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Sample records for br2005 energy requirements

  1. New types of concrete elements corresponding to BR2005 energy requirements; Nye typer betonelementer svarende til BR2005 energikrav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In this project new solutions have been developed for buildings with concrete facade panels without ribs at window reveals and at horizontal joints, corresponding to panels with an un-broken insulation layer and limited thermal bridge effect. New general solutions for the mounting of windows have been developed together with airtight covering solutions at the window reveal based upon added window board and a separate vapor barrier. At the same time detailed calculations of the heat loss effects at the window-wall joint and foundation have been carried out and new solutions that reduce the heat loss substantially have also been shown. The new developed standard solutions are obvious means to meet the expected future energy demands in the new Building Regulations expected in 2005. The project has revealed that it is possible to obtain significant thermal improvements with only a minor increase in the insula-tion thickness. The new and, in many ways, better solutions will mean added costs regarding mounting of windows, stronger fittings etc. but the effect of a standardization of the window-placement could reduce those additional costs considerably. The total life cycle costs regard-ing these new types of concrete facade panels are economically reasonable. (au)

  2. Energy requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an appr

  3. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  4. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  5. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  6. Energy requirement of some energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy requirements for the sources of energy under examination are expressed as the fraction of total energy consumed in the production of a unit of gross output. Clearly there are vast differences between the energy requirements of these sources of fuels. Using energy analysis it is possible to indicate points of futility where no net energy is produced (i.e. Xsub(f) = 1). For North Sea oil fields using current technology, this appears to occur at a field size of 100,000-200,000 tons of recoverable reserves of oil. For oil shales exploited using above-ground retorting, the outer limit is at a grade of about 5 gal/ton. For uranium ores used to fuel a burner reactor, the cut-off grade was found to be of the order of 20 ppm. However, it should be remembered that at Xsub(f) = 1, there is no net output and the price of the fuel would be infinite. Because of payments to labour and capital, the upper limit of economic viability may well occur at values of Xsub(f) from 0.1 to 0.2. Thus uranium ores of a grade of 100 ppm U3O8 or less may not be ecomically viable using current burner reactors and this in turn implies an upper bound for the total thermal reactor capacity. For oil shales exploited using above-ground retorting and room-and-pillar mining 15-20 gal/ton shale may represent the upper limit of economic viability, depending on the efficiency that can be achieved in a commercial-scale retort

  7. The strictest energy requirements in the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    50 years of progressively strengthened energy requirements in the Danish building code appear to be a success, as the energy consumption has remained constant despite an increase in the total area in requirement of heating. This article however argues that the building code mechanism is heavily...

  8. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  9. Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...

  10. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Calvo, Raúl; Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Juana Sirgado, Luis; Laguna Peñuelas, Francisco; Castañon Lion, Guillermo; Gil Rodríguez, María; Benitez Buelga, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure –sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are co...

  11. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen;

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... of all other project material related to that topic, which allows to easily identify the most pertinent information. Part C lists the project partners and sponsors....

  12. Projecting India's energy requirements for policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy policy has to have a long-term perspective. To formulate it one needs to know the contours of energy requirements and options. Different approaches have been followed in literature, each with their own problems. A top down econometric approach provides little guidance on policies, while a bottom up approval requires too much knowledge and too many assumptions. Using top-down econometric approach for aggregate overall benchmarking and a detailed activity analysis model, Integrated Energy System Model, for a few large sectors, provides a unique combination for easing the difficulties of policy formulation. The model is described in this paper. Eleven alternate scenarios are built, designed to map out extreme points of feasible options. Results show that even after employing all domestic energy resource to their full potential, there will be a continued rise of fossil fuel use, continued importance of coal, and continued rise of import dependence. Energy efficiency emerges as a major option with a potential to reduce energy requirement by as much as 17%. Scenario results point towards pushing for development of alternative sources.

  13. Projecting India's energy requirements for policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy policy has to have a long-term perspective. To formulate it one needs to know the contours of energy requirements and options. Different approaches have been followed in literature, each with their own problems. A top down econometric approach provides little guidance on policies, while a bottom up approval requires too much knowledge and too many assumptions. Using top-down econometric approach for aggregate overall benchmarking and a detailed activity analysis model, Integrated Energy System Model, for a few large sectors, provides a unique combination for easing the difficulties of policy formulation. The model is described in this paper. Eleven alternate scenarios are built, designed to map out extreme points of feasible options. Results show that even after employing all domestic energy resource to their full potential, there will be a continued rise of fossil fuel use, continued importance of coal, and continued rise of import dependence. Energy efficiency emerges as a major option with a potential to reduce energy requirement by as much as 17%. Scenario results point towards pushing for development of alternative sources. (author)

  14. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  15. Energy Cost Impact of Non-Residential Energy Code Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-08-22

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code contains 396 separate requirements applicable to non-residential buildings; however, there is no systematic analysis of the energy cost impact of each requirement. Consequently, limited code department budgets for plan review, inspection, and training cannot be focused on the most impactful items. An inventory and ranking of code requirements based on their potential energy cost impact is under development. The initial phase focuses on office buildings with simple HVAC systems in climate zone 4C. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance. A preliminary estimate of the probability of occurrence of each level of non-compliance was combined with the estimated lost savings for each level to rank the requirements according to expected savings impact. The methodology to develop and refine further energy cost impacts, specific to building type, system type, and climate location is demonstrated. As results are developed, an innovative alternative method for compliance verification can focus efforts so only the most impactful requirements from an energy cost perspective are verified for every building and a subset of the less impactful requirements are verified on a random basis across a building population. The results can be further applied in prioritizing training material development and specific areas of building official training.

  16. Required energy gain in the linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this note is to determine how much energy is required for each bunch at the end of the linac such that 100 GeV center of mass collision energy at the IP may be achieved. Once this has been ascertained it is possible to decide how much energy per station in the linac is needed, considering the effects of beamloading, shortened pieces of DLWG, and RF detuning. An appendix is included to cover a related topic: assuming lower bunch currents and lower collision energies, how many low power klystrons can remain in the linac. An attempt has been made to indicate what assumptions have been made so that the readers may try other assumptions to see what happens.

  17. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  18. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  19. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma N Bermingham

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75 body weight (BW. Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75·day(-1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9·day(-1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups. Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001: requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001, but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09. This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds is needed.

  20. Energy requirements and CO2 mitigation potential of PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the energy requirements of PV modules and systems and calculate the Energy Pay-Back Time for two major PV applications. Based on a review of past energy analysis studies we explain the main sources of differences and establish a "best estimate" for key system components.

  1. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (PMaintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (Pmaintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.

  2. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    Based on balance and respiration measurements with 60 White Leghorns during the laying period from 27 to 48 wk of age, a factorial method for estimating the energy requirement for egg production is proposed. The present experiment showed that the deposition of fat and energy increased during...... the laying period, but protein deposition slightly decreased. It has been shown that the efficiency of ME utilization for fat energy deposition is higher than for protein energy deposition in the egg. Because the proportions of protein and fat differ during the laying period, and because energy utilization...... is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...

  3. Energy requirement for fine grinding of torrefied wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repellin, Vincent; Govin, Alexandre; Guyonnet, Rene [Department of Powder and Multi-Components Materials (PMMC), SPIN Research Center, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne (EMSE), 158 Cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Rolland, Matthieu [Process Developments and Engineering Division, Chemical Engineering Department, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP-Lyon), F-69390 Vernaison (France)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of torrefaction on wood grinding energy. Wood chips were torrefied at different temperatures and durations. The energy required to obtain fine powder was measured. Particle size analyses were carried out on each powder sample. It is showed that torrefaction decreases both grinding energy and particle size distribution. A criterion to compare grindability of natural and torrefied wood is proposed. It takes into account both grinding energy and particle size distribution. It accounts the energy required for grinding particles to sizes inferior to 200 {mu}m, for given grinding conditions. Torrefaction is characterised by the anhydrous weight loss (AWL) of wood. For AWL inferior to around 8%, grinding energy decreases fast. Over 8%, grinding energy decreases at a slow rate. Particle size distribution decreases linearly as the AWL increases. Both for spruce and beech, the grinding criterion is decreased of 93% when the AWL is around 28%. (author)

  4. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy

  5. Analysis of the energy requirement for household consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vringer, Kees

    2005-01-01

    Humans in households use energy for their activities. This use is both direct, for example electricity and natural gas, but also indirect, for the production, transport and trade of other goods and services. The main objective of this thesis is to gain insight into the energy requirement associated

  6. Negative Energy: Why Interdisciplinary Physics Requires Multiple Ontologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Gouvea, Julia; Sawtelle, Vashti; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Much recent work in physics education research has focused on ontological metaphors for energy, particularly the substance ontology and its pedagogical affordances. The concept of negative energy problematizes the substance ontology for energy, but in many instructional settings, the specific difficulties around negative energy are outweighed by the general advantages of the substance ontology. However, we claim that our interdisciplinary setting (a physics class that builds deep connections to biology and chemistry) leads to a different set of considerations and conclusions. In a course designed to draw interdisciplinary connections, the centrality of chemical bond energy in biology necessitates foregrounding negative energy from the beginning. We argue that the emphasis on negative energy requires a combination of substance and location ontologies. The location ontology enables energies both "above" and "below" zero. We present preliminary student data that illustrate difficulties in reasoning about negativ...

  7. Changing Energy Requirements in the Mediterranean Under Changing Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Demosthenous

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of climate change on energy requirements in the Mediterranean. Energy requirements, especially for space heating and cooling, are closely linked to several weather variables, mainly air temperature. The analysis is based on daily temperature outputs from several regional climate models run at a resolution of 25 km × 25 km in the framework of EU project ENSEMBLES using the A1B emissions scenario. The impacts of changes in temperature on energy requirements are investigated using the concept of degree days, defined as the difference of mean air temperature from a base temperature. Base temperature should be chosen to coincide with the minimum energy consumption. In this way, changes in heating and cooling requirements between the reference and the future period are calculated and areas about to undergo large changes identified. These changes are calculated between a 30-year reference period 1961–1990 and a near future period 2021–2050 taking the ensemble mean of all regional climate models. The near-term future has been chosen instead of the frequently used end-of-the-century period to assist policy makers in their planning. In general, a decrease in energy requirements is projected under future milder winters and an increase under hotter summers.

  8. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  9. Energy, material and land requirement of a fusion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L. E-mail: lotte.schleisner@risoe.dk; Hamacher, T.; Cabal, H.; Hallberg, B.; Lechon, Y.; Korhonen, R.; Saez, R.M

    2001-11-01

    The energy and material necessary to construct a power plant and the land covered by the plant are indicators for the 'consumption' of environment by a certain technology. Based on current knowledge, estimations show that the material necessary to construct a fusion plant will exceed the material requirement of a fission plant by a factor of two. The material requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 2000 t/MW and little less than 1000 t/MW for a fission plant. The land requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 300 m{sup 2}/MW and the land requirement for a fission plant is a little less than 200 m{sup 2}/MW. The energy pay back time, defined later, is little more than half a year for a fusion plant with capacity 1 GWe. Only the electrical energy is accounted for as released energy not the thermal energy. In all these indicators, fusion compares well with conventional technologies while it consumes less 'environment' for the construction than renewable technologies, especially wind and solar.

  10. Energy requirements for growth of pubertal female Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, F O M; Berchielli, T T; Resende, K T; Gomes, H F B; Almeida, A K; Sakomura, N K; Teixeira, I A M A

    2016-04-01

    Previous research on energy requirements of female Saanen goats, using the factorial approach, has not considered the specific requirements for maintenance and growth during the pubertal phase. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate energy requirements for maintenance (Trial 1) and growth (Trial 2) of non-pregnant and non-lactating female Saanen goats at the pubertal phase from 30 to 45 kg. In Trial 1, the net energy requirements for maintenance (NEm ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats randomly assigned to three levels of intake: ad libitum, and 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. These animals were pair-fed in six slaughter groups, each consisting of one animal for each level of intake. In Trial 2, the net energy requirements for growth (NEg ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats, which were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at targeted BW of 30, 38 and 45 kg. The NEm was 52 kcal/kg(0.75) of BW. The NEg increased from 3.5 to 4.7 Mcal/kg of BW gain as BW increased from 30 to 45 kg. Our results suggest that the guidelines of the major feeding systems for the entire growth phase may not be adequate for females at pubertal phase. PMID:26249003

  11. A `warp drive' with more reasonable total energy requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Broeck, Chris Van Den

    1999-01-01

    I show how a minor modification of the Alcubierre geometry can dramatically improve the total energy requirements for a `warp bubble' that can be used to transport macroscopic objects. A spacetime is presented for which the total negative mass needed is of the order of a few solar masses, accompanied by a comparable amount of positive energy. This puts the warp drive in the mass scale of large traversable wormholes. The new geometry satisfies the quantum inequality concerning WEC violations a...

  12. Analysis of annual cooling energy requirements for glazed academic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S.A. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hassan, A.H. [Vinyl Chloride Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Terengganu (Malaysia). Dept. of Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia experienced rapid increase in energy consumption in the last decade due to its high economic growth and increase in the standard living of household. Energy is becoming more costly and the situation is worsened by the global warming as a result of greenhouse gas emission. A more efficient energy usage and significant reduction in the released emission is therefore required. Space cooling with the use of air conditioners is practiced all year round in Malaysia and this accounts for 42% of total electricity energy consumption for commercial buildings and 30% of residential buildings. Reduction in the energy used for cooling in the built environment is a vital step to energy conservation in Malaysia. The objective of the present study was to analyze the annual cooling energy of highly glazed academic buildings which are located in a university in Malaysia. The outcome of the study would enable further remedial actions in reducing the energy consumption of the buildings' air conditioning system. The study is conducted by computer simulation using EnergyPlus software to calculate the cooling energy of a selected building or area. Comparison is made against the rated equipment load (i.e., the air handling unit) installed in the buildings. Since the buildings in the present study are not constructed parallel to each other the effect of building orientations with respect to the sun positions are also studied. The implications of shades such as venetian blind on the cooling energy are investigated in assessing their effectiveness in reducing the cooling energy, apart from providing thermal comfort to the occupants. In the aspect of operation, the present study includes the effects of reducing the set point air temperature and infiltration of outdoor air due to doors that are left open by the occupants. It is found from the present study that there are significant potentials for savings in the cooling energy of the buildings.

  13. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike;

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels...

  14. Laser requirements for a laser fusion energy power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; E.Bodner; Andrew; J.Schmitt; John; D.Sethian

    2013-01-01

    We will review some of the requirements for a laser that would be used with a laser fusion energy power plant, including frequency, spatial beam smoothing, bandwidth, temporal pulse shaping, efficiency, repetition rate, and reliability. The lowest risk and optimum approach uses a krypton fluoride gas laser. A diode-pumped solid-state laser is a possible contender.

  15. Energy Requirement of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Mario Cappelletti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this chapter is to calculate the net energy of the production chain for virgin olive oil. Therefore, the determination was carried out for the direct and indirect energy inputs and the energy present as feedstock in the outputs (products and by-products. To perform this analysis, all of the production processes for olives and for oil extraction were studied. For the agricultural phase, three systems of cultivation were taken into consideration: the centenary olive grove (COO, the “intensive” olive grove (HDO and, the more recently introduced, “super-intensive” olive grove (HSDO. The last two models are distinguished by the high number of trees per hectare and by an intense mechanization of agricultural practices. Regarding the oil extraction phase, four different technologies were compared: the pressure system (PS, the two-phase system (2PS, the three-phase (3PS, and the system, called “de-pitted”, which provides for the separation of the pits before the oil is extracted (DPS. The analysis showed that the production of olives needs more than 90% of energy requirements, much of which is met by non-renewable sources of energy. The production of fertilizers, and also irrigation, are the production factors that require a considerable amount of energy. Among the three agricultural systems analyzed, the COO system of cultivation is the one that requires less energy as compared to the other systems. The scenario that enables the most energy return, however, is the SHDO system of cultivation, due to the greater amount of pruning residues that can be obtained.

  16. The Role of Photovoltaics in Energy Requirements in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review article global energy issue is discussed with specific reference to Pakistan. The energy consumption and supply from different sources like oil, gas, electricity, nuclear power, bio gas and especially from renewables is taken into account. Also discussed some suggestions for the energy requirements. Focus is given to the production of renewable energy sources like technology of photovoltaics in which solar power is converted into electricity. Solar cell is discussed including its two basic types inorganic solar cell and organic solar cell, its way of functioning, process of fabrication etc is also discussed. Organic or polymeric solar cell is discussed in detail. keeping in view the financial condition and requirement of energy for our country suggestions are given for low cost and simple processing of organic solar cells. It is also suggested that availability of all the materials required for the development of organic solar cells should be guaranteed. Interest should be developed at the university and other research organization level of Pakistan to do work on polymeric solar cells for increasing their efficiencies so that they can be practically utilized. (author)

  17. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  18. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  19. Optimization of energy and manpower requirements in Nigerian bakeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.; Madu, A.C.; Nwanya, S.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Agunwamba, J.C. [Department Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2011-01-15

    A study on energy and manpower requirements for the bakery industry in Nigeria was carried out, covering 90 bakeries representing 75% of total registered bakeries in Onitsha city. Analysis of the energy and manpower related time series data, using engineering and statistical tools, resulted in the development of empirical model for the estimation of capacity, manpower and energy requirements in the bakery industry. This empirical model can be used for the design of a new bakery or expansion of existing one. The conditions for optimum inventory and design were determined through this optimization and the results were compared with existing system. The study revealed a huge capital investment which amounts to 5.6 billion Naira annually, a correlation between capacity of the bakery plants and resource usage (manpower, raw materials and energy use), and jobs creation potentials for 960 persons for Onitsha city alone. Diesel contributes 66.75% of total heating energy need, followed by firewood, 22.57% and petrol, 10.68%. Application of optimization techniques could result in 61% savings in inventory costs and cut in energy by about 7.4% with overall cost reduction of 8%. (author)

  20. Energy, material and land requirement of a fusion plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte; Hamacher, T.; Cabal, H.;

    2001-01-01

    The energy and material necessary to construct a power plant and the land covered by the plant are indicators for the ‘consumption’ of environment by a certain technology. Based on current knowledge, estimations show that the material necessary to construct a fusion plant will exceed the material...... requirement of a fission plant by a factor of two. The material requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 2000 t/MW and little less than 1000 t/MW for a fission plant. The land requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 300 m2/MW and the land requirement for a fission plant is a little less than 200 m2/MW...

  1. Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

    2013-10-01

    The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

  2. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  3. Energy efficient houses built according to the energy performance requirements introduced in 2005 in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend; Rose, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet new energy requirements introduced in Denmark in 2005 and prepare the way for future buildings with even lower energy consumption, single-family houses were built with the purpose to demonstrate that it is possible to build typical single-family houses with an energy consumption...... that meets the demands without problems concerning building technology or economy. The paper gives a brief presentation of the houses and the applied energy-saving measures. The paper also presents results from measurements of total energy consumption, indoor climate and air tightness. Measured and expected...... in relation to the energy framework draft for future new energy regulations, the paper concludes that the single houses can relatively easily keep the future energy framework. The energy consumption of the houses is on a level corresponding to a classification as low-energy house in class 2 or an energy...

  4. Validation of International Atomic Energy Agency Equipment Performance Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaro, PJ

    2004-02-17

    Performance requirements and testing protocols are needed to ensure that equipment used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is reliable. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the US Support Program, tested equipment to validate performance requirements protocols used by the IAEA for the subject equipment categories. Performance protocol validation tests were performed in the Environmental Effects Laboratory in the categories for battery, DC power supply, and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Specific test results for each piece of equipment used in the validation process are included in this report.

  5. Meeting cross section requirements for nuclear energy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and explain current requirements in cross section data that are essential to nuclear energy programs and to provide some insight into how these data might be obtained. The report is divided into six sections that describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation, and analysis; determination of high accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; and identification of important cross sections and inferred needs

  6. The Energy Required to Produce Materials: Constraints on Energy Intensity Improvements, Parameters of Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutowski, T.G.; Sahni, S.; Allwood, J.M.; Ashby, M.F.; Worrell, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review the energy requirements to make materials on a global scale by focusing on the five construction materials that dominate energy used in material production: steel, cement, paper, plastics and aluminium. We then estimate the possibility of reducing absolute material productio

  7. Energy requirements of the U. S. pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosman, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    According to the American Paper Institute, the paper industry is the fifth largest consumer of purchased energy in the U.S. and the largest consumer of fuel oil. Almost one-half of its total energy consumption comes from the industry's own process wasts: spent pulping liquors, bark, and hogged wood. In 1976 non-fossil fuels provided 44.6% of the total Btu consumption, up from 41.1% in 1972 and 42.6% in 1975. (Self-generated hydro power and other electricity produced from fossil fuel supplied another 1.5% of total needs in 1972 and 2.1% in 1975.) The industry has established a mechanism for self-policing by submitting periodic reports on its energy consumption to the API. The target set by the industry is a 20% saving of purchased energy by 1980. So far a reduction of about 15% has been achieved, making adjustments for add-ons required because of environmental regulations and other changes vs the base year of 1972.

  8. Generator Requirements For Rural Electrification From Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzune Mipoung, Olivare; Pragasen, Pillay

    2010-09-15

    This paper addresses the issue of rural electrification from renewable energy. A brief introduction on biomass and wind electrical systems is given. The aim of this research is to propose optimal electrification system design for rural areas. This requires suitable generators selection as a starting point. Some generator types for rural electrification systems are introduced, followed by a discussion on the selection criteria. Simulation results of a typical electrification system for remote areas are obtained to support the safety aspect related to the individual generator types, in the event of accidental rotor motion. All simulations are done in Matlab-Simulink.

  9. Production of cement requiring low energy expenditure. An industrial test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, S.; Blanco, M.T.; Palomo, A.; Puertas, F. (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    A new method for making cement is proposed. It is based on the use of CaF{sub 2} and CaSO{sub 4} for partial replacement of the usual raw materials in cement manufacturing. This paper shows the feasibility of the proposed method on an industrial scale. A test carried out in a Spanish cement factory (1500 t yield of the new cement) has revealed that the mehtod can not only be adapted to the current technology but also requires a much lower energy expenditure. The final product is shown to have excellent properties in comparison with OPC. (orig.).

  10. Nuclear Systems Materials Handbook. [Materials requirements for nuclear energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchbanks, M.F; Moen, R.A.; Irvin, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The NSM Handbook is a multi-volume document being compiled on a continuing basis to meet the broad materials data requirements of those involved in the development of advanced nuclear energy systems. The present focus of the Handbook is upon nuclear systems that have not yet achieved commercial status, with near-term emphasis on the nation's Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. Actual use of the Handbook extends to other advanced nuclear concepts sharing the same needs, and to many nonnuclear engineering activities as well.

  11. Contribution of wind energy to future electricity requirements of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is an energy deficit country. About half of the country's population has no access to electricity and per capita supply is only 520 kWh. About 67% of the conventional electricity is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan would increase at an average annual growth rate of 5% to 12% under different scenarios. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payment situation. Pakistan is becoming increasingly more dependent on a few sources of supply and its energy security often hangs on the fragile threat of imported oil that is subject to supply disruptions and price volatility. The production and consumption of fossil fuels also adversely affects the quality of the environment due to indiscriminate release of toxic substances. Pakistan spends huge amount on the degradation of the environment. This shows that Pakistan must develop alternate, indigenous and environment friendly energy resources such as wind energy to meet its future electricity requirements. This paper presents an overview of wind power generation potential and assessment of its contribution to future electricity requirements of Pakistan under different policy scenarios. The country has about 1050 km long coastline. The technical potential of centralized grid connected wind power and wind home systems in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as about 484 TWh and 0.135 TWh per year respectively. The study concludes that wind power could meet about 20% to 50% of the electricity demand in Pakistan by the year 2030. The development and utilization of wind power would reduce the pressure on oil imports, protect the environment from pollution and improve the socio-economic conditions of the people

  12. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  13. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  14. Net energy evaluation of feeds and determination of net energy requirements for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Noblet

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Feeds for pigs can be attributed different energy values according to, first, the step considered in energy utilization (DE: digestible energy, ME: metabolizable energy and NE: net energy and, second, the method used for estimation at each step. Reference methods for evaluating DE content are based on in vivo digestibility measurements; indirect estimates of DE values are obtained from in vitro methods or prediction equations based on chemical characteristics. Methods have also been proposed for estimating urinary energy (and gas energy to a smaller extent in order to calculate ME content from DE value. The NE values originate from energy balance studies (slaughter methods or, more commonly, indirect calorimetry measurements in respiration chambers and their compilation allows the calculation of NE prediction equations based on digestible nutrient contents or DE or ME contents. Such equations are applicable to both ingredients and compound feeds. They may differ between origins according to the fractionation method of organic matter or assumptions such as the NE requirement for maintenance (or fasting heat production. These measurements represent the bases for establishment of energy values in feeding tables. Results indicate that energy digestibility of feeds is negatively affected by dietary fibre content but this negative effect is attenuated with body weight increase, which suggests that feeds should be attributed DE values according to pig BW; in practice, at least two different DE values, one for growing-finishing pigs and one for mature pigs (reproductive sows, are recommended. The energy digestibility of pig feeds can also be affected by feed processing (pelletting, extrusion, etc.. Efficiency of ME utilization for NE averages 74-75% for conventional pig diets but it is directly dependent on diet chemical composition with efficiencies higher for ME from fat (90% or starch (82% than from protein or dietary fibre (60%. The hierarchy

  15. Required storage capacity to increase the value of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effort to achieve a more eco - friendly production of energy leads to larger shares of renewables in the electricity sector, resulting in more supply - dependency and volatility. This results in a time shift between production and consumption. In order to gain an upper hand, possibilities for transferring renewable energies from the time of production to the time when the demand occurs are researched. Energy storage systems will play a big role in this process, with pumped storage plants being the most developed and most common technology nowadays. As a first part of this thesis, the renewables in Germany are studied through the use of models on the basis of hourly measured values of the primary energy carriers for the corresponding technology. For these data series many years’ worth of measurements were considered, resulting in data for the hourly production values of the renewable energy sources. The results show a strong dependency between production and the seasons of the year. Furthermore a very small secured contribution of renewable production during times of peak load is registered, leading to the conclusion that energy storages are indeed necessary. Different strategies for the dispatch of the storage technologies pumped hydro storage, compressed air storage and hydrogen storage are developed for the region of Germany, which will be dispatched outside the energy - only market. The different strategies for the storage dispatch have the reduction of the resulting load in common, by preferably transferring renewable energy from times when it is not needed to those times with high loads. This resulting load needs to be covered by thermal power plants. The required capacities of the different storage technologies are evaluated and compared. By using pumped storage plants the increase in the value of renewables, as measured by the secure contribution during peak load hours, is determined. An analysis of different compositions of renewable production allows

  16. Energy-efficient houses built according to the energy performance requirements introduced in Denmark in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet new tighter building energy requirements introduced in Denmark in 2006 and prepare the way for future buildings with even lower energy consumption, single-family houses were built with the purpose to demonstrate that it is possible to build typical single-family houses...... with an energy consumption that meets the demands without problems concerning building technology or economy. The paper gives a brief presentation of the houses and the applied energy-saving measures. The paper also presents results from measurements of the overall energy use, indoor climate and air tightness....... Furthermore, results from detailed calculations of the utilization of electricity-related heat gains are presented. The paper concludes that electricity savings are only to a modest extent eaten up by increasing heat consumption. The houses built can relatively easily keep the future energy demands...

  17. Food and energy choices for India: a programming model with partial endogenous energy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, K.S.; Srinivasan, T.N.

    1977-12-01

    Choices available to India over the next three decades in the energy and agricultural sectors are examined. India's energy consumption per capita is very low, being of the order of 700 kg of coal replacement while that of the USA is over 11,000 kg. The per capita consumption in Western Europe is in the range of 3000 to 6000 kg. Nearly 50 percent of the energy consumed in India is obtained from noncommercial sources such as firewood, agricultural wastes, and animal dung, whereas in high-income countries this proportion is negligible. The pattern of end use of energy in India is also quite different from that of advanced countries. Nearly 90 percent of the energy required for household cooking is supplied by noncommercial sources in India. Petroleum products account for a little over 70 percent of the energy needs of the transport sector, while in advanced countries this proportion exceeds 90 percent. Another feature of the Indian energy scene is the use in agriclture--mainly for irrigation and partly in terms of chemical fertilizers--of significant amounts of electricity and oil, amounting to nearly 10 percent of the total electricity use and 5 percent of oil. Altogether the transport, agriculture, and domestic sectors of the Indian economy account for more than 55 percent of commercial energy consumption and almost all of noncommercial energy consumption. In this paper, the alternatives available to these sectors only are explored.

