus injury (BPI) was investigated. 33 patients with BPI were prospectively examined using 3D DW-SSFP MR neurography (MRN) of brachial plexus. Results of 3D DW-SSFP MRN were compared with intraoperative findings and measurements of electromyogram (EMG) or somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) for each injured nerve root. 3D DW-SSFP MRN of brachial plexus has enabled good visualization of the small components of the brachial plexus. The postganglionic section of the brachial plexus was clearly visible in 26 patients, while the preganglionic section of the brachial plexus was clearly visible in 22 patients. Pseudomeningoceles were commonly observed in 23 patients. Others finding of MRN of brachial plexus included spinal cord offset (in 16 patients) and spinal cord deformation (in 6 patients). As for the 3D DW-SSFP MRN diagnosis of preganglionic BPI, the sensitivity, the specificity and the accuracy were respectively 96.8%, 90.29%, and 94.18%. 3D DW-SSFP MRN of brachial plexus improve visualization of brachial plexus and benefit to determine the extent of injury. PMID:27782162

  3. Management of brachial plexus injuries in adults: Clinical evaluation and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injuries are devastating injuries that usually affect the younger population. The usual modes of injuries are roadside accidents, falls, and assaults. The affected individuals are crippled and may suffer from excruciating peripheral or central deafferentation pain for rest of their lives. The loss of functional capacity accounts for a significant number of man-hours lost at the workplace and consequent financial burden on the family. The results of brachial plexus reconstructive surgery have generally been unsatisfactory in the past. However, in recent decades, the efficacy of surgery has been proven beyond doubt, and there have been various published series in literature that have reported a good outcome after surgical management of these injuries. This has been made possible by the use of operating microscopes, better microsuture techniques for nerve graft and nerve or tendon transfer repair, and advanced perioperative electrophysiological techniques. The key to successful management lies in the proper clinical evaluation, supplemented with electrophysiology, preoperative imaging studies, and planning of surgical strategy. The partial injuries have a better outcome as compared with global palsies, and early referral should be emphasized. Selective combinations of nerve graft and transfers provide a moderate shoulder and elbow control. However, a multispecialty approach involving hand surgeons, plastic surgeons, and physiotherapists is required.

  4. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury:electrophysiological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Liu; Xun-cheng Xu; Yi Zou; Su-rong Li; Bin Zhang; Yue Wang

    2015-01-01

    Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we per-formed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduc-tion function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regener-ated potentials ifrst appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ‘ex-cellent’ and ‘good’ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The func-tional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  5. MR-myelography for the brachial plexus injury. Comparison of the MR-myelography, myelography and CT myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Yabe, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, Ikuo; Takayama, Shinichiro; Yamanaka, Kazuyoshi; Ichikawa, Toru [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-03-01

    The usefulness of MR-myelography was evaluated in 6 patients with brachial plexus injury. Pseudo-meningocele was confirmed clearly on MR-myelography in 4 patients with whole plexus injury. In 2 patients with upper plexus injury, damages of C6 nerve root were confirmed but pseudo-meningocele was not found on MR-myelography. MR-myelography is noninvasive and the accuracy is not inferior to myelography. Because MR-myelography needs no contrast media and the images can be observed in three-dimensional direction, it is expected in future application. (H.O.)

  6. Does retraction of the sternum during median sternotomy result in brachial plexus injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Scott; O'Neill, Bridie; Bilal, Haris; Waterworth, Paul

    2013-07-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'does retraction of the sternum during median sternotomy result in brachial plexus injuries or peripheral neuropathies?' Altogether 58 papers were found using the reported search, of which 12 represented the best evidence to answer the question. The authors, date, journal and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. Caudal placement of the retractor or relieving the pressure superiorly by removing the upper blades of a retractor (P = 0.02) and use of a caudally placed symmetrical retractor has been shown to reduce neuropathy. Positioning of the patient with 'hands up' positioning showed significant reduction in the incidence of brachial plexus injuries. Furthermore, how wide the retractor is opened and use of an asymmetrical retractor for internal mammary artery (IMA) harvesting are also important factors in quantifying risk of postoperative neuropathy. Wider sternal retraction and longer bypass time did increase the risk of developing postoperative neuropathy. Three asymmetrical retractors were looked at that demonstrates the Delacroix-Chevalier to be the safest (P retractor and using a caudally placed retractor.

  7. Occult rib fractures and brachial plexus injury following median sternotomy for open-heart operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, C E; Greenwald, L V; Symbas, P N

    1984-09-01

    The incidence and the sites of rib fractures during open-heart operations through a median sternotomy incision were studied in 36 consecutive patients divided into two groups. In Group 1 (24 patients), a conventional Ankeney retractor was used to expose the heart, and in Group 2 (12 patients), a similar retractor was used but with its uppermost pair of blades removed. Thorough physical examinations and preoperative and postoperative chest roentgenograms were obtained, and postoperative bone scans were done in all patients. No rib fractures were detected on the routine chest roentgenograms in patients in either group. Bone scans, however, showed 44 rib fractures (15 of the first rib, 13 of the second rib, 4 of the third rib, 6 of the fourth rib, 3 of the fifth rib, and 3 of the sixth rib) in 16 patients in Group 1. Six patients in Group 2 had 9 rib fractures (2 of the first rib, 4 of the second rib, and 1 each of the third, fifth, and sixth ribs). None of the patients in Group 2 had brachial plexus injury and neither of the first rib fractures in this group were located posteriorly, whereas 3 patients in Group 1 had both brachial plexus injury and posterior first rib fractures.

  8. Standard versus a novel technique for restoring neurological function following brachial plexus injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damien Kuffler

    2011-01-01

    The brachial plexus, a complex network of peripheral nerves, involves the motor, sensory, and sympathetic nerve supply to the upper extremity, and is formed by the union of the ventral primary rami of the spinal nerves. Brachial plexus trauma, damage to the complex of nerves, has a high incidence from delivery throughout life, leading to loss of all innervation of the arm and hand, their paralysis, and frequently results in excruciating neuropathic pain. The most frequent brachial plexus repair techniques use autologous sensory nerve grafts to bridge the nerve gaps. However, these do not induce reliable neurological recovery or reduce neuropathic pain, thus permanent neurological loss and neuropathic pain frequently occur. The present study evaluated the current best brachial plexus repair techniques and another involving a collagen tube filled with autologous platelet-rich fibrin that clinically induces extensive neurological recovery and a reduction/elimination of neuropathic pain, which are not possible by sural nerve grafts, even across long nerve gaps that are repaired years post trauma, and in older patients. This novel technique is proposed for use in restoring brachial plexus neurological function and in reducing/eliminating neuropathic pain.

  9. Treatment of 150 Cases of Infantile Brachial Plexus Injury by Tuina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Shi-chun; ZHU Zhong-chun

    2005-01-01

    The author selected the acupoints Fengfu (GV 16), Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4),Jianjing (GB 21), and adopted manual techniques such as Yizhichan-Thumb waving pressing,An-pressing, Rou-stationary circular pressing, Nie-pinching, Nian-finger twisting, Na-holding,Yao-rotation and Cuo-palm twisting to warm and dredge meridians and collaterals, promote the circulation of qi and blood, and lubricate the joints, to treat 150 cases of infantile brachial plexus injury. The total effective rate was 99.3%.%取风府、风池、合谷、肩井等穴,应用一指禅推法,按、揉、捏、捻、拿、摇、搓等手法,以温经通络、行气活血、通利关节.治疗150例臂丛神经损伤小儿患者,总有效率99.3%.

  10. Traction injuries of the brachial plexus: Radiographic diagnosis by enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact radiographic localisation of supraganglionic lesions of the brachial plexus provides important information for the prognosis and clinical management of these injuries. The authors report on the results of enhanced CT scanning and MRI of the cervical spine in five patients with surgically proven root avulsions caused by traction injuries. All lesions were correctly diagnosed by enhanced CT scanning. MRI, by comparison, identified only about 70% of the neural lesions. (orig.)

  11. MRI of the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, H.W. van [Dept. of Radiology, St. Antonius Ziekenhuis, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2001-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of first choice for evaluating the anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus. This review discusses the used imaging techniques, the normal anatomy, and a variety of pathologies that can involve the brachial plexus. The pathology includes primary and secondary tumors (the most frequent secondary tumors being superior sulcus tumor and metastatic breast carcinoma), radiation plexopathy, trauma, thoracic outlet syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). (orig.)

  12. Therapeutic application of electrical stimulation and constraint induced movement therapy in perinatal brachial plexus injury: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Jamie; Baker, Lucinda L

    2015-01-01

    Infants and children with perinatal brachial plexus injury (PBPI) have motion limitations in the shoulder, elbow, forearm and hand that are dependent on the level of injury and degree of recovery. The injury and subsequent recovery period occur during critical periods of central and spinal neural development placing infants and children at-risk for developmental disregard and disuse of the affected arm and hand. A case report outlines the therapy and surgical interventions provided in the first 2 years of life for a child with global PBPI and a positive Horner's sign. Electrical stimulation and constraint induced movement therapy provided sequentially were effective therapy interventions. Neurosurgery to repair the brachial plexus was performed at an optimal time period.(2) The Assisting Hand Assessment,(12) Modified Mallet(13) and Active Movement Scale(14) are effective outcome measures in PBPI and served as valuable guides for therapy intervention. Oxford Level of Evidence: 3b; Individual Case Control Study.

  13. Substance P mRNA expression in the rat spinal cord following selective brachial plexus injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Liu; Longju Chen; Feng Li; Wutian Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide, substance P, has various bioactivities and is widely distributed in the central nervous system. Substance P participates in neural transmission in the spinal cord and plays an important role in regeneration and repair of nerve injury.OBJECTIVE: To investigate substance P mRNA expression in the anterior horn of the spinal cord following brachial plexus injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A molecular cell biology randomized controlled study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Zhongshan Medical College, Sun Yat-sen University and the DaAn Gene Laboratory in May 2005.MATERIALS: A total of 29 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a control group (n=5) and an injury group (n = 24).METHODS: The injury group was divided into three subgroups. In subgroup A, the right seventh cervical vertebra (C7) anterior root was avulsed, and the residual nerve root at the distal end was removed. In subgroup B, the right C7 anterior root was avulsed, and the right C5 first thoracic vertebrae (TO posterior root was incised. Thus afferent pathways of the posterior root that connected with the anterior horn motor neurons were blocked. In subgroup C, the right C7 anterior root was avulsed, and a right C5-6 hemisection was performed. Thus the descending fiber pathways of the cortex that connected with anterior horn motor neurons were blocked. In the control group, the C5-T1 vertebral plate was opened, and then the skin was sutured.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Substance P mRNA expression in the anterior horn of the spinal cord was quantified using fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS: Substance P mRNA expression was low in the anterior horn of the rat spinal cord in the control group. Substance P mRNA expression in the anterior horn of the spinal cord was upregulated and was significantly higher in the injury group compared with the control group (P < 0.01 ). Substance P mRNA expression was highest in

  14. Advanced radiological work-up as an adjunct to decision in early reconstructive surgery in brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkman Anders

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As neurophysiologic tests may not reveal the extent of brachial plexus injury at the early stage, the role of early radiological work-up has become increasingly important. The aim of the study was to evaluate the concordance between the radiological and clinical findings with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injuries. Methods Seven consecutive male patients (median age 33; range 15-61 with brachial plexus injuries, caused by motor cycle accidents in 5/7 patients, who underwent extensive radiological work-up with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography myelography (CT-M or both were included in this retrospective study. A total of 34 spinal nerve roots were evaluated by neuroradiologists at two different occasions. The degree of agreement between the radiological findings of every individual nerve root and the intraoperative findings was estimated by calculation of kappa coefficient (К-value. Using the operative findings as a gold standard, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the clinical findings and the radiological findings were estimated. Results The diagnostic accuracy of radiological findings was 88% compared with 65% for the clinical findings. The concordance between the radiological findings and the intraoperative findings was substantial (К = 0.76 compared with only fair (К = 0.34 for the clinical findings. There were two false positive and two false negative radiological findings (sensitivity and PPV of 0.90; specificity and NPV of 0.87. Conclusions The advanced optimized radiological work-up used showed high reliability and substantial agreement with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injury.

  15. Expression of nitric oxide synthase in the spinal cord after selective brachial plexus injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Liu; Feng Li; Longju Chen; Wutian Wu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some researches showed that motoneurons in spinal cord anterior horn wound die following brachial plexus injury, but the concrete mechanism of motoneurons death remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and survival of C7 motoneurons in spinal cord of rats after selective brachial plexus injury.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Anatomy, Sun Yet-sen Medical College, Sun Yet-sen University.MATERIALS: Totally 35 adult healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats with the body mass of 200-300 g were provided by Experimental Animal Center, Sun Yet-sen Medical College, Sun Yat-sen University. The rats were divided into control group (n =5) and experimental group (n=30) by random number table method, and the experimental group was divided into three injury subgroups: anterior root avulsion group, dorsal root transection group and spinal cord hemisection group, 10 rats in each group. There were horse anti-neuronal NOS (Nnos) polycolonal antibody (Sigma company) and nicotina mideadeninedinucleotide phosphate (NADPH-d) (SigmaCompany).METHODS: The experiment was performed at Department of Anatomy, Sun Yet-sen Medical College, Sun Yet-sen University between September 2004 and April 2005. ①After anesthetizing the rats, the spinous process of second thoracic vertebra as a marker, the vertebra was exposed from C5 to T1 and the lamina of vertebra was unclenched, and spinal dura mater was carved to expose the spinal nerve dorsal roots of C5-T1.The right ventral root of C7 was avulsed, and the residual root was removed in anterior root avulsion group. The right ventral root of C7 was avulsed and the right dorsal roots of brachial plexus (C5-T1) were cut off in dorsal root transection group. In spinal cord hemisection group, the hemisection between the C5 and C6 spinal segment on right side and avulsion of right ventral root of C7 were made. In the control group, the vertebra from C5 to T1 was

  16. 动态三维MRI臂丛成像在臂丛根性损伤的临床应用%Clinical application of dynamic 3d-MRI brachial plexus imaging in the diagnosis of brachial plexus root injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美豪; 张勇; 程敬亮; 王健; 汪娟; 滕红林; 杨运俊; 王溯源; 王维卓; 刘会茹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate radiological findings and clinical application of the dynamic 3d-MRI in the diagnosis of brachial plexus root injuries. Methods 10 cases of brachial plexus root injury patients underwent dynamic three dimensional MRI (3d-MRI) with short TI inversion recovery sequence (STIR). All cases were confirmed having brachial plexus root injuries by intraopcrativc exploration. Results No characteristic signs of brachial plexus root injuries were found in the early 3d-MRI scanning within one and three days after injuric. At 10-15 days(avcragc 10 days)aftcr injury. Characteristic signs of brachial plexus root injuries were found in the second 3d-MRI scanning, including absence and abnormal conduction of the nerve roots, traumatic spinal mcningocclc, displacement of the spinal cord, etc. Conclusion Brachial plexus nerve anatomical structure could be displayed well in 3d-MRI,thc change in short time and the characteristic radiological findings of brachial plexus root injuries could be found in dynamic 3d-MRI. Dynamic 3d-MRI is a noninvasivc and effective imaging method for the diagnosis of brachial plexus root injuries,which could show the accurate location of the injured brachial plexus root nerve, has significant value in clinical application.%目的 探讨动态三维MRI臂丛成像技术在诊断臂丛神经根性损伤的影像学表现与临床应用.方法 采用短时反转恢复序列(STIR)技术对10例臂丛神经根性损伤患者行动态三维MRI臂丛成像,所有10例患者均手术证实为臂丛根性损伤.结果 本组患者在伤后早期(1~3天)内行三维MRI臂丛成像均未见明显臂丛根性损伤的特征性MRI表现;伤后10~15天(平均10天)后,再次行三维MRI臂丛成像,出现典型的臂丛根性损伤MRI表现:神经根消失或离断、创伤性脊膜囊肿、脊髓偏移等.结论 三维MRI臂丛成像可以很好地地显示臂丛神经的解剖结构,通过动态成像可以显示臂丛根性神经损伤短

  17. MRI of the Brachial Plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the brachial plexus is a clinical chal-lenge. Physical examination has traditionally been a mainstay in evaluating and localizing pathology involving the brachial plexus. Physical examination is especially difficult in patients with scarring and fibrosis secondary to surgery or irradiation. Electrophysiologic studies may be used to detect abnormalities in nerve conduction, but are poor for localizing a lesion. "nMRI has become increasingly important in the evaluation of brachial plexus pathology, as the technology and resolution has improved. Correlation of imaging results with electrophysiologic findings increases the overall specificity and sensitivity. CT has increased sensitivity for depicting extrinsic masses that com-press the nerves; however, it offers poor soft tissue contrast to directly evaluate the nerves."nWith the advent of MRI, nerves that compose the brachial plexus can now be directly evaluated. Intrinsic and extrinsic pathology may be evaluated. Exact anatomic components of the brachial plexus, such as the roots, trunks, divisions, and cords may be identified. MRI has the additional benefit of multiplanar imaging and increased soft tissue contrast. The tissue resolution of MRI is constantly improving with new pulse sequences and coil designs."nWith radiography and CT, changes in the shape or position of the brachial plexus were used to assess the pathology. With MRI, the nerve can be directly visualized and evaluated for pathology. MRI sequences such as fat-saturated T2-weighted spin-echo, short-tau inversion recovery (STIR, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo sequences help in depicting subtle changes in the signal intensity of the nerves or enhancement and aid in refining the differential diagnosis. In addition, maximum intensity projections can make localization and visualization of the pathology most understandable for referring clinicians and surgeons.

  18. Muscle changes in brachial plexus birth injury with elbow flexion contracture: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeyhiae, Tiina H.; Koivikko, Mika P.; Lamminen, Antti E. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki (Finland); Peltonen, Jari I.; Nietosvaara, A.Y. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Kirjavainen, Mikko O. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Muscle pathology of the arm and forearm in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) with elbow flexion contracture has not been evaluated with MRI. To determine whether limited range of motion of the elbow in BPBI is correlated with specific patterns of muscular pathology. For 15 BPBI patients, total active motion (TAM) of the elbow (extension-flexion) and the forearm (pronation-supination) were measured. MRI of the elbow joints and musculature allowed assessment of elbow congruency. Fatty infiltration and size reduction of the muscles were graded semiquantitatively. Mean TAM of the elbow was 113 (50 -140 ) and that of the forearm 91 (10 -165 ). The greater the size reduction of the brachioradialis muscle, the more diminished was elbow TAM. The more extensive the BPBI and muscle pathology of the pronator teres muscle, the more limited was the TAM of the forearm. Pathology of the supinator and brachialis muscles was evident in every patient. Extensive BPBI may result in marked limitation of TAM. Elbow flexion contracture seems to be caused mainly by brachialis muscle pathology. Prosupination of the forearm is better preserved when the pronator teres is not severely affected. MRI can reliably show the extent of muscle pathology in BPBI. (orig.)

  19. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to brachial plexus injury: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superficial siderosis can be caused by hemosiderin deposition o the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the neuro-axis due to recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. Probable intrathecal bleeding sites must be investigated. In ut t 50% of the patients the bleeding source may be identified and the progression of the disease can be interrupted. In this study, the authors present a case of superficial siderosis of the central nervous system developed two decades after a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus.(author)

  20. Diagnostic value of new MRI for brachial plexus preganglionic injury%改良MRI对臂丛神经节前损伤的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振江; 孙英彩; 崔建岭

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨新的MRI成像方式对臂丛神经节前损伤的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析19例临床怀疑臂丛神经节前损伤患者的临床及MRI资料,并与手术及肌电图检查对照,统计新的MRI方法 诊断臂丛神经节前损伤的敏感性、特异性和准确性.结果 19例患者中臂丛神经损伤者15例,67对受损臂丛神经中MRI诊断出55对.诊断的敏感性为82.09%(55/67),特异性为40.00%(8/20),准确性为84.00%(63/75).结论 新的MRI成像方法 可清晰显示臂丛神经结构及走行,可准确诊断臂丛神经节前损伤,为临床提供了臂丛神经节前损伤诊断的一种MRI成像新方法.%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of new MRI for brachial plexus preganglionic injury. Methods The clinical data and MRI examination results in 19 patients with dubitable brachial plexus preganglionic injury were analyzed, and the data and examination results were compared with those of operation and electromyography. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of new MRI in diagnosis of brachial plexus preganglionic injury were statistically analyzed. Results Among 19 patients, there were 15 cases of brachial plexus preganglionic injury, among 67 pair of injured brachial plexus nerves, 55 pair of them were detected by MRI. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of new MRI in diagnosis of brachial plexus preganglionic injury were 82. 09% ( 55/67 ), 40.00%( 8/20 )and 84.00% ( 63/75 ), respectively. Conclusion New MRI imaging method can clearly show the structures and direction of brachial plexus nerves, and can exactly diagnose brachial plexus preganglionic injury, which is a new MRI imaging method in diagnosis of brachial plexus preganglionic injury.

  1. Coracoid Abnormalities and Their Relationship with Glenohumeral Deformities in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentz Melissa J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with incomplete recovery from obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI usually develop secondary muscle imbalances and bone deformities at the shoulder joint. Considerable efforts have been made to characterize and correct the glenohumeral deformities, and relatively less emphasis has been placed on the more subtle ones, such as those of the coracoid process. The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the relationship between coracoid abnormalities and glenohumeral deformities in OBPI patients. We hypothesize that coracoscapular angles and distances, as well as coracohumeral distances, diminish with increasing glenohumeral deformity, whereas coracoid overlap will increase. Methods 39 patients (age range: 2-13 years, average: 4.7 years, with deformities secondary to OBPI were included in this study. Parameters for quantifying coracoid abnormalities (coracoscapular angle, coracoid overlap, coracohumeral distance, and coracoscapular distance and shoulder deformities (posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion were measured on CT images from these patients before any surgical intervention. Paired Student t-tests and Pearson correlations were used to analyze different parameters. Results Significant differences between affected and contralateral shoulders were found for all coracoid and shoulder deformity parameters. Percent of humeral head anterior to scapular line (PHHA, glenoid version, coracoscapular angles, and coracoscapular and coracohumeral distances were significantly lower for affected shoulders compared to contralateral ones. Coracoid overlap was significantly higher for affected sides compared to contralateral sides. Significant and positive correlations were found between coracoscapular distances and glenohumeral parameters (PHHA and version, as well as between coracoscapular angles and glenohumeral parameters, for affected shoulders. Moderate and positive correlations existed between coracoid

  2. Axillary artery pseudoaneurysm resulting in brachial plexus injury in a patient taking new oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monem, Mohammed; Iskandarani, Mohamad Khalid; Gokaraju, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the case of an independent 80-year-old Caucasian woman, being treated with new oral anticoagulants for a previous deep vein thrombosis, who had fallen on her right shoulder. She made a delayed presentation to the emergency department with a wrist drop in her right dominant hand. She had right arm bruising with good distal pulses but had a global neurological deficit in the hand. Plain radiographs of the shoulder, humerus, elbow, forearm and wrist demonstrated no fractures. MRI showed a significant right axillary lesion distorting the surrounding soft tissues, including the brachial plexus, and CT with contrast confirmed this to be a large axillary pseudoaneurysm. This was treated with an endovascular stent resulting in slightly improved motor function, but the significant residual deficit required subsequent rehabilitation to improve right upper limb function. PMID:27535738

  3. Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graif, Moshe; Blank, Anat; Weiss, Judith; Kessler, Ada [Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizmann Street, 64239, Tel Aviv (Israel); Martinoli, Carlo; Derchi, Lorenzo E. [Department of Radiology, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Rochkind, Shimon [Department of Neurosurgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizmann Street, 64239, Tel Aviv (Israel); Trejo, Leonor [Department of Pathology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizmann Street, 64239, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2004-02-01

    Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial plexus pathology were included in this study. There were four main etiology groups: post-traumatic brachial plexopathies; primary tumors (benign and malignant); secondary tumors; and post irradiation injuries. Twenty-one of the 28 patients underwent surgery. Advanced imaging (mostly MRI) served as an alternative gold standard for confirmation of the findings in the non-surgically treated group of patients. The US examinations were performed with conventional US units operating at 5- to 10-MHz frequencies. The nerves were initially localized at the level of the vertebral foramina and then were followed longitudinally and axially down to the axillary region. Abnormal US findings were detected in 20 of 28 patients. Disruption of nerve continuity and focal scar tissue masses were the principal findings in the post-traumatic cases. Focal masses within a nerve or adjacent to it and diffuse thickening of the nerve were the findings in primary and secondary tumors. Post-irradiation changes presented as nerve thickening. Color Doppler was useful in detecting internal vascularization within masses and relation of a mass to adjacent vessels. The eight sonographically negative cases consisted either of traumatic neuromas smaller than 12 mm in size and located in relatively small branches of posterior location or due to fibrotic changes of diffuse nature. Sonography succeeded in depicting a spectrum of lesions of traumatic, neoplastic, and inflammatory nature in the brachial plexus. It provided useful information regarding the lesion site

  4. Neuromuscular hamartoma arising in the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, P.H.; Chen, C.; Yeh, L.R.; Pan, H.B. [Department of Radiology, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, 386 Ta-Chung First Rd, 813, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Ho, J.T.; Hsu, S.S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, 386 Ta-Chung First Rd, 813, Kaosiung (Taiwan); Lin, S.L. [Department of Pathology, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, 386 Ta-Chung First Rd, 813, Kaohsiung (Taiwan)

    2004-03-01

    We report a case brachial plexus neuromuscular hamartoma (choristoma) in a 28-year-old man who complained of numbness of the left hand and forearm for several years. MRI revealed a circumscribed, rounded mass in the left brachial plexus. The patient is well 2 years after surgery, with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  5. Brachial Plexus Anatomy: Normal and Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Orebaugh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective brachial plexus blockade requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the plexus, as well as an appreciation of anatomic variations that may occur. This review summarizes relevant anatomy of the plexus, along with variations and anomalies that may affect nerve blocks conducted at these levels. The Medline, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases were searched in order to compile reports related to the anatomy of the brachial plexus using the following free terms: "brachial plexus", "median nerve", "ulnar nerve", "radial nerve", "axillary nerve", and "musculocutanous nerve". Each of these was then paired with the MESH terms "anatomy", "nerve block", "anomaly", "variation", and "ultrasound". Resulting articles were hand searched for additional relevant literature. A total of 68 searches were conducted, with a total of 377 possible articles for inclusion. Of these, 57 were found to provide substantive information for this review. The normal anatomy of the brachial plexus is briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on those features revealed by use of imaging technologies. Anomalies of the anatomy that might affect the conduct of the various brachial plexus blocks are noted. Brachial plexus blockade has been effectively utilized as a component of anesthesia for upper extremity surgery for a century. Over that period, our understanding of anatomy and its variations has improved significantly. The ability to explore anatomy at the bedside, with real-time ultrasonography, has improved our appreciation of brachial plexus anatomy as well.

  6. Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed.

  7. Reduced functional connectivity within the primary motor cortex of patients with brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiman, D; Miranda, M F; Erthal, F; Buur, P F; Elschot, M; Souza, L; Rombouts, S A R B; Schimmelpenninck, C A; Norris, D G; Malessy, M J A; Galves, A; Vargas, C D

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at the effects of traumatic brachial plexus lesion with root avulsions (BPA) upon the organization of the primary motor cortex (M1). Nine right-handed patients with a right BPA in whom an intercostal to musculocutaneous (ICN-MC) nerve transfer was performed had post-operative resting state fMRI scanning. The analysis of empirical functional correlations between neighboring voxels revealed faster correlation decay as a function of distance in the M1 region corresponding to the arm in BPA patients as compared to the control group. No differences between the two groups were found in the face area. We also investigated whether such larger decay in patients could be attributed to a gray matter diminution in M1. Structural imaging analysis showed no difference in gray matter density between groups. Our findings suggest that the faster decay in neighboring functional correlations without significant gray matter diminution in BPA patients could be related to a reduced activity in intrinsic horizontal connections in M1 responsible for upper limb motor synergies. PMID:27547727

  8. New approaches in imaging of the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.I. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: maria.i.vargas@hcuge.ch; Viallon, M. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Nguyen, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Beaulieu, J.Y. [Unit of Hand Surgery, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Delavelle, J. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Becker, M. [Unit of Head and Neck Radiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    Imaging plays an essential role for the detection and analysis of pathologic conditions of the brachial plexus. Currently, several new techniques are used in addition to conventional 2D MR sequences to study the brachial plexus: the 3D STIR SPACE sequence, 3D heavily T2w MR myelography sequences (balanced SSFP = CISS 3D, True FISP 3D, bFFE and FIESTA), and the diffusion-weighted (DW) neurography sequence with fiber tracking reconstruction (tractography). The 3D STIR sequence offers complete anatomical coverage of the brachial plexus and the ability to slice through the volume helps to analyze fiber course modification and structure alteration. It allows precise assessment of distortion, compression and interruption of postganglionic nerve fibers thanks to the capability of performing maximum intensity projections (MIP) and multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs). The CISS 3D, b-SSFP sequences allow good visualization of nerve roots within the spinal canal and may be used for MR myelography in traumatic plexus injuries. The DW neurography sequence with tractography is still a work in progress, able to demonstrate nerves tracts, their structure alteration or deformation due to pathologic processes surrounding or located along the postganglionic brachial plexus. It may become a precious tool for the understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiologic mechanisms in diseases affecting the brachial plexus and may play a role for surgical planning procedures in the near future.

  9. Neonatal brachial plexus palsy: a permanent challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Otto Heise

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP has an incidence of 1.5 cases per 1000 live births and it has not declined despite recent advances in obstetrics. Most patients will recover spontaneously, but some will remain severely handicapped. Rehabilitation is important in most cases and brachial plexus surgery can improve the functional outcome of selected patients. This review highlights the current management of infants with NBPP, including conservative and operative approaches.

  10. MR imaging of the brachial plexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, Hendrik Wouter van

    2001-01-01

    In this retrospective study we describe the MR imaging findings in 230 consecutive patients with suspected pathology in or near the brachial plexus. These patients were studied from 1991 through to 1996. Chapter 2 describes the anatomy and the MR imaging techniques. As the anatomy of the brachial pl

  11. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) outcome with conservative management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eng, GD; Binder, H; Getson, P; ODonnell, R

    1996-01-01

    Resurgence of neurosurgical intervention oi obstetrical brachial plexus palsy prompted our review of 186 patients evaluated between 1981 and 1993, correlating clinical examination, electrodiagnosis, and functional outcome with conservative management. Eighty-eight percent had upper brachial plexus p

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging with three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase-cycled and short T1 inversion recovery pulse sequence for evaluating brachial plexus injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianxiu Ning; Zhijin Lang; Di Ning; Guanfu Liu; Xiaochen Ji; Xiufeng Wang; Meiyu Sun; Bo Sun; Li Zhao; Weisheng Zhang; Lijun Wang; Shaowu Wang; Ailian Liu; Jianlin Wu

    2011-01-01

    There is a large amount of fat in the postganglionic segment of the brachial plexus nerve. The use of short T1 inversion recovery pulse sequence may improve signal strength of the brachial plexus postganglionic segment. The present study revealed that the combination of three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase-cycled and short T1 inversion recovery pulse sequence clearly displayed the anatomical morphology and structure of the brachial plexus nerve, together with maximum intensity projection, volume rendering and other three-dimensional reconstruction techniques. Our results suggested that this method is also suitable for providing accurate assessment and diagnosis of the site, severity and scope of brachial plexus injury.

  13. Role of dexamethasone in brachial plexus block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to (lignocaine) on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from September 2009 to March 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients, who were scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were randomly allocated to group A in which patients received 40 ml 1.5% lidocaine with 2 ml of isotonic saline (0.9%) and group B in which patients received 40 ml 1.5% lidocaine with 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg). Nerve stimulator with insulated needle for multiple stimulations technique was used to locate the brachial plexus nerves. After the injection onset of action and duration of sensory blockade of brachial plexus were recorded at 5 minutes and 15 minutes interval. Results: Group A showed the onset of action of 21.64 ± 2.30 min and in group B it was 15.42 ± 1.44 min (p< 0.001). Duration of nerve block was 115.08 ± 10.92 min in group A and 265.42 ± 16.56 min in group B (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lignocaine solution in axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of sensory blockade significantly. (author)

  14. Brachial plexus variations during the fetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Jowita; Kędzia, Alicja; Dudek, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    The brachial plexus is an important nervous system structure. It can be injured during the perinatal period and by postnatal damage. The goal of this study was to assess human fetal brachial plexus variability. A total of 220 brachial plexuses were surgically prepared from 110 human fetuses aged 14-32 weeks of fetal life (50 females and 60 males) ranging in CRL from 80 to 233 mm. The study incorporated the following methods: dissectional and anthropological, digital image acquisition, digital image processing using Image J and GIMP software, and statistical methods (Statistica 9.0). Symmetry and sexual dimorphism were examined. Anomalies of the brachial plexuses were observed in 117 (53.18 %) cases. No sexual dimorphism was found. It was observed that cord variations occurred more often on the left side. Division variants (33.64 %) occurred most often, but also cords (18.18 %) as well as root nerves and terminal ramifications (15.90 %) were found. Trunk anomalies were rare and occurred in only 5.45 % of plexuses. Three height types of median nerve roots in combination with the nerve were distinguished. In one-third of cases, median nerve root connections were found below the axillary fossa and even half in the proximal part of the humerus. In conclusion, the brachial plexus was characterized for anatomical structural variability. Most often division and cord variations were observed. Anomalies occurred regardless of sex or body side except for cord variants. Brachial plexus variation recognition is significant from the neurosurgical and traumatological point of view. PMID:22945314

  15. Permanent upper trunk plexopathy after interscalene brachial plexus block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellanet, Merce; Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Rodrigo, Lidia; Gonzalez-Viejo, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) has been widely used in shoulder surgical procedures. The incidence of postoperative neural injury has been estimated to be as high as 3 %. We report a long-term neurologic deficit after a nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. A 55 year-old male, with right shoulder impingement syndrome was scheduled for elective surgery. The patient was given an oral dose of 10 mg of diazepam prior to the nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. The patient immediately complained, as soon as the needle was placed in the interscalene area, of a sharp pain in his right arm and he was sedated further. Twenty-four hours later, the patient complained of severe shoulder and arm pain that required an increased dose of analgesics. Severe peri-scapular atrophy developed over the following days. Electromyography studies revealed an upper trunk plexus injury with severe denervation of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles together with a moderate denervation of the biceps brachii muscle. Chest X-rays showed a diaphragmatic palsy which was not present post operatively. Pulmonary function tests were also affected. Phrenic nerve paralysis was still present 18 months after the block as was dysfunction of the brachial plexus resulting in an inability to perform flexion, abduction and external rotation of the right shoulder. Severe brachial plexopathy was probably due to a local anesthetic having been administrated through the perineurium and into the nerve fascicles. Severe brachial plexopathy is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of IBPB. We propose a clinical algorithm using ultrasound guidance during nerve blocks as a safer technique of regional anesthesia. PMID:25744163

  16. Effect of Co-Morbid Conditions on Persistent Neuropathic Pain after Brachial Plexus Injury in Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudakshetrin, Pongparadee; Chotisukarat, Haruthai; Mandee, Sahatsa

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Neuropathic pain (NeuP) associated with traumatic brachial plexus injury (BPI) can be severe, persistent, and resistant to treatment. Moreover, comorbidity associated with NeuP may worsen the pain and quality of life. This study compared persistent NeuP after BPI between patients with and without co-morbid conditions (psychiatric dysfunction and other painful conditions) and tramadol usage as a second-line agent in combination with an antiepileptic and/or antidepressant during a 2-year follow-up. Methods The medical records of patients diagnosed with BPI referred to a pain center between 2006 and 2010 were reviewed for 2 years retrospectively. Data regarding patient demographics, injury and surgical profiles, characteristics of NeuP and its severity, and treatment received were compared between patients with and without manifesting co-morbid conditions. The NeuP and pain intensity assessments were based on the DN4 questionnaire and a numerical rating scale, respectively. Results Of the 45 patients studied, 24 patients presented with one of the following co-morbid conditions: myofascial pain (21%), psychiatric disorder (17%), phantom limb pain (4%), complex regional pain syndrome (21%), and insomnia (37%). Tramadol was required by 20 patients with co-morbidity and, 9 patients without co-morbidity (ppain score after 2 years was higher in patients with co-morbidity than in those without co-morbidity (ppain following BPI was more common in patients manifesting other painful conditions or psychiatric co-morbidity. A higher proportion of the patients in the co-morbid group required tramadol as a second-line of agent for pain relief.

  17. Application value of high frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of brachial plexus injury%高频超声诊断臂丛神经损伤的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠华伟; 徐大超; 韩玉培

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical application value of high frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of brachial plexus injury.Methods:36 cases of brachial plexus injury caused by trauma were taken high frequency ultrasound for lesions.We compared the results of surgery and treatment according to the classification of brachial plexus injury.Results:High frequency ultrasound can well display brachial plexus nerve trunk,and also can distinguish it from surrounding tissues,locate the injury of brachial plexus.Conclusion:High frequency ultrasound has very high application value in the diagnosis of brachial plexus neuropathy,so it can be an important imaging examination in diagnosis of brachial plexus neuropathy.%目的:探讨高频超声在诊断臂丛神经损伤中的临床应用价值。方法:对36例因创伤引起臂丛神经损伤的病变进行高频超声检查,根据臂丛神经损伤的声像图分类与手术及治疗结果进行比较。结果:高频超声能够良好的显示臂丛神经干并能与周围组织区别,可对损伤的臂丛神经进行定位。结论:高频超声在诊断臂丛神经病变方面具有较高的应用价值,可成为临床诊断臂丛神经病变的重要影像学检查手段。

  18. Restoration and protection of brachial plexus injur y:hot topics in the last decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaizhi Zhang; Zheng Lv; Jun Liu; He Zhu; Rui Li

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury is frequently induced by injuries, accidents or birth trauma. Upper limb function may be partially or totally lost after injury, or left permanently disabled. With the de-velopment of various medical technologies, different types of interventions are used, but their effectiveness is wide ranging. Many repair methods have phasic characteristics, i.e., repairs are done in different phases. This study explored research progress and hot topic methods for pro-tection after brachial plexus injury, by analyzing 1,797 articles concerning the repair of brachial plexus injuries, published between 2004 and 2013 and indexed by the Science Citation Index database. Results revealed that there are many methods used to repair brachial plexus injury, and their effects are varied. Intervention methods include nerve transfer surgery, electrical stimula-tion, cell transplantation, neurotrophic factor therapy and drug treatment. Therapeutic methods in this ifeld change according to the hot topic of research.

  19. MRI of rotator cuff muscle atrophy in relation to glenohumeral joint incongruence in brachial plexus birth injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeyhiae, Tiina H. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, PO Box 281, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Nietosvaara, Yrjaenae A.; Peltonen, Jari I. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Remes, Ville M. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Surgical Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kirjavainen, Mikko O. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki (Finland); Lamminen, Antti E. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, PO Box 281, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate rotator cuff muscles and the glenohumeral (GH) joint in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) using MRI and to determine whether any correlation exists between muscular abnormality and the development of glenoid dysplasia and GH joint incongruity. Thirty-nine consecutive BPBI patients with internal rotation contracture or absent active external rotation of the shoulder joint were examined clinically and imaged with MRI. In the physical examination, passive external rotation was measured to evaluate internal rotation contracture. Both shoulders were imaged and the glenoscapular angle, percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid fossa (PHHA) and the greatest thickness of the subscapular, infraspinous and supraspinous muscles were measured. The muscle ratio between the affected side and the normal side was calculated to exclude age variation in the assessment of muscle atrophy. All muscles of the rotator cuff were atrophic, with the subscapular and infraspinous muscles being most severely affected. A correlation was found between the percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid fossa (PHHA) and the extent of subscapular muscle atrophy (r{sub s}=0.45, P=0.01), as well as between its ratio (r{sub s}=0.5, P P=0.01). Severity of rotator cuff muscle atrophy correlated with increased glenoid retroversion and the degree of internal rotation contracture. Glenoid retroversion and subluxation of the humeral head are common in patients with BPBI. All rotator cuff muscles are atrophic, especially the subscapular muscle. Muscle atrophy due to neurogenic damage apparently results in an imbalance of the shoulder muscles and progressive retroversion and subluxation of the GH joint, which in turn lead to internal rotation contracture and deformation of the joint. (orig.)

  20. Direct anastomosis of contralateral C7 nerve root transfer with affected-side inferior trunk for repair of brachial plexus avulsion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Houjun Yan; Changqing Hu; Yingli Jia; Chunjie Cui; Xuefeng Li; Jingyang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To observe the effect of direct anastomosis of contralateral C7 nerve root transferred through prespinal route with affected-side inferior trunk for repair of brachial plexus avulsion injury,and investigate its feasibility. METHODS:Two male patients.with the age of 24 and 41 years respectively,were retrieved.When admitted to the hospital,they were diagnosed as brachial plexus avulsion injury.They subjected the operation in the 252 Hospital of Chinese PLA in March 2006 and May 2006 respectively.The proximal end of contralateral C7 nerve root was dissociated to nerve root pore and the distal end was dissociated to anterior and posterior divisions of middle trunk.The injured C7 nerve root was widely dissociated to inferior trunk,medial cord,ulnar nerve and medial head of median nerve.When elbow and shoulder joints were in flexion,the injured C7 nerve root was directly anastomosed with contralateral C7 nerve root in the gap between affected-side cervical vagina vasorum and esophagus with no tensions. RESULTS:Durling 3 to 5 hours of operation,little hemorrhage was found,nerves were not used for connection.Dyspnea,hoarse voice and other complications did not appear,either.In the postoperative 7th to 8th months.electremyogram examination showed that the growth velocity of anastomosed nerve was normal.CONCLUSION:Direct anastomosis of contralateral C7 nerve root transferred through prespinal route with affected-side inferior trunk can be used for repair of brachial plexus avulsion injury with satisfying therapeutic effects.

  1. Application Method In Brachial Plexus Injury In Motor Learning%运动学习方法在臂丛神经损伤中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫瑜

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨运动学习方法联合作业治疗在臂丛神经损伤患儿中的应用。方法:选取2012年9月~2013年12月在我院进行康复治疗的32例臂丛神经损伤患儿,随机分为2组,A组为观察组在作业治疗中应用运动学习方法、B组为对照组应用常规作业治疗,治疗6月后对2组疗效进行对比。结果:在作业治疗中应用运动学习方法显效率明显优于常规作业治疗。结论:在儿童臂丛神经损伤治疗中应用运动学习方法可明显提高疗效。%Objective:To discuss on the application of motor learning method combined with occupational therapy in the patients of bra-chial plexus injury. Methods:from 2012 September to 2013 December were 32 cases of children with brachial plexus injury rehabilitation treatment in our hospital, were randomly divided into two groups, group A as the observation group in the operation treatment of motor learning method, group B was the control group used routine treatment, treatment in June compared to two groups of curative effect. Re-sults:In the operation treatment of motor learning methods show the efficiency was superior to conventional occupational therapy. Conclu-sion:The application of exercise in the treatment of children brachial plexus injury in learning method could significantly improve the cura-tive effect.

  2. 3 T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: Structural and microstructural evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouhi, Ammar, E-mail: Ammar.Mallouhi@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Marik, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Marik@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela, E-mail: Daniela.Prayer@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kainberger, Franz, E-mail: Franz.Kainberger@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bodner, Gerd, E-mail: Gerd.Bodner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor, E-mail: Gregor.Kasprian@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-09-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus.

  3. 3 T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: Structural and microstructural evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus

  4. 3T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: structural and microstructural evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouhi, Ammar; Marik, Wolfgang; Prayer, Daniela; Kainberger, Franz; Bodner, Gerd; Kasprian, Gregor

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus. PMID:21763092

  5. 臂从神经阻滞加浅颈从神经阻滞在锁肩部损伤术中运用%Brachial plexus block combined with superficial cervical plexus block in a shoulder injury during use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和耀琦; 才仲权; 郭志娟

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较臂丛神经阻滞加浅颈丛神经阻滞用于锁肩部损伤术中的麻醉效果。方法选择单侧锁骨骨折的手术患者70例,肩锁关节脱位16例,ASA I 或 II 级,年龄17~50岁,体重40~70Kg,随机平均分为 A.B 两组,A 组行肌问沟臂丛神经阻滞加浅颈丛神经阻滞,B 组行单纯肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞,记录阻滞15min 后神经所支配区域的阻滞情况,麻醉效果和并发症情况。结果两组患者麻醉效果优良率 A 组明显高丁 B 组(P<0.05),B 组并发症明显高于 A 组(P<0.01)。结论对锁肩部损伤手术采用肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞加浅颈丛神经阻滞,操作简单安全,神经支配区域完善率高。%Objective To appraise the effect after using the brachial plexusnerve block and brachial plexus block to tyeat patients.Brachial plexus block Superficial cervical plexus block A shoulder injuryMethod To choose 70 patients who.suffered unilateral clavicle fracture.and 16 paints who suffered acromioclavicular dislocation,ASAI or IIlevel.The ages are from 17 to 50.The weiqht is 40 to 70kg.I divide them into two grounps.In the group A,I used the brachial plexus nerve block and brachial plexus block.In the group BI only used the brachial plexus nerve block.I observe them for 15 mins.Them I get the effect and some complicating disease.Results The anesthetic effect of group A is better than group B(P<0.05).The complicating diseases in group B are more in group(P<0.01).Conclusions When 1 was doing an operation about the in jury on acromioclavicular joint, I used the brachial plexus nerre block and brachial plexus block.It is easy,safe and perfect nerve area rate is high.

  6. Avulsion of the brachial plexus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginaus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M.P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.

  7. Electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy side promotes brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the ischemic cerebral cortex of a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongjun Guo; Lumin Wang

    2012-01-01

    A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was established by suture occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. In situ hybridization results showed that the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic rat cerebral cortex increased after cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury. Low frequency continuous wave electroacupuncture (frequency 2-6 Hz, current intensity 2 mA) stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side increased the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic cerebral cortex 14 days after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. At the same time, electroacupuncture stimulation of the healthy brachial plexus truck significantly decreased neurological function scores and alleviated neurological function deficits. These findings suggest that electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side can greatly increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression and improve neurological function.

  8. Calcitonin gene-related peptide in anterior and posterior horns of spinal cord after brachial plexus injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longju Chen; Peijun Wang; Feng Li; Wutian Wu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression are closely associated with peripheral nerve injury, whereas it should be further investigated whether the damage of central nerve can lead to the changes of CGRP expression, and whether it is associated with the neural regeneration and repair.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changing law of CGRP expression in the anterior and posterior horns of spinal cord following brachial plexus injury.DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETTINGS: Department of Anatomy, Yunyang Medical College; Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical College, Sun Yat-sen University.MATERIALS: Sixty-five adult male SD rats of clean degree, weighing 180 - 220 g, provided by the experimental animal center of the Basic Medical College, Sun Yat-sen University, were randomly divided into control group (n =5) and experimental group (n =60), and the latter was subdivided into three damage groups: avulsion of anterior root group (n =20), disjunction of posterior root group (n =20) and transection of spinal cord group (n =20). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) chromogen, rabbit anti-CGRP polyclonal antibody were the products of Sigma Company; Leica image analytical apparatus was produced by QUIN Company (Germany); Histotome by Sigma Company.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical College, Sun Yat-sen University from September 2004 to March 2005. Three kinds of models of brachial plexus injury were established: In the avulsion of anterior root group, right C7 anterior root was avulsed, and the distal nerve residual root was transected. In the disjunction of posterior root group, right C7 anterior root was avulsed and right C5 - T1 posterior horns were cut to block the sensory afferent pathway. In the transection of spinal cord group, right C7 anterior root was avulsed and C5-6 segments of right spinal cord were semi-transected to block the cortical descending pathway. In the control group, C5 - T1

  9. The experimental study of the color Doppler ultrasound on the locational diagnosis for brachial plexus injury%彩色多普勒超声对臂丛神经损伤定位的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁沅; 胡玉珍; 张国庆; 弥娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To observe the injury of the brachial plexus through color Doppler ultrasound. Methods: Healthy adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups. with 10 in each group and set on two sides. and then the comparison was made. Afterwards. the living brachial plexus were observed and the features of the stimulated potential in nervous system and the anatomical localization were recorded through the portable Sono Scape color Doppler instrument, whose probe coil frequency was 9~13 MHz. The brachial plexus on the left-arm were exposed, which produced a model of open injury of the brachial plexus and the counterpart of the right arm was chosen and depilated. After the depilation, the color Doppler ultrasound probe was placed on the body surface. After the brachial plexus were distinguished on the basis of the anaromical structure, under the guidance of the ultrasound. the brachial plexus fracture was produced by clamping to make a blunt trauma mode of the brachial plexus injury and then the changes of the ultrasound imaging and tissue's pathology patterns before and after the modeling were observed, Results: High frequency ultrasound can display the rabbit brachial plexus smaller than Imm. and display the concomitant vascular relationship on the basis of the blood flow distribution of the color Doppler. It can observe the changes of the vaginal cuff and the surrounding tissues after the brachial plexus injury and finally locate the brachial plexus injury. Conclusion; Under the guidance of the ultrasound. a model of open injury of the brachial plexus can be made, which can provide a good experimental basis of animal model for the clinical diagnosis of the brachial plexus injury and accurate location of the ultrasound imaging evaluation.%目的:应用彩色多普勒超声观察臂丛神经损伤.方法:健康成年新西兰大耳白兔10只,设动物两侧自身对照,分为两组,各组10侧.应用SonoScape便携式彩超仪,探头频率9~13MHz,

  10. Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Anil; Bhagat Hemant; Sharma Manish S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine whether monitoring end- tidal Carbon Dioxide (capnography) can be used to reliably identify the phrenic nerve during the supraclavicular exploration for brachial plexus injury. Methods Three consecutive patients with traction pan-brachial plexus injuries scheduled for neurotization were evaluated under an anesthetic protocol to allow intraoperative electrophysiology. Muscle relaxants were avoided, anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and the airw...

  11. Knee megaprosthesis: a salvage solution for severe open and complex distal femoral fracture associated with an ipsilateral brachial plexus injury (a case report with literature review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaciri, Badr; Vasile, Christian; Lebredonchel, Thierry; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Montbarbon, Eric; Beaudouin, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Complex distal femoral fractures in the young patient often occur as a result of high velocity trauma. Timely recognition and treatment is everything in such a situation, and it needs a robust staged management pathway to optimize the chance of limb preservation. We report a case of a motorcyclist admitted to the department of orthopedics at Chambery hospital, France, with a complex comminuted and open distal femoral fracture of the left leg, associated with a brachial plexus injury to the ipsilateral upper limb. On arrival to the emergency department, damage control stabilization and surgery was commenced, debridement of contaminated non-viable tissue, abundant antiseptic lavage and application of external fixation coupled with the use of antibiotic spacer. Following normalization of inflammatory markers and ensuring no clinical signs of infection, subsequent management consisted of joint reconstruction to achieve a functional knee. The external fixator and femoral spacer was removed and a modular megaprosthesis was implanted with a lateral gastrocnemius flap to cover the exposed knee joint and reinforce the extensor apparatus. Nerve graft to the left brachial plexus injury was performed at University Hospital of Grenoble. Our patient entered an intensive rehabilitation program and at 1 year follow-up achieved good knee function and sensation to the left upper limb. PMID:26421102

  12. A comparison of two approaches to brachial plexus anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rajib Hazarika; Tejwant Rajkhowa; Mridu Paban Nath; Samit Parua

    2016-01-01

    Background: A prospective, double blind study was performed to compare the clinical effect of vertical infraclavicular and supraclavicular brachial plexus block using a nerve stimulation technique for upper limb surgery. Methods: Eighty patients undergoing upper limb surgery under infraclavicular or supraclavicular brachial plexus block were enrolled into this study. The infraclavicular brachial plexus block was performed using the vertical technique (group I; N=40). The supraclavicular b...

  13. MRI of the brachial plexus: A pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Hendrik W. van [Department of Radiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM Nieuwegein (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.es@antoniusziekenhuis.nl; Bollen, Thomas L.; Heesewijk, Hans P.M. van [Department of Radiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus is the imaging modality of first choice for depicting anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus. The anatomy of the roots, trunks, divisions and cords is very well depicted due to the inherent contrast differences between the nerves and the surrounding fat. In this pictorial review the technique and the anatomy will be discussed. The following pathology will be addressed: neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus and sympathetic chain, superior sulcus tumors, other tumors in the vicinity of the brachial plexus, the differentiation between radiation and metastatic plexopathy, trauma, neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome and immune-mediated neuropathies.

  14. Response to comments on "Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwa Anil

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Response to comments on 'Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note' Bhagat H, Agarwal A, Sharma MS Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 2008, 3:14 (22 May 2008

  15. Response to comments on "Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note"

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwa Anil; Bhagat Hemant; Sharma Manish S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Response to comments on 'Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note' Bhagat H, Agarwal A, Sharma MS Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 2008, 3:14 (22 May 2008)

  16. Preliminary research on the clinical classification of the brachial plexus root injury in adult%成人臂丛根性损伤临床分型的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾立强; 刘小林; 朱家恺; 张德春; 向剑平; 秦本刚; 戚剑; 李平; 朱庆棠; 傅国; 劳镇国

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨成人臂丛根性损伤的临床分型. 方法 回顾性研究中山大学附属第一医院近5年来收治并手术探查证实、资料完整的成人臂丛根性损伤病例,分析、归纳出成人臂丛根性损伤临床分型. 结果 总结155例臂丛根性损伤病例,结合术前临床诊断与影像学诊断、术中探查与电生理学检测、术后随访研证,初步归纳出成人臂丛根性损伤临床分型,在上臂丛损伤(A型)、下臂丛损伤(B型)、全臂丛损伤(C型)三大类基础上,可进一步细分为七小类:①上臂丛损伤AⅠ型:C5、6根完全性损伤(撕脱或断裂),伴或不伴膈神经损伤;②AⅡ型:C5-7根完全性损伤;③AⅢ型:C5~7根完全性损伤伴C8、T1不全性损伤;④下臂丛损伤BⅠ型:C8、T1(或伴C7)完全性损伤;⑤BⅡ型:T1、C7、8完全性损伤伴C5、6不全损伤;⑥全臂丛损伤CⅠ型C5~T1根性撕脱伤;⑦CⅡ型:T1、C7、8根性撕脱伤伴C5、6根断裂. 结论 成人臂丛根性损伤可分为三大类七小类,但臂丛根性损伤临床分型的分布不平均,以上臂丛损伤(A型)(55.5%)和全臂丛损伤(C型)(40.6%)最为常见,下臂丛损伤(C型)最少(3.9%).上臂丛损伤A型中,AⅢ型最多(61.6%),AⅡ型次之(31.4%),AⅠ型最少(7%).%Objective To explore the clinical classification of the brachial plexus root injury in adult. Methods All 155 cases of adult brachial plexus root injury in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University,were collected and analyzed on their characteristic,operative methods,and clinical outcome so as to find the distribution and incidence of different type of brachial plexus root injury and set up the clinical classification of adult brachial plexus root injury.Results Brachial plexus root injuries in adult could be classified into three types and seven subtypes.Type A is upper brachial plexus root injury,including type AⅠ (C5,C6 completely avulsion or rupture injury

  17. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C 6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 10 6 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C 6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  18. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve:evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jin; Qi Yang; Feng Ji; Ya-jie Zhang; Yan Zhao; Min Luo

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as em-bryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C6root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 106 cells/mL, 3μL/injection, 25 injections) immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also signiifcantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effec-tively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  19. A comparison of two approaches to brachial plexus anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Hazarika

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Supraclavicular brachial plexus block may be easier to perform than infraclavicular brachial plexus block. The infraclavicular approach may be preferred to the supraclavicular approach when considering the complications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1335-1338

  20. Research on standardized rehabilitation in treating patients with brachial plexus injury%臂丛神经损伤规范化康复治疗的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊明; 徐晓君; 张沈煜; 赵新

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察对照规范化康复治疗对臂丛神经损伤的临床疗效观察.方法:将50例臂丛神经损伤患者随机分为两组,去除脱落患者后分为治疗组(n=25,其中全臂丛神经损伤13例,上干神经损伤5例.束支部神经损伤7例)和对照组(n=22,其中全臂丛神经损伤14例,束支部神经损伤8例).治疗组予规范化康复治疗、低频脉冲点刺激、中频电疗、推拿手法和运动功能训练.对照组自行家中神经肌肉电刺激,体疗.30d为1个疗程.治疗4个疗程后按照臂丛神经损伤功能评定标准评估臂丛神经功能恢复情况,予视觉模拟评分法(VAS)来评估疼痛强度变化.结果:两组经对照发现,在臂丛神经功能恢复方面,治疗组的臂丛神经功能与治疗前相比差异有显著性意义(P0.05),"全臂丛神经损伤"两组4个疗程后比较有显著性意义(P0.05).结论:规范化康复治疗对臂丛神经损伤患者有确定的康复疗效,可促进功能恢复.%Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of standardized rehabilitation in treating dysfunction after brachial plexus injury.Method: Fifty cases with dysfunction after brachial plexus injury were divided into two groups randomly. In the follow up courses, 3 cases were lost. The treatment group, which totaled 25 patients (including 13 cases of complete brachial plexus, 5 cases of upper trunk and 7 cases of branch brachial plexus), was treated with standardized rehabilitation including low frequency pulsed electric stimulation, medium frequency electrotherapy, tuina therapy and motor function training. The controlled group, which totaled 22 patients (including 14 cases of complete brachial plexus and 8 cases of branch brachial plexus), was treated with home-in low frequency pulsed electric stimulation and motor function training. All the treatments proceeded 30d as a course and 4 courses at alt. The rehabilitation effect was evaluated according to the brachial plexus function

  1. Repair of brachial plexus lower trunk injury by transferring brachialis muscle branch of musculocutaneous nerve:anatomic feasibility and clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xian-you; HOU Chun-lin; GU Yu-dong; SHI Qi-lin; GUAN Shi-bing

    2008-01-01

    Background There are few effective methods for treating injuries to the lower trunk of brachial plexus,and the curative effect is usually poor.The purpose of this study was to provide anatomic references for transferring the brachialis muscle branch of musculocutaneous nerve(BMBMCN)for selective neurotization of finger flexion in brachiaI plexus lower trunk injury,and to evaluate its clinical curative effects.Methods Microanatomy and measurement were done on 50 limbs from 25 adult human cadavers to obserye the origin,branch,type of the BMBMCN and median nerve,as well as their adjacent structures.Internal topographic features of the fascicular groups of the median nerve at the level of the BMBMCN were observed.In addition,the technique of BMBMCN transfer for selective neurotization of finger flexion of the median nerve was designed and tested in 6 fresh adult human cadavers.Acetylcholinesterase(AchE)staining of the BMBMCN and median nerve was done to observe the features of the nerve fibers.This technique was clinically tried to restore digital flexion in 6 cases of adult brachial plexus lower trunk injury.These cases were followed up for 3,6,9 and 12 months postoperatively.Recovery of function,grip strength,nerve electrophysiology and muscle power of the affected limbs were observed and measured.Results The brachialis muscle was totally innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve(MCN).Based on the Hunter's line,the Ievel of the origin of the BMBMCN was(13.18±2.77)cm.AchE histochemical staining indicated that the BMBMCN were totally made up of medullated nerve fibers.At the level of the BMBMCN,the median nerve consistently collected into three fascicular groups as shown by microanatomy in combination with AchE stain.The posterior fascicular group was mainly composed of anterior Interosseous nerves and branches to the palmaris longus.The technique was tested in six fresh cadavers successfully,except that stoma split occurred in one case.Five of the six cases recovered

  2. Imaging tumours of the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, Asif [Department of Radiology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Brockley Hill, HA7 4LP, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Tumours of the brachial plexus are rare lesions and may be classified as benign or malignant. Within each of these groups, they are further subdivided into those that are neurogenic in origin (schwannoma, neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour) and those that are non-neurogenic. Careful pre-operative diagnosis and staging is essential to the successful management of these lesions. Benign neurogenic tumours are well characterized with pre-operative MRI, appearing as well-defined, oval soft-tissue masses, which are typically isointense on T1-weighted images and show the ''target sign'' on T2-weighted images. Differentiation between schwannoma and neurofibroma can often be made by assessing the relationship of the lesion to the nerve of origin. Many benign non-neurogenic tumours, such as lipoma and fibromatosis, are also well characterized by MRI. This article reviews the imaging features of brachial plexus tumours, with particular emphasis on the value of MRI in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Nerve transfer for treatment of brachial plexus injury: comparison study between the transfer of partial median and ulnar nerves and that of phrenic and spinal accessary nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯之启; 徐中和

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of using partial median and ulnar nerves for treatment of C5-6 or C5-7 avulsion of the brachial plexus with that of using phrenic and spinal accessary nerves.Methods: The patients were divided into 2 groups randomly according to different surgical procedures. Twelve cases were involved in the first group. The phrenic nerve was transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve or through a sural nerve graft, and the spinal accessary nerve was to the suprascapular nerve. Eleven cases were classified into the second group. A part of the fascicles of median nerve was transferred to be coapted with the motor fascicle of musculocutaneous nerve and a part of fascicles of ulnar nerve was transferred to the axillary nerve. The cases were followed up from 1 to 3 years and the clinical outcome was compared between the two groups. Results: There were 2 cases (16.6%) who got the recovery of M4 strength of biceps muscle in the first group but 7 cases (63.6%) in the second group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.025). However, it was not statistically different in the recovery of shoulder function between the two groups. Conclusions: Partial median and ulnar nerve transfer, phrenic and spinal accessary nerve transfer were all effective for the reconstruction of elbow or shoulder function in brachial plexus injury, but the neurotization using a part of median nerve could obtain more powerful biceps muscle strength than that of phrenic nerve transfer procedure.

  4. 难产致新生儿臂丛神经损伤医疗纠纷2例%2 Medical Dispute Cases Of Neonatal Brachial Plexus Injuries Caused By Dystocia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸伊凡; 闵银龙

    2015-01-01

    新生儿臂丛神经损伤是肩难产的常见并发症,也是引起产科医疗纠纷的原因之一,本文就2例新生儿臂丛神经损伤的医疗纠纷进行分析,探讨处理类似案件时应注意的相关问题。%sNeonatal brachial plexus injury is a common complication of shoulder dystocia, and is also one of the causes of obstetric medical disputes. Based on the analysis on two medical dispute cases of neonatal brachial plexus injury, this article explores the related issues which should be paid attention to when dealing with similar cases.

  5. The clinical analysis of high resolution MR image diagnosing brachial plexus root avuision injury%高分辨率MRI诊断臂丛根性撕脱伤的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德春; 顾立强; 向剑平; 戚剑; 秦本刚; 傅国; 刘小林; 朱家恺

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨臂丛根性撕脱伤的高分辨率磁共振成像特点,为早期诊断臂丛根性撕脱伤提供帮助.方法 筛选于2006年2月-2011年2月收治臂丛损伤的病例,术前均行臂丛MRI检查,术中探查证实为臂丛根性撕脱伤45例,总结臂丛根性撕脱伤的高分辨率磁共振表现特点及MR诊断臂丛根性撕脱伤的应用价值.结果 臂丛根性撕脱伤的MRI表现为:①创伤性脊膜囊肿最为常见,有42例,出现率为93.3%;②脊髓偏移,有25例,出现率为55.6%;③脊神经前后根消失,有8例,出现率为17.8%;④“黑线”征,有18例,出现率为40.0%.核磁共振对臂丛根性撕脱伤诊断的敏感性为95.7%,特异性为77.8%,准确性为94.6%.结论 臂丛根性撕脱伤患者的MRI中以创伤性脊膜囊肿最为常见,可对臂丛损伤的定位诊断及手术治疗提供参考依据.%Objective To discuss the characteristic of brachial plexus root avulsion injury of high resolution MR imaging and the value in diagnosing of brachial plexus root avulsion injury early.Methods Fourty-five cases of brachial plexus root avulsion injury patients had being used for investigation to find the characteristic and diagnostic value of MR image of brachial plexus root avulsion injury,which all have pre-operative MR imaging and were diagnosed brachial plexus root avulsion injury by intra-operative exploration and electrophysiology form February 2006 to February 2011.Results Post-traumatic spinalmeningolceles were seen in 42 cases,the frequency was 93.3%; Displacement of spinal cord was seen in 25 cases,the frequency was 55.6%; Absence of anterior and posterior root of spinal nerve was seen in 8 eases,the frequency was 17.8%;"Black line sign" was seen in 18 cases,the frequency was 40.0%.The sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy of MRI in diagnosing brachial plexus root injury were 95.7%,77.8% and 94.6% respectively.Conclusion Posttraumatic spinalmeningolceles are most often

  6. Interscalene brachial plexus blocks in the management of shoulder dislocations.

    OpenAIRE

    Underhill, T J; Wan, A; Morrice, M

    1989-01-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block is a simple and effective alternative to intravenous benzodiazepines or general anaesthesia for manipulation of the dislocated shoulder. Thirty interscalene brachial plexus blocks were performed on 29 patients with dislocations of the shoulder to provide regional anaesthesia for reduction. Pain was abolished by 14 out of the 30 blocks performed, improved by 13 and unchanged by three. Muscle relaxation (MRC grade 3 or less) occurred in 21 patients. In 26 case...

  7. Brachial plexus variations in its formation and main branches

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Paula Sassoli Fazan; André de Souza Amadeu; Adilson L. Caleffi; Omar Andrade Rodrigues Filho

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The brachial plexus has a complex anatomical structure since its origin in the neck throughout its course in the axillary region. It also has close relationship to important anatomic structures what makes it an easy target of a sort of variations and provides its clinical and surgical importance. The aims of the present study were to describe the brachial plexus anatomical variations in origin and respective branches, and to correlate these variations with sex, color of the subjects ...

  8. Morphological description of the brachial plexus in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kylma Lorena Saldanha Chagas; Lara Cochete Moura Fé; Luiza Correa Pereira; Érika Branco; Ana Rita de Lima

    2014-01-01

    The brachial plexus is formed by the ventral roots of the spinal nerves, which unite to form the nerve trunks. It is usually formed by contributions of the last three cervical nerves and the first two thoracic nerves. Due to the scarcity of information on neuroanatomy, this study aimed to determine the macroscopic morphology of the brachial plexus of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). In this work, we used two ocelot specimens from the area of the Paragominas Bauxite Mine, P...

  9. Estudo epidemiológico das lesões traumáticas de plexo braquial em adultos Epidemiological study of the traumatic brachial plexus injuries in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Pretto Flores

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar informações epidemiológicas sobre as variáveis relacionadas ao trauma de plexo braquial em adultos. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 35 pacientes, de maneira prospectiva, atendidos consecutivamente no período de um ano. RESULTADOS: A maioria das lesões apresentou localização supraclavicular (62%, sendo 21 lesões por mecanismo de tração (60%, nove por projétil de arma de fogo (25%, três por compressão (8,5% e dois ferimentos cortantes (5,7%. Acidentes motociclísticos responderam por 54% das causas do trauma. A TC-mielografia identificou avulsão radicular em 16 casos (76%. Melhora neurológica parcial espontânea foi observada em 43% dos pacientes. Dor neuropática foi observada em 25 casos (71% sendo que em 16 (64% pôde ser controlada com medicações orais. CONCLUSÃO: Os traumas de plexo braquial são mais freqüentemente associados aos mecanismos de tração, sendo comum identificação de avulsão radicular. Em geral produzem dor no membro afetado e estão associados a lesões em outros órgãos. Na presente série, a incidência calculada para a população de abrangência foi 1,75/100000/ano.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide information about epidemiological factors related to traumatic brachial plexus injuries in adults. METHOD: Prospective analysis of 35 consecutive cases, observed in a period of one year. RESULTS: Most of the lesions were supraclavicular (62%. Twenty-one cases occurred due to traction (60%, 9 to gun shot wound (25%, 3 to compression (8.5% and two perforation/laceration (5.7%. Motorcycle accidents were the cause of trauma in 54% of patients. CT myelography demonstrated root avulsion in 16 cases (76%. Parcial spontaneous neurological recovery was observed in 43% of the patients. Neuropathic pain occurred in 25 (71% cases, and the use of some oral intake drugs (as amitriptiline or carbamazepine controlled it in 64% of times. CONCLUSION: Traction is the most frequent mechanism related to

  10. The importance of the preoperative clinical parameters and the intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring in brachial plexus surgery

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    Leandro Pretto Flores

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study aims to demonstrate the impact of some preoperative clinical parameters on the functional outcome of patients sustaining brachial plexus injuries, and to trace some commentaries about the use of intraoperative monitoring techniques. METHOD: A retrospective study one hundred cases of brachial plexus surgery. The analysis regarding postoperative outcomes was performed by comparing the average of the final result of the surgery for each studied cohort. RESULTS: Direct electrical stimulation was used in all patients, EMG in 59%, SEPs in 37% and evoked NAPs in 19% of the cases. Patients in whom the motor function of the hand was totally or partially preserved before surgery, and those in whom surgery was delayed less than 6 months demonstrated significant (p<0.05 better outcomes. CONCLUSION: The preoperative parameters associated to favorable outcomes in reconstruction of the brachial plexus are a good post-traumatic status of the hand and a short interval between injury and surgery.

  11. Brachial plexus surgery: our concept of the last twelve years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A; Becker, M H

    1994-01-01

    In patients with brachial plexus injuries restoration of complete function is seldom seen. The diagnosis is a clinical one; investigations such as MRI or myelography are not sufficiently reliable to base surgical indications on them. Surgery has to be performed within the first six months after the trauma. The surgical procedure firstly includes an exact intraoperative definition of the extent of the lesion. Depending on the type of the lesion, microsurgical neurolysis, nerve grafting, or reneurotization is performed. When regeneration is complete, secondary operations may follow if necessary as part of our integrated concept. The spectrum of secondary operations in our patients includes arthrodesis, tenodesis, tendon transfers, muscle transfers, and free neurovascular tissue transfer. In selected cases with extensive lesions a bifunctional latissimus dorsi transfer allows restoration of minimal grip with simultaneous elbow flexion. Our concept includes a series of hierarchical steps: 1. Diagnosis and indication 2. Nerve repair 3. Intensive physiotherapy, control in intervals 4. Secondary operations--if necessary 5. Intensive physiotherapy 6. Ergotherapy, orthosis In the last 12 years 362 patients with brachial plexus lesions have been operated on in our clinic. In these patients we performed 104 neurolyses, 126 nerve grafting procedures, 87 reneurotizations, and 191 secondary operations in 96 patients. Only the combination of nerve repair with both conventional and newer methods of tendon and muscle transfers can restore the maximum function for the individual situation. PMID:7700136

  12. 高分辨率磁共振周围神经成像在臂丛神经损伤中的应用%Application of High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Neurography in the Injury of the Brachial Plexus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴耀贤; 杨帆; 孔祥泉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of high resolution magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) of brachial plexus and its clinical application value in the injury of brachial plexus.Methods 20 volunteers and 30 patients with the injury of the brachial plexus underwent cervical conventional scans,high resolution of peripheral nerve imaging sequence (3D-STIR sequence) scans.The obtained images were then transferred to the workstation for 3D reconstruction.Relevant anatomy details and traumatic signs of the brachial plexus were evaluated.Results High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of peripheral nerves could clearly display the relevant anatomy details of the brachial plexus in all volunteers.The enhanced scan of 3D STIR sequence could significantly improve the background suppression effect,therefore could clearly display the various traumatic signs of the brachial plexus.Conclusion High resolution magnetic resonance neurography can clearly display the relevant anatomy details and traumatic signs of the brachial plexus,it may become a novel noninvasive imaging method for the evaluation of the injury of brachial plexus.%目的 探讨高分辨率磁共振神经成像技术对臂丛神经显示的可行性及其对臂丛神经损伤的临床应用价值.方法 对20名志愿者及30例外伤后有臂丛神经损伤表现的患者行颈段常规扫描序列、高分辨周围神经成像序列(3D-STIR序列)扫描成像,并将图像传至工作站进行三维后处理.评价磁共振神经成像技术对正常臂丛解剖细节及外伤后臂丛神经损伤征象的显示效果.结果 高分辨磁共振周围神经成像技术可清楚明确的显示所有志愿者臂丛神经的相关解剖细节情况;3D-STIR序列增强扫描能明显改善背景抑制效果,可清楚显示外伤累及臂丛神经所致各种征象.结论 高分辨磁共振周围神经成像技术能清晰、直观显示臂丛神经及其损伤后表现,可为临床提供一种新型的无创性

  13. Use of quantitative intra-operative electrodiagnosis during partial ulnar nerve transfer to restore elbow flexion: the treatment of eight patients following a brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, O; Sunagawa, T; Yokota, K; Nakashima, Y; Shinomiya, R; Nakanishi, K; Ochi, M

    2011-03-01

    The transfer of part of the ulnar nerve to the musculocutaneous nerve, first described by Oberlin, can restore flexion of the elbow following brachial plexus injury. In this study we evaluated the additional benefits and effectiveness of quantitative electrodiagnosis to select a donor fascicle. Eight patients who had undergone transfer of a simple fascicle of the ulnar nerve to the motor branch of the musculocutaneous nerve were evaluated. In two early patients electrodiagnosis had not been used. In the remaining six patients, however, all fascicles of the ulnar nerve were separated and electrodiagnosis was performed after stimulation with a commercially available electromyographic system. In these procedures, recording electrodes were placed in flexor carpi ulnaris and the first dorsal interosseous. A single fascicle in the flexor carpi ulnaris in which a high amplitude had been recorded was selected as a donor and transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve. In the two patients who had not undergone electrodiagnosis, the recovery of biceps proved insufficient for normal use. Conversely, in the six patients in whom quantitative electrodiagnosis was used, elbow flexion recovered to an M4 level. Quantitative intra-operative electrodiagnosis is an effective method of selecting a favourable donor fascicle during the Oberlin procedure. Moreover, fascicles showing a high-amplitude in reading flexor carpi ulnaris are donor nerves that can restore normal elbow flexion without intrinsic loss.

  14. Functional outcome of nerve transfer for restoration of shoulder and elbow function in upper brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruquee Sajedur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer (XI-SSN done for restoration of shoulder function and partial transfer of ulnar nerve to the motor branch to the biceps muscle for the recovery of elbow flexion (Oberlin transfer. Methods This is a prospective study involving 15 consecutive cases of upper plexus injury seen between January 2004 and December 2005. The average age of patients was 35.6 yrs (15–52 yrs. The injury-surgery interval was between 2–6 months. All underwent XI-SSN and Oberlin nerve transfer. The coaptation was done close to the biceps muscle to ensure early recovery. The average follow up was 15 months (range 12–36 months. The functional outcome was assessed by measuring range of movements and also on the grading scale proposed by Narakas for shoulder function and Waikakul for elbow function. Results Good/Excellent results were seen in 13/15 patients with respect to elbow function and 8/15 for shoulder function. The time required for the first sign of clinical reinnervation of biceps was 3 months 9 days (range 1 month 25 days to 4 months and for the recovery of antigravity elbow flexion was 5 months (range 3 1/2 months to 8 months. 13 had M4 and two M3 power. On evaluating shoulder function 8/15 regained active abduction, five had M3 and three M4 shoulder abduction. The average range of abduction in these eight patients was 66 degrees (range 45–90. Eight had recovered active external rotation, average 44 degrees (range 15–95. The motor recovery of external rotation was M3 in 5 and M4 in 3. 7/15 had no active abduction/external rotation, but they felt that their shoulder was more stable. Comparable results were observed in both below and above 40 age groups and those with injury to surgery interval less than 3 or 3–6 months. Conclusion Transfer of ulnar nerve fascicle to the motor branch of biceps close to the muscle consistently

  15. An MRI study on the relations between muscle atrophy, shoulder function and glenohumeral deformity in shoulders of children with obstetric brachial plexus injury

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn-Loogman Mirjam H; Mullender Margriet G; van Kooten Ed O; van Gelein Vitringa Valerie M; van der Sluijs Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A substantial number of children with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL) will develop internal rotation adduction contractures of the shoulder, posterior humeral head subluxations and glenohumeral deformities. Their active shoulder function is generally limited and a recent study showed that their shoulder muscles were atrophic. This study focuses on the role of shoulder muscles in glenohumeral deformation and function. Methods This is a prospective study on 24 chi...

  16. Birth brachial plexus palsy: a race against time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sambeet; Narayana Kurup, Jayakrishnan K; Acharya, Ashwath M; Bhat, Anil K

    2016-01-01

    A 5-year-old child presented to us with weakness of the left upper limb since birth. With the given history of obstetric trauma and limb examination, a diagnosis of birth brachial plexus palsy was made. Brachial plexus exploration along with microsurgery was performed at the same time which included extrinsic neurolysis of the roots and trunks and nerve transfer for better shoulder external rotation and elbow flexion. Both the movements were severely restricted previously due to co-contractures with the shoulder internal rotators and triceps. The problem of birth brachial plexus palsy is proving to be a global health burden both in developed countries and in developing countries such as India. The lack of awareness among the general public and primary healthcare providers and inadequate orthopaedic and neurosurgeons trained to treat the condition have worsened the prognosis. This case lays stress on the delayed complications in birth brachial palsy and its effective management. PMID:27402656

  17. Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy in the Context of Early Physical Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Lucía Yanes Sierra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cuban health system currently promotes prenatal testing and monitoring of pregnancy; nevertheless obstetric brachial plexus palsy remains an unfortunate consequence of a difficult delivery and is one of the most common birth trauma. Traditionally, its treatment has been conservative, based on multidisciplinary monitoring and consultations with various specialists to deal with the consequences. After conducting an extensive literature review, we discussed in this paper the etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology, types of injuries, prognosis and outcome, consequences, assessment tools, existing treatments and series of exercises for obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

  18. Brachial plexus surgery: the role of the surgical technique for improvement of the functional outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Pretto Flores

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study aims to demonstrate the techniques employed in surgery of the brachial plexus that are associated to evidence-based improvement of the functional outcome of these patients. METHOD: A retrospective study of one hundred cases of traumatic brachial plexus injuries. Comparison between the postoperative outcomes associated to some different surgical techniques was demonstrated. RESULTS: The technique of proximal nerve roots grafting was associated to good results in about 70% of the cases. Significantly better outcomes were associated to the Oberlin's procedure and the Sansak's procedure, while the improvement of outcomes associated to phrenic to musculocutaneous nerve and the accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer did not reach statistical significance. Reinnervation of the hand was observed in less than 30% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Brachial plexus surgery renders satisfactory results for reinnervation of the proximal musculature of the upper limb, however the same good outcomes are not usually associated to the reinnervation of the hand.

  19. 臂丛MRI在臂丛神经节前损伤诊断中的临床效能分析%Clinical effectiveness analysis of MRI in the diagnosis of brachial plexus preganglionic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹树明; 杨蓊勃; 虞聪; 宫可同

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨臂丛MRI在臂丛神经节前损伤诊断中的临床价值。方法45例临床诊断为臂丛神经损伤的患者,术前均采用1.5 T GE Signa EXCITE MRI扫描仪行双侧臂丛MRI扫描,同时所有患者均行锁骨上臂丛神经探查以及术中肌电图检查,将MRI扫描结果与手术所见及术中肌电图进行比较,分析臂丛MRI在节前损伤诊断中的准确率。结果45例共225根神经根,169根节前损伤,MRI共检出147根,MRI诊断总体准确率为86.2%,并且MRI检查距受伤时间与诊断准确率无明显相关性(P>0.05)。结论臂丛MRI可以清晰地显示臂丛神经椎管内外的结构,对臂丛神经节前损伤可以提供准确而清晰的定位定性诊断,具有非常高的准确率,可以为临床诊断提供可靠参考,指导临床早期制定手术方案,有益于患者的预后。%Objective To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing brachial plexus preganglionic injury and to investigate the value of MRI in clinical application. Methods 45 patients who were presented with brachial plexus injuries underwent MRI scanning with several sequences before operation. MRI imaging was obtained by GE Signa EXCITE1.5 T scanner. All of patients had carried out exploration of the supraclavicular plexus and intraoperative electromyogram. Images of MRI were compaied with surgical findings and electromyogram diagnosis. To evaluate the value of diagnosis in brachial plexus preganglionic injury by MRI. Results There were 225 nerve roots in 45 patients. Among them 169 preganglionic injured roots, MRI imaging detected 147. The accuracy of MRI in diagnosing brachial plexus preganglionic injury were 86.2%. However there is not significant correlation between the accuracy of MRI examination and duration from the time of injury to the time of diagnosis (P>0.05). Conclusion MRI can distinctly manifest the nerves within and out of the vertebral canal, thus, can help making a correct

  20. Valproic acid protects neurons and promotes neuronal regeneration after brachial plexus avulsion****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li; Dianxiu Wu; Rui Li; Xiaojuan Zhu; Shusen Cui

    2013-01-01

    Valproic acid has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects and promote neurite outgrowth in several peripheral nerve injury models. However, whether valproic acid can exert its beneficial effect on neurons after brachial plexus avulsion injury is currently unknown. In this study, brachial plexus root avulsion models, established in Wistar rats, were administered daily with valproic acid dis-solved in drinking water (300 mg/kg) or normal water. On days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after avulsion injury, tissues of the C 5-T 1 spinal cord segments of the avulsion injured side were harvested to in-vestigate the expression of Bcl-2, c-Jun and growth associated protein 43 by real-time PCR and western blot assay. Results showed that valproic acid significantly increased the expression of Bcl-2 and growth associated protein 43, and reduced the c-Jun expression after brachial plexus avulsion. Our findings indicate that valproic acid can protect neurons in the spinal cord and enhance neuronal regeneration fol owing brachial plexus root avulsion.

  1. 26例臂丛神经损伤的神经肌电图分析%The Analysis of Electroneuromyography in 26 Cases with Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄沚荷; 林深镇; 罗映辉; 丘春柳; 郭美云

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨神经肌电图在臂丛受损诊断及定位中的作用.方法:对26例臂丛受损者采用表面电极法沿神经走行的不同部位顺向检测正中神经、尺神经、桡神经、肌皮神经、腋神经共91条神经的感觉及运动传导速度(或末端潜伏期)、F波;并用同心圆针电极观察拇短展肌、小指展肌、指总伸肌、肱二头肌、三角肌、冈上肌、冈下肌共114块肌肉的病理自发电位及募集形式.结果:91条运动神经在不同节段收集共有64条异常(70.3%);60条感觉神经有40条异常(66.7%);26例中F波异常者8例(30.8%).检测114块肌肉,其中59块肌肉静息状态出现≥两处纤颤和(或)正锐波; 49块肌肉重收缩时无运动单位电位,9块肌肉募集电位明显减小.结论:神经肌电图在臂丛神经损伤的诊断及定位中具有重要作用.%Objective:To investigate the significance of electroneuromyography in localization and clinical diagnosis of brachial plexus injuries. Methods: Othodromic surface stimulation and recording were used for nerve conduction studies . The motor and sensory conduction velocity were recoreded in different segments of 91 nerves including median,ulnar, radial, musculocutaneous and axillary nerves.F-wave latencies of the median nerves were obtained too. The standard concentric needle electromyography examination was performed on total 114 muscles containing abductor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, extensor digitorum,biceps brachii,deltoid, supraspinatus and infraspinatus. The pathological spontaneous electric activities and the pattern of motor unit recruitment were observed .Results: Abnormalities were noted in 64 out of 91 motor nerves(70.3% )and in 40 out of 60 sensory nerves (66.7%). Eight out of 26 F-wave latencies prolonged(30.8%). At least two localization fibrillation potentials and/or positive sharp waves occured in 59 out of 114 resting muscles .The motor unit active potentials disappeared during maximal

  2. Evaluation of elbow flexion following free muscle transfer from the medial gastrocnemius or transfer from the latissimus dorsi, in cases of traumatic injury of the brachial plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Barra de Moraes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the gain in elbow flexion in patients with traumatic injury of the brachial plexus following muscle transfer from latissimus dorsi with the gain following free muscle transfer from the medial belly of the gastrocnemius. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in which the medical files of a convenience sample of 13 patients operated between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Group 1 comprised seven patients who underwent transfers from the gastrocnemius and group 2 (controls comprised six patients who underwent transfers from the latissimus dorsi. The following functions were evaluated: (1 range of motion (ROM of elbow flexion, in degrees, using manual goniometry and (2 grade of elbow flexion strength, using a muscle strength scale. Satisfactory results were defined as: (1 elbow flexion ROM ≥ 80° and (2 elbow flexion strength ≥ M3. The Fisher exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (p < 0.05. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 32 years (range: 17-56 and 72% had been involved in motorcycle accidents. Elbow flexion strength ≥ M3 was observed in seven patients (100% in group 1 and in five patients (83.3% in group 2 (p = 0.462. None of the patients presented M5, and one patient (16.7% in group 2 had a poor result (M2. Elbow flexion ROM with a gain ≥ 80° (daily functions was found in six patients (86% in group 1 and in three patients (50% in group 2 ( p = 0.1. CONCLUSION: The patients in group 1 had greater gains in strength and ROM than did those in group 2, but without statistical significance. Thus, transfers from the gastrocnemius become a new surgical option, if other techniques cannot be used.

  3. Clinical research of electromyogram biofeedback therapy on brachial plexus injury%肌电生物反馈治疗臂丛神经损伤的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施少云; 卢惠苹; 宋林; 陈昕; 陈述荣

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To observe the changes of surface electromyogram (sEMG) of electromyogram biofeedback therapy on brachial plexus injury, compared with conventional treatment,so as to investigate the curative effect of electromyogram biofeedback therapy on brachial plexus injury. Methods:24 patients whose brachial plexus were injury were divided into 2 groups randomly:a control group and a therapy group. 12 patients of the control group were treated with routine acupuncture and physical therapy. 12 patients of the therapy group were treated with electromyogram biofeedback on the basis of routine therapy. All patients’ maximum amplitude and electromyographic integral value were recorded to estimate curative effect and analyze statistics. Results:All the indications of the two groups were improved,compared with pretherapy. There were distinctive differences between the two groups.Conclusion:Electromyogram biofeedback therapy in conjunction with routine acupuncture and physical therapy can increase curative effect on brachial plexus injury more effectively than conventional therapy.%目的:观察肌电生物反馈对臂丛神经损伤治疗前后的表面肌电活动变化,并与常规治疗效果相比较,探讨肌电生物反馈对臂丛神经损伤的疗效。方法将臂丛神经损伤患者24例,随机分为2组,其中对照组12例采用常规针灸、运动治疗,治疗组12例在常规治疗的基础上,加用肌电生物反馈治疗,采用表面肌电图收缩的最大波幅、肌电积分值来评定疗效并进行统计学分析。结果治疗后两组各项指标与治疗前比较均有改善,但两组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论肌电生物反馈治疗结合常规针灸、运动治疗较单纯常规治疗能更有效地提高臂丛神经损伤的治疗效果。

  4. Hamartoma fibroso infantil: lesão volumosa com envolvimento de plexo braquil Children's fibrous hamartoma: extensive injury involving brachial plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux Eyer de Jesus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um caso de hamartoma fibroso da infância em lactente ressecado tardiamente e se apresentando como lesão extensa, com envolvimento de elementos vasculares e neurais do plexo braquial. MÉTODOS: Estudo de caso clínico e revisão de literatura pertinente. RESULTADOS: Criança do sexo masculino, com massa tumoral axilar direita, irregular surgida aos 2 meses de idade e relacionada à administração da vacina BCG, sendo tratada com agentes anti-tuberculosos, sem resposta. Mediante biópsia a lesão foi diagnosticada como hamartoma fibroso infantil, e, após sofrer período de crescimento rápido, foi submetida à exérese cirúrgica completa. CONCLUSÃO: O hamartoma fibroso juvenil é um tumor benigno raro, tipicamente se apresentando no primeiro ano de vida em meninos, com localização mais comum no oco axilar. O diagnóstico diferencial se faz com tumores de partes moles em geral e, em casos de apresentação na axila direita, com adenopatias axilares causadas por reação à BCG. O tratamento é exerese completa da lesão e o prognóstico é favorável.OBJECTIVE: To present a case of fibrous hamartoma in a late-dried infant presenting as an extensive injury, involving vascular and neural elements of brachial plexus. METHODS: Clinical case study and pertinent literature review. RESULTS: Male child, with right axillary irregular tumoral mass, of which onset occurred at 2 months of age and related to BCG vaccine application, being treated with anti-tuberculosis agents, not responding to therapy. Upon biopsy, the injury was diagnosed as children’s fibrous hamartoma, and, after a fast growing period, was submitted to total surgical exeresis. CONCLUSION: The juvenile fibrous hamartoma is a rare benign tumor, typically occurring within the first year of life in boys, most commonly located at axillary gap. The differential diagnosis is performed with soft parts tumors in general, and, in right axillary location cases, with

  5. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: A case report

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    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM. Neuronal stem cells expressed β-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /μl, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study.

  6. Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockade for the Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbers, G. M.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Rijken, R. A. J.; Kerkkamp, H. E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSD) is a neurogenic pain syndrome characterized by pain, vasomotor and dystrophic changes, and often motor impairments. This study evaluated the effectiveness of brachial plexus blockade with local anaesthetic drugs as a treatment for this condition. Three patients responded well; three did not. (DB)

  7. Ultrasound of the cervical roots and brachial plexus in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillen, S.; Semmekrot, B.; Meulstee, J.; Verrips, A.; Alfen, N. van

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this exploratory study we investigated whether ultrasound can visualize the neonatal cervical roots and brachial plexus. METHODS: In 12 healthy neonates <2 days old, the neck region was studied unilaterally with ultrasound using a small-footprint 15-7-MHz transducer. RESULTS: The

  8. Morphological description of the brachial plexus in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis

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    Kylma Lorena Saldanha Chagas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus is formed by the ventral roots of the spinal nerves, which unite to form the nerve trunks. It is usually formed by contributions of the last three cervical nerves and the first two thoracic nerves. Due to the scarcity of information on neuroanatomy, this study aimed to determine the macroscopic morphology of the brachial plexus of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis. In this work, we used two ocelot specimens from the area of the Paragominas Bauxite Mine, PA, Brazil/Empresa Terra LTDA, with permission from SEMA – BP Nos. 455/2009 and 522/2009. The animals were donated to the Research Laboratory of Animal Morphology (LaPMA, Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA, after they were accidentally run over. They were fixed by intramuscular injection of 10% formaldehyde. After fixation, the animals were dissected, allowing visualization of the thoracic nerves, as well as the identification of the ventral rami of the cervical and thoracic spinal nerves forming the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus was found to be formed by four trunks, which originated the ventral branches of cervical spinal nerves C6, C7 and C8 and the first thoracic (T1. These trunks gave rise to the suprascapular, subscapular, musculocutaneous, axillary, radial, median, ulnar, thoracodorsal and lateral thoracic nerves.

  9. Brachial plexus neuropathy - A long-term outcome study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; Groothoff, JW; Nicolai, JP; Rietman, JS

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the long-term outcome of brachial plexus neuropathy in 16 patients. The mean follow up was 8 years. Nine patients complained of persistent pain and muscle weakness, four had continuing problems with various activities of daily living and 11 had trouble with some hou

  10. 神经肌电图检测应用于臂丛神经损伤诊断研究%Study on Electromyography Detection in Diagnosis of Brachial Plexus Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏天

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the value of electromyography(EMG) detection in diagnosis of bra-chial plexus injury.Methods A total of 50 patients with brachial plexus injury in Nanshi Hospital from Aug.2012 to Aug.2013 were included in the study.All were checked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),preoperative EMG and intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential(SEP) examination.The diag-nostic accordance rate was compared.Results The coincidence rate of preoperative EMG examination in the diagnosis of nerve types in brachial plexus injury was very good,all Kappa >0.75.The coincidence rate of preoperative neurological EMG in the qualitative diagnosis of brachial plexus injury was 82.2%(125/152), which was significantly higher than 68.4% (104/152) of MRI diagnosis and equivalent to SEP diagnosis 80.9%(123/152).The difference was not statistically significant(P >0.05).Conclusion Preoperative EMG examination can effectively improve the coincidence rate in diagnosis of brachial plexus injury , help judge the injury nature correctly,and reduce misdiagnosis.%目的:探讨神经肌电图( EMG)检测对臂丛神经损伤的诊断价值。方法选择2012年8月至2013年8月河南省南阳南石医院收治的臂丛神经损伤患者50例,均经磁共振成像( MRI)、术前EMG和术中体感诱发电位( SEP)检查,比较诊断符合率。结果术前神经 EMG检查诊断上臂丛损伤、下臂丛损伤及全臂丛损伤的结果与手术探查结果的一致性程度极好, Kappa 值均大于0.75。术前神经EMG检查对臂丛神经损伤定性诊断的符合率为82.2%(125/152),显著高于MRI诊断的68.4%(104/152),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),与SEP诊断符合率80.9%(123/152)相当,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论术前神经EMG检查可有效提高臂丛神经损伤的诊断符合率和正确判断损伤性质,减少漏诊。

  11. Diffusion weighted MR imaging of brachial plexus diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion weighted image (DWI) can specifically give running of nerve fibers as they have diffusion anisotropic property and DW whole body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) procedure, which being capable of imaging cervical and lumber nerve roots, is thus suggested to be useful for diagnosis of diseases related to brachial plexus (BP). The purpose of the present study is to confirm the usefulness of DWIBS by comparison of its images of the normal and sick plexuses. Subjects are 5 normal healthy males (27-36 y), 29 patients (19 M/10 F, 7-73 y) with BP diseases (10 cases of external injury, 6 of obstetric palsy, 2 of paralysis by dysfunctional position, 6 by Schwannoma, 2 by metastasis of breast cancer and 3 by radiation) and, to see the diagnostic specificity, 9 patients (M 7/F 2, 15-64 y) with severely reduced hand force by nervous causes other than BP ones. MRI with Philips Gyroscan INTERA 1.5T machine is conducted for DWIBS by DWI with single shot EPI (echo planar imaging) with the coil of either sensitivity encoding (SENSE) Cardiac, Flex-M or -S. Images are reconstructed 3D by a radiological technician possessing no information concerning patient's conditions, with Philips software Soap-bubble tool on the workstation, and are then evaluated by a radiologist and an orthopedist separately. It is found that BP disorders by injury, obstetric palsy and tumors, of which diagnosis has been difficult hitherto, can be imaged either negatively or positively depending on their history. In radiation paralysis, only 1/3 cases give a reduced signal intensity in the whole BP. DWIBS will be a new diagnostic mean for systemic peripheral nerve diseases as well as BP ones. (T.T.)

  12. Surgical outcomes of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot wounds in adults

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    Duz Bulent

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of brachial plexus injuries due to gunshot wounds is a surgical challenge. Better surgical strategies based on clinical and electrophysiological patterns are needed. The aim of this study is to clarify the factors which may influence the surgical technique and outcome of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries. Methods Two hundred and sixty five patients who had brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries were included in this study. All of them were male with a mean age of 22 years. Twenty-three patients were improved with conservative treatment while the others underwent surgical treatment. The patients were classified and managed according to the locations, clinical and electrophysiological findings, and coexisting lesions. Results The wounding agent was shrapnel in 106 patients and bullet in 159 patients. Surgical procedures were performed from 6 weeks to 10 months after the injury. The majority of the lesions were repaired within 4 months were improved successfully. Good results were obtained in upper trunk and lateral cord lesions. The outcome was satisfactory if the nerve was intact and only compressed by fibrosis or the nerve was in-contunuity with neuroma or fibrosis. Conclusion Appropriate surgical techniques help the recovery from the lesions, especially in patients with complete functional loss. Intraoperative nerve status and the type of surgery significantly affect the final clinical outcome of the patients.

  13. Continuous shoulder analgesia via an indwelling axillary brachial plexus catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, S S; Steinberg, R B

    2000-09-01

    Continuous interscalene brachial plexus blockade can provide anesthesia and analgesia in the shoulder region. Difficulty accessing the interscalene space and premature displacement of interscalene catheters may preclude their use in certain situations. We present two case reports in which a catheter was advanced from the axilla along the brachial plexus sheath to the interscalene space to provide continuous cervicobrachial plexus analgesia. In the first case report, previous neck surgery made the anatomic landmarks for performing an interscalene block very difficult. An epidural catheter was advanced from the axillary brachial plexus sheath to the interscalene space under fluoroscopic guidance. This technique provided both intraoperative analgesia for shoulder surgery as well as 24-hour postoperative analgesia by an infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine. In the second case report, a catheter was inserted in a similar fashion from the axillary to the interscalene space to provide 14 days of continuous analgesia in the management of complex regional pain syndrome. We have found that this technique allows us to secure the catheter more easily than with the traditional interscalene approach and thus prevents premature dislodgment. This approach may be a suitable alternative when either an interscalene or an infraclavicular catheter may not be inserted. PMID:11090734

  14. Resultado da neurotização do nervo ulnar para o músculo bíceps braquial na lesão do plexo braquial Results of ulnar nerve neurotization to brachial biceps muscle in brachial plexus injury

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    Marcelo Rosa de Rezende

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar de forma crítica os fatores que influenciam os resultados da neurotização do nervo ulnar no ramo motor do músculo bíceps braquial, visando a restauração da flexão do cotovelo em pacientes com lesão do plexo braquial. MÉTODOS: 19 pacientes, 18 homens e uma mulher, com idade média de 28,7 anos foram avaliados entre fevereiro de 2003 e maio de 2007. Oito pacientes apresentavam lesão das raízes C5-C6 e 11, das raízes C5-C6-C7. O intervalo de tempo médio entre a injúria e o tratamento cirúrgico foi 7,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentavam fraturas cervicais associadas à lesão do plexo braquial. O seguimento pós-operatório foi de 15,7 meses. RESULTADO: Oito pacientes recuperaram força de flexão do cotovelo MRC grau 4; dois, MRC grau 3 e nove, MRC OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors influencing the results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of the brachial biceps muscle, aiming at the restoration of elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injury. METHODS: 19 patients, with 18 men and 1 woman, mean age 28.7 years. Eight patients had injury to roots C5-C6 and 11, to roots C5-C6-C7. The average time interval between injury and surgery was 7.5 months. Four patients had cervical fractures associated with brachial plexus injury. The postoperative follow-up was 15.7 months. RESULTS: Eight patients recovered elbow flexion strength MRC grade 4; two, MRC grade 3 and nine, MRC <3. There was no impairment of the previous ulnar nerve function. CONCLUSION: The surgical results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of brachial biceps muscle are dependent on the interval between brachial plexus injury and surgical treatment, the presence of associated fractures of the cervical spine and occipital condyle, residual function of the C8-T1 roots after the injury and the involvement of the C7 root. Signs of reinnervation manifested up to 3 months after surgery showed better results in the long term

  15. A comparison of infraclavicular and supraclavicular approaches to the brachial plexus using neurostimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chun Woo; Kwon, Hee Uk; Cho, Choon-Kyu; Jung, Sung Mee; Kang, Po-Soon; Park, Eun-Su; Heo, Youn Moo; Shinn, Helen Ki

    2010-01-01

    Background A prospective, double blind study was performed to compare the clinical effect of vertical infraclavicular and supraclavicular brachial plexus block using a nerve stimulator for upper limb surgery. Methods One hundred patients receiving upper limb surgery under infraclavicular or supraclavicular brachial plexus block were enrolled in this study. The infraclavicular brachial plexus block was performed using the vertical technique with 30 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine. The supraclavicular b...

  16. Neurolysis and myocutaneous flap for radiation induced brachial plexus neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirachi, Kazuhiko; Minami, Akio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Yasuhiko [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohnishi, Nobuki

    1998-11-01

    Surgical treatment for radiation induced brachial plexus neuropathy is difficult. We followed 9 patients of radiation induced brachial plexus neuropathy who were surgically treated with neurolysis and myocutaneous flap coverage. Their ages ranged from 29 to 72 years old. Their diagnoses were breast cancer in 6 patients, lingual cancer in 1, thyroid cancer in 1 and malignant lymphoma in 1. Total dose of radiation ranged from 44 to 240 Gy. Interval from radiation therapy to our surgery ranged from 1 to 18 years (mean 6.7 years). Chief complaints were dysesthesia in 9 patients, motor weakness in 7 patients and dullach in scar formation of radiated skin in 7 patients. Preoperative neural functions were slight palsy in 1, moderate palsy in 5 and complete palsy in 3. In surgical treatment, neurolysis of the brachial plexus was done and it was covered by latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. We evaluated about dysesthesia and motor recovery after treatment for neuropathy. Follow up periods ranged from 1 to 11 years (average in 5 years). Dysesthesia improved in 6 patients and got worse in 3 patients. Motor weakness recovered in only 2 patients and got worse in 7 patients. From our results, intolerable dysesthesia which was first complaint of these patients improved. But motor function had not recovered. Our treatment was thought to be effective for extraneural factor like an compression neuropathy by scar formation and poor vascularity. But it was not effective for intraneural damage by radiation therapy. (author)

  17. Novel Axillary Approach for Brachial Plexus in Robotic Surgery: A Cadaveric Experiment

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    Cihangir Tetik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus surgery using the da Vinci surgical robot is a new procedure. Although the supraclavicular approach is a well known described and used procedure for robotic surgery, axillary approach was unknown for brachial plexus surgery. A cadaveric study was planned to evaluate the robotic axillary approach for brachial plexus surgery. Our results showed that robotic surgery is a very useful method and should be used routinely for brachial plexus surgery and particularly for thoracic outlet syndrome. However, we emphasize that new instruments should be designed and further studies are needed to evaluate in vivo results.

  18. Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note

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    Agarwal Anil

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether monitoring end- tidal Carbon Dioxide (capnography can be used to reliably identify the phrenic nerve during the supraclavicular exploration for brachial plexus injury. Methods Three consecutive patients with traction pan-brachial plexus injuries scheduled for neurotization were evaluated under an anesthetic protocol to allow intraoperative electrophysiology. Muscle relaxants were avoided, anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and the airway was secured with an appropriate sized laryngeal mask airway. Routine monitoring included heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, pulse oximetry and time capnography. The phrenic nerve was identified after blind bipolar electrical stimulation using a handheld bipolar nerve stimulator set at 2–4 mA. The capnographic wave form was observed by the neuroanesthetist and simultaneous diaphragmatic contraction was assessed by the surgical assistant. Both observers were blinded as to when the bipolar stimulating electrode was actually in use. Results In all patients, the capnographic wave form revealed a notch at a stimulating amplitude of about 2–4 mA. This became progressively jagged with increasing current till diaphragmatic contraction could be palpated by the blinded surgical assistant at about 6–7 mA. Conclusion Capnography is a sensitive intraoperative test for localizing the phrenic nerve during the supraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus.

  19. Structure of the brachial plexus root and adjacent regions displayed by ultrasound imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyi Li; Xun Xia; Xiaoming Rong; Yamei Tang; Dachuan Xu

    2012-01-01

    Brachial plexuses of 110 healthy volunteers were examined using high resolution color Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasonic characteristics and anatomic variation in the intervertebral foramen, interscalene, supraclavicular and infraclavicular, as well as the axillary brachial plexus were investigated. Results confirmed that the normal brachial plexus on cross section exhibited round or elliptic hypoechoic texture. Longitudinal section imaging showed many parallel linear hypo-moderate echoes, with hypo-echo. The transverse processes of the seventh cervical vertebra, the scalene space, the subclavian artery and the deep cervical artery are important markers in an examination. The display rates for the interscalene, and supraclavicular and axillary brachial plexuses were 100% each, while that for the infraclavicular brachial plexus was 97%. The region where the normal brachial plexus root traversed the intervertebral foramen exhibited a regular hypo-echo. The display rate for the C5-7 nerve roots was 100%, while those for C8 and T1 were 83% and 68%, respectively. A total of 20 of the 110 subjects underwent cervical CT scan. High-frequency ultrasound can clearly display the outline of the transverse processes of the vertebrae, which were consistent with CT results. These results indicate that high-frequency ultrasound provides a new method for observing the morphology of the brachial plexus. The C7 vertebra is a marker for identifying the position of brachial plexus nerve roots.

  20. Brachial Plexus Root Injection in a Human Cadaver Model Injectate Distribution and Effects on the Neuraxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orebaugh, Steven L.; Mukalel, Jessen J.; Krediet, Annalot C.; Weimer, Jonathan; Filip, Patrick; McFadden, Kathryn; Bigeleisen, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The potential for injection into the brachial plexus root at cervical levels must be considered during interscalene block or chronic pain interventions in the neck, but this phenomenon has not been well studied. In this investigation, we performed injections into the brachial plexus root

  1. Correlation Between Ultrasound Imaging, Cross-Sectional Anatomy, and Histology of the Brachial Plexus A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Geert J.; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Joergen; Scheffer, Gert J.; Chan, Vincent W.; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanato

  2. Correlation between ultrasound imaging, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the brachial plexus: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, G.J. van; Moayeri, N.; Bruhn, J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Chan, V.W.; Groen, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanato

  3. Correlation between ultrasound imaging, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the brachial plexus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Geert J; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Jörgen; Scheffer, Gert J; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanatomy is provided.

  4. Vibration sensation as an indicator of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block

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    Seema Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Vibration sense serves as a reliable indicator for the onset of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block. Vibration sense testing with 128 Hz Rydel–Seiffer tuning fork along with motor power assessment should be used as an objective tool to assess the onset of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block.

  5. Technical note: the humeral canal approach to the brachial plexus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Frizelle, H P

    2012-02-03

    Many variations to the axillary approach to the brachial plexus have been described. However, the success rate varies depending on the approach used and on the definition of success. Recent work describes a new approach to regional anaesthesia of the upper limb at the humeral\\/brachial canal using selective stimulation of the major nerves. This report outlines initial experience with this block, describing the technique and results in 50 patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. All patients were assessed for completeness of motor and sensory block. The overall success rate was 90 percent. Motor block was present in 80 percent of patients. Completion of the block was necessary in 5 patients. Two patients required general anaesthesia. The preponderance of ulnar deficiencies agrees with previously published data on this technique. No complications were described. Initial experience confirms the high success rate described using the Dupre technique. This technically straightforward approach with minimal complications can be recommended for regional anaesthesia of the upper limb.

  6. Interscalenic approach to the cervico-brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenepoel, M C; Blomme, A

    1981-12-01

    The concept of a closed peri-neurovascular space surrounding the cervicobrachial plexus, introduced by A. Winnie, allows the blockade of the cervical and brachial plexuses by means of a single puncture technique. The single puncture has positive advantages: 1. The rapidity of the blockade; 2. The simplicity of the blockade; 3. Comfort for the patient. The landmarks are easy to make. As with epidural blockade, the injection level and the volume of local anesthetic determine the quality and extent of the block. The traditional indication is surgery of the shoulder and of the supraclavicular area. A new indication seems to be the implantation of a cardiac pacemaker. Complications often quoted in literature are Horner syndrome-a minor complication-and blockade of the ascending branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and of the phrenic nerve. The risk of a pneumothorax is almost nil. PMID:7324853

  7. Obesity in children with brachial plexus birth palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avreeta K; Mills, Janith; Bauer, Andrea S; Ezaki, Marybeth

    2015-11-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with a 14-fold increased risk of brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP), and is a predictor of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between BPBP, fetal macrosomia, and childhood obesity. We retrospectively reviewed 214 children with BPBP. The average age was 8 years and 53% had a Narakas 1 grade BPBP. Overall, 49% of children were normal weight, 22% overweight, and 29% obese. Of the children with a history of fetal macrosomia, 41% were obese; a statistically significant difference. Overall quality of life scores, however, were not correlated with obesity.

  8. Axillary brachial plexus block--an underused technique in the accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    MacKay, C A; Bowden, D F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare axillary brachial plexus block and Bier's block as methods of providing upper limb anaesthesia. METHODS: Axillary brachial plexus or Bier's blocks were performed on all patients requiring upper limb anaesthesia in a three month period. For Bier's block, a single cuff tourniquet and 3 mg/kg 0.5% prilocaine were used. For axillary plexus block, 40 ml 1% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:200,000) were used, given by perivascular or transarterial technique. Prospective analysis ...

  9. An MRI study on the relations between muscle atrophy, shoulder function and glenohumeral deformity in shoulders of children with obstetric brachial plexus injury

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    van Doorn-Loogman Mirjam H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of children with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL will develop internal rotation adduction contractures of the shoulder, posterior humeral head subluxations and glenohumeral deformities. Their active shoulder function is generally limited and a recent study showed that their shoulder muscles were atrophic. This study focuses on the role of shoulder muscles in glenohumeral deformation and function. Methods This is a prospective study on 24 children with unilateral OBPL, who had internal rotation contractures of the shoulder (mean age 3.3 years, range 14.7 months to 7.3 years. Using MR imaging from both shoulders the following parameters were assessed: glenoid form, glenoscapular angle, subluxation of the humeral head, thickness and segmental volume of the subscapularis, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles. Shoulder function was assessed measuring passive external rotation of the shoulder and using the Mallet score for active function. Statistical tests used are t-tests, Spearman's rho, Pearsons r and logistic regression. Results The affected shoulders showed significantly reduced muscle sizes, increased glenoid retroversion and posterior subluxation. Mean muscle size compared to the normal side was: subscapularis 51%, infraspinatus 61% and deltoid 76%. Glenoid form was related to infraspinatus muscle atrophy. Subluxation was related to both infraspinatus and subscapularis atrophy. There was no relation between atrophy of muscles and passive external rotation. Muscle atrophy was not related to the Mallet score or its dimensions. Conclusion Muscle atrophy was more severe in the subscapularis muscle than in infraspinatus and deltoid. As the muscle ratios are not related to passive external rotation nor to active function of the shoulder, there must be other muscle properties influencing shoulder function.

  10. Brachial plexus palsy caused by halo traction before posterior correction in patients with severe scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Bang-ping; QIU Yong; WANG Bin; YU Yang; ZHU Ze-zhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical features and treatment results of brachial plexus palsy caused by halo traction before posterior correction in patients with severe scoliosis.Methods: A total of 300 cases of severe scoliosis received halo traction before posterior correction in our department from July 1997 to November 2004. Among them, 7 cases were complicated with brachial plexus palsy.The average Cobb angle was 110° (range, 90°-135°).Diagnoses were made as idiopathic scoliosis in 1 case,congenital scoliosis in 3 cases, and neuromuscular scoliosis in 3 cases. Additionally, diastematomyelia and tethered cord syndrome were found in 3 cases and thoracolumbar kyphosis in 2 cases. Weight of traction was immediately reduced when the patient developed any abnormal neurological symptoms in the upper extremity, and rehabilitation training was undertaken. Simultaneously,neurotrophic pharmacotherapy was applied, and the neurological function restoration of the upper limbs and the recovery time were documented.Results: Traction was used for an average of 3.5 weeks (range, 2-6 weeks) before spinal fusion for these 7 patients. The average traction weight was 8 kg, which was 19% on average (range, 13%-26%) of the average body weight (40.2 kg). These 7 patients had long and thin body configuration with a mean height of 175 cm. The duration between symptoms of brachial plexus paralysis and the diagnosis was 1-3 hours. All of these 7 patients presented various degrees of numbness in the ulnar side of the hand and forearm. Median nerve paresis was found in 3 cases and ulnar nerve paresis in 4 cases. Complete recovery of the neurological function had been achieved by the end of three months.Conclusions: The clinical features of brachial plexus palsy caused by halo traction include median nerve paresis,ulnar nerve paralysis, and numbness in the ulnar side of the hand and forearm, which may be due to the injury of the inferior part of the brachial plexus, i.e. , damage of Cs and

  11. Our experience on brachial plexus blockade in upper extremity surgery

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    Ömer Uslukaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peripheral nerve blocks are usually used either alone or along with general anesthesia for postoperative analgesia. We also aimed to present the results and experiences.Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted to scan the files of patients who underwent orthopedic upper extremity surgery with peripheral nerve block between September 2009 and October 2010. After ethics committee approval was obtained, 114 patients who were ASA physical status I-III, aged 18-70, performed upper extremity surgery in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic were included to study. Patients’ demographic data, clinical diagnoses, premedication status, peripheral block type, local anesthetic dose, stimuplex needle types, hemodynamic parameters at the during surgery, the first postoperative analgesic requirements, complications and patient satisfaction were recorded.Results: Demographic data were similar to each other. Brachial plexus block was commonly performed for the forearm surgery. Infraclavicular block was performed the most frequently to patients. As the classical methods in the supine position were preferred in 98.2% of patients, Stimuplex A needle (B. Braun, Melsungen AG, Germany have been used for blockage in 80.7% of patients. Also, in 54.4% of patients, 30 ml of local anesthetic solution composed of bupivacaine + prilocaine was used for blockade. Blocks applied to patients had provided adequate anesthesia.Conclusion: Since the brachial plexus blockade guided peripheral nerve stimulator for upper extremity surgery provide adequate depth of anesthesia and analgesia, it may be a good alternative to general anesthesia because of unwanted side effects

  12. USE OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE ALONG WITH BUPIVACAINE FOR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

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    Rachana Gandhi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Supraclavicular brachial plexus block provides safe, effective, low cost anaesthesia with good postoperative analgesia. This study was conducted to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine for brachial plexus blockade along with bupivacaine. Methodology: This prospective double blind study was conducted on 70 patients of age 18 to 60 years posted for various upper limb surgeries and randomly allocated into two equal groups of 35 each. Control group-C received injection bupivacaine (0.25% 38 milliliter plus 2 milliliter normal saline, dexmedetomidine group-D received injection bupivacaine (0.25% 38 milliliter plus dexmedetomidine 30 microgram (2 milliliter. Assessment of motor and sensory blockade, pulse, systolic blood pressure, respiration and side effects were noted every 5 minutes for first 30 minute and every 10 minute till end of surgery. Duration of analgesia and incidence of various complications following the procedure were observed. Results: It was observed that in control group onset of motor and sensory blockade was faster. Where as, dexmedetomidine group have better hemodynamic stability and greater postoperative analgesia. Only two cases of bradycardia and two cases of hypotension were noticed in dexmedetomidine group-D. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 67-69

  13. Dose–Volume Modeling of Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Findings From a Prospective Screening Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: amchen@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Wang, Pin-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Daly, Megan E.; Cui, Jing; Hall, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson, Mississippi (United States); Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory [Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Data from a prospective screening protocol administered for patients previously irradiated for head-and-neck cancer was analyzed to identify dosimetric predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred fifty-two patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were prospectively screened from August 2007 to April 2013 using a standardized self-administered instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from radiation therapy was 40 months (range, 6-111 months). A total of 177 patients (50%) underwent neck dissection. Two hundred twenty-one patients (63%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Fifty-one patients (14%) reported brachial plexus-related neuropathic symptoms with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), and motor weakness and/or muscle atrophy (25%). The 3- and 5-year estimates of freedom from brachial plexus-associated neuropathy were 86% and 81%, respectively. Clinical/pathological N3 disease (P<.001) and maximum radiation dose to the ipsilateral brachial plexus (P=.01) were significantly associated with neuropathic symptoms. Cox regression analysis revealed significant dose–volume effects for brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. The volume of the ipsilateral brachial plexus receiving >70 Gy (V70) predicted for symptoms, with the incidence increasing with V70 >10% (P<.001). A correlation was also observed for the volume receiving >74 Gy (V74) among patients treated without neck dissection, with a cutoff of 4% predictive of symptoms (P=.038). Conclusions: Dose–volume guidelines were developed for radiation planning that may limit brachial plexus-related neuropathies.

  14. Brachial plexus variations in its formation and main branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Paula Sassoli Fazan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The brachial plexus has a complex anatomical structure since its origin in the neck throughout its course in the axillary region. It also has close relationship to important anatomic structures what makes it an easy target of a sort of variations and provides its clinical and surgical importance. The aims of the present study were to describe the brachial plexus anatomical variations in origin and respective branches, and to correlate these variations with sex, color of the subjects and side of the body. METHODS: Twenty-seven adult cadavers separated into sex and color had their brachial plexuses evaluated on the right and left sides. RESULTS: Our results are extensive and describe a large number of variations, including some that have not been reported in the literature. Our results showed that the phrenic nerve had a complete origin from the plexus in 20% of the cases. In this way, a lesion of the brachial plexus roots could result in diaphragm palsy. It is not usual that the long thoracic nerve pierces the scalenus medius muscle but it occurred in 63% of our cases. Another observation was that the posterior cord was formed by the posterior divisions of the superior and middle trunks in 9%. In these cases, the axillary and the radial nerves may not receive fibers from C7 and C8, as usually described. CONCLUSION: Finally, the plexuses studied did not show that sex, color or side of the body had much if any influence upon the presence of variations.OBJETIVOS: O plexo braquial apresenta uma estrutura anatômica complexa, desde sua origem, no pescoço, até sua ramificação terminal, na região axilar. Ele também apresenta relações importantes com outras estruturas anatômicas locais, o que o torna vulnerável ao aparecimento de uma série de variações anatômicas, marcando sua importância clínica e cirúrgica. Os objetivos desse estudo foram de descrever as variações anatômicas do plexo braquial, desde sua origem até seus

  15. Schwannoma of the brachial plexus: cross-sectional imaging diagnosis using CT, sonography, and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettenbacher, Thomas; Soegner, Peter; Springer, Peter; Nedden, Dieter zur [Department of Radiology II, University Hospital Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Fiegl, Michael [Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Hussl, Heribert [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2003-08-01

    Primary brachial plexus tumors are rare, usually benign, and in general have a good prognosis after surgical excision. We present a case of a schwannoma in which sonography enabled the correct diagnosis of a probably benign brachial plexus tumor. Key to the diagnosis was the demonstration of a smooth-bordered, longish, and well-defined nodule along a brachial plexus nerve root. Cross-sectional imaging modalities that provide a high degree of soft tissue contrast and spatial resolution, such as sonography and MR imaging, were suitable methods to establish the correct preoperative diagnosis. Findings at CT, sonography, MR imaging, and surgery are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Avaliação do ganho funcional do cotovelo com a cirurgia de Steindler na lesão do plexo braquial Evaluation of functional gain of the elbow following Steindler surgery for brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosa de Rezende

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar ganho de força e amplitude de movimento do cotovelo após cirurgia de Steindler Modificada em pacientes com lesão do tronco superior do plexo braquial. MÉTODO: Foram acompanhados de 1998 a 2007 onze pacientes com lesão traumática fechada do tronco superior do plexo braquial. Todos apresentavam evolução de pelo menos 1 ano da lesão e grau de força de flexão do cotovelo que variou de M1 a M3. Os pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia de Steindler modificada e seguidos por período mínimo de 6 meses. Realizadas avaliações pré e pós-operatórias do ganho de força muscular, amplitude de movimento do cotovelo e pontuação conforme escala DASH. RESULTADOS: Dos onze pacientes analisados, nove (82% atingiram nível de força igual ou maior a M3 (MRC. Dois (18% chegaram ao nível de força M2(MRC. Observamos que os pacientes apresentaram ganho médio de amplitude de movimento do cotovelo pós-operatória de 43,45 graus. A média de flexão do cotovelo pós-operatória foi de 88 graus. Houve melhora da função do cotovelo demonstrada na Escala DASH em 81% dos pacientes do estudo. CONCLUSÃO: A cirurgia de Steindler Modificada mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento dos pacientes com lesão de tronco superior de plexo braquial, com ganho estatisticamente significativo de amplitude de movimento. Em todos os casos algum grau de ganho de força e amplitude de flexão do cotovelo, sendo tanto maior quanto maior a força muscular inicial. Nível de Evidência: Nível II, ensaio clínico prospective.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gain in strength and range of motion after modified Steindler surgery of the elbow in patients with lesions of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. METHOD: From 1998 to 2007, eleven patients with traumatic closed upper trunk lesion of the brachial plexus were studied. All the patients had development of at least 1 year of injury and degree of strength of elbow flexion ranging from M1 to M3. The patients

  17. Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After High-Dose Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Hall, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Li, Judy; Beckett, Laurel [Department of Biostatistics, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Lau, Derick H. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical and treatment-related predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Three hundred thirty patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively screened using a standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from completion of radiation therapy was 56 months (range, 6-135 months). One-hundred fifty-five patients (47%) were treated by definitive radiation therapy, and 175 (53%) were treated postoperatively. Radiation doses ranged from 50 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was used in 62% of cases, and 133 patients (40%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Forty patients (12%) reported neuropathic symptoms, with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), motor weakness, and/or muscle atrophy (25%). When patients with <5 years of follow-up were excluded, the rate of positive symptoms increased to 22%. On univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with brachial plexus symptoms: prior neck dissection (p = 0.01), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both neck dissection (p < 0.001) and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001) were independently predictive of symptoms. Conclusion: The incidence of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer may be underreported. In view of the dose-response relationship identified, limiting radiation dose to the brachial plexus should be considered when possible.

  18. Misdiagnosis of Brachial Plexus Schwannoma as Cervical Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Khajepour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are relatively rare but benign nerve sheath tumors deriving from Schwann cells with low tendency of transformation to malignancy. Extracranial shwannomas usually present insidiously and thus are often diagnosed incorrectly or after lengthy delays. We present the case of a 51 years old female patient with chronic cervical pain radiating in left upper limb who was treated as cervical radiculopathy for 5 years. By aggrevation of pain and paresthesia, imaging and electrodiagnostic study revealed schwannoma of brachial plexus. In case of radiating pain and paresthesia in upper limb (such as this case symptoms can be misleading for cervical radiculopathy but careful examination especialy in persistence of symptoms with negative imaging results for radiculopathies are important and electrodiagnostic study can be helpful.

  19. Progressive Brachial Plexus Palsy after Osteosynthesis of an Inveterate Clavicular Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rosati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS is a rare complication of clavicular fracture, occurring in 0.5-9% of cases . In the literature from 1965 – 2010, 425 cases of TOS complicating a claviclular fracture were described. However, only 5 were observed ​​after a surgical procedure of reduction and fixation. The causes of this complication were due to the presence of an exuberant callus, to technical surgery errors or to vascular lesions. In this paper we describe a case of brachial plexus plasy after osteosynthesis of clavicle fracture. Case Report: A 48 year old female, presented to us with inveterate middle third clavicle fracture of 2 months duration. She was an alcoholic, smoker with an history of opiate abuse and was HCV positive. At two month the fracture was displaced with no signs of union and open rigid fixation with plate was done. The immediate postoperative patient had signs of neurologic injury. Five days after surgery showed paralysis of the ulnar nerve, at 10 days paralysis of the median nerve, radial and ulnar paresthesias in the territory of the C5-C6-C7-C8 roots. She was treated with rest, steroids and neurotrophic drugs. One month after surgery the patient had signs of complete denervation around the brachial plexus. Implant removal was done and in a month ulnar and median nerve functions recovered. At three months post implant removal the neurological picture returned to normal. Conclusion: We can say that TOS can be seen as arising secondary to an “iatrogenic compartment syndrome” justified by the particular anatomy of the space cost joint. The appropriateness of the intervention for removal of fixation devices is demonstrated by the fact that the patient has returned to her daily activities in the absence of symptoms and good functional recovery in about three months, despite fracture nonunion. Keywords: Brachial plexus palsy, clavicle fractures, outlet thoracic syndrome.