  18. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  19. Maintenance energy requirement determination of cats after spaying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Chamberlin, Amy J; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    Neutering is often associated with obesity in companion animals. However, the maintenance energy requirement (MER) for these animals has not been clearly defined. The present study investigated the MER for spayed cats whose body weights (BW) began to increase shortly after ovariohysterectomy. A total of twenty-two shorthair adult female cats were fed complete and balanced diets in amounts to maintain their BW and body condition score (BCS) before the present study. All cats were spayed and the diet was fed for 11 weeks using the same MER as previously. During these weeks, all cats gained weight. Beginning with week 12, a weight-loss regimen was initiated until each cat achieved a BCS of 5 out of 9. After each cat obtained a BCS of 5, an appropriate amount of diet was fed to maintain its BW for at least 4 weeks to determine a modified MER. Daily food consumption, weekly BW and BCS were monitored. Blood was collected before and after weight loss for plasma biochemistry profiles. BW and BCS increased by 16 % and one point (P spaying significantly increased BW when using MER values for intact cats. Thus, 313.6 × ideal BW(0.67) kJ is proposed for the MER of spayed adult cats. PMID:22005410

  20. ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

  1. Private capital requirements for international biomass energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, the use of biomass for energy production faces two contradictory pressures. On the one hand, biomass costs very little and it is used inefficiently for fuel or charcoal production, leading to widespread destruction of forested areas and environmental degradation; this problem is being attenuated by the promotion, through aid programmes, of more efficient cook stoves for poor people. On the other hand, the conversion of biomass into high-grade fuel such as ethanol from sugar cane or burning urban refuse or gasifying it to produce electricity is not economically competitive at this time and requires subsidies of approximately 30% to make it as attractive as conventional fuels. Only electricity production using residues from sawmills, crops and other biomass by-products is competitive, and a number of plants are in operation in some countries, particularly the United States. For such plants, the usual rates of return and long-term contract purchases that characterize investments of this kind are applied. Although technologies are available for the widespread efficient use of biomass, the financial hurdle of high initial costs has impeded their market penetration, which in turn precludes any decline in costs that might otherwise have come from production increases. Intervention by governments or by GEF, justified on grounds of environmental protection, is needed to accelerate the introduction of the new technologies. The only private flows that are taking place at the moment are those from enlightened investors wishing to guarantee themselves a strong position in the area for the future or to preempt command and control regulations, such as carbon taxes, imposed by governments. The joint implementation of biomass technologies between industrialized and developing countries might be one method of accelerating this flow. (author)

  2. The energy required to produce materials: constraints on energy-intensity improvements, parameters of demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Timothy G; Sahni, Sahil; Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    In this paper, we review the energy requirements to make materials on a global scale by focusing on the five construction materials that dominate energy used in material production: steel, cement, paper, plastics and aluminium. We then estimate the possibility of reducing absolute material production energy by half, while doubling production from the present to 2050. The goal therefore is a 75 per cent reduction in energy intensity. Four technology-based strategies are investigated, regardless of cost: (i) widespread application of best available technology (BAT), (ii) BAT to cutting-edge technologies, (iii) aggressive recycling and finally, and (iv) significant improvements in recycling technologies. Taken together, these aggressive strategies could produce impressive gains, of the order of a 50-56 per cent reduction in energy intensity, but this is still short of our goal of a 75 per cent reduction. Ultimately, we face fundamental thermodynamic as well as practical constraints on our ability to improve the energy intensity of material production. A strategy to reduce demand by providing material services with less material (called 'material efficiency') is outlined as an approach to solving this dilemma. PMID:23359744

  3. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  4. High energy resolution requirements for a spectrometer at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors which must be considered in the design of a high energy resolution magnetic spectrometer for the GANIL cyclotron are examined. It is shown that by optimising target conditions an energy resolution of approximately 2 x 10-4 is possible. To achieve such a resolution broadening effects due to the energy spread of the incident beam, the kinematic effects in the angular aperture of the spectrometer and the kinematic effects induced by the beam angular divergence must be avoided. General features of a possible energy loss spectrometer at GANIL are given. (UK)

  5. INDIRECT CALORIMETRY IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ENERGY REQUIREMENT IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Lange; Dominika Głąbska; Dariusz Włodarek

    2013-01-01

    Individual total energy expenditure may be calculated as a sum of basal energy requirement and energy expenditure associated with physical activity. Measurement of basal energy requirement is not often conducted in dietetic practice, but may be applied using indirect calorimetry. The aim of the analysis was to present the possibilities of using the Fitmate PRO monitor in the assessment of resting metabolic rate and basal energy expenditure with a method of indirect calorimetry in a group of 9...

  6. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only t

  7. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Solar Photovoltaic Energy Penetration in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  8. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  9. Renewable Energy Requirement Guidance for EPACT 2005 and EO 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Describes what counts toward the federal goals, the definition of "new" for renewable power/renewable energy certificate (REC) purchases, and what types of on-site projects will get double credit (Section 203 (C)).

  10. Cupolas minimize the energy required to melt ferrous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, A B

    1979-05-01

    Historically the cupola has been the most effective furnace for melting cast irons. Although its supremacy was challenged by electric melting furnaces in the 1960's, persisting energy scarcity and high cost have encouraged a resurgence of interest in cupola technology. Using the optimum design features of modern cupolas and the best melting practices, they can achieve melting efficiencies of 45% or more based on the energy value of the original coal. In contrast, electric melting only uses 21% of the energy in coal. Despite these facts, many foundrymen fear that there will be problems because of poor metallurgical control if they use cupolas. Yet experience has proven otherwise. In terms of energy conservation and economy it is better to use large cupolas as scrap melters in the steel industry. Yet there is still a deep rooted prejudice against the cupola plus basic oxygen furnace route to steel making.

  11. Experience with Energy Efficiency Requirements for Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication has been produced as part of the work programme in support of the Gleneagles Plan of Action (GPOA), where the IEA was requested to 'undertake a study to review existing global appliance standards and codes'. In accordance with the G8 request, this study investigates the coverage and impact of forms of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and comparative energy labelling programmes; which comprise the cornerstone of most IEA countries national energy efficiency strategy. This scope also reflects governments' aspirations to achieve ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, this study does not address endorsement labelling and associated voluntary programmes, although these are also important policy tools for national energy efficiency strategies.

  12. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  13. Department of Energy Emergency Management Functional Requirements Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Study, the Emergency Management Functional Requirements Study (EMFRS), identifies the physical environment, information resources, and equipment required in the DOE Headquarters Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to support the DOE staff in managing an emergency. It is the first step toward converting the present Forrestal EOC into a practical facility that will function well in each of the highly diverse types of emergencies in which the Department could be involved. 2 figs

  14. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    OpenAIRE

    Bompadre, T. F. V.; Neto, O. Boaventura; Mendonca, A. N.; Souza, S. F.; D. Oliveira; Fernandes, M. H. M. R.; Harter, C. J.; Almeida, A. K.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) ...

  15. The EU electricity production structure requires a differentiated energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the electricity production of the EU there are differentiated structures which are based on different natural conditions, political decisions and investments of past decades. It has long been struggled committed to the ''one and correct'' energy policy. But precisely because of the differences in the individual countries, a unified energy and climate policy for the EU is not the right way. Diversity is a strength, which quite the EU Commission considered. Increased understanding of the specifics in other countries should just apply the German politics and the public that all too often judges from their own perspective.

  16. Energy performance requirements using the cost-optimal methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2013-01-01

    The Concerted Action EPBD (CA EPBD) has the main objective of assisting the EU Member States (MS) transpose and implement the recast Directive 2010/31/EU on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD), published on 19 May 2010, as well as the continued implementation of the actions initiated with ...

  17. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Rebecca A; Witzel, Angela L; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was [Formula: see text] or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ([Formula: see text]). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study's population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council's (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of [Formula: see text] (National Research Council (NRC), 1974) and the [Formula: see text] reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990). Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc.) have similar energy requirements.

  18. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only the direct household energy requirement. Our analysis is mainly based on data of expenditures of households and the associated energy intensities of consumer goods. We found that differences between countries in the total energy requirement of households are mainly due to differences in total household expenditure. In particular, the indirect energy requirement is linearly related to the total household expenditure. The share of direct energy to the total energy requirement in different countries varies from 34% up to 64%. Differences in climate do not fully account for this variation. Corrected for total household expenditure, indirect energy requirement may vary significantly per country in the consumption classes 'food, beverages and tobacco', 'recreation and culture', 'housing', and 'hotels, cafes and restaurants'

  19. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  20. Prefledging energy requirements in shorebirds : Energetic implications of self-feeding precocial development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Visser, GH

    2001-01-01

    Understanding ecological consequences of avian developmental modes requires knowledge of energy requirements of chicks of different positions in the prococialaltricial spectrum, but those have rarely boon measured in birds with self-feeding precocial young. We studied prefledging energy budgets in c

  1. Income Growth, Urbanization, Changing Life Style and Energy Requirements in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Shi Minjun

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the effects of changing life style and consumption demands driven by income growth and urbanization on increase of energy requirements in China, and es- timate the impacts of improvement in household consumption on mitigating energy requirements towards 2020, based on input-out- put analysis and scenarios simulation approach. The result shows that energy requirement per capita has increased by 159% for urban residents and 147% for rural residents from 1995 to 2004. Growth in household consumption driven by income growth and urbanization may induce a successive increase in energy require- ments in future. Per capita energy requirements of urban residents will increase by 240% during 2002-2015 and 330% during 2002-2020. Urbanization might lead to 0.75 billion ton of increment of energy requirements in 2020. About 45%-48% of total energy requirements in China might be a consequence of residents' life styles and the economic activities to support consumption demands in 2020. Under low-carbon life style scenario, per capita energy requirements of urban residents may decline to 97% in 2015 and 92% in 2020 in contrast with baseline scenario. That implies that China needs to pay a great attention to developing green low- carbon life style in order to realize mitigation target towards 2020.

  2. Energy performance requirements using the cost-optimal methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2013-01-01

    The Concerted Action EPBD (CA EPBD) has the main objective of assisting the EU Member States (MS) transpose and implement the recast Directive 2010/31/EU on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD), published on 19 May 2010, as well as the continued implementation of the actions initiated with...... the initial EPBD, Directive 2002/91/EC, published on 16 December 2002. The CA EPBD brings together the national authorities implementing this legislation, and other bodies appointed and entrusted by them to do so. It fosters exchange of information and experiences amongst representatives designated by...

  3. Environmental quality and energy conservation in coal conversion processes. [Overall minimization of energy required for sulfur pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.L.; Hill, A.H.; Fleming, D.K.

    1979-01-01

    In general, controlling emissions from a coal conversion process is an energy consuming process. In this paper, a parametric assessment of energy requirements for sulfur management in a coal gasification process to produce substitute natural gas is presented. The results of this assessment suggest that the least energy intensive sulfur management practice to utilize in coal gasification plants using low sulfur coal (< 3.5%) is an H/sub 2/S selective removal process providing a Claus plant feed-stream containing 10% or less H/sub 2/S with tail gas from the Claus plant being incinerated in the coal-fired boiler and the additional SO/sub 2/ removed in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. For high sulfur coals (> 3.5%), energy consumptions for all combinations were similar for a given FGD SO/sub 2/ removal specification. As the SO/sub 2/ specification increases for the FGD system, the total energy required for sulfur management also increases. Finally, contrary to expectations, the total energy requirements for sulfur management decrease with increasing sulfur content of the feed coal indicating that the energy requiements of the H/sub 2/S removal process dominates. The total energy requirements for the two Claus plant tail gas treatment processes are similar. Incineration in the boiler is slightly more energy efficient. For low sulfur coals (< 3.5%) the total energy requirements decreased rapidly as the level of H/sub 2/S selective acid-gas removal process decreased from 30% to 10%. For high sulfur coals (> 3.5%) the total energy requirements were similar for all levels of H/sub 2/S in the Claus plant feed gas with a possible minimum in energy requirements for the 15% H/sub 2/S cases.

  4. Requirements of Integrated Design Teams While Evaluating Advanced Energy Retrofit Design Options in Immersive Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant ways to save energy use in buildings is to implement advanced energy retrofits in existing buildings. Improving energy performance of buildings through advanced energy retrofitting requires a clear understanding of the cost and energy implications of design alternatives from various engineering disciplines when different retrofit options are considered. The communication of retrofit design alternatives and their energy implications is essential in the decision-making process, as it affects the final retrofit selections and hence the energy efficiency of the retrofitted buildings. The objective of the research presented here was to identify a generic list of information requirements that are needed to be shared and collectively analyzed by integrated design teams during advanced energy retrofit design review meetings held in immersive settings. While identifying such requirements, the authors used an immersive environment based iterative requirements elicitation approach. The technology was used as a means to better identify the information requirements of integrated design teams to be analyzed as a group. This paper provides findings on information requirements of integrated design teams when evaluating retrofit options in immersive virtual environments. The information requirements were identified through interactions with sixteen experts in design and energy modeling domain, and validated with another group of participants consisting of six design experts who were experienced in integrated design processes. Industry practitioners can use the findings in deciding on what information to share with integrated design team members during design review meetings that utilize immersive virtual environments.

  5. Comparison of 2006 IECC and 2009 IECC Commercial Energy Code Requirements for Kansas City, MO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yunzhi; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-03-22

    This report summarizes code requirements and energy savings of commercial buildings in climate zone 4 built to the 2009 IECC when compared to the 2006 IECC. In general, the 2009 IECC has higher insulation requirements for exterior walls, roof, and windows and have higher efficiency requirements for HVAC equipment (HVAC equipment efficiency requirements are governed by National Appliance Conversion Act of 1987 (NAECA), and are applicable irrespective of the IECC version adopted). The energy analysis results show that residential and nonresidential commercial buildings meeting the 2009 IECC requirements save between 6.1% and 9.0% site energy, and between 6.4% and 7.7% energy cost when compared to 2006 IECC. Analysis also shows that semiheated buildings have energy and cost savings of 3.9% and 5.6%.

  6. Case study of the Brownell low energy requirement house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R F; Krajewski, R F; Dennehy, G

    1979-05-01

    An evaluation is made of the design and thermal performance of an innovative house built in 1977 in the Adirondacks area of New York State. The house has a very tight and well-insulated envelope, with the rigid insulation board applied to the outside of the frame. Passive solar gain through south-facing glass, along with internal free sources of heat, are shown to provide a substantial part of the building's heating requirements. Effective integral thermal storage, provided by the exposed interior structure, serves to keep interior temperature excursions within acceptable limits. Additional remote storage is provided in the form of a large thermal storage sand bed, with air ducts, located below the basement floor. Calculations and measured performance data show that the house's space heating needs are only about 40% of those of a similar size house built to HUD minimum property standards, and less than 25% of those of a typical inventory house in the Northeast United States.

  7. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  8. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume II, energy requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This project analyzed the application of solar total energy systems to appropriate segments of the residential sector and determined their market penetration potential. This volume covers the work done on energy requirements definition and includes the following: (1) identification of the single-family and multi-family market segments; (2) regionalization of the United States; (3) electrical and thermal load requirements, including time-dependent profiles; (4) effect of conservation measures on energy requirements; and (5) verification of simulated load data with real data.

  9. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  10. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics: The case of the German basic chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry’s energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry’s total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry’s final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them useable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry. -- Highlights: ► An advanced model was developed to estimate German chemical industry’s energy use. ► For the base year (2000), model covers 88% of the sector’s total final energy use. ► Sector’s energy efficiency improved between 2.2 and 3.5%/yr between 1995 and 2008. ► Improved energy statistics are required for accurate monitoring of improvements.

  11. 48 CFR 952.226-72 - Energy Policy Act subcontracting goals and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Americans: * * * percent. (c) Reporting requirements. (1) The contractor agrees to report, on an annual... Requirements (JUN 1996) (a) Definition. Energy Policy Act target groups, as used in this provision means: (1) An institution of higher education that meets the requirements of 34 CFR 600.4(a), and has a...

  12. Analysis of the electrical energy requirements of the GSI facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ripp, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Die Veränderung auf dem deutschen Energiemarkt durch die Energiewende bringt eine Viel-zahl von Problemen mit sich. Der stetig ansteigende Ausbau von erneuerbaren Energien und die daraus resultierende starke Schwankung der eingespeisten Energiemengen zwingen die Netzbetreiber zum Ausbau der Stromnetze [1]. Die dadurch verursachten Kosten lassen die Netznutzungsgebühren steigen, welche an die Endkunden weitergegeben werden. Ebenfalls stieg die EEG-Umlage (Erneuerbare-Energie-Gesetz) von 3,6ct/kWh im Jahr 2012 über 5,3ct/kWh im Jahr 2013 auf 6,3ct/kWh für das Jahr 2014 [2], [3], [4]. Die extrem schnell steigenden Energiekosten zwingen die Verbraucher zur Erhöhung ihrer Energieeffizienz, um die laufenden Kosten so niedrig wie möglich zu halten [3]. Dies verlangt nach innovativen Ansätzen und Lösungen im unternehmenseigenen Energiemanagement. Besonders For-schungseinrichtungen mit großem Energiebedarf müssen eine höhere Energieeffizienz reali-sieren, um bei knappen Budgets ihrem Forschungsauftrag gerec...

  13. EU Assistance for Romania, for Promoting Nuclear Energy Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PHARE Programmes, as an opportunity for all Romanian power industry to join to EU requirements for integration, will continue to provide assistance to Romania for accelerating and completing preparations for its access to the European Union. PHARE implementation means efficient utilisation of allocated funds as per as in Financial Memoranda and technical details established in project fiches in time and finalization of all the payments. The monitoring reports elaborated by the Implementing Authorities, reflecting the implementation stages of the projects and the acquirement of the good practice according to EU frame are showing the important progress Romania is making during the last years. The Romanian nuclear power industry is still a young one. Nevertheless, the performance indicators recorded by the first unit of CERNAVODA Power Plant during its operating period are very good; this is - with no doubt - the integrated effect of a good design, of high quality main equipment, of correct installation and of a very qualified, skilled operation. The main goals for the next years are focused on: Informing the officials, local administration and general public about nuclear power and its development, in direct connection with safety and environmental issues; Promote new modern technologies in national industry, especially for building the second unit in CERNAVODA; Provide support for the national nuclear power program, according the EU integration tasks. (author)

  14. Energy-efficient Ship Operation – Training Requirements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Baldauf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO, through its Maritime Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC, has been carrying out substantive work on the reduction and limitation of greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping since 1997, following the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol and the 1997 MARPOL Conference. While to date no mandatory GHG instrument for international shipping has been adopted, IMO has given significant consideration of the matter and has been working in accordance with an ambitious work plan with a view to adopting a package of technical provisions. Beside the efforts undertaken by IMO, it is assumed that e.g. optimized manoeuvring regimes have potential to contribute to a reduction of GHG emissions. Such procedures and supporting technologies can decrease the negative effects to the environment and also may reduce fuel consumption. However, related training has to be developed and to be integrated into existing course schemes accordingly. IMO intends to develop a Model Course aiming at promoting the energy-efficient operation of ships. This Course will contribute to the IMO’s environmental protection goals as set out in resolutions A.947(23 and A.998(25 by promulgating industry “best practices”, which reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact of global shipping on climate change. In this paper the outline of the research work will be introduced and the fundamental ideas and concepts are described. A concept for the overall structure and the development of suggested detailed content of the draft Model course will be exemplarily explained. Also, a developed draft module for the model course with samples of the suggested integrated practical exercises will be introduced and discussed. The materials and data in this publication have been obtained partly through capacity building research project of IAMU kindly supported by the International Association of Maritime Universities (IAMU and The Nippon

  15. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics. The case of the German basic chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Weiss, M.; Patela, M.K. [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Tam, C.; Trudeau, N. [International Energy Agency IEA, 9 rue de la Federation, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Gielen, D.J. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, IITC, Robert-Schuman-Platz 3, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Analyzing the chemical industry's energy use is challenging because of the sector's complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry's energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry's total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry's final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them usable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry.

  16. The Giant Reed as an energy crop: assessing the energy requirements within its supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodias, Efthymis; Busato, P.; Bochtis, Dionysis;

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is one form of renewable energy sources that are in the core of interesting for many researchers. There many different biomass sources that can be exploited for energy production, such as crop residues, waste materials, forestry residues and energy crops. Regarding energy crops......, there are many different types of crops significantly varies in terms of energy potential yields, production and provision methods, etc. To this end, a thoroughly assessment of the energy inputs and outputs of each potential energy crop is necessary. In this paper, the Giant Reed is evaluated energetically...... as a potential energy crop. The assessment regards a 10 year period. The considered energy elements include direct inputs (e.g. fuel consumption) as well as indirect inputs (e.g. embodied energy of materials and machinery). According to the results, the balance between the estimated total energy input...

  17. Definition of nearly zero-energy building requirements based on a large building sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the recast of the Energy Performance Building Directive, Member States must give an exact definition for nearly zero-energy buildings to be introduced from 2018/2020. The requirement system stipulating the sustainable development of the building sector is usually based on the analysis of a few reference buildings, combining energy efficiency measures and HVAC systems. The risk of this method is that depending on the assumptions either the requirements do not provide sufficient incentives for energy saving measures and renewables or the requirements cannot be fulfilled with rational solutions in many cases. Our method is based on the artificial generation of a large building sample, where the buildings are defined by geometric and other parameters. Due to the large number of combinations, the effect of many variables appear in the results, with the deviations reflecting the sensitivity of the energy balance. The requirements are set based on some fundamental considerations and the statistical analysis of the sample. The method is demonstrated on the example of setting the requirements for residential buildings in Hungary. The proposed requirements are validated against the common European targets. The suggested method is suitable for developing building energy regulation threshold values, certification schemes or benchmarking values. - Highlights: • We analyse the European nearly zero-energy building definition. • We present a method for setting requirements based on a large building sample. • We demonstrate the method for residential buildings in Hungary. • We compare the results with the European targets

  18. Improving cost-effectiveness and mitigating risks of renewable energy requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, James P.

    Policy makers at the federal and state levels of government are debating actions to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil as an energy source. Several concerns drive this debate: sharp rises in energy prices, increasing unease about the risks of climate change, energy security, and interest in expanding the domestic renewable energy industry. Renewable energy requirements are frequently proposed to address these concerns, and are currently in place, in various forms, at the federal and state levels of government. These policies specify that a certain portion of the energy supply come from renewable energy sources. This dissertation focuses on a specific proposal, known as 25 X 25, which requires 25% of electricity and motor vehicle transportation fuels supplied to U.S. consumers to come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power and ethanol, by 2025. This dissertation builds on prior energy policy analysis, and more specifically analyses of renewable energy requirements, by assessing the social welfare implications of a 25 x 25 policy and applying new methods of uncertainty analysis to multiple policy options decision makers can use to implement the policy. These methods identify policy options that can improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the risks of renewable energy requirements. While the dissertation focuses on a specific policy, the research methods and findings are applicable to other renewable energy requirement policies. In the dissertation, I analyze six strategies for implementing a 25 x 25 policy across several hundred scenarios that represent plausible futures for uncertainties in energy markets, such as renewable energy costs, energy demand, and fossil fuel prices. The strategies vary in the availability of resources that qualify towards the policy requirement and the use of a "safety valve" that allows refiners and utilities to pay a constant fee after renewable energy costs reach a predetermined threshold. I test

  19. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an EE..., including any requirements for documenting customer energy efficiency and renewable energy......

  20. The Trouble with Chemical Energy: Why Understanding Bond Energies Requires an Interdisciplinary Systems Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Helping students understand “chemical energy” is notoriously difficult. Many hold inconsistent ideas about what energy is, how and why it changes during the course of a chemical reaction, and how these changes are related to bond energies and reaction dynamics. There are (at least) three major sources for this problem: 1) the way biologists talk about chemical energy (which is also the way we talk about energy in everyday life); 2) the macroscopic approach to energy concepts that is common in...

  1. An Analysis of BIM Web Service Requirements and Design to Support Energy Efficient Building Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy Efficient Building (EEB design, construction, and operations require the development and sharing of building information among different individuals, organizations, and computer applications. The Representational State Transfer (RESTful Building Information Modeling (BIM web service is a solution to enable an effective exchange of data. This paper presents an investigation into the core RESTful web service requirements needed to effectively support the EEB project lifecycle. The requirements include information exchange requirements, distributed collaboration requirements, internal data storage requirements, and partial model query requirements. We also propose a RESTful web service design model on different abstraction layers to enhance the BIM lifecycle in energy efficient building design. We have implemented a RESTful Application Program Interface (API prototype on a mock BIMserver to demonstrate our idea. We evaluate our design by conducting a user study based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The results show that our design can enhance the efficiency of data exchange in EEB design scenarios.

  2. Minimum energy requirement of an endoreversible desalination system of sea water

    OpenAIRE

    Lingen Chen, Liwei Shu, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    A model of a typical endoreversible desalination system of sea water is established and the minimum energy requirement for the system is optimized by using finite time thermodynamic theory. The heat exchange between the endoreversible desalination system of sea water and surroundings are delivered by two endoreversible Carnot heat pumps and three endoreversible Carnot heat engines. The minimum energy requirement for the system can be found by subtracting the power outputs from the power input...

  3. Reduced Total Energy Requirements for a Modified Alcubierre Warp Drive Spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Loup, F.; Waite, D; Halerewicz Jr, E.

    2001-01-01

    It can be shown that negative energy requirements within the Alcubierre spacetime can be greatly reduced when one introduces a lapse function into the Einstein tensor. Thereby reducing the negative energy requirements of the warp drive spacetime arbitrarily as a function of A(ct,r_s). With this function new quantum inequality restrictions are investigated in a general form. Finally a pseudo method for controlling a warp bubble at a velocity greater than that of light is presented.

  4. Reduced Total Energy Requirements for a Modified Alcubierre Warp Drive Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Loup, F

    2001-01-01

    It can be shown that negative energy requirements within the Alcubierre spacetime can be greatly reduced when one considers the Einstein tensor in the ships frame. Thereby reducing the negative energy requirements of the warp drive spacetime arbitrarily as a function of A(ct,rs). Whith this function new quantum inequality restrictions are investigated in a general form. Finally a potential method for generating a warp velocity greater than that of light is presented.

  5. Effects of solar shading devices on energy requirements of standalone office buildings for Italian climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe, the building energy demand is about 40% of the total energy requirement. In order to obtain significant energy saving in this sector, the European Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD) 2002/91/CE and the EPBD Recast (Directive 2010/31/UE) promote the use of passive strategies for buildings, which improve indoor thermal conditions above all in summer and so allow the reduction of size and energy requirements of air conditioning systems. This paper analyzes the influence of external solar shading devices on the energy requirements of a typical air-conditioned office building for Italian climates. A type of office building widespread in Europe has been considered. The energy saving related to the solar shading refers only to summer air conditioning, but the evaluation has been carried out for the entire year, by using a building energy simulation code. The energy demand of the main technical systems (heating, cooling and lighting) and the energy saving related to the use of solar shading devices have been evaluated, as a function of the most significant parameters, such as the climate, the geometrical characteristics of the shadings and the building, the thermal transmittance of the building envelope and the building orientation. The solar shading devices have shown the highest energy efficiency for warm summer climates: for example, the global annual energy saving related to the use of suitable shading devices has been evaluated between 8% for Milan (the coldest climate) and 20% (for Palermo, the warmest one). -- Highlights: ► Solar shading devices on a building reduce annual energy requests of the systems. ► The energy saving has been evaluated for an office building in Italian climates. ► These savings have been evaluated considering heating, cooling and lighting systems. ► In warm summer climates (Palermo), the highest saving has been obtained (about 20%). ► Building and shading device characteristics influence the energy savings

  6. The Trouble with Chemical Energy: Why Understanding Bond Energies Requires an Interdisciplinary Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Helping students understand "chemical energy" is notoriously difficult. Many hold inconsistent ideas about what energy is, how and why it changes during the course of a chemical reaction, and how these changes are related to bond energies and reaction dynamics. There are (at least) three major sources for this problem: 1) the way biologists talk…

  7. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  8. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-07-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  9. Do changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in single-family houses result in the expected energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... advanced econometric methods we examine differences in heating energy consumption due to different building regulation requirements at the time of house construction. As for the effect of the building regulation, we find that changes in Danish building regulations have led to significant reductions...... in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7 pct. reduction in natural gas consumption. For comparison the ex ante expectation was 25 pct. reduction in heating demand...

  10. Energy use pattern and optimization of energy required for broiler production using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Amid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review shows that energy consumption in agricultural production in Iran is not efficient and a high degree of inefficiency in broiler production exists in Iran. Energy consumption of broiler production in Ardabil province of Iran was studied and the non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to analyze energy efficiency, separate efficient from inefficient broiler producers, and calculate wasteful use of energy to optimize energy. Data was collected using face-to-face questionnaires from 70 broiler farmers in the study area. Constant returns to scale (CCR and variable returns to scale (BCC models of DEA were applied to assess the technical efficiency of broiler production. The results indicated that total energy use was 154,283 MJ (1000 bird−1 and the share of fuel at 61.4% was the highest of all inputs. The indices of energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy were found to be 0.18, 0.02 kg MJ−1, 59.56 MJ kg−1, and −126,836 MJ (1000 bird−1, respectively. The DEA results revealed that 40% and 22.86% of total units were efficient based on the CCR and BCC models, respectively. The average technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of broiler farmers was 0.88, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. The results showed that 14.53% of total energy use could be saved by converting the present units to optimal conditions. The contribution of fuel input to total energy savings was 72% and was the largest share, followed by feed and electricity energy inputs. The results of this study indicate that there is good potential for increasing energy efficiency of broiler production in Iran by following the recommendations for efficient energy use.

  11. Addressing Control of Hazardous Energy (COHE) Requirements in a Laser Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Michael; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    OSHA regulation 29CFR1910.147 specifies control of hazardous energy requirements for 'the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees.' Class 3B and Class 4 laser beams must be considered hazardous energy sources because of the potential for serious eye injury; careful consideration is therefore needed to safely de-energize these lasers. This paper discusses and evaluates control of hazardous energy principles in this OSHA regulation, in ANSI Z136.1 ''Safe Use of Lasers,'' and in ANSI Z244.1 ''Control of Hazardous Energy, Lockout/Tagout and Alternative Methods.'' Recommendations are made for updating and improving CoHE (control of hazardous energy) requirements in these standards for their applicability to safe laser operations.

  12. Renewable energy data requirements: A review of user opinions and data collection efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, G.G.

    1991-11-01

    Interest in the contribution of renewable energy to US energy supply is growing. This interest stems from environmental and energy security concerns and the desire to develop domestic resources. In order to plan for the use of renewable energy, data are essential to a variety of users both inside and outside the government. The purpose of this study is to identify priorities and requirements for gathering different types of renewable energy data. Results of this study are to be used by the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), in planning and evaluating its ongoing and future renewable energy information programs. The types of renewable energy addressed in this study include biomass (wood, agricultural residues, and crops grown for energy), municipal solid waste, geothermal energy, solar energy, and wind. To assess the relative importance of different types of information, we reviewed existing renewable energy data collection efforts and asked the opinions of renewable energy data users. Individuals in government, private industry, research organizations, industry trade associations, and public interest research groups were contacted and questioned about particular renewable energy data items. An analysis of their responses provides the basis for the conclusions in this report. The types of information; about which we asked each respondent included resource stock and flow information; quantities of energy inputs (e.g., wood) and outputs (e.g., electricity, heat); energy input and output costs and prices; numbers, location, and production capacities of energy conversion facilities; quantities and costs of energy conversion equipment; and quantities of pollutant emissions from energy conversion. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  13. Case Study of Electrical Energy Requirement for Various Needs in a Desert Dwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq Ali Shah; Abdul Fatah Abbasi; Jawaid Daudpoto

    2013-01-01

    case study of electrical energy requirement for various needs in a desert dwelling is carried out in order to explore an indigenous self-sustained electrical power generation process, which can provide means to produce electrical power, potable water and agricultural production. The objective of such study is to develop a self-sustainable and self-contained electrical energy system that can cater for energy needs for the people living in such remote areas. The study is carried out on a micro ...

  14. Energy Requirements of US Army Special Operation Forces During Military Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Special Operations Forces (SOF regularly engage in physically demanding combat operations and field training exercises, resulting in high daily energy expenditure, and thus increased energy requirements. However, the majority of studies assessing energy requirements of SOF have been conducted on soldiers going through intense SOF initiation training. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the energy expenditure of SOF conducting military training operations. Thirty-one soldiers taking part in Pre-Mission Training (PMT n = 15 and Combat Diver Qualification Courses (CDQC n = 16 volunteered to participate in this observational study. Energy expenditure was determined using doubly labeled water. Body weight (83 ± 7 kg remained stable during both training periods. Overall energy expenditure adjusted for body composition was 17,606 ± 2326 kJ·day−1. Energy expenditure was 19,110 ± 1468 kJ·day−1 during CDQC and 16,334 ± 2180 kJ·day−1 during PMT, with physical activity levels of 2.6 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.3 during CDQC and PMT, respectively. Compared to the Military Dietary Reference Intakes for energy (13,598 kJ·day−1, these data are in agreement with previous reports that energy requirement for SOF Soldiers exceed that of the average soldier.

  15. Investigation of Energy Storage Systems, Its Advantage and Requirement in Various Locations in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taufiqul Arif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage minimizes the intermittent nature of renewable sources. Solar and wind are the two fostered source of renewable energy. However, the availability of useful solar radiation and wind speed varies with geographical locations, and also the duration of this energy sources varies with seasonal variation. With the available vast open land and geographical position, Australia has great potential for both solar and wind energies. However, both these sources require energy buffering to support load demand to ensure required power quality. Electricity demand is increasing gradually, and also Australia has target to achieve 20% electricity from renewable sources by 2020. For effective utilization of solar and wind energy potential location of these sources needs to be identified, and effective size of storage needs to be estimated for best utilization according to the load demand. Therefore this paper investigated wind speed and solar radiation data of 210 locations in Australia, identified the potential locations, and estimated required storage in various potential locations to support residential load demand. Advantages of storage were analyzed in terms of loading on distribution transformer and storage support during energy fluctuation from renewable energy. Further analysis showed that storage greatly reduces greenhouse gas emission and reduces overall cost of energy by maximizing the use of solar and wind energies.

  16. Site-scale process integration and utility optimization with multi-level energy requirement definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A methodology for energy efficiency of large-scale chemical plants is developed. • A multi-level data extraction for energy requirement definition is introduced. • The practice of total site integration with the combination of levels is shown. • The suitable utilities are integrated and optimized for different proposals. • A Pareto analysis is performed to find the optimum combination of levels. - Abstract: This study presents a methodology based on process integration techniques to improve the energy efficiency of a large-scale chemical plant. The key to the approach is to represent the energy requirements with different heat transfer interfaces. Considering difficulties of data extraction for a large-scale plant, a multi-level data extraction scheme is introduced based on different heat transfer interfaces and includes five levels of growing complexity: black-box, grey-box, white-box, simple-model and detailed-model analysis. A combination of these levels instead of a single definition for the energy requirement has been applied on an industrial case study. Different steps of the approach are explained in detail and their potential are highlighted. The Single Process Integration (SPI) and Total Site Integration (TSI) has been performed and revealed that a higher potential of heat recovery could be driven through the TSI. The optimized site utility integration together with heat recovery improvement scenarios have considerably increased the energy saving potential in our case study. A multi-objective optimization has also been performed to find the optimum combination of units with different energy requirement levels. In conclusion, results from our case study have indicated that using a combination of different energy requirement levels will reduce the required modification of the actual site configuration

  17. How Much Multiuser Diversity is Required for Energy Limited Multiuser Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Youngwook; Ardakani, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Multiuser diversity (MUDiv) is one of the central concepts in multiuser (MU) systems. In particular, MUDiv allows for scheduling among users in order to eliminate the negative effects of unfavorable channel fading conditions of some users on the system performance. Scheduling, however, consumes energy (e.g., for making users' channel state information available to the scheduler). This extra usage of energy, which could potentially be used for data transmission, can be very wasteful, especially if the number of users is large. In this paper, we answer the question of how much MUDiv is required for energy limited MU systems. Focusing on uplink MU wireless systems, we develop MU scheduling algorithms which aim at maximizing the MUDiv gain. Toward this end, we introduce a new realistic energy model which accounts for scheduling energy and describes the distribution of the total energy between scheduling and data transmission stages. Using the fact that such energy distribution can be controlled by varying the num...

  18. Cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements in the Danish Building Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggerholm, S.

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the report is to analyse the cost optimality of the energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 2010, BR10 to new building and to existing buildings undergoing major renovation. The energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations have by tradition always been based on the cost and benefits related to the private economical or financial perspective. Macro economical calculations have in the past only been made in addition. The cost optimum used in this report is thus based on the financial perspective. Due to the high energy taxes in Denmark there is a significant difference between the consumer price and the macro economical for energy. Energy taxes are also paid by commercial consumers when the energy is used for building operation e.g. heating, lighting, ventilation etc. In relation to the new housing examples the present minimum energy requirements in BR 10 all shows gaps that are negative with a deviation of up till 16 % from the point of cost optimality. With the planned tightening of the requirements to new houses in 2015 and in 2020, the energy requirements can be expected to be tighter than the cost optimal point, if the costs for the needed improvements don't decrease correspondingly. In relation to the new office building there is a gap of 31 % to the point of cost optimality in relation to the 2010 requirement. In relation to the 2015 and 2020 requirements there are negative gaps to the point of cost optimality based on today's prices. If the gaps for all the new buildings are weighted to an average based on mix of building types and heat supply for new buildings in Denmark there is a gap of 3 % in average for the new building. The excessive tightness with today's prices is 34 % in relation to the 2015 requirement and 49 % in relation to the 2020 requirement. The component requirement to elements in the building envelope and to installations in existing buildings adds up to significant energy efficiency

  19. Case study of electrical energy requirement for various needs in a desert dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case study of electrical energy requirement for various needs in a desert dwelling is carried out in order to explore an indigenous self-sustained electrical power generation process, which can provide means to produce electrical power, potable water and agricultural production. The objective of such study is to develop a self-sustainable and self-contained electrical energy system that can cater for energy needs for the people living in such remote areas. The study is carried out on a micro level but these results are stretchable to macro levels to accommodate a possible increase in the scale of energy consumption in the long run. (author)

  20. A Study on the Regulatory Requirements of Nuclear Energy Systems in the Area of Proliferation Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study indicates that reasonable guidelines can be developed based on the concepts, principles and fundamentals of proliferation resistance. The regulatory body is responsible for drafting and establishing regulatory requirements for the licensing process of nuclear energy systems, in line with State's commitments, obligations and policies regarding non-proliferation. The requirements would include enforcement ordinance, enforcement regulations, including technical codes and standards for design, operation, and maintenance, in the area of proliferation resistance of an NES. KAERI has been developing potential regulatory requirements of nuclear energy systems in the area of proliferation resistance based on the INPRO methodology. This paper presents general concepts and fundamentals, including relevant issues, of proliferation resistance that are to be considered in the licensing process of nuclear energy systems

  1. Minimum energy requirement of an endoreversible desalination system of sea water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen, Liwei Shu, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of a typical endoreversible desalination system of sea water is established and the minimum energy requirement for the system is optimized by using finite time thermodynamic theory. The heat exchange between the endoreversible desalination system of sea water and surroundings are delivered by two endoreversible Carnot heat pumps and three endoreversible Carnot heat engines. The minimum energy requirement for the system can be found by subtracting the power outputs from the power inputs. The results show that the minimum energy requirement for the distillation system depends on not only the properties of the input saline water, the output pure water and the brine water, but also the inherent features of the heat pumps and the heat engines, i.e. the total heat conductance of the heat pumps and of the heat engines. The results obtained herein are closer to those of practical system than those obtained based on reversible model.

  2. User requirements and approaches of development for future nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology innovation is one of the key issues in every field for the future of the technology. In early 21st century, international nuclear society has a common recognition on the necessity of innovative nuclear energy system to cope with new trend and increasing energy demand, several international programs were initiated for development of new systems that secure stable energy supply and have improved public acceptance, safety, and cost-effectiveness. This paper surveyed status of international activities on future innovative nuclear energy systems, and describes the user requirements of future nuclear energy system for the deployment in the future. The approaches to development of the innovative nuclear energy technologies for meeting future goals were discussed

  3. IMPACT OF ENERGY GROUP STRUCTURE ON NUCLEAR DATA TARGET ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR ADVANCED REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; H. Hiruta

    2011-06-01

    A target accuracy assessment study using both a fine and a broad energy structure has shown that less stringent nuclear data accuracy requirements are needed for the latter energy structure. However, even though a reduction is observed, still the requirements will be very difficult to be met unless integral experiments are also used to reduce nuclear data uncertainties. Target accuracy assessment is the inverse problem of the uncertainty evaluation. To establish priorities and target accuracies on data uncertainty reduction, a formal approach can be adopted by defining target accuracy on design parameters and finding out required accuracy on data in order to meet them. In fact, the unknown uncertainty data requirements can be obtained by solving a minimization problem where the sensitivity coefficients in conjunction with the constraints on the integral parameters provide the needed quantities for finding the solutions.

  4. Required Assets for a Nuclear Energy Applied R&D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold F. McFarlane; Craig L. Jacobson

    2009-03-01

    This report is one of a set of three documents that have collectively identified and recommended research and development capabilities that will be required to advance nuclear energy in the next 20 to 50 years. The first report, Nuclear Energy for the Future: Required Research and Development Capabilities—An Industry Perspective, was produced by Battelle Memorial Institute at the request of the Assistant Secretary of Nuclear Energy. That report, drawn from input by industry, academia, and Department of Energy laboratories, can be found in Appendix 5.1. This Idaho National Laboratory report maps the nuclear-specific capabilities from the Battelle report onto facility requirements, identifying options from the set of national laboratory, university, industry, and international facilities. It also identifies significant gaps in the required facility capabilities. The third document, Executive Recommendations for Nuclear R&D Capabilities, is a letter report containing a set of recommendations made by a team of senior executives representing nuclear vendors, utilities, academia, and the national laboratories (at Battelle’s request). That third report can be found in Appendix 5.2. The three reports should be considered as set in order to have a more complete picture. The basis of this report was drawn from three sources: previous Department of Energy reports, workshops and committee meetings, and expert opinion. The facilities discussed were winnowed from several hundred facilities that had previously been catalogued and several additional facilities that had been overlooked in past exercises. The scope of this report is limited to commercial nuclear energy and those things the federal government, or more specifically the Office of Nuclear Energy, should do to support its expanded deployment in order to increase energy security and reduce carbon emissions. In the context of this report, capabilities mean innovative, well-structured research and development programs

  5. Keeping an eye on reliability: the organizational requirements of future renewable energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The reliable operation of energy infrastructures is more than just a technical matter. It is also dependent upon the organizational structure that enables and constrains entities in their management of operations. Yet this lesson seems forgotten in our planning of future renewable energy systems. There, focus is on technical development, market deployment, and supporting government policies. Much less attention has been given to the broader organizational requirements necessary to ensure thei...

  6. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  7. Implementation plan review for Guam as required by the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-02-01

    Section IV of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, (ESECA) requires EPA to review each State Implementation Plan (SIP) to determine if revisions can be made to control regulations for stationary fuel combustion sources without interfering with the attainment and maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards. This document, which is also required by Section IV of ESECA, is EPA's report to the State indicating where regulations might be revised. (GRA)

  8. Modelling of capital requirements in the energy sector: capital market access. Final memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Formal modelling techniques for analyzing the capital requirements of energy industries have been performed at DOE. A survey has been undertaken of a number of models which forecast energy-sector capital requirements or which detail the interactions of the energy sector and the economy. Models are identified which can be useful as prototypes for some portion of DOE's modelling needs. The models are examined to determine any useful data bases which could serve as inputs to an original DOE model. A selected group of models are examined which can comply with the stated capabilities. The data sources being used by these models are covered and a catalog of the relevant data bases is provided. The models covered are: capital markets and capital availability models (Fossil 1, Bankers Trust Co., DRI Macro Model); models of physical capital requirements (Bechtel Supply Planning Model, ICF Oil and Gas Model and Coal Model, Stanford Research Institute National Energy Model); macroeconomic forecasting models with input-output analysis capabilities (Wharton Annual Long-Term Forecasting Model, Brookhaven/University of Illinois Model, Hudson-Jorgenson/Brookhaven Model); utility models (MIT Regional Electricity Model-Baughman Joskow, Teknekron Electric Utility Simulation Model); and others (DRI Energy Model, DRI/Zimmerman Coal Model, and Oak Ridge Residential Energy Use Model).

  9. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 arc estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-29

    Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for the low, medium and high scenarios. Total investment requirements for the three modes and the three energy commodities can accumulate to a $46.3 to $47.0 billion range depending on the scenario. The high price of oil, following the evidence of the last year, is projected to hold demand for oil below the recent past. Despite the overall decrease in traffic some investment in crude oil and LPG pipelines is necessary to reach new sources of supply. Although natural gas production and consumption is projected to decline through 1990, new investments in carrying capacity also are required due to locational shifts in supply. The Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System is the dominant investment for energy transportation in the next ten years. This year's report focuses attention on waterborne coal transportation to the northeast states in keeping with a return to significant coal consumption projected for this area. A resumption of such shipments will require a completely new fleet. The investment estimates given in this report identify capital required to transport projected energy supplies to market. The requirement is strategic in the sense that other reasonable alternatives do not exist or that a shared load of new growth can be expected. Not analyzed or forecasted are investments in transportation facilities made in response to local conditions. The total investment figures, therefore, represent a minimum necessary capital improvement to respond to changes in interregional supply conditions.

  10. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  11. The role of zooxanthellae in the nutritional energy requirements of Pocillopora eydouxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. Spencer

    1984-04-01

    Previous studies have attempted to quantify the nutritional importance of zooxanthellae to the respiratory requirements of their host, from measurements of the 24 h photosynthesis to respiration ratio. This preliminary study explores an alternative approach by trying to account for the energy fixed in photosynthesis in terms of expenditure, storage and loss. The energy budget so derived for Pocillopora eydouxi suggests that about 51% of the photosynthetically fixed energy is used in respiration, 0.9% in growth and 48% is unaccounted for and presumably lost from the colony. By partitioning the energy budget, it is found that 24% of the respiration and 11% of the energy retained in growth is attributable to the zooxanthellae. It is postulated that nutritionally, a coral is analogous to an aphid in being supplied with a high carbon diet and in being obliged to excrete the excess, probably in the form of mucus.

  12. Colloquy and workshops: regional implications of the engineering manpower requirements of the National Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segool, H. D. [ed.

    1979-05-01

    The crucial interrelationships of engineering manpower, technological innovation, productivity and capital re-formaton were keynoted. Near-term, a study has indicated a much larger New England energy demand-reduction/economic/market potential, with a probably larger engineering manpower requirement, for energy-conservation measures characterized by technological innovation and cost-effective capital services than for alternative energy-supply measures. Federal, regional, and state energy program responsibilities described a wide-ranging panorama of activities among many possible energy options which conveyed much endeavor without identifiable engineering manpower demand coefficients. Similarly, engineering manpower assessment data was described as uneven and unfocused to the energy program at the national level, disaggregated data as non-existent at the regional/state levels, although some qualitative inferences were drawn. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 16 individual presentations for the DOE Energy Data Base (EDB); 14 of these were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA) and 2 for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA).

  13. Training Community College faculty in the techniques and skills required for Solar Energy System installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    A project to train a specified number of community college, vocational/technical faculty in the techniques and skills required to install solar energy systems is described. The planning that led to the contract, the development and conduct of the training workshops, and the outcomes are detailed. An overall evaluation of the project and recommendations for the future are included. (MHR)

  14. Utilization of respiratory energy in higher plants. Requirements for 'maintenance' and transport processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of both photosynthesis and respiration is required to understand plant growth and resulting crop yield. However, especially the nature of the energy demanding processes that are dependent on dark respiration in full-grown tissues is largely unknown. The main objective of the p

  15. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  16. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production. PMID:26802186

  17. The energy requirements of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in intensive culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, A.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Alanara, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fish feed constitutes one of the largest costs in aquaculture, therefore inefficient feed management will have a negative impact on fish farm economics. Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) is a relatively new candidate for freshwater aquaculture, however little is known about the energy...... requirements of this species. The aim of this study was to develop an energy requirement model for intensive culture of Eurasian perch reared at rational temperatures. Data on growth (the thermal unit growth coefficient, TGC, 3√g ‧ (℃ ‧ days)-1) and digestible energy need (DEN, kJ DE ‧ g -1) of Eurasian perch...... at a size range of 20–180 g and at temperatures of 17–23 ℃ were used. Regression analysis revealed that both TGC and DEN were affected significantly by fish size (P 0.05). Two models including body size of the fish were developed: (i) an inverse TGC model for evaluation...

  18. A 2nd generation static model of greenhouse energy requirements (horticern) : a comparison with dynamic models

    CERN Document Server

    Jolliet, O; Munday, G L

    1989-01-01

    Optimisation of a greenhouse and its components requires a suitable model permitting precise determination of its energy requirements. Existing static models are simple but lack precision; dynamic models though more precise, are unsuitable for use over long periods and difficult to handle in practice. A theoretical study and measurements from the CERN trial greenhouse have allowed the development of new static model named "HORTICERN", precise and easy to use for predicting energy consumption and which takes into account effects of solar energy, wind and radiative loss to the sky. This paper compares the HORTICERN model with the dynamic models of Bot, Takakura, Van Bavel and Gembloux, and demonstrates that its precision is comparable; differences on average being less than 5%, it is independent of type of greenhouse (e.g. single or double glazing, Hortiplus, etc.) and climate. The HORTICERN method has been developed for PC use and is proving to be a powerful tool for greenhouse optimisation by research work...

  19. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 ARC estimates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    TERA's estimates of capital requirements to transport natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, and coal in the US by 1990 are presented. It is a continuation of a 1978 study (EAPA 5:3946) to perform a similar analysis on 1979 scenarios. Scenarios B, C, and D from the EIA's Mid-range Energy Forecasting Systems, as used in the 1979 Annual Report to Congress (ARC), were provided as a basis for the analysis and represent three alternative futures. Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for Scenarios B, C, and D. Total investment requirements for the three models (pipelines, railroads, waterways) and the three energy commodities (coal, petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas) are estimated to range between $35.3 and $42.7 billion by 1990 depending on the scenario.

  20. Strategic study on energy-protein requirements for local sheep: 5. Ewes during lactation phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six Javanese thin-tail ewes in the end of late pregnancy phase were set out to study the energy and crude protein requirements during the first eight-week of lactation phase. The ewes were penned individually in doors and randomly assigned to a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three levels of energy (low, medium and high and three levels of crude protein (low, medium and high diets with four ewes per treatment. The diets were pelleted and offered four times daily in approximately equal amount. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, body weight and milk production were recorded. Results showed that, total lamb birth weights was not affected, but protein content on the ration treatments significantly altered (P0.05, while crude protein content on the ration highly significantly affected (P<0.01. Based on data recorded, the energy and protein requirements for ewes during lactation phase are highly significantly depended on ewes’ live weight, milk production and the ratio of energy metabolism and crude protein of the ration. It was concluded that in order to fulfil the crude protein and energy needs of the ewes during lactation phase, the ration given should contain crude protein and energy as much as 16% (based on dry matter and 13.4 MJ/kg dry matter respectively.

  1. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lages Barbosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2 of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation, respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  2. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  3. The energy requirements of the mining and metallurgical industry in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa depends to a considerable measure on the exploitation of mineral reserves and the processing of these minerals. One of the prime requirements for the mining and metallurgical industry to continue in this vital role is access to sufficient energy in a suitable form. About 26 per cent of the extractable reserves of coal would be required in the mining and processing of 50 per cent of South Africa's reserves. However, the reducing agents required exceed the extractable reserves but not the total estimates of mineable in situ resources of metallurgical coal and anthracitic coal. Even under the severe constraint that coal could become virtually the sole source of energy, only about three-quarters of the extractable reserves of coal would have been consumed by the year 2025. The reasonably assured resources of uranium metal that can be recovered at less than $80 per kilogram are considerable and, at current conversion efficiencies to electricity, are equivalent to one-fifth of the extractable reserves of coal. The rate of exportation of energy in the form of U3O8 was about five times that of coal in 1978. The price of energy has a direct effect on the competitiveness of metals, and, although constituting only a small proportion of the selling price of precious metals, it represents a significant proportion of the selling price of copper and metals recovered from oxide ores. Provided that alternative sources of energy can be converted to electrical energy, they can be applied to the mining and metallurgical industries. The decision as to which type of energy should be used in specific mining and metallurgical situations is complicated, and is likely to be subjected to closer scrutiny than in the past

  4. Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2011-09-30

    The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of about $145 a year for an average new house. Construction cost increases are estimated at $655. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of close to $100 a year because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

  5. 100% energy supply coverage with renewable energy. Requirements for its implementation at the global, national and municipal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents itself as a systematic, easily understandable introduction into the requirements for an energy supply based 100% on renewable energy. Its main focus is on the strategic paths that must be followed for this purpose in the realms of business, technology and governmental policy. It highlights the opportunities and impediments on the way, analysing in the process the roles of political, economic and civil society players from the global down to the municipal level. Starting out from the present state of discussion on the German energy transition it investigates the strengths and weak points of efficiency technologies and renewable energies available today and elaborates a strategic path for developing the necessary infrastructure. In awareness of the fact that 100% coverage will not come about from market mechanisms alone it explores the ecological crash barriers that need to be set up in addition. This is followed by chapters on the roles, interests and means of those players who can exert influence on the framing of the relevant political and legal instruments as well as their means of pursuing their interests. The book thus contributes to clarifying the possibilities of and impediments to achieving an energy supply system based 100% on renewable energy.

  6. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  7. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2014-06-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  8. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  9. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Lages Barbosa; Francisca Daiane Almeida Gadelha; Natalya Kublik; Alan Proctor; Lucas Reichelm; Emily Weissinger; Wohlleb, Gregory M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/...

  10. 78 FR 27982 - U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE... issuance of an International Energy Efficiency Certificate and the preparation of a Ship Energy Efficiency... Energy Efficiency Design Index. These requirements apply to all U.S. flag ships 400 gross tonnage...

  11. Energy Requirements by the Water Sector in the Southwestern US: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, K.; Yates, D. N.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate, energy, and water are fundamentally linked such that shifts in one sector have cascading impacts on the others. Consideration of the integrated system is necessary to fully understand the individual risk profile of each sector. In defining vulnerabilities and potential adaptations, the policy and regulatory environment must be considered alongside the biological and physical systems. Take, for example, the Southwestern U.S., a naturally arid system, where water availability is declining as a consequence of climate change and population growth. Adaptations by the water sector to convey, store, and develop new water sources (e.g. desalination, groundwater pumping, water-reuse) are strategies designed to enhance sustainability of the sector. But, the energy requirements embedded in these management techniques pose challenges to electric utilities. West wide, approximately 20% of total electricity generation goes toward supplying and heating water. If future investments made by the water sector to deal with changing supply and demand regimes continue to follow current trends, the dependence of water on energy availability will grow, meaning that the water supply will be increasingly reliant on the electricity system. Here, we use the example of long-term aridity and the recent drought in the Western US to illustrate the tradeoffs and challenges inherent at the nexus between energy and water. We present long-term trends in the energy intensity of water supplies in the Southwestern US, with a specific focus on groundwater systems. Projected energy requirements for proposed and future conveyance systems are discussed. The potential impacts of reduced flows on the Colorado River on the energy demands for groundwater pumping in the Lower Colorado River Basin are highlighted.

  12. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub o}-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for ``group R`` residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  13. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials' (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U[sub o]-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for group R'' residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  14. Energy Requirements for Maintenance and Growth of German Mutton Merino Crossbred Lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Kai-dong; DIAO Qi-yu; JIANG Cheng-gang; TU Yan; ZHANG Nai-feng; LIU Jie; MA Tao; ZHAO Yi-guang; XU Gui-shan

    2013-01-01

    A comparative slaughter trial and a metabolism trial were conducted to determine the requirement of net energy (NE) and metabolizable energy (ME) by the crossbreed of German Mutton Merino×Inner Mongolia Merino for fattening from 35 to 50 kg of body weight (BW). 49 crossbred female lambs ((33.9±2.3) (SD) kg BW) of German Mutton Merino×Inner Mongolia Merino were used. 34 lambs were randomly chosen for comparative slaughter, which were offered an identical mixture diet (concentrate:roughage=55:45) at 100, 75 or 55%of ad libitum intake, whereas the remainders were used in the metabolism trial to evaluate the ME of the diet after methane production was measured by open-circuit respirometry. As feed intake decreased from 100 to 75 and 55%of ad libitum intake, the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) linearly increased (P=0.010) from 60.8 to 63.6 and 66.9%, respectively, and methane production decreased from 52.1 to 44.3 and 39.9 L d-1, respectively, but the ratio of methane energy to gross energy intake increased linearly (P=0.010) from 8.20 to 8.96 and 10.97%, respectively. Consequently, the ME values of the diet increased from 9.35 to 9.64 and 9.85 MJ kg-1 DM, respectively. The NE requirement for maintenance (NEm) was 255 kJ kg-1 BW0.75, and the ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) was 352 kJ kg-1 BW0.75, with a partial energy efficiency for maintenance (km) of 0.72. The NE requirement for growth (NEg) ranged from 1.26 to 4.66 MJ d-1 as average daily gains increased from 100 to 300 g d-1, with a partial energy efficiency for growth (kg) of 0.45. These results indicated that the NEg required by crossbred female lambs of German Mutton Merino×Inner Mongolia Merino was lower than the recommendation of the American or British nutritional system.

  15. Remote systems requirements of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote systems will be required in the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy Converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources and their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  16. Water and Energy Dietary Requirements and Endocrinology of Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  17. Industry requirements for introduction of alternative energies with emphasis on hydrogen fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabbio, F. [Rio Tinto, Canadian Exploration Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Starbuck, D. [Newmont Mining Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Akerman, A. [CVRD-Inco, Toronto, ON (Canada); Betournay, M.C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed issues related to the use of alternate sources of energy in underground mining applications. Hydrogen power systems were examined in relation to operational drivers, available commercial supplies, site supplies, health and safety issues, capital and operating costs, mine production, and the role of government. Hydrogen power systems are being considered for mining applications in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce cooling and ventilation requirements. This article examined a range of issues that must be addressed before alternate energy systems such as hydrogen fuel cell technology can be used in larger-scale underground mining applications. The mining industry supports the development of new technologies. However, the introduction of alternate energy technologies must proceed in steps which include proof of concept testing, the development of generic infrastructure, power systems and regulations, and whole operating system studies. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  19. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  20. Pressure and specific energy requirements for densification of compost derived from swine solid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pampuro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compost derived from swine solid fraction is a low density material (bulk density less than 500 kg m-3. This makes it costly to transport from production sites to areas where it could be effectively utilized for value-added applications such as in soil fertilization. Densification is one possible way to enhance the storage and transportation of the compost. This study therefore investigates the effect of pressure (20-110 MPa and pressure application time (5-120 s on the compaction characteristics of compost derived from swine solid fraction. Two different types of material have been used: composted swine solid fraction derived from mechanical separation and compost obtained by mixing the first material with wood chips. Results obtained showed that both the pressure applied and the pressure application time significantly affect the density of the compacted samples; while the specific compression energy is significantly affected only by the pressure. Best predictor equations were developed to predict compact density and the specific compression energy required by the densification process. The specific compression energy values based on the results from this study (6-32 kJ kg-1 were significantly lower than the specific energy required to manufacture pellets from biomass feedstock (typically 19-90 kJ kg-1.

  1. Revision of the energy conservation requirements in the manufactured home construction and safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C C; Lee, A D; Lucas, R G; Taylor, Z T

    1992-02-01

    Thermal requirements were developed for manufactured (mobile) homes in response to legislation requiring the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise its thermal standards for manufactured homes. A life-cycle cost minimization from the home owner's perspecetive was used to establish an optimum in a large number of cities for several prototype homes. The development of the economic, financial, and energy conservation measure parameters input into the life-cycle cost analysis was documented. The optimization results were aggregated to zones which were expressed as a maximum overall home U-value (thermal transmittance) requirement. The revised standard's costs, benefits, and net value to the consumer were quantified. 50 refs.