  20. Brachial plexus birth palsy: Management during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, A

    2016-02-01

    Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is defined as an injury to any nerve root of the brachial plexus during difficult delivery. BPBP is relatively rare; its incidence has remained constant over the last few decades, mostly due to unpredictable risk factors, such as shoulder dystocia. Both diagnosis and assessment of spontaneous recovery is based on clinical examination. Electromyography is difficult to interpret in the newborn and is therefore not meaningful. MRI of the cervical spine requires sedation or general anesthesia. Searching for a pre-ganglion tear prior to surgery is indicted. Prognosis depends on the level of the injury (pre- or post-ganglion), size and severity of the post-ganglion tears, speed of recovery, and quality of initial management. Although spontaneous recovery is frequent, some children suffer various degrees of sequelae, up to complete loss of function of the affected upper limb. Recent publications have improved general knowledge and indications for surgery. However, some aspects, such as indication and timing of nerve repair continue to be debated. PMID:26774906

  1. Radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, N.K.; Pfeiffer, P.; Mondrup, K.; Rose, C. (Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology R)

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and latency period of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients by a neurological follow-up examination at least 60 months (range 67-130 months) after the primary treatment. All patients were treated primarily with simple mastectomy, axillary nodal sampling and radiotherapy (RT). Postoperatively, pre- and postmenopausal patients were randomly allocated chemotherapy for antiestrogen treatment. All patients were recurrence-free at time of examination. Clinically, 35% (25-47%) of the patients had RBP; 19% (11-29%) had definite RBP, i.e. were physically disabled, and 16% (9-26%) had probable RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-35%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%) of cases assessment of a definite level was not possible. RBP was more common after radiotherapy and chemotherapy (42%) than after radiotherapy alone (26%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). The incidence of definite RBP was significantly higher in the younger age group (p = 0.02). This could be due to more extensive axillary surgery but also to the fact that chemotherapy was given to most premenopausal patients. In most patients with RBP the symptoms began during or immediately after radiotherapy, and were thus without significant latency. Chemotherapy might enhance the radiation-induced effect on nerve tissue, thus diminishing the latency period. Lymphedema was present in 22% (14-32%), especially in the older patients, and not associated with the development of RBP. In conclusion, the damaging effect of RT on peripheral nerve tissue was documented. Since no successful treatment is available, restricted use of RT to the brachial plexus is warranted, especially when administered concomitantly with cytotoxic therapy. (orig.).

  2. OCT/PS-OCT imaging of brachial plexus neurovascular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, David T.; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoping; Chen, Zhongping; Miller, Carol; Zhou, Li

    2004-07-01

    Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows high-resolution imaging (less than 10 microns) of tissue structures. A pilot study with OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) was undertaken to image ex-vivo neurovascular structures (vessels, nerves) of the canine brachial plexus. Methods: OCT is an interferometry-based optical analog of B-mode ultrasound, which can image through non-transparent biological tissues. With approval of the USC Animal Care and Use Committee, segments of the supra- and infraclavicular brachial plexus were excised from euthanized adult dogs, and the ex-vivo specimens were placed in cold pH-buffered physiologic solution. An OCT beam, in micrometer translational steps, scanned the fixed-position bisected specimens in transverse and longitudinal views. Two-dimensional images were obtained from identified arteries and nerves, with specific sections of interest stained with hematoxylin-eosin for later imaging through a surgical microscope. Results: with the beam scan direction transverse to arteries, the resulting OCT images showed an identifiable arterial lumen and arterial wall tissue layers. By comparison, transverse beam OCT images of nerves revealed a multitude of smaller nerve bundles contained within larger circular-shaped fascicles. PS-OCT imaging was helpful in showing the characteristic birefringence exhibited by arrayed neural structures. Discussion: High-resolution OCT imaging may be useful in the optical identification of neurovascular structures during attempted regional nerve blockade. If incorporated into a needle-shaped catheter endoscope, such a technology could prevent intraneural and intravascular injections immediately prior to local anesthetic injection. The major limitation of OCT is that it can form a coherent image of tissue structures only to a depth of 1.5 - 2 mm.

  3. Morphometric Atlas Selection for Automatic Brachial Plexus Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Wouters, Johan [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Duprez, Fréderic; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of atlas selection based on different morphometric parameters, on the accuracy of automatic brachial plexus (BP) segmentation for radiation therapy planning. The segmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all of the generated automatic segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard atlases developed using cadavers. Methods and Materials: Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases (3 males, 9 females; mean age: 73 years) were included in the study. One atlas was selected to serve as a patient, and the other 11 atlases were registered separately onto this “patient” using deformable image registration. This procedure was repeated for every atlas as a patient. Next, the Dice and Jaccard similarity indices and inclusion index were calculated for every registered BP with the original gold standard BP. In parallel, differences in several morphometric parameters that may influence the BP segmentation accuracy were measured for the different atlases. Specific brachial plexus-related CT-visible bony points were used to define the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, correlations between the similarity indices and morphometric parameters were calculated. Results: A clear negative correlation between difference in protraction-retraction distance and the similarity indices was observed (mean Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.546). All of the other investigated Pearson correlation coefficients were weak. Conclusions: Differences in the shoulder protraction-retraction position between the atlas and the patient during planning CT influence the BP autosegmentation accuracy. A greater difference in the protraction-retraction distance between the atlas and the patient reduces the accuracy of the BP automatic segmentation result.

  4. MRI of the brachial plexus and its region: anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouter van Es, H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Feldberg, M.A.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1995-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus and its region has become the imaging modality of choice, due to its multiplanar capabilities and inherent contrast differences between the brachial plexus, related vessels, and surrounding fat. A total of 41 patients with clinically suspected brachial plexus pathology or tumors in its region were studied. A normal anatomy was found in 12 patients. Pathologic entities included: traumatic nerve-root avulsion (n = 2), hematoma (n = 1), postoperative changes after scalenotomy (n = 2), primary tumor of the brachial plexus (n = 2), primary (n = 8) and metastatic (n = 1) tumors in the superior sulcus, primary (n = 5) and metastatic (n = 4) tumors in the axillary, supra- or infraclavicular region, and changes after nodal dissection and radiation therapy for breast carcinoma (n = 5; 1 patient also had had a prior scalenotomy). There was a positive correlation with surgery in 11 patients, and a negative correlation in 1 patient. (orig.)

  5. Variations in branching of the posterior cord of brachial plexus in a Kenyan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matakwa Ludia C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the branching of posterior cord are important during surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The patterns of branching show population differences. Data from the African population is scarce. Objective To describe the branching pattern of the posterior cord in a Kenyan population. Materials and methods Seventy-five brachial plexuses from 68 formalin fixed cadavers were explored by gross dissection. Origin and order of branching of the posterior cord was recorded. Representative photographs were then taken using a digital camera (Sony Cybershot R, W200, 7.2 Megapixels. Results Only 8 out of 75 (10.7% posterior cords showed the classical branching pattern. Forty three (57.3% lower subscapular, 8(10.3% thoracodorsal and 8(10.3% upper subscapular nerves came from the axillary nerve instead of directly from posterior cord. A new finding was that in 4(5.3% and in 3(4% the medial cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm respectively originated from the posterior cord in contrast to their usual origin from the medial cord. Conclusions Majority of posterior cords in studied population display a wide range of variations. Anesthesiologists administering local anesthetic blocks, clinicians interpreting effects of nerve injuries of the upper limb and surgeons operating in the axilla should be aware of these patterns to avoid inadvertent injury. A wider study of the branching pattern of infraclavicular brachial plexus is recommended.

  6. Brachial Plexus Neuritis Associated With Streptococcus agalactiae Infection: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Yu Jung; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Joon Sung; Lim, Seong Hoon; Hong, Bo Young

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus neuritis is reportedly caused by various factors; however, it has not been described in association with Streptococcus agalactiae. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed with brachial plexus neuritis associated with pyogenic arthritis of the shoulder. A 57-year-old man visited the hospital complaining of sudden weakness and painful swelling of the left arm. The diagnosis was pyogenic arthritis of the left shoulder, and the patient was treated with open irrigation and deb...

  7. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to brachial plexus injury: a case report; Siderose superficial do sistema nervoso central por lesao do plexo braquial: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setogutti, Enio Tadashi; Cassuriaga, Jefferson; Valduga, Simone Gianella [Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Cardiologia. Setor de Ressonancia Magnetica]. E-mails: pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br; editoracao-pc@cardiologia.org.br; Lorenzzoni, Pablo Longhi; Severgnini, Giancarlo Muraro [Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Cardiologia; Feldman, Carlos Jader [Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Cardiologia. Setor de Radiologia

    2005-10-15

    Superficial siderosis can be caused by hemosiderin deposition o the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the neuro-axis due to recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. Probable intrathecal bleeding sites must be investigated. In ut t 50% of the patients the bleeding source may be identified and the progression of the disease can be interrupted. In this study, the authors present a case of superficial siderosis of the central nervous system developed two decades after a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus.(author)

  8. Brachial Plexus Neuritis Associated With Streptococcus agalactiae Infection: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Jung; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Joon Sung; Lim, Seong Hoon; Hong, Bo Young

    2014-08-01

    Brachial plexus neuritis is reportedly caused by various factors; however, it has not been described in association with Streptococcus agalactiae. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed with brachial plexus neuritis associated with pyogenic arthritis of the shoulder. A 57-year-old man visited the hospital complaining of sudden weakness and painful swelling of the left arm. The diagnosis was pyogenic arthritis of the left shoulder, and the patient was treated with open irrigation and debridement accompanied by intravenous antibiotic therapy. S. agalactiae was isolated from a wound culture, and an electrodiagnostic study showed brachial plexopathy involving the left upper and middle trunk. Nine weeks after onset, muscle strength improved in most of the affected muscles, and an electrodiagnostic study showed signs of reinnervation. In conclusion, S. agalactiae infection can lead to various complications including brachial plexus neuritis. PMID:25229037

  9. A novel technique of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jiro; Yamagishi, Norio; Sasaki, Kouya; Kim, Danil; Devkota, Bhuminand; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2012-12-01

    An interventional ultrasound technique to increase the safety of surgical treatment of the calf forelimb was tested. First, the brachial plexus was evaluated using ultrasonography and then 2% lidocaine was injected under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasonically, the brachial plexus appeared as multiple hypoechoic areas surrounded by a hyperechoic rim or a hyperechoic structure characterised by multiple discontinuous lines. It was located between the omotransverse muscle and axillary artery and vein. The sensitive effect in the forelimb was seen mainly in the area supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve, indicating successful blockage in the nerve plexus. Out of the eight forelimbs, the motor effect was observed in seven forelimbs. These results suggest the clinical feasibility of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block in bovine medicine, although further studies are needed to examine various approaches, including the sites of needle insertion and the appropriate volume and dosage of anaesthetic. PMID:22682007

  10. Neurolymphomatosis of Brachial Plexus in Patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurolymphomatosis (NL is a rare clinical disease where neoplastic cells invade the cranial nerves and peripheral nerve roots, plexus, or other nerves in patients with hematologic malignancy. Most NL cases are caused by B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL. Diagnosis can be made by imaging with positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We experienced two cases of NL involving the brachial plexus in patients with NHL. One patient, who had NHL with central nervous system (CNS involvement, experienced complete remission after 8 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy but relapsed into NL of the brachial plexus 5 months later. The other patient, who suffered from primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, had been undergoing chemoradiotherapy but progressed to NL of the brachial plexus.

  11. A giant plexiform schwannoma of the brachial plexus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohyama Sho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a patient who noticed muscle weakness in his left arm 5 years earlier. On examination, a biloculate mass was observed in the left supraclavicular area, and Tinel's sign caused paresthesia in his left arm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a continuous, multinodular, plexiform tumor from the left C5 to C7 nerve root along the course of the brachial plexus to the left brachia. Tumor excision was attempted. The median and musculocutaneous nerves were extremely enlarged by the tumor, which was approximately 40 cm in length, and showed no response to electric stimulation. We resected a part of the musculocutaneous nerve for biopsy and performed latissimus dorsi muscle transposition in order to repair elbow flexion. Morphologically, the tumor consisted of typical Antoni A areas, and immunohistochemistry revealed a Schwann cell origin of the tumor cells moreover, there was no sign of axon differentiation in the tumor. Therefore, the final diagnosis of plexiform Schwannoma was confirmed.

  12. Brachial Plexus Block for Cancer-Related Pain: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinboonyahgoon, Nantthasorn; Vlassakov, Kamen; Abrecht, Christ R; Srinivasan, Suresh; Narang, Sanjeet

    2015-01-01

    Neoplastic brachial plexopathy (NBP) is caused by a cancerous infiltration into the brachial plexus, presenting often as severe pain in the affected upper extremity. Such pain can be resistant to medical treatment. Invasive interventions such as brachial plexus neurolysis with phenol or cordotomy may result in severe complications including permanent neurological damage and death. Continuous brachial plexus and paravertebral block with local anesthetic have been reported to successfully control pain from NBP, but these techniques are logistically challenging and frequently have catheter-related complications. We report a series of patients who received single-shot brachial plexus blocks with a mixture of local anesthetic and corticosteroid (bupivacaine 0.25% with methyl-prednisolone 20-120 mg) for the treatment of refractory cancer-related pain in the brachial plexus territory, mostly from NBP. Theoretically, such blocks could provide immediate analgesia from the local anesthetic and a longer-lasting analgesia from the slow-release steroids. Responders reported a sustained decrease in their pain (lasting from 2 weeks to 10 months), a significant decrease in their opioid and non-opioid (ketamine, gabapentin) consumption, overall satisfaction with the block, and unchanged or improved function of their limb. The ideal candidate for this procedure is a patient who has pain that is predominantly neuropathic from a lesion within the brachial plexus and with anatomy amenable to ultrasound-guided nerve block. Our case series suggests that, in the appropriately selected patient, this technique can safely and effectively alleviate pain from NBP. The procedure is simple, spares limb function, and can be diagnostic, predicting response to more complex procedures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using this technique for NBP.

  13. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: Two Single-Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesch, Francisca Eugster

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and receive preliminary information about functional improvements. Two patients (age 12 years) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included for a 126-h home-based CIMT…

  14. Brachial plexopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Khadilkar, Satish V; Snehaldatta S Khade

    2013-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury can occur as a result of trauma, inflammation or malignancies, and associated complications. The current topic is concerned with various forms of brachial plexopathy, its clinical features, pathophysiology, imaging findings, and management. Idiopathic brachial neuritis (IBN), often preceded with antecedent events such as infection, commonly present with abruptonset painful asymmetric upper limb weakness with associated wasting around the shoulder girdle and arm muscles....

  15. Reversal of phantom pain and hand-to-face remapping after brachial plexus avulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jack W; Finn, Sacha B; Miller, Matthew E

    2016-06-01

    Following left brachial plexus avulsion, a 20-year-old man had phantom limb pain and remapping of sensation from his paralyzed hand onto his face. Mirror therapy (15 min daily, 5 days/week) led immediately to good movement of the phantom limb with decreased pain. Within 2 weeks following nerve graft surgery, remapping of hand sensation onto the face disappeared along with resolution of phantom limb pain. Mirror therapy coupled with nerve grafting may relieve phantom limb pain due to brachial plexus avulsion and reverse hand-to-face remapping, suggesting that both peripheral and central mechanisms mediate development of phantom limb pain and cortical reorganization/neuroplasticity after brachial plexus avulsion. PMID:27547774

  16. Algorithm for treatment of children of first months of life with brachial plexus birth palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Крюкова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the algorithm for treatment designed specially for medical doctors who are involved in treatment process of children with brachial plexus birth palsy during first few months of their life.Materials and methods. We analyzed domestic and foreign literature which highlights the problem of brachial plexus birth palsy.Results. Key-moments of diagnostic and treatment of these patients were discovered. Based-upon them algorithm was developed.Conclusion. Integration of developed algorithm in clinical practice is essential for understanding the etiology, pathogenesis, natural history, differential diagnostic and prior treatment by medical doctors of different specialties to improve the quantity of medical service.

  17. Perspectives on glenohumeral joint contractures and shoulder dysfunction in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbaoui, Idris S; Gogola, Gloria R; Aaron, Dorit H; Kozin, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder joint deformities continue to be a challenging aspect of treating upper plexus lesions in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP). It is increasingly recognized that PBPP affects the glenohumeral joint specifically, and that abnormal scapulothoracic movements are a compensatory development. The pathophysiology and assessment of glenohumeral joint contractures, the progression of scapular dyskinesia and skeletal dysplasia, and current shoulder imaging techniques are reviewed. PMID:25835253

  18. REGIONAL ANESTHESIA CONTINUOUS BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK WITH ULTRASONOGRAPHY GUIDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. A. Senapathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regional anesthesia has an anti-inflammatory effect that blockade the C-fiber hence reduced cytokine production and blocked the activity of the sympathetic nerve fibers. Postoperative pain caused primarily by tissue inflammation and activity of the C-fibers in the manner of reduced the production of cytokines, regional anesthesia may limit the inflammatory response after surgery and severity of postoperative pain. Methods: This study is a clinical experimental study with randomized pre and post test control group design. A total of 24 samples were recruited in this study divided into two groups each consisting of 12 samples. The first group was given regional anesthesia method of continuous brachial plexus block with ultrasound guidance and the second group with general anesthesia method. T-test or Mann-Whitney continued multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the differences in treatment and not because of differences in the initial values with significance level of p<0.05. Results: This study reports that the mean decreased levels of IL-6 postoperatively in 1stgroup is 29.8 lower than in 2ndgroup and it is statistically significant p< 0.05. There was an increase of IL-10 mean levels from preoperative to postoperatively with significance level of p<0.05 in both groups. Declined in the mean levels of PAF postoperatively in 1st group 1.3 lower than 2nd group and it was statistically significant p<0.05. The declined of  postoperative VAS in 1st group is 3.1 lower than 2nd group and it is statistically significant p< 0.05, and it also contained the pure effect of PAF levels against value of VAS that any increased 1ng/ml levels of PAF then an increase in the value of 0.18 cm VAS and this was statistically significant p<0.05. Selection of this anesthesia technique in orthopedic antebrachii surgery provides better inflammatory response and improved clinical outcomes.

  19. International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Committee report: the role of nerve transfers in the treatment of neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Raymond; Kozin, Scott H; Malessy, Martijn J; Clarke, Howard M

    2015-06-01

    Nerve transfers have gained popularity in the treatment of adult brachial plexus palsy; however, their role in the treatment of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) remains unclear. Brachial plexus palsies in infants differ greatly from those in adults in the patterns of injury, potential for recovery, and influences of growth and development. This International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand committee report on NBPP is based upon review of the current literature. We found no direct comparisons of nerve grafting to nerve transfer for primary reconstruction of NBPP. Although the results contained in individual reports that use each strategy for treatment of Erb palsy are similar, comparison of nerve transfer to nerve grafting is limited by inconsistencies in outcomes reported, by multiple confounding factors, and by small numbers of patients. Although the role of nerve transfers for primary reconstruction remains to be defined, nerve transfers have been found to be effective and useful in specific clinical circumstances including late presentation, isolated deficits, failed primary reconstruction, and multiple nerve root avulsions. In the case of NBPP more severe than Erb palsy, nerve transfers alone are inadequate to address all of the deficits and should only be considered as adjuncts if maximal re-innervation is to be achieved. Surgeons who commit to care of infants with NBPP need to avoid an over-reliance on nerve transfers and should also have the capability and inclination for brachial plexus exploration and nerve graft reconstruction. PMID:25936735

  20. A Novel Approach to Brachial Plexus Catheter Management: A Brachial Plexus Test Dose for Phrenic Nerve Paralysis and Patient-Controlled, Demand-Only Dosing for a Patient With Extreme Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Adam W; Lin, Shin-E; Hanson, Neil A; Auyong, David B

    2016-09-15

    A 53-year-old woman with extreme obesity (body mass index = 82 kg/m) presented for an open reduction and internal fixation of the proximal humerus. This report describes the novel management of her continuous brachial plexus catheter in the setting of her comorbidities. Phrenic nerve paralysis from brachial plexus blocks can cause clinically significant dyspnea in obese patients. Brachial plexus catheters can be used effectively for these patients with some modification to routine management. We detail our use of a short-acting chloroprocaine test dose for phrenic paralysis and demand-only dosing to provide effective analgesia while avoiding respiratory complications associated with these blocks. PMID:27464944

  1. Ipsilateral Brachial Plexus Block and Hemidiaphragmatic Paresis as Adverse Effect of a High Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, Steven H.; van Geffen, Geert J.; Snoeren, Miranda M.; Gielen, Matthieu J.; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thoracic paravertebral block is regularly used for unilateral chest and abdominal surgery and is associated with a low complication rate. Case Reports: We describe 2 patients with an ipsilateral brachial plexus block with Horner syndrome after a high continuous thoracic paravertebral blo

  2. Distal infrared thermography and skin temperature after ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Semera; Bjerregaard, Lars S; Lundstrøm, Lars H;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increases in skin temperature may be used as an early predictor of the success of interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB), but we lack detailed information on the thermographic response. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and characterise the thermographic response after IBPBs. DESIGN...

  3. Does the Addition of Tramadol and Ketamine to Ropivacaine Prolong the Axillary Brachial Plexus Block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Can Senel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the effect of tramadol and ketamine, 50 mg, added to ropivacaine in brachial plexus anesthesia. Methods. Thirty-six ASA physical statuses I and II patients, between 18 and 60 years of age, scheduled for forearm and hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were allocated to 3 groups. Group R received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL, group RT received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg tramadol, and group RK received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg ketamine for axillary brachial plexus block. The onset times and the duration of sensory and motor blocks, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, and adverse events (nausea, vomiting, and feeling uncomfortable were recorded. Results. The onset time of sensorial block was the fastest in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of sensorial and motor block was the shortest in the ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Conclusion. We conclude that when added to brachial plexus analgesia at a dose of 50 mg, tramadol extends the onset and duration time of the block and improves the quality of postoperative analgesia without any side effects.

  4. Bilateral brachial plexus blocks in a patient of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy with hypertensive crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Rohini V Bhat; Hegde, Harihar V; Santhosh, McB; Roopa, S; Deshpande, Shrinivas S; Rao, P Raghavendra

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is a challenge to anesthesiologists due to the complex pathophysiology involved and various perioperative complications associated with it. We present a 50-year-old man, a known case of HOCM, who successfully underwent emergency haemostasis, and debridement of the traumatically amputated right upper limb and the contused lacerated wound on the left forearm under bilateral brachial plexus blocks. His co-morbidities included hypertension (in hypertensive crisis) and diabetes mellitus. He was full stomach and also had an anticipated difficult airway. The management included invasive pressure monitoring and labetalol infusion for emergent control of blood pressure. The regional anaesthesia technique required careful consideration to the dosage of local anaesthetics and staggered performance of brachial plexus blocks on each of the upper limbs to avoid local anaesthetic toxicity. Even though bilateral brachial plexus blocks are rarely indicated, it seemed to be the most appropriate anaesthetic technique in our patient. With careful consideration of the local anaesthetic toxicity and meticulous technique, bilateral brachial plexus blocks can be successfully performed in those patients where general anaesthesia is deemed to be associated with higher risk.

  5. Bilateral brachial plexus blocks in a patient of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy with hypertensive crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini V Bhat Pai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM is a challenge to anesthesiologists due to the complex pathophysiology involved and various perioperative complications associated with it. We present a 50-year-old man, a known case of HOCM, who successfully underwent emergency haemostasis, and debridement of the traumatically amputated right upper limb and the contused lacerated wound on the left forearm under bilateral brachial plexus blocks. His co-morbidities included hypertension (in hypertensive crisis and diabetes mellitus. He was full stomach and also had an anticipated difficult airway. The management included invasive pressure monitoring and labetalol infusion for emergent control of blood pressure. The regional anaesthesia technique required careful consideration to the dosage of local anaesthetics and staggered performance of brachial plexus blocks on each of the upper limbs to avoid local anaesthetic toxicity. Even though bilateral brachial plexus blocks are rarely indicated, it seemed to be the most appropriate anaesthetic technique in our patient. With careful consideration of the local anaesthetic toxicity and meticulous technique, bilateral brachial plexus blocks can be successfully performed in those patients where general anaesthesia is deemed to be associated with higher risk.

  6. Variation in brachial plexus formation, branching pattern and relation with major vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anwer Khan

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The present study carried out on adult human cadavers revealed some rare variations in the formation, branching pattern and relations of the brachial plexus. These variations are of clinical significance for the surgeons, radiologists and the anesthesiologists. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1591-1594

  7. A clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, S F

    2012-05-01

    Competency in anesthesia traditionally has been determined subjectively in practice. Optimal training in procedural skills requires valid and reliable forms of assessment. The objective was to examine a procedure-specific clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block for inter-rater reliability and construct validity in a clinical setting.

  8. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF FENTANYL AND DEXMEDETOMIDINE IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK ACHIEVED WITH ROPIVACAINE

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    Soma C.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Supraclavicular block of brachial plexus provides complete and reliable anaesthesia for upper limb surgeries. Ropivacaine, is an affective local anaesthetic in for brachial plexus anaesthesia. It is a potent blocker of Aδ and C fibres, rendering good sensory effect but le ss motor blockade. We evaluated the anaesthetic quality and length of analgesia with the addition of either fentanyl or dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for Supraclavicular brachial plexus block. METHODS: In a prospective clinical trial, 90 patients were ran domly allocated to either receive 30 ml ropivacaine 0.5% (Group R, 30 ml ropivacaine 0.5% with fentanyl 50 mcg (Group RF or 30 ml ropivacaine 0.5% with dexmedetomedine 50 mcg (Group RD in Supraclavicular brachial plexus. The characteristics for anaesthe sia and analgesia were assessed for the three groups. OBSERVATIONS: Demographic profile was comparable in the groups. The onset of analgesia and time to complete analgesia was enhanced in Group RD and Group RF compared to Group R. Prolongation of sensory b lockade and motor blockade with extended duration of postoperative analgesia was observed in Group RD and Group RF compared to Group R. There were minimum haemodynamic disturbances and side - effects in any group except f or Grade 3 sedation score which was f requently noted in patients receiving dexmedetomidine as adjunct. RESULTS: Compared to the use of ropivacaine 0.5%, 30 ml alone for supraclavicular brachial plexus block, the addition of 50 mcg fentanyl or 50 mcg dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine enhanced onset of block and also increased duration of surgical anaesthesia with prolongation of post - operative analgesia. Furthermore blockade characteristics improved better with addition of dexmedetomodine than fentanyl without increasing incidence of unwanted s ide - effects.

  9. Brachial plexopathy

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    Satish V Khadilkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injury can occur as a result of trauma, inflammation or malignancies, and associated complications. The current topic is concerned with various forms of brachial plexopathy, its clinical features, pathophysiology, imaging findings, and management. Idiopathic brachial neuritis (IBN, often preceded with antecedent events such as infection, commonly present with abruptonset painful asymmetric upper limb weakness with associated wasting around the shoulder girdle and arm muscles. Idiopathic hypertrophic brachial neuritis, a rare condition, is usually painless to begin with, unlike IBN. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by repeated episodes of paralysis and sensory disturbances in an affected limb, which is preceded by severe pain. While the frequency of the episodes tends to decrease with age, affected individuals suffer from residual deficits. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome affects the lower trunk of the brachial plexus. It is diagnosed on the basis of electrophysiology and is amenable to surgical intervention. Cancer-related brachial plexopathy may occur secondary to metastatic infiltration or radiation therapy. Traumatic brachial plexus injury is commonly encountered in neurology, orthopedic, and plastic surgery set-ups. Trauma may be a direct blow or traction or stretch injury. The prognosis depends on the extent and site of injury as well as the surgical expertise.

  10. Brachial plexopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Satish V; Khade, Snehaldatta S

    2013-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury can occur as a result of trauma, inflammation or malignancies, and associated complications. The current topic is concerned with various forms of brachial plexopathy, its clinical features, pathophysiology, imaging findings, and management. Idiopathic brachial neuritis (IBN), often preceded with antecedent events such as infection, commonly present with abruptonset painful asymmetric upper limb weakness with associated wasting around the shoulder girdle and arm muscles. Idiopathic hypertrophic brachial neuritis, a rare condition, is usually painless to begin with, unlike IBN. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by repeated episodes of paralysis and sensory disturbances in an affected limb, which is preceded by severe pain. While the frequency of the episodes tends to decrease with age, affected individuals suffer from residual deficits. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome affects the lower trunk of the brachial plexus. It is diagnosed on the basis of electrophysiology and is amenable to surgical intervention. Cancer-related brachial plexopathy may occur secondary to metastatic infiltration or radiation therapy. Traumatic brachial plexus injury is commonly encountered in neurology, orthopedic, and plastic surgery set-ups. Trauma may be a direct blow or traction or stretch injury. The prognosis depends on the extent and site of injury as well as the surgical expertise. PMID:23661957

  11. Brachial and lumbar plexuses in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: MRI assessment including apparent diffusion coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Yuko; Sato, Noriko; Yamashita, Fumio; Kida, Jiro; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Okamoto, Tomoko [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, Masayuki; Komaki, Hirofumi [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Child Neurology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medial University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Iruma-gun, Saitama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Our purpose was to clarify the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of the brachial and lumbar plexuses in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) using various kinds of sequences, including diffusion-weighted images (DWI). We evaluated the MR imaging findings for lumbar and/or brachial nerve plexuses in 13 CIDP patients and 11 normal volunteers. The nerve swelling was evaluated in comparison with normal controls by coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and signal abnormalities were evaluated by coronal STIR, T1-weighted images, and DWIs. The degrees of contrast enhancement and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the plexus were also assessed. In the patient group, diffuse enlargement and abnormally high signals were detected in 16 out of 24 plexuses (66.7%) on STIR, a slightly high signal was detected in 12 of 24 plexuses (50%) on T1-weighted images, and a high-intensity signal was detected in 10 of 18 plexuses (55.6%) on DWIs with high ADC values. Contrast enhancement of the plexuses was revealed in 6 of 19 plexuses (31.6%) and was mild in all cases. There were statistically significant differences between the ADC values of patients with either swelling or abnormal signals and those of both normal volunteers and patients without neither swelling nor abnormal signals. There were no relationships between MR imaging and any clinical findings. STIR is sufficient to assist clinicians in diagnosing CIDP. T1-weighted images and DWIs seemed useful for speculating about the pathological changes in swollen plexuses in CIDP patients. (orig.)

  12. EFFECT OF BUPRENORPHINE ON POST OPERATIVE ANALGESI A IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK USING PERIPHE RAL NERVE LOCATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh; De, Vivek; Gayatri.V

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Supraclavicular brachial plexus block is known for its simplicity, effectiveness, safety, reliability and being economical for day ca re and emergency surgery, circumventing problems of full stomach. In our randomized prospective, double blind study, t otal 60 adult ASA class I and II patients undergoing upper limb surgeri es were given supraclavicular brachial plexus block with peripheral nerve locator and studied for effect of addition of buprenor...

  13. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound guidance facilitates precise needle and injectate placement, increasing axillary block success rates, reducing onset times, and permitting local anesthetic dose reduction. The minimum effective volume of local anesthetic in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is unknown. The authors performed a study to estimate the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (2% LidoEpi) in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder in children with brachial plexus birth palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudinchet, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Maeder, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Oberson, J.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Schnyder, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    Five patients suffering from Erb-Duchenne brachial plexus birth palsy were prospectively studied with MRI. A group of 11 healthy children was used as a control to understand the MRI anatomy of the normal growing glenohumeral joint. A hypoplastic and flattened posterior part of the glenoid fossa and a blunt posterior labrum were found in all patients. Four patients had a blunt anterior labrum and a flattened humeral head. Three patients presented with a posterior subluxation of the humeral head. These results suggest that MRI provides a non-ionising and non-invasive method of demonstrating the early abnormalities of the shoulder associated with obstetrical brachial plexus paralysis, which may prompt orthopaedic correction. (orig.)

  15. Multiple unilateral variations in medial and lateral cords of brachial plexus and their branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Shivi; Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Kumar, Ashwani; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    During routine dissection of the upper extremity of an adult male cadaver, multiple variations in branches of medial and lateral cords of brachial plexus were encountered. Three unique findings were observed. First, intercordal neural communications between the lateral and medial cords were observed. Second, two lateral pectoral nerves and one medial pectoral nerve were seen to arise from the lateral and medial cord respectively. The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis. Finally, the ulnar nerve arose by two roots from the medial cord. Knowledge of such variations is of interest to anatomists, radiologists, neurologists, anesthesiologists, and surgeons. The aim of our study is to provide additional information about abnormal brachial plexus and its clinical implications.

  16. Convulsion due to levobupivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Düger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Axillary brachial plexus block is an effective method of anaesthesia for the surgeries performed on the hand, forearm and distal third of the arm. However it has the risk of serious complications such as cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity. Levobupivacaine is a long acting amide local anaesthetic used for epidural, caudal, spinal, infiltration and peripheral nerve blocks. Levobupivacaine is the S (- isomer of racemic bupivacaine and has a lower risk of cardiovascular, central nervous system toxicity than bupivacaine. However central system toxicity cases due to absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation has been reported. Here, we report a case having no vascular puncture during axillary brachial plexus block performance but developing convulsion due to levobupivacain after the intervention.

  17. Proactive error analysis of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block performance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Owen

    2012-07-13

    Detailed description of the tasks anesthetists undertake during the performance of a complex procedure, such as ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade, allows elements that are vulnerable to human error to be identified. We have applied 3 task analysis tools to one such procedure, namely, ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blockade, with the intention that the results may form a basis to enhance training and performance of the procedure.

  18. On the rotational deformity of the shoulder following an obstetric brachial plexus palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    An internal rotation deformity of the shoulder occurs very frequently in brachial plexus birth palsy. Even though surprisingly accurate descriptions of the deformity were already published at the beginning of the 1900s, the nature of the deformity is not well understood and there is no consensus regarding surgical treatment. This thesis was aimed at improving the scientific basis for surgical treatment of the deformity. In study I the passive mechanical properties of ...

  19. Operative treatment of medial rotation contracture of the shoulder caused by obstetric brachial plexus palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To introduce an operation of subscapularis slide from its origin and anterior release from its insertion for treatment of medial rotation contracture, subluxation and dislocation of the shoulder caused by obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). Methods: Thirty-six cases with medial rotation contracture of the shoulder were diagnosed by measurement of the inferior glenohumeral angle, passive lateral rotation of the shoulder and plain radiographs. Subscapularis slide was performed in 24 cases with simple medial rotation contracture, and anterior release in 12 cases with complex contracture-medial rotation contracture combined with subluxation, dislocation, or other deformities of the shoulder joint. Systems of Mallet scoring and Gilbert grading for the shoulder were used to evaluate the postoperative shoulder function. Results: With follow up for a minimum of six months, 32 cases got apparent gains from operations,accounting for 88.8% of the total operated on. The younger the child was, the better the result. Of 4 cases with no operative effects, 3 had no flexion of the elbow preoperatively, suggesting a poor recovery of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus; the rest one had no repair of the severed subscapularis tendon. Conclusions: Subscapularis slide and anterior release of the shoulder are effective for treatment of medial rotation contracture as well as its consequence of subluxation and dislocation of the shoulder in OBPP. The operative effect is related to children's age and the recovery extent of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus.

  20. Guillain-Barré syndrome after brachial plexus trauma: case report Síndrome de Guillain-Barré após traumatismo de plexo braquial: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos R.G. Freitas; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Maria Beatriz B.P. Harouche; Adolfo Vasconcelos; Heloy Darroz Jr; Tânia Maria Escada

    2006-01-01

    The Guilllain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute predominantly demyelinating polyneuropathy. In many cases GBS is preceding by infection, immunization, surgery or trauma. Although there are a few reports of GBS after head trauma, there is no report of this syndrome after brachial plexus injury. We report on a 51 years-old man who presented GBS fifteen days after a brachial plexus trauma. The polineuropathy resolved completely in a few weeks. We believe that GBS was triggered by the trauma that ...

  1. Ultrasound study of brachial plexus%臂丛神经的超声解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文; 郭瑞军; 周亚静; 张淼; 于泽兴; 梁晓宁

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the anatomic character of brachial plexus nerve by ultrasonography,and provide a basis for ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block.Methods Twenty-four healthy volunteers were chosen for high-frequency sonography examination,the features of brachial plexus distributions were studied in the axilla location and the interscalene location.Results Brachial plexus of all the 24 cases were detected.At the axilla level,main braches of brachial plexus nerves were very close to the axillary artery.At the interscalene level,the brachial plexus was consistently found between the scalenus anterior and medius muscles in the interscalene groove.Conclusions Using high-frequency sonography,the main braches of brachial plexus can be observed clearly.%目的 应用超声研究臂丛神经解剖学特点,为超声引导臂丛神经阻滞提供解剖学依据.方法 应用高频超声研究24例健康人臂丛神经在腋路和肌间沟的解剖分布特点.结果 24例健康人臂丛神经完全显示.臂丛神经在腋路主要沿腋动脉走行;在肌间沟水平,臂丛神经分布于前、中斜角肌组成的肌间沟内.结论 超声能清晰显示臂丛神经各个主要分支.

  2. Ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block: a study on 30 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri HR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Successful brachial plexus blocks rely on proper techniques of nerve localization, needle placement, and local anesthetic injection. Standard approaches used today (elicitation of paresthesia or nerve-stimulated muscle contraction, unfortunately, are all "blind" techniques resulting in procedure-related pain and complications. Ultrasound guidance for brachial plexus blocks can potentially improve success and complication rates. This study presents the ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks for the first time in Iran in adults and pediatrics. "n"n Methods: In this study ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks in 30 patients (25 adults & 5 pediatrics scheduled for an elective upper extremity surgery, are introduced. Ultrasound imaging was used to identify the brachial plexus before the block, guide the block needle to reach target nerves, and visualize the pattern of local anesthetic spread. Needle position was further confirmed by nerve stimulation before injection. Besides basic variables, block approach, block time, postoperative analgesia duration (VAS<3 was considered as target pain control opioid consumption during surgery, patient satisfaction and block related complications were reported

  3. Unusual Origin of a Double Upper Subscapular Nerve from the Suprascapular Nerve and the Posterior Division of the Upper Trunk of the Brachial Plexus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos; Iliou, Kalliopi; Bitsis, Theodosios; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-01

    A double upper subscapular nerve on the right side was detected in a male cadaver, with the proximal one arising from the suprascapular nerve and the distal one from the posterior division of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. Both of them penetrated and supplied the uppermost portion of the right subscapularis muscle. That anatomic variation was associated with a median nerve formed by two lateral roots. The origin and pattern of the upper subscapular nerve displays high variability, however the presented combination of the variable origin of a double upper subscapular nerve has rarely been described in the literature. The knowledge of such an anatomic variation is essential for the surgeon operating in the region especially in instances of brachial plexus' repair after any traumatic injury. Moreover, the awareness of the precise origin and topography of these nerves is important for the physician attempting to block these nerves or utilizing these nerves as grafts for neurotization of adjacent damaged nerves of the brachial plexus. PMID:27504272

  4. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: Can excision of upper trunk neuroma and nerve grafting improve function in babies with adequate elbow flexion at nine months of age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenta, Anne E; Brooker, Jack; MacIssac, Zoe; Natali, Megan; Greene, Stephanie; Stanger, Meg; Grunwaldt, Lorelei

    2016-05-01

    Accepted indications for exploration in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) vary by center. Most agree that full elbow flexion against gravity at nine months of age implies high chance of spontaneous recovery and thus excludes a baby from surgical intervention. However, there are certain movements of the shoulder and forearm that may not be used frequently by the infant, but are extremely important functionally as they grow. These movements are difficult to assess in a baby and may lead to some clinicians to recommend conservative treatment, when this cohort of infants may in fact benefit substantially from surgery. A retrospective review was conducted on all infants managed surgically at the Brachial Plexus Center of a major children's hospital from 2009 to 2014. Further analysis identified five patients who had near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion but who had weakness of shoulder abduction, flexion, external rotation, and/or forearm supination. In contrast to standard conservative management, this cohort underwent exploration, C5-6 neuroma excision, and sural nerve grafting. Data analysis was performed on this group to look for overall improvement in function. During an average follow-up period of 29 months, all patients made substantial gains in motor function of the shoulder and forearm, without loss of elbow flexion or extension, or worsening of overall outcome. In select infants with brachial plexus injuries but near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion, surgical intervention may be indicated to achieve the best functional outcome. PMID:26806089

  5. Description of the brachial plexus of the short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis Sclater, 1882: case report

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    Luane Lopes Pinheiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis is one of the rarest species of South American canids. Aiming to describe the morphology of this animal and enhance the study of comparative neuroanatomy, we studied the anatomical makeup of the brachial plexus of a female specimen from Paragominas (PA. The specimen was donated, after natural death, to the Institute of Animal Health and Production (ISPA at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA. The animal was fixed in 10% formalin and later dissected bilaterally to reveal the origin of the brachial plexus. In A. microtis, the brachial plexus is derived from the ventral rami of the last three cervical spinal nerves and the first thoracic spinal nerve (C6-T1. The brachial plexus derivatives with their respective origins were: suprascapular n. (C6 and C7, subscapular n. (C6, musculocutaneous n. (C6 and C7, axillary n. (C6 and C7, radial n. (C7 and C8, median n. (C7, C8 and T1, ulnar n. (C8 and T1, thoracodorsal n. (C8 and T1, cranial pectoral nn. (C7, C8 and T1 and caudal pectoral nn. (C8 and T1. The brachial plexus of A. microtis resembled what has been described for the domestic dog, in relation to the origin of the initial and final segment, but showed differences in the composition of some nerves.

  6. Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study

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    Luiz Carlos Buarque de Gusmão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study shows how the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath occurs through the axillary infraclavicular space and hence proves the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. CONCLUSIONS: The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when it was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency.

  7. COMPARISON BETWEEN INTERSCALENE AND SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK: A CADAVERIC STUDY

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    Suvalagna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Without mastery of the anatomy, luck rather than skill becomes the primary determinant of successful neural blockade. In this educational study our intent was to compare the level of nerve roots blocked by these two techniques of peripheral nerve block, widely used in clinical anesthesia practice. AIMS: To have a three dimensional view of nerve plexus involvement in inter scalene and supraclavicular techniques of brachial plexus block and compare in between them. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 6 recently deceased cadavers preserved in formalin were used. In both the techniques the classical methods usually pursued in daily clinical practice were followed. Dyes used were methylene blue and tartrazine of same dilution. RESULTS: Careful dissection showed that in all cases of inter scalene approach the dye was more concentrated in upper and middle trunk than in lower trunk of brachial plexus. In contrast in supraclavicular approach dye concentration was more in lower and middle trunk and less in upper trunk. DISCUSSION: After reviewing the anatomy it can be concluded that injection of local anesthetic at the interscalene level tends to produce a block that is most intense at the C5-C7 distribution and injection at supraclavicular level provide more compact anesthesia in C8-T1 distribution. CONCLUSION: Supraclavicular block is preferable for operations on the elbow, forearm, and hand and inter scalene block for shoulder.

  8. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) in the trapezius muscle region alleviate chronic neuropathic pain after lower brachial plexus root avulsion lesion: A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann; Meier, Kaare; Perinpam, Larshan;

    Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) in the trapezius muscle region alleviate chronic neuropathic pain after lower brachial plexus root avulsion lesion: A case report......Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) in the trapezius muscle region alleviate chronic neuropathic pain after lower brachial plexus root avulsion lesion: A case report...

  9. Reimplantation combined with transplantation of transgenic neural stem cells for treatment of brachial plexus root avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lei; LU Lai-jin; MENG Xiao-ting; CHEN Dong; ZHANG Zhi-xin; YANG Fan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new method to treat brachial plexus root avulsion experimentally by reimplantation combined with transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) modified by neurotrophin-3 gene (NT-3).Methods: The total RNA was extracted from neonatal rat striatum and the NT-3 cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription and amplified by polymerase chain reaction.The NT-3 gene was transferred into NSCs via the pLEGFP-Cl,an expression plasmid vectors.The untransfected NSCs,the pLEGFP-Cl treated NSCs,and the pLEGFP-Cl-NT-3 treated NSCs were transplanted into corresponding spinal cord segment with brachial plexus root avulsion.The survival,differentiation,and migration of the transplanted cells were determined under confoeal laser scanning microscope or by immunohistochemistry method.The nerve regeneration was evaluated by gross observation,electrophysiologieal examination and reverse horseradish peroxidase tracing.Results: The NT-3 gene was successfully amplified and transferred into neural stem cells via the plasmid vectors.The transplanted cells survived,differentiated,and migrated and NT-3 was expressed within the spinal cord.The animals regained some muscle strength which was less than 3-degree muscular strength according to the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) evaluating system.The resuits of electrophysiological examination and reverse horseradish peroxidase tracing were superior in the pLEGFP-Cl-NT-3 group to the NSCs untransfected group orthe pLEGFP-Cl group.Conclusion: Transplantation of NSCs modified by NT-3gene combined with reimplantantion is a relatively effective way to treat brachial plexus root avuision experimentally.It still need further study to improve the results.

  10. STUDY & EVALUATE THE COMPARISON OF PLAIN LIGNOCAINE AND LIGNACAINE WITH SODIUM BICARBONATE EFFECTS IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS : supraclavicular brachial plexus block is usually used to anaesthetize the upper limb for the purpose of upper limb surgeries. Drugs like Lignocaine , Bupiv a caine are used for this block and some additives are added to prolong the duration and quality of bl ockade. The present study is aimed to evaluate the comparison of plain lignocaine and lign o caine with sodium bicarbonate in supraclavicular brachial plexus block by means of the onset time of sensory and motor blockade, the quality of sensory and motor blo ckade , and the duration of blockade . METHODS : Sixty patients aged between 18 and 60 years of physical status ASA 1 and 2 undergoing upper limb surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block was performed after eliciting paraesthesia. The patients in Group I (n=30 received 25ml of 1% plain lignocaine (prepared by adding 12.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. The patients in th e Group II (study group received 25ml of 1% alkalinized lignocaine (prepared by adding 3ml of 7.5% sodium bicarbonate and 9.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. RESULTS : The present study entitled Comparison of effects of plain lignoc aine and lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate on brachial plexus block concludes that, the onset time of sensory and motor blockade is lesser with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine (4.13, 11.1minutes when compared to plain lignocaine(9.73, 21.1minutes in supraclavicular brachial plexus block, the quality of sensory and motor blockade is better with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine, the duration of motor and sensory blockade was significantly prolonged when lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate was used in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

  11. Finger reconstruction for the radiation-induced brachial plexus paralysis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuji; Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Ishida, Osamu; Takata, Haruhiko; Kimori, Kenji; Ochi, Mitsuo [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-01-01

    The patient is a 70-year-old woman. She received right mastectomy and irradiation (4000 rad) for breast cancer 17 years ago. She was referred with numbness of right fingers, muscle weakness and hypoaesthesia. X-ray photography revealed atrophy of the claviculus and the humerus and osteolysis. No recurrence or metastasis of the tumor was found on MRI and bone scintigraphy. She was diagnosed of radiation-induced brachial plexus paralysis. The finger reconstruction was performed and the function recovered. (H.O.)

  12. Discussion on the application of 3D SPACE sequence to display normal brachial plexus%SPACE序列在正常臂丛神经节后段磁共振成像中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文宇; 周淑琴; 陈志光

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of enhanced 3D SPACE sequence in displaying brachial plexus. Methods:35 healthy volunteers with no history of brachial plexus injury of brachial plexus MRI examinations by DWIBS scan, and SPACE scanned. Analysis and comparison of DWIBS sequences, sequences of SPACE provides a clear display of the brachial plexus, and two sets of image sequence average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Results:A total of 35 cases 70 lateral brachial plexus after coronary DWIBS is clearly displayed on the sequence;the partial medial cord of brachial plexus, beams and lateral beams can also be displayed in the SPACE sequence. SPACE sequence of image signal-to-noise ratio and contrast noise ratio than the DWIBS sequence, and the difference is statistically significant. Conclusion:SPACE sequence can clearly show the brachial plexus, and DWIBS sequences compared to the normal image has a higher resolution of the brachial plexus.%目的:探讨SPACE序列三维快速自旋回波成像技术在正常臂丛神经节后段磁共振成像中的应用价值。方法:对35名无臂丛神经损伤病史的健康志愿者行臂丛神经DWIBS序列、SPACE序列扫描。分析比较DWIBS序列、SPACE序列可清晰显示臂丛神经的数目,以及两组序列图像平均信噪比(SNR)和对比噪声比(CNR)。结果:35名共70侧臂丛神经节后段在冠状DWIBS序列、SPACE序列上均能清晰显示,SPACE序列中部分臂丛内侧束、后束和外侧束也可显示。SPACE序列的图像信噪比和对比噪声比高于DWIBS序列,且差异具有统计学意义。结论:SPACE序列可以清楚地显示臂丛神经节后段,与DWIBS序列相比较对正常臂丛神经显像具有更高的清晰度。

  13. Faster onset time of supraclavicular brachial plexus block using local anesthetic diluted with dextrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jin Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: A high sodium concentration is known to antagonize local anesthetics when infiltrated around neural tissue. Thus, we hypothesized that the onset time for sensory and motor blockade, in supraclavicular brachial plexus block using ropivacaine diluted with dextrose would be shorter than with saline. Methods: Patients scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomized to receive ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine. Evaluation of sensory and motor blockade was performed every 5 min for 60 min. Patients were followed-up on postoperative day 1, and between days 7 and 10 for the presence of any complications. Twenty-five patients in each group were analyzed. Results: Mean time for onset of analgesia for the dextrose group was 37.6 ± 12.9 min while the mean time for the saline group was 45.2 ± 13.9 min with a p-value of 0.05. The effect size was 0.567, which was moderate to large. No major complications were observed. Conclusion: We conclude that there was a decrease in onset time of analgesia when dextrose was used as a diluent instead of saline for ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

  14. Recovery of brachial plexus lesions resulting from heavy backpack use: A follow-up case series

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    Pihlajamäki Harri K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachial plexus lesions as a consequence of carrying a heavy backpack have been reported, but the typical clinical course and long-term consequences are not clear. Here we evaluated the clinical course and pattern of recovery of backpack palsy (BPP in a large series of patients. Methods Thirty-eight consecutive patients with idiopathic BPP were identified from our population of 193,450 Finnish conscripts by means of computerised register. A physiotherapist provided instructions for proper hand use and rehabilitative exercises at disease onset. The patients were followed up for 2 to 8 years from the diagnosis. We also searched for genetic markers of hereditary neuropathy with pressure palsies. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to analyze continuous data. The Fischer's exact test was used to assess two-way tables. Results Eighty percent of the patients recovered totally within 9 months after the onset of weakness. Prolonged symptoms occurred in 15% of the patients, but daily activities were not affected. The weight of the carried load at the symptom onset significantly affected the severity of the muscle strength loss in the physiotherapeutic testing at the follow-up. The initial electromyography did not predict recovery. Genetic testing did not reveal de novo hereditary neuropathy with pressure palsies. Conclusions The prognosis of BPP is favorable in the vast majority of cases. Electromyography is useful for diagnosis. To prevent brachial plexus lesions, backpack loads greater than 40 kg should be avoided.

  15. Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Takeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90 of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block. METHODS: Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5 mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous. The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block; a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability or the same concentration (0.9 probability. Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4 h after the blockade. RESULTS: MEC90 was 0.241% [R 2: 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20-0.34%]. No patient, with successful block, reported pain after 4 h. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations.

  16. Brachial plexus block using lidocaine/epinephrine or lidocaine/xylazine in fat-tailed sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghadirian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This blinded, randomized experimental study was designed to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding epinephrine or xylazine to lidocaine solution for brachial plexus block (BPB in sheep. Nine healthy, fat-tailed female lambs (26.6 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated into three groups: lidocaine 2%, 5 mg kg-1 (LID, n = 6, lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with epinephrine 5 μg mL-1 (LIDEP, n = 6 or lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with xylazine 0.05 mg kg-1 (LIDXY, n = 6. Each animal was tested twice. The sheep received a total volume of 0.25 mL kg-1 for BPB. A nerve stimulator was used to locate the nerves of the brachial plexus. Onset and duration of analgesia of the forelimb were evaluated using superficial and deep pin prick and pinching of skin with a hemostat clamp. Heart and respiratory rates, and rectal temperature were recorded before and at predetermined intervals following the completion of the block. Brachial administration of LID, LIDEP or LIDXY produced forelimb analgesia within 11.3, 11.0 and 7.0 minutes, respectively. The mean duration of analgesia was 100.0 min in LID and 133.2 min in LIDEP group. The mean duration of analgesia in LIDXY group (186.8 min was significantly longer compared with LID group. In LIDEP group a significant increase in heart rate occurred 5 min after drug administration. Heart rate decreased from 35 to 80 min in sheep received LIDXY. In conclusion, the addition of xylazine to lidocaine solution for BBP provided a prolonged duration of action without any adverse effects in fat-tailed sheep.

  17. Ultrasound-guided training in the performance of brachial plexus block by the posterior approach: an observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, G.J. van; Rettig, H.C.; Koornwinder, T.; Renes, S.; Gielen, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The application of ultrasonography in guiding and controlling the path of the stimulating needle to the brachial plexus via the posterior approach (Pippa technique) was studied. In 21 ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients, scheduled for surgery of the shoulder or upper arm, needle insertion was monit

  18. Group A Streptococcal Suppurative Arthritis and Osteomyelitis of the Shoulder With Brachial Plexus Palsy in a Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierig, Alexa; Ritz, Nicole; Tacke, Uta; Heininger, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    Osteoarticular infections in the newborn period are rare. A serious complication is paralysis of the affected extremity resulting from either pain or direct involvement of the nerve. We report a newborn with combined osteomyelitis and suppurative arthritis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes presenting with right brachial plexus palsy. PMID:27622687

  19. Clonidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetic in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a randomized, double blinded placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Rustagi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Clonidine 2 and micro;g / kg added to 10 ml of 0.5 % Bupivacaine + 20 ml of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:200000 is a good option for improving the quality and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1892-1897

  20. Supra-Clavicular Brachial Plexus Block: Ultra-Sonography Guided Technique Offer Advantage Over Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutika B Rupera

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonography guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block is quick to perform, offers improved safety and accuracy in identifying the position of the nerves to be blocked and of the structures. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 241-244

  1. Effectiveness of low-field magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing brachial plexus tumours in dogs – short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamiak Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI sequences that contribute to a quick and reliable diagnosis of brachial plexus tumours in dogs. The tumours were successfully diagnosed in 6 dogs by the MRI with the use of SE, FSE, STIR, Turbo 3 D, 3D HYCE, and GE sequences and the gadolinium contrast agent

  2. Perioperative nursing of 4 children receiving contralateral healthy cervical seventh nerve root transfer for brachial plexus injury%4例儿童臂丛神经损伤健侧C(7)椎体前移位直接修复术的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天雯; 何翠环; 戚剑; 顾立强; 陈晓玲; 刘巧梨; 桂自珍; 刘回芬

    2011-01-01

    总结了4例儿童臂丛神经损伤健侧C(7)椎体前移位直接修复术围手术期的护理体会.术前通过心理护理、预防再损伤及功能锻炼、疼痛护理及术前体位训练等,患者情绪稳定,患者及家属对患者的伤残接受程度提高,患肢未出现再损伤.术后做好体位护理、病情观察、功能锻炼及出院指导,患儿术后康复过程顺利,切口Ⅰ级愈合,能够配合进行功能锻炼.%This paper summarizes the experience of perioperative nursing for 4 children receiving contralateral healthy cervical seventh nerve root transfer for brachial plexus injury. Before the operation,nursing care focused on psychological nursing,prevention from re-injury,functional training,pain management and posture training. The children and parents could face up the state of injury and keep calm in mood,and no re-injury occurred. The postoperative care included posture care,disease observation,functional training and discharge instruction. As a result,the children had a smooth recovery period after the operation. They could cooperate with physical therapy and the wounds healed well.

  3. 彩色多普勒超声诊断臂丛神经断裂水平和缺损长度%Diagnosis of fracture level and defect length of the brachial plexus by the color Doppler ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁沅; 胡玉珍; 弥娜; 张国庆

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the feasibility of preparing the model of the brachial plexus by the method of color Doppler ultrasound and observe the fracture level and the defect length. Methods: Ten healthy adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups, 10 in each group with self double side control. Then portable SonoScape color Doppler instrument with the probe coil of 9 to 13 MHZ frequency was used in each side to observe the living brachial plexus and record the feature of the anatomical localization. On the left side, the model of open injury of the brachial plexus was produced while on the counterpart of the right arm, the model of the brachial plexus injury was made under the guidance of the ultrasound, and then the changes of the ultrasound imaging and tissue's pathology patterns were observed before and after the modeling. Results:The rabbit brachial plexus of less than lmm length and the concomitant vascular relationship on the basis of the blood flow distribution on the color Doppler can be displayed by ultrasound. The changes of the vaginal cuff and the surrounding tissues after the brachial plexus' injury can be observed and the brachial plexus injury can be finally located. Conclusion:Under the guidance of the ultrasound, a model of injury of the brachial plexus can be established, which may provide a good experimental basis of animal model for the clinical diagnosis of the brachial plexus injury and accurate location.%目的:探讨应用彩色多普勒方法制备臂丛神经损伤模型的可行性并对断端及缺损长度进行观察.方法:健康成年新西兰大耳白兔10只,设动物两侧自身对照,分为两组,各组10侧.均应用SonoScape S8便携式彩超仪,探头频率9~13 MHz,观察活体臂丛神经,并记录解剖定位特征.左侧制作臂丛神经损伤开放性损伤模型,右侧在超声引导下制作臂丛神经损伤闭合性损伤模型,观察造模前后超声影像学变化及组织病理学形态改变.结果:

  4. Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A novel anesthetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder Pal; Mahindra, Malika; Gupta, Ruchi; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Supplementation of dexmedetomidine produces a dose-dependent sedation, anxiolysis and analgesia without respiratory depression. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible effect of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block in upper limb surgery. Settings and Design: Tertiary care institute, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, a placebo-controlled study. Materials and Methods: After obtaining Ethical Committee approval, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II patients in the age group of 18–60 years, divided randomly into two groups, Group I received 30 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine with 1 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution and Group II received 30 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine and 1 ml (100 mcg) of dexmedetomidine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, duration of analgesia (DOA) and any adverse effects were noted. At the end of the study, data were compiled and analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. The value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Demographic profile was comparable in both the groups. The time to onset of sensory and motor block was 10.54 ± 2.333 min and 12.21 ± 2.529 min in Group I while it was 3.24 ± 0.951 min and 2.83 ± 1.197 min in Group II, respectively. The duration of sensory and motor block was 7.79 ± 2.007 h and 9.18 ± 1.701 h in Group I, and it was 16.31 ± 2.606 h and 17.52 ± 2.098 h in Group II, respectively. The DOA was 678.68 ± 20.492 min in Group I and 1273.79 ± 83.139 min in Group II. On statistical comparison, these values were highly significant (P < 0.001). Side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hypoxemia, pruritis, or urinary retention were not observed in either of the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine shortens the onset time for sensory and motor block

  5. Preoperative diagnosis of tumors of the brachial plexus by use of computed tomography in three dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three dogs with forelimb lameness of 3 months' to 1 year's duration were examined by computed tomography and determined to have a tumor of the brachial plexus. In each case, the clinician had been unable to determine the cause of lameness by other means, and in 2 dogs, surgery had been performed on the affected limb for unrelated conditions prior to diagnosis of the tumor. Computed tomography was performed by use of a third-generation scanner, with dogs under general anesthesia and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Intravenous contrast enhancement with iodinated contrast material was used to help differentiate vascular structures, and a 5-mm scanning width allowed detection of small tumors. In all dogs, approximate tumor location in the transverse plane, invasiveness, and relationship to surrounding structures compared favorably between computed tomographic images and surgical findings

  6. OBSERVATION ON EFFECT OF POINT INJECTION AS THE MAIN TREATMENT FOR OBSTETRIC BRACHIAL PLEXUS PALSY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zhong-li; ZHANG Man; LI Hui-jie; JIA Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the best way of treatment for obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP).Method: The 102 cases of OBPP were randomized into two groups: the observation group (51 cases) and the control group (51 cases). The observation group was treated by point injection with nerve growth factor (NGF), acupuncture, and moxibustion. The control group was treated by acupuncture and moxibustion. Result: The result was compared after two courses of treatment. The curative rate of observation group was 35.3% and that of control group 11. 8%. The curative and remarkably effective rate was 78.4% and 43.2%respectively. In the two-two comparison, the difference was significant (P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: The effect of NGF point injection as the main treatment for OBPP was good, worth spreading.

  7. Brachial plexus variation involving the formation and branches of the cords

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    Fabian-Taylor FM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This case report is aimed at reporting a rare variation of brachial plexus involving the cords and its branches in the right upper limb. The musculocutaneous nerve was missing. The whole medial cord continued as a medial root of median nerve. The lateral cord gave off the lateral root of median nerve and an additional root joined with posterior cord to form a short common trunk. The short common trunk divided into two roots: one joined the median nerve; and the second one continued down as ulnar nerve. Median nerve supplied biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. The coracobrachialis muscle was supplied by radial nerve. The cutaneous innervation to the upper limb was derived from radial and ulnar nerves.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in adults with suspect brachial plexus lesions: A multicentre retrospective study with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tagliafico@unige.it [Institute of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Succio, Giulia; Serafini, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure, Italy via XXV Aprile, 38- Pietra Ligure, 17027 Savona (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [Radiology Department, DISC, Università di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16138 Genova (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To evaluate brachial plexus MRI accuracy with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard in a large multicentre study. Materials and methods: The research was approved by the Institutional Review Boards, and all patients provided their written informed consent. A multicentre retrospective trial that included three centres was performed between March 2006 and April 2011. A total of 157 patients (men/women: 81/76; age range, 18–84 years) were evaluated: surgical findings and clinical follow-up of at least 12 months were used as the reference standard. MR imaging was performed with different equipment at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. The patient group was divided in five subgroups: mass lesion, traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, post-treatment evaluation, and other. Sensitivity, specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), positive predictive value (PPV), pre-test-probability (the prevalence), negative predictive value (NPV), pre- and post-test odds (OR), likelihood ratio for positive results (LH+), likelihood ratio for negative results (LH−), accuracy and post-test probability (post-P) were reported on a per-patient basis. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs were: 0.810/0.914; (0.697–0.904). Overall PPV, pre-test probability, NPV, LH+, LH−, and accuracy: 0.823, 0.331, 0.905, 9.432, 0.210, 0.878. Conclusions: The overall diagnostic accuracy of brachial plexus MRI calculated on a per-patient base is relatively high. The specificity of brachial plexus MRI in patients suspected of having a space-occupying mass is very high. The sensitivity is also high, but there are false-positive interpretations as well.

  9. Comparison of two approaches of infraclavicular brachial plexus block for orthopaedic surgery below mid-humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Trehan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus in infraclavicular region can be blocked by various approaches. Aim of this study was to compare two approaches (coracoid and clavicular regarding success rate, discomfort during performance of block, tourniquet tolerance and complications. The study was randomised, prospective and observer blinded. Sixty adult patients of both sexes of ASA status 1 and 2 requiring orthopaedic surgery below mid-humerus were randomly assigned to receive nerve stimulator guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block either by lateral coracoid approach (group L, n = 30 or medial clavicular approach (group M, n = 30 with 25-30 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. Sensory block in the distribution of five main nerves distal to elbow, motor block (Grade 1-4, discomfort during performance of block and tourniquet pain were recorded by a blinded observer. Clinical success of block was defined as the block sufficient to perform the surgery without any supplementation. All the five nerves distal to elbow were blocked in 77 and 67% patients in groups L and M respectively. Successful block was observed in 87 and 73% patients in groups L and M, respectively (P > 0.05. More patients had moderate to severe discomfort during performance of block due to positioning of limb in group M (14 vs. 8 in groups M and L. Tourniquet was well tolerated in most patients with successful block in both groups. No serious complication was observed. Both the approaches were equivalent regarding success rate, tourniquet tolerance and safety. Coracoid approach seemed better as positioning of operative limb was less painful, coracoids process was easy to locate and the technique was easy to learn and master.

  10. Effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A prospective, randomised, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant A Biradar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different additives have been used to prolong brachial plexus block. We performed a prospective, randomised, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block as this is the most common type of brachial block performed in our institute. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologist′s physical status I and II patients undergoing elective hand, forearm and elbow surgery under brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of normal saline (group C, n=30 or 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg (group D, n=30. The block was performed using a nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade were assessed. The sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves were evaluated and recorded at 5, 10, 20, 120 min, and at every 30 min thereafter. Results: Two patients were excluded from the study because of block failure. The onset of sensory and motor blockade (13.4±2.8 vs. 16.0±2.3 min and 16.0±2.7 vs. 18.7±2.8 min, respectively were significantly more rapid in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. The duration of sensory and motor blockade (326±58.6 vs. 159±20.1 and 290.6±52.7 vs. 135.5±20.3 min, respectively were significantly longer in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline in supraclavicular brachial plexus block speeds the onset and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.

  11. Remote therapeutic effect of early nerve transposition in treatment of obstetric al brachial plexus palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To report a method and remote therape utic effect of early nerve transposition in treatment of obstetrical brachial pl exus palsy.   Methods: From May 1995 to August 1996, 12 patients who had no r ecovery of biceps 3 months after birth were treated with nerve transposition. Ei ght had neuroma at the upper trunk and 4 had rupture or avulsion of the upper tr unk. Mallet test was used to evaluate the results.   Results: The follow-up of 40-52 months showed that excellent and good recovery in functions was found in 75% of the patients and the excellen t rate of phrenic nerve and accessory nerve transposition was 83.3% and 6 6.7% respectively. A complete recovery in shoulder and elbow joint function wa s in 3 patients and Mallet Ⅳ was in 6 patients.   Conclusions: Satisfactory outcome can be obtained by using earl y nerve transposition in treating obstetrical brachial plexus.Paralysis, obstetric; Peripheral nerves; Nerve trans position

  12. Comparative study of bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine along with buprenorphine in axillary brachial plexus block: a prospective, randomized, single blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Kinjal S. Sanghvi; Vibhuti A. Shah; Kirti D. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different additives have been used to prolong brachial plexus block. We performed a prospective, randomized single-blind study to compare Bupivacaine alone and Bupivacaine along with Buprenorphine for onset, quality, and duration of block as well as post-operative analgesia and any complication in axillary brachial- plexus block. Methods: Randomized controlled study was carried out among 60 patients of either sex, aged 20-60 years. ASA grade I or II undergoing elective hand, forea...

  13. 超声扫查正常成人臂丛神经根%Ultrasonography in observing the root level brachial plexus in normal adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧; 郭徐林; 陈定章; 张恒; 权太东

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨正常臂丛神经根的声像图特征及定位标志,以对神经根发出位置水平进行准确定位.方法 对40名正常人进行臂丛神经超声检查,以C7椎体横突前结节短小或缺如这一形态学特征为标志,以椎体长轴为轴线,于横断面判定各个神经根发出椎间孔的相应椎体水平,观察C5~Tl各神经根的超声声像图的特征.结果 通过各颈椎椎体横突的超声表现可辨认和识别神经根发出水平,C7神经根出椎间孔段的超声声像图具有特征性.于40名受检者均可观察到C5~7水平的神经根,25名可见C8神经根,7名可见T1神经根.结论 高频超声能利用椎体横突的形态学的差别区分和定位各个神经根所对应的椎体水平,对臂丛神经损伤的定位诊断提供依据.%Objective To explore the ultrasonographic features of the roots of the brachial plexus and location mark in normal adults, and to confirm the exact location given by nerve root. Method Forty healthy adults underwent ultrasonography, and the sonographic features of C5-T1 root level were observed. The levels of brachial plexus roots were identified using the transverse processes as landmarks on cross section, especially the absence or the shortness of the anterior tubercle from C7 level transverse processes. Results The levels of the roots of the brachial plexus with ultrasonography by means of the evaluation of their transverse processes were identified. C7 level of brachial plexus root nerve had distinct characteristics in ultrasonogram of intervertebral foramen. The overall nerve roots of C5-7 were revealed in all 40 subjects, of C8 in 25, while of T1 only in 7 subjects. Conclusion High frequency ultrasound can reveal the levels of the roots of the brachial plexus on the basis of the different morphology in terms of the transverse processes of the vertebrae, therefore providing basis for the diagnosis of brachial plexus injuries.

  14. Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus: 3.0 T versus 1.5 T imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mürtz, P., E-mail: petra.muertz@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Kaschner, M., E-mail: Marius.Kaschner@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Lakghomi, A., E-mail: Asadeh.Lakghomi@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, J., E-mail: juergen.gieseke@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Philips Healthcare, Lübeckertordamm 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Willinek, W.A., E-mail: winfried.willinek@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Schild, H.H., E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Thomas, D., E-mail: daniel.thomas@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •DW MRN of brachial and lumbosacral plexus at 1.5 T and at 3.0 T was compared. •For lumbosacral plexus, nerve conspicuity on MIP images was superior at 3.0 T, also visible length and mean sharpness of the nerves. •For brachial plexus, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T was rather inferior, nerve length was not significantly different, mean sharpness was superior at 3.0 T. -- Abstract: Purpose: To compare intraindividually the nerve conspicuity of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus on diffusion-weighted (DW) MR neurography (MRN) at two different field strengths. Materials and methods: 16 healthy volunteers were investigated at 3.0 T and 1.5 T applying optimized variants of a DW spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with short TI inversion recovery fat suppression. Full-volume (FV) and curved sub-volume (CSV) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were reconstructed and nerve conspicuity was visually assessed. Moreover, visible length and sharpness of the nerves were quantitatively analyzed. Results: On FV MIP images, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T was worse for brachial plexus (P = 0.00228), but better for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00666). On CSV MIP images, nerve conspicuity did not differ significantly for brachial plexus, but was better at 3.0 T for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00091). The visible length of the analyzed nerves did not differ significantly with the exception of some lumbosacral nerves, which were significantly longer at 3.0 T. The sharpness of all investigated nerves was significantly higher at 3.0 T by about 40–60% for cervical and 97–169% for lumbosacral nerves. Conclusion: DW MRN imaging at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T is superior for lumbosacral plexus, but not for brachial plexus.

  15. MRI诊断臂丛神经及其疾病的研究进展%Research progresses of MRI in diagnosis of brachial plexus diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿明宾

    2013-01-01

    The anatomy of brachial plexus nerve is very complicated, while brachial plexus diseases are common, therefore how to display brachial plexus nerve and its pathological changes clearly, completely, intuitively and non-invasively has been a challenge of medical imaging. In recent years, the rapid development of MRI has made it possible to clearly display brachial plexus nerve. MRI signs of the normal brachial plexus nerve and brachial plexus diseases were reviewed in this paper.%臂丛神经解剖关系复杂,而累及臂丛神经的疾病却属常见病,如何清晰、完全、直观、无创地显示臂丛神经及其病变,一直是医学影像学的难题.近年来,MRI技术的迅速发展,使清晰显示臂丛神经根束成为可能.本文围绕正常臂丛神经及臂丛疾病的MRI征象进行综述.

  16. 颈丛臂丛神经阻滞麻醉用于锁骨骨折手术的效果观察%Effect observation of cervical plexus and brachial plexus block anesthesia in operation of clavicular fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盛华; 杨德军; 黄庆先

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of anesthesia of brachial plexus block anesthesia and cervical plexus combined with brachial plexus block anesthesia in operation of clavicular fracture.Methods:100 patients with clavicle fracture were randomly divided into the A group and the B group,A group was given the interscalene brachial plexus block anesthesia,B group was given cervical plexus combined with brachial plexus block anesthesia,we observed the anesthetic effect to assess the effect of two kinds of nerve block.Results:The effect of anesthesia of A group was better than that of B group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Cervical plexus combined with brachial plexus block anesthesia was used in operation of clavicular fracture,the block effect was obviously better than the brachial plexus block.%目的:观察比较臂丛神经阻滞麻醉和颈丛臂丛神经联合阻滞麻醉两种神经阻滞方法在锁骨骨折手术中的麻醉效果。方法:将100例锁骨骨折患者随机分为A、B两组,A组采用肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞麻醉,B组采用颈丛臂丛神经联合阻滞麻醉,观察比较麻醉效果来评定两种神经阻滞效果。结果:B组麻醉效果优于A组(P<0.05)。结论:颈臂丛神经联合阻滞用于锁骨骨折手术,阻滞效果明显优于臂丛神经阻滞。

  17. MR imaging of the brachial plexus: comparison between 1.5-T and 3-T MR imaging: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto; Neumaier, Carlo Emanuele; Calabrese, Massimo [National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Radiology, Genova (Italy); Succio, Giulia; Serafini, Giovanni; Ghidara, Matteo [Santa Corona Hospital, Radiology Department, Savona (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [Universita di Genova, Radiology Department, Genova (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    To compare 1.5-T and 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brachial plexus. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 30 consecutive patients with brachial plexus disturbances. MR was prospectively performed with comparable sequence parameters and coils with a 1.5-T and a 3-T system. Imaging protocols at both field strengths included T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (tSE) sequences and T2-weighed turbo spin-echo (tSE) sequences with fat saturation. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between muscle and nerve were calculated for both field strengths. The visibility of brachial plexus nerve at various anatomic levels (roots, interscalene area, costoclavicular space, and axillary level) was analyzed with a four-point grading scale by two radiologists. MR imaging diagnoses and pathological findings were also compared qualitatively. SNR and CNRs were significantly higher on 3-T MR images than on 1.5-T MR images (Friedman test) for all sequences. Nerve visibility was significantly better on 3-T MR images than on 1.5-T MR images (paired sign test). Pathological findings (n = 30/30) were seen equally well with both field strengths. MR imaging diagnoses did not differ for the 1.5- and 3-T protocols. High-quality MR images of the brachial plexus can be obtained with 3-T MR imaging by using sequences similar to those used at 1.5-T MR imaging. In patients and healthy volunteers, the visibility of nerve trunks and cords at 3-T MR imaging appears to be superior to that at 1.5-T MR imaging. (orig.)

  18. The Importance of Needle Echogenity in Ultrasound Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Duger, Cevdet; ISBIR, Ahmet Cemil; Kaygusuz, Kenan; Kol, Iclal Ozdemir; Gursoy, Sinan; Ozturk, Hayati; Mimaroğlu, Caner

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study we aimed to compare the echogenic needles and the nerve stimulation addition to non-echogenic needles in ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block for upper extremity surgery. Methods: 90 patients were enrolled to the study. The patients were allocated into three groups randomly: Group E (n=30): ultrasound guided axillary block using echogenic needle, Group N (n=30): ultrasound guided axillary block using non-echogenic needle, Group NS (n=30): ultrasound guided...

  19. Effects of interscalene brachial plexus block to intra-operative hemodynamics and postoperative pain for arthroscopic shoulder surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Young; Kim, Sang Hun; So, Keum Yung; Kim, Dong Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Although arthroscopic shoulder surgery is less invasive and painful than open shoulder surgery, it can often cause intra-operative hemodynamic instability and severe post-operative pain. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of the interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) on intra-operative hemodynamic changes and post-operative pain during arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Methods After institutional review board approval, 50 consecutive patients that had undergone ar...

  20. Infraclavicular brachial plexus block: Comparison of posterior cord stimulation with lateral or medial cord stimulation, a prospective double blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus sheath provides anesthesia for surgery on the distal arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. It has been found that evoked distal motor response or radial nerve-type motor response has influenced the success rate of single-injection infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Aim: We conducted this study to compare the extent and effectiveness of infraclavicular brachial plexus block achieved by injecting a local anesthetic drug after finding specific muscle action due to neural stimulator guided posterior cord stimulation and lateral cord/medial cord stimulation. Methods: After ethical committee approval, patients were randomly assigned to one of the two study groups of 30 patients each. In group 1, posterior cord stimulation was used and in group 2 lateral/medial cord stimulation was used for infraclavicular brachial plexus block. The extent of motor block and effectiveness of sensory block were assessed. Results: All four motor nerves that were selected for the extent of block were blocked in 23 cases (76.7% in group 1 and in 15 cases (50.0% in group 2 (P:0.032. The two groups did not differ significantly in the number of cases in which 0, 1, 2, and 3 nerves were blocked (P>0.05. In group 1, significantly lesser number of patients had pain on surgical manipulation compared with patients of group 2 (P:0.037. Conclusion: Stimulating the posterior cord guided by a nerve stimulator before local anesthetic injection is associated with greater extent of block (in the number of motor nerves blocked and effectiveness of block (in reporting no pain during the surgery than stimulation of either the lateral or medial cord.

  1. Brachial plexus MR imaging: accuracy and reproducibility of DTI-derived measurements and fibre tractography at 3.0-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto; Calabrese, Massimo; Pace, Daniele; Baio, Gabriella; Neumaier, Carlo Emanuele [National Institute for Cancer Research (IST), Department of Radiology, Genova (Italy); Puntoni, Matteo [Galliera Hospital, Clinical Trials Research Unit, Genova (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [University of Genova, Department of Radiology- DISC, Genova (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    To estimate intrastudy, intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of DTI-derived measurements and fibre tractography (FT) at 3.0 T MR imaging in subjects without known brachial plexus pathology. IRB approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty healthy volunteers underwent bilateral 3.0-T DTI of the brachial plexus. Postprocessing included FT and analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Four authors performed postprocessing and analysis independently and in different sessions at baseline and after 4 weeks. Non-parametric tests and Bland-Altman statistics were used. Minimum and maximum percent variability were 6% and 20% for FA (85%-93% reproducibility). For ADC minimum and maximum percent variability were 6% and 18% (86%-97% reproducibility). Quality of fibre tract was rated equal in 80% and slightly different in 20% of subjects. Minimum detectable differences between limb were 37% for FA and 32% for ADC. Intra- and inter-observer agreement were good. Evaluating the combined influence of the observer and of the repeated measurements the reproducibility was 81-92%. DTI of brachial plexus nerves is reliable. The healthy contralateral side can be used as an internal control considering that changes in FA and ADC values of less that 37% and 32% will not be clinically detectable with confidence. (orig.)

  2. Unusual and Unique Variant Branches of Lateral Cord of Brachial Plexus and its Clinical Implications- A Cadaveric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padur, Ashwini Aithal; Shanthakumar, Swamy Ravindra; Shetty, Surekha Devadas; Prabhu, Gayathri Sharath; Patil, Jyothsna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adequate knowledge on variant morphology of brachial plexus and its branches are important in clinical applications pertaining to trauma and surgical procedures of the upper extremity. Aim Current study was aimed to report variations of the branches of the lateral cord of brachial plexus in the axilla and their possible clinical complications. Materials and Methods Total number of 82 upper limbs from 41 formalin embalmed cadavers was dissected. Careful observation was made to note the formation and branching pattern of lateral cord. Meticulous inspection for absence of branches, presence of additional or variant branches and presence of abnormal communications between its branches or with branches of other cords was carried out. Results In the present study, we noted varied branching pattern of lateral cord in 6 out of 82 limbs (7%). In one of the limb, the median nerve was formed by three roots; two from lateral cord and one from medial cord. Two limbs had absence of lateral pectoral nerve supplemented by medial pectoral nerves. One of which had an atypical ansa pectoralis. In 2 upper limbs, musculocutaneous nerve was absent and in both cases it was supplemented by median nerve. In one of the limb, coracobrachialis had dual nerve supply by musculocutaneous nerve and by an additional branch from the lateral cord. Conclusion Variations of brachial plexus and its branches could pose both intraoperative and postoperative complications which eventually affect the normal sensory and motor functions of the upper limb. PMID:27190783

  3. 脊髓后根入髓区切开术治疗臂丛神经损伤后疼痛的疗效和并发症分析%Dorsal root entry zone incision for pain induced by brachial plexus injury: an analysis of curative effect and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑喆; 胡永生; 陶蔚; 张晓华; 李勇杰

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价脊髓后根入髓区(dorsal root entry zone,DREZ)切开术治疗臂丛神经损伤后疼痛的有效性及安全性. 方法 队列研究2005年7月-2007年12月因臂丛神经损伤后疼痛行DREZ切开术治疗的患者41例,其中19例截肢并存在幻肢觉.由1名专人随访患者术后的口述疼痛缓解率和并发症,口述疼痛缓解率≥50%认为疼痛缓解良好. 结果 41例患者术后2周、3个月、6个月和最后随访时(1年6个月)疼痛缓解良好的患者比率分别为90%(37/41)、81%(30/37)、77%(24/31)和70%(16/23).疼痛病程≥10年的16例患者最后随访时15例疼痛缓解良好,而痛病程<10年的25例患者最后随访时16例疼痛缓解良好(x2=4.682,P=0.030).随访3个月以上幻肢觉有变化的7例患者全部疼痛缓解良好,幻肢觉无变化的9例患者只有4例疼痛缓解良好.随访3个月以上的37例患者中严重并发症3例,其中同侧下肢轻度力弱1例,同侧下肢深感觉严重障碍2例. 结论 DREZ切开术治疗臂丛神经损伤后疼痛安全有效,疼痛病程长和术后幻肢觉变化可能预示手术疗效良好.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) incision for pain induced by brachial plexus injury. Methods A cohort study was performed in 41 consecutive patients with pain induced by brachial plexus injury treated with DREZ incision from July 2005 to December 2007. Of all, 19 patients were amputated and had phantom limb sensation. Oral pain relief (0%-100%) and complications were followed up by one professional doctor. Oral pain relief rate ≥50% was considered satisfactory outcome. Results The proportion of patients with satisfactory pain relief was 90% (37/41), 81% (30/37), 77% (24/31) and 70% (16/23) at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and last follow-up (over one year) after surgery. At last follow-up, 15 out of 16 patients with over 10 years of pain duration got satisfactory pain relief; while only 16 out of 25

  4. Does primary brachial plexus surgery alter palliative tendon transfer surgery outcomes in children with obstetric paralysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Safiye

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surgical management of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy can generally be divided into two groups; early reconstructions in which the plexus or affected nerves are addressed and late or palliative reconstructions in which the residual deformities are addressed. Tendon transfers are the mainstay of palliative surgery. Occasionally, surgeons are required to utilise already denervated and subsequently reinnervated muscles as motors. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of tendon transfers for residual shoulder dysfunction in patients who had undergone early nerve surgery to the outcomes in patients who had not. Methods A total of 91 patients with obstetric paralysis-related shoulder abduction and external rotation deficits who underwent a modified Hoffer transfer of the latissimus dorsi/teres major to the greater tubercle of the humerus tendon between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively analysed. The patients who had undergone neural surgery during infancy were compared to those who had not in terms of their preoperative and postoperative shoulder abduction and external rotation active ranges of motion. Results In the early surgery groups, only the postoperative external rotation angles showed statistically significant differences (25 degrees and 75 degrees for total and upper type palsies, respectively. Within the palliative surgery-only groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. The significant differences between the early surgery groups and the palliative surgery groups with total palsy during the preoperative period diminished postoperatively (p 0.05, respectively for abduction but not for external rotation. Within the upper type palsy groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. Conclusions In this study, it was found that in patients with total

  5. 臂神经丛联合阻滞的应用%Application of combined brachial plexus block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾玲双

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the experience of applying combined brachial plexus block with four point injection and to guide the proper use of nerve stimulator. Methods The clinical data of 356 patients treated with brachial plexus block were retrospectively analyzed. The patients in study group ( n= 148) were received combined brachial plexus block including interscalene block, axillary block and intercostobrachial nerve block simultaneously. The patients in control group ( n= 208 ) only received interscalene block ( n= 176) or axillary block (n =32). Results Significant differences in anesthesia effect and puncture paresthesia were observed between the two groups. The excellent anesthesia effect in study group was 97.3% while that in control group was 87.0%. Puncture paresthesia was existed in 47.3% of study group and 69.7% of control group. Conclusion The success rate of brachial plexus block can be improved by employing combined brachial plexus block with four point injection.%目的 总结"四针法"臂丛神经联合阻滞的经验,指导神经刺激仪的合理应用.方法 回顾性分析臂神经丛阻滞356例,根据阻滞方法分为联合组(n=148),联合组同时实施肌间沟阻滞加腋路阻滞加肋间臂神经阻滞;传统组(n=208),传统组只实施肌间沟阻滞(n=176),或腋路阻滞(n=32),不行肋间臂神经阻滞.结果 联合组麻醉效果优占97.3%,穿刺异感占47.3%;传统组优占87.0%,穿刺异感占69.7%.联合组与传统组比较,具有显著差异(P<0.01).结论 "四针法"臂神经丛联合阻滞可提高臂神经丛阻滞的成功率.

  6. 臂丛神经MRI扫描方案探讨%MRI scan protocols of brachial plexus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海岩; 雷益; 林帆; 夏军; 侯严振

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the appearance of normal brachial plexus employing different MRI sequences, and determine the best MRI scan protocol for brachial plexus. Methods A total of 18 healthy volunteers were examined with routine and DWIBS sequences. The manifestations of normal brachial plexus in these sequences were observed. Results The signal intensity of brachial plexus was isointense on T1WI and T2WI, lightly hyperintense on TIPM images, and significantly hyperintense on DWIBS. On the wansverse sections, the nerve roots appeared as linear structure exiting from the imervertebral foramen and passing through the scalene gap, and then surrounding flow void of the subclavian artery. On coronal images, the roots appeared as linear structures exiting from C5~T1 intervertebral foramen and collecting to infraclavicular and axillary fossa. Conclusion By the combination of routine and DWIBS sequences, the brachial plexus can be manifested comprehensively and distinctly.%目的 探讨臂丛神经图像常规扫描方案以及各个序列臂丛神经的不同表现.方法 对18例健康志愿者分别行常规及弥散加权背景抑制神经成像(Diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression,DWIBS)扫描,观察各序列中臂丛神经的表现.结果 常规T1WI、T2WI臂丛神经呈等信号,横轴位反转恢复(TIRM)序列呈稍高信号,DWIBS呈明显高信号.横断面上,显示神经根自椎间孔处穿出,行于斜角肌间隙,后与锁骨下动脉及腋动脉伴行;冠状面上,显示为由C5~T1神经孔旁起始的条索状结构.结论 联合常规及DWIBS序列,可全面、清晰地显示臂丛神经.

  7. Uso de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas como tratamiento de una fractura escapular y una lesión del plexo braquial producidas por un disparo en un caballo Use of autologous platelet concentrates as treatment for a scapular fracture and brachial plexus nerve injury produced by a gunshot in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las heridas de bala han sido escasamente descritas en caballos. Los disparos a corta distancia suelen producir daños en tejidos blandos y fracturas conminutas. Un caso de una fractura conminuta del cuello de la escápula con lesión aguda del plexo braquial producida por una bala de 9 mm en un semental de seis años de edad es descrito. El paciente fue tratado con éxito mediante la combinación de desbridamiento quirúrgico de la región afectada e inyección local de varias dosis de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas (APC y fisioterapia. A pesar de la fractura de la escápula y del daño en los nervios periféricos que toman al menos 18-24 meses para una recuperación completa, este paciente se recuperó satisfactoriamente en nueve meses. Estos resultados sugieren que las inyecciones de APC en combinación con fisioterapia pueden proporcionar un beneficio terapéutico en el tratamiento de lesiones agudas de tejidos blandos y fracturas óseas en caballos.Gunshot injuries have been scarcely reported in horses. Close-range gunshots usually produce extensive soft tissue damage and comminute fractures. A case of a comminute fracture of the neck of the scapula with acute injury of the brachial plexus produced by a 9 mm gunshot in a six year-old stallion is described. The patient was successfully treated by combining surgical debridement of the affected region and local injection of several doses of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs and physiotherapy. Although scapular fractures and peripheral nerve damage take at least 18-24 months for full recovery, this patient reached full recuperation of the affected limb in 9 months. These results suggest that injections of APCs in combination with physiotherapy could provide a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of soft tissue acute injuries and bone fractures in horses.

  8. Imaging assessment of glenohumeral dysplasia secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Dalto, Vitor Faeda; Crema, Michel Daoud; Waters, Peter M.; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Mazzer, Nilton; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess imaging parameters related to the morphology of the glenohumeral joint in children with unilateral brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP), in comparison with those obtained for healthy shoulders. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective search for cases of unilateral BPBP diagnosed at our facility. Only patients with a clinical diagnosis of unilateral BPBP were included, and the final study sample consisted of 10 consecutive patients who were assessed with cross-sectional imaging. The glenoid version, the translation of the humeral head, and the degrees of glenohumeral dysplasia were assessed. Results The mean diameter of the affected humeral heads was 1.93 cm, compared with 2.33 cm for those of the normal limbs. In two cases, there was no significant posterior displacement of the humeral head, five cases showed posterior subluxation of the humeral head, and the remaining three cases showed total luxation of the humeral head. The mean glenoid version angle of the affected limbs (90-α) was -9.6º, versus +1.6º for the normal, contralateral limbs. Conclusion The main deformities found in this study were BPBP-associated retroversion of the glenoid cavity, developmental delay of the humeral head, and posterior translation of the humeral head.

  9. Imaging assessment of glenohumeral dysplasia secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy

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    Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Divisao de Radiologia; Dalto, Vitor Faeda, E-mail: fdalto@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao, Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Divisao de Radiologia; Crema, Michel Daoud [Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Waters, Peter M. [Orthopedic Center, Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gregio-Junior, Everaldo [Uniao Medica Radiologica Catanduva (UMERC), Catanduva, SP (Brazil); Mazzer, Nilton; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Ribeirao, Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to assess imaging parameters related to the morphology of the glenohumeral joint in children with unilateral brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP), in comparison with those obtained for healthy shoulders. Materials and methods: we conducted a retrospective search for cases of unilateral BPBP diagnosed at our facility. Only patients with a clinical diagnosis of unilateral BPBP were included, and the final study sample consisted of 10 consecutive patients who were assessed with cross-sectional imaging. The glenoid version, the translation of the humeral head, and the degrees of glenohumeral dysplasia were assessed. Results: the mean diameter of the affected humeral heads was 1.93 cm, compared with 2.33 cm for those of the normal limbs. In two cases, there was no significant posterior displacement of the humeral head, five cases showed posterior subluxation of the humeral head, and the remaining three cases showed total luxation of the humeral head. The mean glenoid version angle of the affected limbs (90-α) was -9.6°, versus +1.6° for the normal, contralateral limbs. Conclusion: the main deformities found in this study were BPBP-associated retroversion of the glenoid cavity, developmental delay of the humeral head, and posterior translation of the humeral head. (author)

  10. Imaging assessment of glenohumeral dysplasia secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Dalto, Vitor Faeda; Crema, Michel Daoud; Waters, Peter M.; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Mazzer, Nilton; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess imaging parameters related to the morphology of the glenohumeral joint in children with unilateral brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP), in comparison with those obtained for healthy shoulders. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective search for cases of unilateral BPBP diagnosed at our facility. Only patients with a clinical diagnosis of unilateral BPBP were included, and the final study sample consisted of 10 consecutive patients who were assessed with cross-sectional imaging. The glenoid version, the translation of the humeral head, and the degrees of glenohumeral dysplasia were assessed. Results The mean diameter of the affected humeral heads was 1.93 cm, compared with 2.33 cm for those of the normal limbs. In two cases, there was no significant posterior displacement of the humeral head, five cases showed posterior subluxation of the humeral head, and the remaining three cases showed total luxation of the humeral head. The mean glenoid version angle of the affected limbs (90-α) was -9.6º, versus +1.6º for the normal, contralateral limbs. Conclusion The main deformities found in this study were BPBP-associated retroversion of the glenoid cavity, developmental delay of the humeral head, and posterior translation of the humeral head. PMID:27403013

  11. THE EFFECT OF CLONIDINE ON LIDOCAINE INDUCED SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

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    Shrinivas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus nerve blocks (BPB are the most common nerve blocks used for upper limb surgeries. Techniques using only Local Anaesthetics (LA have limited duration of post-operative analgesia. Clonidine has been used to prolong the duration of LA s for neuraxial blocks. Hence the effect of clonidine on Lidocaine induced BPB was studied. METHODS: 60 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class I and II were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group L given 30 ml of Lidocaine with adrenaline 1.5% with 0.6 ml of normal saline and the Group C given 30 ml of same LA with 0.6 ml of 90mcg of Clonidine. All the patients’ supraclavicular BPB was given using Winnies’ peri-vascular approach. The primary outcome was onset, duration of sensory and motor blockade. The secondary outcomes were motor block duration, opioid supplementation, and BPB complication. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the onset of sensory and motor block, motor blockade quality and overall quality of block. Duration of sensory and motor blockade was prolonged in groups with Clonidine. No adverse events / hemodynamic instability noted in either group. Sedation scores were higher in Clonidine group. No patients required any intervention. CONCLUSIONS: 90µg Clonidine added to Lidocaine 1.5% with adrenaline produces prolongation of both the duration of sensory and motor blockade with minimal adverse effects.

  12. Diagnostic value of combined magnetic resonance imaging examination of brachial plexus and electrophysiological studies in multifocal motor neuropathy

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    Basta Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by slowly progressive asymetrical weakness of limbs without sensory loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of brachial plexus using combined cervical magnetic stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of plexus brachialis in patients with MMN. We payed special attention to the nerve roots forming nerves inervating weak muscles, but without detectable conduction block (CB using conventional nerve conduction studies. Methods. Nine patients with proven MMN were included in the study. In all of them MRI of the cervical spine and brachial plexus was performed using a Siemens Avanto 1.5 T unit, applying T1 and turbo spinecho T1 sequence, axial turbo spin-echo T2 sequence and a coronal fat-saturated turbo spin-echo T2 sequence. Results. In all the patients severe asymmetric distal weakness of muscles inervated by radial, ulnar, median and peroneal nerves was observed and the most striking presentation was bilateral wrist and finger drop. Three of them had additional proximal weakness of muscles inervated by axillar and femoral nerves. The majority of the patients had slightly increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF protein content. Six of the patients had positive serum polyclonal IgM anti-GM1 antibodies. Electromyoneurography (EMG showed neurogenic changes, the most severe in distal muscles inervated by radial nerves. All the patients had persistent partial CBs outside the usual sites of nerve compression in radial, ulnar, median and peroneal nerves. In three of the patients cervical magnetic stimulation suggested proximal CBs between cervical root emergence and Erb’s point (prolonged motor root conduction time. In all the patients T2-weighted MRI revealed increased signal intensity in at least one cervical root, truncus or fasciculus of brachial plexus. Conclusion. We found clinical correlation between muscle weakness

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the brachial plexus: feasibility and initial experience in neoplastic conditions

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    Vargas, Maria Isabel; Nguyen, Duy; Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, DISIM, Geneve 14 (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie [Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Becker, Minerva [Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Unit of Head and Neck Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and potential clinical applications of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography in the normal and pathologic brachial plexus prospectively. Six asymptomatic volunteers and 12 patients with symptoms related to the brachial plexus underwent DTI on a 1.5T system in addition to the routine anatomic plexus imaging protocol. Maps of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and of fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as tractography of the brachial plexus were obtained. Images were evaluated by two experienced neuroradiologists in a prospective fashion. Three patients underwent surgery, and nine patients underwent conservative medical treatment. Reconstructed DTI (17/18) were of good quality (one case could not be reconstructed due to artifacts). In all volunteers and in 11 patients, the roots and the trunks were clearly delineated with tractography. Mean FA and mean ADC values were as follows: 0.30{+-}0.079 and 1.70{+-}0.35 mm{sup 2}/s in normal fibers, 0.22{+-}0.04 and 1.49{+-}0.49 mm{sup 2}/s in benign neurogenic tumors, and 0.24{+-}0.08 and 1.51{+-}0.52 mm{sup 2}/s in malignant tumors, respectively. Although there was no statistically significant difference in FA and ADC values of normal fibers and fibers at the level of pathology, tractography revealed major differences regarding fiber architecture. In benign neurogenic tumors (n=4), tractography revealed fiber displacement alone (n=2) or fiber displacement and encasement by the tumor (n=2), whereas in the malignant tumors, either fiber disruption/destruction with complete disorganization (n=6) or fiber displacement (n=1) were seen. In patients with fiber displacement alone, surgery confirmed the tractography findings, and excision was successful without sequelae. Our preliminary data suggest that DTI with tractography is feasible in a clinical routine setting. DTI may demonstrate normal tracts, tract displacement, deformation, infiltration, disruption

  14. The value of MRI in the diagnosis of brachial plexus birth palsy%MRI在产瘫中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦本刚; 郑剑文; 朱家恺; 顾立强; 向剑平; 傅国; 戚剑; 王洪刚; 张德春; 路庆森; 李平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨臂丛MRI在产瘫中的诊断价值. 方法 2006年9月至2011年9月.收治产瘫患儿18例,男12例,女6例;年龄2个月~3岁,平均10.6个月,左侧8例,右侧10例.Tassin Ⅰ型4例,TassinⅡ型6例,TassinⅢ型5例,TassinⅣ型3例.所有患者术前均行臂丛MRI检查,MRI结果与术中结果比较. 结果 MRI检查结果:18例中有13例发现有假性脑脊膜膨出,10例为多发的假性脑脊膜膨出;脊髓偏移6例,向健侧偏移4例,向患侧偏移2例;未发现异常2例;撕脱神经根增粗2例.结论 臂丛MRI可有效地判断产瘫的损伤情况及对手术探查有指导作用.%Objective To evaluate the value of MR imaging(MRI)in diagosing of obstetrical brachial plexus. Methods Between September 2006 to September 2011,eighteen cases (12 males and 6 females)of obstetrical brachial plexus injury had being used for investigation,aging from 2 month to 3 years, average of 10.6 month. Eight left side and 10 right side. Tassin Ⅰ was 4 cases,Tassin Ⅱ was 6 eases, Tassin Ⅲwas 5 eases, Tassin Ⅳ was 4 cases. All cases were performed to MRI test before operating and the result compare with finding during operating. Results Findings of MRI:pseudomeningocele was in 13 of the 18cases while 10 of the 15 patients had multiple pseudomeningoceles. Displacement of spinal cord was in 6 cases; Normal was 2 cases; thickening of nerve root was in 2 cases. Conclusion MR imaging is an effective tool for demonstrating lesions of the brachial plexus worthy of surgical exploration.

  15. Interscalene brachial plexus block for outpatient shoulder arthroplasty: Postoperative analgesia, patient satisfaction and complications

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    Shah Anand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder arthroplasty procedures are seldom performed on an ambulatory basis. Our objective was to examine postoperative analgesia, nausea and vomiting, patient satisfaction and complications of ambulatory shoulder arthroplasty performed using interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB. Materials and Methods: We prospectively examined 82 consecutive patients undergoing total and hemi-shoulder arthroplasty under ISB. Eighty-nine per cent (n=73 of patients received a continuous ISB; 11% (n=9 received a single-injection ISB. The blocks were performed using a nerve stimulator technique. Thirty to 40 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine with 1:400,000 epinephrine was injected perineurally after appropriate muscle twitches were elicited at a current of less than 0.5% mA. Data were collected in the preoperative holding area, intraoperatively and postoperatively including the postanesthesia care unit (PACU, at 24h and at seven days. Results: Mean postoperative pain scores at rest were 0.8 ± 2.3 in PACU (with movement, 0.9 ± 2.5, 2.5 ± 3.1 at 24h and 2.8 ± 2.1 at seven days. Mean postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV scores were 0.2 ± 1.2 in the PACU and 0.4 ± 1.4 at 24h. Satisfaction scores were 4.8 ± 0.6 and 4.8 ± 0.7, respectively, at 24h and seven days. Minimal complications were noted postoperatively at 30 days. Conclusions: Regional anesthesia offers sufficient analgesia during the hospital stay for shoulder arthroplasty procedures while adhering to high patient comfort and satisfaction, with low complications.

  16. Preoperative interscalene brachial plexus block aids in perioperative temperature management during arthroscopic shoulder surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Se Hun; Lee, Wonjin; Park, JaeGwan; Kim, Myoung-hun; Cho, Kwangrae; Lee, Jeong Han; Cheong, Soon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypothermia is common during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia, and anesthetic-impaired thermoregulation is thought to be the major cause of hypothermia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare perioperative temperature during arthroscopic shoulder surgery with interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) followed by general anesthesia vs. general anesthesia alone. Methods Patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomly allocated to receive IBPB followed by general anesthesia (group GB, n = 20) or general anesthesia alone (group GO, n = 20), and intraoperative and postoperative body temperatures were measured. Results The initial body temperatures were 36.5 ± 0.3℃ vs. 36.4 ± 0.4℃ in group GB vs. GO, respectively (P = 0.215). The body temperature at 120 minutes after induction of anesthesia was significantly higher in group GB than in group GO (35.8 ± 0.3℃ vs. 34.9 ± 0.3℃; P < 0.001). The body temperatures at 60 minutes after admission to the post-anesthesia care unit were 35.8 ± 0.3℃ vs. 35.2 ± 0.2℃ in group GB vs. GO, respectively (P < 0.001). The concentrations of desflurane at 0, 15, and 120 minutes after induction of anesthesia were 6.0 vs. 6.0% (P = 0.330), 5.0 ± 0.8% vs. 5.8 ± 0.4% (P = 0.001), and 3.4 ± 0.4% vs. 7.1 ± 0.9% (P < 0.001) in group GB vs. GO, respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that preoperative IBPB could reduce both the intraoperative concentration of desflurane and the reduction in body temperature during and after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  17. Effect of Acupuncture Signal after Brachial Plexus Blockade on Cerebral Blood Perfusion and Brain Cell Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任永功; 郭长春; 贾少微

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to observe the influence of the up-transmitting of acupuncture signal into the brain in health volunteers whose nerve trunk was blocked by anesthetics. Methods: Thirty-one healthy volunteers were divided into two groups, the control group of 20 cases, and the brachial plexus blockade (BPB) group of 11 cases, with supraclavicular BPB route adopted. With the control group 2 acupoints were randomly selected (Hegu and Quchi of both sides), while with the BPB group Hegu and Quchi of anesthetic arm side were selected. Siemens ECAM/ICON SPECT system was used to conduct brain imaging using double imaging assay before acupuncture and 99mTc-ECD imaging agent during acupuncture for cerebral perfusion. The data were quantitatively analyzed by blood functional changing rate (BFCR%) mathematics model. Results: Before acupuncture, the control and BPB groups showed insignificant change by SPECT, but after electro-acupuncture (EA), the control group displayed improved motor and sensory cortex excitability in basal nuclei, contra-lateral thalamus, parietal and frontal lobe; while BPB group was characterized with reduction of the blood perfusion and cell function of contra-lateral thalamus of anesthetized arm. The difference between the two groups was significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: (1) After BPB, the up-transmitting of the acupuncture signal via upper limb into the brain, and its strength was impaired or blocked; (2) After BPB, the effect of acupuncture on cerebral perfusion and brain cell function of contra-lateral thalamus was impaired or blocked.

  18. Schwanoma de plexo braquial: relato de dois casos Schwannoma of brachial plexus: report of two cases

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    Manoel Baldoíno Leal Filho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Schwanomas, neurinomas ou neurilemomas são tumores benignos de nervos periféricos. Podem ocorrer em associação com a neurofibromatose tipo 2. Relatamos dois casos de tumor cervical originado em plexo braquial sem associação com neurofibromatose. Uma mulher, de 31 anos apresentando uma tumefação em região supraclavicular direita, dor irradiada para o membro ipsilateral e sinal de Tinel à percussão da região. Outra mulher, 52 anos, com cervicobraquialgia persistente à direita há um ano. Ambas foram submetidas a microcirurgia, com ressecção total da lesão. O estudo histopatológico foi compatível com schwanoma. As duas pacientes tiveram boa evolução neurológica, com desaparecimento dos sinais e sintomas.Schwannomas, neurinomas or neurilemmomas are benign peripheral nerve tumors. The literature report some cases associated with neurofibromatosis 2. We report two cases of cervical schwannoma originating from the brachial plexus unassociated with neurofibromatosis. A 31-year-old woman presented with a mass in the right supraclavicular region, irradiating pain and distal tingling to percussion (Tinel's sign for 6 months. And a 52-year-old woman presented with pain in the cervical region and right arm for one year. Both the patients underwent to a microsurgery with total resection of the lesion. Histology of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Postoperatively, the patients had a good recovery.

  19. Comparison of clinical effects of prilocaine, dexamethasone added to prilocaine and levobupivacaine on brachial plexus block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine whether the addition of 8mg dexamethasone to axillary brachial plexus block would prolong the duration of sensory and motor block in patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. Methods: The prospective, randomised, double-blinded study was conducted at the Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical School, Turkey, from October 2008 to December 2009. It comprised 45 American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade I and II patients under elective surgery of the hand and forearm. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: 5 mg/kg of 2% prilocaine was applied to Group 1; 5 mg/kg of 2% prilocaine +8mg of dexamethasone (2ml) was applied to Group 2; and 1.5 mg/kg 0.5% levobupivacaine was applied to Group 3. Sensory and motor block onset time as well as the duration of motor and sensory block of those were monitored and recorded. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 45 patients, 27 (60%) were men and 18 (40%) were women. There was no significant difference among the groups in terms of demographic data. Based on the duration of motor and sensory block, similar periods of time in Group 1 and Group 2 were noted, whereas this period was statistically different and significantly longer in Group 3 (p<0.001). There were no complications encountered. Conclusion: The addition of dexamethasone to prilocaine prolonged the duration of sensory and motor block. It could be used as an effective adjuvant agent. Levobupivacain could be a more appropriate local anaesthetic in post-operative analgesia and prolonged surgical procedures. (author)

  20. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  1. Validating the RTOG-Endorsed Brachial Plexus Contouring Atlas: An Evaluation of Reproducibility Among Patients Treated by Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Sun K.; Hall, William H.; Mathai, Mathew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Dublin, Arthur B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Gupta, Vishal; Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate interobserver variability for contouring the brachial plexus as an organ-at-risk (OAR) and to analyze its potential dosimetric consequences in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed brachial plexus contouring atlas, three radiation oncologists independently delineated the OAR on treatment planning computed-tomography (CT) axial scans from 5 representative patients undergoing IMRT to a prescribed dose of 70 Gy for head-and-neck cancer. Dose-volume histograms for the brachial plexus were calculated, and interobserver differences were quantified by comparing various dosimetric statistics. Qualitative analysis was performed by visually assessing the overlapping contours on a single beam's eye view. Results: Brachial plexus volumes for the 5 patients across observers were 26 cc (18-35 cc), 25 cc (21-30 cc), 29 cc (28-32 cc), 29 cc (23-38 cc), and 29 cc (23-34 cc). On qualitative analysis, minimal variability existed except at the inferolateral portion of the OAR, where slight discrepancies were noted among the physicians. Maximum doses to the brachial plexus ranged from 71.6 to 72.6 Gy, 75.2 to 75.8 Gy, 69.1 to 71.0 Gy, 76.4 to 76.9 Gy, and 70.6 to 71.4 Gy. Respective volumes receiving doses greater than 60 Gy (V60) were 8.6 to 10.9 cc, 6.2 to 8.1 cc, 8.2 to 11.6 cc, 8.3 to 10.5 cc, and 5.6 to 9.8 cc. Conclusion: The RTOG-endorsed brachial plexus atlas provides a consistent set of guidelines for contouring this OAR with essentially no learning curve. Adoption of these contouring guidelines in the clinical setting is encouraged.

  2. Research progress of dorsal root entry zone lesioning for the treatment of pain after brachial plexus avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-jun LIU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain after brachial plexus avulsion (BPA is a clinically common drug-refractory neuropathic pain. Overactive spontaneous potential due to deafferentation in the neurons of spinal dorsal horn is the main pathogenesis of pain after BPA. Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ lesioning is one way that damages overactive spontaneous potential neurons in spinal dorsal horn through radio-frequency electrode or bipolar coagulation so as to achieve pain relief. Dorsal root entry zone lesioning is a safe and effective treatment approach for pain after BPA. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.014

  3. [Intensity-modulated radiotherapy of head and neck cancers. Dose constraint for spinal cord and brachial plexus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisselier, P; Racadot, S; Thariat, J; Graff, P; Pointreau, Y

    2016-10-01

    Given the ballistic opportunities it offers, intensity-modulated radiotherapy has emerged as the gold standard treatment for head and neck cancers. Protection of organs at risk is one of the objectives of optimization during the planning process. The compliance of dose constraints to the nervous system must be prioritized over all others. To avoid complications, it is recommended to respect a maximum dose of 50Gy to the spinal cord, and 60Gy to the brachial plexus using conventional fractionation of 2Gy per fraction. These constraints can be adapted depending on the clinical situation; they will probably be refocused by the follow-up of the IMRT studies. PMID:27614529

  4. Neurinoma del plexo braquial simulando metastasis de adenocarcinoma de mama Schwannoma of the brachial plexus resembling a breast adenocarcinoma metastasis

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    Gregorio Rodríguez Boto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Los neurinomas del plexo braquial son tumores infrecuentes que pueden confundirse con otras lesiones de índole tumoral. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años, tratada previamente de un adenocarcinoma de mama derecha en el pasado, que en el estudio de extensión realizado 5 años después se detectó una lesión localizada en el plexo braquial derecho. La paciente se encontraba asintomática. El diagnóstico radiológico de presunción fue metástasis de adenocarcinoma mamario. Se realizó un abordaje axilar derecho descubriendo una lesión bien delimitada en el plexo braquial. Con ayuda de la monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria, se observó que la lesión dependía de la rama cubital y se pudo realizar una resección completa preservando la función de dicho nervio. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó que se trataba de un neurinoma, descartando así la existencia de metástasis. La evolución postoperatoria fue satisfactoria. Seis años después de la intervención no existe recidiva tumoral. En nuestro conocimiento este es el primer caso publicado en la literatura de un neurinoma del plexo braquial dependiente de la rama cubital. La monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria resulta fundamental para abordar este tipo de lesiones con baja morbilidad.Schwa nomas originating from the brachial plexus, although rare, may be mistaken for another type of tumour. A 40 year-old woman, who had been treated years earlier for a breast adenocarcinoma, showed in the 5-year follow-up magnetic resonance examination a localized lesion in the right brachial plexus. The presumptive radiological diagnosis was a metastasis from the primary adenocarcinoma. Following surgical access via the right axilla, a well-circumscribed mass in the brachial plexus was detected. Under intraoperative electrophysiological guidance, the lesion was observed to depend on the ulnar nerve and its complete resection was possible without compromising nerve

  5. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Lin; Cao, Xuecheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Lifeng; Wang, Pingshan; Cai, Jinfang

    2012-01-01

    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was...

  6. Description of the brachial plexus of the short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis Sclater, 1882): case report

    OpenAIRE

    Luane Lopes Pinheiro; Damázio Campos de Souza; Érika Branco; Ana Rita de Lima; Ana Carla Barros de Souza; Luiza Corrêa Pereira

    2013-01-01

    The short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis) is one of the rarest species of South American canids. Aiming to describe the morphology of this animal and enhance the study of comparative neuroanatomy, we studied the anatomical makeup of the brachial plexus of a female specimen from Paragominas (PA). The specimen was donated, after natural death, to the Institute of Animal Health and Production (ISPA) at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA). The animal was fixed in 10% formalin and la...

  7. 颈丛臂丛阻滞麻醉用于锁骨骨折内固定的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Brachial Plexus and Cervical Plexus Block Anesthesia for Internal Fixation of Clavicle Fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝永婷; 龚丽娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of brachial plexus and cervical plexus block anesthesia for the internal fixation of clavicle fractures. Method: We selected 96 cases of internal fixation of clavicle fractures which were admitted in our hospital from January 2008 to January 2010. The patients were divided into three groups that called A, B, C. Group A took brachial plexus block anesthesia; Group B took cervical plexus block anesthesia; Group C took cervical plexus and cervical plexus block anesthesia. Then compared the effect of three groups and selected the best group of anesthesia. Result: There was no significant difference ( P>0.05 ) between group A and group B. However, Group C were different fromgroup A and group B ( P <0.05 ), which showed that group C was better than group A or B. That showed cervical plexus and cervical plexus block anesthesia had a better effect on the patient than the others. Conclusion: The combined of cervical plexus and brachial plexus block anesthesia is superior to simple cervical or plexus block anesthesia,it is worth to promote the cervical plexus and brachial plexus block anesthesia in the internal fixation of clavicie fracture.%目的:观察颈丛臂丛阻滞麻醉用于锁骨骨折内固定的麻醉效果.方法:选取我院2008年1月到2010年1月锁骨骨折手术患者96例,随机分成A、B、C三组,每组32例,A组采用臂丛阻滞麻醉;B组采用颈丛阻滞麻醉;C组采用先进行臂丛阻滞麻醉,15min后进行颈丛阻滞麻醉的联合麻醉方法,比较三组麻醉效果.结果:A组与B组比较,两者无显著性差异(P>0.05),C的麻醉效果明显优于A组与B组,C组与A和B组均存在显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:颈丛臂丛联合阻滞麻醉优于单纯的臂丛和颈丛阻滞麻醉,值得在锁骨骨折内固定手术中的推广应用.

  8. Aberrant Dual Origin of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve and Its Communication with Long Thoracic Nerve: An Unusual Variation of the Brachial Plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilal, Poonam; Sarda, Rohit Kumar; Chhetri, Kalpana; Lama, Polly; Tamang, Binod Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Pre and post-fixed variations at roots of the brachial plexus have been well documented, however little is known about the variations that exist in the branches which arise from the brachial plexus. In this paper, we describe about one such rare variation related to the dorsal scapular and the long thoracic nerve, which are the branches arising from the roots of the brachial plexus. The variation was found during routine dissection. The dorsal scapular nerve, which routinely arises from the fifth cervical nerve root (C5), was seen to receive contributions from C5 as well as sixth cervical nerve (C6), while the long thoracic nerve arose from C6 and seventh cervical nerves (C7) only. Furthermore along with variations in origin of the dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerves, the brachial plexus was seen to exist as a prefixed plexus receiving a contribution from C4 nerve root. An aberrant communicating branch between the dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerve was also identified. Knowledge about the course and anatomy of such variations can be vital for understanding the aetiology of various conditions such as winging of scapula, interscapular pain, administration of cervical nerve blocks, surgeries and for effective management of regions and muscles supplied by dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerve.

  9. Formation of median nerve without the medial root of medial cord and associated variations of the brachial plexus

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    Bhanu SP

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical variations in the formation, course and termination of brachial plexus are well documented and have clinical significance to surgeons, neurologists and anatomists. The present case report describes the unusual origin of median nerve, arising directly from the lateral cord without the union of lateral and medial roots of brachial plexus. A communicating branch existed between the ulnar nerve and anterior division of middle trunk. The lateral pectoral nerve was arising from anterior divisions of upper and middle trunks as two separate branches instead from lateral cord. The branches then joined together to form the lateral pectoral nerve. The medial cord instead of its five terminal branches, had only three branches, the ulnar nerve, medial pectoral nerve and a single trunk for the medial cutaneous nerve of arm and forearm which got separated at the middle of the arm. The variations of the lateral cord and its branches make it a complicated clinical and surgical approach which is discussed with the developmental background.

  10. Role of ultrasound-guided continuous brachial plexus block in the management of neonatal ischemia in upper limb

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    Vrushali C Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal upper limb ischemia due to accidental arterial damage remains a major concern, which can lead to devastating complications if untreated. The primary objective of this case report is to emphasize the role of continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block, the issues related with block performance in an ischemic hand, and the importance of ultrasound guidance in this particular case scenario. A 1.1 kg infant suffered from distal forearm ischemia due to accidental arterial damage, which was treated with brachial plexus block. An ultrasound-guided single shot block with 0.5 mL/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine was followed by ultrasound-guided catheter placement in the target area. A continuous infusion of 0.03% of bupivacaine at the rate of 0.5 mL/kg/hr (approx. 0.15 mg/kg/h of bupivacaine was administered for 36 h. This treatment resulted in reversal of ischemia. Permanent ischemic damage was eventually confined to the tips of 4 fingers. We conclude that ultrasound-guided continuous infraclavicular block has a therapeutic role to play in the treatment of hand ischemia due to arterial damage and subsequent arterial spasm in neonates with added benefits.

  11. Origin, distribution, and insertion of the brachial plexus nerves in Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Kamal Achôa Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has about 80 species of parrots cataloged, and five of them are identified as Macaws. As the vast majority of birds, Macaws use flight as their primary means of locomotion. However, the strength and power generated during the cycle of beating wings require a mechanism of active neuromuscular control and specialized adaptations of muscles responsible for flight, which are innervated by the brachial plexus. This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of peripheral nerves that make up the brachial plexus in Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758, in order to aid the veterinarian to recognize and locate neuromuscular lesions in this species. We used five dead bodies, obtained from the Screening Center for Wild Animals in Paraíba, Brazil, in which the nerves were identified by direct dissection. Four nerve roots were viewed, originating three nerve trunks, which stem from the intervertebral spaces between the tenth cervical vertebra and the second thoracic vertebra. Nerves from the dorsal cord innervated extensor muscles, while ventral cord nerves innervated flexor muscles of the wing, in addition to the pectoral branches, responsible to innervate the superficial thoracic and shoulder muscles.

  12. Low-concentration, continuous brachial plexus block in the management of Purple Glove Syndrome: a case report

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    Cherian Verghese T

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Purple Glove Syndrome is a devastating complication of intravenous phenytoin administration. Adequate analgesia and preservation of limb movement for physiotherapy are the two essential components of management. Case presentation A 26-year-old Tamil woman from India developed Purple Glove Syndrome after intravenous administration of phenytoin. She was managed conservatively by limb elevation, physiotherapy and oral antibiotics. A 20G intravenous cannula was inserted into the sheath of her brachial plexus and a continuous infusion of bupivacaine at a low concentration (0.1% with fentanyl (2 μg/ml at a rate of 1 to 2 ml/hr was given. She had adequate analgesia with preserved motor function which helped in physiotherapy and functional recovery of the hand in a month. Conclusion A continuous blockade of the brachial plexus with a low concentration of bupivacaine and fentanyl helps to alleviate the vasospasm and the pain while preserving the motor function for the patient to perform active movements of the finger and hand.

  13. EFFECT OF BUPRENORPHINE ON POST OPERATIVE ANALGESI A IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK USING PERIPHE RAL NERVE LOCATOR

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    Ritesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Supraclavicular brachial plexus block is known for its simplicity, effectiveness, safety, reliability and being economical for day ca re and emergency surgery, circumventing problems of full stomach. In our randomized prospective, double blind study, t otal 60 adult ASA class I and II patients undergoing upper limb surgeri es were given supraclavicular brachial plexus block with peripheral nerve locator and studied for effect of addition of buprenorphine on post operative analgesia. 30 Patients received 0.2 5% bupivacaine 40 ml in group Bupivacaine (B and added buprenorphine 3 μgm/kg in th e other group Bupivacaine + Buprenorphine (BB. All the patients were monitored fo r onset of effect, post op analgesia, time of first analgesic drug and number of analgesic dru g require in first 24 hrs. Onset and duration of motor and sensory block were same in both groups. Post operative analgesia was significantly better in BB. Consequently, number of doses of analgesic required in first 24 hours was less in buprenorphine group (BB.

  14. Reliability and accuracy assessment of radiation therapy oncology group-endorsed guidelines for brachial plexus contouring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velde, Joris van de [Ghent University, Department of Anatomy, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); Vercauteren, Tom; Gersem, Werner de; Vandecasteele, Katrien; Vuye, Philippe; Vanpachtenbeke, Frank; Neve, Wilfried de [Ghent University, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); Wouters, Johan; Herde, Katharina d' ; Kerckaert, Ingrid; Hoof, Tom van [Ghent University, Department of Anatomy, Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    The goal of this work was to validate the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines for brachial plexus (BP) contouring by determining the intra- and interobserver agreement. Accuracy of the delineation process was determined using anatomically validated imaging datasets as a gold standard. Five observers delineated the right BP on three cadaver computed tomography (CT) datasets. To assess intraobserver variation, every observer repeated each delineation three times with a time interval of 2 weeks. The BP contours were divided into four regions for detailed analysis. Inter- and intraobserver variation was verified using the Computerized Environment for Radiation Research (CERR) software. Accuracy was measured using anatomically validated fused CT-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets by measuring the BP inclusion of the delineations. The overall kappa (κ) values were rather low (mean interobserver overall κ: 0.29, mean intraobserver overall κ: 0.45), indicating poor inter- and intraobserver reliability. In general, the κ coefficient decreased gradually from the medial to lateral BP regions. The total agreement volume (TAV) was much smaller than the union volume (UV) for all delineations, resulting in a low Jaccard index (JI; interobserver agreement 0-0.124; intraobserver agreement 0.004-0.636). The overall accuracy was poor, with an average total BP inclusion of 38 %. Inclusions were insufficient for the most lateral regions (region 3: 21.5 %; region 4: 12.6 %). The inter- and intraobserver reliability of the RTOG-endorsed BP contouring guidelines was poor. BP inclusion worsened from the medial to lateral regions. Accuracy assessment of the contours showed an average BP inclusion of 38 %. For the first time, this was assessed using the original anatomically validated BP volume. The RTOG-endorsed BP guidelines have insufficient accuracy and reliability, especially for the lateral head-and-neck regions. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war

  15. Effect of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A randomized double-blind prospective study

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    Haramritpal Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Regional anesthesia is a recommended technique for upper and lower limb surgeries with better postoperative profile. In this, randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the addition of dexmedetomidine to varying concentration of levobupivacaine for supra clavicular brachial plexus block. Material and Methods: After obtaining ethical Committee approval, a double-blind, randomized prospective clinical study was conducted on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologist Grade I and II patients in the age group of 18-55 years, divided randomly into two groups: Group A received 40 ml of solution containing 30 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine and 10 ml 1% lignocaine and group B received 40 ml of solution containing 30 ml 0.25% levobupivacaine and 10 ml 1% lignocaine with dexmedetomidine 1 microg/kg for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Besides effectiveness, other parameters observed were: duration of sensory blockade; onset and duration of motor blockade; duration of postoperative analgesia; and patient satisfaction score. Results: Onset of sensory and motor blockade was 7.6 ± 1.006 min and 8.3 ± 0.877 min in group A, while it was 6.96 ± 1.077 min an 7.6 ± 1.1 min in group B, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P 0.05. Duration of motor block was 8.45 ± 0.75 h in group A and 5.6 ± 0.98 in group B (P < 0.05. Duration of analgesia was 8.5 ± 0.77 h in group A and 9.2 ± 1.05 in group B (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Addition of 1 microg/kg dexmedetomidine to 0.25% levobupivacaine for supraclaviclar plexus block shortens sensory, motor block onset time and motor block durations, extends sensory block, and analgesia durations. Reduction in total levobupivacaine dose also increases the safety margin of the block.

  16. Anatomia do plexo braquial de macaco-barrigudo (Lagothrix lagothricha Anatomy of the brachial plexus of the Woolly-Monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha.