  2. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2013-09-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  3. Digestible energy requirements of Mexican donkeys fed oat straw and maize stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Roque, L; Colunga, B; Smith, D G; González-Ronquillo, M; Solis-Mendez, A; Castelán-Ortega, O

    2005-11-01

    The limited availability of food, together with the constraints that traditional management systems impose on the natural foraging behaviour of donkeys, often results in severe under-nutrition. Few studies have been conducted into the digestibility of different forages and little information exists on nutritional requirements of donkeys. In order to measure digestible energy requirements of donkeys under tropical conditions, an experiment was carried out at the Centre for Research in Agricultural Science (CICA) and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Universidad Aut6noma del Estado de México located in the Toluca valley, Central Mexico. Thirty-two donkeys of a body condition typical for Central Mexico were divided into four groups of 8 animals each according to their sex and live weight: group 1 (G1) comprised male donkeys below the average body weight (102+/-5 kg); group 2 (G2) comprised male donkeys of average body weight (121.5+/-4 kg); group 3 (G3) comprised female donkeys below average weight (111.8 +/- 5 kg); and group 4 (G4) comprised female donkeys of average weight (127.6 +/- 5 kg). A diet of oat straw or maize stover and 15% alfalfa hay was offered to meet exact maintenance requirements. The donkeys were monitored for 13 months. The live weight of all animals was recorded daily in order to monitor whether maintenance requirements were being met. Mean daily digestible energy (DE) requirements were measured during the winter, spring, summer and autumn of 2003-2004. Digestible energy requirements of all four sex and liveweight groups were significantly (p > 0.05) higher during the spring than during the other seasons of the year (13.5, 18.0, 10.4 and 14.3 MJ DE per day during winter, spring, summer and autumn, respectively). Predicted DE requirements of donkeys with a live weight range betweenn 90 and 150 kg using the data from the present study were less than those predicted using scaled-down horse feeding standards.

  4. Technical Requirements For Reactors To Be Deployed Internationally For the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) seeks to create an international regime to support large-scale growth in the worldwide use of nuclear energy. Fully meeting the GNEP vision may require the deployment of thousands of reactors in scores of countries, many of which do not use nuclear energy currently. Some of these needs will be met by large-scale Generation III and III+ reactors (>1000 MWe) and Generation IV reactors when they are available. However, because many developing countries have small and immature electricity grids, the currently available Generation III(+) reactors may be unsuitable since they are too large, too expensive, and too complex. Therefore, GNEP envisions new types of reactors that must be developed for international deployment that are 'right sized' for the developing countries and that are based on technologies, designs, and policies focused on reducing proliferation risk. The first step in developing such systems is the generation of technical requirements that will ensure that the systems meet both the GNEP policy goals and the power needs of the recipient countries. Reactor systems deployed internationally within the GNEP context must meet a number of requirements similar to the safety, reliability, economics, and proliferation goals established for the DOE Generation IV program. Because of the emphasis on deployment to nonnuclear developing countries, the requirements will be weighted differently than with Generation IV, especially regarding safety and non-proliferation goals. Also, the reactors should be sized for market conditions in developing countries where energy demand per capita, institutional maturity and industrial infrastructure vary considerably, and must utilize fuel that is compatible with the fuel recycle technologies being developed by GNEP. Arrangements are already underway to establish Working Groups jointly with Japan and Russia to develop requirements for reactor systems. Additional bilateral and multilateral

  5. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  6. Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Mesa, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2011-03-31

    The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC and the 2003 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of $145 a year for an average new house compared to the 2003 IECC. This energy cost saving decreases to $125 a year for the 2009 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Construction cost increases (per home) for complying with the 2009 IECC are estimated at $1256 relative to the 2003 IECC and $800 for 2006 IECC. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of about $80 a year by complying with the 2009 IECC because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

  7. Experimental assessment of energy requirements and tool tip visibility for photoacoustic-guided endonasal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Dagle, Alicia B.; Kazanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad M.

    2016-03-01

    Endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is an effective approach for pituitary adenoma resection, yet it poses the serious risk of internal carotid artery injury. We propose to visualize these carotid arteries, which are hidden by bone, with an optical fiber attached to a surgical tool and a transcranial ultrasound probe placed on the patient's temple (i.e. intraoperative photoacoustic imaging). To investigate energy requirements for vessel visualization, experiments were conducted with a phantom containing ex vivo sheep brain, ex vivo bovine blood, and 0.5-2.5 mm thick human cadaveric skull specimens. Photoacoustic images were acquired with 1.2-9.3 mJ laser energy, and the resulting vessel contrast was measured at each energy level. The distal vessel boundary was difficult to distinguish at the chosen contrast threshold for visibility (4.5 dB), which was used to determine the minimum energies for vessel visualization. The blood vessel was successfully visualized in the presence of the 0-2.0 mm thick sphenoid and temporal bones with up to 19.2 dB contrast. The minimum energy required ranged from 1.2-5.0 mJ, 4.2-5.9 mJ, and 4.6-5.2 mJ for the 1.0 temporal and 0-1.5 mm sphenoid bones, 1.5 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, and 2.0 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, respectively, which corresponds to a fluence range of 4-21 mJ/cm2. These results hold promise for vessel visualization within safety limits. In a separate experiment, a mock tool tip was placed, providing satisfactory preliminary evidence that surgical tool tips can be visualized simultaneously with blood vessels.

  8. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags using CO2 diluted sources: CO2 uptakes and energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato eBaciocchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry phase (L/S=5 l/kg, T=100 °C and Ptot=10 bar and the thin film (L/S =0.3-0.4 l/kg, T=50 °C and Ptot=7-10 bar routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake achieved as a function of the reaction time was analyzed and on this basis the energy requirements associated to each carbonation route and gas mixture composition were estimated considering to store the CO2 emissions of a medium size natural gas fired power plant (20 MW. For the slurry phase route, maximum CO2 uptakes ranged from around 8% at 10% CO2, to 21.1% (BOF-a and 29.2% (BOF-b at 40% CO2 and 32.5% (BOF-a and 40.3% (BOF-b at 100% CO2. For the thin film route, maximum uptakes of 13% (BOF-c and 19.5% (BOF-d at 40% CO2, and 17.8% (BOF-c and 20.2% (BOF-d at 100% were attained. The energy requirements of the two analyzed process routes appeared to depend chiefly on the CO2 uptake of the slag. For both process route, the minimum overall energy requirements were found for the tests with 40% CO2 flows (i.e. 1400-1600 MJ/t CO2 for the slurry phase and 2220-2550 MJ/t CO2 for the thin film route.

  9. Liquid-Desiccant Vapor Separation Reduces the Energy Requirements of Atmospheric Moisture Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gido, Ben; Friedler, Eran; Broday, David M

    2016-08-01

    An innovative atmospheric moisture harvesting system is proposed, where water vapor is separated from the air prior to cooling and condensation. The system was studied using a model that simulates its three interconnected cycles (air, desiccant, and water) over a range of ambient conditions, and optimal configurations are reported for different operation conditions. Model results were compared to specifications of commercial atmospheric moisture harvesting systems and found to represent saving of 5-65% of the electrical energy requirements due to the vapor separation process. We show that the liquid desiccant separation stage that is integrated into atmospheric moisture harvesting systems can work under a wide range of environmental conditions using low grade or solar heating as a supplementary energy source, and that the performance of the combined system is superior. PMID:27435379

  10. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading...... strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy...

  11. Energy Requirements for Maintenance and Growth of Male Saanen Goat Kids

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Medeiros; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.; M.J. Araújo; Yáñez, E. A.; Ferreira, A. C. D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of forty-one Saanen, intact male kids with initial body weight (BW) of 5.12±0.19 kg. The baseline (BL) group consisted of eight kids averaging 5.46±0.18 kg BW. An intermediate group consisted of six kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 12.9±0.29 kg. The remaining kids (n = 27) were randomly allocated into nine slaughter groups (blocks) of three animals dist...

  12. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies

  13. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Tröndle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of...

  14. Opportunities and requirements for experimentation at high energy e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, C.; Baltay, C.; Barklow, T.L.; Burchat, P.R.; Burke, D.L.; Cooper, A.R.; Dib, C.; Feldman, G.J.; Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.

    1988-05-01

    Over the past fifteen years of high-energy physics, electron-positron annihilation has been the most productive of all reactions probing the fundamental interactions. The e/sup +/e/sup /minus// annihilation process is unique in offering at the same time copious production of novel particles, low backgrounds from more conventional physics, and the most efficient use of the energy which an accelerator provides. These features have allowed the detailed characterization of the charm and bottom quark-antiquark systems and the unambiguous discovery of gluon jets---the crucial ingredients in the establishment of Quantum Chromodynamics as the correct theory of the strong interactions---as well as the discovery of the tau lepton and confirmation of the weak and electromagnetic properties of all the quarks and leptons at high energy. Over the past few years, experiments will begin at SLC and LEP, and we anticipate new discoveries from the detailed study of the Z/sup 0/ resonance. It is time, then to begin to think out how one might continue this mode experimentation to still higher energies. This document is the report of a committee convened by the Director of SLAC, Burton Richter, to set out the major physics goals of an e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collider in the energy range 600 GeV-1 TeV, corresponding to the next feasible step in accelerator technology. The committee was charged with the task of outlining the main experiments that such a collider might carry out and the requirements which those experiments place on the accelerator design. 106 refs., 105 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Opportunities and requirements for experimentation at high energy e+e/sup /minus// collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past fifteen years of high-energy physics, electron-positron annihilation has been the most productive of all reactions probing the fundamental interactions. The e+e/sup /minus// annihilation process is unique in offering at the same time copious production of novel particles, low backgrounds from more conventional physics, and the most efficient use of the energy which an accelerator provides. These features have allowed the detailed characterization of the charm and bottom quark-antiquark systems and the unambiguous discovery of gluon jets---the crucial ingredients in the establishment of Quantum Chromodynamics as the correct theory of the strong interactions---as well as the discovery of the tau lepton and confirmation of the weak and electromagnetic properties of all the quarks and leptons at high energy. Over the past few years, experiments will begin at SLC and LEP, and we anticipate new discoveries from the detailed study of the Z0 resonance. It is time, then to begin to think out how one might continue this mode experimentation to still higher energies. This document is the report of a committee convened by the Director of SLAC, Burton Richter, to set out the major physics goals of an e+e/sup /minus// collider in the energy range 600 GeV-1 TeV, corresponding to the next feasible step in accelerator technology. The committee was charged with the task of outlining the main experiments that such a collider might carry out and the requirements which those experiments place on the accelerator design. 106 refs., 105 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Energy and Protein Requirements for - to -Week-Age Gushi Chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Xiang-tao; TIAN Ya-dong; SONG Su-fang

    2002-01-01

    In this experiment, 540 male and female chicks of 1-day-age were selected respectively and reared separately. 3 × 3 factorial experiment was designed. Gushi chicks were fed with nine diets under different metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP). Effects of different diets on the performances and carcass ingredients of 0-to 4-week-age Gushi chicks were studied by rearing, comparative slaughter and metabolism experiments. Based on the results of three experiments, ME intake per kilogram metabolic weight was regarded as dependent variable (Y), and its corresponding net energy (NE) deposition per kilogram metabolic weight was regarded as independent variable (X), respectively. Lineal regressive analysis was made according to the mathematic model: Y=a+bX. Maintenance ME(MEm) and the converted coefficient from net energy for gain(NEg) to ME for gain(MEg) were found out, then ME requirement was divided into MErm+ MEg,which is ME = 359.14 W0.75 + 10.47/△W; CP intake and corresponding metabolic weight were regarded as dependent variable and independent variable respectively, and then regressive analysis was made. The result was CP = 0. 57 + 8.21 W0.75. Consequently, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake and metabolic weight were put into the regressive equations, and then ME and CP requirements for 0- to 4-week-age Gushi chicks were obtained, 12.38 MJ kg-1 and 20.13%, respectively, the ratio of CP to ME was 16.26 g MJ-1.

  17. [Problems in the energy and nutritional requirements of feeding and welfare of food producing animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphues, J

    1998-03-01

    The efforts in optimizing feeding conditions of food producing animals in the past were focussed primarily on promoting performance and/or the products' quality (MEYER 1997). In spite of great success in this direction various risks occur due to the conflict between the increased requirements on the one hand and the species typical demands on the other (for example: need of roughage as well as of concentrates with high energy and nutrient density in ruminants). Especially in feeding high yielding dairy cows the conflict is obvious: Even in the case, that high amounts of concentrates are fed it becomes more and more difficult to meet the energy requirement when the milk yield exceeds 40 kg milk per day (FLACHOWSKY a. LEBZIEN 1997). A negative energy balance is accompanied by a forced predisposition for ketosis and infertility (KRUIP 1996). Insufficient proportions of roughage in those rations predispose the animals for rumen acidosis and associated problems (health of claws etc.) as well as for displacement of abomasum. Thereby in feeding high yielding dairy cows there is only the choice between different risks due to the fact that the feed intake capacity did not increase to the same extent as the milk production did. In fattening calves the use of roughage (in Germany required by law) is on debate in this direction (necessary to avoid disturbances in the behaviour). Further problems in feeding animals according to their species typical demands are related to the established conditions of housing, feeding and water supply (risks of mechanization and automatization due to potential disfunction). The generally increased feeding intensity results--for example in poultry--in a higher frequency of skeleton diseases; the more and more specialized pig production (separate units for piglet production, rearing units, fattening units) is accompanied by increased changes in diets and techniques of feed and water supply, to that the animals have to be accustomed, too. The

  18. 75 FR 44163 - Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ...-AB07 Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of... Administration (GIPSA) published a proposed rule in the Federal Register on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35338)...

  19. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Suárez; Muñoz, José F.; Bonifacio Fernández; Jean-Marc Dorsaz; Christian K. Hunter; Christos A. Karavitis; Jorge Gironás

    2014-01-01

    Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeho...

  20. Status of low-level radioactive waste requirements development in the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level radioactive waste in accordance with the policies, guidelines and requirements specified in DOE Order 5820.2A, 'Radioactive Waste Management', issued in 1988. Since that time, DOE has reorganized its waste management programs, instituted new policies with emphasis on environmental protection, safety and health protection, and strengthened the management of hazardous waste. An evaluation of DOE Order 5820.2A has shown the need to revise the Order in light of recent organizational and operational policies. In addition, the Order should be more comprehensive, clarify organizational responsibilities, and be more compatible with similar Federal regulations. A revision could also integrate recent interim guidance for management of low-level waste (LLW), such as determination of material as radioactive waste, management of naturally-occurring radioactive material, use of commercial disposal facilities, and the management of special case waste that is unique to DOE. (author)

  1. Model of an aquaponic system for minimised water, energy and nitrogen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Lastiri, D; Slinkert, T; Cappon, H J; Baganz, D; Staaks, G; Keesman, K J

    2016-01-01

    Water and nutrient savings can be established by coupling water streams between interacting processes. Wastewater from production processes contains nutrients like nitrogen (N), which can and should be recycled in order to meet future regulatory discharge demands. Optimisation of interacting water systems is a complex task. An effective way of understanding, analysing and optimising such systems is by applying mathematical models. The present modelling work aims at supporting the design of a nearly emission-free aquaculture and hydroponic system (aquaponics), thus contributing to sustainable production and to food security for the 21st century. Based on the model, a system that couples 40 m(3) fish tanks and a hydroponic system of 1,000 m(2) can produce 5 tons of tilapia and 75 tons of tomato yearly. The system requires energy to condense and recover evaporated water, for lighting and heating, adding up to 1.3 GJ/m(2) every year. In the suggested configuration, the fish can provide about 26% of the N required in a plant cycle. A coupling strategy that sends water from the fish to the plants in amounts proportional to the fish feed input, reduces the standard deviation of the NO3(-) level in the fish cycle by 35%.

  2. Model of an aquaponic system for minimised water, energy and nitrogen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Lastiri, D; Slinkert, T; Cappon, H J; Baganz, D; Staaks, G; Keesman, K J

    2016-01-01

    Water and nutrient savings can be established by coupling water streams between interacting processes. Wastewater from production processes contains nutrients like nitrogen (N), which can and should be recycled in order to meet future regulatory discharge demands. Optimisation of interacting water systems is a complex task. An effective way of understanding, analysing and optimising such systems is by applying mathematical models. The present modelling work aims at supporting the design of a nearly emission-free aquaculture and hydroponic system (aquaponics), thus contributing to sustainable production and to food security for the 21st century. Based on the model, a system that couples 40 m(3) fish tanks and a hydroponic system of 1,000 m(2) can produce 5 tons of tilapia and 75 tons of tomato yearly. The system requires energy to condense and recover evaporated water, for lighting and heating, adding up to 1.3 GJ/m(2) every year. In the suggested configuration, the fish can provide about 26% of the N required in a plant cycle. A coupling strategy that sends water from the fish to the plants in amounts proportional to the fish feed input, reduces the standard deviation of the NO3(-) level in the fish cycle by 35%. PMID:27386980

  3. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  4. Multi-regional input-output model for regional energy requirements and CO2 emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, China is divided into eight economic regions. A multi-regional input-output model for energy requirements and CO2 emissions in China was established, and employed to perform scenario and sensitivity analysis for each economic region in year 2010 and 2020. Results show that up to year 2020, improvement in energy end-use efficiency for each region could generate intra-regional energy savings. Therefore, continuing efforts should be taken to advance improvements of energy end-use efficiency for each region. At the national level, the effectiveness of inter-regional energy transfers, and efficiency improvements in Central and Northwest regions should be accelerated as much as possible. However, population growth will be an obvious driving force for additional energy requirements and cause greater CO2 emissions across all regions. This demand will increase with the growth of the economy and improvement in household incomes. Population growth in one region will not only significantly affect energy requirements of the region itself, but also drive up energy requirements of the other regions. During this important period in time when China is making efforts to build a well-rounded society, the basic state policy of family planning should be enforced for each region. Model results indicate that there exists relative error between emissions caused by a region and emissions emitted by that region. Different identification of responsibility will have understandable different impacts on most regions in environmental policy reform. (Author)

  5. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  6. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  7. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B

    2012-08-01

    beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R&D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF

  8. The cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue methodology for ERDA/EPRI evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation amd maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

  9. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  10. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention and pregnancy, and kl was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. Increasing FP significantly reduced ME intake and milk energy output, although the differences between the 2 low FP groups were not significant. However, increasing FP significantly increased the ratio of heat production over ME intake and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), with the exception that the increases did not reach significance in heat production/ME intake between FP energy requirement for maintenance significantly increased with increasing FP. However, the increase between the 2 high FP groups did not research significance. It is concluded that increasing diet FP had no effects on kl but significantly increased maintenance energy requirement (MJ/kg(0.75)). These results indicate that using the current energy feeding systems to ration dairy cows managed under low input systems may underestimate their nutrient requirements, because the majority of feeding systems adopted globally do not differentiate the maintenance energy requirements between low and high forage input systems.

  11. Ad libitum feeding following ovariectomy in female Beagle dogs: effect on maintenance energy requirement and on blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeusette, I; Detilleux, J; Cuvelier, C; Istasse, L; Diez, M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the effect of ovariectomy on daily energy requirement in Beagle dogs, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of ad libitum feeding with a high energy diet on energy consumption, body weight gain and blood metabolites in these spayed dogs. Four young adult female Beagle dogs were used. Ovariectomy induced a significant decrease of daily energy requirement in dogs. Ad libitum feeding, initiated 6 months after spaying, induced a significant increase in consumption in spayed dogs. This overconsumption was greatest during the first month of ad libitum feeding but continued for the entire 4 months of this period. When fed ad libitum, dogs gained excess body weight without significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin, at short term. These data suggest that energy intake should be strictly controlled to avoid excess weight gain in spayed dogs. PMID:15059235

  12. LongTerm Energy Efficiency Analysis Requires Solid Energy Statistics: The case of the German Basic Chemical Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Trudeau, N.; Gielen, D.J.; Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply t

  13. 76 FR 41240 - Agave Energy Company; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Agave Energy Company; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and Reporting... Procedure, 18 CFR 385.202 (2011), Agave Energy Company (AEC) requests that the Commission grant a...

  14. Energy from agricultural residues and consequences for land requirements for food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2007-01-01

    Using biomass as an energy source is often mentioned as an option to mitigate the enhancing greenhouse effect. Biomass for energy purposes can be obtained from dedicated energy crops and/or from agricultural residues. The available amount of residues is large and suggests a significant energy potent

  15. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Requirements and expectations of utilities and consumer organisations in the European energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creation of an internal market for renewable electricity will involve a political negotiation process, similar to previous EU greenhouse gas negotiations. The Energy Ministers in the EU have agreed on an overall target of 21.7% of electricity supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) and a distribution of targets over the individual Member States. The REBUS project aimed at providing insights in the effects of implementing targets for renewable electricity generation at EU Member State level and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Member States can participate in such burden sharing systems to reduce the costs of achieving targets for electricity from renewable sources (RES-E), compared to strictly national implementation measures. The project concentrated on the development of the REBUS model, which quantifies the impact of trade (in green certificates, quotas or targets) and the implementation of different rules to setting targets at individual Member State level. In addition, the project has paid special attention to the participation of stakeholders such as utilities, traders, and consumers of electricity. What is their opinion on the target setting, on the design of a trading system and its practical implementation and monitoring aspects? Utilities and consumer organisations in Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom have been asked to comment on these issues. This report is a result of a series of interviews with these stakeholders on their reaction to different burden sharing proposals, and on the socio-economic and financial impacts they foresee. The utilities take a critical view of their position in the renewable energy market and possible future international trading scheme. The main conclusions from the interviews are: Generally, target setting and burden sharing are regarded political questions, on which governments should decide; Stakeholders emphasise

  16. Biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, CO2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ortigueira, Joana; Alves, Luís; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia; Silva, Carla

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole Scenedesmus obliquus biomass. The main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. This was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. The scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a potential application to a fuel cell hybrid taxi fleet. The H2 yield obtained was 7.3 g H2/kg of S. obliquus dried biomass. The results show that the production of biohydrogen required 71-100 MJ/MJ(H2) and emitted about 5-6 kg CO2/MJ(H2). Other studies and production technologies were taken into account to discuss an eventual process scale-up. Increased production rates of microalgal biomass and biohydrogen are necessary for bioH2 to become competitive with conventional production pathways.

  17. Energy requirement for maintenance and gain for two genotypes of quails housed in different breeding rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jordão Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the energy requirements for maintenance and gain of Japanese and European quails under growth housed in two rearing systems: floor pens and cages. To determine maintenance requirements, two experiments were conducted with birds housed in cages in environmental chambers (experiment 1 and in floor pens at room temperature conditions (experiment 2. The experimental design was completely randomized with four levels of feed supply (100, 75, 50 and 25% and four repetitions. Energy requirements for maintenance were estimated by the comparative slaughter method through a feeding trial. In experiment 1, 64 Japanese and European quails per treatment were housed in cages of climatic chambers at 18, 24, and 28 °C, while in experiment 2, 352 quails per treatment were housed in floor pens at room temperature (26 °C. To estimate gain requirements, five slaughters were performed with quails receiving feed ad libitum and housed under controlled temperature of 18 °C (experiment 3. Prediction equations were obtained to estimate requirements for maintenance and gain of energy for the two genotypes of quails. The room temperature and breeding system affected the estimates of energy requirements for maintenance. The genotypes presented different estimates for maintenance and gain. Prediction models should be developed considering the room temperature and quails' genotypes.

  18. Energy data visualisation requires additional approaches to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Grant Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualisation diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind or solar based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way in which to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity can all be displayed together. This in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.

  19. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; P<0.001) indicated values for net energy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; P<0.001). There were positive linear relationships between N intake and N outputs in manure, and manure N accounted for 0.923 of the N intake. The present results provide approaches to predict maintenance energy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems. PMID:26593693

  20. Implementation of Legal Requirements for Energy Using Products (EuP in Lithuanian Industry: Problems and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Gurauskienė

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy using products (EuPs are of great concern, because of their proliferation in every-day activity and environmental impact through their life cycle. The greatest share of environmental impact is related to energy use in the usage stage. The new legal requirements implemented in the EU are intended for tackling the environmental impact of EuPs applying the life cycle approach. The aim of this paper is to present the legal requirements for EuPs and eco-design measures the manufacturing companies have to undertake in order to gain competitive advantage while implementing them at the production stage.

  1. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  2. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  3. The Development of Digestion and Absorption and the Energy Protein Lipid and Carbohydrate Requirements of the Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Çam, Halit; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Mıkla, Şerare

    1994-01-01

    Premature infants have high energy and nutrient requirements for their rapid growth The knowledge of the development of salivary gastric biliary and intestinal enzymes and factors involved in digestion and absorption plays important roles in the choice of the feeding constituents In this review we shall discuss the protein lipid and carbohydrate requirements of the premature infants and the importance of breast feeding Key words: Premature Infant Nutriton Gastrointestinal Functions

  4. Regulatory requirements and tools for environmental assessment of hazardous wastes: Understanding tribal and stakeholder concerns using Department of Energy sites

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Joanna; Powers, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Many US governmental and Tribal Nation agencies, as well as state and local entities, deal with hazardous wastes within regulatory frameworks that require specific environmental assessments. In this paper we use Department of Energy (DOE) sites as examples to examine the relationship between regulatory requirements and environmental assessments for hazardous waste sites and give special attention to how assessment tools differ. We consider federal laws associated with environmental protection...

  5. On the “cost-optimal levels” of energy performance requirements and its economic evaluation in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Tronchin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European energy policies about climate and energy package, known as the “20-20-20” targets define ambitious, but achievable, national energy objectives. As regards the Directives closely related to the 2020 targets, the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD Recast- DIR 2010/31/EU is the main European legislative instrument for improving the energy performance of buildings, taking into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate requirements and cost-effectiveness. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels”. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology framework, leaving the Member States to determine which of these calculations is to become the national benchmark against which national minimum energy performance requirements will be assessed. The European standards (ENs- Umbrella Document V7 (prCEN/TR 15615 are intended to support the EPBD by providing the calculation methods and associated material to obtain the overall energy performance of a building. For Italy the Energy Performance of Building Simulations EPBS must be calculated with standard UNITS 11300. The energy building behaviour is referred to standard and not to real use, nor climate or dynamic energy evaluation. Since retrofitting of existing buildings offers significant opportunities for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, a case study of retrofitting is described and the CostOptimal Level EU procedure in an Italian context is analysed. Following this procedure, it is shown not only that the energy cost depends on several conditions and most of them are not indexed at national level but also that the cost of improvement depends on local variables and contract tender. The case study highlights the difficulties to apply EU rules, and

  6. Energy requirements of gamefield exercises designed for wheelchair-bound persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardús, D; McTaggart, W G; Ribas-Cardús, F; Donovan, W H

    1989-02-01

    This report presents energy requirements of three athletic exercises (power ramp, climber, and chin-ups) in a free-wheeling gamefield developed by the City of Houston for wheelchair-bound persons. Heart rate was monitored by telemetry. Expired gas samples were collected in Douglas bags. Oxygen and CO2 concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry and expired gas volumes by a wet gas meter. Pulmonary ventilation, O2 consumption, and CO2 production were calculated from expired gas samples. Laboratory studies were conducted on eight men with paraplegia and ten untrained, healthy, able-bodied men. The same persons were tested on the gamefield while propelling a wheelchair over the power ramp, the climber, and doing chin-ups. Age and weight were 32 +/- 4yrs vs 31 +/- 6yrs and 79.6kg vs 79.0kg, respectively, for paraplegic and healthy men. Paraplegic men had average heart rates of 133 +/- 11bpm, 133 +/- 19bpm, and 135 +/- 21bpm, respectively, for the power ramp, climber, and chin-ups. Heart rate values for able-bodied men were 136 +/- 26bpm, 139 +/- 24bpm, and 136 +/- 26bpm, respectively, for the same three exercises. The paraplegic men's VO2 measurements were 13.2 +/- 2.2, 11.5 +/- 2.8, and 6.4 +/- 2.9ml/min/kg, respectively, for the power ramp, climber, and chin-ups. The able-bodied men's VO2 measurements were 15.8 +/- 2.8, 15.4 +/- 3.6, and 9.2 +/- 2.8 ml/min/kg for the same exercises. Patients with paraplegia seemed to outperform able-bodied men in all events. Gamefield exercises appeared to tax the cardiorespiratory system at a level comparable to that usually prescribed for training purposes. PMID:2916929

  7. Metabolic energy is required in human platelets at any stage during optical aggregation and secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Jan Willem N.; Verhoeven, A.J.M.; Mommersteeg, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic energy and platelet aggregation and secretion was investigated by sudden exhaustion of the cell energy content after these platelet responses had been initiated. In normal platelets, optical aggregation was at any stage susceptible to energy exhaustion, whereas sin

  8. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens;

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial...

  9. Evaluation of fuel resources and requirements for the magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is given for each of the following topics: (1) requirements for experimental fusion power reactors, (2) tritium requirements, (3) sources of T, (4) T availability from DOE production reactors, (5) T availability from heavy-water reactors, (6) T availability from light-water reactors, (7) T availability from fuel reprocessing plants, (8) natural Li requirements and availability, (9) 6Li requirements and availability, and (10) availability of 3He or 4He

  10. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  11. Energy Conversion in Lifting Mass Vertically using a DC Electric Motor by Observing Required Time to Lift Object for a Certain Height

    CERN Document Server

    Viridi, Sparisoma; Permana, Sidik; Srigutomo, Wahyu; Susilawati, Anggie; Nuryadin, Bebeh Wahid; Nurhasan,

    2014-01-01

    In lifting mass vertically using a DC electric motor energy conversion from electric energy, through intermediate kinetic energy, to gravitation potential energy shows that time required {\\Delta}t to lift load mass m for height h is dependent quadratically to m. Several approaches to explain the experiment observation are discussed in this work, from ideal energy conversion to numerical solution from differential equation.

  12. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; Penergy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; Penergy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems.

  13. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author)

  14. On Early Conflict Identification by Requirements Modeling of Energy System Control Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Control systems are purposeful systems involving goal-oriented information processing (cyber) and technical (physical) structures. Requirements modeling formalizes fundamental concepts and relations of a system architecture at a high-level design stage and can be used to identify potential design...... issues early. For requirements formulation of control structures, cyber and physical aspects need to be jointly represented to express interdependencies, check for consistency and discover potentially conflicting requirements. Early identification of potential conflicts may prevent larger problems...