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    Gessica Ariane M Cruz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O macaco-barrigudo (Lagothrix lagothricha é um antropóide pertencente à Família Atelidae que possui os maiores primatas neotropicais. Um cadáver fêmea de macaco-barrigudo foi fixado com solução de formaldeído a 10%, posteriormente dissecado com o auxílio de lupa estereoscópica e fotodocumentado. O plexo braquial originou-se dos nervos espinhais C5 a C8 e T1, formando os troncos cranial, médio e caudal, dos quais derivaram os nervos periféricos que se assemelharam na origem e no território de inervação com os plexos de outros primatas, com exceção do nervo musculocutâneo que atravessou o músculo coracobraquial. Pesquisas sobre o plexo braquial de primatas fornecem dados que disponibilizam o acesso a informações valiosas sobre a morfologia destes animais e auxiliam no estabelecimento de parâmetros anatômicos entre as espécies, contribuindo também no tratamento de injúrias e procedimentos anestésicos.The woolly-monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha is an antropoid belonging to the Atelidae Family which includes the largest neotropical primates. A female cadaver woolly-monkey was fixed in a 10% formaldehyde solution and dissected using a stereoscopic magnifying glass and photodocumented. The brachial plexus originated from the spinal nerves C5 to C8 and T1, forming the cranial, medium, and caudal stems, from which derived the peripheral nerves; those nerves had similar origin and innervation area when compared to plexuses from other primates, with the exception of the musculocutaneous nerve that crossed the coracobraquial muscle. Data from studies with brachial plexus from primates allow the access to valuable information regarding the morphology of those animals, and could also assist in the establishment of anatomical parameters among species, which could then contribute to anesthetic procedures and injury treatments.

  17. Value of magnetic resonance IDEAL sequence in the diagnosis of non­traumatic brachial plexus neuropathy%IDEAL序列在臂丛神经非损伤性病变诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏吉凯; 刘新疆; 房清敏; 张迪; 范万峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the new water fat separation technology (IDEAL) on 3.0 TMRI for diagnosis values in non­traumatic brachial plexous Methods 27 patents with brachial plexus disease underwent GE HDxt 3.0T magnetic resonance , The main magnetic resonance pulse sequence was IDEAL .The characteristics of the different lesions in MR imaging was ob­ served .Results 11 cases of neurilemmoma ,3 cases of neurofibroma ,4 cases of metastases ,the primary tumor direct invasion in 3 cases ,3 cases of brachial plexus neuritis lesions ,2 cases of radiation injury of brachial plexus ,1 cases with Thoracic outlet syn­ drome .Conclusion It is important clinical value to localize brachial plexus nerve lesions and to clear relationship between dis­ ease and nerve in water fat separation technology .%目的:探讨3.0TMRI上新的水脂分离技术对于臂丛神经非损伤性病变的诊断价值。方法使用GE HDxt 3.0T磁共振对27位臂丛神经病变患者行M R扫描。主要磁共振脉冲序列:IDEAL。观察所获得的不同病变的M R影像学特征。结果神经鞘瘤11例,神经纤维瘤3例,转移瘤4例,原发肿瘤直接侵犯3例,臂丛神经炎性病变3例,放射性臂丛神经损伤2例,胸郭出口综合征1例。结论水脂分离技术对臂丛神经相关病变的定位,明确病变与神经的关系有重要临床价值。

  18. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk Animal experiments and clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zou; Xuecheng Cao; Jing Li; Lifeng Liu; Pingshan Wang; Jinfang Cai

    2012-01-01

    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was approximately 80%. Myelinated nerve fibers were arranged loosely but the thickness of the myelin sheath was similar to that of the healthy side. In clinical applications,39 patients with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were followed for 6 months to 4.5 years after treatment using the improved C3 instead of C5 nerve root transfer and C4 nerve root and phrenic nerve instead of C6 nerve root transfer. Results showed that the strength of the brachial biceps and deltoid muscles recovered to level III-IV, scapular muscle to level III-IV, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major muscles to above level III, and the brachial triceps muscle to level 0-III. Results showed that the improved C3-4 transfer for root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk in animal models is similar to clinical findings and that C3-4 and the phrenic nerve transfer for neurotization of C5-6 can innervate the avulsed brachial plexus upper trunk and promote the recovery of nerve function in the upper extremity.

  19. Steindler flexorplasty to restore elbow flexion in C5-C6-C7 brachial plexus palsy type

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    Monreal Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of elbow flexion due to traumatic palsy of the brachial plexus represents a major functional handicap. Then, the first goal in the treatment of the flail arm is to restore the elbow flexion by primary direct nerve surgery or secondary reconstructive surgery. There are various methods to restore elbow flexion which are well documented in the medical literature but the most known and used is Steindler flexorplasty. This review is intended to detail the author's experience with Steindler flexorplasty to restore elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus palsy C5-C6-C7 where wrist extensors are paralyzed or weakened. Methods We conducted a retrospective follow-up study of 12 patients with absent or extremely weak elbow flexion (motor grade 2 or less, wrist/finger extensor and triceps palsy associated; who had undergone surgical reconstruction of the flail upper limb by tendon transfer (Steindler flexorplasty and wrist arthrodesis to restore elbow flexion. The aetiology of elbow weakness was in all patients brachial plexus palsy (C5-C6-C7 deficit. Data were collected from medical records and from the information obtained during follow-up visits. Age, sex, preoperative strength (rated on a 0 to 5 scale for the flexors of the elbow, wrist flexors, pronator and triceps, previous surgery, length of follow-up, other associated operative procedures, results and complications were recorded. Results The results are the follows: Eleven patients were found to have very good or good function of the transferred muscles. One patient had mild active flexion of the elbow despite the reconstructive procedure. There were no major intraoperative complications. Two patients experienced transient, intermittent nocturnal ulnar paresthesias postoperatively. In both patients these symptoms subsided without further surgery. Conclusion Our study suggests that in patients with C5-C6-C7 palsy where the wrist and finger extensors are paralyzed or

  20. Diagnosis of nerve root avulsion injuries in adults with traumatic brachial plexopathies: MRI compared with CT myelography

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    Ewoudt van der Linde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computed tomography myelography (CTM has been broadly adopted as the ‘gold standard’ imaging technique in the diagnosis of nerve root avulsion injuries in traumatic brachial plexopathies. CTM has the distinct advantage of better spatial resolution than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; however, this technique is invasive and can result in significant patient discomfort. MRI, therefore, seems relatively more advantageous as it is less invasive (requires no lumbar puncture, lacks radiation exposure, has no adverse reactions related to intrathecal contrast agents and confers excellent soft-tissue contrast. Objectives: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of MRI with CTM in the diagnosis of preganglionic nerve root avulsion injuries in adults with traumatic brachial plexopathies at the Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital.Method: A retrospective comparative analysis was performed on 16 adult patients with traumatic preganglionic brachial plexopathies who underwent both MRI and CTM at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital. Radiologists experienced in both CTM and MRI interpreted the data and a comparison was made using CTM as the gold standard. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for MRI detecting preganglionic nerve root avulsion injuries and pseudomeningoceles was 82% and 100% respectively. The interobserver agreement between CTM and MRI for the detection of preganglionic nerve root avulsion injuries was 81.25% (Kappa = 0.77 and 87.5% (Kappa = 0.84 for the detection of pseudomeningoceles. Conclusion: MRI was as sensitive as CTM at detecting preganglionic nerve root avulsion injuries and pseudomeningoceles of spinal nerve roots C7–T1 of the brachial plexus. Some mild discrepancies existed at the C5 and C6 nerve root levels. Owing to the invasiveness of the procedure and resultant patient discomfort, CTM should be reserved for complicated cases or for patients with contraindications to MRI.

  1. Ultrasound-guided brachial plexus catheterization finger replantation for postoperative analgesia%超声引导臂丛神经穿刺置管在断指再植术后镇痛中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚海峰; 孙静; 张黎明; 胡忠谋

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨超声引导臂丛神经穿刺置管在断指再植术后镇痛的指导价值.方法 80例急诊拟行一指或两指断指再植手术的患者(男58例,女22例),年龄17~67岁,ASA Ⅰ~Ⅲ级,无颈部外伤及臂丛神经损伤,按术后镇痛方式随机分为连续臂丛神经阻滞(PCBA组)和静脉镇痛组(PCIA组).采用视觉模糊评分(VAS)对两组患者术后24 h和48 h的镇静、镇痛程度进行评价,并记录出现恶心、呕吐、膈神经阻滞等并发症的例数.结果 所有患者均能舒适地接受超声引导臂丛神经穿刺过程,术中麻醉效果确切.PCBA组超声引导臂丛穿刺置管过程顺利,全部成功.PCBA组与PCIA组比较,VAS评分和镇静程度差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01),PCIA组的血管痉挛及恶心、呕吐发生率高于PCBA组.结论 应用超声引导臂丛神经穿刺置管具有神经定位准确,成功率高;且PCBA组更好地改善了再植指的血运供应,提高了再植指的成活率,避免了加用阿片类药物引起的恶心、呕吐等并发症,增加了患者的舒适度.%Objective To study the ultrasound-guided brachial plexus catheterization finger replantation in the guidance ofthe value of postoperative analgesia.Methods 80 cases of emergency means to be a line or two referring to digital replantation patients(male 58 cases,22 cases of women),aged 17~67-year-old,ASA I ~III-class,non-traumatic neck and brachial plexus injury,by means of postoperative analgesia were randomly divided into continuous brachial plexus block(PCBA group)and intravenous analgesia group(PCIA group).Visual analog scale(VAS)were patients of the 24 h and 48 h after the sedative and analgesic evahation of the extent of,and record the emergence of nausea,vomiting,complications such as phrenic nerve block several of the cases.Results All patients were able to comfortably accept the ultrasound-guided brachial plexus puncture process,the exact effect of intraoperative anesthesia.that of

  2. Iatrogenic brachial artery injury during pinning of supracondylar fracture of humerus:A rare injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar Vishal; R.H.H.Arjun; Aggarwal Sameer; John Rakesh; Kishan Rama

    2015-01-01

    Complications following supracondylar fracture of humerus are well-known.Pre-and post-operative complications have been documented in the literature.Neurovascular injury due to fracture fragments following this type of fracture is described,Iatrogenic brachial artery during surgical treatment of this fracture is unknown to the literature.So we report a rare case of iatrogenic brachial artery injury during pinning of supracondylar fracture of humerus and try to create awareness to the surgeons that such injuries can occur with improper operative techniques.

  3. Nerve root lesion of brachial plexus intervertebral part diagnosed by high-resolution ultrasonography%高频超声在臂丛椎间孔内神经根损伤及病变诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈定章; 郑敏娟; 丛锐; 朱永胜; 冯桦; 赵睿; 周晓东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of high-resolution ultrasonography in the diagnosis of nerve root lesion of cervical vertebra intervertebral foramen part. Methods Twenty-seven patients with root avulsion injury of brachial plexus intervertebral part and 8 patients with schwannoma of brachial plexus root were examined with high-resolution ultrasonography. Thirty healthy volunteers were involved for the sonographic imagings of normal brachial plexus intervertebral part. The ultrasound findings of the patients before operation were compared with surgical outcomes. Results The normal intervertebral part of brachial plexus were shown as hypoechoic tubular strucuture, which could be identified with cervical artery and transverse process used as landmarks for the intervertebral part of brachial plexus root. The detection ratios of normal intervertebral part for C5-C8 and outside part of braehial plexus were 100%. In 27 patients with root avulsion injury of intervertebral brachial plexus, the intervertebral nerve root were enlarged as hypoechoic area, with nerve dissected partly or disappearing, distal nerve parts outside the intervertebral foramen swelling, edema,or cerebrospinal fluid assembling as cystic masses. In 8 patients with schwannoma of brachial plexus root part, the spinal ganglia outside intervertebral foramen were shown as tumor-like hypoechoic mass, with blood supply shown inside. Conclusions High-resolution ultrasonography is of great value for early and convenient diagnosis of root avulsion injury and mass of brachial plexus intervertebral part, especially in community hospitals,which could provide important information for clinical therapy.%目的 探讨高频超声在诊断臂丛椎间孔内神经根损伤及病变中的价值。方法 高频超声检查和诊断27例臂丛椎间孔内神经根撕脱伤和8例臂丛神经根部发出神经鞘瘤,并与手术所见进行比较,随机选择30例无神经外伤的成年人作为正常对照组

  4. Contralateral brachial plexus palsy and Horner syndrome following vestibular schwannoma resection: A complication of patient positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Fusco, MD

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: We present the first known cases of submandibular gland inflammation and hemorrhage resulting in brachial plexopathy and Horner syndrome opposite the site of tumor resection. This case underscores the importance of adequate and safe patient positioning in skull based neurosurgical procedures.

  5. Guillain-Barré syndrome after brachial plexus trauma: case report Síndrome de Guillain-Barré após traumatismo de plexo braquial: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R.G. de Freitas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Guilllain-Barré syndrome (GBS is an acute predominantly demyelinating polyneuropathy. In many cases GBS is preceding by infection, immunization, surgery or trauma. Although there are a few reports of GBS after head trauma, there is no report of this syndrome after brachial plexus injury. We report on a 51 years-old man who presented GBS fifteen days after a brachial plexus trauma. The polineuropathy resolved completely in a few weeks. We believe that GBS was triggered by the trauma that evoked an immune mediated disorder producing inflammation and demyelination of the peripheral nerves.A síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB é uma polineuropatia predominantemente desmielinizante, que ocorre na maioria das vezes após uma infecção, vacinação, cirurgia ou traumatismo. Embora tenham sido descritos alguns casos após traumatismo crânio encefálico, ainda não foi referido caso de SGB após traumatismo do plexo braquial. Relatamos o caso de um homem de 51 anos que 15 dias após ter apresentado paralisia traumática do plexo braquial, desenvolveu SGB. Recuperou-se inteiramente em algumas semanas. Achamos que em nosso caso a SGB foi desencadeada pelo traumatismo, que provocou distúrbios imunológicos com conseqüente acometimento dos nervos periféricos.

  6. 臂丛联合颈浅丛阻滞用于锁骨骨折麻醉效果观察%Effect Observation of Brachial Plexus Combined with Superficial Cervical Plexus Block in Anesthesia for Fracture of the Clavicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪顺垣; 江映; 梁惠玲

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究分析采用臂丛联合颈浅丛阻滞用于锁骨骨折术中麻醉的效果。方法选取2011-2012年于本院进行锁骨骨折内固定术患者80例,分为对照组和研究组,对照组采用臂丛阻滞麻醉,研究组采用臂丛联合颈浅丛阻滞麻醉,比较两组麻醉效果和麻醉过程中生命体征变化以及不良反应的发生情况。结果研究组麻醉效果优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论臂丛联合颈浅丛阻滞用于锁骨骨折麻醉效果优异,并且患者生命体征稳定,不良反应少,值得临床广泛推广应用。%Objective To study and analyze the effect of brachial plexus combined with superficial cervical plexus block in anes-thesia for fracture of the clavicle. Methods 80 patients underwent clavicle fracture fixation in our hospital from 2011 to 2012 were chosen and divided into the control group and the study group. Control group was given brachial plexus block anesthesia while study group was given brachial plexus combined with superficial cervical plexus block anesthesia. The anesthetic effects and life sign changes during anesthesia and adverse effects of the 2 groups were compared. Results The anesthetic effect of the study group was better than that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Brachial plexus combined with superficial cervical plexus block in anesthesia for fracture of the clavicle has a great effect. It can keep life signs steady and has few adverse effects, so it's worthy of being popularized in clinical work.

  7. 超声引导喙突处锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞与逆行锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞的比较%Comparison of the anesthetic effects between ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block via coracoid approach and ultrasound-guided retrograde infraclavicular brachial plexus block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛; 斯妍娜; 程浩; 鲍红光; 韩流

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较超声引导喙突处锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞与逆行锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞的临床麻醉效果.方法 拟行前臂或手部手术患者60例,随机分为两组,分别行超声引导下喙突处锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞(观察组)和超声引导逆行锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞(对照组),每组30例.记录麻醉成功率、麻醉操作时间、持续时间及并发症发生例数、各臂丛神经的起效时间.结果 对照组尺神经、前臂内侧皮神经起效时间较观察组短(P<0.05).对照组有5例Homer's综合征,1例误入血管.结论 超声引导喙突处锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞和逆行锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞均是可行有效的区域麻醉方法.%Objective To compare the anesthetic effects between ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block via ooracoid approach and ultrasound-guided retrograde infraclavicular hrachial plexus block. Methods Sixty patient:, scheduled for forearm or kind surgery were equally randomized into two groups; infraclavicular brachial plexus block via coraeoid approach group (observation group) and retrograde infraclavicular brachial plexus block group (control group). The anesthesia success rale, performance time, duration time, the block onset time of brachial plexus, and the incidence of complication were recorded. Results There was no statistical significance in respect of the anesthesia success rate, performance time, and duration time. Compared wilh observation group, the block onset time of ulnar nerve and median antebrachial cutaneous nerve was shorter and the incidence of complication was higher in control group(P<0. 03). Concha-ion Infraclavicular hrachial plexus block via coraeoid approach and retrograde infraclavicular brachial plexus block by ultrasound-guided are feasible technique in regional anaesthesia, hut the block onset was slower and the incidence of complication was higher in ultrasound-guided retrograde infraclauicnar brachial plexus block.

  8. Use of brachial plexus blockade and medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (acinonyx jubatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kimeli, Peter; Mogoa, Eddy M; Mwangi, Willy E; Kipyegon, Ambrose N; Kirui, Gilbert; Muasya, Daniel W; John D. Mande; Kariuki, Edward; Mijele, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Background Regional anaesthetic techniques have been used in combination with systemic analgesics during small animal surgery to provide multimodal analgesia. Brachial plexus nerves block using local anaesthetics provides analgesia of the thoracic limb through desensitization of the nerves that provide sensory and motor innervation. This has been shown to reduce intra-operative anesthetic requirements and provide postoperative pain relief. Decreasing the doses of general anaesthetics allows m...

  9. Ultrasound guidance for brachial plexus block decreases the incidence of complete hemi-diaphragmatic paresis or vascular punctures and improves success rate of brachial plexus nerve block compared with peripheral nerve stimulator in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jia-min; YANG Xiao-hu; FU Shu-kun; YUAN Chao-qun; CHEN Kai; LI Jia-yi; LI Quan

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of traditional techniques (such as landmark techniques,paresthesia and peripheral nerve stimulator) for upper-limb anesthesia has often been restricted to the expert or enthusiast,which was blind.Recently,ultrasound (US) has been applied to differ blood vessel,pleura and nerve,thus may reduce the risk of complications while have a high rate of success.The aim of this study was to determine if the use of ultrasound guidance (vs.peripheral nerve stimulator,(PNS)) decreases risk of vascular puncture,risk of hemi-diaphragmatic paresis and risk of Horner syndrome and improves the success rate of nerve block.Methods A search strategy was developed to identify randomized control trials (RCTs) reporting on complications of US and PNS guidance for upper-extremity peripheral nerve blocks (brachial plexus) in adults available through PubMed databases,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials,Embase databases,SinoMed databases and Wanfang data (date up to 2011-12-20).Two independent reviewers appraised eligible studies and extracted data.Risk ratios (OR)were calculated for each outcome and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI) with the software of ReviewManager 5.1.0 System (Cochrane Library).Results Sixteen trials involving 1321 adults met our criteria were included for analysis.Blocks performed using US guidance were more likely to be successful (risk ratio (RR) for block success 0.36,95% CI 0.23-0.56,P <0.00001),decreased incidence of vascular puncture during block performance (RR 0.13,95% CI 0.06-0.27,P <0.00001),decreased the risk of complete hemi-diaphragmatic paresis (RR 0.09,95% CI 0.03-0.52,,P=0.0001).Conclusions US decreases risks of complete hemi-diaphragmatic paresis or vascular puncture and improves success rate of brachial plexus nerve block compared with techniques that utilize PNS for nerve localization.Larger studies are needed to determine whether or not the use of US can decrease risk of neurologic complications.

  10. Dosimetric analysis of the brachial plexus among patients with breast cancer treated with post-mastectomy radiotherapy to the ipsilateral supraclavicular area: report of 3 cases of radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brachial plexus (BP) dose of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) to the ipsilateral supraclavicular (ISCL) area, and report the characteristics of radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy (RIBPN). The BP dose of 31 patients who received adjuvant PMRT to the ISCL area and chest wall using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and the records of 3 patients with RIBPN were retrospectively analyzed based on the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-endorsed guidelines. The total dose to the ISCL area and chest wall was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Patients with a higher number of removed lymph nodes (RLNs) had a higher risk of RIBPN (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.189, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.005-1.406, p = 0.044). In 31 patients treated with 3DCRT, the mean dose to the BP without irradiation to the ISCL area was significantly less than that with irradiation to the ISCL area (0.97 ± 0.20 vs. 44.39 ± 4.13 Gy, t = 136.75, p <0.001). In the 3DCRT plans with irradiation to the ISCL area and chest wall, the maximum dose to the BP was negatively correlated with age (r = −0.40, p = 0.026), body mass index (BMI) (r = −0.44, p = 0.014), and body weight (r = −0.45, p = 0.011). Symptoms of the 3 patients with RIBPN occurred 37–65 months after radiotherapy, and included progressive upper extremity numbness, pain, and motor disturbance. After treatment, 1 patient was stable, and the other 2 patients’ symptoms worsened. The incidence of RIBPN was higher in patients with a higher number of RLNs after PMRT. The dose to the BP is primarily from irradiation of the ISCL area, and is higher in slim and young patients. Prevention should be the main focus of managing RIBPN, and the BP should be considered an organ-at-risk when designing a radiotherapy plan for the ISCL area

  11. A randomised placebo-controlled trial examining the effect on hand supination after the addition of a suprascapular nerve block to infraclavicular brachial plexus blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr-Madsen, S; Ytrebø, L M; Valen, K; Wilsgaard, T; Klaastad, Ø

    2016-08-01

    Some surgeons believe that infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks tends to result in supination of the hand/forearm, which may make surgical access to the dorsum of the hand more difficult. We hypothesised that this supination may be reduced by the addition of a suprascapular nerve block. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, our primary outcome measure was the amount of supination (as assessed by wrist angulation) 30 min after infraclavicular brachial plexus block, with (suprascapular group) or without (control group) a supplementary suprascapular block. All blocks were ultrasound-guided. The secondary outcome measure was an assessment by the surgeon of the intra-operative position of the hand. Considering only patients with successful nerve blocks, mean (SD) wrist angulation was lower (33 (27) vs. 61 (44) degrees; p = 0.018) and assessment of the hand position was better (11/11 vs. 6/11 rated as 'good'; p = 0.04) in the suprascapular group. The addition of a suprascapular nerve block to an infraclavicular brachial plexus block can provide a better hand/forearm position for dorsal hand surgery. PMID:27396247

  12. A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF BUPIVACAINE 0.5% AND ROPIVACAINE 0.5% FOR SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK (PERIVASCULAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Babu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerve blocks have become important in clinical practice because of their role in post-operative pain relief, shortening of patient recovery time & avoiding risks and adverse effects of General anaesthesia. Bupivacaine is a long acting local anaesthetic. Due to its long duration of action and combined with its high quality sensory blockade compared to motor blockade it has been the most commonly used local anaesthetic for peripheral nerve blocks. Ropivacaine is a newer, long acting local anaesthetic whose neuronal blocking potential used in peripheral nerve blockade seems to be equal or superior to Bupivacaine. Studies show that it has significantly greater safety margin over Bupivacaine. Hence here is an attempt through the study to compare Bupivacaine with Ropivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of Bupivacaine 0.5% & Ropivacaine 0.5% used for Supraclavicular approach to brachial plexus block with respect to Onset time of Sensory blockade, Onset time of Motor blockade, Duration of Sensory blockade, Duration of Motor blockade, Duration of Analgesia, Side effects/ Complications. METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA: Sixty patients aged between 18 years and 60 years, of physical status ASA grade 1 and ASA grade 2 undergoing elective upper limb surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes were included in the study after getting ethical clearance. Each patient was randomly allocated to one of the two groups of 30 patients each. The patients were explained about the procedure and premeditated with Tab Alprazolam 0.5mg. The anesthetic technique employed was supraclavicular brachial plexus block using 30 ml of either 0.5% bupivacaine or 0.5% ropivacaine. RESULTS: In our study, we observed that onset time of sensory block was earlier in Bupivacaine group (Group B having a mean value of 17.70±2.35 minutes in comparison with Ropivacaine group (Group R having a mean value of 22.13±3

  13. Application of cervical brachial plexus block in the operation of clavicle fracture%颈臂丛联合神经阻滞在锁骨骨折手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢秋霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨颈臂丛神经阻滞麻醉在锁骨骨折手术中的麻醉方法及效果。方法:收治锁骨骨折患者90例,随机分为颈臂丛联合阻滞麻醉组、颈丛阻滞麻醉组、臂丛阻滞麻醉组各30例,比较3种麻醉方法的麻醉效果和不良反应。结果:颈臂丛联合组麻醉效果最为满意,而不良反应发生率的差异无统计学意义。结论:颈臂丛联合神经阻滞用于锁骨骨折手术麻醉效果满意,阻滞效果明显优于颈丛、臂丛神经阻滞,不良反应小。%Objective:To explore the anesthetic method and effect of cervical brachial plexus block in the operation of clavicle fracture.Methods:90 patients with clavicle fractures were selected,they were randomly divided into the cervical brachial plexus block anesthesia group,cervical plexus block anesthesia group and brachial plexus block anesthesia group with 30 cases in each, we compared the anesthesia effect and adverse reactions of the three methods.Methods:Anesthetic effect of cervical brachial plexus block was most satisfactory,and the difference of the incidence of adverse reactions was not statistically significant. Conclusion:The anesthetic effect of cervical brachial plexus block in the operation of clavicle fracture was satisfactory,the blocking effect was significantly better than that of cervical plexus block and brachial plexus block,and the side effects were small.

  14. To determine block establishment time of supraclavicular brachial plexus block using blunt versus short bevel needle: A prospective randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, V; Thapa, D; Gombar, S; Dhiman, D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unintentional intraneural injection under ultrasound guidance (USG) with fine caliber needles and lower success rate with large caliber Tuohy needles in supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SCB) have been reported. Materials and Methods: We undertook study to standardize the use of 20-gauge short versus blunt bevel needle for SCB. After approval of Institutional Ethics Committee and written informed consent, patients were randomized using computer-generated random number table to either of the two groups; blunt bevel needle group (n = 30): SCB under USG using 20-gauge Tuohy needle or short bevel needle group (n = 30): SCB under USG using 20-gauge short bevel needle. The primary outcome of the study was time to establishment of sensory and motor block of individual nerves, and secondary outcome was tolerability and any adverse effects. Results: The time to establishment of sensory and motor block in individual nerve territory was similar in both the groups. The complete sensory and motor anesthesia was achieved in 78.3% patients and complete sensory and motor anesthesia after supplementary block was achieved in 86.6% patients. Paresthesias during SCB were recorded in 15 patients. Out of these eight patients were of blunt bevel group and seven patients were of short bevel group. None of the patients experienced any neurological adverse effects. Conclusion: The establishment of sensory and motor blockade of individual nerves was similar to 20-gauge short and blunt bevel needle under ultrasound guide with no neurological adverse events. PMID:27375378

  15. To determine block establishment time of supraclavicular brachial plexus block using blunt versus short bevel needle: A prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Ahuja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unintentional intraneural injection under ultrasound guidance (USG with fine caliber needles and lower success rate with large caliber Tuohy needles in supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SCB have been reported. Materials and Methods: We undertook study to standardize the use of 20-gauge short versus blunt bevel needle for SCB. After approval of Institutional Ethics Committee and written informed consent, patients were randomized using computer-generated random number table to either of the two groups; blunt bevel needle group (n = 30: SCB under USG using 20-gauge Tuohy needle or short bevel needle group (n = 30: SCB under USG using 20-gauge short bevel needle. The primary outcome of the study was time to establishment of sensory and motor block of individual nerves, and secondary outcome was tolerability and any adverse effects. Results: The time to establishment of sensory and motor block in individual nerve territory was similar in both the groups. The complete sensory and motor anesthesia was achieved in 78.3% patients and complete sensory and motor anesthesia after supplementary block was achieved in 86.6% patients. Paresthesias during SCB were recorded in 15 patients. Out of these eight patients were of blunt bevel group and seven patients were of short bevel group. None of the patients experienced any neurological adverse effects. Conclusion: The establishment of sensory and motor blockade of individual nerves was similar to 20-gauge short and blunt bevel needle under ultrasound guide with no neurological adverse events.

  16. Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jonathan S; Symonds, Catherine; Birch, Rolfe

    2004-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of cannabis-based medicines for treatment of chronic pain associated with brachial plexus root avulsion. This condition is an excellent human model of central neuropathic pain as it represents an unusually homogenous group in terms of anatomical location of injury, pain descriptions and patient demographics. Forty-eight patients with at least one avulsed root and baseline pain score of four or more on an 11-point ordinate scale participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three period crossover study. All patients had intractable symptoms regardless of current analgesic therapy. Patients entered a baseline period of 2 weeks, followed by three, 2-week treatment periods during each of which they received one of three oromucosal spray preparations. These were placebo and two whole plant extracts of Cannabis sativa L.: GW-1000-02 (Sativex), containing Delta(9)tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) in an approximate 1:1 ratio and GW-2000-02, containing primarily THC. The primary outcome measure was the mean pain severity score during the last 7 days of treatment. Secondary outcome measures included pain related quality of life assessments. The primary outcome measure failed to fall by the two points defined in our hypothesis. However, both this measure and measures of sleep showed statistically significant improvements. The study medications were generally well tolerated with the majority of adverse events, including intoxication type reactions, being mild to moderate in severity and resolving spontaneously. Studies of longer duration in neuropathic pain are required to confirm a clinically relevant, improvement in the treatment of this condition. PMID:15561385

  17. Surgical correction of unsuccessful derotational humeral osteotomy in obstetric brachial plexus palsy: Evidence of the significance of scapular deformity in the pathophysiology of the medial rotation contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melcher Sonya E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current method of treatment for persistent internal rotation due to the medial rotation contracture in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury is humeral derotational osteotomy. While this procedure places the arm in a more functional position, it does not attend to the abnormal glenohumeral joint. Poor positioning of the humeral head secondary to elevation and rotation of the scapula and elongated acromion impingement causes functional limitations which are not addressed by derotation of the humerus. Progressive dislocation, caused by the abnormal positioning and shape of the scapula and clavicle, needs to be treated more directly. Methods Four patients with Scapular Hypoplasia, Elevation And Rotation (SHEAR deformity who had undergone unsuccessful humeral osteotomies to treat internal rotation underwent acromion and clavicular osteotomy, ostectomy of the superomedial border of the scapula and posterior capsulorrhaphy in order to relieve the torsion developed in the acromio-clavicular triangle by persistent asymmetric muscle action and medial rotation contracture. Results Clinical examination shows significant improvement in the functional movement possible for these four children as assessed by the modified Mallet scoring, definitely improving on what was achieved by humeral osteotomy. Conclusion These results reveal the importance of recognizing the presence of scapular hypoplasia, elevation and rotation deformity before deciding on a treatment plan. The Triangle Tilt procedure aims to relieve the forces acting on the shoulder joint and improve the situation of the humeral head in the glenoid. Improvement in glenohumeral positioning should allow for better functional movements of the shoulder, which was seen in all four patients. These dramatic improvements were only possible once the glenohumeral deformity was directly addressed surgically.

  18. EFFECT OF ADDITION OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE TO ROPIVACAINE HYDROCHLORIDE (0.75% IN BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK THROUGH SUPRACLAVICULAR ROUTE IN UPPER LIMB SURGERIES: A CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus block is a popular and widely employed regional nerve block of upper extremity which avoids the unwanted effect of anesthetic drugs used during general anesthesia, there complication and the stress of laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Patients also have a post-operative period free from nausea, vomiting, cerebral depression and immediate post-operative pain. The brachial plexus via supraclavicular approach block provide safe, effective, low cost complete anesthesia or analgesia of the upper extremity and is carried out at the level of the distal trunks/divisions of the brachial plexus, where it is in its tightest formation thus allowing for rapid and completed anesthesia or analgesia of the upper limb. The present single Centre, prospective, randomized, double blind study was undertaken to compare the effects of Ropivacaine and Ropivacaine-Dexmedetomidine combination in brachial plexus block via supraclavicular route with respect to its onset, duration of action. A total of 60 patients of ASA grading I &II and age ranging 18-50 year of either sex underwent various elective upper limb surgeries were divided in two equal groups Group A (n=30: Received brachial plexus block with 30 ml Ropivacaine (0.75%. Group B (n=30: Received brachial plexus block with 29 ml Ropivacaine (0.75% + 1 ml Dexmedetomidine (50μg. After performing supraclavicular block the following observations were made: 1. Onset of sensory blockade. 2. Duration of sensory blockade. 3. Onset of motor blockade. 4. Duration of motor blockade. 5. Duration of analgesia. The onset and duration of sensory blockade was assessed by pin prick response on area of all four nerves of upper limbs. The onset and duration of motor blockade was assessed by Modified Bromage Scale. The onset and duration of analgesia was assessed by response to pin prick and time of first request of analgesic dose. The observations were as follow: - The average time of onset of sensory blockade was

  19. Diseases of the brachial plexus after surgery and irradiation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated retrospectively the medical records of 1028 female and two male patients operated upon and post-irradiated because of a breast cancer. Thirty-nine among the female patients suffered from a plexus disease. When considering the reasons for the formation of this disease, one must not only suppose that the operation method and the influence of the dose is at its origin, but the hyperemization and hyperhydration which may develop in the early postoperative phase or due to hormonal action have to be taken into consideration, too. The following conclusions were drawn for patients submitted to radical operations: 1. The irradiations should not be started much earlier than twenty days after the operation. 2. The dose calculation and beginning of irradiations should be controlled very carefully for patients aged below 45 and/or patients presenting an oedema of the arm. 3. No maximum doses are administered to patients treated by hormonal and/or pharmacological therapy (not more than 42 to 45 Gy). (orig.)

  20. Diseases of the brachial plexus after surgery and irradiation of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, K.G.; Mitrovic, D.

    1981-02-01

    The authors evaluated retrospectively the medical records of 1028 female and two male patients operated upon and post-irradiated because of a breast cancer. Thirty-nine among the female patients suffered from a plexus disease. When considering the reasons for the formation of this disease, one must not only suppose that the operation method and the influence of the dose is at its origin, but the hyperemization and hyperhydration which may develop in the early postoperative phase or due to hormonal action have to be taken into consideration, too. The following conclusions were drawn for patients submitted to radical operations: 1. The irradiations should not be started much earlier than twenty days after the operation. 2. The dose calculation and beginning of irradiations should be controlled very carefully for patients aged below 45 and/or patients presenting an oedema of the arm. 3. No maximum doses are administered to patients treated by hormonal and/or pharmacological therapy (not more than 42 to 45 Gy).

  1. Consideration of Dose Limits for Organs at Risk of Thoracic Radiotherapy: Atlas for Lung, Proximal Bronchial Tree, Esophagus, Spinal Cord, Ribs, and Brachial Plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan and Ann Arbor Veteran Affairs Medical System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ritter, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan and Ann Arbor Veteran Affairs Medical System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Quint, Douglas J. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gaspar, Laurie E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hurkmans, Coen W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Timmerman, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Bezjak, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Marsh, Lon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan and Ann Arbor Veteran Affairs Medical System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Cancer Center, and Winship Cancer institute, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To review the dose limits and standardize the three-dimenional (3D) radiographic definition for the organs at risk (OARs) for thoracic radiotherapy (RT), including the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: The present study was performed by representatives from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and Soutwestern Oncology Group lung cancer committees. The dosimetric constraints of major multicenter trials of 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT were reviewed and the challenges of 3D delineation of these OARs described. Using knowledge of the human anatomy and 3D radiographic correlation, draft atlases were generated by a radiation oncologist, medical physicist, dosimetrist, and radiologist from the United States and reviewed by a radiation oncologist and medical physicist from Europe. The atlases were then critically reviewed, discussed, and edited by another 10 radiation oncologists. Results: Three-dimensional descriptions of the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus are presented. Two computed tomography atlases were developed: one for the middle and lower thoracic OARs (except for the heart) and one focusing on the brachial plexus for a patient positioned supine with their arms up for thoracic RT. The dosimetric limits of the key OARs are discussed. Conclusions: We believe these atlases will allow us to define OARs with less variation and generate dosimetric data in a more consistent manner. This could help us study the effect of radiation on these OARs and guide high-quality clinical trials and individualized practice in 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT.

  2. Consideration of Dose Limits for Organs at Risk of Thoracic Radiotherapy: Atlas for Lung, Proximal Bronchial Tree, Esophagus, Spinal Cord, Ribs, and Brachial Plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review the dose limits and standardize the three-dimenional (3D) radiographic definition for the organs at risk (OARs) for thoracic radiotherapy (RT), including the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: The present study was performed by representatives from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and Soutwestern Oncology Group lung cancer committees. The dosimetric constraints of major multicenter trials of 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT were reviewed and the challenges of 3D delineation of these OARs described. Using knowledge of the human anatomy and 3D radiographic correlation, draft atlases were generated by a radiation oncologist, medical physicist, dosimetrist, and radiologist from the United States and reviewed by a radiation oncologist and medical physicist from Europe. The atlases were then critically reviewed, discussed, and edited by another 10 radiation oncologists. Results: Three-dimensional descriptions of the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus are presented. Two computed tomography atlases were developed: one for the middle and lower thoracic OARs (except for the heart) and one focusing on the brachial plexus for a patient positioned supine with their arms up for thoracic RT. The dosimetric limits of the key OARs are discussed. Conclusions: We believe these atlases will allow us to define OARs with less variation and generate dosimetric data in a more consistent manner. This could help us study the effect of radiation on these OARs and guide high-quality clinical trials and individualized practice in 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT.

  3. Comparison of interscalene brachial plexus block and intra-articular local anesthetic administration on postoperative pain management in arthroscopic shoulder surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Aksu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, the aim was to compare postoperative analgesia effects of the administration of ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block and intra-articular bupivacaine carried out with bupivacaine. METHODS: In the first group of patients 20 mL 0.25% bupivacaine and ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (ISPB were applied, while 20 mL 0.25% bupivacaine was given via intra-articular (IA administration to the second group patients after surgery. Patients in the third group were considered the control group and no block was performed. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA with morphine was used in all three groups for postoperative analgesia. RESULTS: In the ISPB group, morphine consumption in the periods between 0-4, 6-12 and 12-24 postoperative hours and total consumption within 24 h was lower than in the other two groups. Morphine consumption in the IA group was lower than in the control group in the period from 0 to 6 h and the same was true for total morphine consumption in 24 h. Postoperative VASr scores in the ISPB group were lower than both of the other groups in the first 2 h and lower than the control group in the 4th and 6th hours (p < 0.05. In the IA group, VASr and VASm scores in the 2nd, 4th and 6th hours were lower than in the control group (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Interscalene brachial plexus block was found to be more effective than intra-articular local anesthetic injection for postoperative analgesia.

  4. Volumetric tumor burden and its effect on brachial plexus dosimetry in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romesser, Paul B.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Truong, Minh Tam, E-mail: mitruong@bu.edu

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of gross tumor volume of the primary (GTV-P) and nodal (GTV-N) disease on planned radiation dose to the brachial plexus (BP) in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Overall, 75 patients underwent definitive IMRT to a median total dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions. The right BP and left BP were prospectively contoured as separate organs at risk. The GTV was related to BP dose using the unpaired t-test. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine optimized volumetric thresholds of GTV-P and GTV-N corresponding to a maximum BP dose cutoff of > 66 Gy. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for factors associated with a higher maximal BP dose. A higher maximum BP dose (> 66 vs ≤ 66 Gy) correlated with a greater mean GTV-P (79.5 vs 30.8 cc; p = 0.001) and ipsilateral GTV-N (60.6 vs 19.8 cc; p = 0.014). When dichotomized by the optimized nodal volume, patients with an ipsilateral GTV-N ≥ 4.9 vs < 4.9 cc had a significant difference in maximum BP dose (64.2 vs 59.4 Gy; p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that an ipsilateral GTV-N ≥ 4.9 cc was an independent predictor for the BP to receive a maximal dose of > 66 Gy when adjusted individually for BP volume, GTV-P, the use of a low anterior neck field technique, total planned radiation dose, and tumor category. Although both the primary and the nodal tumor volumes affected the BP maximal dose, the ipsilateral nodal tumor volume (GTV-N ≥ 4.9 cc) was an independent predictor for high maximal BP dose constraints in head and neck IMRT.

  5. A case of Klumpke's obstetric brachial plexus palsy following a Cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; El-Sayed, Amel A F

    2016-09-01

    It is generally thought that Klumpke's palsy is not seen as obstetric injury. The authors present a case of Klumpke's palsy with Horner syndrome following delivery by emergency Cesarean section. Neurolysis and nerve grafting partially corrected the paralysis. PMID:27648266

  6. Report of the independent review commissioned by the Royal College of Radiologists into brachial plexus neuropathy following radiotherapy for breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Thelma; Evans, R.G.B.

    1995-12-31

    Brachial plexus neuropathy (BPN) is a rare but serious side effect of radiotherapy for operable breast carcinoma. It was identified in 48 of a sample of 126 patients (38%) who agreed to cooperate out of 249 members of RAGE, who were treated during the 14 year period 1980 to 1993 at 15 cancer centres. A conservative estimate of the total number of patients with operable breast cancer receiving radiotherapy at these centres during this time is 65,000. The incidence of BPN due to radiotherapy (BPN/RT) appears to be falling. From the first 7 years we found 41 cases and from the second 7 years only 7 cases. (author).

  7. Brief reports: a clinical evaluation of block characteristics using one milliliter 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian

    2010-09-01

    We report onset and duration of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block using 1 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine per nerve (total local anesthetic volume 4 mL). Block performance time, block onset time, duration of surgery, and block duration were measured. Seventeen consecutive patients were recruited. The mean (SD) block performance and onset times were 271 (67.9) seconds and 9.7 (3.7) minutes, respectively. Block duration was 160.8 (30.7) minutes. All operations were performed using regional anesthesia alone. The duration of anesthesia obtained is sufficient for most ambulatory hand surgery.

  8. High-resolution and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brachial plexus using an isotropic 3D T2 STIR (Short Term Inversion Recovery) SPACE sequence and diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viallon, M.; Vargas, M.I.; Jlassi, H.; Loevblad, K.O.; Delavelle, J. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-05-15

    This technical note demonstrates the relevance of the isotropic 3D T2 turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence with short-term inversion recovery (STIR) and variable flip angle RF excitations (SPACE: Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrasts using different flip angle Evolutions) for high-resolution brachial plexus imaging. The sequence was used in 11 patients in the diagnosis of brachial plexus pathologies involving primary and secondary tumors, and in six volunteers. We show that 3D STIR imaging is not only a reliable alternative to 2D STIR imaging, but it also better evaluates the anatomy, nerve site compression and pathology of the plexus, especially to depict space-occupying tumors along its course. Finally, due to its appropriate contrast we describe how 3D-STIR can be used as a high-resolution mask to be fused with fraction of anisotropy (FA) maps calculated from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data of the plexus. (orig.)

  9. Sequelae of surgical options in the older brachial plexus birth palsy pronation deformity%大龄产瘫前臂旋前畸形后遗症术式的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿不来提·阿不拉; 张渭波; 张青春; 艾合买提江·玉素甫

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the radial rotation osteotomy and ulnadouble rotation osteotomy obstetric brachial plexus injury (obstetric brachial plexus palsy) forearm pronation deformity sequelae value.Methods From August 2007 to August 2011, twenty cases of obstetric brachial plexus palsy sequelae in children with forearm pronation deformity, the implementation of a simple radial rotating radial osteotomy (5cases),double-rotation radius and ulna osteotomy (15 cases) and two surgical type,and by 6 to 54 months after surgery (mean 25 months) follow-up.The groupfunctions to forearm pronation angle and conscious function improvement as the evaluation criteria. Results The 15 cases of radius and ulna osteotomy in children with dual function and appearance in 14 cases significandy improved,one case of supination deformity;five underwent simple radial pronation osteotomy,three patients had improved function and appearance,followed up for 6 months, eight months after the merger which radial head dislocation in 2 cases due to poor efficacy of dual-line radius and ulna osteotomy, twenty patients in this group did not appear nonunion.Conclusion Simple radial rotation osteotomy surgery in obstetric brachial plexus palsy forearm pronation deformity complications without radial head dislocation has some value, radius and ulna double osteotomy in forearm pronation deformity with radial head dislocation aftermath of the effect is more excellent.%目的 评价桡骨旋转截骨术及尺、桡骨双旋转截骨术在治疗大龄产瘫前臂旋前畸形后遗症的价值. 方法 2007年8月至2011年8月,对20例产瘫前臂旋前畸形后遗症患儿,施行桡骨单纯桡骨旋转截骨(5例)、尺、桡骨双旋转截骨(15例)等两种术式,并经术后6~54个月(平均25个月)的随访.本组前臂功能以旋前位角度和自觉功能的改善作为评价标准.结果 本组15例行尺、桡骨双截骨患儿中14例功能及外观明显改善,1例出现旋后畸形;5例行

  10. Optimal number of atlases and label fusion for automatic multi-atlas-based brachial plexus contouring in radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to define the optimal number of atlases for automatic multi-atlas-based brachial plexus (BP) segmentation and to compare Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) label fusion with Patch label fusion using the ADMIRE® software. The accuracy of the autosegmentations was measured by comparing all of the generated autosegmentations with the anatomically validated gold standard segmentations that were developed using cadavers. Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases were used for automatic multi-atlas-based segmentation. To determine the optimal number of atlases, one atlas was selected as a patient and the 11 remaining atlases were registered onto this patient using a deformable image registration algorithm. Next, label fusion was performed by using every possible combination of 2 to 11 atlases, once using STAPLE and once using Patch. This procedure was repeated for every atlas as a patient. The similarity of the generated automatic BP segmentations and the gold standard segmentation was measured by calculating the average Dice similarity (DSC), Jaccard (JI) and True positive rate (TPR) for each number of atlases. These similarity indices were compared for the different number of atlases using an equivalence trial and for the two label fusion groups using an independent sample-t test. DSC’s and JI’s were highest when using nine atlases with both STAPLE (average DSC = 0,532; JI = 0,369) and Patch (average DSC = 0,530; JI = 0,370). When comparing both label fusion algorithms using 9 atlases for both, DSC and JI values were not significantly different. However, significantly higher TPR values were achieved in favour of STAPLE (p < 0,001). When fewer than four atlases were used, STAPLE produced significantly lower DSC, JI and TPR values than did Patch (p = 0,0048). Using 9 atlases with STAPLE label fusion resulted in the most accurate BP autosegmentations (average DSC = 0,532; JI = 0,369 and TPR = 0,760). Only when

  11. Brachial artery injury following opened elbow dislocation associated with accessory brachial artery: two rare entities in a 17-year –old girl: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hajji, Rita; Zrihni, Youssef; Naouli, Hamza; Bouarhroum, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    Elbow dislocations are the most frequently encountered after shoulder dislocations. In their vast majority, these injuries carry a good prognosis. Although, concomitant arterial injury is rare and make them more serious. In this paper, we report a case of a 17 year old woman with opened elbow dislocation with arterial injury associated to an artery variation: "accessory brachial artery"

  12. The localization of brachial plexus nerve roots and ultrasonographic characteristics in healthy adults%高频超声对正常成人臂丛神经根和椎间孔的定位及其图像特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯桦; 周晓东; 陈定章; 丛锐; 张党谋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore localization markers of normal brachial plexus intervertebral foramen and nerve root by high-resolution ultrasonography. Methods The brachial plexus intervertebral foramen and nerve root of corpse were localized by the metal probe under the guidance of high-resolution ultrasonography. The normal brachial plexus nerve root and cervicothoracic specimen of body ultrasound images were compared and the normal ultrasonographic imagings of brachial plexus were observed. Results The root of parapophysisi and vertebral artery were detected to be valuable anatomy landmarks for mapping of intervertebral foramen. The detection ratios of different normal brachial plexus were 100% ( 100/100 ) for C5-C8 and 34% ( 34/100 ) for T1 and lower trunk. Conclusion High-resolution ultrasonography provides brachial plexus intervertebral foramen and nerve root ultrasound images with high quality, which shows great potential in improving noninvasive diagnostic rate of brachial plexus lesions and localization of anesthesia.%目的 探讨应用高频超声对正常成人臂丛神经根和椎间孔定位的准确性及影响因素.方法 在高频超声引导下使用金属探针对成人尸体颈胸段双侧臂丛神经椎间孔及神经根行穿刺定位,并与正常成人臂丛神经声像图对照分析.结果 声像图显示,颈椎椎体横突根部和椎动脉是辨认和定位椎间孔及其内神经根发出水平的重要解剖标志.50例受检者中,所有受检者均可观察到C5~C8水平的神经根,显示率为100%(100/100),T1和下干显示率为34%(34/100).结论 高频超声可准确区分和定位臂丛神经各个神经根及椎间孔位置,可为臂丛神经损伤及局部麻醉的定位诊断提供可靠的影像学依据和参考.

  13. MRI of brachial plexopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sureka, J. [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India)], E-mail: drjyoticmch@rediffmail.com; Cherian, R.A.; Alexander, M.; Thomas, B.P. [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India)

    2009-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the primary imaging technique in the evaluation of brachial plexus pathology, and plays an important role in the identification, localization, and characterization of the cause. Improvements in MRI technique have helped in detecting changes in the signal intensity of nerves, subtle enhancement, and in detecting perineural pathology, thereby refining the differential diagnosis. The present review of the visualization of brachial plexus abnormalities using MRI is based on a review of 26 cases. The causes include trauma and a spectrum of non-traumatic causes, such as acute idiopathic/viral plexitis, metastases, immune-mediated plexitis, and mass lesions compressing the brachial plexus.

  14. 游离股薄肌移植在臂丛损伤治疗中的显微组织学及定量研究%The microhistological and quantification study of free gracilis muscle transplantation in treatment of the brachial plexus injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓岗; 顾立强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide histology base for the microsurgical repair of the free gracilis muscle transplantation after brachial plexus.Methods Totally 6 fresh male adult cadaveric inferior extremities were obtained.The gracilis muscle nerve were exposed and divided with the microdissection.Specimens were got from different segment after marked direction.All specimens was faced in 4% formaldehyde solution and then crossing sections were cut by cryoultramicrotome.All slides were stained use the technique of Kamovsky-Roots AchE histochemical.The result of never tissue staining and the distribution of individual functional fascicular group were observed on each cross-section.According to the result of staining combined with the microdissection and the order of different branches branching off the nerve trunk,the distribution of individual functional fascicular group were observed on each cross-section.The 5 μm-thick routine waxed crossing sections were made and stained according to the myelin technique of Loyez.These histological sections were analyzed by using image analysis system.For each histological section,the number of the medullated nerve fibers and the section areas of the each nerve tracts and trunks were measured and calculated.Then the proportion of nerve tracts and connective tissue were calculated.The proportion of each connective tissue was adopting paired-samples t test.Results Under low power lens most of the gracilis muscle nerve were positive reaction,only a few sparse block-shape enzyme staining regions were shown.Under high power lens,the gracilis muscle nerve have clear outline,enzyme staining limited at neuraxis,no staining at myelin sheath and connective tissue.Quantitative analysis shows that the total myelinated fiberscilis nerve was about (1958 ± 375) radix.The branches arising from the posterior subdivision were more than that from the anterior (P =0.000).There were statistical difference between the number of the medullated nerve fibers and

  15. Nerve transfer for treatment of brachial plexus injury:comparison study between the transfer of partial median and ulnar nerves and that of phrenic and spinal accessary nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯之启; 徐中和

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of using partial median and ulnar nerves for treatment of C5-6 orC5-7 avulsion of the brachial plexus with that of using phrenic and spinal accessary nerves.Methods:The patients were divided into 2groups randomly according to different surgical procedures.Twelve cases were involved in the first group.The phrenic nerve was transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve or through a sural nerve graft,and the spinal accessary nerve was to the suprascapular nerve.Eleven cases were classified into the second group.A part of the fascicles of median nerve was transferred to be coapted with the motor fascicle of musculocutaneous nerve and a part of fascicles of ulnar nerve was transferred to the axillary nerve.The cases were followed up from 1to 3years and the clinical outcome was compared between the two groups.

  16. Brachial plexopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2015-01-01

    Background Work-related upper limb disorders constitute a diagnostic challenge. However, patterns of neurological abnormalities that reflect brachial plexus dysfunction are frequent in limbs with pain, weakness and/or numbness/tingling. There is limited evidence about the association between...... occupational physical exposures and brachial plexopathy. Methods 80 patients with brachial plexopathy according to defined criteria and 65 controls of similar age and sex without upper limb complaints were recruited by general practitioners. Patients and controls completed a questionnaire on physical....... The identified psychosocial relations were limited to measures reflecting physical exposures. Conclusions While the identified risk indicators have previously been associated to upper limb symptoms as well as to diagnosed disorders other than brachial plexopathy, this study indicates an association between...

  17. Median effective concentration of ropivacaine for ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block%超声引导下罗哌卡因臂丛神经阻滞的半数有效浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晨桃; 王爱忠; 单宇; 江伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the median effective concentration (EC50) of ropivacaine for ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block.Methods Fifty ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients of both sexes, aged 19-72 yr, weighing 45-83 kg, scheduled for upper extremity surgery under brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound, were enrolled in this study. Brachial plexus block was performed under the guidance of ultrasound. After successful location, ropivacaine 30 ml was injected. EC50 of ropivacaine was determined by up-and-down sequential method. The initial concentration was 0.50% . Each time the concentration increased/decreased by 0.05% . EC50 of ropivacaine required for ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block and 95% confidence interval were calculated using Probit analysis.Results The EC50 of ropivacaine resulting in complete block of the brachial plexus nerve was 0.436%(95% confidence interval 0.393%-0.477% ). Conclusion The EC50 of ropivacaine is 0.436% for ultrasoundguided brachial plexus block.%目的 超声引导下罗哌卡因臂丛神经阻滞的半数有效浓度.方法 择期上肢手术患者50例,年龄19~72岁,体重45~83 ks,身高150~181 cm,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级.超声引导下行臂丛神经阻滞,定位成功后注入罗哌卡因30 ml,初始浓度0.50%,浓度变化梯度为O.05%,阻滞有效则下一例采用低一级浓度,阻滞无效,则下一例采用高一级浓度.采用Prebit法计算超声引导下罗哌卡因臂丛神经阻滞的半数有效浓度及其95%可信区间.结果 超声引导下罗哌卡因臂丛神经阻滞的半数有效浓度为0.436%,95%可信区间为0.393%~0.477%.结论 超声引导下罗哌卡因臂丛神经阻滞的半数有效浓度为0.436%.

  18. 超声联合神经刺激器引导下臂丛神经阻滞在上肢手术中的应用%Brachial plexus nerve block guided by ultrasound and nerve stimulator in upper limb surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涛; 何开华; 刘小男; 高进

    2013-01-01

    Objectives :To Investigate the effect of brachial plexus nerve block guided by ultrasound combined with nerve stimulator in upper extremity surgery . Methods :120 cases of upper limb surgery patients were randomly divided into 3 groups ,40 cases of each group .Patients in Group A were done brachial plexus block by traditional methods .Patients in Group B were done brachial plexus guided by nerve stimulator .Patients in Group C were done brachial plexus guided by nerve stimulator and ultrasound .To observe the anesthesia effect of Brachial plexus block ,duration of anesthesia ,intravenous adjuvant ,and adverse reactions (needle strayed into the blood vessels ,local anesthetic toxicity ,nerve injury ,pneumothorax) .Results :Anesthetic effect of group C was better than group A and group B (P <0 .05) .Anesthesia duration time of group C was longer than group A (P <0 .05) .Intravenous adjuvant of group C was less than group A and group B (P <0 .05) .The incidence of adverse reactions of group C was less than group A and group B (P <0 .05) .Conclusions :The anesthetic effect of brachial plexus nerve block guided by ultrasound combined with nerve stimulator was good in upper extremity surgery ,and the incidence of adverse reactions was low ,so this method is worthy of promotion .%目的:探讨超声联合神经刺激器引导下臂丛神经阻滞在上肢手术中的应用效果。方法:选择上肢手术120例,随机分为3组,每组40例。A组为传统方法定位组,B组为神经刺激器定位组,C组为超声联合神经刺激器定位组。观察三组的臂丛神经阻滞麻醉起效时间、麻醉效果、麻醉持续时间、静脉辅助用药情况、不良反应(穿刺针误入血管、局麻药毒性反应、神经损伤、气胸)。结果:C组麻醉起效时间短于A组及B组(P<0.05),C组麻醉效果优于A组及B组(P<0.05),C组麻醉持续时间长于A组(P<0.05),C组静脉辅

  19. Sacral plexus injury after radiotherapy for carcinoma of cervix

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    Stryker, J.A.; Sommerville, K.; Perez, R.; Velkley, D.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A 42-year-old woman developed lower extremity weakness and sensory loss 1 year after external and intracavitary radiotherapy for Stage IB carcinoma of cervix. She has been followed for 5 years posttreatment, and the neurologic abnormalities have persisted, but no evidence of recurrent carcinoma has been found. We believe this to be a rare case of sacral plexus radiculopathy developing as a late complication after radiotherapy. Suggestions are made for improving the radiotherapy technique to prevent this complication in future cases.

  20. 小儿手外科臂丛麻醉联合异丙酚泵注的临床效果分析%Clinical Effect Analysis of Pediatric Hand Surgery Brachial Plexus Anesthesia Combined With Propofol Infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔辉

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究小儿手外科臂丛麻醉联合异丙酚泵注的临床效果。方法试验对象:我院2014年2月~2016年1月收治的83例小儿手外科患儿。患儿分组方法:随机数字表法。83例患儿分为臂丛麻醉组和联合麻醉组两个组别。臂丛麻醉组采取臂丛麻醉;联合麻醉组采取臂丛麻醉联合异丙酚泵注麻醉。观察指标:(1)麻醉效果;(2)麻醉不良反应率;(3)患儿心率、呼吸、血压的差异。结果(1)联合麻醉组相比于臂丛麻醉组麻醉效果更高,χ2检验结果 P <0.05;(2)联合麻醉组相比于臂丛麻醉组麻醉不良反应率相似,χ2检验结果 P >0.05;(3)联合麻醉组相比于臂丛麻醉组心率、呼吸、血压更低,t 检验结果P <0.05。结论小儿手外科臂丛麻醉联合异丙酚泵注的临床效果确切,可有效提升麻醉效果,减轻对小儿生命体征的影响,且不增加麻醉不良反应,安全性高。%Objective To study the pediatric hand surgery brachial plexus anesthesia combined with propofol infusion clinical results. Methods Subjects: 83 cases of children with pediatric hand surgery in admitted in our hospital from February 2014 to January 2016. Children grouping method:random number table. 83 cases were divided into groups and brachial plexus anesthesia group two groups. Brachial plexus anesthesia take brachial plexus anesthesia, brachial plexus anesthesia group received anesthesia combined with propofol infusion anesthesia: (1) Anesthesia. (2) Anesthesia adverse reaction rate. (3) The difference in heart rate, respiration, blood pressure. Results (1) Anesthesia group compared to the higher brachial plexus anesthesia anesthetic effect, χ2 test results P0.05. (3) Anesthesia group compared to the brachial plexus anesthesia heart rate, respiration, lower blood pressure, t test results P<0.05. Conclusion Pediatric hand surgery brachial plexus anesthesia combined with propofol

  1. 锁骨上神经复合臂丛神经阻滞在锁骨手术中的应用%Application of supraclavicular nerves combined with brachial plexus block in the clavicle surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 韩凤

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察锁骨上神经复合臂丛神经阻滞在锁骨手术中的麻醉效果。方法选取80例锁骨骨折的患者作为研究对象,随机分成A、B两组,各40例。 A组采用单纯高位肌间沟的臂丛神经阻滞方法,B组采用锁骨上神经复合臂丛神经阻滞的麻醉方法。比较两组的麻醉效果及不良反应。结果 B组的麻醉效果显著优于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组均无明显不良反应。结论锁骨上神经联合臂丛神经阻滞用于锁骨骨折手术,能产生良好的麻醉效果,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To observe the anesthesia effect of supraclavicular nerves combined with brachial plexus block in the clavicle surgery. Methods 80 cases with clavicular fracture were selected and randomly divided into group A and group B,40 cases in each group.Group A was given brachial plexus block,group B was given supraclavicular nerves combined with brachial plexus block.Anesthetic effects and adverse reactions was observed respectively. Results Anes-thetic effect in Group B was better than that in Group A,with statistical difference(P<0.05).There were no significant ad-verse reactions in the two groups. Conclusion The anesthesia effect of supraclavicular nerves combined with brachial plexus block in the clavicle surgery is good,it is worthy of clinical promotion and application.

  2. 磁共振SPACE技术在臂丛神经显像中的临床应用%Clinical application of MRI SPACE technique in brachial plexus imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许传虓; 陈双庆; 蔡庆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical application value of MRI SPACE technology in the brachial plexus imaging.Methods SPACE and T2WI along with Fat sat were performed using a 1.5 T siemens Area D13 MR irnager in 30 patients.All raw data were handled by syngoNUAARIS-4 software.Results The brachial plexus was displayed clearly without directional influence in all cases.Conclusion A better quality three-dimensional imaging of the brachial plexus can be obtained by MRI SPACE technology,which may provide an effective,simple and convenient method for studying the diseases related to the brachial plexus.%目的 研究SPACE技术在臂丛神经成像中的临床应用价值.方法 使用西门子Area D13型磁共振.SPACE技术及T2加权加Fat sat强力压脂脉冲序列,对30例受检者进行检查,通过自身配备的工作站,使用syngoNUAARIS-4软件进行图像处理.结果使用SPACE技术能不受臂丛神经走向上的影响,多方位显示臂丛神经.所有受检者臂丛神经都能很好得显示.结论磁共振SPACE技术能快速各向同性三维成像,影像质量较好,为臂丛神经疾病研究提供了简便、有效的方法.