  15. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP maintenance significantly increased with increasing FP. However, the increase between the 2 high FP groups did not research significance. It is concluded that increasing diet FP had no effects on kl but significantly increased maintenance energy requirement (MJ/kg(0.75)). These results indicate that using the current energy feeding systems to ration dairy cows managed under low input systems may underestimate their nutrient requirements, because the majority of feeding systems adopted globally do not differentiate the maintenance energy requirements between low and high forage input systems. PMID:26454288

  16. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national

  17. Keeping an eye on reliability: the organizational requirements of future renewable energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The reliable operation of energy infrastructures is more than just a technical matter. It is also dependent upon the organizational structure that enables and constrains entities in their management of operations. Yet this lesson seems forgotten in our planning of future renewable energy systems. Th

  18. Accuracy of Dietary Reference Intakes for determining energy requirements in girls123

    OpenAIRE

    Bandini, Linda G.; Lividini, Keith; Phillips, Sarah M.; Must, Aviva

    2013-01-01

    Background: The most recent Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) (2002) for energy were based on pooled data from convenience samples of individuals with energy expenditure determined by using doubly labeled water (DLW). To our knowledge, the accuracy of these intake estimates has not been assessed in children.

  19. The strictest energy requirements in the world: An analysis of the path dependencies of a self-proclaimed success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    50 years of progressively strengthened energy requirements in the Danish building code appear to be a success, as the energy consumption has remained constant despite an increase in the total area in requirement of heating. This article however argues that the building code mechanism is heavily influenced by path dependent regime structuration processes, and that the mechanism constitutes a barrier to more radical developments within low energy housing. Few and poorly organized frontrunner activities within low energy housing have accordingly taken place in a Danish context during the past decades. Finally it is proposed that the current development within the energy system provides opportunities for cultivating an improved transitional awareness and for carrying out experimental activities that may challenge the path dependencies of prevailing regime structuration processes. - Highlights: ► We analyze the role of the building code energy strategy as an incumbent regime. ► Regime independent development activities such as passive houses are retained. ► Industry is characterized by adaptive capacity to support radical development. ► Adaptive capacity needs to be mobilized and configure by regime problematizations. ► Governance capabilities to achieve such a mobilization are presently in short supply.

  20. Storage requirement and its impact on the energy industry in implementation of political objectives of energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing integration of renewable energy generating systems pose fundamental challenges for the energy industry. This concerns not only the utility companies but also established simulation models for analyzing the markets. In the present work, a system dynamic bottom-up model is described, which imagines the German electricity market in a 15 minute resolution and a high integration of renewable energies. The above described developments are affecting increasingly the operation mode of storage power plants. A result of model is that the operation of storage power plants is increasingly no longer worthwhile in the near future. After 2020, however, in the daytime prices will be significantly lower than during the night, resulting in new economic application scenarios for storage power plants. Also an outlook is provided on the duration of future storage usage times in the presented model, after which there will be a considerable demand for increasingly shorter cycles under 4 hours and longer cycles with more than 32 hours.

  1. Model for optimization of biomass utilization of energy production by energetic and economic requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Istvan Takacs; Erika Nagy-Kovacs; Ervin Hollo; Sandor Marselek

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-energy use is not a new idea. Earlier the by-products of the production processes or naturally grown materials were mainly used for energy production. One of the answers to the contemporary problems is the deliberate as well as mass production of the biomass, furthermore the planned and systematic collection of the by-products, which is the source of the energy being able to replace a part of the fossil fuels. At the same time during the production of biomass the conventional sources ...

  2. First Order Estimates of Energy Requirements for Pollution Control. Interagency Energy-Environment Research and Development Program Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James L.; And Others

    This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report presents estimates of the energy demand attributable to environmental control of pollution from stationary point sources. This class of pollution source includes powerplants, factories, refineries, municipal waste water treatment plants, etc., but excludes mobile sources such as trucks, and…

  3. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, William H.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  4. Construction of microbial platform for an energy-requiring bioprocess: practical 2′-deoxyribonucleoside production involving a C−C coupling reaction with high energy substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horinouchi Nobuyuki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproduction and sustainability are important for future society, and bioprocesses are one technology that can be used to realize these concepts. However, there is still limited variation in bioprocesses and there are several challenges, especially in the operation of energy-requiring bioprocesses. As an example of a microbial platform for an energy-requiring bioprocess, we established a process that efficiently and enzymatically synthesizes 2′-deoxyribonucleoside from glucose, acetaldehyde, and a nucleobase. This method consists of the coupling reactions of the reversible nucleoside degradation pathway and energy generation through the yeast glycolytic pathway. Results Using E. coli that co-express deoxyriboaldolase and phosphopentomutase, a high amount of 2′-deoxyribonucleoside was produced with efficient energy transfer under phosphate-limiting reaction conditions. Keeping the nucleobase concentration low and the mixture at a low reaction temperature increased the yield of 2′-deoxyribonucleoside relative to the amount of added nucleobase, indicating that energy was efficiently generated from glucose via the yeast glycolytic pathway under these reaction conditions. Using a one-pot reaction in which small amounts of adenine, adenosine, and acetone-dried yeast were fed into the reaction, 75 mM of 2′-deoxyinosine, the deaminated product of 2′-deoxyadenosine, was produced from glucose (600 mM, acetaldehyde (250 mM, adenine (70 mM, and adenosine (20 mM with a high yield relative to the total base moiety input (83%. Moreover, a variety of natural dNSs were further synthesized by introducing a base-exchange reaction into the process. Conclusion A critical common issue in energy-requiring bioprocess is fine control of phosphate concentration. We tried to resolve this problem, and provide the convenient recipe for establishment of energy-requiring bioprocesses. It is anticipated that the commercial demand for d

  5. Energy conservation: a requirement of the present time; Economia de energia: exigencia dos tempos atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcoforado, Fernando Antonio Goncalves [Companhia de Eletricidade do Estado da Bahia (COELBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The origins of the financial crisis that affects the Brazilian electrical sector is presented. The options available to overcome this situation and the role played by energy conservation are described. 7 refs.

  6. Market analysis, energy savings potential, and future development requirements for Radiance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), Building Equipment Division has funded the development of a sophisticated computer rendering program called Radiance at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The project review study included: (1) Surveys of the lighting profession to determine how designers would use an improved, user-friendly Radiance, (2) Elucidation of features, including how Radiance could be used to save energy, which could be incorporated into Radiance to facilitate its more widespread use, (3) Outline of a development plan and determination of what costs the DOE might incur if it were to proceed with the development of an improved version, and (4) Weighing the anticipated development costs against anticipated energy-saving benefits.

  7. Common Misconceptions Regarding Cybersecurity Requirements for Renewable Energy Generation Facilities Associated with Army Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinnon, Archibald D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thorsen, Darlene E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boyd, Paul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The purpose of this whitepaper is to identify and address some common cybersecurity misconceptions involving the need for cybersecurity at Renewable Energy Generation Facilities (REGFs) at U.S. Army installations. These misconceptions have been encountered in some discussions with REGF contractors, their parent organizations, and Army personnel. It is hoped that by addressing these misconceptions head-on, REGF and Army personnel can quickly move beyond them in future cybersecurity discussions and focus their energies on relevant issues.

  8. Equalising effects, reliable performance and storage requirement of large-scale renewable energy production in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to study for the example of the Federal German Republic the implications of a temporally and spatially fluctuating power supply such as from solar irradiation (photovoltaic) and wind and water energy. This includes equalisation effects resulting from the wide spatial distribution of plant sites and from the combination of different renewable energy sources with dissimilar daily and yearly fluctuations. (orig./HW)

  9. A cautionary approach in transitioning to 'green' energy technologies and practices is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatiele, Puleng; Gulumian, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies (wind turbines, solar cells, biofuels, etc.) are often referred to as 'clean' or 'green' energy sources, while jobs linked to the field of environmental protection and energy efficiency are referred to as 'green' jobs. The energy efficiency of clean technologies, which is likely to reduce and/or eliminate reliance on fossil fuels, is acknowledged. However, the potential contribution of green technologies and associated practices to ill health and environmental pollution resulting from consumption of energy and raw materials, generation of waste, and the negative impacts related to some life cycle phases of these technologies are discussed. Similarly, a point is made that the green jobs theme is mistakenly oversold because the employment opportunities generated by transitioning to green technologies are not necessarily safe and healthy jobs. Emphasis is put on identifying the hazards associated with these green designs, assessing the risks to the environment and worker health and safety, and either eliminating the hazards or minimizing the risks as essential elements to the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green technologies. The perception that it is not always economically possible to consider all risk factors associated with renewable energy technologies at the beginning without hampering their implementation, especially in the poor developing countries, is dismissed. Instead, poor countries are encouraged to start implementing environmentally sound practices while transitioning to green technologies in line with their technological development and overall economic growth. PMID:27180334

  10. A cautionary approach in transitioning to 'green' energy technologies and practices is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatiele, Puleng; Gulumian, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies (wind turbines, solar cells, biofuels, etc.) are often referred to as 'clean' or 'green' energy sources, while jobs linked to the field of environmental protection and energy efficiency are referred to as 'green' jobs. The energy efficiency of clean technologies, which is likely to reduce and/or eliminate reliance on fossil fuels, is acknowledged. However, the potential contribution of green technologies and associated practices to ill health and environmental pollution resulting from consumption of energy and raw materials, generation of waste, and the negative impacts related to some life cycle phases of these technologies are discussed. Similarly, a point is made that the green jobs theme is mistakenly oversold because the employment opportunities generated by transitioning to green technologies are not necessarily safe and healthy jobs. Emphasis is put on identifying the hazards associated with these green designs, assessing the risks to the environment and worker health and safety, and either eliminating the hazards or minimizing the risks as essential elements to the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green technologies. The perception that it is not always economically possible to consider all risk factors associated with renewable energy technologies at the beginning without hampering their implementation, especially in the poor developing countries, is dismissed. Instead, poor countries are encouraged to start implementing environmentally sound practices while transitioning to green technologies in line with their technological development and overall economic growth.

  11. Analysis of the thermal energy requirements for the extraction of leaf protein concentrate from some green plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangka, Julius K. [Dschang Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Dschang (Cameroon)

    2003-12-01

    Extraction of protein from the leaves of green plants is very important because of the high cost of conventional forms of protein such as meat, milk and fish. In order to design machinery for this extraction, and also to embark on leaf protein concentrate extraction, it is necessary to measure and analyse the energy requirements to carry out each process involved in the extraction, using different plant species. Experiments were carried out to determine the amount of crude protein, and the thermal energy required to extract leaf protein concentrate, from juices obtained from the leaves of some plant species. Leaves from the following plants were selected: cassava (Manihot esculanta), Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), gliricidia (Gliricidia maculata) and thorny tree (Hura crepetans). The leaves from the plant species were macerated in a laboratory pulper. Juice was obtained from the samples using perforated cylinders and a hydraulic press. The specific heat capacity of the juices was determined using the cooling curve method. The values of the heat capacities were used to calculate the amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of each juice from its normal temperature of about 25 deg C to a total protein coagulation temperature of about 80 deg C. The crude protein content of the extract was determined using the Kjeldal method. Results indicate that the green coagulum extracted from all the juices all have a protein content of at least 37%. The thermal energy required to coagulate protein from the juices ranges from 1.59 kJ kg{sup -1} for Hura crepetans to 2.7 kJ kg{sup -1} for Vernonia amygdalina. The energy requirement to obtain crude protein (CP) ranges from 8 kJ kg{sup -1} [CP] with Bura crepetans to 182 kJ kg{sup -1} [CP] with Vernonia amygdalina. Both results are statistically significant at the 0.01 confidence interval. It is concluded that the choice of plant species can significantly lower the thermal energy

  12. Legal Requirements for Human-Health based appeals of Wind Energy Projects in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Michael Engel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario’s Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario’s courts have been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals.

  13. Principles for Nearly Zero-energy Buildings. Paving the way for effective implementation of policy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S.; Groezinger, J.; Offermann, M. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany); Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J.; Aggerholm, S.O. [Danish Building Research Institute SBi, Aalborg University, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    The overarching objective of this study is to contribute to a common and cross-national understanding on: an ambitious, clear definition and fast uptake of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB) in all EU Member States; principles of sustainable, realistic nearly Zero-Energy Buildings, both new and existing; possible technical solutions and their implications for national building markets, buildings and market players. The study builds on existing concepts and building standards, analyses the main methodological challenges and their implications for the nZEB definition, and compiles a possible set of principles and assesses their impact on reference buildings. Subsequently the technological, financial and policy implications of these results are evaluated. Finally, the study concludes by providing an outlook on necessary further steps towards a successful implementation of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings.

  14. On-demand QoS routing protocol based on energy and bandwidth requirement in Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Weiren; Huang Chao; Lei Luning; Huang Jian

    2008-01-01

    Along with the emergence of real-time muhi-media, interactive service, real-time voice and other services calling for high quality of service, there should be a good network to support those services. Most present route algo-rithms with computational complexity hardly consider the restriction of node energy, so it degrades the whole capabil-ity of network. Bandwidth guarantee is one of the most crucial factors in real-time application, and this paper brings forward a distributed on-demand QoS routing protocol based on energy and bandwidth requirement. This QoS routing protocol makes use of bandwidth calculation algorithm and analyzes its route mechanism. The simulation results veri-fy its validity. The QoS routing protocol improves the packet delivery fraction and average end-to-end delay, prolongs the network lifetime, enhances the network performance and satisfies the route requirement for ad hoc networks.

  15. On the minimum coupling required for maximum theoretical power capture from vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Hewa-Kasakarage, N. N.; Yoon, S.; Hall, N. A.

    2012-09-01

    The minimum transducer coupling to enable maximum theoretical power capture from vibration energy harvesters is derived, leading to the simple conclusion that the product of the transducer coupling coefficient and resonance quality factor must be greater than two. Maximum theoretical power capture is experimentally demonstrated on a micromachined piezoelectric energy harvester comprised of a 20 μm thick epitaxial silicon cantilever with 800 nm thick lead-zirconate-titanate along the top surface and a bulk silicon mass at the tip. The coupling of these structures, although small (κ2=0.0033), is entirely sufficient to enable maximum theoretical power capture owing to light damping (Q =906).

  16. Non-global logarithms in inter-jet energy flow with kt clustering requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Appleby, R. B.; Seymour, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    Recent work in inter-jet energy flow has identified a class of leading logarithms previously not considered in the literature. These so-called non-global logarithms have been shown to have significant numerical impact on gaps-between-jets calculations at the energies of current particle colliders. Here we calculate, at fixed order and to all orders, the effect of applying clustering to the gluonic final state responsible for these logarithms for a trivial colour flow 2 jet system. Such a clus...

  17. Energy intake and requirements of infants in southern Brazil - the influence of breast feeding pattern and socio-economic status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy requirements are a function of age, sex, and feeding mode. Work from others has demonstrated increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) in formula-fed infants as compared to breast-fed infants. However, in practice many breast-fed infants also receive additional formula or cows' milk. At 4 months, we found that energy intake (kcal/d) in breast-fed infants also receiving cows' milk (BCFM) was 18% higher than that of infants who receive breast milk as the only source of milk (BM) (BCFM infants, 97.9 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 83.1 kcal/kg/d, p=0.008). At 8 months increased minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) and SMR were found in BCFM infants (MOEE: BCFM infants, 51.6 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 48.0 kcal/kg/d, p=0.041). TEE was also slightly higher, but not significantly so. Fat mass and fat mass index were higher in BCFM infants (p=0.016 and p=0.013). Reference data for growth or energy requirements have been based on infants from high SES to assure that they would be growing optimally with no constraints to health. In developed countries, obesity used to be a problem in the higher SES families. In countries in transition, there is a shift of the prevalence of obesity towards lower SES infants, but this depends on the stage of transition. On the other hand, poor living conditions may result in growth faltering, and an increase in TEE and ER. We observed higher TEE in low SES as compared to high SES infants (high SES, 62.9 kcal/kg/d, low SES, 75.9 kcal/kg/d, p=0.005), MOEE was not increased, and the higher TEE in low SES infants should be contributed to high activity energy expenditure. Analysis of covariance showed that this should be contributed increased crowding in the low SES families. In conclusion, the development of universally applicable values for energy requirements based on data from infants selected from particular social groups, without reference to feeding pattern, may not be acceptable. At both 4 and 8 months

  18. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2011-05-09

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale, and for commercial arrays. This work is carried out under the U.S. Department of Energy reference model project, with the costs for engineering, deployment strategies, mooring and anchoring configurations, and maintenance operations, being developed by a consortium of Department of Energy national laboratories and universities. The goal of the reference model is to assist the MHK industry to become a cost-competitive contributor of renewable energy, by identifying those aspects of MHK projects that contribute significantly to the cost of energy, and directing research funding towards lowering those costs.

  19. Energy requirements of household consumption : a case study of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesiot, W; Noorman, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the results of several research programmes that together aim at the development and application of methodologies that enable the study of long-term environmental effects (mainly related to the total household energy demand) of household consumption in relation to other economi

  20. Determination of Required Energy Action at Formation of Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Khroustalev; V. N. Romaniuok

    2014-01-01

    A problem pertaining to determination of the concentrated exergy of the asphalt concrete mixture is considered in the paper. The paper shows the possibility to use the concentrated exergy of the asphalt concrete mixture for qualitative energy evaluation of mixing processes.

  1. Energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles subject to stability and drivability requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ólafsdóttir, J.M.; Lidberg, M.; Falcone, P.; Iersel, S. van; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a combined control and estimation framework for energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles. We consider a fully electric powertrain, with a driven front axle operating on low friction road surfaces. Our objective is to find the blending of regenerative and friction braking th

  2. Calcium requirements from dairy foods in France can be met at low energy and monetary cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Tang, Wesley; Brazeilles, Rémi

    2015-12-14

    Inadequate Ca intakes are a concern for global public health. In France, most dietary Ca is provided by dairy products: milks, fermented milks (mostly yogurts), dairy desserts and cheeses. The present dairy database (n 837) included milks (n 101), fermented milks, yogurts and other fresh dairy products (n 326), desserts (n 162) and a wide variety of cheeses (n 248). Energy and nutrient values were obtained from industry sources and the French national nutrient composition database. Retail prices were from Paris supermarkets. Products in each group were aggregated into twenty-one categories using clustering analyses. The costs in energy (kJ (kcal)), euros (€), and in SFA, added sugar and Na (defined here as nutrients to LIMit) associated with providing 120 mg of Ca (equivalent to 15 % daily value (15 % DV)) were calculated for each product group and category. The milk group supplied Ca at the lowest energy, monetary and LIM cost. Fresh plain and 'light' yogurts and fermented milks were next, followed by sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Light dairy desserts provided Ca with relatively few energy but were more expensive. Cheeses were a heterogeneous group. Hard cheeses (Comté) provided the most Ca per serving. Semi-hard cheeses (Camembert) and cream and blue cheeses (Roquefort) provided Ca at a cost comparable with sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Double cream, soft and goat cheeses were not optimal Ca sources. New value metrics can help identify affordable dairy foods that provide Ca without excessive energy or nutrients to limit. These conditions were satisfied by a wide variety of dairy products in France. PMID:26450475

  3. Energy budget and prey requirements of breeding lapland longspurs Calcarius lapponicus near Barrow Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Pitelka, F.A.; Gessaman, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Breeding Lapland longspurs, Calcarius lapponicus, near Barrow, Alaska, have relatively constant energy demands throughout the summer; the average estimated daily energy budgets (DEBs) were 132 and 118 kJ for the male and female. Thermoregulation accounted consistently for one-quarter to one-third of the total DEB. Flight in the male and incubation in the female were major components of the DEB early in the season, whereas cost of molt was a major component for both sexes near the end of the season. Our estimates of longspur DEB based on a time-activity approach were similar to those based on a cage existence model. Minor differences are explained by increased male territorial activity, by energy savings of the female during incubation, and by contraction of the molt for both sexes within the short summer season. Male and female longspurs were estimated to capture 3000 to 10,000 seeds and insects d-1 (3-20 items min-1 foraging) for self maintenance while in summer residence near Barrow. Each adult was estimated to capture an additional 3000 insects d-1 ( 6-7 insects min-1 foraging) during the peak energy requirements to raise five young. While raising young, the maximum required capture rate of prey per time foraging for each adult occurred during the nestling

  4. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  5. Investigations into the effectiveness of measures to reduce the energy requirements of domestic dwellings in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Florides, Georgios A

    2001-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University. In recent years there has been an increasing trend in the provision of central heating and split vapour compression air conditioning systems to domestic dwellings in Cyprus. To minimise their economic and environmental impact, this study examines the feasibility and economic viability of energy conservation measures and the feasibility of the application of solar driven LiBr-w...

  6. Quantification of the energy required for the destruction of Balanus Amphitrite larva by ultrasonic treatment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Seth, N.; Chakravarty, P.; Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.; Pandit, A.B.

    effects rather than chemical reactions that result from cavitation. Cell 11 membranes and organisms are literally ruptured or blown apart from the intense energy delivered in the form of shock waves. These (mechanical) effects include: (1) Complete... destruction of larger biota, and (2) Disturbance or rupture of biological cell membranes, leading to subsequent death of an organism. The cell breakage by ultrasound is a single hit type of phenomenon, such as the occurrence of a cavitation (implosion...

  7. 40-Hz square-wave stimulation requires less energy to produce muscle contraction: compared with the TASER® X26 conducted energy weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, James A; Jauchem, James R; Cox, D Duane; Crane, Carrie C; D'Andrea, John A

    2013-07-01

    Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) (including the Advanced TASER(®) X26 model produced by TASER International, Inc.) incapacitate individuals by causing muscle contractions. In this study using anesthetized swine, the potential incapacitating effect of primarily monophasic, 19-Hz voltage imposed by the commercial CEW was compared with the effect of voltages imposed by a laboratory device that created 40-Hz square waves. Forces of muscle contraction were measured with the use of strain gauges. Stimulation with 40-Hz square waves required less pulse energy than stimulation with the commercial CEW to produce similar muscle contraction. The square-pulse stimulation, at the higher repetition rate, caused a more complete tetanus at a lower energy. Use of such a simple shape of waveform may be used to make future nonlethal weapon devices more efficient. PMID:23682682

  8. Feasibility and parametric study of tetrahydrofuran dehydration using reactive distillation with low energy requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new configuration of a RD (reactive distillation) process is investigated to break the THF (tetrahydrofuran)/water azeotrope using Hysys process software. The main module is a column system containing the reaction of EO (ethylene oxide) with water, in which top and bottom streams are the desired products, THF and EG (ethylene glycol), respectively. This contribution explores feasibility of using the reaction in the RD column and also describes the influence of reflux ratio, reaction trays, operating pressure and feed–inlet locations of the RD column in simulation environment. The results show that high purities of EG and THF are simultaneously obtained by this novel technique leading to more profits of the RD process. The optimal design of the RD process is obtained by minimizing the energy demand and the optimum number of reactive trays is found to be 10. Furthermore, minimum energy demand is observed when the column operates at atmospheric pressure with reflux ratio of 1.25. Particularly, it is found that the optimal reboiler duty per unit THF produced is reduced from 32 to 3.7% for the new process as compared to the conventional one, while both schemes predict similar outputs. - Highlights: • A reactive distillation column is proposed to produce pure tetrahydrofuran. • The tetrahydrofuran-water azeotrope is broken using reactive distillation column. • High energy saving (88%) is found for the reactive distillation process

  9. District energy requirement prediction%区域能源需求预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈钢; 由世俊; 吴文忠

    2011-01-01

    分析天津空港经济区供暖、蒸汽用户资料发现,不同用户的单位面积耗热量差异较大,建议根据用户性质确定相应的耗热量,逐步改装热量表计量取费,以较为准确地统计现有负荷.预测了空港经济区近期总冷负荷为229.75 Mw,总电负荷为61998 Mw·h,规划热负荷到2012年为422.5 t/h.由复合泊松过程理论计算能源需求的期望和方差,则能源需求的随机发展近似呈正态分布函数.比较该随机预测结果与统计预测、规划预测结果可知,区域能源需求统计预测和规划预测均能够满足在不同的时间最可能出现的负荷要求.%Analysing the data of heating and steam users in the Tianjin Airport Economic Development District, finds that energy consumption per square meter area is notably different among consumers.Suggests that heat consumption be determined by the users' character and that heat meters should be installed for charging.Predicts that the total cooling load is 229.75 MW and the total electricity load is 61 998 MW·h in the district in recent years.The planning heat load is 422.5 t/h by the year 2012.If the expectation and variance of energy demand are gained through calculating according to Poisson process theory, the stochastic development of energy demand is approximately a normal distribution function.Compares the stochastic prediction result with statistic and planning results, and finds that both the statistics prediction and the planning prediction of district energy load can meet the needs of energy demand load which most likely occurs at different times.

  10. Requirements and impacts of the Federal Facility Compliance Act on the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L.; Tripp, S.C. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1993-03-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA, the Act) was signed into law on October 6, 1992, primarily as a means of waiving sovereign immunity for federal facilities with respect to requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE`s implementation of the FFCA will have significant effects on current and future DOE waste management operations. DOE will need to rethink its strategy in the area of future compliance agreements to ensure commitments and deliverables are made consistent throughout the different DOE facilities. Several types of agreements that address mixed waste land disposal restriction (LDR) compliance have already been signed by both DOE and the regulators. These agreements are in place at the Hanford Reservation, the Savannah River Site, the Oak Ridge Reservation (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, K-25, Y-12), and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The Rocky Flats Agreement is now being renegotiated. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia/Albuquerque National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory agreements are in progress. Major components of the FFCA include provisions on: sovereign immunity waiver; cost reimbursements; mixed waste requirements, including inventory reports on mixed waste and treatment capacity and technologies; and plans for the development of treatment capacities and technologies. Each of these components is discussed within this paper.

  11. Future mission opportunities and requirements for advanced space photovoltaic energy conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The variety of potential future missions under consideration by NASA will impose a broad range of requirements on space solar arrays, and mandates the development of new solar cells which can offer a wide range of capabilities to mission planners. Major advances in performance have recently been achieved at several laboratories in a variety of solar cell types. Many of those recent advances are reviewed, the areas are examined where possible improvements are yet to be made, and the requirements are discussed that must be met by advanced solar cell if they are to be used in space. The solar cells of interest include single and multiple junction cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous materials. Single crystal cells on foreign substrates, thin film single crystal cells on superstrates, and multiple junction cells which are either mechanically stacked, monolithically grown, or hybrid structures incorporating both techniques are discussed. Advanced concentrator array technology for space applications is described, and the status of thin film, flexible solar array blanket technology is reported.

  12. Energy Requirement and Food Intake Behaviour in Young Adult Intact Male Cats with and without Predisposition to Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Wichert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a common problem in cats. In the experimental cat family of the institute of animal nutrition besides a “normal” lean phenotype, cats with predisposition to an overweight phenotype are present. To investigate energy requirements and food intake behaviour of intact male cats of different phenotypes, six “normal” lean cats (GL and six cats disposed to overweight (GO were used. At the beginning of the experiment, all cats had an ideal body condition score of 5. To reach this the GO cats had to pass a weight-loss program. Energy requirements of the cats were determined using respiration chambers, whereas the amount and frequency of food intake was measured with a feeding station recording the data automatically. Energy requirement at weight constancy of the GO cats was even on fat-free mass (FFM significantly (P=0.02 lower (162.6 kJ/kg FFM/d than that of the “normal” lean cats (246 kJ/kg FFM/d. The GO cats also showed a higher food intake 34.5±1.5 g dry matter/kg body weight0.67 compared to the GL cats (24.0±2.1 g dry matter/kg body weight0.67(P=0.001. In conclusion quantifiable differences in food intake and behaviour in cats predisposed to overweight compared to “normal” lean cats were found.

  13. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  14. The effect of using low-polluting building materials on ventilation requirements and energy use in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Frontczak, M. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of the ongoing research project described in this paper was to study the potential for reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials, without compromising the indoor air quality. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality, were established for rooms furnished with different categories of polluting materials and the simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out. The exposure-response relationships were based on a summary of data reported in the literature on exposure-response relationships for materials tested in laboratory settings in small-scale glass chambers, and in full-scale in climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. New experiments were also considered in which the effect of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality was examined in test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates, low-polluting materials being selected in small glass chambers. The results suggest that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and that the perceived air quality can be improved considerably when polluting building materials are substituted with materials that pollute less. The preliminary energy simulations indicate that selecting low-polluting materials will result in considerable energy savings as a result of reducing the ventilation rates required to achieve acceptable indoor air quality. (au)

  15. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) platform configuration and integration. Final report. Volume I. Systems requirements and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Studies leading to the development of two 400 MW Offshore Thermal Energy Conversion Commercial Plants are presented. This volume includes a summary of three tasks: task IIA--systems evaluation and requirements; task IIB--evaluation plan; task III--technology review; and task IV--systems integration evaluation. Task IIA includes the definition of top level requirements and an assessment of factors critical to the selection of hull configuration and size, quantification of payload requirements and characteristics, and sensitivity of system characteristics to site selection. Task IIB includes development of a methodology for systematically evaluating the candidate hullforms, based on interrelationships and priorities developed during task IIA. Task III includes the assessment of current technology and identification of deficiencies in relation to OTEC requirements and the development of plans to correct such deficiencies. Task IV involves the formal evaluation of the six candidate hullforms in relation to sit and plant capacity to quantify cost/size/capability relationships, leading to selection of an optimum commercial plant. (WHK)

  16. Number of trials required to estimate a free-energy difference, using fluctuation relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The difference Δ F between free energies has applications in biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. The value of Δ F can be estimated from experiments or simulations, via fluctuation theorems developed in statistical mechanics. Calculating the error in a Δ F estimate is difficult. Worse, atypical trials dominate estimates. How many trials one should perform was estimated roughly by Jarzynski [Phys. Rev. E 73, 046105 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.046105]. We enhance the approximation with the following information-theoretic strategies. We quantify "dominance" with a tolerance parameter chosen by the experimenter or simulator. We bound the number of trials one should expect to perform, using the order-∞ Rényi entropy. The bound can be estimated if one implements the "good practice" of bidirectionality, known to improve estimates of Δ F . Estimating Δ F from this number of trials leads to an error that we bound approximately. Numerical experiments on a weakly interacting dilute classical gas support our analytical calculations.