  3. latrogenic brachial artery injury during anterolateral plating of humeral shaft fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishal Kumar; Prateek Behera; Sameer Aggarwal; Umesh Kumar Meena

    2013-01-01

    There are several well defined indications for surgical management of humeral shaft fractures.Operative procedures on the humerus are associated with their own complications.Iatrogenic brachial artery injury as a complication of humeral shaft plating has not been reported previously.We report a case of a 48 years old femalewho received operation at a district hospital and was referred to us when the surgeon could not palpate the pulse.CT angiogram showed that there was segmental non-opacification of the brachial artery.There was distal reformation and the thrombosis was decided to be managed conservatively.We believe that the arterial injury was a result ofimproper surgical technique and the segmental block might be due to improper use of plate holding forceps.This case report makes us aware of a rare complication of operative management of humeral shaft fractures and that basic principles of surgery must be always followed to prevent such injuries.

  4. Butorphanol Combined with Ropivacaine for Brachial Plexus Block Anesthesia Status%布托啡诺复合罗哌卡因用于臂丛神经阻滞的应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣

    2015-01-01

    臂丛神经阻滞的术中镇静镇痛可以提高患者的满意度,减少术中不良刺激,但是也存在一定的缺陷,需要重视对术中镇静方法的改进和完善。本文首先概述了臂丛神经阻滞的研究现状,具体分析了布托啡诺与罗哌卡因的作用特点,最后探讨了布托啡诺复合罗哌卡因用于臂丛神经阻滞的现状。%Brachial plexus block of intraoperatie sedation analgesia can improve the satisfaction of patients, reduce intraoperative undesirable stimulation, but there are also some defects, need to pay much at ention to intraoperatie sedation method is improved and perfected. This article first summarizes the research status quo of brachial plexus block, concrete analysis the bhut o brown with ROM pp paid function characteristic, final y discusses the bhut o brown, composite, pp paid for the cur ent situation of the brachial plexus block.

  5. Comparison of dexamethasone and clonidine as an adjuvant to 1.5% lignocaine with adrenaline in infraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb surgeries

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    Dipal Mahendra Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The role of clonidine as an adjuvant to regional blocks to hasten the onset of the local anesthetics or prolong their duration of action is proven. The efficacy of dexamethasone compared to clonidine as an adjuvant is not known. We aimed to compare the efficacy of dexamethasone versus clonidine as an adjuvant to 1.5% lignocaine with adrenaline in infraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb surgeries. Material and Methods: Fifty three American Society of Anaesthesiologists-I and II patients aged 18-60 years scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomized to three groups to receive 1.5% lignocaine with 1:200,000 adrenaline and the study drugs. Group S (n = 13 received normal saline, group D (n = 20 received dexamethasone and group C (n = 20 received clonidine. The time to onset and peak effect, duration of the block (sensory and motor and postoperative analgesia requirement were recorded. Chi-square and ANOVA test were used for categorical and continuous variables respectively and Bonferroni or post-hoc test for multiple comparisons. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The three groups were comparable in terms of time to onset and peak action of motor and sensory block, postoperative analgesic requirements and pain scores. 90% of the blocks were successful in group C compared to only 60% in group D (P = 0.028. The duration of sensory and motor block in group S, D and C were 217.73 ± 61.41 min, 335.83 ± 97.18 min and 304.72 ± 139.79 min and 205.91 ± 70.1 min, 289.58 ± 78.37 min and 232.5 ± 74.2 min respectively. There was significant prolongation of sensory and motor block in group D as compared to group S (P < 0.5. Time to first analgesic requirement was significantly more in groups C and D as compared with group S (P < 0.5. Clinically significant complications were absent. Conclusions: We conclude that clonidine is more efficacious than dexamethasone as an adjuvant to 1.5% lignocaine in brachial

  6. Origem e distribuição do plexo braquial de Saimiri sciureus Origin and distribution of the brachial plexus of Saimiri sciureus

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    Elenara B. Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descreveram a origem e composição do plexo braquial de quatro Saimiri sciureus, pertencentes ao Centro Nacional de Primatas (Cenp, Ananindeua/PA, os quais foram fixados com formaldeído e dissecados. Os achados revelaram que o plexo braquial desta espécie é constituído por fibras neurais provenientes da união das raízes dorsais e ventrais das vértebras cervicais C4 a C8 e torácica T1, e organizado em quatro troncos. Cada tronco formou um nervo ou um grupo de nervos, cuja origem variou entre os animais; na maioria, foi encontrado o tronco cranial originando o nervo subclávio, o tronco médio-cranial dando origem aos nervos supraescapular, subescapular, parte do radial, e em alguns casos ao nervo axilar, nervo musculocutâneo e ao nervo mediano; o tronco médio-caudal formou parte do nervo radial, e em alguns casos os nervos axilar, nervo musculocutâneo, nervo mediano, nervo toracodorsal, nervo ulnar e nervo cutâneo medial do antebraço, sendo os dois últimos também originados no tronco caudal.The authors described the origin and composition of the brachial plexus of four Saimiri sciureus, from the National Primate Center (Cenp, Ananindeua/PA, which were fixed with formaldehyde and dissected. Findings revealed that the brachial plexus of this species is composed by nervous fibers from the roots of cervical vertebrae C4 to C8 and thoracic vertebrae T1, and organized into four branchs. Each branch has formed a nerve or a group of nerves, the origin was varied between animals, mostly were found the cranial trunk originate the subclavian nerve; the medium-cranial originate the suprascapular, subscapular, part of radial and in some cases the axillary, musculocutaneous and median nerves; the medium-caudal trunk originate part of radial nerve and in some cases the axillary, musculocutaneous, median, thoracodorsal, ulnar and medial cutaneous of forearm nerves, the last two nerves also originate from the caudal trunk.

  7. Brachial artery injury due to closed posterior elbow dislocation: case report☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Checchia, Caio Santos; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    An association between closed posterior elbow dislocation and traumatic brachial artery injury is rare. Absence of radial pulse on palpation is an important warning sign and arteriography is the gold-standard diagnostic test. Early diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment to be provided. This consists of joint reduction and immobilization, along with urgent surgical restoration of arterial flow. Here, a case (novel to the Brazilian literature) of an association between these injuries (and the treatment implemented) in a 27-year-old male patient is reported. These injuries were sustained through physical assault. PMID:27069896

  8. Brachial artery injury due to closed posterior elbow dislocation: case report☆

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    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An association between closed posterior elbow dislocation and traumatic brachial artery injury is rare. Absence of radial pulse on palpation is an important warning sign and arteriography is the gold-standard diagnostic test. Early diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment to be provided. This consists of joint reduction and immobilization, along with urgent surgical restoration of arterial flow. Here, a case (novel to the Brazilian literature of an association between these injuries (and the treatment implemented in a 27-year-old male patient is reported. These injuries were sustained through physical assault.

  9. Radiation Dose to the Brachial Plexus in Head-and-Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and Its Relationship to Tumor and Nodal Stage

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    Truong, Minh Tam, E-mail: mitruong@bu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Romesser, Paul B.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Orlina, Lawrence; Willins, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine tumor factors contributing to brachial plexus (BP) dose in head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) when the BP is routinely contoured as an organ at risk (OAR) for IMRT optimization. Methods and Materials: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 114 HNC patients underwent IMRT to a total dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions, with the right and left BP prospectively contoured as separate OARs in 111 patients and the ipsilateral BP contoured in 3 patients (total, 225 BP). Staging category T4 and N2/3 disease were present in 34 (29.8%) and 74 (64.9%) patients, respectively. During IMRT optimization, the intent was to keep the maximum BP dose to {<=}60 Gy, but prioritizing tumor coverage over achieving the BP constraints. BP dose parameters were compared with tumor and nodal stage. Results: With a median follow-up of 16.2 months, 43 (37.7%) patients had {>=}24 months of follow-up with no brachial plexopathy reported. Mean BP volume was 8.2 {+-} 4.5 cm{sup 3}. Mean BP maximum dose was 58.1 {+-} 12.2 Gy, and BP mean dose was 42.2 {+-} 11.3 Gy. The BP maximum dose was {<=}60, {<=}66, and {<=}70 Gy in 122 (54.2%), 185 (82.2%), and 203 (90.2%) BP, respectively. For oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx sites, the mean BP maximum dose was 58.4 Gy and 63.4 Gy in T0-3 and T4 disease, respectively (p = 0.002). Mean BP maximum dose with N0/1 and N2/3 disease was 52.8 Gy and 60.9 Gy, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In head-and-neck IMRT, dose constraints for the BP are difficult to achieve to {<=}60 to 66 Gy with T4 disease of the larynx, hypopharynx, and oropharynx or N2/3 disease. The risk of brachial plexopathy is likely very small in HNC patients undergoing IMRT, although longer follow-up is required.

  10. [Surgical treatment of the plexus brachialis injury using long-lasting electrostimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsymbaliuk, V I; Tretiak, I B; Tsymbaliuk, Iu V

    2013-06-01

    The results of surgical treatment were analyzed in 103 patients, suffering consequences of the plexus brachialis injury, using the system for long-lasting electrostimulation, called "Henci 3M". The system of a domestic manufacture is an individual one, permits to perform the direct electrostimulation seances in a home conditions several times a day for a long time. There were positive results noted: an enhancement in volume and strength of movements in upper extremity of various degree, restoration of sensitivity and disappearance or reduction of a pain syndrome intensity in 90.6% of patients. Long-lasting electrostimulation permits more effectively and valuably to restore a plexus brachialis function in its traumatic injury.

  11. In situ cephalic vein bypasses from axillary to the brachial artery after catheterization injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis; Lovricevic, Ivo; Ahel, Zaky

    2010-07-01

    The need to bypass to the brachial artery is rare. Over a five-year period, 16 patients had suffered iatrogenic post-catheterization injuries of the upper extremity. We have performed 16 bypasses, in 16 patients, mean age was 65 years (range 47-75), to the brachial artery originating from an artery proximal to the shoulder joint. In all cases, the axillary artery was the donor artery. All bypasses were created by using the cephalic vein with the in situ technique and distal anastomoses were made to a distance-free section of brachial artery. No operative mortality, neurological complications or major upper-extremity amputation was associated with the procedure. Life-long-conduit analysis showed 75% patency in the five-year period. After iatrogenic post-catheterization trauma of arterial system of upper extremity, bypasses from axillary to brachial artery with the cephalic vein with the in situ technique is a safe operation with satisfactory long-term patency. PMID:20395248

  12. THE EFFICACY OF CLONIDINE ADDED TO BUPIVACAINE AS COMPARED WITH BUPIVACAINE ALONE USED IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK FOR UPPER LIMB SURGERIES

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    Suchismita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Clonidine when added to local anesthetic solutions improved peripheral nerve blocks by reducing the onset time, improving the efficacy of the block during surgery and extending postoperative analgesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients aged 18 to 60 years, scheduled for elective orthopedic operations in the upper limb, of ASA Grade I or II were included in the study. We conducted the study with 2 groups consisting of 30 patients each to compare the effects of Clonidine added to Bupivacaine with Bupivacaine alone in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. First group received 40 ml of Bupivacaine 0.25% plus 0.15mg (1ml of Clonidine, second group had 40 ml of Bupivacaine 0.25% plus 1 ml 0.9% Saline respectively. The onset as well as duration of sensory and motor block along with monitoring of heart rate, NIBP, oxygen saturation were recorded. The level of sedation and side effects were also noted. RESULTS: In this study the addition of Clonidine to Bupivacaine resulted in faster onset (study group 15.2±1.44, control group 20.4±1.12, p˂0.001 and longer duration of sensory block (study group 544±31.2, control group 302±34.4, p=0.0363 as well as analgesia (study group 561.2±30.96, control group 324.4±34.08, p=0.0001 without any adverse hemodynamic changes.

  13. Effect of intravenous ondansetron on reducing the incidence of hypotension and bradycardia events during shoulder arthroscopy in sitting position under interscalene brachial plexus block: A prospective randomized trial

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    Srinivasa Rao Nallam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Sudden, profound hypotension and bradycardia events (HBEs have been reported in more than 20% of patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy in the sitting position. The present study was designed to know whether intravenous (IV ondansetron (selective 5-hydroxy tryptamine 3-antagonist can help in reducing the HBEs associated with shoulder arthroscopy performed in sitting position under interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB. Methods: A total of 100 patients (age 20-50 years undergoing shoulder arthroscopy performed in the sitting position under ISBPB were assigned randomly to one of the two groups: Group C received 10 ml of normal saline and Group T received 4 mg of ondansetron diluted in 10 ml of normal saline` IV. All patients received ISBPB using levobupivacaine 0.5%. Assessment of motor and sensory blockade, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, respiration, and side effects were noted every 5 min for first 30 min and every 10 min till the end of surgery. HBEs were recorded in both groups. Results: IV injection of ondansetron significantly reduces the incidence of HBEs from 11 (22.44% in Group C to 3 (6.1% in Group T. The duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group C (8.1 ± 3.3 in comparison with Group T (6.3 ± 4.2 h. Conclusion: We conclude that 4 ml of IV ondansetron can significantly reduce the HBEs during shoulder arthroscopy done in the sitting position under ISBPB.

  14. Brain glucose metabolic changes associated with chronic spontaneous Pain due to brachial plexus avulsion:a preliminary positron emission tomography study

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    CHEN Fu-yong; TAO Wei; CHENG Xin; WANG Hong-yan; HU Yong-sheng; ZHANG Xiao-hua; LI Yong-jie

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous brain imaging studies suggested that the brain activity underlying the perception of chronic pain maV differ from that underlying acute pain.To investigate the brain regions involved in chronic spontaneous pain due to brachial plexus avulsion(BPA),fluorine-18fluorodeoxygIucose (19F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning was applied to determine the glucose metabolic changes in patients with pain due to BPA.Methods Six right-handed patients with chronic spontaneous pain due to left-BPA and twelve right-handed age-and sex-matched healthy control subjects participated in the 18F-FDG PET study.The patients were rated by visual analog scale (VAS) during scanning and Hamilton depression scale and Hamilton anxiety scale after scanning.Statistical parametric mapping 2 (SPM2) was applied for data analysis.Results Compared with healthy subjects,the patients had significant glucose metabolism decreases in the right thalamus and S I(P<0.001,uncorrected),and significant glucose metabolism increases in the right orbitofrontaI cortex (OFC) (BA11),left rostral insula cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal codex (DLPFC) (BA10/46) (P<0.001,uncorrected).Conclusion These findings suggest that the brain areas involved in emotion.aRention and internal modulation of pain may be related to the chronic spontaneous pain due to BPA.

  15. Ontology-based image navigation: exploring 3.0-T MR neurography of the brachial plexus using AIM and RadLex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth C; Salunkhe, Aditya R; Morrison, James J; Lee, Pearlene P; Mejino, José L V; Detwiler, Landon T; Brinkley, James F; Siegel, Eliot L; Rubin, Daniel L; Carrino, John A

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nervous system have traditionally been evaluated using clinical history, physical examination, and electrodiagnostic testing. In selected cases, imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance (MR) neurography may help further localize or characterize abnormalities associated with peripheral neuropathies, and the clinical importance of such techniques is increasing. However, MR image interpretation with respect to peripheral nerve anatomy and disease often presents a diagnostic challenge because the relevant knowledge base remains relatively specialized. Using the radiology knowledge resource RadLex®, a series of RadLex queries, the Annotation and Image Markup standard for image annotation, and a Web services-based software architecture, the authors developed an application that allows ontology-assisted image navigation. The application provides an image browsing interface, allowing users to visually inspect the imaging appearance of anatomic structures. By interacting directly with the images, users can access additional structure-related information that is derived from RadLex (eg, muscle innervation, muscle attachment sites). These data also serve as conceptual links to navigate from one portion of the imaging atlas to another. With 3.0-T MR neurography of the brachial plexus as the initial area of interest, the resulting application provides support to radiologists in the image interpretation process by allowing efficient exploration of the MR imaging appearance of relevant nerve segments, muscles, bone structures, vascular landmarks, anatomic spaces, and entrapment sites, and the investigation of neuromuscular relationships.

  16. Effects of dexmedetomidine in brachial plexus block anesthesia%右美托咪定在臂丛神经阻滞麻醉中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹银周; 张兴安; 邵伟栋; 徐波; 吴群林

    2011-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine in brachial plexus block anesthesia.METHODS Sixty patients undergoing braehial plexus block anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups (30 patients in each group). The patients in both groups were injectedwith 0.375% ropivacaine 10 mL and 1% lidocaine 10 mL. After the onset time that the targeted arm was fully anesthetized, the patients in the trial group received a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1 μg 'kg-1 within ten minutes and the continuous infusion was 0.5 μg'kg-1·h-1 for thirty minutes. The patients in the control group were administered with droperidol-fentanyl 2 mL (droperidol 2.5 mg, fentanyl 0.05 mg). Heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), respiratory rate and the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) were recorded. RESULTS Both groups provided significantly sedative effect and the OAA/S score significantly declined (P < 0.05). At twenty minutes after stopping infusion, the OAA/S score in the trial group was higher than that in the control group. The HR in the trial group was slowed down after the loading dose and no change in the control group. The SpO2 and respiratory rate of the control group were lower than those of the trial group during the maintenance period (P <0.05). No postoperative nausea and vomiting were observed in both groups, and all patients reported satisfaction with the procedure. CONCLUSION In brachial plexus block anesthesia, dexmedetomidine has sedative effect and the patients can be aroused. It can decrease HR but no respiratory depression.%目的 探讨右美托咪定用于辅助臂丛神经阻滞麻醉的效果.方法 60例上肢手术患者随机分为2组,每组30例,均选用肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞.穿刺找到异感后注射0.375%罗哌卡因10 mL+1%利多卡因10 mL局部麻醉,15 min后麻醉效果确定、切皮无疼痛感后,试验组10 min内静脉泵注右美托咪定1μg·kg,后以0.5μg·kg·h维持30min;对照

  17. Clinical study on the clinical curative effect of comprehensive rehabilitation for brachial plexus avulsion%综合康复治疗臂丛神经撕脱伤的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莹; 周丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical curative effect of comprehensive rehabilitation treatment on acupuncture and physiotherapy in brachial plexus avulsion.Methods Totally 184 patients with brachial plexus avulsion in our hospital were se-lected ,and were randomly divided into control group of 92 cases and observation group of 92 cases ,then the control group wsa treated by low-frequency electrical stimulation pulses with neuromuscular electrical stimulation. The observe group was treaded by comprehensive rehabilitation ,including acupuncture management therapy ,massage and IF electric massage ,then pain visual analog scale assessment of pain ,function of the brachial plexus of two groups were analyzed and compared.Results Before treatment ,brachial plexus function and VAS scores in the patients of two groups had no significant difference (P>0 .05).After treatment of 4 and 8 weeks ,the brachial plexus function and VAS scores of two groups improved after treatment than before treatment ,and the observation group was better than the control group (P<0 .05). The total effective rate in the control group was 77 .17% ,which was 90 .22% in observation group. The patients limb functional recovery was significantly better than the control group ,with a significant difference (P<0 .05).Conclusion Acupuncture management therapy ,massage therapy method and frequency electric comprehensive rehabilitation therapy can be helpful in brachial plexus avulsion recovery of limb function , the efficacy is significantly better than the family functional exercise.%目的:探讨以针灸理疗为主的综合康复治疗臂丛神经撕脱伤的临床疗效。方法纳入臂丛神经撕脱伤患者共184例,随机分为对照组和观察组,对照组采用神经肌肉电刺激仪进行低频脉冲电刺激,观察组采用综合康复疗法,包括针灸理疗法、推拿按摩法和中频电疗法,采用疼痛视觉模拟评分评定疼痛程度和臂丛

  18. Anatomical basis for nerve block of the brachial plexus via superomedial to midpoint of the clavicle%锁骨中点内上方阻滞臂丛神经的解剖学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董西安; 李光宗; 郭荣奎; 刘宝梅; 孙静; 鞠晓华; 张志玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide the morphological basis for blocking the brachial plexus via superomedial to midpoint of the clavicle. Methods:Length of the brachial plexus, diameter of the junction of three cords of the brachial plexus above the first rib were measured on sixteen fixed cadavers, in order to identify the optimal point, direction, angle and depth of needling on account that the subclavian artery was prevented. Results: The length of the brachial plexus was 108. 09 mm±12. 49 mm. The diameter of the junction of three cords of the brachial plexus above the first rib was 16. 40 mm±2. 10 mm. The distance of needling pathway was 25. 45 mm± 0. 42 mm. The optimal angle that could protect the subclavian artery was 12. 85°±0. 59°. Conclusion: The needle can be inserted at the point that 10 mm inwards and 23 mm upwards to the midpoint of the clavicle, and run inferolaterally (meaning at 140° that identify as the angle between the vertical line through the needling point and the needling pathway) toward superior border of the midpoint of the clavicle. The angle is 12. 85° to protect the subclavian artery. This approach is effective to complete block the brachial plexus without complications such as pneumothorax and hemothorax.%目的:为临床麻醉工作者提供锁骨中点上方阻滞人路方法.方法:在经10%甲醛溶液固定的60侧头颈、上肢标本及锁骨中点矢状切断面标本上测量臂丛的长度、第1肋上面臂丛神经3束汇合处的直径,确定臂丛阻滞进针点、进针方向、进针角度、进针深度、确定锁骨下动脉的保护角度.结果:臂丛神经的长度为108.09mm±12.49 mm;第1肋上面臂丛神经3束汇合处的直径为16.40 mm±2.10 mm;进针路径(即进针点至锁骨中点上缘)距离为25.45mm±0.42 mm;保护锁骨下动脉的夹角为12.85°±0.59°.结论:锁骨中点向内10 mm向上23 mm处即为进针点,以140°(即进针点的垂线与进针路径呈的夹角)斜向外下至

  19. MR neurography in traumatic brachial plexopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Vaishali, E-mail: vshali77@yahoo.co.in [Department of Radiology, Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Vivekanandapuri, Lucknow 226 007 (India); Upadhyaya, Divya N. [Department of Plastic Surgery, King George Medical University, Shah Meena Road, Chowk, Lucknow 226 003 (India); Kumar, Adarsh [Department of Plastic Surgery, Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Vivekanandapuri, Lucknow 226 007 (India); Gujral, Ratni B. [Department of Radiology, Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Vivekanandapuri, Lucknow 226 007 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • MR neurography is the imaging modality of choice in patients who have sustained brachial plexus injury. It is helpful in determining the level and extent of injury. • The authors have used a Visual Per-operative Scoring system to assess the usefulness of MR neurography in delineating the level and type of the lesion. • The imaging findings were classified based on the level of injury—root, trunk or cord. These findings were correlated with those seen on surgical exploration. A good correlation was found in the majority (65%) of patients and average correlation (30%) in others. - Abstract: Objectives: Imaging of the brachial plexus has come a long way and has progressed from plain radiography to CT and CT myelography to MRI. Evolution of MR imaging sequences has enabled good visualization of the small components of the plexus. The purpose of our study was to correlate the results of MR neurography (MRN) in patients with traumatic brachial plexopathy with their operative findings. We wanted to determine the usefulness of MRN and how it influenced surgical planning and outcome. Methods: Twenty patients with features of traumatic brachial plexopathy who were referred to the MRI section of the Department of Radiology between September 2012 and January 2014 and subsequently underwent exploration were included in the study. MR neurography and operative findings were recorded at three levels of the brachial plexus—roots, trunks and cords. Results: Findings at the level of roots and trunks were noted in 14 patients each and at the level of the cords in 16 patients. 10 patients had involvement at all levels. Axillary nerve involvement as a solitary finding was noted in two patients. These patients were subsequently operated and their studies were assigned a score based on the feedback from the operating surgeons. The MRN study was scored as three (good), two (average) or one (poor) depending on whether the MR findings correlated with operative

  20. Schwannoma de plexo braquial en el diagnóstico diferencial del hombro doloroso: Diferential diagnostic in the shoulder pain Brachial plexus schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cortés

    2006-11-01

    , with a five years long left atraumatic omalgia. During this time, she was evaluated by different physicians such as traumatologist, neurologist, rheumatologist and rehabilitation doctor. Initially she was treated with NSAID, rehabilitation (physiotherapy, short wave and magnetotherapy without improvement. Diagnostic procedures underwent were neurophysiologic study of left upper-extremity, wich was normal; cervical and shoulder MRI with partial tear of supraspinatus tendon and subacromial bursitis; the patient underwent an arthroscopic subacromial decompression. This treatment did not relieve the pain of the patient with an AVS > 6 at that moment. Subsequently she was treated with NSAID associated to transdermic fentanyl, pregabalin, join steroid injections and new sessions of rehabilitation without improvement. It was decided to make more imaging procedures to find a clear aetiology for upper-extremity pain. A thoracic scanner, a left shoulder ecography and a brachial plexus MRI were made and showed a lesion that was compatible with a brachial plexus schwannoma. After surgical treatment and tumor excision the patient had a progressive pain relief. At this time the patient has no pain nor any neurological damage.

  1. Nova técnica de bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães New technique of brachial plexus block in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Futema

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a viabilidade e a eficácia de uma nova técnica para o bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães. Para tanto, foram utilizados 11 cães, machos e fêmeas, idade e peso variáveis e mestiços. Os animais foram pré-tratados com acepromazina e a indução da anestesia foi realizada com propofol. Posteriormente, os animais foram submetidos ao bloqueio do plexo braquial que constou da associação da técnica de múltiplas injeções com o emprego do estimulador de nervos e a técnica da palpação arterial como ponto de referência para a localização dos nervos. Utilizou-se como anestésico local, a bupivacaína com vasoconstritor administrado na dose total de 4mg/kg a 0,375% . O volume total foi dividido em 4 partes iguais, administradas na velocidade de 30 segundos cada, com o objetivo de se atingir a maior quantidade de nervos. O tempo necessário para realização da técnica foi de 11,30 ± 4,54 minutos; o período de latência para o bloqueio motor foi de 9,70 ± 5,52 minutos e para o bloqueio sensitivo foi de 26,20 ± 8,86 min. , sendo a duração da analgesia de 11:00 ± 0:45 horas. Em 90% dos animais, o bloqueio foi efetivo, constatado através da anestesia de todo membro torácico distal à articulação escápulo-umeral. A única complicação observada foi a hipotensão arterial desenvolvida em um animal. Mediante os resultados obtidos, pode-se pressupor que as cirurgias envolvendo o membro torácico distal à articulação escápulo-umeral poderão ser utilizadas com auxílio desta nova técnica do bloqueio do plexo braquial, bem como na analgesia pós-operatória de longa duração.The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability and efficacy of a new technique of brachial plexus block in dogs. Eleven mongrel dogs of different ages and weight, both male and female were used. Animals were pre-medicated with acepromazine and induction of anesthesia was performed with propofol. The brachial

  2. The clinical application of interscalene brachial plexus block independent on paresthesia: 327 cases reports%无异感肌间沟臂丛阻滞的临床应用(附327例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世龙; 柴晓芳; 郭海燕; 刘建梅; 张国元; 杨蓉; 周丽霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of brachial plexus block via Interscalene Route independent on paresthesia.Methods Three hundred and twenty seven patients undergoing collarbone,shoulder and upper limb surgery were collected.All patients received interscalene brachial plexus block independent on Paresthesia.The success of nerve block of nerve blocking was defined as the ability to complete surgery without the help of general anesthesia,or of droperidol-fentanyl.Results Paresthesia was not induced by brachial plexus block in all patients.Block success rate was 99.1% (324 vs 327) and 3 failed(0.9%) in the studying patients.Conclusions Interscalene blocking independent on paresthesia is a simple and useful approach for surgery.%目的 探讨无异感肌间沟臂丛阻滞的效果及异感与阻滞的关系. 方法 327例锁骨、肩部及上肢择期或急诊手术患者.用不探寻异感的方法进行肌间沟臂丛阻滞,观察其阻滞效果.手术无疼痛、手术有疼痛复合氟芬合剂能完成手术为有效. 结果 全部病例在阻滞过程中均未出现异感,其中有效324例(99.1%),失败3例. 结论 不探寻异感肌间沟臂丛阻滞方法简单,易于掌握,效果良好,值得推广.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF 0.5% BUPIVACAINE AND 0.75% ROPIVACAINE IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK BY PERIVASCULAR APPROACH: PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeharsha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To compare the effect of 30ml of 0.5% bupivacaine and 30ml of 0.75% ropivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block with respect to onset time of sensory blockade, onset time of motor blockade, duration of sensory blockade, duration of motor blockade, duration of analgesia and any side effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty patients of ASA-I and II undergoing elective upper limb surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes were randomly divided into Group B and Group R, which received 30ml of 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.75% ropivacaine respectively. Sensory and motor block onset and duration and duration of analgesia were evaluated statistically using unpaired t-test and p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The onset time of sensory block was faster in Group R compared to Group B having a mean value of 16.13±3.05 minutes and 17.70±2.35 minutes respectively. The onset time of motor block was faster in Group R compared to Group B having a mean value of 23.90±1.83 minutes and 25.43±2.22 minutes respectively. The duration of sensory and motor block (Mean-minutes was 480.3 and 472.8 in group R and 472.1 and 460.2 in group B. The duration of post-operative analgesia was 504.2 minutes in Group R and 499.6 minutes in Group B. CONCLUSION Group R provided statistically significant rapid onset of sensory and motor blockade, prolonged duration of both sensory and motor blockade, prolonged duration of analgesia than Group B for upper limb surgeries. There were no significant differences in haemodynamic changes and complications.

  4. Sensory neuronopathy involves the spinal cord and brachial plexus: a quantitative study employing multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) and turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Yi-Fang; Tang, Wei-Jun; Li, Yu-Xin; Geng, Dao-Ying [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Dong-Qing; Chen, Xiang-Jun [Fudan University, Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zee, Chi-Shing [University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) is a distinctive subtype of peripheral neuropathies, specifically targeting dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We utilized MRI to demonstrate the imaging characteristics of DRG, spinal cord (SC), and brachial plexus at C7 level in SNN. We attempted multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) and turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM) methods in nine patients with sensory neuronopathy and compared with those in 16 disease controls and 20 healthy volunteers. All participants underwent MRI for the measurement of DRG, posterior column (PC), lateral column, and spinal cord area (SCA) at C7 level. DRG diameters were obtained through its largest cross section, standardized by dividing sagittal diameter of mid-C7 vertebral canal. We also made comparisons of standardized anteroposterior diameter (APD) and left-right diameters of SC and PC in these groups. Signal intensity and diameter of C7 spinal nerve were assessed on TIRM. Compared to control groups, signal intensities of DRG and PC were higher in SNN patients when using MEDIC, but the standardized diameters were shorter in either DRG or PC. Abnormal PC signal intensities were identified in eight out of nine SNN patients (89 %) with MEDIC and five out of nine (56 %) with T2-weighted images. SCA, assessed with MEDIC, was smaller in SNN patients than in the other groups, with significant reduction of its standardized APD. C7 nerve root diameters, assessed with TIRM, were decreased in SNN patients. MEDIC and TIRM sequences demonstrate increased signal intensities and decreased area of DRG and PC, and decreased diameter of nerve roots in patients with SNN, which can play a significant role in early diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  6. Effective background infusion rate of ropivacaine 0.2% for patient-controlled interscalene brachial plexus analgesia after rotator cuff repair surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yue; Li Min; Rong Yulan; Guo Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Background Continuous interscalene nerve block (CISB) is considered to be the most effective method for postoperative analgesia after shoulder surgery with prolonged severe pain.This study was performed to evaluate the minimum effective background infusion rate and the effective background infusion rate of ropivacaine 0.2% for CISB after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery in 95% of patients.Methods Patients scheduled for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery under general anesthesia at Peking University Third Hospital were prospectively enrolled from December 2011 to May 2012.Preoperatively,an interscalene catheter (ISC) was placed under the guidance of ultrasound and nerve stimulation in each patient.Consecutively,30 patients with successful nerve block were included.A continuous infusion of ropivacaine 0.2% with a 5 ml patient-controlled bolus available hourly was started at postoperative anesthesia care unit (PACU) after completion of surgery.The initial background infusion rate was 6 ml/h,which was subsequently varied for each consecutive patient according to the analgesic effects of the previous one.The minimum effective background rate was determined using the Dixon and Massey up-and-down method.The effective background rate in 95% of patients was calculated using isotonic analysis.Results The minimum effective background rate based on the Dixon and Massey up-and-down method was 2.8 ml/h (95% CI,2.3-3.3 ml/h).The effective background rate in 95% of patients calculated with the isotonic regression analysis was 4.4 ml/h (95% CI,3.8-6.5 ml/h).Conclusion The effective background rate for patient-controlled interscalene brachial plexus analgesia after shoulder surgery in 50% and 95% of the patients was 2.8 and 4.4 ml/h,respectively.

  7. COMPATATIVE CLINICAL STUDY OF 0.5% ROPIVACAINE VERSUS 0.5% ROPIVACAINE WITH DEXAMETHASONE FOR INTERSCELENE BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE UPEER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERIES: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional anaesthesia in the form of interscalene brachial plexus block is often used for upper limb orthopedic surgeries. Bupivacaine is commonly used drug for brachial plexus block. Its cardiac and central nervous system toxic effects prompted the researc hers to develop new drugs. Ropivacaine, a local anesthetic with similar and better safety profile, is newly introduced into the clinical practice. In an attempt to increase the duration of post - operative analgesia various adjuvant drugs are used along with local anesthetic agents with limited success. However, the glucocorticoid, Dexamethasone appears to be effective in prolonging the duration of analgesia using ropivacaine with the effect being stronger than ropivacaine alone. Hence the present study is un dertaken to study the effect of adding Dexamethasone to Ropivacaine. METHODS: Sixty patients aged between 18 - 60 yrs. belonging to ASA 1/11 undergoing upper limb orthopedic surgeries under interscalene brachial plexus block using nerve stimulator, were rand omly allocated to one of two groups. Group R received 2 8 ml of 0.5% Ropivacaine plus 2 ml of normal saline and Group RD received 28 ml of 0.5% Ropivacaine plus 2 ml of 8mg Dexamethasone. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, quality of block, h emodynamic changes and side effects if any, were compared in both the groups. The results were analyzed for statistical significance (P using student t test and ANOVA. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences with respect to onset of s ensory and motor blockade and quality of motor block (P<0.05. The duration of sensory and motor blockade and duration of analgesia was statistically highly significant in both the groups. The duration of sensory blockade was 587.51±75.07 min. in R group a nd 755.14±89.15 min in RD group (P=0.00. The duration of motor blockade was 558.81±62.60 min in R group and 735.89±67.50 min in RD group (P=0.00. The duration of

  8. Avulsão do plexo braquial em cães -1: aspectos clínicos e neurológicos Brachial plexus avulsion in dogs -1: clinical and neurological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available A avulsão do plexo braquial é afecção de ordem traumática relativamente comum, ocasionando paralisia grave do membro torácico. É freqüentemente confundida com paralisia do nervo radial, havendo controvérsias sobre o tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi: avaliar clinica e neurologicamente cães com avulsão do plexo braquial, demonstrando os aspectos significativos para o diagnóstico desta afecção. Observou-se predominância de cães sem raça definida, fêmea, com menos de três anos de idade, sendo o atropelamento a etiologia principal. As alterações clinicam/neurológicas mais freqüentes foram: paralisia flácida, ausência do reflexo dopanículo, ausência dos reflexos tricipital, bicipital e extensor do carpo radial, atrofia dos músculos tríceps, bíceps, supra-espinhal, infra-espinhal e extensores do carpo, anestesia cutânea abaixo do nível do cotovelo e abrasão/ulceração em face dorsal da mão. A associação destes resultados com os aspectos da histologia e da eletroneuroestimulação (relatados na parte 2 e 3 deste trabalho, respectivamente sugeriu envolvimento quase que total das raízes do plexo braquial em todos os casos.Brachial plexus avulsion is a relatively common affection, causing serious paralysis of the thoracic limb. It is often misdiagnosed as radial paralysis and there are controversies about the treatment. The main purposes of this work were: to evaluate clinically and neurologically dogs with brachial plexus avulsion and to demonstrate the relevant aspects in the diagnosis of this affection. Predominantly mixed breed dogs, females under three years of age were observed, and the brachial plexus avulsion was mainly a result of road accidents. The more frequent clinical and neurological signs were: flacid paralysis, loss of the panniculus, triceps, biceps and extensor carpi radial muscle reflexes, atrophy of the muscles triceps, biceps, extensor carpi radial, supraspinatus and infraespinatus

  9. The use of tip perfusion index to evaluate the effect of brachial plexus block%末梢灌注指数评估臂丛神经阻滞的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴新海; 邓若熹; 郑利民

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察末梢灌注指数(tip perfusion index,TPI)的变化能否客观评估臂丛神经阻滞的效果.方法 臂丛神经阻滞下行上肢手术患者70例,ASA1~Ⅱ级,予以连续监测心电图、无创血压、双上肢脉氧饱和度和TPI,手术室温度控制在24℃~26℃2,阻滞前10 min静脉注射咪达唑仑0.06 mg/kg镇静,记录臂丛神经阻滞阻滞侧上肢神经分布区域的痛觉消失时间,阻滞侧和非阻滞侧手指的TPI.结果 成功的腋路和肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞的非阻滞侧上肢的TPI数值在30 min的变化都不明显;与非阻滞侧比较,成功的腋路和肌间沟臂丛阻滞侧的TPl数值分别在8 min和6 min开始显著增加(P<0.01)(2.88±0.79 vs1.8±0.42,2.70±0.59 vs 2.02±0.38);而失败的臂丛阻滞阻滞侧和非阻滞侧的各个时间点的TPI数值变化均不明显.结论 监测TPI的动态变化能客观准确的评价臂丛神经阻滞的效果,与传统的针刺法相比,不仅能更早的监测臂丛神经阻滞的起效,而且简单无创.%Objective To evaluate the availability of tip perfusion index (TPI) changes for objective prediction of successful inbrachial plexus block. Methods seventy ASA Ⅰ -Ⅱ patients scheduled for upper extremity operation under brachial plexus block were included. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, bilateral upper extremity oxygen saturation and TPI values were measured. Operating room temperature was controlled at 24℃-26℃. Midazolam 0.06 mg/kg was given intravenously at 10 min before blockade. The onset time of analgesia in blocked upper limb and TPI values of bilateral upper limb were recorded. Results There was no change of TPI values in the unblocked upper limb after axillary/interscalene approach for brachial plexus block. In axillary approach for brachial plexus block group, TPI values in blocked upper limb started to increase as early as 8 min after the local anesthetic injection. In the interscalene approach for

  10. Bases anatômicas para o bloqueio anestésico do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular Bases anatómicas para el bloqueo anestésico del plexo braquial por vía infraclavicular Anatomical basis for infraclavicular brachial plexus block

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    Luiz Carlos Buarque de Gusmão

    2002-06-01

    proposed measurements from the anterior surface of the clavicle and the angle formed by the deltoid muscle and the clavicle (deltoclavicular angle. The first measurement allows the in-depth location of the site crossed by the brachial plexus. The second determines fascicles projection within the fossa, corresponding to the needle insertion point on the skin. METHODS: Measurements were made between the anterior surface of the clavicle and brachial plexus fascicles, and from the deltoclavicular angle to superficial fascicles projection. Based on the anatomic findings a technique of infraclavicular brachial plexus approach was proposed. RESULTS: A hundred infraclavicular regions in cadavers were analyzed. Infraclavicular fossa was detected in 96 cases where brachial plexus fascicles were totally or partially (97.9% located. The distance between the anterior surface of the clavicle and brachial plexus fascicles was in average of 2.49 cm and from the deltoclavicular angle to superficial fascicles projection was 2.21 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Values obtained allow for the precise location of the needle insertion point which, when perpendicular to the skin, reaches brachial plexus without danger of causing pneumothorax or vascular injury, providing more safety to anesthesiologists and allowing the return to the practice of brachial plexus block below the clavicle.

  11. Treatment of 1 Case of Brachial Plexus Injury by Acupuncture of Detecting Peripheral Nerve plus Tuina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shao-jun; LUO Jun-fan; CHEN Jing-fen; ZHU Zhu-chun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Medical History A male patient, 37 years old, was wounded on the lateral and superior aspect of the right chest by the knife on Nov. 16 of 2003. The physical examination showed there was a wound 2 cm in length on the lateral and superior aspect of the right chest with active bleeding, the patient could flex and extend the right elbow, wrist,palm and metacarpophalangeal articulation, but felt numbness of five digits of right hand.

  12. Study of Diaphragmatic Movement after Ultrasound-guided Interscalene and Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block%超声引导下肌间沟与锁骨上臂丛阻滞对膈肌运动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高珊珊

    2015-01-01

    目的研究超声引导下相同剂量肌间沟及锁骨上臂丛阻滞和不同剂量肌间沟臂丛阻滞的麻醉效果,对右侧膈肌运动的影响,对减少膈肌阻滞发生率进行摸索。方法60例右上肢手术的患者,1%利多卡因+0.4%罗哌卡因20ml,随机分为三组,分别为:20ml肌间沟组(IA组),16ml肌间沟组(IB组),20ml锁骨上组(S组)。超声引导下行臂丛阻滞,记录各组感觉阻滞效果,运动阻滞效果,并发症及阻滞后5min,30min膈肌移动幅度。结果三组间感觉、运动阻滞效果无显著差异。三组施行臂丛阻滞后5min、30min平静呼吸膈肌阻滞程度,组间比较:S组低于IA组,IA和IB组间无统计学差异;组内比较S组前后差异无统计学意义,IA组和IB组与阻滞前比较,阻滞后均见加重。深呼吸时三组的膈肌阻滞程度比较与平静呼吸时相似。三组仅肌间沟入路20ml组出现一例胸闷,无其他并发症发生。结论相同剂量局麻药臂丛阻滞肌间沟入路比锁骨上入路对膈肌运动影响更大,相同部位肌间沟入路臂丛阻滞20ml和16ml相比膈肌阻滞发生率相差不大。%Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthetic ef ect and right hemidiaphragm motion between interscalene and supraclavicular brachial plexus block had the same dose and interscalene brachial plexus block had dif erent dose by Ultrasound guidance ,to study how to reduce the incidence of diaphragmatic paralysis. Methods 60 Patients need Surgery on right Upper limb, 1%Lidocaine+0.4%Ropivacaine 20ml, randomly divided into three groups:20ml supraclavicular group (group S), 20ml interscalene group (group IA),16ml interscalene group (group IB). After ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block, we measured the ef ects of sensory block and motor block, complication and measure the right diaphragmatic paralysis before brachial plexus block, 5min, 30min after brachial plexus block. Results There was

  13. The effect of low serum bicarbonate values on the onset of action of local anesthesia with vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block in patients with End-stage renal failure

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    Al-mustafa Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block is utilized in patients with chronic renal failure at the time of creation of an arterio-venous fistula (AVF. The aim of this study is to test the effect of impaired renal function, with the resulting deranged serum electrolytes and blood gases, on the success rate and the onset of action of the local anesthetics used. In this prospective clinical study, we investigated the effect of the serum levels of sodium, potassium, urea, crea-tinine, pH, and bicarbonate on the onset of action of a mixture of lidocaine and bupivacaine administered to create infraclavicular brachial plexus block. A total of 31 patients were studied. The success rate of the block was 93.5 % (29 patients. The mean onset time for impaired or re-duced sensation was found to be 8.9 ± 4.7 mins and for complete loss of sensation, was 21.2 ± 6.7 mins. There was no significant association with serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine or the blood pH level (P> 0.05. The bivariate correlation between serum bicarbonate level and the partial and complete sensory loss was -0.714 and -0.433 respectively, with significant correlation (P= 0.00, 0.019. Our study suggests that infraclavicular block in patients with chronic renal failure carries a high success rate; the onset of the block is delayed in patients with low serum bicarbonate levels.

  14. Optimal parameters of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance neurography of brachial plexus%弥散加权神经成像在臂丛神经成像中的参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯严振; 宋海岩; 林帆; 雷益; 陈华生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore influence of different scanning parameters of diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) on image quality of brachial plexus, and to select the best scanning parameters. Methods Eighteen healthy volunteers were equally divided into 3 groups. The first group were scanned with three b values. Then, the b value with best image quality in the first group combined with different resolution were used for the second group. As for the third group, the scanning parameter with best quality of images in the second group were used combined with different iPat factor (2, 4, 8). The anatomical details of brachial plexus and the imaging quality were observed. Results When NEX 8, slice thickness 3 mm, b value=300 s/mm2, resolution=158 × 158, iPat factor=4, the coronal image could distinguish anatomical details of brachial plexus and its branches, and the image quality was better than the others. Conclusion DWIBS after optimization has ability to show the brachial plexus. It can be used as one of conventional sequences in the brachial plexus imaging.%目的 探讨弥散加权背景抑制神经成像(DWIBS)不同扫描参数对臂丛神经图像质量的影响,优选最佳扫描参数.方法 将18名健康志愿者等分为3组,对第一组每名志愿者行3个b值的弥散加权成像扫描.选择成像质量最好的b值,调整分辨率,对第二组行弥散加权成像.选择第二组成像质量最好的参数组合,调整并行采集因子分别为2、4、8,对第三组行弥散加权成像.观察不同b值、不同参数下的臂丛神经解剖细节和成像质量.结果NEX为8、层厚3 mm、b值为300 s/mm2、分辨率158×158、并行采集因子为4的冠状位图像能够分辨臂丛神经的干股束支等解剖细节,图像质量较好.结论 优化后的DWIBS能满意显示臂丛神经,可作为臂丛神经成像的常规序列之一.

  15. Functional compensative mechanism of upper limb with root avulsion of C5-C6 of brachial plexus after ipsilateral C7 transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jie; CHEN Liang; GU Yu-dong

    2008-01-01

    observed and their ultramicrostructure also had a tendency to mature as compared with those of 3 weeks postoperatively. Twelve weeks after operation, all parameters of the C7-transection group were not significantly different from those of the control group P 0.05. In the C7-transection group, the motor end plates were densely distributed and their ultramicrostructure in four representative muscles appeared to be mature as compared with those of the control group. Conclusions: After ipsilateral C7 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of C5-C6 of the brachial plexus, the nerve fibers of the lower trunk can compensatively innervate fibers of C7-representative muscles by means of motor end plate regeneration, so there is no further impairment on the injured upper limb.

  16. Augmentation of partially regenerated nerves by end-to-side side-to-side grafting neurotization: experience based on eight late obstetric brachial plexus cases

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    Moharram Ashraf N

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The effect of end-to-side neurotization of partially regenerated recipient nerves on improving motor power in late obstetric brachial plexus lesions, so-called nerve augmentation, was investigated. Methods Eight cases aged 3 – 7 years were operated upon and followed up for 4 years (C5,6 rupture C7,8T1 avulsion: 5; C5,6,7,8 rupture T1 avulsion:1; C5,6,8T1 rupture C7 avulsion:1; C5,6,7 ruptureC8 T1 compression: one 3 year presentation after former neurotization at 3 months. Grade 1–3 muscles were neurotized. Grade0 muscles were neurotized, if the electromyogram showed scattered motor unit action potentials on voluntary contraction without interference pattern. Donor nerves included: the phrenic, accessory, descending and ascending loops of the ansa cervicalis, 3rd and 4th intercostals and contralateral C7. Results Superior proximal to distal regeneration was observed firstly. Differential regeneration of muscles supplied by the same nerve was observed secondly (superior supraspinatus to infraspinatus regeneration. Differential regeneration of antagonistic muscles was observed thirdly (superior biceps to triceps and pronator teres to supinator recovery. Differential regeneration of fibres within the same muscle was observed fourthly (superior anterior and middle to posterior deltoid regeneration. Differential regeneration of muscles having different preoperative motor powers was noted fifthly; improvement to Grade 3 or more occurred more in Grade2 than in Grade0 or Grade1 muscles. Improvements of cocontractions and of shoulder, forearm and wrist deformities were noted sixthly. The shoulder, elbow and hand scores improved in 4 cases. Limitations The sample size is small. Controls are necessary to rule out any natural improvement of the lesion. There is intra- and interobserver variability in testing muscle power and cocontractions. Conclusion Nerve augmentation improves cocontractions and muscle power in the biceps, pectoral

  17. 连续臂丛神经阻滞在儿童术后镇痛的应用进展%The application of continuous brachial plexus block in pediatric postoperative analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余倩; 叶茂

    2014-01-01

    Background Continuous hrachial plexus block(CBPB) has been widely used in adult orthopedic anesthesia and postoperative analgesia,its application in pediatric anesthesia is also increasing.Objective To summarize the safety and feasibility of CBPB in pediatric patients and explore its application prospect in postoperative analgesia after pediatric orthopedic surgeries.Content Briefly introduce the most commonly used methods for CBPB,and compare the difference of ultrasound guided and nerve stimulator guidedcontinuous brachial plexus block including the way of local anesthetic infusionand CBPB related complications.Trend CBPB is an ideal postoperative analgesia method for adult orthopedic surgeries,whether it can be widely used in pediatric patients are still unclear.Further research is needed.%背景 连续臂丛神经阻滞(continuous brachial plexus block,CBPB)用于骨科麻醉及术后镇痛效果可靠,成年人麻醉已经应用广泛,在儿科麻醉的应用也越来越受到关注. 目的 归纳总结CBPB的安全性及可行性,探讨儿童骨科术后镇痛前景. 内容 描述了臂丛外周神经导管常见方法;比较超声引导下与神经刺激仪引导连续臂丛神经阻滞;局麻药输注方式;CBPB的并发症. 趋向 CBPB是实施骨科术后镇痛比较理想的方法,目前儿童患者应用并不广泛,有关内容需进一步研究.

  18. Idiopathic brachial neuritis in a child: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Jain; Girish Chandra Bhatt; Nirendra Rai; Bhavna Dhingra Bhan

    2014-01-01

    Brachial neuritis is a rare disease in children, affecting mainly the lower motor neurons of the brachial plexus and/or individual nerves or nerve branches. We report a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis in a 2³-year-old female child admitted with acute respiratory distress and given antibiotic therapy following which she developed weakness of the left hand. She was diagnosed as a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis and was given supportive care. Although, the association wit...

  19. Reversible brachial plexopathy following primary radiation therapy for breast cancer

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    Salner, A.L.; Botnick, L.E.; Herzog, A.G.; Goldstein, M.A.; Harris, J.R.; Levene, M.B.; Hellman, S.

    Reversible brachial plexopathy has occurred in very low incidence in patients with breast carcinoma treated definitively with radiation therapy. Of 565 patients treated between January 1968 and December 1979 with moderate doses of supervoltage radiation therapy (average axillary dose of 5000 rad in 5 weeks), eight patients (1.4%) developed the characteristic symptoms at a median time of 4.5 months after radiation therapy. This syndrome consists of paresthesias in all patients, with weakness and pain less commonly seen. The symptom complex differs from other previously described brachial plexus syndromes, including paralytic brachial neuritis, radiation-induced injury, and carcinoma. A possible relationship to adjuvant chemotherapy exists, though the etiology is not well-understood. The cases described demonstrate temporal clustering. Resolution is always seen.

  20. Effective Target Plasma Concentration of Propofol by TCI to Prevent Body Dynamic Response under Brachial Plexus Block in 50% of Children%小儿臂丛神经阻滞丙泊酚TCI的半数有效浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志鹏; 沈颖彦; 吴军民; 肖旺频; 朱长玉

    2013-01-01

      目的:测定小儿臂丛神经阻滞丙泊酚靶控输注的半数有效血浆靶控浓度.方法:择期臂丛麻醉下行前臂或手外科手术患儿,术前30 min口服咪达唑仑镇静,序贯法靶控输注丙泊酚,初始血浆靶浓度设为5.0μg/mL,待患儿睫毛反射消失和对言语指令无反应时,行腋路臂丛神经阻滞.结果:丙泊酚TCI抑制小儿臂丛神经阻滞时患儿体动反应的半数有效血浆靶控浓度为3.9μg/mL,95%可信区间为3.6~4.2μg/mL.结论:口服咪达唑仑镇静下,丙泊酚抑制臂丛神经阻滞时患儿体动反应的半数有效血浆靶控浓度为3.9μg/mL.%Objective To determine the effective target plasma concentration of propofol required to pre⁃vent body dynamic response under brachial plexus block in 50% of children (Cp50). Methods ASA I or 11 children aged 5~8yrs undergoing elective forearm or hand surgery were enrolled in this study,midazolam was ad⁃ministered 30min before the propofol given by TCI at a target plasma concentration of 5.0 μg/mL, the cp50 was determined by up-and-down sequential experiment.When the patients lost consciousness and had no reaction to verbal instructions,axillary road block brachial plexus was done,the effect of TCI of propofol was based on the movement of the body in response to brachial plexus block.If effective the target plasma propofol concentration was set at a lower concentration in the next patient and vice versa.Each time the target plasma propofol concen⁃tration increased/decreased by 1.2 folds.The up-and-down sequences were analyzed by using the Dixon and Massey method to determine the Cp50. Results The Cp50 of propofol by TCI for brachial plexus block was 3.9μg/mL[95%confidence interval(CI)3.6-4.2μg/mL]. Conclusion The Cp50 of propofol by TCI for brachial plex⁃us block with midazolam orally in children is 3.9μg/mL.

  1. Joint Manipulation under Brachial Plexus Anesthesia Combined with Physical Therapy for Treatment of Periarthritis of Shoulder%臂丛麻醉下关节松动术结合理疗治疗肩周炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱萍; 王娴默; 黄亮; 徐澄; 张忠贵; 肖林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the treatment effect of joint manipulation under brachial plexus anesthesia combined with comprehensive physical therapy in treatment of periarthritis of shoulder. Mehods From 2010.3 to 2010.9, 60 patients with periarthritis of shoulder in the Department of Pain, The First People's Hospital of Jingzhou,were divided into 3 groups:group A,B and C.Twenty patients in Group A were given Joint manipulation under brachial plexus anesthesia for treatment of the periarthritis of shoulder. Twenty patients in Group B were given comprehensive physical therapy fro treatment of periarthritis of shoulder. Twenty patients in Group C were given Joint manipulation under brachial plexus anesthesia combined with comprehensive physical therapy for treatment of periarthritis of shoulder.Results All 60 patients were followed up for 1 months. At the 1st month after surgery, vas score was evaluated for patients. Postoperative and preoperative vas score difference was compared between 3 groups by t test. There was statistically significant difference in the postoperative and preoperative vas score between Group C and Group A,and between Group B and Group A (P<0.05) . Conclusion The treatment effect of Joint manipulation under brachial plexus anesthesia combined with physical therapy in treatment of periarthritis of shoulder is good, but has no obvious difference compared with comprehensive physical therapy.%目的观察臂丛麻醉下关节松动术结合理疗治疗肩周炎的疗效.方法自2010年3~9月对60例肩周炎患者分3组,A组20例使用臂丛麻醉下关节松动术治疗,B组20例行综合性理疗治肩周炎,C组20例使用臂丛麻醉下关节松动术结合理疗.结果60例患者均参加随访1个月.术后1个月后对患者使用VAS评分对比术前VAS评分采用单因素方差分析.结果C组对比A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).B组对比A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论臂丛麻醉下

  2. 臂丛神经磁共振IDEAL T2WI 和CUBE Flex T2WI 成像%Imaging of the Brachial Plexus with IDEAL and CUBE FlexT2-Weighted Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勇; 林伟; 钱明珠; 黄敏华; 孙楠; 吕剑; 盛浩

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the methods ofiterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL), Cube Flex methods with fat-saturated T2-weighted-imaging (T2WI), fast spin-echo (FSE) and short-TI inversion recovery (STIR) imaging of the brachial plexus. Materials and Methods Images were acquired at 3.0T scanner in 14 volunteers. Fat-saturated FSE T2WI and STIR images were compared with IDEAL T2WI images and Cube Flex-T2WI images. Results IDEAL T2WI and Cube Flex-T2WI demonstrated similar fat suppression quality compared with STIR (P > 0.05) and better than fat-saturated FSE T2WI (P < 0.05). Signal noise ratio and contrast noise ratio of brachial plexus showed significant difference in the following sequences: IDEAL T2WI > Cube Flex T2WI > FSE T2WI > STIR (P < 0.05). Images of IDEAL T2WI and Cube Flex T2WI reconstructed with different slice thickness could clearly demonstrate brachial plexus. Conclusion IDEAL T2WI and Cube Flex T2WI can provide high signal noise ratio images with reliable and uniform fat suppression for clearly imaging the brachial plexus.%目的 比较磁共振脂肪抑制FSE T2WI 、STIR T2WI 、IDEAL T2WI 及CUBE Flex T2WI 4 种方法显示正常臂丛神经的优劣.资料与方法对14 例自愿者行臂丛神经MRI 脂肪抑制FSE T2WI 、STIR T2WI 、IDEAL T2WI 及CUBE Flex T2WI 检查.对图像脂肪抑制质量进行肉眼分级评估,并测量信噪比和对比噪声比.结果 IDEAL T2WI 、CUBE Flex T2WI 脂肪抑制质量明显优于FSE T2WI(P <0.05),与STIR T2WI 相比差异无统计学意义(P >0.05).信噪比、对比噪声比均值比较各组间差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05),IDEAL T2WI >CUBE Flex T2WI >FSE T2WI >STIR T2WI.IDEAL T2WI 和CUBE Flex T2WI 图像均可选择不同厚度重建、斜面重建等,从而可显示臂丛神经各段.结论 IDEAL T2WI 、CUBE Flex T2WI 能提供均匀稳定的脂肪抑制,图像信噪比高,可清晰显示臂丛神经.

  3. Effects of the dexmedetomidine (Dex) applied in Brachial plexus block%右美托咪定用于辅助臂丛神经阻滞麻醉的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈勤; 肖建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the sedative effect of Dex when it was applied in brachial plexus block. Methods 60 patients ( ASA I or II ) were randomly divided into 2 groups:Dex group ( group D ) and control group ( group C ). After brachial plexus block,the patients of group D were injected Dex by a micro pump, the group C were not injected with any medicine. We observed and recorded all patients with Ramsay score,the changes of HR ( heart rate ),MAP ( mean arterial pressure ),RR ( respiratory ),SpO2 ,and the oblivion extent of surgical operation. Results In group D, the sedation score was higher than that in group C ( P 0.05);对手术操作的遗忘程度D组显著高于C组(P<0.01).结论 右美托咪定辅助臂丛神经阻滞麻醉时,在手术开始前缓慢(≥10 min)静脉泵注负荷剂量0.8 μg·kg-1,继以小剂量0.2 μg·kg-1·h-1维持,具有良好的镇静作用,可有效地抑制心血管反应,并可产生良好的术后遗忘作用,且无呼吸抑制,其安全性高,具有一定的推广价值.

  4. MR3D-STIR SPACE序列增强扫描在臂丛节后神经成像的应用%The applications of enhanced 3D-STIR SPACE sequence MRI in displaying the post-ganglionic nerve of the brachial plexus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建波; 周莉; 肖香佐; 余晨; 胡菊林; 方磊; 易思明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨MR 3D -STIR SPACE序列增强扫描在臂丛节后神经成像的可行性及应用价值.方法 对20例志愿者和10例臂丛神经病变患者行T2WI-STIR、平扫和增强3D -STIR SPACE序列扫描.评价3种方法 对臂丛节后神经的显示情况、对比噪声比(contrast noise ratio,CNR)及图像伪影,观察臂丛神经及其病变在3D -STIR SPACE序列增强扫描中的MR表现.结果 T2WI-STIR、平扫和增强3D -STIR SPACE序列扫描臂丛神经锁骨上段显示率分别为80%、80%、85%,臂丛锁骨下段显示率分别为55%、60%、85%.3种序列CNR分别为34.05±11.48、34.10±11.30、44.59±11.26,3D -STIR SPACE序列增强扫描对臂丛节后神经的CNR及其锁骨下段的显示率高于其他2种方法,增强扫描能明显改善背景抑制效果,减少伪影,病变显示更清晰.结论 3D-STIR SPACE序列增强扫描能更清楚地显示臂丛神经及其病变,有助于臂丛神经病变的诊断及治疗.%Objective To discuss the feasibility and values of enhanced MRI using 3D-STIR SPACE sequence in displaying the post-ganglionic nerve of the brachial plexus. Methods 20 volunteers and 10 patients suffering from brachial plexus diseases underwent MRI using T2WI-STIR, unenhanced and enhanced 3D-STIR SPACE sequences, respectively. The displaying rate of the post-ganglionic nerve, contrast noise ratio(CNR) and artifacts of images at the three sequences were evaluated. The signs of the normal brachial plexus and its lesions at contrast-enhanced MRI using 3D-STIR SPACE sequence were observed. Results The displaying rates of supra-clavicular and subclavicular segment of the brachial plexus on T2WI-STIR, un-enhanced and enhanced 3D-STIR SPACE images were 80%, 80%, 85% and 55% ,60% ,85% , respectively. The CNR of three sequences above were 34. 05 ±11. 48, 34. 10 ± 11. 30 and 44. 59 ±11. 26, respectively. The CNR of the post-ganglionic nerve of the brachial plexus and the displaying rate of subclavicular segment of the

  5. Carotid Brachial Plexus Nerve Block Anesthesia in the Clinical Application Effect of Operation of the Fracture of the Clavicle%颈臂丛联合神经阻滞麻醉在锁骨骨折手术中的临床应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦东

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the clinical effect of anesthesia in the operation of cervical brachial plexus block of clavicle fracture.MethodsFrom January 2011 to June 2013 year to select 100 cases of clavicle fracture patients, randomly divided into observation group and control group, respectively, the implementation of brachial plexus block and brachial plexus block, block effect and adverse reactions were observed in 2 groups.ResultsThe observation group and the control group with excellent and good rate were 100%, 86% (P0.05). ConclusionCarotid brachial plexus nerve block for operation of clavicular fracture, clinical anesthesia effect is better than that of cervical plexus block, is worth the clinical promotion.%目的:探讨锁骨骨折手术中颈臂丛联合阻滞麻醉在临床应用效果。方法2011年1月至2013年6月选取100例锁骨骨折患者,随机分为对照组和观察组,分别实施臂丛神经阻滞以及颈臂丛联合阻滞,观察2组阻滞效果及不良反应。结果观察组及对照组患者的优良率分别为100%、86%(P0.05)。结论颈臂丛联合神经阻滞用于锁骨骨折手术,临床阻滞效果优于颈丛神经阻滞,值得临床推广。

  6. Application of nerve stimulator in patients with operation of interscalene brachial plexus block anesthesia in elderly fracture of radius%神经刺激仪定位在老年桡骨骨折手术患者行肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞麻醉中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪东学; 金侃

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anesthetic effect of nerve stimulator method on patients with interscalene brachial plexus block in the elderly fracture of radius. Methods One hundred patients with elective upper limb operation of intermuscular groove brachial plexus block were chosen and randomly divided into 2 groups (n=50) including group S and group P. The patients in group S were treated with nerve stimulator interscalene brachial plexus block and those in group P with traditional paresthesia positioning method all by ropiva-caine. The the anesthetic effects and satisfaction of two groups were compared. Results The operation time, onset time and improving time of sensory nerve block of brachial plexus and the onset time of motor nerve block of brachial plexus of group S were significant shorter than those of group P. The anesthetic effects and satisfaction of group S were significantly better than those of group P. Conclusion The nerve stimulator can be safely and effectively applied in elderly patients with interscalene brachial plexus block.%目的 探讨神经刺激仪定位用于老年桡骨骨折患者行肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞麻醉效果.方法 选择行肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞老年桡骨骨折患者100例,随机分为S组(50例)和P组(50例),分别在神经刺激仪和传统异感法定位下予罗哌卡因行神经阻滞,比较两组患者麻醉效果及满意度.结果 S组操作,臂丛感觉神经阻滞起效、完善及运动神经阻滞起效时间均短于P组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);S组麻醉满意度优于P组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 神经刺激仪定位应用于老年患者行肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞,安全有效.

  7. Application of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus and cervical plexus block one point method in the operation of clavicular fracture%超声引导下臂丛颈丛阻滞一点法在锁骨骨折手术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚艳红; 赵秀华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus and cervical plexus block one point method in the operation of clavicular fracture. Methods:The relevant operation data of 30 cases with clavicular fracture were ret-rospectively summarized. Results:The liquid injection duration was (3. 5 ± 1. 4) min and block onset time was (7. 9 ± 1. 8) min in observation group, which were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0. 05). The anesthesia sensory recovery time of ob-servation group was significantly higher than that of control group [(700. 4 ± 15. 4) min VS. (622. 4 ± 18. 7) min] (P<0. 05). Con-clusions:The clinical effects of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus and cervical plexus one point method in the operation of clavicular fracture operation are satisfied.%目的:探讨超声引导下臂丛颈丛阻滞一点法应用于锁骨骨折手术的临床效果。方法:回顾性总结锁骨骨折手术的患者共计30例相关手术资料。结果:观察组患者药液注射时程为(3.5±1.4)min,阻滞起效时程为(7.9±1.8)min,均明显低于对照组患者相应数据统计结果(P<0.05),同时观察组患者麻醉后感觉恢复时程明显大于对照组患者(700.4±15.4)minVS(622.4±18.7)min(P<0.05)。结论:超声引导下臂丛颈丛阻滞一点法应用于锁骨骨折手术获得满意的临床效果。

  8. Application of the assistive device for shimming of MR imaging for brachial plexus%匀场辅助装置在臂丛神经成像中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 吕发金; 勒都晓兰; 王筱璇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the application value of the self-made assistive device for shimming on 3D Cube T2W sequence MR imaging for normal brachial plexus. Methods Thirty healthy volunteers underwent same MR scan twice with 3D Cube T2W sequence to obtain images of brachial plexus, and the assistive device was used in the second time. The signal of nerve, muscle and background noise was measured. Images were postprocessed with MIP and CPR, and then image quality was assessed. SNR and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Results Low signal artifact on neck and non-uniform fat suppression occurred on conventional images, and the image quality grade of brachial plexus at various anatomic levels (roots, interscalene area, costoclavicular space and axillary level) was 2. 38 ± 0. 64, 2. 45 ± 0. 53, 1. 73 ± 0. 66, 1. 95 ± 0. 53, respectively. Using the assistive device, the artifact on neck disappeared, and the effect of fat suppression was better than before. The image quality grade of various anatomic levels in brachial plexus was 3. 95 ± 0. 21, 3. 82 0. 39 , 3. 38 ± 0. 55, 1. 97 ± 0. 41, respectively, higher than conventional images in the level of roots, interscalene area, costoclavicular space (all P<0. 001). SNR and CNR of conventional images were 13. 14 ± 4. 37 and 6. 65 ± 2. 96, respectively. Using the assistive device, SNR and CNR of images was 15. 10 ± 5. 91 and 8. 03 ± 3. 63, higher than those of conventional images (both P<0. 05). Conclusion The assistive device for shimming can improve the uniformity of local magnetic field and image quality of brachial plexus on 3D Cube T2W sequence.%目的 探讨自制匀场辅助装置在3D Cube T2W序列正常臂丛神经成像中的应用价值.方法 采用相同参数对30名健康志愿者双侧臂丛神经进行2次斜冠状位3D Cube T2W序列扫描,第2次扫描时使用匀场辅助装置,测量神经、肌肉、背景噪声信号,并进行MIP、CPR等后处理和图像质量评级,计算神

  9. Bupivacaine 0,25% versus ropivacaine 0,25% in brachial plexus block in dogs of beagle breed
    Bupivacaína 0,25% versus ropivacaína 0,25% no bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães da raça beagle

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Ignácio Wakoff; Rodrigo Mencalha; Natália Soares Souza; Carlos Augusto dos Santos Sousa; Mariana do Desterro Inácio e Sousa; Paulo Oldemar Scherer

    2013-01-01

    The brachial plexus block (BPB) is a regional anesthesia technique which enables the attainment of surgical procedures distal scapulohumeral articulation. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ropivacaine and bupivacaine 0.25% without vasoconstrictor in BPB guided by electrical stimulation in dogs. Thirteen male and female beagle dogs underwent a BPB using bupivacaine and ropivacaine 0.25% (4mg/kg), both alone and in different times. The anesthesic block was performed in the right forel...

  10. Comparison of Propacetamol and Butorphanol′s effects in preemptive analgesia for brachial plexus%丙帕他莫与布托啡诺超前镇痛辅助臂丛麻醉效果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓东; 孙霄翀; 华豪; 丁浩中

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察盐酸丙帕他莫、酒石酸布托啡诺、盐酸哌替啶术前超前镇痛辅助手部显微外科手术臂丛麻醉的效果.方法 选择ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级手外科手术患者120例,将其随机分为三组,每组各40例.所有患者都采用神经刺激器辅助定位下行臂丛神经阻滞,使用药物0.5%罗哌卡因30 mL.麻醉前15 min Ⅰ组静脉注射酒石酸布托啡诺1 mg,Ⅱ组注射盐酸丙帕他莫2 mg,Ⅲ组静脉注射盐酸哌替啶50 mg,手术开始前再次重复上述操作.观察记录患者麻醉起效时间、麻醉维持时间、麻醉效果和术中、术毕、术后4 h的VAS评分和镇静评分及不良反应的发生情况.结果 Ⅰ、Ⅱ组麻醉维持时间显著长于Ⅲ组(P < 0.05);Ⅰ组术中、术毕、术后4 h 的VAS评分<3分者明显高于Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(P < 0.05);Ⅰ组不良反应的发生例数明显低于Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(P < 0.05).结论 手部显微外科手术臂丛麻醉辅助使用酒石酸布托啡诺行超前镇痛能够增强臂丛麻醉的麻醉效果,镇痛、镇静效果明显,延长术后镇痛时间,不良反应发生率低,值得临床推广使用.%Objective To observe the effects of Propacetamol, Butorphanol and Pethidine Hydrochloride in preemptive analgesia for hand microsurgeries to brachial plexus. Methods 120 patients (ASA Ⅰ -Ⅱ) were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 40 cases in each group. Neuro-Stimulator was used to help position the lower brachial plexus' s nerve blocking with the use of 30 mL 0.5% Ropivacaine. 1 mg Butorphanol were injected to group Ⅰ , 2 mg Propacetamol to group Ⅱ , and 50 mg Pethidine Hydrochloride to group Ⅲ 15 minutes before anesthesia, then the above procedure were repeated before the surgery. The duration as well as the effects of the anesthesia, the VAS scores during the surgery, right after the surgery and 4 hours after the surgery, the calmness score and any adverse reaction were recorded. Results The duration of anesthesia of group Ⅰand

  11. Análise comparativa da origem do plexo branquial de catetos (Tayassu tajacu Comparative analysis of the origin of the brachial plexus of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo B. Moura

    2007-09-01

    .Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu belongs to the Tayassuidae family, characterized by a "collar" of white hairs that cross behind the neck and extend bilaterally in front of the shoulders. It can be found from south-western United States to Argentina. In the literature a shortage of data is verified regarding the functional anatomy of the collared peccaries, especially of studies that involve the anatomy of the brachial plexus. To elucidate the behavior of this plexus of collared peccaries and with the purpose to contribute for the development of compared anatomy, this study was accomplished. Thirty animals of different ages were used (17 males and 13 females coming from the Wild Animal Multiplication Center of the "Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido" Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. After slaughter bilateral dissection of the brachial plexuses took place, and the results were registered in schematic drawings and the dispositions grouped in tables for subsequent statistical analysis based on the percentile frequency. It was found that the Plexus brachialis of collared peccaries is the result of established communications, mainly among the Rami ventrales of the last three cervical nerves and of the first two thoracic nerves, having a contribution of the fourth and fifth cervical nerves in 16.67% and 50.00% of the cases, respectively. In 40.00% of the dissections the most frequent plexus was of the type C6, C7, C8, T1 and T2. The main nerves derived from brachial plexus of the collared peccaries and its respective origins had been: Nervus suprascapularis (C6, C7, Nn. subscapulares (C5, C6 e C7 or C6 e C7, N. axillaris (C6, C7, N. musculocutaneus (C7, C8, N. medianus (C7, C8, T1, T2, N. radialis (C8, T1, T2, N. ulnaris (C8, T1, T2, cranialis (C7, and caudalis (C7, C8 Nn. pectorales , N. thoracodorsalis (C6, C7, C8, N. thoracicus longus (C7, C8, and N. thoracicus lateralis (C8, T1, T2.

  12. Supplementary motor area deactivation impacts the recovery of hand function from severe peripheral nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-chen Lu; Han-qiu Liu; Xu-yun Hua; Yun-dong Shen; Wen-dong Xu; Jian-guang Xu; Yu-dong Gu

    2016-01-01

    Although some patients have successful peripheral nerve regeneration, a poor recovery of hand function often occurs after peripheral nerve injury. It is believed that the capability of brain plasticity is crucial for the recovery of hand function. The supplementary motor area may play a key role in brain remodeling after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we explored the activation mode of the supplementary motor area during a motor imagery task. We investigated the plasticity of the central nervous system after brachial plexus injury, using the motor imagery task. Results from functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that after brachial plexus injury, the motor imagery task for the affected limbs of the patients triggered no obvious activation of bilateral supplementary motor areas. This result indicates that it is dififcult to excite the supplementary motor areas of brachial plexus injury patients during a motor imagery task, thereby impacting brain remodeling. Deactivation of the supplementary motor area is likely to be a serious problem for brachial plexus injury patients in terms of preparing, initiating and executing certain movements, which may be partly responsible for the unsatisfactory clinical recovery of hand function.

  13. The H-reflex of the flexor carpi radialis muscle; a study in controls and radiation-induced brachial plexus lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Ongerboer de Visser, B W; Schimsheimer, R J; Hart, A A

    1984-01-01

    H-reflexes of the flexor carpi radialis muscle were studied in 52 controls and 25 cancer patients with radiation-induced brachial plexopathy. It was found that H-reflex conduction velocity (H-RCV) decreased with increasing age. This was not true for H-reflex latency (H-RL) and inter-latency times. There were no H-RCV and latency differences between age-matched male and female subjects. In the affected arm the reflex was absent in nine patients and delayed in 16 patients in whom H-RCV was decr...

  14. Application of dexmedetomidine on upper limb operation by brachial plexus nerve block anesthesia%右美托咪啶在臂丛神经阻滞麻醉上肢手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世建; 郭新玲; 李佩宏; 李韶山

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察术中持续泵注右美托咪啶在臂丛神经阻滞麻醉上肢手术中的应用效果.方法 40例择期行上肢手术患者分为右美托咪啶组和对照组.臂丛神经阻滞后10 min,右美托咪啶组患者静脉泵入右美托咪啶,对照组患者泵人生理盐水.记录麻醉前(T0)、臂丛神经阻滞后10 min(T1)、静脉给药后5(T2)、10(T3)、30(T4)、60 min(T5)及手术结束时(T6)患者的平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)和动脉血氧饱和度(SpO2),并观察患者术中不良反应发生率,术后评估患者的麻醉满意度.结果 T0~ T2时,2组患者MAP、HR及SpO2比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);T3 ~T6时,右美托咪啶组患者MAP和HR显著低于对照组(P<0.05),但2组患者SpO2比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);右美托咪啶组T3~ T6时患者MAP和HR显著低于To时(P<0.05),对照组T3~ T6时患者MAP和HR与T0时比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);T0~T6时,2组患者SpO2比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).右美托咪啶组患者满意度显著高于对照组(P<0.05).2组患者术中、术后均未出现恶心、呕吐等不良反应.结论 在臂丛神经阻滞麻醉中持续泵注右美托咪啶,镇静镇痛效果更好,安全性高,患者术后满意度高.%Objective To observe the effect of dexmedetomidine's continuous pump injection during upper limb operation by brachial plexus nerve block anesthesia.Methods A total of 40 patients who were treated with upper limb operation were divided into dexmedetomidine group and control group.Ten minutes after brachial plexus nerve block anesthesia,the dexmedetomidine was pumped into vein in dexmedetomidine group and the saline was pumped into vein in control group.The mean arterial pressure(MAP),heart rate(HR) and arterial oxygen saturation(SpO2) were recorded at the points of before anaesthesia(T0),10 minutes after brachial plexus nerve block (T1),5 (T2),10 (T3),30(T4) and 60 min (T5) after intravenous

  15. Avulsión del plexo braquial traumático no controlado con remifentalino: Papel de la analgesia epidural cervical Traumatic brachial plexus root avulsion unresponsive to remifentanyl role cervical epidural analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cortiñas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente que sufrió accidente de tráfico con avulsión del plexo braquial izquierdo, y que presentaba dolor muy intenso (escala visual analógica 8 de características neuropáticas en la fase aguda postraumática. Dosis altas de remifentanilo fueron inefectivas para control del cuadro álgico, el cual se trato con éxito con una infusión de ropivacaína a través de catéter epidural cervical (C5-6. El dolor es controlado en fase crónica (escala visual analógica 2 con agentes específicos contra dolor neuropático (gabapentina, amitriptilina, clonacepam y tramadol.We presented you a patient who suffered a left brachial plexus avulsión with hard neuropatic pain in the posttraumatic acute phase (visual analogue scale 8. High-dose remifentanil infusión was uneffective in controlling pain, which was further ameliorated by ropivacaine infused through a cervical (C5-6 epidural catheter. At discharge pain remained controlled (visual analogue scale 2 with specific treatment against neuropathic pain (gabapentin, amytriptiline, clonacepam, and tramadol.

  16. Clinical study of ultrasound combined nerve stimulator guided brachial plexus block in elderly patients%超声联合神经刺激仪引导实施老年病人臂丛神经阻滞的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊安; 汪春英

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估超声联合神经刺激仪引导实施老年病人臂丛神经阻滞的优缺点及安全性.方法 75例ASAⅡ或Ⅲ级择期实施上肢手术的65岁以上老年病人,随机均分为三组:超声联合神经刺激仪定位组(US组);超声引导组(U组);神经刺激仪定位组(S组).记录各组臂丛神经阻滞的各项评价指标.结果 三组局麻药用量差异均无统计学意义.US组和U组阻滞操作时间、阻滞起效时间、阻滞完善时间均短于S组(P<0.05),辅助用药例数、并发症发生率均低于S组(P<0.05);US组阻滞起效时间、阻滞完善时间均短于U组(P<0.05),三组均无病人改全麻.结论 超声联合神经刺激仪引导实施肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞成功率高,并发症少,对病人影响小,用于老年病人安全有效.%Objective To evaluate the effect and safety of ultrasound combined nerve stimulator guided interscalene brachial plexus block in elderly patients. Methods Seventy-five ASA ? or ? patients over 65 years old scheduled for arm surgery were randomly divided into three groups:group US,ultrasound combined nerve stimulator group; group U, ultrasound group; group S, nerve stimulator group. Evaluating indices of brachial plexus block were recorded. Results The volumes of local anaesthetics of three groups showed no difference in statistics. In groups US and U manipulation time, onset time and maturity time of brachial plexus block became shorter than group S ( P < 0. 05); rates of using assistant medicine and complications were lower than group S (P<3. 05). Compare with group U,onset time and maturity time of brachial plexus block in group US were shorter(F<0. 05);other evaluating indices of brachial plexus block have no difference in statistics between groups US and U. Conclusion Ultrasound combined nerve stimulator guided interscalene brachial plexus block has advantages of raising success rate and reducing complications. It is effective and safe for elder patients.

  17. Feasibility Study on the Application of Ultrasound Guided Brachial Plexus Block in Upper Extremity Surgery in Obese Patients%肥胖患者上肢手术应用超声引导下锁骨上臂丛神经阻滞的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世红

    2015-01-01

    目的研究超声引导下锁骨上臂丛神经阻滞在肥胖患者上肢手术应用中的可行性,为临床治疗提供理论指导。方法选择2012年6月~2014年6月于我院就诊的72例行上肢手术的肥胖患者为研究对象。随机平均分为观察组和对照组各36例,其中观察组在超声引导下进行锁骨上臂丛神经阻滞,对照组采用传统的异感法进行锁骨上臂丛神经阻滞。比较两种操作完成时间,臂丛神经阻滞起效时间、阻滞效果以及并发症发生情况。结果观察组的操作完成时间和臂丛神经阻滞起效时间均明显短于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(<0.05)。观察组阻滞效果的得优率也显著高于对照组(<0.05)。与对照组相比,观察组的并发症发生率明显较低,差异具有统计学意义(<0.05)。结论与传统异感法相比,在肥胖患者上肢手术中行超声引导下锁骨上臂丛神经阻滞能够显著地缩短操作时间和阻滞起效时间,效果好且并发症少,安全可靠。%Objective To study the feasibility of brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound in obese patients with limb surgery,providing theoretical guidance for clinical treatment.Methods Selected 72 cases obese patients with limb surgery from June 2012 to June 2014 in our hospital 72 routine for the study and randomly divided them into observation group and control group,36 cases of each group.The observation group conduct brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound,the control group conduct brachial plexus block with the traditional susceptibility positioning method.Compared the time to complete the operation,brachial plexus block starting time,block ef ects and postoperative complications.Results The time of completing the operation and brachial plexus block starting the observation used was significantly shorter than the control group,the dif erence was statistical y significant ( <0.05).The superior rate of observation group with block

  18. The comparison of three different methods of nerve localization applied in interscalene brachial plexus block%三种常用定位方法肌间沟臂丛阻滞的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张干; 袁新平; 何绍明; 周宁; 方凯凯

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较筋膜突破(facial pop,FP)、异感(paresthesia,PAR)、外周神经刺激(peripheral nerve stimulation,PNS)3种定位法应用于肌间沟臂丛阻滞的临床效果以及局麻药在臂丛鞘内的分布与扩散状况.方法 90例拟行上肢手术的患者,采用随机数字表法分为筋膜突破组(FP组)、异感组(PAR组)和外周神经刺激组(PNS组),每组30例.评估感觉和运动神经的阻滞程度、手术过程中的麻醉效果,观察和记录并发症的发生情况,每组6例行C_4~T_3的横断面及注药侧肌问沟的冠、矢状面计算机体层摄影(computed tomography,CT).结果 3组患者中腋神经、肌皮神经、正中神经、桡神经的感觉及运动评分差异均无统计学意义;前臂内侧皮神经的感觉评分和尺神经的感觉及运动评分FP组明显高于PAR组(P<0.05)和PNS组(P<0.01),PAR组明显高于PNS组(P<0.05);损伤血管发生率PAR组明显高于FP组(P<0.01)和PNS组(P<0.05). CT结果显示局麻药在臂从鞘内呈不均匀扩散,仅在肌间沟水平似乎有鞘的特征,其以下有明显的分隔及囊袋,并有伪足.PNS组的总体麻醉效果高于FP组(P<0.05);尺侧手术麻醉效果FP组低于PAR组(P<0.05)和PNS组(P<0.01).结论 上臂及前臂桡侧手术采用3种定位均可,但FP法更安全简便;偏向尺侧的手术宜采用PAR或PNS定位法,以PNS定位为佳.%Objective To compare the effects of the interscalene brachial plexus block performed by three different methods of nerve localization-facial pop (FP), paresthesia (PAR), peripheral nerve stimulation (PINS) and the distribution of local anesthet-ics. Methods 90 patients scheduled for upper extremity operations were randomized to three groups (n=30 in each group): group FP, group PAR and group PNS. The extent of sensory and motor blockade of each innervated region was assessed by scale scores,the anesthetic effects of surgical field and the complications were observed and recorded. Computed tomography (CT

  19. Idiopathic brachial neuritis in a child: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial neuritis is a rare disease in children, affecting mainly the lower motor neurons of the brachial plexus and/or individual nerves or nerve branches. We report a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis in a 2³-year-old female child admitted with acute respiratory distress and given antibiotic therapy following which she developed weakness of the left hand. She was diagnosed as a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis and was given supportive care. Although, the association with antibiotic therapy in this case could be incidental, indeed it is intriguing and requires further studies.

  20. Idiopathic brachial neuritis in a child: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shikha; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Rai, Nirendra; Bhan, Bhavna Dhingra

    2014-01-01

    Brachial neuritis is a rare disease in children, affecting mainly the lower motor neurons of the brachial plexus and/or individual nerves or nerve branches. We report a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis in a 2½-year-old female child admitted with acute respiratory distress and given antibiotic therapy following which she developed weakness of the left hand. She was diagnosed as a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis and was given supportive care. Although, the association with antibiotic therapy in this case could be incidental, indeed it is intriguing and requires further studies. PMID:25624937

  1. Do the intervals between operation and irradiation and further therapeutic measures influence damage in the brachial plexus in cases of operated breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective investigation, the case histories of 1030 female patients were evaluated - 516 being post-examined - who had been operated on because of a carcinoma of the breast and post-irradiated. 39 patients suffered from a radiation-induced damage of the plexus. As for the development of the damage, in addition to the dose dependence, also an influence by hyperaemisation and hyperhydration as it can come into existence in the postoperative phase and by hormonal influences must be assumed. For radically operated-on patients, following conclusions were derived. 1) The starting date of the irradiation should not be too long before the 20th postoperative day. 2) Patients under the age of 45 and/or with arm oedema must be controlled especially carefully, as far as dose calculation and starting date of irradiation are concerned. 3) For patients treated with hormones and/or chemotherapeutically no maximal doses should be aimed at, max, 42-45 Gy. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RDG

  2. The Research of the Relationship between Music Intervention and Brachial Plexus Anesthetic Patients’ Stress State%音乐干预与臂丛麻醉患者应激状态的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芩芩; 方丹青; 刘岷; 杨煜; 胡建荣

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨音乐干预对臂丛麻醉患者应激状态的影响.方法80例ASAI~II级臂丛麻醉患者,随机分为实验组(I)和对照组(II),每组各40例.I组患者入室后即予播放自选的音乐至术毕,II组患者术中不播放音乐.观察两组患者的镇静情况,记录术中镇静药、镇痛药的用量、血流动力学及血液应激激素指标的变化.研究音乐干预对麻醉期患者的影响,并与对照组患者比较.结果I组患者血流动力学指标的变化幅度、四项血液应激激素指标及辅助性镇静镇痛药物的使用量均显著小于II组(P<0.05);I组的VAS疼痛评级,Ramesay镇静评分显著优于II组(P<0.05).结论音乐干预对臂丛麻醉患者可以起到稳定血流动力学、降低麻醉期应激反应、减少麻醉性辅助药物用量的作用,是一种安全,有效,简单的方法.%  Objective To investigate the effect for music intervention on brachial plexus anesthetic patients’ stress state. Method Eighty brachial plexus anesthetic patients (ASA grade I-II) were randomly assigned into study group(Group I) and control group(Group II),and each group contained 40 patients. During the operation, the music was played for Group I until the end of the operation while no music for GroupII. Study indexes contained anesthetic situation,the total dose of sedative and analgesic, hemodynamic criterion and biochemical criterion. Result The hemodynamic fluctuation,the biochemical criterion and the dose of assistant sedative and analgesic for Group 1 were both significantly lower than Group II(P<0.05);VAS analgesia level and Ramesay tranquilizer level for Group 1 were much better than Group 2(P<0.05). Conclusion Music intervention could stabilize hemodynamic, retrain irritated responsiveness and reduce the using for anesthetic. It was a easy, safe and effective method.

  3. Clinical observation on interscalene brachial plexus block guided by C-arm X-ray machine%C形臂X射线机定位肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文; 李军; 王维林; 徐德朋

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较肌间沟异感法和C形臂X射线机定位肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞在上臂、前臂、手部手术中的麻醉效果.方法 60例上臂、前臂、手部手术患者,采用随机数字表法将患者随机分为A、B两组,每组30例.A组于C6横突水平与皮肤垂直进针,出现异感时注入1.0%利多卡因+0.3%罗哌卡因混合液25 ml(内含1:200 000肾上腺素);B组运用C形臂X射线机定位,直至针尖触及C7横突尖为止,注入上述麻药25 ml.据患者主诉和骨科医师评定阻滞效果.结果 B组中Ⅰ级的发生率高于A组(P0.05).结论 对于上臂、前臂、手部手术,C形臂X射线机定位肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞的麻醉效果明显优于肌间沟异感法.%Objective To compare the anesthetic effects of interscalene brachial plexus block guided by elicitation of paresthesia and C-arm X-ray machine during surgeries of the upper arm , forearm and hand. Methods Sixty patients scheduled for upper arm , forearm, and hand surgeries were randomly divided into two groups (re =30 in each group). The needle was inserted perpendicularly to the skin at the level of the transverse process of C 6 ,when a paresthesia was elicited ,the mixture of 1.0% lidocaine and 0.3% ropivacaine (with 1: 200 000 epinephrine) was injected in group A. The needle was inserted guided by C -arm X-ray machine, when the posterior tubercle of transverse process of C 7 was encountered, the same mixture was injected in group B. The effects were evaluated by patient ' s chief complaints and orthopedists. Results The incidence of grade Ⅰ was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (P 0.05). Conclusion The anesthetic effects of interscalene brachial plexus block guided by C-arm X-ray machine is more effective than that by elicitation of paresthesia in the upper arm ,forearm,and hand surgeries.

  4. Effects Observation of Praeruptorin A for Brachial Plexus Block Anesthesia%白花前胡甲素在臂丛神经阻滞麻醉中的应用效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚丹涛; 邢伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察白花前胡甲素在上肢骨折手术患者臂丛神经阻滞麻醉中的应用效果。方法:68例上肢骨折患者按照随机数字表法分为试验组和对照组,各34例。试验组患者在臂丛神经阻滞麻醉前静脉注射0.2 mg/kg白花前胡甲素,对照组患者给予等量0.9%氯化钠注射液,比较两组患者麻醉诱导时间、疼痛反射消失时间与术后恢复时间的差异,并记录两组患者麻醉前(T0)、麻醉后即刻(T1)、麻醉后5 min(T2)、麻醉后10 min(T3)、麻醉后20 min(T4)的血流动力学指标及收缩压-心率压积(RPP)。结果:试验组患者的麻醉诱导时间、疼痛反射消失时间、术后呼吸恢复时间均显著短于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。试验组患者在T2、T3、T4时刻的收缩压、舒张压、心率和平均动脉压均低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。试验组患者在T1、T2、T3、T4时刻的RPP值均显著小于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:上肢骨折手术臂丛神经阻滞麻醉前应用白花前胡甲素可以缩短麻醉诱导时间、疼痛反射消失时间、术后呼吸恢复时间,减轻患者血流动力学指标的波动程度。%OBJECTIVE:To observe the effects of praeruptorin A for brachial plexus block anesthesia in patients receiving up-per extremity fractures surgery. METHODS:68 patients receiving upper extremity fracture surgery were randomly divided into trial group and control group with 34 cases in each group. Trial group was given praeruptorin A 0.2 mg/kg intravenously before brachial plexus block anesthesia,and control group was given equivalent volume of 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The anesthesia induc-tion time,the pain reflex disappearance time and postoperative recovery time were compared between 2 groups,and hemodynamic parameters and RPP were recorded in 2 groups before anesthesia (T0

  5. Diffusion-weighted MR neurography for the assessment of brachial plexopathy in oncological practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreou, Adrian; Sohaib, Aslam; Collins, David J.; Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C.; Leach, Martin O.; MacVicar, David A.; Koh, Dow-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate diffusion-weighted MR neurography (DW-MRN) for visualizing the brachial plexus and for the assessment of brachial plexopathy. Methods: 40 oncological patients with symptoms of brachial plexopathy underwent 1.5 T MRI using conventional MR sequences and unidirectional DW-MRN. T

  6. Malignant brachial plexopathy: A pictorial essay of MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For imaging, the brachial plexus is a technically and anatomically challenging region of the peripheral nervous system. MRI has a central role in the identification and accurate characterization of malignant lesions arising here, as also in defining their extent and the status of the adjacent structures. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the MRI features of primary and secondary malignant brachial plexopathies and radiation-induced brachial nerve damage

  7. The observation on the effect of sufentanil combined with ropivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus block by ultrasound-mediated%苏芬太尼复合罗哌卡因用于超声介导肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪金芬; 李东

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨苏芬太尼复合罗哌卡因用于超声介导肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞的临床疗效.方法 将66例接受臂丛阻滞上肢外科手术患者随机平均分为A、B、C三组,A组给予传统盲式肌间沟穿刺罗哌卡因臂丛神经阻滞;B组给予超声引导下肌间沟穿刺罗哌卡因臂丛神经阻滞;C组给予超声引导下肌间沟穿刺苏芬太尼联合罗哌卡因臂丛神经阻滞.观察并比较三组患者臂丛神经阻滞操作时间、VAS痛觉评分、疼痛及运动阻滞起效时间、麻醉满意度以及并发症发生情况等指标.结果 B组及C组操作时间均显著短于A组(均P<0.05);与A组比较,B组及C组痛觉阻滞及运动阻滞起效时间均显著缩短(均P <0.05),而C组缩短更加显著(均P<0.05);C组VAS评分在阻滞后30、60及120 min时较A组及B组显著降低(均P<0.05);与A组比较,B组麻醉效果优良率显著升高(P<0.05),但C组升高更为显著(P<0.05);与A组比较,B组及C组运动阻滞效果显著改善(均P<0.05),以C组改善更为显著(P<0.05);B组及C组阻滞后并发症发生率均显著低于A组(均P <0.05).结论 苏芬太尼联合罗哌卡因用于B超介导肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞疗效肯定,安全性好,能够显著改善痛觉及运动阻滞的起效时间及阻滞效果.%Objective To explore clinical effect of sufentanil combined with ropivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus block by ultrasound-mediated.Methods 66 patients received the treatment of interscalene brachial plexus block were divided into group A,B and C randomly.Group A received traditional blind puncture interscalene brachial plexus block with ropivacaine;Group B received interscalene brachial plexus block with ropivacaine by ultrasound-mediated;Group C received interscalene brachial plexus block with combination of sufentanil and ropivacaine by ultrasound-mediated.The operation time,VAS score,pain and movement block onset time,anesthesia fine ratio and

  8. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy and hypofractionated regimens in adjuvant irradiation of patients with breast cancer-a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galecki, Jacek; Hicer-Grzenkowicz, Joanna; Grudzien-Kowalska, Malgorzata; Zalucki, Wojciech [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Michalska, Teresa [Academy of Medicine, Warsaw (Poland). Neurological Clinic, Second Dept.

    2006-04-15

    In order to increase the availability of adjuvant radiotherapy of breast cancer patients and make it more convenient and cheaper, in numerous cancer centres, the dose per fraction has been increased from 2 Gy to 2.25-2.75 Gy and the total dose has been decreased from 50 Gy to 40-45 Gy. The risk of developing any late complications after conventionally fractionated megavoltage radiotherapy is estimated to be below 1%. The aim of this review is to determine whether hypofractionated regimens increase the risk of damage to the brachial plexus. A review of the published literature shows that the use of doses per fraction in the range from 2.2 Gy to 4.58 Gy with the total doses between 43.5 Gy and 60 Gy causes a significant risk of brachial plexus injury which ranged from 1.7% up to 73%. The risk of radiation induced brachial plexopathy was smaller than 1% using regimens with doses per fraction between 2.2 and 2.5 Gy with the total doses between 34 and 40 Gy. Surgical manipulations in the axilla and chemotherapy have to be taken into account as additional factors which may increase the risk of brachial plexopathy.

  9. Brachial neuritis following a corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a case of brachial neuritis following a subacromial corticosteroid injection. The patient developed an anterior interosseous neuropathy shortly after the injection, with no other trigger being identified. This neuropathy has unfortunately not shown any sign of recovery at 2 years. The authors propose that corticosteroid injection be added to the list of possible triggering events of brachial neuritis and highlight the frequent use of oral corticosteroids in its treatment. (1) The injection of local anaesthetic and corticosteroid should be considered as a potential trigger for brachial neuritis. (2) Brachial neuritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with severe arm pain and weakness. (3) The nerves originating from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus are most commonly affected. (4) The anterior interosseous nerve is involved in one-third of cases. PMID:24596414

  10. Esophageal cancer related gene-4 is a choroid plexus-derived injury response gene: evidence for a biphasic response in early and late brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Podvin

    Full Text Available By virtue of its ability to regulate the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the choroid plexus (CP is ideally suited to instigate a rapid response to traumatic brain injury (TBI by producing growth regulatory proteins. For example, Esophageal Cancer Related Gene-4 (Ecrg4 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a hormone-like peptide called augurin that is present in large concentrations in CP epithelia (CPe. Because augurin is thought to regulate senescence, neuroprogenitor cell growth and differentiation in the CNS, we evaluated the kinetics of Ecrg4 expression and augurin immunoreactivity in CPe after CNS injury. Adult rats were injured with a penetrating cortical lesion and alterations in augurin immunoreactivity were examined by immunohistochemistry. Ecrg4 gene expression was characterized by in situ hybridization. Cell surface augurin was identified histologically by confocal microscopy and biochemically by sub-cellular fractionation. Both Ecrg4 gene expression and augurin protein levels were decreased 24-72 hrs post-injury but restored to uninjured levels by day 7 post-injury. Protein staining in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, used as a control brain region, did not show a decrease of auguin immunoreactivity. Ecrg4 gene expression localized to CPe cells, and augurin protein to the CPe ventricular face. Extracellular cell surface tethering of 14 kDa augurin was confirmed by cell surface fractionation of primary human CPe cells in vitro while a 6-8 kDa fragment of augurin was detected in conditioned media, indicating release from the cell surface by proteolytic processing. In rat CSF however, 14 kDa augurin was detected. We hypothesize the initial release and proteolytic processing of augurin participates in the activation phase of injury while sustained Ecrg4 down-regulation is dysinhibitory during the proliferative phase. Accordingly, augurin would play a constitutive inhibitory function in normal CNS while down

  11. Brachial plexopathy after chemoradiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platteaux, Nele; Dirix, Piet; Nuyts, Sandra [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut (LKI), Univ. Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg (Belgium); Hermans, Robert [Dept. of Radiology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut (LKI), Univ. Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg (Belgium)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate late brachial plexopathy after primary chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Consecutive 43 disease-free patients were evaluated by a specifically developed 26-item questionnaire. Retrospectively, the brachial plexus was delineated and the dose-volume histograms were calculated. Results: After a median follow-up of 24 months, no radiation-induced brachial plexopathy was reported in these 43 patients. Conclusion: No radiation-induced brachial plexopathy was seen in the patient group, although 72.1% of the brachial plexuses received doses > 60 Gy. These findings should prompt further prospective studies and also stress the importance of trying to keep the doses to the brachial plexus as low as possible while covering the target volumes well. (orig.)

  12. Joint Mobilization Combined with Continuous Brachial Plexus Block Treating Traumatic Elbow Joint Dysfunction%关节松动术合用臂丛神经连续阻滞治疗创伤性肘关节功能障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海远; 王倩

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨关节松动术联合连续斜角肌肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞对创伤性肘关节功能障碍的治疗作用。方法:将100例创伤后肘关节功能障碍患者随机分成对治疗组和对照组,治疗组采用关节松动术联合连续斜角肌肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞,对照组采用关节松动术,分别采用测角计和Mayo评分法评定两组患者治疗前后患肘关节活动范围(ROM)及其功能。结果:治疗后两组ROM、Mayo评分均较治疗前明显提高(P<0.05);且治疗组的ROM、Mayo评分高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:关节松动术联合连续斜角肌肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞治疗创伤后肘关节功能障碍疗效显著,值得临床推广应用。%Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effects of joint mobilization combined with continuous brachial plexus block of scalene intersca-lene treating traumatic elbow joint dysfunction. Methods:100 cases of traumatic elbow joint dysfunction were randomly divided into the treatment group and control group, treatment group was treated with joint mobilization and continuous brachial plexus block of scalene interscalene, control group with joint mobilization, goniometer and Mayo scores were respectively applied to evaluate the range of motion (ROM) and function of elbow joint in two groups before and after treatment. Results:ROM and Mayo scores of two groups after the treatment were significantly improved, compar-ing with those before the treatment (P<0.05);ROM and Mayo scores of treatment group were both higher than those of control group (P<0.05). Con-clusion:Joint mobilization combined with continuous brachial plexus block of scalene interscalene treating traumatic elbow joint dysfunction is of significant efficacy, being worthy of clinical promotion and application.

  13. The Study of Mixture consisting of Chloroprocaine and Ropivacaine which was used in Patients Underoging Orthopedic Operation with Interscalen e Brachial Plexus Block%氯普鲁卡因复合罗哌卡因用于骨科手术肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沫丽; 王伟华; 骆芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To contrast the effect of injection mixture consisting of chloroprocaine and ropivacaine with injection ropivacaine which was used in patients undergoing interscalene brachial plexus block.Mtehods:Sixty patients undergoing interscalene brachial plexus block,were randomly divided into two groups.Group R: injection mixture consisting of 1.5% chloroprocaine and 0.5% ropivacaine;Group P:injection 0.5%ropivacaine.Monitoring NBP、P、ECG、Spo2,Observing and noting the onset and duration time of sensory block-ade and motor blockade.Results:The onset time of sensory blockade and motor blockade of group R are shorter than group P.Conclu-sion:The effect of interscalene brachial plexus block using injection mixture consisting of 1.5%chloroprocaine and 0.5%ropivacaine is better than injection 0.5%ropivacaine.%目的:对比氯普鲁卡因复合罗哌卡因的混合液与单用罗哌卡因注射液在肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞中的效果. 方法:行肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞的病人 60例,随机分为R,P 2组,R组:1.5%氯普鲁卡因与0.5%罗哌卡因混合液,P组:单纯0.5%罗哌卡因注射液. 监测病人的血压、心率、心电图、脉搏血氧饱和度,分别记录阻滞后感觉和运动神经阻滞的起效时间和持续时间. 结果:R组感觉和运动阻滞起效时间快于P组. 结论:1.5%氯普鲁卡因与0.5%罗哌卡因联合应用于肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞效果更好.

  14. 喙突入路锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞——改良法与经典法的比较%Infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block via a coracoid approach: comparison of the anesthestic effects between the classic method and the modified method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦微; 车薛华; 徐振东; 张洁

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨改良(或修正)喙突入路和经典喙突入路定位对锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞的影响.方法 对80例择期行臂丛神经阻滞手术的患者,随机分为2组,采用神经刺激器定位臂丛神经:A组以喙突内下2 cm为穿刺点(经典组);B组穿刺点参考喙突内下2 cm,并用臂丛神经体表的 投影对该穿刺点进行修正(改良组).记录两组患者操作时间、穿刺次数、阻滞成功率、并发症及患者的满意度.结果 改良组的操作时间明显少于经典组(P<0.01),且改良组无需调整阻滞针即可定位到臂丛神经的比例明显高于经典组(P<0.05).结论 改良喙突入路可以明显提高单次穿刺定位到神经的概率,且可减少操作时间,提高了穿刺点体表定位的准确性.%Objective To investigate the impact of the modified and classic coracoid approach for localization in the infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block.Methods Eighty patients schedtded for elective surgical procedures under infraclavicular brachial plexus block were randomly divided into two groups.The puncture point of Group A was the classic Wilson's approach via the point 2 cm medial and caudal to the coracoid process.The puncture point of Group B was modified by surface projection of the brachial plexus.Peripheral nerve stimulator was used to confirm the proper localization of the plexus.The performance time,the number of puncture,the anesthesia success rate,the incidence of complications and patient satisfaction were recorded.Results The performance time of the modified group was less than that of the classic group (P < 0.01).The chance of locating the bmchial plexus in a single puncture without adjusting the block needle was significantly higher in the modified group (P < 0.05).Conclusion The modified coracoid approach can significantly improve the probability of locating the nerve in one puncture that reduces the performance time.It improves the accuracy of puncture point

  15. Avulsão do plexo braquial em cães - 2: biópsia fascicular e histologia dos nervos radial, mediano, ulnar e musculocutâneo Brachial plexus avulsion in dogs - 2: fascicular biopsy and histology of the radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar os aspectos clínicos e neurológicos relevantes para o diagnóstico da avulsão do plexo braquial em cães, relacionando estes achados com os resultados da histologia dos nervos radiais, medianos, ulnar e músculo cutânea. A biópsia fascicular destes nervos foi realizada após abordagem cirúrgica às faces lateral e medial do braço afetado. Todos os fascículos submetidos ao exame histológico apresentaram alterações como tumefação axonal, degeneração walleriana e infiltrado inflamatório em graus variados, havendo principalmente nos nervos radial, mediano e ulnar a proliferação de colagem endoneural. A associação destes resultados com as alterações neurológicas e da eletroneuroestimulação (relatados na parte 1 e 3 deste trabalho respectivamente sugeriu envolvimento quase que total das raízes do plexo braquial em todos os casos.The main purposes of this work were the neurological evaluation of dogs with brachial plexus avulsion and correlation of these findings with the results of histology of the radial, median, and ulnar and muscle cutaneous nerves. Fascicular nerve biopsy was performed after surgical approach of medial and lateral aspect of the arm. Ali the submitted fascicles presented histologic alterations compatible with wallerian degeneration, axonal swelling, and inflammatory infiltrate ranging from mild to pronounced, with endoneural collagen proliferation mainly in radial, median and ulnar nerves. The association of these results with neurological and electroneurostimulation exams (respectively described in part 1 and 3 of this work suggested in all cases an almost total involvement of brachial plexus roots.

  16. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouter van Es, H. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Engelen, A.M. [Department of Radiation Therapy, University Hospital Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Ramos, L.M.P. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Feldberg, M.A.M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-05-01

    Objective. To describe the MR imaging appearance of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy. Design. MR imaging was performed in two patients with the clinical diagnosis of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy and in one with surgically proven radiation fibrosis of the brachial plexus. Patients. Three patients who had had radiation therapy to the axilla and supraclavicular region (two with breast carcinoma and one with Hodgkin`s lymphoma) presented with symptoms in the arm and hand. To exclude metastases or tumor recurrence MR imaging was performed. Results and conclusion. In one patient, fibrosis showing low signal intensity was found, while in two patients high signal intensity fibrosis surrounding the brachial plexus was found on the T2-weighted images. In one case gadolinium enhancement of the fibrosis was seen 21 years after radiation therapy. It is concluded that radiation-induced brachial plexopathy can have different MR imaging appearances. We found that radiation fibrosis can have both low or high signal intensities on T2-weighted images, and that fibrosis can enhance even 21 years after radiation therapy. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  17. 分娩性臂丛神经麻痹发病危险因素的探讨%Case-control study of risk factors of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素婷; 张向丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the risk factors of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP).Methods Forty-six newborn infants with OBPP were recruited between January 1997 and December 2009 from Technical Appraisement Center for Medical Malpractice of Shandong province as OBPP group.In the control group,138 newborn infants delivered in the same time,same hospital and same gender were collected,with a ratio of 1:3.All the cases were analyzed retrospectively.The newborn,maternal,childbirth data and working experience of midwives were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results ( 1 ) External pelvimetries of the two groups were normal.All were singleton newborns by vaginal deliveries with cephalic presentation.Twenty-two newborns had left unilateral palsies,and the other 24 had right unilateral palsies.The numbers of the whole,upper and fore arm type were 17,26 and 3,respectively.The maternal age,gravidity,parity and gestational weeks were higher in OBPP group than in the control group ( P < 0.05 ).( 2 ) The maternal antepartum body mass index ( BMI ) [ ( 29.5 ± 2.4 ) kg/m2 ],height of the uterus [ (34.9 ± 2.4) cm ] and abdominal circumference [ ( 105 ± 6) cm ] in OBPP group were higher than those in the control group [ ( 26.1 ± 2.5 ) kg/m2,( 33.7 ± 2.2 ) cm and ( 99 ± 5 ) cm,respectively ] ( P < 0.05 ).The newborn birth weight in OBPP group [ ( 4390 ± 489 ) g ] was significantly higher than the control group [ ( 3404 ± 360 ) g] ( P < 0.01 ).The working experience of midwives in OBPP group [ ( 5.2 ± 2.3 ) years ] was less than the control group [ ( 8.9 ± 5.4) years ] ( P < 0.01 ).(3) There was a higher proportion of instrumental delivery ( 28.3% vs.3.6% ),uterine atony (28.3% vs.6.5% ),prolonged second stage(8.7% vs.0.7% ) and fetal malposition( 10.9% vs.2.9% ) in the OBPP group than in the control group ( P < 0.05 ).(4) Univariate logistic analysis showed that the P values of maternal age,antepartum BMI

  18. Diagnosis and operative treatment of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路来金; 宫旭; 刘志刚; 王东生; 张志新

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnosis and operative treatment of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy. Methods: Nine cases of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy were divided into two groups, 4 cases undergoing neurolysis of brachial plexus as Group A and 5 cases undergoing transfer of myocutaneous flaps after neurolysis as Group B. In Group B, 4 cases were treated with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps (about 20 cm×20 cm) and 1 case with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (about 8 cm×6 cm). Results: All the 9 cases of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy were followed up for a period of 2 to 5 years, with an average of 2.3 years. As far as pain relief and function recovery were concerned, the results of Group B were better than those of Group A.Conclusions: Based on the results of Group B in the series, we suggest that the procedure of covering the wounds with transferred myocutaneous flaps after neurolysis of the brachial plexus should be performed to those advanced patients. The procedure may improve the blood supply of the fibrotic brachial plexus by reestablishing a good nerve bed.

  19. Intraoperative peripheral nerve injury in colorectal surgery. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsa Gutiérrez, Pablo; Viadero Cervera, Raquel; Morales-García, Dieter; Ingelmo Setién, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative peripheral nerve injury during colorectal surgery procedures is a potentially serious complication that is often underestimated. The Trendelenburg position, use of inappropriately padded armboards and excessive shoulder abduction may encourage the development of brachial plexopathy during laparoscopic procedures. In open colorectal surgery, nerve injuries are less common. It usually involves the femoral plexus associated with lithotomy position and self-retaining retractor systems. Although in most cases the recovery is mostly complete, treatment consists of physical therapy to prevent muscular atrophy, protection of hypoesthesic skin areas and analgesics for neuropathic pain. The aim of the present study is to review the incidence, prevention and management of intraoperative peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McBurney, Michelle L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erasmus, Jeremy [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56-87.5 Gy; 1.5-2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade {>=}2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4-37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512-67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm{sup 3} of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966-24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267-17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective

  1. Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56–87.5 Gy; 1.5–2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade ≥2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4–37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512–67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm3 of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966–24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267–17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future

  2. BRAIN GRAY MATTER VOLUME CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH PAIN DUE TO BRACHIAL PLEXUS AVULSION%臂丛神经撕脱伤后疼痛患者脑区灰质容积变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈富勇; 陶蔚; 秦文; 于春水; 胡永生; 李勇杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate brain structural changes involved in chronic pain in patients with pain due to brachial plexus avulsion, voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain gray matter changes . Methods: Ten right-handed patients with chronic pain due to left brachial plexus avulsion, whose pain reduced more than 75% after DREZotomy, and ten right-handed age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects participated inparticipated in the study. VAS, HADD and HADA were recorded before and 6 months after DREZotomy, respectively. Statistical parametric mapping 5 was applied for data analysis. Results: Compared with healthy subjects, the patients had gray matter decreases in the periaoueductal gray matter (PAG) and ipsilateral hippocampus, and significant gray matter increases in the ipsilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (BA24), the contralateral inferior frontal cortex (BA47). Comparing with patients during pain before DREZotomy, VBM analysis after DREZotomy showed there were no, significant gray matters changes.Conclusion: These findings suggest that chronic pain is associated with cortical and subcortical reorganization on a structural level, which may play an important role in the process of the chronication of pain in patients with pain due to brachial plexus avulsion.%目的:应用基于体素的形态学分析技术探讨臂丛神经撕脱伤后疼痛患者与慢性疼痛相关的脑结构改变.方法:选择左侧臂丛神经撕脱伤后慢性疼痛,行脊髓背根入髓区切开术后疼痛减轻>75%的患者,共10例,以及10例性别和年龄匹配的健康志愿者纳入研究.疼痛患者分别在术前和术后半年采集MRI数据,同时行视觉模拟评分(VAS),汉密尔顿抑郁(HADD)和焦虑评分(HADA).用统计参数图5( SPM5)软件分析数据.结果:与健康志愿者相比,在臂丛神经撕脱伤后慢性疼痛患者中,灰质容积减低的脑区为中央导水管周围灰质和患肢同侧的海马;灰质容积增高

  3. 瑞芬太尼抑制患儿臂丛神经阻滞穿刺诱发体动反应的半数有效血浆靶浓度%Median effective target plasma concentration of remifentainil inhibiting body movement evoked by puncture during brachial plexus block in pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志鹏; 沈颖彦; 吴军民; 肖旺频

    2013-01-01

    目的 确定瑞芬太尼抑制患儿臂丛神经阻滞穿刺诱发体动反应的半数有效血浆靶浓度(Cp50).方法 择期前臂或手外科手术患儿,年龄5~12岁,性别不限,发育正常,麻醉前30 min口服咪达唑仑0.2 mg/kg.瑞芬太尼初始血浆靶浓度5.0 ng/ml,采用序贯法确定其血浆靶浓度,穿刺诱发体动反应时下一例上调1级浓度,否则下调1级浓度,相邻浓度比值1.2.血浆靶浓度和效应室浓度达到平衡时,行臂丛神经阻滞穿刺.体动反应判断标准:穿刺诱发的肢体或/和头颈部的运动反应.计算其Cp50及95%可信区间.结果 瑞芬太尼抑制臂丛神经阻滞穿刺诱发体动反应的Cp50为3.9ng/ml,其95%可信区间为3.6~ 4.2 ng/ml.结论 瑞芬太尼抑制患儿臂丛神经阻滞穿刺诱发体动反应的Cp50为3.9 ng/ml.%Objective To determine the median effective target plasma concentration (Cp50) of remifentainil inhibiting body movement evoked by puncture during brachial plexus block in pediatric patients.Methods Pediatric patients of both sexes,aged 5-12 yr,who grown normally,scheduled for elective forearm or hand surgery,were enrolled in this study.Children were premedicated with oral midazolam 0.2 mg/kg at 30 min before anesthesia.The initial target Cp of remifentainil was 5.0 ng/ml.The target Cp was determined by up-and-down sequential method.Each time Cp increased/decreased by 20% in the next patient depending on the response of the previous patient to puncture.The ratio between the two successive concentrations was 1.2.The puncture was performed after the target effect-site and plasma concentrations were balanced.Body movement was defined as puncture-induced movement of truncus,limbs and/or head and neck.The Cp50 and 95 % confidence interval of remifentainil were calculated by Dixon method.Results Cp50 of remifentainil inhibiting body movement evoked by puncture during brachial plexus block was 3.9 ng/ml,and 95 % confidence interval was 3.6-4.2 ng

  4. A trial comparing 1% Lidocaine followed by 0.5% Ropivacaine to 1% Lidocaine for inter-scalene brachial plexus block%利多卡因与罗哌卡因混合液用于肌间沟神经阻滞的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨利多卡因与罗哌卡因混合用于肌间沟神经阻滞的临床价值。方法将60例ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级接受肌间沟神经阻滞麻醉的患者随机分为3组,分别予以以下麻醉药物:0.5%罗哌卡因30 mL、1%利多卡因15 mL与0.5%罗哌卡因15 mL、1%利多卡因30 mL。记录3组患者阻滞起效时间及感觉阻滞持续时间。结果混合液组的阻滞起效时间慢于利多卡因组,快于罗哌卡因组;混合液组的感觉阻滞持续时间长于利多卡因组,短于罗哌卡因组。结论临床应用1%利多卡因15 mL与0.5%罗哌卡因15 mL在药效动力学上优势并不明显,需综合考虑手术、患者情况审慎使用。%Objective To investigate the effect of mixture of Lidocaine and Ropivacaine. Methods Sixty patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery(ASA physical statusⅠ-Ⅱ)with interscalene brachial plexus block as the sole anesthetic were studied.The subjects were randomized to receive 1 of 3 study solutions:30ml of ropivacaine 0.5%,a mixture of 15 ml lidocaine 1% and ropivacaine 0.5% ,30 mL of lidocaine 1%. The block onset time and duration of sensory block were assessed. Results Onset of block for the mixture of 15 ml lidocaine 1%and ropivacaine 0.5%faster than the group of ropivacaine 0.5%,but slower than the group of lidocaine 1%. The duration of sensory block foe the mixture of 15 ml lidocaine 1%and ropivacaine 0.5%shorter than the the group of ropivacaine 0.5%,but longer than the group of lidocaine 1%.Conclusion There was no advantage for the mixture lidocaine 1% andropivacaine 0.5% in interscalene brachial plexus block.

  5. Etiological factors of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic injury of peripheral nerves is a worldwide problem and can result in significant disability. Management of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs requires accurate localization and the assessment of severity of the lesion. Aim: The purpose of this study is to analyze the data of patients with PNIs referred for electromyography to a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of clinical and electromyographic data of patients with PNIs seen over a period of eight-years (1999-2007 in a tertiary hospital. The data collected included: Demographic data, cause, type of lesion, anatomical location of the lesion, and the mechanism of lesion. Results: During the study period 938 patients were seen with nerve injuries and the distribution of nerve injuries was: PNIs: 1,165; brachial plexus lesions: 76; and lumbar plexus lesions: 7. The mean age was 31.8 years (range 2-81 years and the male to female ratio was 2.4:1. The most frequent nerve injuries were ulnar nerve in the upper extremity and sciatic nerve in the lower extremity. The most common cause of nerve injury was motor vehicle accidents. Two-thirds of the PNIs were partial. Conclusion: This study can serve as a guide to determine the epidemiology and classification of traumatic peripheral and plexus injuries.

  6. Treatment for idiopathic and hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (brachial neuritis) (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfen, N. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Hughes, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuralgic amyotrophy (also know as Parsonage-Turner syndrome or brachial plexus neuritis) is a distinct peripheral nervous system disorder characterised by episodes (attacks) of extreme neuropathic pain and rapid multifocal weakness and atrophy in the upper limbs. Neuralgic amyotrophy ha

  7. Imagens ultra-sonográficas do plexo braquial na região axilar Imágenes ultra-sonográficas del plexo braquial en la región axilar Ultrasound images of the brachial plexus in the axillary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Brüggemann da Conceição

    2007-12-01

    permite la identificación de las estructuras del plexo braquial ¹. Ese estudio buscó describir el posicionamiento de los nervios del plexo braquial con relación a la arteria axilar. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 30 voluntarios de los dos sexos, en posición supina con abducción a 90° y rotación externa del hombro y flexión del codo a 90°. Utilizando transductor digital de 5 cm y 5-10 MHz, fueron identificados los nervios mediano, ulnar y radial, y las respectivas posiciones en relación a la arteria fueron marcadas en una carta gráfica seccional de 8 sectores, enumerados en orden creciente a partir de la hora 12 (medial, cuyo centro representaba la arteria axilar. RESULTADOS: El nervio mediano se ubicó predominante en el sector 8 (55% y en el sector 1 (28% (mediales; el nervio radial se ubicó predominantemente en los sectores 4 (59% y 5 (34% (laterales y el nervio ulnar en los sectores 2 y 3 (inferiores en un 69% y un 24% de los casos, respectivamente. Hubo una considerable variación de la localización de los nervios con relación a los aspectos superior e inferior de la arteria. CONCLUSIÓN: La inspección en tiempo real, por ultrasonido, de las estructuras neuro vasculares del plexo braquial en la axila mostró que los nervios mediano, ulnar y radial pueden presentar diferentes relaciones con la arteria axilar.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The axillary artery is the anatomical reference, in the surface, for axillary brachial plexus block. Anatomic studies suggest variability in the location of the structures in the brachial plexus in relation to the axillary artery. These variations can hinder blocks by neurostimulation. The ultrasound allows the identification of the structures within the brachial plexus¹. The objective of this report was to describe the position of the nerves in the brachial plexus in relation to the axillary artery. METHODS: Thirty volunteers of both genders were studied. They were in the supine position with 90° abduction and external

  8. 神经刺激仪引导行肌间沟联合腋路臂丛神经阻滞用于高龄患者的临床观察%Clinical observation of interscalene joint axillary brachial plexus block guided by nerve stimulator in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨纲华; 卢增停; 马钧阳; 王立勋

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较常规异感法和神经刺激仪引导行肌间沟联合腋路臂丛神经阻滞用于高龄患者上肢手术的麻醉效果.方法 将60例ASA分级Ⅱ~Ⅲ级择期行上肢手术的高龄患者按随机数字表法分为神经刺激仪组和异感法组,每组30例.神经刺激仪组采用神经刺激仪引导行肌间沟联合腋路臂丛神经阻滞,异感法组按常规异感法行肌间沟联合腋路臂丛神经阻滞.两组所用局部麻醉药均为0.375%罗哌卡因,剂量为0.4 ml/kg.两组肌间沟、腋路臂丛神经阻滞麻醉药剂量各半.观察和记录两组患者操作时间、阻滞起效时间、镇痛持续时间、术中麻醉效果[采用疼痛视觉模拟量表(VAS)评分法]和不良反应.结果 神经刺激仪组操作时间和阻滞起效时间明显短于异感法组[(5.2±1.7) min比(8.6±2.2) min和(19.4±3.2) min比(29.0±3.9) min],术中VAS评分明显低于异感法组[(0.7±0.4)分比(2.3±0.8)分],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);神经刺激仪组和异感法组镇痛持续时间比较差异无统计学意义[(12.4±3.6)h比(13.1±3.8)h,P>0.05].神经刺激仪组无不良反应;异感法组有5例发生不良反应,其中局部血肿2例,喉返神经麻痹1例,霍纳综合征2例.结论 神经刺激仪引导行肌间沟联合腋路臂丛神经阻滞用于高龄患者定位准确,成功率高,麻醉效果好,不良反应少,值得在临床中推广.%Objective To compare the anesthetic effect of interscalene joint axillary brachial plexus block guided by nerve stimulator or conventional paresthesia in elderly patients with upper extremity surgery.Methods Sixty cases of ASA grade Ⅱ-Ⅲ elderly patients with upper extremity surgery were divided into two groups by random number table.Nerve stimulator group (30 cases) received interscalene joint axillary brachial plexus block guided by nerve stimulator.Paresthesia group (30 cases) received interscalene joint axillary brachial plexus block guided by

  9. Bloqueio do plexo braquial por via supraclavicular: estudo clínico comparativo entre bupivacaína e levobupivacaína Bloqueo del plexo braquial por vía supraclavicular: estudio clínico comparativo entre bupivacaína y levobupivacaína Supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a comparative clinical study between bupivacaine and levobupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Pinotti Pedro

    2009-12-01

    braquial es el territorio potencial para la absorción de anestésicos locales. Estudios de los estereoisómeros de la bupivacaína han venido demostrando un menor potencial de toxicidad de la fracción levógira (levobupivacaína, sobre el sistema cardiovascular. Sin embargo, se discute la eficacia anestésica (bloqueo sensitivo y motor, de la levobupivacaína en anestesia del neuro eje. Este estudio pretende demostrar la eficacia anestésica de la levobupivacaína, comparándola con la bupivacaína racémica en bloqueo de plexo braquial por la vía perivascular subclavia. MÉTODO: Cincuenta pacientes adultos de ambos sexos, ASA I y II, fueron sometidos a la anestesia de plexo braquial vía perivascular subclavia para procedimientos ortopédicos de miembros superiores con la ayuda de un neuroestimulador. Se dividieron de modo aleatorio, en dos grupos: G BUPI - bupivacaína racémica, G LEVO - levobupivacaína, en un volumen de 30 mL a 0,5%. El bloqueo sensitivo fue evaluado por el método de "picada de aguja" en los metámeros de C5 a C8; y el bloqueo motor, en los intervalos en minutos: 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, o hasta la instalación del bloqueo en los movimientos de los dedos, la mano el antebrazo y el brazo. RESULTADOS: No hubo ninguna diferencia estadística entre los dos grupos en cuanto a la latencia, incidencia de fallas, grado del bloqueo motor e incidencia de fallas y grado del bloqueo motor e incidencia de fallas del bloqueo sensitivo, pero sí que se verificó la diferencia estadística de la latencia del bloqueo sensitivo en todos los metámeros analizados. No hubo efectos adversos inherentes a la aplicación del anestésico local. CONCLUSIONES: La levobupivacaína demostró una eficacia anestésica en el bloqueo de plexo braquial, igualable a la solución racémica usualmente utilizada.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Brachial plexus block is used in surgical procedures of the upper limbs. The brachial plexus is a potential territory for absorption of local

  10. Brachial plexopathy after postoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer patients--A long-term follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Silvia; Svensson, Hans; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Denekamp, J. [Umea Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology and Radiation Physics

    2000-07-01

    In 1963-1965 a group of 71 patients operated on for breast cancer with total mastectomy and axillary clearance were given aggressive postoperative telecobalt therapy to the axillary, supraclavicular and parasternal lymph node regions. The prescribed dose to these lymph node regions was 44 Gy in 11 fractions. Only two of the three fields were treated per day. Retrospective dose calculations showed that the total dose in the brachial plexus from the axillary and supraclavicular fields was c. 57 Gy in 16-17 fractions over 3-4 weeks. After a few years, symptoms and signs of brachial plexus injury appeared in many patients, which was reported in some early papers. The cohort has now been followed-up to 34 years. As expected, there was progression of both prevalence and severity of the late effects between 5 and 34 years and 11 of 12 patients who are still alive have paralysis of their arms. The neuropathy seems to be closely linked to fibrosis around the nerve trunks. The use of large daily fractions, in some cases combined with hot spots from overlapping fields, was certainly the cause of the complication.