  17. Comparison of different electrode materials-Energy requirements in the electrolytic hydrogen evolution process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceta Kaninski, Milica P.; Stojic, Dragica Lj.; Saponjic, Dorde P. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Potkonjak, Nebojsa I. [Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, P.O. Box 551, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Miljanic, Scepan S. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, P.O. Box 137, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-07-03

    Hydrogen is one of the most widely produced commodities in the world economy. The basic technologies for producing hydrogen via the electrolysis of water have long been known. However, there are disadvantages when using this process. Two-thirds of the operation costs of the electrolyzers are electricity costs. The challenge, addressed by numerous companies and researchers in the last few years, is the cost cutting by increasing efficiency of the process. The aim of this work was the attempt to optimize the electrolytic hydrogen production from alkaline solution, through the variation of cathode materials and use of ionic activators. The part of our results shows the better electrocatalytic activity of intermetallic phases and the energy consumption is decreased when compared with the industrial data (4.5-5kWhm{sup -3} H{sub 2}). The role of ionic activator used is also very significant. These results give the opportunity for further research of cumulative effect of the intermetallic electrodes and ionic activators on industrial level. (author)

  18. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  19. High Level Requirements for the Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Johnson; Hyung Lee; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), has been tasked with the important mission of ensuring that nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy source in the U.S. The motivations behind this mission include cost-effectively meeting the expected increases in the power needs of the country, reducing carbon emissions and reducing dependence on foreign energy sources. In the near term, to ensure that nuclear power remains a key element of U.S. energy strategy and portfolio, the DOE-NE will be working with the nuclear industry to support safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants. In the long term, to meet the increasing energy needs of the U.S., the DOE-NE will be investing in research and development (R&D) and working in concert with the nuclear industry to build and deploy new, safer and more efficient nuclear power plants. The safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants and designing, licensing and deploying new reactor designs, however, will require focused R&D programs as well as the extensive use and leveraging of advanced modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S will play a key role in ensuring safe and efficient operations of existing and new nuclear reactors. The DOE-NE has been actively developing and promoting the use of advanced M&S in reactor design and analysis through its R&D programs, e.g., the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) and Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) programs. Also, nuclear reactor vendors are already using CFD and CSM, for design, analysis, and licensing. However, these M&S tools cannot be used with confidence for nuclear reactor applications unless accompanied and supported by verification and validation (V&V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes and procedures which provide quantitative measures of uncertainty for specific applications. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation

  20. Report of a consultants meeting on impact of ageing on human energy, macro- and micronutrient metabolism and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna convened a Consultants' Meeting from 9-13 December, 2002, to provide the Agency with current insights into the application of nuclear and isotopic techniques as a means to support research on the impact of ageing on human energy and macro-nutrient metabolism and requirements. The Consultants were: Dr. Anura Kurpad, Dr. Victoria Lambert, Dr. June Stevens, Dr. Benjamin Torun and Dr. Mauro Valencia-Juillerat. Dr. Pirjo Pietinen, from the World Health Organization, and Dr. Barry Popkin, from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, were present as Observers during the initial part of the Meeting. Given the Consultants' areas of expertise and the topics covered in the discussions, the scope of the Meeting was modified as 'The Application of Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques to improve Research on Body Composition, Energy Expenditure, Non-communicable Chronic Diseases, and the Ageing Process, with particular emphasis on Developing Countries'. The objectives of the Meeting were to: i) Evaluate the overall scope of a new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) and suggest options for specific areas of research within that scope; ii) Suggest approaches to improve the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques for the evaluation of energy and macro-nutrient requirements of older adults in diverse populations of the developing world; iii) Discuss and make recommendations for the use of these techniques in the measurement of energy expenditure, physical activity, total body fat and body fat distribution; and, iv) Propose a harmonization of methods for direct use or for validation of field measurements aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the ageing process and its relation to the incidence of obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases in communities in transition. This meeting benefited from the broad areas of experience of scientists from both developed and developing countries. Their expertise in the use of

  1. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2011-02-15

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 C to 80 C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively. (author)

  2. Workplace characterisation in mixed neutron-gamma fields, specific requirements and available methods at high-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A good knowledge of the radiation field present outside the shielding of high-energy particle accelerators is very important to be able to select the type of detectors (active and/or passive) to be employed for area monitoring and the type of personal dosemeter required for estimating the doses received by individuals. Around high-energy electron and proton accelerators the radiation field is usually dominated by neutrons and photons, with minor contributions from other charged particles. Under certain circumstances, muon radiation in the forward beam direction may also be present. Neutron dosimetry and spectrometry are of primary importance to characterise the radiation field and thus to correctly evaluate personnel exposure. Starting from the beam parameters important for radiation monitoring, the paper first briefly reviews the stray radiation fields encountered around high-energy accelerators and then addresses the relevant techniques employed for their monitoring. Recent developments to increase the response of neutron measuring devices beyond 10-20 MeV are illustrated. Instruments should be correctly calibrated either in reference monoenergetic radiation fields or in a field similar to the field in which they are used (workplace calibration). The importance of the instrument calibration is discussed and available neutron calibration facilities are briefly reviewed. (authors)

  3. Metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance and body composition of growing farm-raised male pastel mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R B; Travis, H F; Glinsky, M S

    1978-12-01

    The requirement of metabolizable energy (ME) for maintenance was studied in 31 male pastel farm-raised mink. The procedure used was a body balance regression technique that included an initial baseline group, a group allowed feed ad libitum, and a group allowed feed at the level of 65% of average intake of the ad libitum animals. The requirement for ME was 147.8 +/- 6.06 kcal/wtkg 0.734/day. This value falls within the range of estimates of maintenance requirements noted for younger animals of other species, such as the rat, chicken, and calf. The relationships of the chemical composition of the body to functions of body weight were also examined. The composition of the mink body was closely related to the weight of the animal rather than to age or conformation, as has been noted in other species. However, the fat-free dry body of the mink contained more protein and less ash than any other species studied up to this point. On a percentage basis, protein was 87.29 and ash was 12.72. Protein in the fat-free body of other species range from 80 to 82%.

  4. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants

  5. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  6. Energie-Cites opinion on the directive project of CHP. To meet urban energy requirements with optimal energy efficiency and production closer to residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Directive on ''the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market'' should be adopted very soon. The initial aim of the Directive is to strengthen existing measures to promote CHP in line with the Community target of doubling the share of CHP in EU electricity generation from 9% in 1994 to 18% by 2010. But no target has been mentioned. Energie-Cites states, in this document, its opinion of this draft proposal. Cogeneration is a well-tried and proven technology which has achieved tangible results and is one of the more efficient ways for the EU to fulfill the commitments it made under the Kyoto Protocol. (A.L.B.)

  7. Regulatory requirements and tools for environmental assessment of hazardous wastes: understanding tribal and stakeholder concerns using Department of Energy sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Powers, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Many US governmental and Tribal Nation agencies, as well as state and local entities, deal with hazardous wastes within regulatory frameworks that require specific environmental assessments. In this paper we use Department of Energy (DOE) sites as examples to examine the relationship between regulatory requirements and environmental assessments for hazardous waste sites and give special attention to how assessment tools differ. We consider federal laws associated with environmental protection include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as well as regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tribal Nations and state agencies. These regulatory regimes require different types of environmental assessments and remedial investigations, dose assessments and contaminant pathways. The DOE case studies illustrate the following points: 1) there is often understandable confusion about what regulatory requirements apply to the site resources, and what environmental assessments are required by each, 2) the messages sent on site safety issued by different regulatory agencies are sometimes contradictory or confusing (e.g. Oak Ridge Reservation), 3) the regulatory frameworks being used to examine the same question can be different, leading to different conclusions (e.g. Brookhaven National Laboratory), 4) computer models used in support of groundwater models or risk assessments are not necessarily successful in convincing Native Americans and others that there is no possibility of risk from contaminants (e.g. Amchitka Island), 5) when given the opportunity to choose between relying on a screening risk assessments or waiting for a full site-specific analysis of contaminants in biota, the screening risk assessment option is rarely selected (e.g. Amchitka, Hanford Site), and finally, 6) there needs to be agreement on whether

  8. An integrated PMP model to assess the development of agro-energy crops and the effect on water requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Donati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated model for the economic and environmental assessment of the use of natural resources when new activities (i.e. biomass crops for energy production are introduced into the farm production plan. The methodology is based on the integration of positive mathematical programming (PMP with the AquaCrop model developed by FAO. PMP represents farmer decision processes and evaluates how farms react to the biomass-sorghum activity option at different price levels. AquaCrop evaluates the relationship between water needs and biomass production and assesses the effect of the land allocation on water requirements at regional level. The integration of these two models assists global policy evaluation at regional level as it makes it possible to identify the economic threshold for biomass crops, the change in land allocation and total water requirement. The model can help policy makers to evaluate the impacts of variations in crop profitability and market innovations on farm profitability, land use and water consumption and the sustainability of the market scenario.

  9. Pichia pastoris Exhibits High Viability and a Low Maintenance Energy Requirement at Near-Zero Specific Growth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebnegger, Corinna; Vos, Tim; Graf, Alexandra B.; Valli, Minoska; Pronk, Jack T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for recombinant protein production. Understanding its physiology at extremely low growth rates is a first step in the direction of decoupling product formation from cellular growth and therefore of biotechnological relevance. Retentostat cultivation is an excellent tool for studying microbes at extremely low specific growth rates but has so far not been implemented for P. pastoris. Retentostat feeding regimes were based on the maintenance energy requirement (mS) and maximum biomass yield on glucose (YX/Smax) estimated from steady-state glucose-limited chemostat cultures. Aerobic retentostat cultivation enabled reproducible, smooth transitions from a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.025 h−1 to near-zero specific growth rates (μ cultivation. Transcriptional reprogramming toward zero growth included the upregulation of many transcription factors as well as stress-related genes and the downregulation of cell cycle genes. This study underlines the relevance of comparative analysis of maintenance energy metabolism, which has an important impact on large-scale industrial processes. IMPORTANCE The yeast Pichia pastoris naturally lives on trees and can utilize different carbon sources, among them glucose, glycerol, and methanol. In biotechnology, it is widely used for the production of recombinant proteins. For both the understanding of life in its natural habitat and optimized production processes, a better understanding of cell physiology at an extremely low growth rate would be of extraordinary value. Therefore, we have grown P. pastoris in a retentostat, which allows the cultivation of metabolically active cells even at zero growth. Here we reached doubling times as long as 38 days and found that P. pastoris decreases its maintenance energy demand 3-fold during very slow growth, which enables it to survive with a much lower substrate supply than baker's yeast. PMID:27208115

  10. Nutritional requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals for maintenance and weight gain of young crossbred Nellore × Holstein bulls on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals of young Nellore/Holstein crossbreds bulls supplemented on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Thirty-five young bulls, at 8.53±0.18 months of age and with initial body weight of 230.6±6.1 kg were used. Ten animals were slaughtered as reference, in different weight range, and the other animals were slaughtered at the end of the experimental period. For estimate of net energy requirements for weight, a regression equation between log of retained energy (RE and log of empty body weight gain (EBWG was constructed. Net requirements of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K were determined by the equation Y' = a.b.Xb-1, in which a and b represent the intercept and the coefficient of equation of prediction of macrominerals in body content, respectively. Requirements of metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm were obtained from retained energy in function of metabolizable energy intake (MEI. The requirements of MEm of Nellore/Holstein crossbreds young bulls on pasture was 125 kcal/EBW0.75/day. The efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (k of grazing Nellore/Holstein crossbred young mbulls was 0.58 and 0.24 for gain. The total metabolizable protein requirements for an animal with 400 kg and with average daily gain of 1.0 kg, were 638.36 g/day. The dietetic requirements of Ca and P for an animal with 400 kg BW were 0.49 and 0.21% of DM, respectively. Daily metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance of grazing Nellore/Holstein crossbred young bulls was 11.6% greater than the values found for cattle in feedlot in Brazil (112 kcal/kg EBW0.75.

  11. Exigências de energia de bovinos de corte em pastejo Energy requirements of beef cattle at pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as exigências e as eficiências de utilização de energia para ganho de peso e mantença de bovinos de corte em pastejo. A área experimental foi composta de cinco piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens. Utilizaram-se 27 bovinos anelorados não-castrados, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 311,0 kg e idade média de 14 meses. Três animais foram abatidos após o período de adaptação para servirem como referência para as estimativas do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ e da composição corporal iniciais dos animais mantidos no experimento. Dos 24 restantes, quatro foram designados ao grupo mantença com tempo de pastejo restrito para limitar o consumo de energia a nível próximo da mantença. Os animais restantes (20 foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos: mistura mineral, autocontrole, suplemento três vezes/semana (segunda, quarta e sexta; e suplemento diariamente. A exigência líquida de energia para mantença foi estimada como o anti-log do intercepto da equação obtida pela regressão linear entre o logaritmo da produção de calor (PC e o consumo de energia metabolizável (CEM, assim como pelo coeficiente "a" da equação de regressão exponencial entre a produção de calor e o consumo de energia metabolizável dos animais sob suplementação, juntamente com o daqueles sem suplementação e os do grupo mantença. As quantidades de energia e gordura no ganho aumentaram com o peso vivo dos animais. As exigências de energia líquida para ganho de peso de bovinos anelorados não-castrados em pastejo podem ser obtidas pela equação: ER = 0,0617*PCVZ0,75*GDPCVZ1,0564. O requisito energético diário para mantença foi de 64,00 kcal/PV0,75. A eficiência de uso da EM para mantença estimada foi de 0,64 e a eficiência de uso da EM para ganho de 0,26.A trial involving 27 zebu bulls at pasture with initial live weight (LW of 311.0 kg were conducted with the objective of determining their energy requirements. Three animals

  12. Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2012-01-01

    Energy is the capacity to do the things we are capable of and desire to accomplish. Most often this is thought of in terms of PEP--personal energy potential--a reservoir of individual vivacity and zest for work. Like a battery, energy can be conceived of as a resource that is alternatively used and replenished. Transitions between activities, variety of tasks, and choices of what to spend energy on are part of energy management. Energy capacity can be thought of at four levels: (a) so little that harm is caused and extraordinary steps are needed for recovery, (b) a deficit that slightly impairs performance but will recover naturally, (c) the typical range of functioning, and (d) a surplus that may or may not be useful and requires continual investment to maintain. "Flow" is the experience of optimal energy use when challenges balance capacity as a result of imposing order on our environment. There are other energy resources in addition to personal vim. Effective work design reduces demands on energy. Money, office design, and knowledge are excellent substitutes for personal energy. PMID:22856055

  13. Adjustment of Energy requirements in TEK; TEK= Technical Regulations under the Norwegian Planning and Building Act; Justering av energikrav i TEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyholt, Marit; Dokka, Tor Helge; Schild, Peter; Grini, Catherine; Mysen, Mads; Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-01

    The National Office of Building Technology and Administration (BE) desired to review the consequences of different levels of ambition for requirements for heat gaining from vent air, as well as a possible requirement for energy efficient design of building fronts. In addition the energy scope in the regulation (TEK2007) should be adjusted according to the final establishment of a new calculation standard (Norwegian Standard - NS 3031:2007). A statement on these subjects has been carried out at SINTEF Byggforsk, and is described in this report. Adjustments of framework regulations.There are only minor differences between adjusted calculations according to NS 3031 and the original energy framework calculations, i.e. the difference for net energy need amounts to the size of 0 to 6 percent. Heat gain.The report shows that it is possible - both from techical and financial considerations - to increase the requirement level for heat gain from vent air for most categories of buildings. This implies a sharpening of the annual median temperature efficiency from 70 % to 80 %, for all building categories, except from hospitals, institutions and light industry/workshops. A possible sharpening of regulations for heat gain in houses has not been evaluated. Depending on building category a sharpening of regulations for heat gain from vent air will imply that net energy need will be reduced on a scale of 20 to 30 kWh/m2 per annum. The report demonstrates that despite a possible sharpening of the requirements on energy efficiency for heat recovery devices does not prevent the use of large areas of windows and window panes. Vulnerability analyses show that deviations from the prerequisites in the basis for the energy framework concerning air quantities and air temperatures give the possibility of weakening the building's heating characteristics. Building fronts. Different methods for added requirements for building fronts have been examined. The aim has been to find methods and

  14. Knockout of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons decreases fat mass via increasing energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuzhong; Xia, Tingting; Yu, Junjie; Deng, Yalan; Liu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous functions of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) have been identified, a role of IRE1α in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is largely unknown. Here, we showed that mice lacking IRE1α specifically in POMC neurons (PIKO) are lean and resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance, liver steatosis and leptin resistance. Furthermore, PIKO mice had higher energy expenditure, probably due to increased thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Additionally, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone production was increased in the hypothalamus of PIKO mice. These results demonstrate that IRE1α in POMC neurons plays a critical role in the regulation of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Our results also suggest that IRE1α is not only an endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, but also a new potential therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. PMID:27558934

  15. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME. Overall, our review and analyses suggested that there is a strong linear

  16. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  17. Flexibility as a market requirement - The adaptation of the structure and operations of electricity markets to the production of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energies are earmarked to take up a very significant share in the output of some of Europe's electricity Systems. The variability of their contribution makes the maintenance of the system's physical equilibrium a veritable challenge, once the share reaches a certain level. Apart from the necessary technical improvements, the transformation of the System first and foremost requires upgrading the way the different energy markets function. (author)

  18. Metabolizable energy requirement for starting barrow pigs (15 to 30 kg fed on the ideal protein concept based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the metabolizable energy (ME requirement for starting barrow pigs. Forty-three animals, selected for their high lean gain, were allotted in a completely randomized block design, divided in four treatments with five blocks and two animals in each experimental unit. The diet in Treatment 1 consisted of 3,264 kcal of ME/kg containing 0.96% of digestible lysine, 0.55% of digestible methionine+cystine, 0.60% of digestible threonine, and 0.188% of digestible tryptophan reaching the ideal protein pattern. The diets in Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were similar to the diet in Treatment 1; nevertheless, the levels of ME in Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were 2, 4, and 6% higher than those in Treatment 1. The lysine:ME ratio, was mantained the same (2.82 g in all treatments. The daily feed intake (DFI and the feed:gain ratio (F:G were not affected by the levels of ME. There was a linear increase of daily weight gain (DWG and of daily energy intake (DEI. Later, a linear reduction in carcass protein percentage (CPP and a linear increase of fat content and daily fat accretion (DFA occurred. Results suggested that the required ME was of 3,264 kcal/kg or less for improved barrows (15 to 30 kg, of the dam line, fed with diets containing 0.96% of digestible lysine, formulated according to the ideal protein concept.A exigência de energia metabolizável (EM para suínos machos castrados foi determinada no presente experimento. Foram utilizados 43 suínos geneticamente melhorados, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, cinco blocos e dois animais por unidade experimental. Tratamento 1 constituiu-se de uma dieta contendo 3.264 kcal de EM/kg contendo 0,96% de lisina digestível, 0,55% de metionina + cistina digestíveis, 0,60% de treonina digestível e 0,188% de triptofano digestível, atendendo ao conceito de proteína ideal. Tratamentos 2, 3 e 4 foram semelhantes à do

  19. Contactor Energy Requirements for Capturing CO2 From ambient air using NaOH determined in a pilot-scale prototype system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolaroff, J. K.; Keith, D.; Lowry, G.

    2005-12-01

    Systems for capturing CO2 from ambient air for sequestration have recently been proposed (e.g. Dubey et al., 2002; Zeman and Lackner, 2004; Keith et al., 2004). Capture from ambient air has a number of structural advantages over capture from point sources; in particular it makes possible future emissions scenarios with negative net CO2 emissions. The systems suggested use either a Ca(OH)2 or NaOH solution to capture CO2 and then regenerate the solution in a chemical loop. The energy requirements of such a system, however, have been hotly disputed (Herzog, 2003). The energy requirements and effectiveness of the chemical regeneration are well established as they are practiced on a large scale in the industrial kraft process used in pulp and paper production, but the energy and land use requirements of a contactor for this system are uncertain as this component of the system is not implemented industrially. In this research, we address the most controversial component of the system, the contactor, which extracts CO2 from air into solution. A prototype contactor with a spray tower design is constructed (1m by 6m), and CO2 absorption by a NaOH solution spray (5 l/min) is measured. The CO2 absorption efficiency and energy requirements per unit CO2 absorbed are calculated. The energy requirements of the contactor are found to be on the order of 10-40 kJ/mol-CO2, which is small compared to the energy of combustion of fossil fuels, and compared with the energy required for the regeneration steps. Thus, a NaOH-based spray tower design can serve as an energy-efficient contactor for capturing CO2 from ambient air. Dubey, M. K., Ziock, H., Rueff, G., Elliott, S., and Smith, W. S. (2002). ``Extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through engineered chemical sinkage''. ACS -- Division of Fuel Chemistry Reprints, 47(1):81--84. Herzog, H. (2003). Assessing the feasibility of capturing co2 from the air. Technical report, MIT Laboratory for Energy and the Environment. Keith

  20. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  1. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  2. The effect of type of carbohydrate (starch vs. nonstarch polysaccharides) on nutrients digestibility, energy retention and maintenance requirements in Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, Mahmoud N.; Petie, Mischa; Heinsbroek, Leon T.N.; Verreth, Johan A.J.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2016-01-01

    For Nile tilapia, the energetic value of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was compared to starch. It was assessed if carbohydrate type (NSP vs. starch) affected the energetic utilization for growth (KgDE) and the energy requirements for maintenance (DEm). Eighteen groups of fish were assigned in 2 ×

  3. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  4. Impact on energy requirements and emissions of heat pumps and micro-cogenerators participating in demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impacts of participating in demand side management (DSM) on the performance of air source heat pumps (ASHP) and micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units are considered by this study. As significant consumers and generators of electricity at the distribution level, large numbers of heat pumps and micro-cogenerators would provide considerable scope for participation in DSM systems. However, it is possible that operating regimes which are optimised for grid considerations will not achieve the maximum performance that is possible from the units. Modelling has been conducted to investigate the significance of this effect, considering the case where local distribution constraints are the main driver for demand side interventions. A model of domestic electrical demand has been adapted to consider a neighbourhood of 128 dwellings in order to identify when interventions are necessary. This has been combined with dynamic models of two combustion engine micro-cogenerators, a solid oxide fuel cell micro-cogenerator and two ASHPs. A simple thermal model of each building is combined with a range of user preferences in order to determine the preferred operating profiles of the heating units. The DSM scheme analysed here is likely to have minimal impact on the emissions and energy requirements associated with each heating unit. Its effect is similar to that which occurs without DSM if the control system gain is relaxed such that equivalent thermal comfort is achieved. DSM can reduce the peak electrical demand of the neighbourhood. However, in the scenarios investigated, it is unlikely that the peaks can be reduced sufficiently such that they do not exceed the capacity of the local distribution transformer if ASHPs are used in all dwellings. By using a combination of mCHP units with ASHPs, it is possible to supply heating to all dwellings without exceeding this capacity. In this case, the use of DSM can increase the ratio of ASHPs used. In the context of a low

  5. Energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs of different sex classes in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Martins, Samara Rodrigues; da Silva, Ivonete Ferreira; Queiroz, Mário Adriano Ávila; Silva, Tiago Santos; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs (NDB) reared under Brazilian semiarid conditions. Sixty animals from three sex classes (20 intact males, 20 castrated males, and 20 females) with an average initial body weight of 18.1 ± 0.4 kg and an average age of 5 months were used. The nutritional requirements were estimated using the comparative slaughter. The animals in the final slaughter group were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (three sex classes and three feeding levels: ad libitum feeding (positive energy balance), 70% feed restriction (maintenance level), and 80% feed restriction (negative energy balance)). The net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) did not differ between sex classes (P > 0.05) and it was 68 kcal/kg of metabolic empty body weight (EBW(0.75))/day (P  0.05). The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg) was estimated by NEg (Mcal/day) = 0.29 × EBW(0.75) × EBWG(0.86) for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The net protein requirement for weight gain (NPg) was estimated by NPg (g/day) = 224.45 × EBWG - 0.025 × RE for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The NEg increased and the NPg decreased with the increase in body weight of NDB lambs. PMID:26431709

  6. Energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs of different sex classes in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Martins, Samara Rodrigues; da Silva, Ivonete Ferreira; Queiroz, Mário Adriano Ávila; Silva, Tiago Santos; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs (NDB) reared under Brazilian semiarid conditions. Sixty animals from three sex classes (20 intact males, 20 castrated males, and 20 females) with an average initial body weight of 18.1 ± 0.4 kg and an average age of 5 months were used. The nutritional requirements were estimated using the comparative slaughter. The animals in the final slaughter group were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (three sex classes and three feeding levels: ad libitum feeding (positive energy balance), 70% feed restriction (maintenance level), and 80% feed restriction (negative energy balance)). The net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) did not differ between sex classes (P > 0.05) and it was 68 kcal/kg of metabolic empty body weight (EBW(0.75))/day (P  0.05). The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg) was estimated by NEg (Mcal/day) = 0.29 × EBW(0.75) × EBWG(0.86) for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The net protein requirement for weight gain (NPg) was estimated by NPg (g/day) = 224.45 × EBWG - 0.025 × RE for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The NEg increased and the NPg decreased with the increase in body weight of NDB lambs.

  7. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  8. CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement analysis of power plant using modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.J.; Zhao, C.S.; Chen, H.C.; Ren, Q.Q.; Duan, L.B. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2011-03-15

    This paper examines the average carbonation conversion, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture system during the modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle. The limestone modified with acetic acid solution, i.e. calcium acetate is taken as an example of the modified calcium-based sorbents. The modified limestone exhibits much higher average carbonation conversion than the natural sorbent under the same condition. The CO{sub 2} capture efficiency increases with the sorbent flow ratios. Compared with the natural limestone, much less makeup mass flow of the recycled and the fresh sorbent is needed for the system when using the modified limestone at the same CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. Achieving 0.95 of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency without sulfation, 272 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} is required in the calciner for the natural limestone, whereas only 223 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} for the modified sorbent. The modified limestone possesses greater advantages in CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy consumption than the natural sorbent. When the sulfation and carbonation of the sorbents take place simultaneously, more energy is required. It is significantly necessary to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas before it enters the carbonator in order to reduce energy consumption in the calciner.

  9. Assessment of the Key Competitiveness Issues and Policy Requirements Facing the Irish Energy Market : Focus on Irish Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the key competitiveness issues facing the Irish energy market from an enterprise consumer perspective and to outline appropriate institutional and policy responses. Final report, December 2002

  10. Reduced Total Energy Requirements for the Original Alcubierre and Natario Warp Drive Spacetimes-the Role of Warp Factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Loup, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows Superluminal Travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre Warp Drive discovered in 1994 and the Natario Warp Drive discovered in 2001. However as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the Warp Drive violates all the known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor(the right side of the Einstein Field Equations) for the Eins...

  11. Reduced Total Energy Requirements for the Natario Warp Drive Spacetime using Heaviside Step Functions as Analytical Shape Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Loup, Fernando; Daniel, Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor(the right side of the Einstein Field Equations) for the ...

  12. Role of Modeling When Designing for Absolute Energy Use Intensity Requirements in a Design-Build Framework: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Guglielmetti, R.; Torcellini, P. A.; Okada, D.; Antia, P.

    2011-03-01

    The Research Support Facility was designed to use half the energy of an equivalent minimally code-compliant building, and to produce as much renewable energy as it consumes on an annual basis. These energy goals and their substantiation through simulation were explicitly included in the project's fixed firm price design-build contract. The energy model had to be continuously updated during the design process and to match the final building as-built to the greatest degree possible. Computer modeling played a key role throughout the design process and in verifying that the contractual energy goals would be met within the specified budget. The main tool was a whole building energy simulation program. Other models were used to provide more detail or to complement the whole building simulation tool. Results from these specialized models were fed back into the main whole building simulation tool to provide the most accurate possible inputs for annual simulations. This paper will detail the models used in the design process and how they informed important program and design decisions on the path from preliminary design to the completed building.

  13. Insulation of pipelines and fittings. The requirements of the Energy Saving Ordinance; Daemmung von Rohrleitungen und Armaturen. Die Anforderungen der Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, Wolfgang [Kaimann GmbH (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    This article describes the requirements of the Energy Saving Ordinance (ENEV) regarding the insulation of pipelines and fittings. Unlike the Heating Systems Ordinance the ENEV now specifies time horizons by when uninsulated pipelines for heat distribution and warm water in cold rooms must be fitted with insulation in existing buildings. At the same time it defines minimum insulation thicknesses for various types of warm water lines. In practice this can lead to problems with increased space requirements which planners must take into account in their work.

  14. Requirements on future energy supply. Analysis on the demand of future power plant capacity and strategy for a sustainable power utilization in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This strategy paper was drawn up with a view to maximum ecological compatibility of pwer plant modernization and sustainable power generation and use. The first part of the paper analyzes the power plants to be decommissioned on a medium-term basis and - against the background of several different scenarios for future power demand - an estimate of power plant capacities required by 2020. The second part describes the goals and concrete requirements of sustainable energy use. In the final part, the available instruments are presented, and those instruments are recommended that will be best suited for making power demand and supply efficient, sustainable and environment-friend.y

  15. Apparent Minimum Free Energy Requirements for Methanogenic Archaea and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in an Anoxic Marine Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christopher S.; DeVincenzi, Don (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the most fundamental constraints governing the distribution of microorganisms in the environment is the availability of chemical energy at biologically useful levels. To assess the minimum free energy yield that can support microbial metabolism in situ, we examined the thermodynamics of H2-consuming processes in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA. Depth distributions of H2 partial pressure, along with a suite of relevant concentration data, were determined in sediment cores collected in November (at 14.5 C) and August (at 27 C) and used to calculate free energy yields for methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. At both times of year, and for both processes, free energy yields gradually decreased (became less negative) with depth before reaching an apparent asymptote. Sulfate reducing bacteria exhibited an asymptote of -19.1 +/- 1.7 kj(mol SO4(2-)(sup -1) while methanogenic archaea were apparently supported by energy yields as small as -10.6 +/- 0.7 kj(mol CH4)(sup -1).

  16. Wind energy in the United States and materials required for the land-based wind turbine industry from 2010 through 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The generation of electricity in the United States from wind-powered turbines is increasing. An understanding of the sources and abundance of raw materials required by the wind turbine industry and the many uses for these materials is necessary to assess the effect of this industry's growth on future demand for selected raw materials relative to the historical demand for these materials. The U.S. Geological Survey developed estimates of future requirements for raw (and some recycled) materials based on the assumption that wind energy will supply 20 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States by 2030. Economic, environmental, political, and technological considerations and trends reported for 2009 were used as a baseline. Estimates for the quantity of materials in typical "current generation" and "next generation" wind turbines were developed. In addition, estimates for the annual and total material requirements were developed based on the growth necessary for wind energy when converted in a wind powerplant to generate 20 percent of the U.S. supply of electricity by 2030. The results of the study suggest that achieving the market goal of 20 percent by 2030 would require an average annual consumption of about 6.8 million metric tons of concrete, 1.5 million metric tons of steel, 310,000 metric tons of cast iron, 40,000 metric tons of copper, and 380 metric tons of the rare-earth element neodymium. With the exception of neodymium, these material requirements represent less than 3 percent of the U.S. apparent consumption for 2008. Recycled material could supply about 3 percent of the total steel required for wind turbine production from 2010 through 2030, 4 percent of the aluminum required, and 3 percent of the copper required. The data suggest that, with the possible exception of rare-earth elements, there should not be a shortage of the principal materials required for electricity generation from wind energy. There may, however, be selective

  17. Case series demonstrating the clinical utility of dual energy computed tomography in patients requiring stents for urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepperson, Maria A; Thiel, David D; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Broderick, Gregory A; Haley, William E

    2014-02-01

    Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) utilizes the material change in attenuation when imaged at two different energies to determine the composition of urinary calculi as uric acid or non-uric acid. We discuss a series of case reports illustrating DECT's ability to provide immediate determination of uric acid versus non-uric acid calculi and facilitate more informed clinical decision-making. Further, these cases demonstrate a unique population of patients with ureteral stents and percutaneous nephrostomy tubes that benefit from DECT's ability to create a virtual color contrast between an indwelling device and the stone material and thereby significantly impacting patient morbidity.

  18. Efficiency and energy requirements for the transformation of organic micropollutants by ozone, O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2011-07-01

    The energy consumptions of conventional ozonation and the AOPs O(3)/H(2)O(2) and UV/H(2)O(2) for transformation of organic micropollutants, namely atrazine (ATR), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were compared. Three lake waters and a wastewater were assessed. With p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) as a hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) probe compound, we experimentally determined the rate constants of organic matter of the selected waters for their reaction with (•)OH (k(OH,DOM)), which varied from 2.0 × 10(4) to 3.5 × 10(4) L mgC(-1) s(-1). Based on these data we calculated (•)OH scavenging rates of the various water matrices, which were in the range 6.1-20 × 10(4) s(-1). The varying scavenging rates influenced the required oxidant dose for the same degree of micropollutant transformation. In ozonation, for 90% pCBA transformation in the water with the lowest scavenging rate (lake Zürich water) the required O(3) dose was roughly 2.3 mg/L, and in the water with the highest scavenging rate (Dübendorf wastewater) it was 13.2 mg/L, corresponding to an energy consumption of 0.035 and 0.2 kWh/m(3), respectively. The use of O(3)/H(2)O(2) increased the rate of micropollutant transformation and reduced bromate formation by 70%, but the H(2)O(2) production increased the energy requirements by 20-25%. UV/H(2)O(2) efficiently oxidized all examined micropollutants but energy requirements were substantially higher (For 90% pCBA conversion in lake Zürich water, 0.17-0.75 kWh/m(3) were required, depending on the optical path length). Energy requirements between ozonation and UV/H(2)O(2) were similar only in the case of NDMA, a compound that reacts slowly with ozone and (•)OH but is transformed efficiently by direct photolysis. PMID:21645916

  19. Heating energy required for the electric heating of a resting pen for sucking pigs. Notwendiger Heizenergieeinsatz bei Anwendung der elektrisch beheizten Ferkelliegeflaeche zur Aufzucht von Saugferkeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresk, B.; Rehmann, U. (Institut fuer Angewandte Tierhygiene, Eberswalde-Finow (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    The authors present the results of measurements performed on the surface and plate inner temperatures, and on heat dissipation and input in an electrically heated piglet resting pen. Based on a working hypothesis and on a combination of the measurement results and literature findings, the authors derive an equation to calculate the required energy input in dependence from piglet age and stable-air temperature. (orig.).

  20. Sex-specific energy requirements in nestlings of an extremely sexually size dimorphic bird, the European sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, O; Dekker, AL; Visser, GH; Dijkstra, C

    2005-01-01

    Allocation of parental investment is predicted to be equal at the population level between both sexes of offspring, and should lead to sex ratio biases in species that exhibit a sex-difference in parental care. Sex-differences in parental care are rarely quantified. We measured daily energy expendit

  1. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Filatov, Yu; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzić, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, H; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B; Zhang, Y

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a brief summary of the science opportunities and program of a polarized medium energy electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab and a comprehensive description of the conceptual design of such a collider based on the CEBAF electron accelerator facility.

  2. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements, March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leiby, Paul N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); James, Brian [Directed Technologies, Inc., Youngstown, OH (United States); Perez, Julie [Directed Technologies, Inc., Youngstown, OH (United States); Melendez, Margo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Unnash, Stefan [Life Cycle Associates, Portola Valley, CA (United States); Rutherford, Daniel [Life Cycle Associates, Portola Valley, CA (United States); Hooks, Matthew [TIAX, LLC, Lexingtion, MA (United States)

    2008-03-14

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself.

  3. Estimativa das necessidades energéticas em pacientes com doença renal crônica Estimating the energy requirement of chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cordeiro Dias Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Estabelecer as necessidades energéticas de pacientes com doença renal crônica é importante para que se possam tratar os distúrbios nutricionais encontrados nessa população. Segundo os guias de condutas voltados ao cuidado nutricional de pacientes com essa doença, a recomendação energética pode variar entre 30 e 40kcal/kg/dia. Contudo, trabalhos que avaliaram os componentes do gasto energético nos pacientes com doença renal crônica sugerem que as necessidades energéticas dessa população podem diferir do valor recomendado acima, a depender da condição clínica (presença de comorbidades, da modalidade de tratamento empregado e do nível de atividade física. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo fazer uma revisão dos estudos sobre o gasto energético de pacientes com doença renal crônica, com o intuito de abordar as seguintes questões: (1 as atuais recomendações de energia para pacientes com doença renal crônica estão adequadas? (2 qual equação de predição poderia ser empregada para estimar as necessidades energéticas desse grupo de pacientes? Assim, esta revisão busca auxiliar o nutricionista ao estimar as necessidades energéticas de pacientes com doença renal crônica.Estimating the energy requirement of patients with chronic kidney disease is highly important for treating the nutritional disorders often seen in this population. According to the specific guidelines for patients with chronic kidney disease, the currently recommended daily energy intake varies from 30 to 40kcal/kg/day. However, studies that investigated energy expenditure components of patients with chronic kidney disease suggested that the energy requirement may differ from the one proposed earlier, depending on overall clinical condition (i.e. presence of comorbidities, treatment modality and level of physical activity. With this perspective in mind, the present study aims to review the studies assessing energy expenditure

  4. Comparison of alternative manure management systems: effect on the environment, total energy requirement, nutrient conservation, contribution to corn silage production and economics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.O.; Matthews, D.L.

    1983-09-01

    This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservation, corn silage production and total annual operating costs. The dairy production facility used was a confinement stall barn at the Agway Farm Research Center, Tully, New York. Provisions were made to handle the manure from the barn in three ways: (1) directly into a spreader for daily spreading, (2) by gravity into a liquid manure storage tank for spring application and immediate plow down, (3) hydraulic ram to a roof-covered above-ground manure storage for spring and fall spreading. Results of the study show that a manure storage system can reduce annual labor requirements by 65 percent and fuel requirement by 60 percent or more, compared to daily spreading.

  5. Effect of thermal energy storage in energy consumption required for air conditioning system in office building under the African Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgalil Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the African Mediterranean countries, cooling demand constitutes a large proportion of total electrical demand for office buildings during peak hours. The thermal energy storage systems can be an alternative method to be utilized to reduce and time shift the electrical load of air conditioning from on-peak to off-peak hours. In this study, the Hourly Analysis Program has been used to estimate the cooling load profile for an office building based in Tripoli weather data conditions. Preliminary study was performed in order to define the most suitable operating strategies of ice thermal storage, including partial (load leveling and demand limiting, full storage and conventional A/C system. Then, the mathematical model of heat transfer for external ice storage would be based on the operating strategy which achieves the lowest energy consumption. Results indicate that the largest rate of energy consumption occurs when the conventional system is applied to the building, while the lowest rate of energy consumption is obtained when the partial storage (demand limiting 60% is applied. Analysis of results shows that the new layer of ice formed on the surface of the existing ice lead to an increase of thermal resistance of heat transfer, which in return decreased cooling capacity.

  6. Medium-term forecast up to 2016 as required by the Renewable Energies Law; Die EEG-Mittelfristprognose bis 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmuth, Matthias [Leipziger Institut fuer Energie GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Article 3 of the Ordinance on the Implementation of the Ordinance on the Further Development of the Federal Compensation Mechanism obliges transmission system operators to publish not only the following year's reallocation charge pursuant to the Federal Electricity Feed-in Law but also, by the 15 November of each calendar year, a forecast on the probable range of the reallocation charge in the year after next, and further of expected electricity feed-in rates and electricity sales for the following five calendar years. For this purpose they must also determine and publish the progress over time of the average compensation due to plant operators and the amounts of network charges avoided and must do so separately for each of the energy carriers promoted under Renewable Energies Law. The present article shows the results of the current feed-in forecast in compact form.

  7. Estimation of requirements of eolic energy equivalent to the electric generation of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages are presented that have the nuclear and eolic energy as for their low environmental impact and to the human health. An exercise is presented in the one that is supposed that the electric power generated by the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant (CNLV), with capacity of 1365 M W, it should be produced by eolic energy when in the years 2020 and 2025 the units 1 and 2 of the CNLV reach its useful life and be moved away. It is calculated the number of aero generators that would produce the electric power average yearly of the CNLV, that which is equal to install eolic parks with capacity of 2758 M W, without considering that it will also be invested in systems of back generation to produce electricity when the aero generators stops for lack of wind. (Author)

  8. Quality of energy consultancy services - Requirements, criteria for evaluation, and a case report; Energieberatungsqualitaet - Anforderungen, Messung und ein Fallbeispiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausser, K.

    1999-07-01

    The article initially pictures an optimized model of energy consultancy and continues with explaining an instrument available for quality assessment of services in general, (SERVQUAL), presenting approaches for modifying this tool so as to make it applicable to evaluating the quality of energy consultancy activities. Finally, the capabilities of the modified tool are discussed referring to a case study in an electric utility, the Neckarwerke Stuttgart. (orig./CB) [German] Energieberatung durch Energieversorgungsunternehmen wird in Deutschland fast flaechendeckend angeboten. Im Beitrag wird zuerst aufgezeigt, welche Anforderungen eine optimale Energieberatung erfuellen muss. Danach wird ein Instrument vorgestellt, das die Qualitaet von Dienstleistungen im allgemeinen misst und im Rahmen der o.g. Arbeit so weiterentwickelt wurde, dass es von nun an auch als Instrument zur Messung der Qualitaet von Energieberatung im Besonderen dienen kann: SERVQUAL (von SERVice QUALity). Zuletzt werden die Ergebnisse praesentiert, die in der o.g. Untersuchung unter Anwendung von SERVQUAL bei den Neckarwerken Stuttgart erzielt wurden. (orig./RHM)

  9. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  10. Energy-requiring translocation of the OmpA protein and alkaline phosphatase of Escherichia coli into inner membrane vesicles.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoads, D B; Tai, P C; Davis, B D

    1984-01-01

    In developing a reliable in vitro system for translocating bacterial proteins, we found that the least dense subfraction of the membrane of Escherichia coli was superior to the total inner membrane, both for a secreted protein (alkaline phosphatase) and for an outer membrane protein (OmpA). Compounds that eliminated the proton motive force inhibited translocation, as already observed in cells; since protein synthesis continued, the energy for translocation appears to be derived from the energ...

  11. The EU electricity production structure requires a differentiated energy policy; Die Stromerzeugungsstruktur der EU erfordert eine differenzierte Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-04-15

    For the electricity production of the EU there are differentiated structures which are based on different natural conditions, political decisions and investments of past decades. It has long been struggled committed to the ''one and correct'' energy policy. But precisely because of the differences in the individual countries, a unified energy and climate policy for the EU is not the right way. Diversity is a strength, which quite the EU Commission considered. Increased understanding of the specifics in other countries should just apply the German politics and the public that all too often judges from their own perspective. [German] Bei der Stromerzeugung in der EU bestehen differenzierte Strukturen, die auf unterschiedlichen natuerlichen Gegebenheiten, politischen Entscheidungen und Investitionen vergangener Jahrzehnte beruhen. Seit langem wird engagiert um die ''eine und richtige'' Energiepolitik gerungen. Doch gerade wegen der Unterschiede in den einzelnen Laendern kann eine vereinheitlichte Energie- und Klimapolitik fuer die EU nicht der richtige Weg sein. Vielfalt ist eine Staerke, was die EU-Kommission durchaus beruecksichtigt. Mehr Verstaendnis fuer die Spezifika in anderen Laendern sollte daher gerade die deutsche Politik und Oeffentlichkeit aufbringen, die allzu oft aus eigener Perspektive heraus urteilt.

  12. Minimization of the energy storage requirements of a stand-alone wind power installation by means of photovoltaic panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldellis, J. K.; Kostas, P.; Filios, A.

    2006-07-01

    Autonomous wind power systems are among the most interesting and environmentally friendly technological solutions for the electrification of remote consumers. In many cases, however, the battery contribution to the initial or the total operational cost is found to be dominant, discouraging further penetration of the available wind resource. This is basically the case for areas possessing a medium-low wind potential. On the other hand, several isolated consumers are located in regions having the regular benefit of an abundant and reliable solar energy supply. In this context the present study investigates the possibility of reducing the battery size of a stand-alone wind power installation by incorporating a small photovoltaic generator. For this purpose an integrated energy production installation based exclusively on renewable energy resources is hereby proposed. Subsequently a new numerical algorithm is developed that is able to estimate the appropriate dimensions of a similar system. According to the results obtained by long-term experimental measurements, the introduction of the photovoltaic panels considerably improves the operational and financial behaviour of the complete installation owing to the imposed significant battery capacity diminution. Copyright

  13. Preliminary designs for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) stationkeeping subsystems (SKSS). Task I. Design requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The results of Task I, Design Requirements, are presented. Environmental conditions for the Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico site are reviewed and synthesized to provide definition of current, wind and wave severity, direction, and occurrence for service, operational, and extreme sea states. SKSS performance requirements, including design life and watch circle, are followed by interface considerations particularly for the electrical transmission riser cable, and design criteria including safety and load factors. The SKSS concepts will be analyzed to evaluate performance, reliability, and cost. Performance analysis conducted included catenary anchor leg static calculations to size components, as well as drag due to environmental loads in the operational and extreme sea states for both ship and spar platforms. Dynamic analyses and trade studies to be conducted in Task II are presented. A reliability and risk assessment analysis of the three basic SKSS types - single-, multiple-, and tension-anchor-leg moors - was completed, indicating that the multiple-anchor-leg/multiple-point rotary or turret moor has the lowest risk-criticality for the ship, while that for the spar is the multiple-anchor-leg/multiple-point moor. The catenary single-anchor-leg/single-point moor has insufficient reliability for both platforms. The life cycle cost analysis methodology, including work breakdown structure, cost estimating, and cost minimization define the approach to costing to be followed throughout the study. The results of these design trades and analyses will first be applied to concept ranking required for recommendation of a SKSS concept for each platform.

  14. Endogenous leptin signaling in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius and area postrema is required for energy balance regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Matthew R.; Skibicka, Karolina P; Leichner, Theresa M.; Guarnieri, Douglas J; DiLeone, Ralph J; Bence, Kendra K.; Grill, Harvey J.

    2010-01-01

    Medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) neurons express leptin receptors (LepR) and intramNTS delivery of leptin reduces food intake and body weight. Here, the contribution of endogenous LepR signaling in mNTS neurons to energy balance control was examined. Knockdown of LepR in mNTS and area postrema (AP) neurons of rats (LepRKD) via adeno-associated virus short hairpin RNA-interference (AAV-shRNAi) resulted in significant hyperphagia for chow, high-fat and sucrose diets, yielding increased ...

  15. Does gasification and biochar amendment provide a viable solution to balance greenhouse gas emissions, energy requirements and orchard residue management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Engil; Suddick, Emma; Six, Johan

    2015-04-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we can generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel burning and waste disposal. This on-farm research study provides a long-term and high frequency assessment of GHG emissions from biochar amended-soils in an organic walnut orchard in the Central Valley of California, USA. We also estimated the GHG offsets from the conversion of walnut residue into energy through gasification at the on-site walnut processing plant. Soil fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored over 29 months in a 3.6 ha walnut orchard following management and precipitation events. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Events involving resource inputs such as fertilization or cover crop mowing induced the largest N2O peaks with average 0.13 kg N2O-N ha-1 day-1, while precipitation events produced the highest CO2 fluxes in average 0.124 Mg CO2-C ha-1 day-1. Biochar alone decreased N2O fluxes in two out of 23 measured events, however, not with enough significant magnitude to modify annual or seasonal totals. This indicates that biochar-induced decreases in N2O fluxes may occasionally occur without significant changes in total emissions. Additionally, biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter annual or seasonal cumulative CO2 emissions. For this particular study, the conversion of orchard waste into energy and C sequestration through biochar amendment offset 100.3 Mg CO2-Ceq year-1. Thus, given that biochar did not alter cumulative GHG emissions from soils, we conclude that, in the scenario of this study, the use of biochar as a strategy to decrease farm-level GHG emissions is obtained through the gasification of orchard residue into energy and through biochar C sequestration, and not as a tool to decrease soil CO2 and N2O emissions.

  16. Partial licence under the Atomic Energy Act and the requirement to furnish evidence of provisions for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revocation is the only legal means applicable to terminate the binding force of final decisions set fotth in a nuclear partial licence (construction licence) in view of decisions to be taken in the course of the licensing procedure (here: decision on the operating licence for the Brokdorf reactor), if the factural situation has changed and requires modified assessment. The licence under review by the court could not be devised on the grounds that there was no spent fueld repository available at the time the decision was taken to grant an operating licence, i.e. in 1988. BVerwG, judgment of July 12, 1993 -7 B 177.92 - (OVG Lueneburg). (orig./HP)

  17. 蓝牙4.0低功耗技术及其认证要求%Bluetooth 4.0 Low Energy Technology and Certification Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕松栋; 黎卓芳

    2011-01-01

    本文阐述了蓝牙4.0低功耗技术,包括其工作原理、框架结构等。并着重介绍了蓝牙低功耗技术认证测试的新要求,包括测试内容及测试工具的变化等。%The new Bluetooth specification 4.0 Low Energy(LE)technology is introduced in the paper. The details of Low Energy technology such as principles and framework are described.The newest certification requirements based on the Bluetooth Low Energy specification are analyzed and introduced.

  18. Proceedings of the 4th seminar of R and D on advanced ORIENT 'strategy and technical requirement for new resource of noble metals in advanced atomic energy science'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4th Seminar of R and D on advanced ORIENT, 'Strategy and technical requirement for new resource of noble metals in advanced atomic energy science' was held in Swany hall, Rokkasho-Mura, on July 30th, 2010 organized by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The first meeting of this seminar was held at Oarai, Ibaraki on May, 2007, the second seminar was held at Tokai, on November, 2008, and the third seminar was held at Sendai, on October, 2009. Spent nuclear fuel should be recognized as not only mass of radioactive elements but also potentially useful materials including platinum metals and rare earth elements. Taking the cooperation with universities related companies and research institutes, into consideration, we aimed at expanding and progressing the basic researches. In this seminar, there are many poster presentation included, and the useful discussion with many students are performed. This report records abstracts and figures submitted from the oral speakers in this seminar. (author)

  19. Laserinduced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) of malignant liver tumors. Is it possible to gauge energy requirement for ablation with the aid of Hounsfield units?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many malignant tumors such as colorectal cancer or breast cancer cause liver metastases. The therapy strategy is dependent on the primary tumor. Laser induced Interstitial Thermotherapy (LITT), together with various other minimally invasive approaches, is a thermotherapy and could be applied in addition to surgery or as the exclusive method of treating isolated liver metastases. Major advantages of such an approach are the possibility of implementing an outpatient scheme, as well as a lower occurrence rate of complications. After a CT-controlled puncture of the metastases the therapy is monitored in the MRI by using thermosensitive sequences. Liver tissue absorbs energy from laser photons; heat caused by this effect leads to the destruction of tumorous tissue. As the amount of energy required to destroy the metastases varies greatly even with the volume of lesions being the same, the aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a relation between energy requirement and liver density as gauged by means of CT before treatment. For this purpose 168 patients with 279 liver metastases originating from different primaries who were treated with LITT between March 2006 and March 2007 were included in this study. 55.4 % of the patients were pretreated with TACE, which reduces the blood flow in the liver, thus reducing amount of energy required from laser photon treatment. Prior to every single LITT sequence liver density was gauged by puncture CT with the aid of Hounsfield units; also, the volume of the induced necrosis in the 24h MRI image and in the control MRI after 3, 6 and 12 months was measured. It was possible to calculate the actual energy consumption on the basis of number, running time and energy output of the laser employed. Check-up examinations showed a decrease of the mean necrosis-volumes, which indicates that absence of recurrence of the tumor in those spots that had been laser-treated. Analysis of the average survival time after the first LITT over an

  20. Decontamination of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from soil by steam stripping: mathematical modeling of the mass transfer and energy requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braass, Oliver; Tiffert, Christian; Höhne, Joachim; Luo, Xing; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2003-11-01

    For cleaning of contaminated soil from polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a thermal separation process is applied. The process uses superheated steam that is supplied through a nozzle together with a suspension (approximately 40% soil content) of the contaminated soil into a tube reactor. In the reactor, the soil suspension is vaporized, and the PAH are stripped from the soil at temperatures of 140-300 degrees C. In a cyclone, a solid-vapor separation is carried out, and after going through a condenser, a separation of the condensed water and the PAH is obtained. For improvement of the economical performance, a heat recovery is integrated. This is realized by preheating the water/stream supplied to the evaporator by cooling the vapor steam leaving the reactor. For the mathematical description of the process, the removal of the PAH from the soil is considered to take place by a desorption process. Sorption isotherms are measured by batch experiments and can be described by isotherms of Langmuir type. A dispersion model is used to describe the mass transfer of the process. The process is mathematically modeled for instationary and stationary operation. The simulation predicts the lowest energy consumption at a good cleaning performance at a steam-to-suspension ratio of 5.

  1. Critical system issues and modeling requirements - the problem of beam energy sweep in an electron linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors attempt to motivate the development of modeling tools for linear induction accelerator components by giving examples of performance limitations related to energy sweep. The most pressing issues is the development of an accurate model of the switching behavior of large magnetic cores at high dB/dt in the accelerator and magnetic compression modulators. Ideally one would like to have a model with as few parameters as possible that allows the user to choose the core geometry and magnetic material and perhaps a few parameters characterizing the switch model. Beyond this, the critical modeling tasks are: simulation of a magnetic compression modulator, modeling the reset dynamics of a magnetic compression modulator, modeling the loading characteristics of a linear induction accelerator cell, and modeling the electron injector current including the dynamics of feedback modulation and beam loading in an accelerator cell. Of course in the development of these models care should be given to benchmarking them against data from experimental systems. Beyond that one should aim for tools that have predictive power so that they can be used as design tools and not merely to replicate existing data

  2. Food or fuel? What European farmers can contribute to Europe's transport energy requirements and the Doha Round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baka, Jennifer [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Roland-Holst, David [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Farm support in higher income countries is a testament to the fundamental social and economic importance of agriculture, yet domestic efforts to support this sector can arouse multilateral discord in a world of global food markets. In this paper, we argue that the advent of biofuels offers a new opportunity for agriculture to contribute to society, and to do so in a way that reduces trade rivalry and improves energy security. Holding current agricultural production constant, we find that the EU has the potential to reduce oil imports between 6% and 28% by converting eligible agricultural crops into biofuels under two differing conversion scenarios. Further, 33% of food support could be removed with no net farm revenue loss, using the biofuel premia (compared with food value) of corn and rapeseed to compensate for subsidy reductions. These results can help overcome the current impasse in global trade negotiations by reconciling the needs of EU farmers with those who would gain from more liberal international trade. (author)

  3. Food or fuel? What European farmers can contribute to Europe's transport energy requirements and the Doha Round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farm support in higher income countries is a testament to the fundamental social and economic importance of agriculture, yet domestic efforts to support this sector can arouse multilateral discord in a world of global food markets. In this paper, we argue that the advent of biofuels offers a new opportunity for agriculture to contribute to society, and to do so in a way that reduces trade rivalry and improves energy security. Holding current agricultural production constant, we find that the EU has the potential to reduce oil imports between 6% and 28% by converting eligible agricultural crops into biofuels under two differing conversion scenarios. Further, 33% of food support could be removed with no net farm revenue loss, using the biofuel premia (compared with food value) of corn and rapeseed to compensate for subsidy reductions. These results can help overcome the current impasse in global trade negotiations by reconciling the needs of EU farmers with those who would gain from more liberal international trade. (author)

  4. Incorporating flexibility requirements into long-term energy system models – A case study on high levels of renewable electricity penetration in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An energy system model (OSeMOSYS) was set up based on 12 time periods per year. • Results for 2020 were compared to a TIMES-PLEXOS model with 8784 time periods. • Adding operational constraints to OSeMOSYS allowed reproducing TIMES-PLEXOS results. • In OSeMOSYS, capacities in 2050 differed by 24% when omitting this operating detail. • Omitting this detail may result in underestimated climate change mitigation costs. - Abstract: Efforts to meet climate change mitigation and energy security targets spur investments in variable renewable energy sources. Their implications for the operation of power plants are frequently investigated drawing on unit commitment and dispatch models. However, the temporal granularity and operational detail these models consider is commonly omitted in the broader family of long-term energy system models. To compensate this short-coming, these two types of tools have sometimes been ‘soft-linked’ and harmonised for limited simulation years. This paper assesses an alternative approach. We examine an extended version of an open source energy system model (OSeMOSYS), which is able to capture operating reserve and related investment requirements within a single tool. The implications of these model extensions are quantified through comparison with an Irish case study. That case study examined the effects of linking a long-term energy system model (TIMES) with a unit commitment and dispatch model (PLEXOS). It analysed the year 2020 in detail, applying a yearly temporal resolution that is over 700 times higher than in OSeMOSYS. Without increasing temporal resolution (and computational burden) we show that results of the enhanced OSeMOSYS model converge to results of TIMES and PLEXOS: Investment mismatches decrease from 21.4% to 5.0%. The OSeMOSYS analysis was then extended to 2050 to assess the implications of short-term variability on future capacity investment decisions. When variability was ignored, power system

  5. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  6. Assessment of the Portuguese building thermal code: Newly revised requirements for cooling energy needs used to prevent the overheating of buildings in the summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, cooling energy needs are calculated by the steady-state methodology of the Portuguese building thermal code. After the first period of building code implementation, re-evaluation according to EN ISO 13790 is recommended in order to compare results with the dynamic simulation results. From these analyses, a newly revised methodology arises including a few corrections in procedure. This iterative result is sufficiently accurate to calculate the building's cooling energy needs. Secondly, results show that the required conditions are insufficient to prevent overheating. The use of the gain utilization factor as an overheating risk index is suggested, according to an adaptive comfort protocol, and is integrated in the method used to calculate the maximum value for cooling energy needs. This proposed streamlined method depends on reference values: window-to-floor area ratio, window shading g-value, integrated solar radiation and gain utilization factor, which leads to threshold values significantly below the ones currently used. These revised requirements are more restrictive and, therefore, will act to improve a building's thermal performance during summer. As a rule of thumb applied for Portuguese climates, the reference gain utilization factor should assume a minimum value of 0.8 for a latitude angle range of 40-41oN, 0.6 for 38-39oN and 0.5 for 37oN. -- Highlights: → A newly revised methodology for Portuguese building thermal code. → The use of the gain utilization factor as an overheating risk index is suggested. → The proposed streamlined method depends on reference values. → Threshold maximum values are significantly below the ones currently used.

  7. The conversion of biomass to ethanol using geothermal energy derived from hot dry rock to supply both the thermal and electrical power requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The potential synergism between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion of biomass to fuel ethanol is considerable. In addition, combining these two renewable energy resources to produce transportation fuel has very positive environmental implications. One of the distinct advantages of wedding an HDR geothermal power source to a biomass conversion process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating conditions. The latter obtains since an HDR system is an injection conditions of flow rate, pressure, temperature, and water chemistry are under the control of the operator. The former obtains since, unlike a naturally occurring geothermal resource, the HDR resource is very widespread, particularly in the western US, and can be developed near transportation and plentiful supplies of biomass. Conceptually, the pressurized geofluid from the HDR reservoir would be produced at a temperature in the range of 200{degrees} to 220{degrees}c. The higher enthalpy portion of the geofluid thermal energy would be used to produce a lower-temperature steam supply in a countercurrent feedwater-heater/boiler. The steam, following a superheating stage fueled by the noncellulosic waste fraction of the biomass, would be expanded through a turbine to produce electrical power. Depending on the lignin fraction of the biomass, there would probably be excess electrical power generated over and above plant requirements (for slurry pumping, stirring, solids separation, etc.) which would be available for sale to the local power grid. In fact, if the hybrid HDR/biomass system were creatively configured, the power plant could be designed to produce daytime peaking power as well as a lower level of baseload power during off-peak hours.