  11. Estudo epidemiológico das lesões traumáticas de plexo braquial em adultos Epidemiological study of the traumatic brachial plexus injuries in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Pretto Flores

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar informações epidemiológicas sobre as variáveis relacionadas ao trauma de plexo braquial em adultos. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 35 pacientes, de maneira prospectiva, atendidos consecutivamente no período de um ano. RESULTADOS: A maioria das lesões apresentou localização supraclavicular (62%), sendo 21 lesões por mecanismo de tração (60%), nove por projétil de arma de fogo (25%), três por compressão (8,5%) e dois ferimentos cortantes (5,7%). Acidentes motociclísticos responde...

  12. EMG ANALYSIS OF 17 PATIENS WITH BRACHIAL PLEXUS INJURY BY DELIVERY%臂丛神经产伤的肌电图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎文静; 李培嫒; 丛志强

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨分娩所致的臂丛神经损伤的肌电图结果对诊断及预后的意义.方法:对17例分娩导致的臂丛神经损伤进行运动神经传导速度及肌电图的测定.结果:结合运动神经传导速度、CMAP波幅及肌电图的改变为臂丛上干损害、下中干损害及全臂丛完全性损害的治疗及预后评估提供了依据.结论:臂丛产伤患儿运动神经的CMAP波幅降低比MCV的减慢更为显著.

  13. Brachial Plexopathy due to Myeloid Sarcoma in a Patient With Acute Myeloid Leukemia After Allogenic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yumi; Sung, Duk Hyun; Park, Yoonhong; Kim, Du Hwan

    2013-04-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a solid, extramedullary tumor comprising of immature myeloid cells. It may occur in any organ; however, the invasion of peripheral nervous system is rare. Herein, we report the case of myeloid sarcoma on the brachial plexus. A 37-year-old woman with acute myelogenous leukemia achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. One year later, she presented right shoulder pain, progressive weakness in the right upper extremity and hypesthesia. Based on magnetic resonance images (MRI) and electrophysiologic study, a provisional diagnosis of brachial plexus neuritis was done and hence steroid pulse therapy was carried out. Three months later the patient presented epigastric pain. After upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, myeloid sarcoma of gastrointestinal tract was confirmed pathologically. Moreover, 18-fluoride fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed a fusiform shaped mass lesion at the brachial plexus overlapping with previous high signal lesion on the MRI. Therefore, we concluded the final diagnosis as brachial plexopathy due to myeloid sarcoma. PMID:23705126

  14. 肌内效贴治疗“产瘫肩”畸形的随机对照临床研究%Kinesiotape Corrects Glenohumeral Deformity Associated with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy and Improves Shoulder Function:a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俞岚; 张备; 陈亮; 白玉龙

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficency of Kinesiotape in treating glenohumeral deformity caused by ob-stetric brachial plexus palsy(OBPP) by a randomized controlled trial. Methods:Forty-four children diagnosed with OBPP were randomly assigned to control group (n=22) and therapeutic group (n=22). All the patients had re-ceived exercise therapy, and the ones in the therapeutic group received Kinesiotape in addition. The angle be-tween the trunk axis and the axis of the injured arm and posterior glenoid-humeral angle were used to assess the anatomical improvement. Mallet scale and Gilbert grading system were employed to assess the functional improvement. Results:After 6 months' treatment with Kinesiotape and exercise therapy, significant differences in the angle between the trunk axis and the axis of the injured arm and posterior glenoid-humeral angle were observed between the two groups ( <0.05) . However, functional improvement was observed in boththe groups statistically ( <0.05). Greater functional improvements were found in the therapeutic group than that in the control group ( <0.05). Conclusion:Kinesiotape can correct glenohumeral deformity associated with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and improve shoulder function.%目的:随机对照研究使用肌内效贴治疗产瘫患儿“产瘫肩”畸形的疗效。方法:44例产瘫Narakas分型1~4型患儿随机分入肌内效贴组和常规治疗组各22例。2组均采用运动疗法,进行肌力和关节活动度训练。肌内效贴组还给予肌内效贴进行贴扎治疗。治疗前和治疗6个月时,对患儿的肩胛下角-躯干轴线夹角、盂肱夹角、Mallet评分和Gilbert分级进行评估。结果:治疗6个月后,肌内效贴组肩关节解剖结构得以改善,肩胛下角-躯干轴线之间夹角和盂肱夹角较治疗前明显改善(<0.05),常规治疗组改善无统计学意义;与治疗前相比,2组Mallet评分和Gilbert分级提高均有统计学意义(<0.05

  15. 右美托咪啶复合臂丛神经阻滞在30例断指再植术中的应用%Application of dexmedetomidine combined anesthesia with brachial plexus block on finger replantation surgery in 30 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江恬; 黄红芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较右美托咪啶(Dex)和丙泊酚复合臂丛麻醉在断指再植术中对患者镇静和循环、呼吸的影响.方法 选择美国麻醉医师学会(ASA)根据病情分级为Ⅰ~Ⅱ级的急诊断指再植术患者60例,随机分为两组,各30例,Dex组:负荷量1.0 μg/kg微量泵15 min注入,后给予维持量0.5 μg/(kg·h);丙泊酚组按血浆靶浓度1~2 μg/mL靶控输注丙泊酚.比较两组用药后的循环、呼吸和镇静Ramsay评分效果.结果 给药后各时点丙泊酚组的平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)和呼吸频率(RR)均有明显下降趋势(P<0.05);而Dex组仅HR和RR出现明显下降,但RR仍高于同时点的丙泊酚组(P<0.05).丙泊酚组和Dex组患者镇静(Ramsay评分)效果比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 Dex静脉镇静效果确切,没有明显的循环和呼吸抑制作用,是臂丛神经阻滞的合理辅助用药.%Objective To compare the influence of dexmedetomidine(Dex)and propofol combined anesthesia with brachial plexus block on sedation and the respiratory-circular function in finger replantation surgery. Methods Sixty patients with grade ASA I - Ⅱ emergency finger replantation were randomly divided into two groups, 30 cases in each group. The Dex group: loading dose Dex 1. 0 μg/kg was injected within 15 min as bolus,and 0. 5 μg/(kg · H)maintained. The propofol group:l - 2 μg/Ml concentrations of propofol target-controlled infusion. The respiratory, circulatory functions and sedationCRamsay scores)were evaluated at the timepi-onts before nerve block(TO) , after nerve block(Tl) , 10 min(T2) , 30 min(T3) , 60 min(T4)and 120 min(T5) during surgery. Results The mean arterial pressureCMAP) , heart rate(HR)and respiratory rate(RR)showed a descending trend on all timepionts after administration in the propofol group(P0. 05) ;RR present significant higher in the Dex group compared with the propofol group(P<0. 05). There was no difference in the sedation scores between two groups

  16. Ecrg4 expression and its product augurin in the choroid plexus: impact on fetal brain development, cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis and neuroprogenitor cell response to CNS injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The content and composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is determined in large part by the choroid plexus (CP and specifically, a specialized epithelial cell (CPe layer that responds to, synthesizes, and transports peptide hormones into and out of CSF. Together with ventricular ependymal cells, these CPe relay homeostatic signals throughout the central nervous system (CNS and regulate CSF hydrodynamics. One new candidate signal is augurin, a newly recognized 14 kDa protein that is encoded by esophageal cancer related gene-4 (Ecrg4, a putative tumor suppressor gene whose presence and function in normal tissues remains unexplored and enigmatic. The aim of this study was to explore whether Ecrg4 and its product augurin, can be implicated in CNS development and the response to CNS injury. Methods Ecrg4 gene expression in CNS and peripheral tissues was studied by in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR. Augurin, the protein encoded by Ecrg4, was detected by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The biological consequence of augurin over-expression was studied in a cortical stab model of rat CNS injury by intra-cerebro-ventricular injection of an adenovirus vector containing the Ecrg4 cDNA. The biological consequences of reduced augurin expression were evaluated by characterizing the CNS phenotype caused by Ecrg4 gene knockdown in developing zebrafish embryos. Results Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that, the CP is a major source of Ecrg4 in the CNS and that Ecrg4 mRNA is predominantly localized to choroid plexus epithelial (CPe, ventricular and central canal cells of the spinal cord. After a stab injury into the brain however, both augurin staining and Ecrg4 gene expression decreased precipitously. If the loss of augurin was circumvented by over-expressing Ecrg4 in vivo, BrdU incorporation by cells in the subependymal zone decreased. Inversely, gene knockdown of Ecrg4 in developing

  17. Application of de-rotation osteotomy in the treatment of obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP)%尺桡骨旋转截骨治疗大龄分娩性臂丛神经损伤前臂旋前挛缩畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾合买提江·玉素甫; 阿不来提·阿不拉; 买买提明·赛依提

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价尺桡骨旋转截骨术治疗分娩性臂丛神经损伤(产瘫)肘挛缩后遗症的价值.方法 2007年8月至2009年10月,对13例产瘫肘后遗症前臂旋前挛缩并发桡骨小头脱位的患儿,行前臂尺桡骨旋前截骨手术.术后以旋前位置角度的改善作为前臂功能的评价标准.结果 术后随访时间为6~16个月,平均8个月.术后前臂均处于旋前30.位,功能及外观获得改善.结论 尺桡骨旋转截骨矫形手术在产瘫肘挛缩后遗症的治疗中具有一定的应用价值.%Objective To evaluate the value of de-rotation ostectomy of ulna and radius in the treatment of sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). Methods From August 2007 to October 2009, a total of 13 cases of OBPP with elbow sequelae forearm pronation contracture and radial head dislocation were treated with de-rotation ostectomy of the ulna and radius. Postoperative forearm function was evaluated by improvement in pronation angle. Results Postoperative follow-up period ranged from 6 to 16 months, with an average of 8 months. Forearm was positioned at 30° of pronation. Both function and appearance of the forearm were improved.Conclusion De-rotation ostectomy of ulna and radius is an effective treatment for elbow sequelae of OBPP.

  18. Bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior com uso de neuroestimulador e ropivacaína a 0,5% Bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía posterior con el uso de neuroestimulador y ropivacaína a 0,5% Posterior brachial plexus block with nerve stimulator and 0.5% ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Beato

    2005-08-01

    ícula y húmero proximal. El objetivo de este estudio fue mostrar los resultados observados en pacientes sometidos a bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía posterior con el uso del neuroestimulador y ropivacaína a 0,5%. MÉTODO: Veintidós pacientes con edad entre 17 y 76 años, estado físico ASA I y II, sometidos a cirugías ortopédicas envolviendo el hombro, clavícula y húmero proximal fueron anestesiados con bloqueo de plexo braquial por la vía posterior utilizando neuroestimulador desde 1 mA. Lograda la contracción deseada, la corriente fue disminuida para 0,5 MA y, permaneciendo la respuesta contráctil, fueron inyectados 40 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5%. Fueron evaluados los siguientes parámetros: latencia, analgesia, duración de la cirugía, duración de la analgesia y del bloqueo motor, complicaciones y efectos colaterales. RESULTADOS: El bloqueo fue efectivo en 20 de los 22 pacientes; la latencia media fue de 15,52 min; la duración media de la cirugía fue de 1,61 hora. La media de duración de la analgesia fue de 15,85 horas y del bloqueo motor 11,16 horas. No fueron observados señales y síntomas clínicos de toxicidad del anestésico local y ningún paciente presentó efectos adversos del bloqueo. CONCLUSIONES: En las condiciones de este estudio el bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía posterior con el uso del neuroestimulador y ropivacaína a 0,5% demostró que es una técnica efectiva, confortable para el paciente y de fácil realización.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are several approaches to the brachial plexus depending on the experience of the anesthesiologist and the site of the surgery. Posterior brachial plexus block may be an alternative for shoulder, clavicle and proximal humerus surgery. This study aims at presenting the results of patients submitted to posterior brachial plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine and the aid of nerve stimulator. METHODS: Participated in this study 22 patients aged 17 to 76 years, physical status ASA I and II

  19. 肩关节前、后路手术治疗产瘫肩关节内旋挛缩伴盂肱关节后脱位%Surgical treatment of shoulder joint posterior dislocation secondary to internal rotation contractnre deformity in brachial plexus birth palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树锋; 栗鹏程; 薛云皓; 李玉成; 孙燕琨

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察肩关节前路松解复位、后路关节囊紧缩治疗产瘫肩关节内旋挛缩畸形伴肩关节后脱位的临床效果. 方法 19例产瘫并发肩关节内旋挛缩畸形患者,经X线和CT检查确诊为盂肱关节半脱位伴假盂形成或完全脱位.男14例,女5例,年龄2.5 ~ 8.5岁,平均5岁.盂肱关节畸形按照改良的Water的标准进行分型,Ⅳ型15例,Ⅴ型4例.19例均行肩关节前路挛缩软组织松解、复位,同时行后路剥离关节囊与假盂的粘连并紧缩后下方关节囊,肩关节外旋0°位石膏固定4周. 结果 术后随访12 ~ 36个月,平均20个月.肩关节Mallet评分由术前平均(11.4±1.7)(7~16)分至术后(15.5±1.8)(13~19)分,两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);术后盂肱关节达到中心性复位的有16例;3例肱骨头仍向后脱位. 结论 对于产瘫肩关节内旋挛缩导致的肩关节脱位,前路松解复位、后路剥离关节囊与假盂粘连、紧缩后下侧关节囊,不但使脱位的盂肱关节达到中心复位,同时明显改善其肩关节的功能.%Objective To observe the functional recovery of shoulder joint and the reduction of posterior dislocated humeral head in children with shoulder joint internal rotation contracture and humeral head posterior dislocation secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy treated by a modified surgical procedure through the anterior combined posterior approach of the shoulder. Methods Ninteen patients,ranging in age from 2.5 to 8.5 years (average 5 years),suffered posterior dislocation of the shoulder joint secondary to internal rotation contracture in brachial plexus birth palsy. The gleno-humeral joint deformity was confirmed by X-ray and CT examination and classified as type Ⅳ in 15 eases and typeⅤin 4 cases according to the modified water's criteria.The surgical procedure was as follows:the contracture soft tissue around the anterior of shoulder joint was released firstly through the anterior approach

  20. Comparison of the Effect of Ultrasonic Positioning and Skin Paresthesia Interscalene Brachial Plexus ;Block on the Upper Extremity Operation in Obese Patients%超声定位和体表异感定位肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞在肥胖患者上肢手术中的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒跃; 吕虎; 平山; 杨涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effect of body surface ultrasound localization and abnor-mal sensation of interscalene brachial plexus block on the operation of upper limb in obese patients .Methods A total of 68 obese patients who underwent upper limb operation in Changhai Hospital of the Second Mili-tary Medical University from Jan.2013 to Oct.2014 were inlcuded as the research objects,and were divided into two groups according to random number table method,each group of 34 cases.Patients in the control group were given surface paresthesia interscalene brachial plexus block,while patients in observation group underwent ultrasound localization.The nerve block onset time,blocking effect,anesthesia effect and complications of the two groups were compared.Results Block onset time of musculocutaneous nerve[(4.4 ±2.1) min vs (9.8 ± 3.6) min],radial nerve[(4.2 ±1.3) min vs (10.6 ±4.5) min],the median nerve[(6.4 ±2.5) min vs (15.1 ±6.6) min],ulnar nerve[(7.3 ±3.0) min vs (18.0 ±7.4) min] of observation group and control group had statistically significant difference(P0.05).Conclusion Compared to surface paresthesia positio-ning,ultrasonic interscalene brachial plexus block has a rapid onset,high success rate,good anesthesia effect and less complications,thus is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:比较超声定位和体表异感定位肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞在肥胖患者上肢手术中的疗效。方法选择2013年1月至2014年10月第二军医大学附属长海医院择期行上肢手术的68例肥胖患者为研究对象,依据随机数字表法分为两组,各34例。对照组患者采取体表异感定位肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞,观察组患者则行超声定位。比较两组患者神经阻滞起效时间、神经阻滞效果、麻醉效果及并发症情况。结果观察组和对照组肌皮神经[(4.4±2.1) min 比(9.8±3.6) min]、桡神经[(4.2±1.3) min比(10.6±4.5) min]、正中神经[(6.4±2.5) min 比(15

  1. Efficacy of patient-controlled infraclavicular brachial plexus block for analgesia after elbow arthrolysis%自控锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞用于患者肘关节松解术后镇痛的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁嫕; 刘莹; 刘雪冰; 林惠华; 杨庆国; 王庚

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价自控锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞用于患者肘关节松解术后镇痛的效果.方法 选择拟行肘关节松解术患者80例,年龄18 ~ 64岁,性别不限,ASA分级Ⅰ-Ⅲ级,体重指数18~ 25kg/m2,采用随机数字表法分为2组(n=40):腋路臂丛神经阻滞组(A组)和锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞组(Ⅰ组).2组分别于术前在超声引导下将导管留置在臂丛神经周围.术后苏醒后待患者疼痛时,经导管注射0.2%罗哌卡因20 ml,15 min后采用0.2%罗哌卡因(400 ml)行自控臂丛神经阻滞,背景输注速率5 ml/h,PCA剂量5 ml,锁定时间30 min.术后24 h时进行功能锻炼,1次/d,连续3d.记录置管时间、阻滞成功情况、置管时中重度疼痛[疼痛数字评分法(NRS)评分>4分]和高度置管阻力(置管阻力评分法评分>1分)的发生情况、置管过程中神经异感和血管损伤的发生情况.记录术后24、48和72 h功能锻炼时的NRS评分.记录术后72 h时肘关节活动范围,计算活动范围改善程度,记录活动范围改善满意(活动范围改善≥80%)和活动范围完全改善(活动范围改善达100%)的发生情况.记录术后72 h内导管有关不良反应(渗液、堵塞、脱出等)和局麻药有关不良反应(恶心呕吐、全身毒性反应)的发生情况.结果 2组置管时阻滞成功率均为100%.与A组比较,Ⅰ组置管时间缩短,置管时中重度疼痛和高度置管阻力的发生率降低,置管过程中神经异感及血管损伤的发生率降低,术后24 h功能锻炼时的NRS评分降低,肘关节活动范围完全改善率升高(P<0.05),肘关节活动范围改善程度和改善满意率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 自控锁骨下臂丛神经阻滞可安全、有效地用于患者肘关节松解术后镇痛,其效果优于自控腋路臂丛神经阻滞.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of patient-controlled infraclavicular brachial plexus block for analgesia after elbow arthrolysis.Methods Eighty

  2. Brachial plexopathy from stereotactic body radiotherapy in early-stage NSCLC: Dose-limiting toxicity in apical tumor sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: We report frequency of brachial plexopathy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy. Materials and methods: 276 T1-T2, N0 or peripheral T3, N0 lesions were treated in 253 patients with stereotactic radiotherapy at Indiana University and Richard L. Roudebush VAMC from 1998 to 2007. Thirty-seven lesions in 36 patients were identified as apical lesions, defined as epicenter of lesion superior to aortic arch. Brachial plexus toxicity was scored for these apical lesions according to CTCAE v. 3.0 for ipsilateral shoulder/arm neuropathic pain, motor weakness, or sensory alteration. Results: The 37 apical lesions (19 Stage IA, 16 IB, and 2 IIB) were treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy to a median total dose of 57 Gy (30-72). The associated brachial plexus of 7/37 apical lesions developed grade 2-4 plexopathy (4 pts - grade 2, 2 pts - grade 3, 1 pt - grade 4). Five patients had ipsilateral shoulder/arm neuropathic pain alone, one had pain and upper extremity weakness, and one had pain progressing to numbness of the upper extremity and paralysis of hand and wrist. The median of the maximum brachial plexus doses of patients developing brachial plexopathy was 30 Gy (18-82). Two-year Kaplan-Meier risk of brachial plexopathy for maximum brachial plexus dose >26 Gy was 46% vs 8% for doses ≤26 Gy (p = 0.04 for likelihood ratio test). Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiotherapy for apical lesions carries a risk of brachial plexopathy. Brachial plexus maximum dose should be kept <26 Gy in 3 or 4 fractions.

  3. Pediatric Stinger Syndrome: Acute Brachial Plexopathy After Minor Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quong, Whitney L; Hynes, Sally L; Arneja, Jugpal S

    2015-11-01

    The "stinger" or "burner" is a form of transient brachial plexopathy termed for its characteristic knife-like pain extending from the neck to the fingertips. Muscle weakness and paresthesia are oftentimes associated symptoms and are similarly temporary. Commonly observed in athletes of contact sports, the stinger results from high force trauma causing either traction/direct compression to the brachial plexus or extension/compression of the cervical nerve roots. We describe a pediatric case of a stinger in a 14-year-old boy, which was caused by a relatively low force trauma accident. Our management strategy and recommendations are discussed. PMID:26893985

  4. Electrodiagnosis of brachial plexopathies and proximal upper extremity neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the normal anatomy of the brachial plexus and its major terminal branches, as well as the major causes and clinical presentations of lesions of these structures. An approach to electrodiagnosis of brachial plexopathies and proximal upper extremity neuropathies is provided, with an emphasis on those nerve conduction studies and portions of the needle examination, which permit localization of lesions to specific trunks, cords, and terminal branches. The importance of specific sensory nerve conduction studies for differentiating plexopathies from radiculopathies and mononeuropathies is emphasized.

  5. Estudo comparativo entre ultrassom e neuroestimulação no bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via axilar Estudio comparativo entre ultrasonido y neuroestimulación en el bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía axilar A comparative study between ultrasound and neurostimulation guided axillary brachial plexus block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Brüggemann da Conceição

    2009-10-01

    seleccionaron 40 pacientes para operaciones por elección en la mano, con bloqueo de plexo braquial vía axilar. Los pacientes se distribuyeron aleatoriamente y electrónicamente en dos grupos de 20 pacientes: Grupo Neuroestimulación (NE y Grupo Ultrasonido (US. Se compararon el tiempo de realización, la tasa de éxito y las complicaciones. RESULTADOS: Las tasas de bloqueo completo, falla parcial y falla total, no presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativa entre los grupos US y NE. El tiempo promedio para la realización del procedimiento en el grupo US (354 segundos no presentó diferencia estadística significativa cuando se le comparó al grupo NE (381 segundos. Los pacientes del grupo NE presentaron una tasa más elevada de punción vascular (40%, cuando se les comparó con el grupo US (10%, p Conceição DB, Helayel PE, Oliveira Filho GR - A Comparative Study between Ultrasound- and Neurostimulation-Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of ultrasound in Regional Blocks is increasingly more frequent. However, very few studies comparing ultrasound and neurostimulation have been conducted. The objective of this study was to compare neurostimulation-guided axillary brachial plexus block with double injection and ultrasound-guided axillary plexus block for hand surgeries. The time to perform the technique, success rate, and complications were compared. METHODS: After approval by the Ethics on Research Committee of the Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, 40 patients scheduled for elective hand surgeries under axillary plexus block were selected. Patients were randomly divided into two groups with 20 patients each: Neurostimulation (NE and Ultrasound (US groups. The time to perform the technique, success rate, and complication rate were compared. RESULTS: Complete blockade, partial failure, and total failure rates did not show statistically significant differences between the US and NE groups. The mean time to perform the technique in

  6. Clinical Comparison of Different Concentration of Ropivacaine for Brachial Plexus Block Anesthesia in Elderly Patients%不同浓度罗派卡因用于老年患者臂丛神经阻滞麻醉的临床比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓继红; 丰亮; 黄杰锋; 周志军; 杨艳

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较不同浓度的罗派卡因对老年患者臂丛神经感觉、运动神经阻滞起效和维持时间的影响.方法:选择60例行择期上肢手术老年患者.男38例,女21例,年龄65-78岁.ASA Ⅰ-Ⅲ级.随机分为两组.定时记录感觉、运动神经完全阻滞起效时间和维持时间,观察并记录术中生命体征的变化和有无并发症发生.结果:两组患者感觉和运动神经阻滞的起效时间和维持时间有极显著性差异(P<0.05),术中生命体征和并发症发生率无显著性差异.结论:0.37%相较0.25%罗哌卡因用于老年患者臂丛神经阻滞麻醉起效更快,维持时间更长,副作用风险未见增加,可常规用于老年患者的上肢手术麻醉.%Objective: To compare the blockage effect in sense and motive nerves on getting effect time and maintenance time of brachial plexus with different concentration of ropivacaine in old patients. Methods: Select 60 elderly patients (aged 65-78 years old), who underwent upper extremity surgery, record the time when their sense and motive nerves were completely blocked and the blockage maintenance, and record their changes of vital signs and complications. Results: The blockage effect demonstrated obviously significant difference of two groups on the time of getting effect and the effect maintenance, but no difference was observed between two groups on vital signs and complications. Conclusion: Compared with 0.25% ropivacaine, 0.37% ropivacaine has quickly effective time, longer maintenance time and safety, which can be used as regular anaesthesia of upper extremity surgery in elderly patients.

  7. Avulsão do plexo braquial em cães - 3: eletroneuroestimulação dos nervos radial, mediano, ulnar e musculocutâneo Brachial plexus avulsion in dogs - 3: electroneurostimulation of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relacionar os aspectos clínicos, neurológicos e histopatológicos (descritos nas partes l e 2 deste trabalho com os resultados obtidos após estimulação elétrica dos nervos radiai, mediano, ulnar e musculocutâneo. Realizou-se a estimulação elétrica destes nervos durante o ato cirúrgico no qual foram coletados os fascículos para histopatolo gia. Os nervos radial, mediano e ulnar de todos os cães submetidos à eletroneuroestimulação apresentaram evidências de degenera- ção. enquanto que o nervo musculocutâneo apresentava função próxima do normal em 25% dos casos. A associação dos resultados do exame neurológico, da histologia e da eletroneuroestimulação sugeriu envolvimento quase que total das raízes do plexo braquial, enfatizando a necessidade de continuidade de pesquisas na área, visando principalmente a recuperação das raízes nervosas envolvidas.The purpose ofthis work was to relate lhe clinicai, neurological and histopathotogical aspects (as described in the sections I and 2 ofthis work with the obtained results after the electric stimulation of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerrves. The electric stimulation of these nerves was realized during the cirurgic act, when the fascicle were obtained for the histopathologic examination. The radial, median and ulnar nerves of ali dogs submitted to electroneurostimulation presented evidences of degeneration, while the musculocutaneous nerve present almost normal functions in 25% of the cases. The interpretation ofthe results obtained from neurologic, histologic and electroneurostimulation examination suggested the almost total involvement of brachial plexus in ali cases. This work emphasized the need for further research in this área with lhe main purpose of recuperating the involved roots.

  8. Contribution of plexus MRI in the diagnosis of atypical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Lacour, Marie-Christine; Vandendries, Christophe; Théaudin, Marie; Cauquil, Cécile; Denier, Christian; Lacroix, Catherine; Adams, David

    2016-01-15

    Nerve enlargement has early been recognized in CIDP and plexus MRI hypertrophy has been reported in typical CIDP cases. Our aim is to determine plexus MRI value in the diagnosis of CIDP with an initial atypical presentation, which, up to now, has not been demonstrated. Retrospective study of 33 consecutive patients suspected of CIDP. Plexus MRI was performed on the most affected territory (brachial or lumbar). Were assessed: plexus trophicity, T2-STIR signal intensity and gadolinium enhancement. Final CIDP diagnosis was made after comprehensive workup. A histo-radiological correlation was performed. Final CIDP diagnosis was made in 25 (76%) including 21 with initial atypical clinical presentation. Eleven CIDP patients (52%) with initial atypical clinical presentation had abnormal plexus MRI including 9 suggestive of CIDP (43%) and none of the patients with an alternative diagnosis. Hypertrophy of the proximal plexus and/or extraforaminal roots was found in 8 cases and Gadolinium enhancement in 2 cases. Abnormalities were more frequent on brachial (86%) than lumbosacral MRIs (29%) and asymmetrical (72%) and most often associated with histological signs of demyelination. The nerve biopsy was suggestive of CIDP in 9/13 patients with normal MRI. Plexus MRI seems useful in the diagnostic strategy of patients with suspicion of CIDP with atypical presentation. Nerve biopsy remains important when other investigations are inconclusive. PMID:26723995

  9. A lesão do trato de Lissauer e do corno posterior da substância cinzenta da medula espinal e a estimulação elétrica do sistema nervoso central para o tratamento da dor por avulsão de raízes do plexo braquial DREZ lesions and electrical stimulation of the central nervous system for treatment of brachial plexus avulsion pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOEL JACOBSON TEIXEIRA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos os resultados do tratamento operatório de 10 doentes com dor resultante de avulsão de raízes do plexo braquial. Sete foram tratados pela técnica de lesão do trato de Lissauer (TL e do corno posterior da medula espinal (CPME, 4 pela técnica de estimulação elétrica da medula espinal (EM e 2 pela técnica de estimulação talâmica (ET. Três doentes foram tratados por ambos os procedimentos. Foi observada melhora imediata em 50% dos doentes com a técnica de estimulação medular e em apenas 25% dos casos, a longo prazo. Ocorreu melhora imediata, mas recorrência tardia da dor nos 2 doentes tratados pela ET. Houve melhora imediata de todos os doentes tratados pela técnica da lesão e recidiva parcial da dor em 23% dos casos, a longo prazo. Complicações temporárias foram observadas em 28,6% dos casos tratados pela técnica de lesão. Conclui-se que a lesão do TL e do CPME proporcionam resultados mais satisfatórios a longo prazo que a técnica de estimulação (p = 0,0046; entretanto, esta última é mais segura.We analyze the effectiveness of the treatment of 10 patients of brachial plexus avulsion pain. Seven underwent dorsal root entry zone lesions (DREZ, 3, dorsal column stimulation (DCS and, 2 thalamic stimulation (TS. DCS resulted in immediate improvement of pain in 50% of the patients. After a long term follow up period, just 25% of the patients were still better. TS resulted the in temporary improvement of 2 patients. Both had full recurrence few months after the operation. Immediate improvement of the symptoms occurred in all patients treated by DREZ. After a long term follow up period, excellent results were observed in 71.4% of the patients and good results in the remainder. The complication rate was higher among DREZ patients. It is concluded that DREZ is a better procedure for treatment of brachial plexus avulsion pain than DCS and TS (p = 0,0046; however, DCS and TS are safer.

  10. Het plexus brachialis letsel. Een retrospectief onderzoek naar de functionele gevolgen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelot, Cornelis Hendrik

    1994-01-01

    The central issue of this study is accidental damage to the brachial plexus. In terms of medical rehabilitation, an understanding of the factors which determine the functional abilities is a prerequisite, since this understanding will eventually have an effect on therapeutic procedures. In a retrosp

  11. A case of relapsing-remitting facial palsy and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy caused by HSV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstadhaug, Karl B; Kvarenes, Hanne W; Prytz, Jan; Vedeler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The etiologies of Bell's palsy and brachial neuritis remain uncertain, and the conditions rarely co-occur or reoccur. Here we present a woman in her twenties who had several relapsing-remitting episodes with left-sided facial palsy and brachial neuropathy. The episodes always started with painful left-sided oral blisters. Repeat PCRs HSV-1 DNA from oral vesicular lesions were positive. Extensive screening did not reveal any other underlying cause. Findings on MRI T2-weighted brachial plexus STIR images, using a 3.0-Tesla scanner during an episode, were compatible with brachial plexus neuritis. Except a mannose-binding lectin deficiency, a congenital complement deficiency that is frequently found in the general Caucasian population, no other immunodeficiency was demonstrated in our patient. In vitro resistance to acyclovir was tested negative, but despite prophylactic treatment with the drug in high doses, relapses recurred. To our knowledge, this is the first ever reported documentation of relapsing-remitting facial and brachial plexus neuritis caused by HSV-1. PMID:26991053

  12. Bupivacaine 0,25% versus ropivacaine 0,25% in brachial plexus block in dogs of beagle breedBupivacaína 0,25% versus ropivacaína 0,25% no bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães da raça beagle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ignácio Wakoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus block (BPB is a regional anesthesia technique which enables the attainment of surgical procedures distal scapulohumeral articulation. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ropivacaine and bupivacaine 0.25% without vasoconstrictor in BPB guided by electrical stimulation in dogs. Thirteen male and female beagle dogs underwent a BPB using bupivacaine and ropivacaine 0.25% (4mg/kg, both alone and in different times. The anesthesic block was performed in the right forelimb and as control group the block proceeded in the left forelimb using a solution of sodium chloride 0.9% in volume corresponding to the drug in the contralateral limb. The block was performed after the localization of the radial nerve with the aid of eletrical stimulation, which was infiltrated half the volume of anesthetic calculated and subsequently the remaining solution was administered on the median nerve. We evaluated sensitive and motor latencies and sensitive and motor block total time by clamping technique. In the present study, a technique for electrical stimulation was effective in 100% of animals. Bupivacaine had lower motor latency period, however, the sensitive latency between the two groups showed no statistically significant differences. In the block total time, bupivacaine obtained time significantly higher. Clinical signs characteristic of Horner’s syndrome were present in 15% of animals treated with bupivacaine. Furthermore, two animals presented signs of cardiotoxicity in bupivacaine group. The use of bupivacaine (4mg/kg without vasoconstrictor in dogs brachial plexus block provided longer analgesia and motor blockade, however, ropivacaine at the same dose and concentration was found to be free of deleterious effects associated of cardiovascular instability, hemodynamic and respiratory. O bloqueio do plexo braquial (BPB é uma técnica de anestesia regional que possibilita a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos distais a articula

  13. Prevalência de paralisia diafragmática após bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior com ropivacaína a 0,2% Prevalencia de parálisis diafragmática después del bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía posterior con ropivacaína a 0,2% Prevalence of diaphragmatic paralysis after brachial plexus blockade by the posterior approach with 0.2% ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel

    2006-10-01

    consecuencias es la parálisis diafragmática. En pacientes con algún grado de disfunción pulmonar previa, esa parálisis puede conllevar a la insuficiencia respiratoria. El abordaje del plexo braquial por vía posterior ha conquistado espacio. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de determinar la prevalencia de parálisis diafragmática, después del bloqueo de plexo braquial interescalénico por vía posterior con el uso de ropivacaína a 0,2%. MÉTODO: Veinte y dos pacientes sometidos al bloqueo del plexo braquial interescalénico por vía posterior con ropivacaína a 0,2% fueron evaluados en el postoperatorio con el objetivo de identificar señales radiológicas de elevación de la cúpula diafragmática sugestivas de parálisis hemidiafragmática. En 20 pacientes se utilizó 40 mL de ropivacaína a 0,2%, en ellos fue realizada la radiografía de tórax en inspiración. En dos fueron utilizados 20 mL de ropivacaína a 0,2%, con la siguiente evaluación fluoroscópica. RESULTADOS: No hubo complicaciones relacionadas con la realización del bloqueo. En todos los pacientes, el bloqueo fue efectivo y proporcionó una buena analgesia postoperatoria. Se observó una elevación de la cúpula diafragmática compatible con la parálisis hemidiafragmática en todos los casos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: En las condiciones de este estudio se pudo observar que el bloqueo del plexo braquial por vía posterior es una técnica que está asociada a la alta prevalencia de parálisis diafragmática, incluso cuando se utilizan bajas concentraciones de anestésico local.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Brachial plexus blockade by the interscalene approach, described by Winnie, is one of the most effective techniques in promoting postoperative analgesia in surgeries of the shoulder. Diaphragmatic paralysis is one of the consequences of this technique. This paralysis can cause respiratory failure in patients with prior lung dysfunction. Brachial plexus blockade by the posterior approach has become

  14. Brachial plexus morphology and vascular supply in the wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angélica-Almeida, Maria; Casal, Diogo; Mafra, Manuela; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Martins-Ferreira, José; Ferraz-Oliveira, Mário; Amarante, José; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O rato é provavelmente a espécie animal mais utilizada em estudos experimentais de reparação nervosa. Com este trabalho pretendeu-se aprofundar o conhecimento da morfologia e da vascularização do plexo braquial do rato.Material e Métodos: Trinta ratos adultos foram estudados relativamente à morfologia e vascularização do plexo braquial. As técnicas usadas foram a injecção intravascular e dissecção sob microscópio operatório, bem como técnicas de microscopia óptica e microscopia electrónica de varrimento.Resultados: Morfologicamente, o plexo braquial do rato é um pouco diferente do plexo braquial humano. O suprimento arterial e venoso do plexo braquial do rato deriva direta ou indiretamente dos vasos vizinhos. Estes vasos formam plexos vasculares densos e interconectados no epinervo, perinervo e endonervo. Vários componentes do plexo braquial do rato são acompanhados durante um trajecto relativamente longo por vasos sanguíneos relativamente calibrosos e constantes que fornecem o seu plexo epineural, tornando o seu levantamento como retalhos nervosos possível.Discussão: A vascularização do plexo braquial do rato não é muito diferente da reportada na espécie humana, tornando o rato um modelo animal útil para o estudo experimental da fisiopatologia e tratamento da patologia do nervo periférico.Conclusão: Os nossos resultados apoiam a homologia entre o rato e o Homem em termos de morfologia e vascularização do plexo braquial. Este trabalho sugere que vários componentes do plexo braquial do rato podem ser utilizados como retalhos nervosos, incluindo fibras predominantemente motoras, sensitivas ou fibras mistas.

  15. 臂丛神经与星状神经节阻滞对上肢(指)血流影响的临床观察%THE EFFECTS OF BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK AND SATELLITE GANGLION BLOCK ON THE BLOOD FLOW OF UPPER LIMB,A CLINICAL STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛金柱; 徐志勇; 张宝玉

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of brachial plexus block(BPB) and satellite ganglion block(SGB) on the blood flow of upper limb, 22 patients were randomly divided into two groups,and given BPB(group A,n=11) or SGB(group B,n=11) with 1% lidocaine 10 ml every other day for 5 times. Ulnar-radial artery blood flow was measured by using a TCD 30 minutes before and after the block. Finger pulse amplitude was measured by pulse oximeter 5,10,15,20,30 minutes after the block.The average increase in ulnar-radial artery blood flow was 13 cm/s in group A and 5 cm/s in group B. Finger pulse amplitude increased by (9.04±2.12)mm in group A and(3.54±1.42)mm in group B.A significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.01).It suggested that BPB could induce more increase in blood flow of the upper limb than SGB.%通过对臂丛神经与星状神经节阻滞病人(SGB)前后上肢(指)血流变化的对比观察,为临床治疗提供参考依据。将22例病人随机分为A组和B组,每组11例。A组为臂丛神经阻滞,B组为SGB,两组用药相同,1%利多卡因10ml,隔日一次,5次为一个疗程。彩色三维经颅多普勒仪监测阻滞前和阻滞后30min尺、桡动脉血流速度(cm/s),脉搏血氧饱和度仪连续监测阻滞前和阻滞后拇、示、中指5、10、15、20和30min的脉搏波幅的变化。结果显示:A组治疗后尺、桡动脉血流平均增快13cm/s,脉搏波幅平均增高(9.04±2.12)mm;B组治疗后尺、桡动脉血流平均增快5cm/s,脉搏波幅平均增高(3.54±1.42)mm。两组间比较有显著差异(P<0.01)。提示臂丛神经阻滞对上肢(指)血流的增加较星状神经节阻滞显著。

  16. Bloqueio do plexo braquial por via interescalênica: efeitos sobre a função pulmonar Bloqueo del plexo braquial por vía interescalénica: efectos sobre la función pulmonar Interscalene brachial plexus block: effects on pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hortense

    2010-04-01

    demostrado una asociación de esa técnica con el bloqueo del nervio frénico ipsilateral. La disfunción diafragmática de resultas de esa asociación, provoca alteraciones en la mecánica pulmonar, potencialmente perjudiciales en pacientes con una limitación de la reserva ventilatoria. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la repercusión del bloqueo interescalénico sobre la función pulmonar por medio de la medida de la capacidad vital forzada (CVF. MÉTODO: Estudio doble ciego, con 30 pacientes, estado físico I o II (ASA, distribuidos aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 15. Se administró solución a 0,5% de ropivacaína (Grupo Ropi o bupivacaína a 0,5% con epinefrina (Grupo Bupi. El bloqueo fue realizado utilizando estimulador de nervio periférico e inyectando 30 mL de anestésico local. Cuatro espirometrías se hicieron en cada paciente: antes del bloqueo, 30 minutos, 4 y 6 horas después. Los pacientes no recibieron sedación. RESULTADOS: Un paciente del Grupo Ropi y tres pacientes del Grupo Bupi, quedaron excluidos del estudio por fallos de bloqueo. La reducción de la CVF en el Grupo Ropi se hizo máxima a los 30 minutos (25,1% y a partir de entonces, hubo una tendencia progresiva a la recuperación. Ya con la bupivacaína, la reducción de la CVF pareció ser menos acentuada en los diversos momentos estudiados; se observó una reducción adicional entre 30 minutos (15,8% y 4 horas (17,3%, siendo esa sin diferencia estadística. A partir de 4 horas, se notó una tendencia a la recuperación. En los dos grupos, después de 6 horas de bloqueo, la CVF todavía estaba por debajo de los valores previos. CONCLUSIONES: El bloqueo interescalénico reduce la CVF en la mayoría de los casos; las alteraciones fueron más acentuadas en el Grupo Ropivacaína.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The interscalene is one of the most common approaches used in brachial plexus block. However, the association of this approach with the ipsilateral blockade of the phrenic nerve has been

  17. Estudo radiológico da dispersão de diferentes volumes de anestésico local no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior Estudio radiológico de la dispersión de diferentes volúmenes de anestésico local en el bloqueo de plexo braquial por vía posterior Radiological evaluation of the spread of different local anesthetic volumes during posterior brachial plexus block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel

    2005-10-01

    aleatoriamente en tres grupos de cinco: Grupo 1: volumen de 20 mL; Grupo 2: volumen de 30 mL; Grupo 3: volumen de 40 mL. En un paciente, sometido al bloqueo continuado del plexo braquial por la vía posterior, la administración de un volumen de 10 mL fue estudiada. En todos, el anestésico usado fue la ropivacaína a 0,375% asociada a solución radiopaca. Fueron hechas radiografías de la región cervical inmediatamente después el bloqueo que fue evaluado a través de la pesquisa de la sensibilidad térmica utilizándose algodón embebido en alcohol, treinta minutos después de su realización y en la sala de recuperación anestésica. RESULTADOS: El comportamiento radiológico y clínico del bloqueo de plexo braquial por vía posterior es muy semejante de aquél descrito con la técnica de Winnie (interescalénico. Invariablemente hay envolvimiento del plexo cervical y de las raíces más altas (C5-C7 del plexo braquial. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio muestra que la dispersión del anestésico local en el bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía posterior se da primariamente en las raíces responsables por la inervación del hombroBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Local anesthetic spread during interscalenic block has been thoroughly studied, however there are few studies on posterior block. This study aimed at evaluating the spread of different local anesthetic volumes during posterior brachial plexus block using contrasted X-rays. METHODS: Participated in this study 16 patients submitted to posterior brachial plexus block, 15 of whom were randomly divided in three groups of five patients: Group 1: 20 mL; Group 2: 30 mL.; Group 3 40 mL. The volume of 10 mL was studied in one patient submitted to continuous posterior brachial plexus block. All patients received 0.375% ropivacaine associated to radio-opaque solution. X-rays of the cervical region were obtained immediately after blockade that were evaluated by thermal sensitivity using cotton soaked in alcohol 30 minutes after being

  18. Effects of one needle cervical plexus brachiai plexus complex anesthesia for shoulder surgery%一针法颈丛臂丛联合麻醉用于肩部手术的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟挺; 王志力; 王庆涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate one needle cervical plexus brachial plexus complex anesthesia method and its clinical effect in shoulder surgery.Methods 140 eases of shoulder surgery were randomly divided into an acupuncture cervical plexus brachial plexus anesthesia group ( Ⅰ group ) and two needle cervical plexus brachial plexus anesthesia group ( Ⅱ group).Both groups were injected 0.375 % bupivacaine and 0.5 % lidocaine complex solution 20ml.Anesthetic effect and adverse reactions were observed.Results No statistic difference in anesthetic effect and adverse reaction of the two groups were observed.Conclusion One needle and two needle cervical plexus brachial plexus complex anesthesia have no difference in anesthetic effect.One needle cervical plexus brachial plexus complex anesthesia is characterized by simple location and easy operation.It is proved to be less suffering and decrease the incidence of pneumothorax.%目的探讨一针法颈丛臂丛联合麻醉的方法及在肩部手术中的临床疗效.方法选择肩部手术140例,随机分为一针法颈丛臂丛联合麻醉组(Ⅰ组)68例和两针法颈丛臂丛联合麻醉组(Ⅱ组)72例.两组均注入0.375%布比卡因与0.5%利多卡因复合液20ml.观察两组麻醉效果及不良反应.结果两组患者麻醉效果及不良反应比较差异均无统计学意义.结论一针法和两针法颈丛臂丛联合麻醉的麻醉效果无差异,一针法颈丛臂丛联合麻醉定位简单、操作容易、减少患者痛苦和气胸发生.

  19. MR imaging of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients without palpable recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingawi, S.S. (Department of Radiology, St. Paul' s Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada) Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada) Radiology Department, Vancouver General Hospital, BC (Canada)); Bilbey, J.H. (Department of Radiology, St. Paul' s Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Munk, P.L.; Marchinkow, L.O. (Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Poon, P.Y. (Department of Diagnostic Imaging, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Allan, B.M. (Department of Neurology, Vancouver Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Olivotto, I.A. (Division of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1999-06-01

    Objective. To investigate the role of MR imaging in detecting brachial plexus (BP) abnormalities in breast cancer patients with plexopathy but without palpable masses.Design. MR imaging of the BP was performed on 26 breast cancer patients with brachial plexopathy without palpable regional masses, using 0.5 T and 1.5 T imaging systems. Findings were correlated with the clinical diagnoses.Patients. Twenty-six patients with brachial plexopathy and history of breast cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients presented with plexopathy symptoms. Fourteen patients were positive and 12 patients were indeterminate for BP metastasis according to clinical criteria.Results and conclusion. MR imaging demonstrated masses involving the BP representing metastases in two patients. Nine patients had other regional abnormalities with a normal brachial plexus. It is concluded that MR imaging is useful in the assessment and direction of therapy of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients by detecting both metastases to the BP as well as other abnormalities, unrelated to the BP, which may explain the patient's symptoms. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  20. Cervical spine injuries in the pediatric and adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Martin J

    2006-01-01

    Injuries of the cervical spine in the pediatric and adolescent athlete are less common than other musculoskeletal injuries. Although many of these injuries are relatively minor, serious and potentially unstable or progressive spinal injury must be excluded. Important anatomic differences between the child younger than 10 years and older children and adolescents influence the types of injuries sustained and make assessment of the child's cervical spine sometimes difficult for practitioners accustomed to treating adolescent and adult athletes. Stable soft-tissue injuries of the cervical spine are the most common injuries that occur in all athletes. These injuries are responsive to symptomatic treatment and aggressive rehabilitation. Stingers are injuries of the brachial plexus and upper cervical roots that result from stretching or compressive forces associated with collision sports. Rapid return of sensory and motor dysfunction of a single upper extremity characterizes this entity; long-term disability is rare. Cervical cord neurapraxia (CCN) with transient quadriplegia is most commonly seen in football players. Most athletes fully recover. Cervical canal stenosis as defined by a Pavlov/Torg ratio of less than or equal to 0.8 is predictive of recurrent CCN. Young athletes sustain CCN secondary to hypermobility of the immature cervical spine. Return to play after these injuries is controversial. The athlete with Down syndrome and potential cervical hypermobility requires a careful cervical and neurologic evaluation prior to clearance for participation in sports. PMID:16958497

  1. Brachial Neuritis With Phrenic Nerve Involvement in a Patient With a Possible Connective Tissue Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Subash, Meera; Patel, Gaurav; Welker, John; Nugent, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Background. Brachial neuritis (BN) is a rare inflammatory condition of peripheral nerves, usually involving the cervicobrachial plexus. These patients present with sudden onset of shoulder and arm pain that evolves into muscle weakness and atrophy.. Case Report. A 33-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of diffuse pain in her thorax. She had no trauma or inciting incident prior to the onset of this pain and was initially treated for muscle spasms. The patient was seen in the emerge...

  2. The odontoid synchondrotic slip: an injury unique to young children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Emery, D. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Armstrong, D. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    We report seven children (three female, four male) diagnosed with traumatic synchrondrotic slip of the odontoid. The clinical records, plain films, and CT scans were evaluated retrospectively. The patients ranged in age between 3 and 5 years. Their injuries resulted from a motor vehicle accident in four cases and from a fall from a height in three. The injury was isolated in five; it was associated with a closed head injury in one and with facial and brachial plexus trauma in another. Radiographs showed anterior angulation with or without displacement in all seven cases. Axial CT with sagittal reformation and 3D reconstructions were performed in six cases. This confirmed the synchrondrotic slip and, in addition, identified a rotary component to the injury in three cases, with compromise of the canal in two. Other additional injuries were also noted. All cases were treated conservatively and the injuries healed. Only one child had a neurological deficit attributable to her head injury rather than to her cervical injury (MR of the cervical cord was normal). The presence of the synchondrosis between the dens and the body of C-2 makes this injury unique to children under 7 years of age; by the age of 7 the synchrondrosis has fused. (orig.)

  3. Ultrasound guidance improves the success rate of axillary plexus block: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of real-time ultrasound (US guidance for axillary brachial plexus block (AXB through the success rate and the onset time. METHODS: The meta-analysis was carried out in the Anesthesiology Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. A literature search of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane database from the years 2004 to 2014 was performed. The literature searches were carried out using medical subject headings and free-text word: "axilla", "axillary", "brachial plexus", "ultrasonography", "ultrasound", "ultrasonics". Two different reviewers carried out the search and evaluated studies independently. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials, one cohort study and three retrospective studies were included. A total of 2042 patients were identified. 1157 patients underwent AXB using US guidance (US group and the controlled group included 885 patients (246 patients using traditional approach (TRAD and 639 patients using nerve stimulation (NS. Our analysis showed that the success rate was higher in the US group compared to the controlled group (90.64% vs. 82.21%, p < 0.00001. The average time to perform the block and the onset of sensory time were shorter in the US group than the controlled group. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the real-time ultrasound guidance for axillary brachial plexus block improves the success rate and reduce the mean time to onset of anesthesia and the time of block performance.

  4. Significance of magnetic resonance imaging in differential diagnosis of nontraumatic brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Stojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nontraumatic brachial plexopathies may be caused by primary or secondary tumors, radiation or inflammation. The aim of this study was to present the significance of MRI in revealing the cause of nontraumatic brachial plexopathy. Methods. A two-year retrospective study included 22 patients with nontraumatic brachial plexopathy. In all the patients typical clinical findings were confirmed by upper limb neurophysiological studies. In all of them MRI of brachial plexus was performed by 1.5 T scanner in T1 and T1 FS sequence with and without contrast, as well as in T2 and T2 FS sequences. Results. Seven (32% patients had brachial plexopathy with signs of inflammatory process, 5 (23% patients had secondary tumors, in 4 (18% patients multifocal motor neuropathy was established and in the same number (18% of the patients postradiation fibrosis was found. Two patients (9% had primary neurogenic tumors. Conclusion. According to the results of this study MRI is a method which may determine localization and cause of brachial plexopathy. MRI can detect focal nerve lesions when other methods fail to find them. Thus, MRI has a direct impact on further diagnostic and therapeutical procedures.

  5. Idiopathic Brachial Neuritis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Recober, Ana; Kelkar, Praful

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic brachial neuritis is a well defined clinical condition that most commonly affects young adults, seen usually by primary care physicians, neurologists or orthopaedic surgeons. Its onset is characterized by acute, aching shoulder pain lasting a few days to weeks, followed by progressive shoulder girdle and upper extremity weakness and atrophy, with a slow but progressive recovery of motor function over 6 to 18 months. Its early recognition can help avoid unnecessary and potentially h...

  6. The advantages of laryngeal mask airway inspiration anesthesia combined with brachial plexus blockage in upper limb orthopaedic surgeries%喉罩通气全身麻醉辅助臂丛神经阻滞在上肢手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 周懿之; 何绍旋

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨喉罩通气全身麻醉辅助臂丛神经阻滞在上肢手术中的应用.方法 择期行上肢骨折手术患者30例,完全随机分为2组,各15例:喉罩通气全麻辅助臂丛神经阻滞组(A组)和单纯喉罩通气全麻组(B组).A组先予1.6%利多卡因20~25 ml注入患侧肌间沟行臂丛神经阻滞.2组皆以芬太尼1μg/kg、异丙酚2.5 mg/kg诱导后置入喉罩.术中根据患者自主呼吸频率、心率和无创血压以及体动反应调整异氟醚吸人浓度.观察入室(T0)、诱导前(T1)、喉罩置入后3 min(T2)、切皮后1 min(T3)各时点心率、血压、血氧饱和度(SpO2)变化.比较术中潮气量、呼吸频率、呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2)、异氟醚呼气末浓度(ET)、异氟醚最低肺泡有效浓度(MAC)及维持芬太尼用量.记录术后疼痛程度.结果 T2和T3时点A组潮气量[(443.83±52.98)和(450.25±53.92)ml]明显高于B组[(219.00±53.24)和(301.44±60.48)ml,均P<0.01].T3时点A组呼吸频率值[(12.00±0.74)次/min]明显低于B组[(15.11±3.76)次/min,P<0.01],A组PETCO2[(41.5±4.34)mm Hg]低于B组[(46.22±5.73)mm Hg(P<0.05)].T2时点A组异氟醚ET[(1.04±0.37)%]和异氟醚MAC[(0.97±0.33)%]显著低于B组(1.53±0.21)%和(1.44±0.14)%(P<0.01).T3时点A组异氟醚ET[(1.12±0.24)%]和异氟醚MAC[(0.98±0.21)%]低于B组[(1.29±0.15)%和(1.13±0.12)%,P<0.05].A组术后镇痛优于B组(P<0.01).B组拔罩时有3例躁动、1例反流.结论 喉罩通气全麻辅助臂丛神经阻滞在上肢手术麻醉中能有效降低术中吸入麻醉剂浓度,减少术后并发症发生.%Objective To evaluate the advantage of laryngeal mask airway(LMA) inspiration anesthesia combined with brachial plexus blockage (BPB) in upper limb orthopaedic surgeries. Methods Thirty patients were divided randomly into two groups (n = 15). In group A,LMA combined with BPB was adopted,while LMA was used only in group B. In group A,a dosage of 20-25 ml 1.6% lydocaine was adopted in BPB

  7. Curva de aprendizado da sonoanatomia do plexo braquial na região axilar Curva de aprendizaje de la sonoanatomía del plexo braquial en la región axilar Learning curve for the ultrasound anatomy of the brachial plexus in the axillary region

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    Pablo Escovedo Helayel

    2009-04-01

    : Proficiency in ultrasound-guided blocks demands four skills: recognition of the ultrasound anatomy, capacity to generate images, aligning the needle with the ultrasound beam, and recognizing the dispersion of the local anesthetic. The objective of this study was to construct and evaluate learning curves for image generation and ultrasound identification of the neurovascular structures in the axilla. METHODS: Seven Anesthesiology residents received theoretical and practical notions on the basic principles of ultrasound and the ultrasound anatomy of the axillary region with the objective to identify the terminal branches of the brachial plexus and axillary vessels. Each resident performed six exams. The accuracy and the time to identify the structures were evaluated. The success rate of each exam was calculated. Simple linear regression evaluated the time necessary to identify each structure in relation to the number of the exam. RESULTS: The axillary vessels were identified in 100% of the exams. The median nerve was identified in 83% of the cases from the first to the fifth exams. The radial nerve was identified in 100% of the exams. The ulnar nerve was identified in 67% of the cases in the first exam, and in 83% of the cases from the second to the fifth exams. The musculocutaneous nerve was identified in 50% of the cases in the first exam and in 83% of the cases in the fourth and fifth exams. All structures were identified correctly on the sixth exam. The mean time for the correct identification of the structures decreased considerably from the first to the sixth exam (r = - 0.37. CONCLUSIONS: Learning progression required the memorization of the ultrasound anatomy of the axillary region and acquisition of manual ability, and increasing success rates were associated with a significant reduction in the time to identify the structures.

  8. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

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    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  9. Clinical anatomy and 3D virtual reconstruction of the lumbar plexus with respect to lumbar surgery

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    Ding Zi-hai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure of the anterior or lateral lumbar via the retroperitoneal approach easily causes injuries to the lumbar plexus. Lumbar plexus injuries which occur during anterior or transpsoas lumbar spine exposure and placement of instruments have been reported. This study aims is to provide more anatomical data and surgical landmarks in operations concerning the lumbar plexus in order to prevent lumbar plexus injuries and to increase the possibility of safety in anterior approach lumbar surgery. Methods To study the applied anatomy related to the lumbar plexus of fifteen formaldehyde-preserved cadavers, Five sets of Virtual Human (VH data set were prepared and used in the study. Three-dimensional (3D computerized reconstructions of the lumbar plexus and their adjacent structures were conducted from the VH female data set. Results The order of lumbar nerves is regular. From the anterior view, lumbar plexus nerves are arranged from medial at L5 to lateral at L2. From the lateral view, lumbar nerves are arranged from ventral at L2 to dorsal at L5. The angle of each nerve root exiting outward to the corresponding intervertebral foramen increases from L1 to L5. The lumbar plexus nerves are observed to be in close contact with transverse processes (TP. All parts of the lumbar plexus were located by sectional anatomy in the dorsal third of the psoas muscle. Thus, access to the psoas major muscle at the ventral 2/3 region can safely prevent nerve injuries. 3D reconstruction of the lumbar plexus based on VCH data can clearly show the relationships between the lumbar plexus and the blood vessels, vertebral body, kidney, and psoas muscle. Conclusion The psoas muscle can be considered as a surgical landmark since incision at the ventral 2/3 of the region can prevent lumbar plexus injuries for procedures requiring exposure of the lateral anterior of the lumbar. The transverse process can be considered as a landmark and reference in surgical

  10. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

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    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  11. Estudo comparativo da eficácia analgésica pós-operatória de 20 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5, 0,75 ou 1% no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior Estudio comparativo de la eficacia analgésica postoperatoria de 20 mL de ropivacaina a 0,5, 0,75 ó 1% en el bloqueo de plexo braquial por la vía posterior Comparative study for the postoperative analgesic efficacy of 20 mL at 0.5, 0.75, and 1% ropivacaine in posterior brachial plexus block

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    Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel

    2008-10-01

    ía posterior se dividieron aleatoriamente en tres grupos de 30. Grupo 1: 20 mL de ropivacaina a 0,5%; Grupo 2: 20 mL de ropivacaina a 0,75%; Grupo 3: 20 mL de ropivacaina a 1%. El bloqueo se evaluó a través de la investigación de sensibilidad térmica utilizando algodón con alcohol y el dolor postoperatorio se evaluó según una escala numérico verbal (ENV en las primeras 48 horas. RESULTADOS: En los tres grupos la analgesia post