  8. Analysis the Latest Energy Ecodesign Requirements for LED Lamps in Europe%欧盟对 LED 灯最新生态设计要求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志豪; 黄昊培; 李蕴

    2014-01-01

    为提高产品的能效和减少产品对环境的影响,从2013年9月起,欧盟规定对进入欧盟地区的LED照明产品必须满足Erp指令的要求,才可以加贴CE标识。本文对欧盟最新推出的Erp指令对LED灯的生态设计要求进行了详细介绍,在此基础上分析了该指令对我国LED照明产业的影响,并给出相应的应对措施,对企业应对国际贸易技术壁垒和增强自身市场竞争力具有积极的作用。%In order to improve the energy efficiency of the products and reduce the effect on the environment , LED lamps enter into the Europe must meet the Erp directive requirement to attaching CE logo from september 2013.This article discusses the ecodesign requirement of LED lamps of European Erp directive.Based on the research , this article probes into the impacts of this requirement on Chinese LED lighting industry .And this article also has a positive effect on helping the enterprises to deal with technical barriers to international trade and strengthen market competition .

  9. Influence of the process control on the thermal energy requirement of convection dryers in the brick industry; Einfluss der Prozessfuehrung auf den thermischen Energiebedarf von Konvektionstrocknern in der Ziegelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretau, Anne

    2008-06-10

    Brick manufacturing demands high amount of energy. The energy flow analysis inside the brick factory shows that the convective drying of green bricks consumes more than half of the total thermal energy required for brick manufacturing. Therefore this paper deals with the theoretical analysis and investigation for the energy requirement of green bricks. For this, a physical-based model has been developed, which describes the dependence of drying-kinetics as well as the energy-requirement interims of the process parameter like mass of the supply air. It turns out that the specific energy requirement substantially depends on temperature and humidity of the ambience air and also supply air mass flow and its temperature. Due to the continuous temperature rise of the green bricks during the second drying section the specific energy requirement increases significantly with the progressive motion of the drying in a chamber dryer. This is due to the fact that the green brick as well as the air conditioning distance more and more from the cooling limit. Just a low part of the dryer exhaust air is saturated. The exhaust air is continuously sucked out and the green bricks are pulled inside the dryer. So the exhaust air has a relatively higher water saturation. On general, continuous dryers have a lower energy requirement than chamber dryer. For the both types of dryers, the mathematical model shows that the increasing of the supply air temperature combined with a commensurate subsidence of supply air mass flow, results in a reduction of drying energy requirement. The change of other essential parameters of drying like green brick thickness, and density as well as the moisture diffusion coefficient, and the vapour diffusity which are only important in the second drying section are of comparatively negligible effect. The developed mathematical model is successfully implemented for the energy investigation in the industrial dryers. The increase in supply air temperature results

  10. Hydrogen Scenario Analysis Summary Report: Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; James, Brian [Directed Technologies, Inc.; Perez, Julie [Directed Technologies, Inc.; Melendez, Margo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Unnasch, Stefan [Life Cycle Associates; Rutherford, Daniel [TIAX, LLC; Hooks, Matthew [TIAX, LLC

    2008-03-01

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself. The transition to hydrogen-powered transportation faces imposing economic barriers. The challenges include developing and refining a new and different power-train technology, building a supporting fuel infrastructure, creating a market for new and unfamiliar vehicles, and achieving economies of scale in vehicle production while providing an attractive selection of vehicle makes and models for car-buyers. The upfront costs will be high and could persist for a decade or more, delaying profitability until an adequate number of vehicles can be produced and moved into consumer markets. However, the potential rewards to the economy, environment, and national security are immense. Such a profound market transformation will require careful planning and strong, consistent policy incentives. Section 811 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 2005, Public Law 109-59 (U.S. House, 2005), calls for a report from the Secretary of Energy on measures to support the transition to a hydrogen economy. The report was to specifically address production and deployment of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure needed to support those vehicles. In addition, the 2004 report of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 2004), The Hydrogen Economy, contained two recommendations for analyses to be conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to strengthen hydrogen energy transition and infrastructure planning for the hydrogen economy. In response to the EPACT requirement and NAS recommendations, DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and

  11. 海南黑山羊生长期的能量与蛋白质需要量%Energy and Protein Requirements of Growing Hainan Black Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周汉林; 李茂; 字学娟; 徐铁山; 蒋昌顺

    2009-01-01

    Twelve growing waning Hainan Black goats at the age of 4 months were selected for experiments and fed by using the feeding and digestion methods to observe their requirements for energy and protein,and their metabolism. The goats were divided into 4 groups and a 4×4 Latin design was arranged. Diets with 4 ratios of energy to nitrogen,i.e. high energy high N,low energy high N,high energy low N,low energy low N,were prepared according to Keral I.C. (1982) who recommended the nutrient requirements of goats in developing countries. The prediction equations of nutritional requirements for dry matter(DM),Gross energy(GE),digestible energy(DE),crude protein(CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) by stall-feeding growing Hainan Black goats were: ZM//(g/d)=27.181W~(0.75)+0.83AJF+210.76(r=0.891 6),GEI(MJ/d)=0.82W~(0.75)+0.028△W+3.76(r=0.780 4),DEI(MJ/d)=0.59W~(0.75)+0.021 △W-0.24(r=0.665 1),CPI(g/d) =2.45W~(0.75)+0.26△W+22.14(r=0.5712),DCP(g/d)=2.69W~(0.75)+0.03 △W-0.38(r=0.660 5). For the stall-feeding growing Hainan Black goats,metabolic rate of gross energy of the diets was 58.88%,digestibility of crude protein 57.08%,and the total availability of protein 35.25%. The protein requirement of per unit live weight gain of meat goats is 0.37 g PD/g gain(PD,protein deposited).%试验选用12只海南黑山羊断奶羔羊(约4月龄),采用饲养试验和消化代谢试验,研究生长期海南黑山羊的能量和蛋白质需要量及其代谢规律.试验羊分成4组,采用4x4拉丁方设计.按照Keral(1982)适宜于发展中国家的山羊饲养标准为参考设计了高能高氮、低能高氮、高能低氮、低能低氮4种能氮比的日粮.结果表明:舍饲海南黑山羊生长期干物质采食量与代谢体重和日增重的关系为DMI(g/d)=27.18W0.75+0.83△W+210.76(r=0.8916);总能、消化能、粗蛋白质和可消化蛋白质需要量的估测模型分别为GEI(MJId)=0.82W~(0.75)+0.028△W+3.76(r=0.7804).DEI(MJ/d)=0.59W~(0.75)+0.021 △W-0.24(r=0

  12. A dietary polyphenol resveratrol acts to provide neuroprotection in recurrent stroke models by regulating AMPK and SIRT1 signaling, thereby reducing energy requirements during ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The above article from European Journal of Neuroscience, published online on 5 March 2013 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejn.12162/full), has been retracted by agreement between the Editors-in-Chief, Paul Bolam and John Foxe, the authors and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as Dr Phillip Barber has informed the publisher that he had seen neither the original data nor any version of the manuscript, and had not been involved in the work reported. A subsequent Institutional investigation found evidence of misconduct on the part of the submitting author. Reference Wang, L.-M., Wang, Y.-J., Cui, M., Luo, W.-J., Wang, X.-J., Barber, P.A. & Chen, Z.-Y. (2013) A dietary polyphenol resveratrol acts to provide neuroprotection in recurrent stroke models by regulating AMPK and SIRT1 signaling, thereby reducing energy requirements during ischemia.

  13. Eligibility Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Eligibility Requirements Printable Version Eligibility Requirements This page uses Javascript. Your browser either doesn' ... donors » Weigh at least 110 lbs. Additional weight requirements apply for donors 18-years-old and younger ...

  14. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  15. A Framework for Better Understanding and Enhancing Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) in Terms of Module Design, Cost Analysis and Energy Required

    KAUST Repository

    AbuHannoud, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Water is becoming scarcer and several authors have highlighted the upcoming problem of higher water salinity and the difficulty of treating and discharging water. Moreover, current discoveries of problems with chemicals that have been used for pretreating or post-treating water alerted scientists to research better solutions to treat water. Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising technology that might replace current processes as it has lower pretreatment requirements combined with a tremendous ability to treat a wide range of feed sources while producing very high product quality. If it enters the market, it will have a big influence on all products, from food industry to spaceflight. However, there are several problems which make MD a hot topic for research. One of them is the question about the real cost of MD in terms of heating feed and cooling distillate over time with respect to product quantity and quality. In this work, extensive heating and cooling analyses are covered to answer this question in order to enhance the MD process. Results show energy cost to produce water and the main source of energy loss for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD), and several suggestions are made in order to better understand and hence enhance the process.

  16. Considering the chemical energy requirements of the tri-n-propylamine co-reactant pathways for the judicious design of new electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Emily; Doeven, Egan H; Wilson, David J D; Hogan, Conor F; Francis, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of a 'co-reactant' was a critical step in the evolution of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) from a laboratory curiosity to a widely utilised detection system. In conjunction with a suitable electrochemiluminophore, the co-reactant enables generation of both the oxidised and reduced precursors to the emitting species at a single electrode potential, under the aqueous conditions required for most analytical applications. The most commonly used co-reactant is tri-n-propylamine (TPrA), which was developed for the classic tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) ECL reagent. New electrochemiluminophores such as cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes are also evaluated with this co-reactant. However, attaining the excited states in these systems can require much greater energy than that of tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), which has implications for the co-reactant reaction pathways. In this tutorial review, we describe a simple graphical approach to characterise the energetically feasible ECL pathways with TPrA, as a useful tool for the development of new ECL detection systems. PMID:26525583

  17. 陕北白绒山羊羯羊能量和蛋白质需要量%Energy and Protein Requirements of Shanbei White Cashmere Wether Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晔; 李碧波; 黄帅; 王荣斌; 王冬; 李琴芳; 屈雷

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the requirements of energy and protein of Shanbei white cashmere wether goats so as to provide data for establishing them.Thirty-six healthy one-year-old Shan-bei white cashmere wether goats with similar body weight were randomly divided into 9 groups according to a 3×3 ( energy×protein) completely random experiment design, and each group had 4 replicates with 1 goat per replicate.digestible energy (DE) level in diet was formulated at 100%, 110%and 120%of NRC (1981) rec-ommendation, respectively; and crude protein ( CP) level was formulated at 90%, 110%and 130%of NRC (1981) recommendation, respectively.The pretest lasted for 7 days, and the test lasted for 46 days.The re-sults showed as follows:1) energy level in diet had extremely significant effects on dry matter intake ( DMI) and average daily gain ( ADG) ( P<0.01) , and protein level significantly affected DMI ( P<0.05);there was significant interaction on DMI between energy and protein levels in diet ( P<0.05).2) Digestible nitrogen ( N) in low energy group was significantly lower than that in medium and high energy groups ( P<0.05); N intake, digestible N, retained N, N apparent digestibility in low protein group were extremely lower than those of medium and high protein groups ( P<0.01) .3) Gross energy ( GE) digestibility and metabolic rate were extremely significantly increased with energy level improving ( P<0.01 ); metabolic rates of GE and DE in high protein group were significantly lower than these in low protein group ( P<0.05); There was significant interactions of energy×protein on GE digestibility, GE metabolic rate and DE metabolic rate ( P<0.05 or P<0.01) .We establish regression equations of energy and protein requirement of one-year-old Shanbei white cashmere wether goats, the proper range of DE and ME levels in diet are 8.80 to 10.61 MJ/kg and 7.34 to 8.76 MJ/kg, respectively, and the appropriate CP and digestible CP levels are 10.00%and 7

  18. 耕作机具能耗模拟研究进展%Achievements in modeling of energy requirements for tillage tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehrez Bashar; 杨洲; 李君; 王亮

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of tillage tool energy requirement has been carried out since 1960s. In recent years, the development of more powerful computers and more sophisticated computer models and software have dramatically increased our ability to modeling and predict the performance and power requirements of tillage tools in various kinds of tillage operations, such as soil movement by tillage tool, soil failure profile and crop residual managements and manure injections, etc. Variety of mathematical models have been developed using analytical, numerical and empirical approaches. This paper attempts to provide a clear overview of these models and summarize the studies have been carried out in the area of modeling energy requirement of tillage tools. Furthermore, the paper gives the descriptions and characteristics of these models validations and suitable cases of applications.%耕作机具的能耗模拟研究始于20世纪60年代。近年来,性能强大的计算机应用和先进建模技术与软件的发展,提高了研究人员建模分析和预测不同耕作条件下(如耕作机具所引起的土壤运动、土体破坏分布、作物残茬处理和肥料施用等)机具性能和能耗状况的能力。研究人员使用解析分析、数值模拟和经验法等方法,建立了耕作机具能耗的多种数学模型。该文对耕作机具能耗数学模型进行了系统的概述,总结了已有的研究成果,重点论述了数学模型的分类和特点,模型参数的测定、验证和模型的适用范围,可为耕作机理深入研究和耕作机具优化改进提供参考。

  19. A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi; Antonello Cannas; Danny Gene Fox

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S) was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS). The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME) and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats in the SRNS are predicted based on the equations developed for CNCPS-S, modified to account for ...

  20. Ecodesign requirements for televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper concerns the Ecodesign Directive (2009/125/EC) and the implementing measures (IM) in which ecodesign requirements are set up for energy-using and energy-related products. Previous studies have found that the requirements have a unilateral focus on energy consumption and the use...... phase. This is not in line with the scientific understanding of ecodesign, where attention should be put on all life cycle phases and all relevant environmental impact categories. This study focuses on the requirements for televisions (TV). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out on two TVs...... to analyse if other environmental hotspots and life cycle phases should be included in the requirements in the IM of the Ecodesign Directive besides energy consumption in the use phase analysis. Methods The consequential approach is used. The data for the LCA have been gathered from two manufacturers of TVs...

  1. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  2. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

  3. Hydrogen Scenario Analysis Summary Report: Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; James, Brian [Directed Technologies, Inc.; Perez, Julie [Directed Technologies, Inc.; Melendez, Margo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Unnasch, Stefan [Life Cycle Associates; Rutherford, Daniel [TIAX, LLC; Hooks, Matthew [TIAX, LLC

    2008-03-01

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself. The transition to hydrogen-powered transportation faces imposing economic barriers. The challenges include developing and refining a new and different power-train technology, building a supporting fuel infrastructure, creating a market for new and unfamiliar vehicles, and achieving economies of scale in vehicle production while providing an attractive selection of vehicle makes and models for car-buyers. The upfront costs will be high and could persist for a decade or more, delaying profitability until an adequate number of vehicles can be produced and moved into consumer markets. However, the potential rewards to the economy, environment, and national security are immense. Such a profound market transformation will require careful planning and strong, consistent policy incentives. Section 811 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 2005, Public Law 109-59 (U.S. House, 2005), calls for a report from the Secretary of Energy on measures to support the transition to a hydrogen economy. The report was to specifically address production and deployment of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure needed to support those vehicles. In addition, the 2004 report of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 2004), The Hydrogen Economy, contained two recommendations for analyses to be conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to strengthen hydrogen energy transition and infrastructure planning for the hydrogen economy. In response to the EPACT requirement and NAS recommendations, DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and

  4. Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) Code Verification and Validation Data Standards and Requirements: Fluid Dynamics Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Weirs; Hyung Lee

    2011-09-01

    V&V and UQ are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of M&S and, hence, to establish confidence in M&S. Though other industries are establishing standards and requirements for the performance of V&V and UQ, at present, the nuclear industry has not established such standards or requirements. However, the nuclear industry is beginning to recognize that such standards are needed and that the resources needed to support V&V and UQ will be very significant. In fact, no single organization has sufficient resources or expertise required to organize, conduct and maintain a comprehensive V&V and UQ program. What is needed is a systematic and standardized approach to establish and provide V&V and UQ resources at a national or even international level, with a consortium of partners from government, academia and industry. Specifically, what is needed is a structured and cost-effective knowledge base that collects, evaluates and stores verification and validation data, and shows how it can be used to perform V&V and UQ, leveraging collaboration and sharing of resources to support existing engineering and licensing procedures as well as science-based V&V and UQ processes. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory in conjunction with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Argonne National Laboratory, Utah State University and others with the objective of establishing a comprehensive and web-accessible knowledge base to provide V&V and UQ resources for M&S for nuclear reactor design, analysis and licensing. The knowledge base will serve as an important resource for technical exchange and collaboration that will enable credible and reliable computational models and simulations for application to nuclear power. NE-KAMS will serve as a valuable resource for the nuclear industry, academia, the national laboratories, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and

  5. Whole-body protein turnover and energy expenditure in post-viral hepatocirrhotic patients. A study using multiple stable isotope tracers to estimate protein and energy requirements and the efficacy of a new diet therapy based on Chinese food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L-[1-13C]-leucine and 15N-glycine doubly-labelled tracer experiments revealed accelerated kinetics of leucine, glycine and whole-body protein in post-viral hepatocirrhotic patients. Together with the results of nitrogen balance measurement, the daily protein requirement of these patients was estimated to be higher than 1.2 g/kg/d. Doubly labelled water experiments and NaH13CO3 experiments revealed that the freely living and basal energy expenditure of post-viral hepatocirrhotic patients was not different from that in normal subjects with comparable physical and mental activities. For those freely living in hospital, the energy requirements is estimated to be 150-160 kJ/kg/d. According to the above results, a therapeutic diet formulation based on Chinese food was designed for the patients which contained 1.5 g/kg/d of protein and 150-160 kJ/kg/d. 60-70% of the dietary protein was of vegetable origin, with a branched chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio slightly but significantly higher than the common hospital diet. Patients with compensated post-viral hepatocirrhosis adapted to the diet rapidly. After two months' therapy, the negative nitrogen balance turned positive along with an increase of body weight and urinary creatinine, indicating and improvement of general nutritional status, probably with accumulation of muscle protein. The diet is relatively cheap, can be easily handled by the patients themselves, and hence is also applicable to outpatients. 54 refs, 8 tabs

  6. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  7. Dietary protein and energy requirements of juvenile freshwater angelfish Exigências nutricionais de proteína e energia em juvenis de acará-bandeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and energy requirements of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare were evaluated. A 3 × 2 factorial design was used, with three dietary crude protein levels being tested (26, 30, and 34% of CP combined with two digestible energy levels (3,100 and 3,300 kcal DE/kg of diet in three replicates. Juveniles averaging 2.33 ± 0.26 g were reared in a 25L-aquarium with controlled temperature (26 ± 1ºC, biological filter and stocking density of six fish/aquarium. Fish were fed ad libitum at 09:00 a.m., 2:00 p.m. and 4:30 p.m. The following performance parameters were evaluated: final weight, final length, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and condition factor. Fish fed diets with 26% CP showed greater protein efficiency values when compared to those fed diets with 34% CP. Diets with 26% of CP and 3100 kcal DE/kg could meet the nutritional requirements of juvenile freshwater angelfish.Avaliaram-se as exigências nutricionais de proteína e energia em juvenis de acará-bandeira (Pterophyllum scalare. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 × 2, com três níveis de proteína bruta (26, 30 e 34%, dois de energia digestível (3.100 e 3.300 kcal/kg de ração e três repetições. Juvenis com peso médio de 2,33 ± 0,26 g foram distribuídos em aquários contendo 25 litros de água, temperatura controlada (26 ± 1ºC e filtro biológico, na densidade de estocagem de seis animais por aquário. Os peixes foram alimentados à vontade às 9, 14 e 16h30. Na análise do desempenho produtivo, foram avaliados o peso final, o comprimento final, o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar, a taxa de crescimento específico, a taxa de eficiência protéica e o fator de condição. As dietas contendo 26% PB proporcionaram maiores valores para taxa de eficiência protéica apenas em relação às dietas contendo 34% PB. As exig

  8. Cumulative input/output balance of a mechanical-biological waste treatment plant. Comparison of construction material requirements, operating energy expenditure, and the requirement of auxiliary materials in comparison with waste combustion; Kumulative Bilanzierung der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung - Baumaterialien und betrieblicher Energie- und Hilfsstoffaufwand im Vergleich zur Muellverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, R.; Fricke, K. [Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen (Germany); Vogtmann, H. [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Regionalentwicklung und Landwirtschaft, Kassel (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The study strikes a cumulative input/output balance of an existing waste conditioning plant considering not only operating energy demand but also the required construction materials for erecting the plant. In operation since 1996, the waste conditioning plant is entirely state of the art; hence the data obtained are up to date. The results are compared with relevant results for a waste processing plant and evaluated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Untersuchung erfolgt eine kumulative Bilanzierung einer bestehenden MBA-Anlage, wobei neben den betrieblichen Energieaufwendungen auch die Baumaterialien zur Herstellung der Anlage beruecksichtigt werden. Die seit 1996 in Betrieb befindliche Abfallbehandlungsanlage entspricht weitestgehend dem Stand der Technik der MBA, wodurch die Aktualitaet der Daten gegeben ist. Die Ergebnisse der Bilanzierung werden im Vergleich zu einer MVA dargestellt und bewertet. (orig.)

  9. Energy requirement of patients after gastrointestinal surgery%胃肠道手术患者能量需要的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英华; 贺源; 杨雪艳; 薛长勇; 唐云; 卫勃; 徐庆; 张新胜; 李惠子; 于晓明; 张永; 刘钊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the energy requirement of patients after gastrointestinal surgery. Methods Rest energy expenditure (REE) in 203 patients before gastrointestinal surgery was assayed by indirect calorimetry(MedGem). Average energy intake in these patients after gastrointestinal surgery was calculated and compared to the value 1.2 x 1.1 x REE(SEE) and divided into 110% SEE group(high energy supplement group). Anthropometry, grip strength, biochemical and immune indices, subjective global assessment(SGA) were observed. Results The MAMC, grip strength, serum creatinine, magnesium, phosphorus were higher in 90%-110% SEE group than in the other two groups after surgery(P<0.05). The level of SGA in 90%-110% SEE group was higher than in the other two groups(P<0.05). Although significant differences were observed in blood albumin and hemoglobin of 90%-110% SEE group before and after operation(P<0.05), no significant difference was found in the other indices. The value of 90%-110% SEE was equivalent to (1.20 ± 0.15) x Harris-Benedict(HB) equation, (27.22 ± 3.95) x ideal body weight(kg)(IBW), and (26.00 ± 3.93) x real body weight (kg)(RBW). Conclusion Energy intake of 90%-110% SEE or 1.2HB, 27IBW may be appropriate in patients with gastrointestinal surgery.%目的 探讨胃肠道术后患者能量需要量.方法 选择胃肠道手术患者203例,术前采用MedGeM床旁代谢仪测定静息能量消耗(REE),收集术后临床资料,计算术后提供的平均能量,与REE×1.2×1.1(能量供给参考值SEE)比较,分为<90%SEE,90%-110%SEE,>110%SEE三组,比较三组人群术前术后人体测量指标、握力、生化指标、免疫营养指标、主观全面营养评定结果(SGA)等.结果 术后90%-110%SEE组上臂肌围、左右手握力、血肌酐、血清镁和磷均显著高于其他两组(P<0.05),平均住院日和术后停止胃肠减压时间、恢复排便时间和拆线时间与其他两组比较显著缩短(P<0.05),且SGA

  10. Nutrient requirements of energy and protein for Holstein × Zebu bulls finished in feedlot Requerimentos nutricionais de energia e proteína em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Pizzi Rotta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the nutritional requirements of energy and protein in crossbred (Holstein × Zebu bulls. An experiment of comparative slaughter was conducted with 44 (24 months old crossbred bulls of 338 ± 39 kg. Bulls were randomly separated as follows: four bulls to the control group, four bulls to the maintenance level group and 36 bulls were fed ad libitum. Corn silage (CS and sugar cane in natura (SC at 60 or 40% of dry matter (DM of total diets were utilized in the diets. The bulls of the last group were randomly assigned to one of six different diets: 1 60CS:40C(84 days; 2 60CS:40C (42 days and 40CS:60C (42 days; 3 40CS:60C (84 days; 4 60SC:40C (84 days; 5 60SC:40C (42 days, and 40SC:60C (42 days, and 6 40SC:60C (84 days. At the end of the experiment, bulls were slaughtered at Universidade Federal de Viçosa for estimation of the empty body weight. One sample located between the 9th and the 11th ribs of each bull was taken and completely dissected for estimation of the empty body composition using equations developed by BR-CORTE 2010. The data were analyzed as nonlinear models built by means of command NLIN of SAS (version 9.2, adjusted by the method of Gauss-Newton. For all the tests, 0.05 was utilized as critical level for probability of type I error. The net (NEm and metabolizable (MEm energy requirements for maintenance were 78.7 and 114.2 kcal/EBW0.75/day, respectively. The equations obtained for NEg and NPg were: Neg (Mcal/day = 0.0493 × EBW0.75 × EBWG1.0013 and NPg (g/day = 279.19 × EBWG – 22.8691 × RE, respectively. The model obtained for the percentage of retained energy as protein (%REp was %REp = 1.7202 × (RE/EBWG-1.351. Objetivou-se com este estudo estimar as exigências nutricionais de energia e proteína em bovinos cruzados (Holandês × Zebu. Um experimento de abate comparativo foi conduzido com 44 (24 meses bovinos cruzados pesando 338± 39 kg. Os bovinos foram aleatoriamente separados

  11. 48 CFR 23.1004 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Federal Compliance With Right-To-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements...

  12. Study of Manpower Requirements by Occupation for Alternative Technologies in the Energy-Related Industries, 1970-1990. Volumes I, IIA, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmanis, Ivars; And Others

    The report presents the methodology used by the National Planning Association (NPA), under contract to the Federal Energy Administration (FEA), to estimate direct labor usage coefficients in some sixty different occupational categories involved in construction, operation, and maintenance of energy facilities. Volume 1 presents direct labor usage…

  13. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  14. Violation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin Cutoff: A Tempest in a (Magnetic) Teapot? Why Cosmic Ray Energies above 1020 eV May Not Require New Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Glennys R.; Piran, Tsvi

    2000-04-01

    The apparent lack of suitable astrophysical sources for the observed highest energy cosmic rays within ~20 Mpc is the ``Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) paradox.'' We constrain representative models of the extragalactic magnetic field structure by Faraday rotation measurements; limits are at the μG level rather than the nG level usually assumed. In such fields, even the highest energy cosmic rays experience large deflections. This allows nearby active galactic nuclei (possibly quiet today) or gamma ray bursts to be the source of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays without contradicting the GZK distance limit.

  15. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  16. Consequences of the quota requirement for energy efficiency. Can a Swedish quota obligation systems give less energy usage?; Konsekvenser av kvotplikt foer energieffektivisering. Kan ett svenskt kvotpliktssystem ge mindre energianvaendning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkroth, Sara; Bladh, Mats; Holmberg, Rurik; Lock, Anna; Naderi, Ronak; Widerstroem, Glenn

    2012-11-01

    The Agency has on behalf of the government investigated what the consequences would be of the introduction of a compulsory quota system in Sweden. Under the proposed new EU directive on energy efficiency, all Member States should introduce a compulsory quota system, where energy companies actively initiate measures for energy efficiency among end users. In Sweden, a quota obligation system of this kind would mean energy efficiency of about 3 TWh per year, which can be difficult to achieve. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that if a compulsory quota system is introduced, the quota obligation should be placed on the network companies. If not, there is a risk of complications in the Swedish and Nordic electricity market. The Energy Markets Inspectorate consider that the quota obligation can not be on the network companies because of their function as regulated monopoly. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that efficiency measures can be implemented in all sectors, including transport.

  17. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  18. Methodology and assumptions for evaluating heating and cooling energy requirements in new single-family residential buildings: Technical support document for the PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) microcomputer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Wilson, D.; Hsui, C.; Foley, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides technical documentation for a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) developed by LBL. PEAR offers an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy savings associated with various energy conservation measures used in site-built, single-family homes. This program was designed for use by non-technical groups such as home builders, home buyers or others in the buildings industry, and developed as an integral part of a set of voluntary guidelines entitled Affordable Housing Through Energy Conservation: A Guide to Designing and Constructing Energy Efficient Homes. These guidelines provide a method for selecting and evaluating cost-effective energy conservation measures based on the energy savings estimated by PEAR. This work is part of a Department of Energy program aimed at conducting research that will improve the energy efficiency of the nation's stock of conventionally-built and manufactured homes, and presenting the results to the public in a simplified format.

  19. An investigation of the techno-economic impact of internal combustion engine based cogeneration systems on the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions of the Canadian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides a techno-economic evaluation of retrofitting internal combustion engine (ICE) based cogeneration systems in the Canadian housing stock (CHS). The study was conducted using the Canadian Hybrid Residential End-Use Energy and GHG Emissions Model (CHREM). CHREM includes close to 17,000 unique house files that are statistically representative of the Canadian housing stock. The cogeneration system performance was evaluated using a high resolution integrated building performance simulation software. It is assumed that the ICE cogeneration system is retrofitted into all houses that currently use a central space heating system and have a suitable basement or crawl space. The GHG emission intensity factor associated with marginal electricity generation in each province is used to estimate the annual GHG emissions reduction due to the cogeneration system retrofit. The results show that cogeneration retrofit yields 13% energy savings in the CHS. While the annual GHG emissions would increase in some provinces due to cogeneration retrofits, the total GHG emissions of the CHS would be reduced by 35%. The economic analysis indicates that ICE cogeneration system retrofits may provide an economically feasible opportunity to approach net/nearly zero energy status for existing Canadian houses. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation ICE cogeneration systems for Canadian housing is reported. • ICE cogeneration retrofit could yield 13% annual energy savings in Canadian housing. • Annual GHG emissions of Canadian housing could decrease by 35% with ICE cogeneration. • But, in some provinces, GHG emissions would increase as a result of ICE cogeneration

  20. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  1. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  2. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  3. 80 years of IEC: Future requirements on teaching and research in the field of energy. Papers; 80 Jahre IEC: Zukuenftige Anforderungen an Lehre und Forschung auf dem Gebiet der Energie. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. [comp.

    2000-07-01

    The conference was part of the festivities of the 80{sup th} Anniversary of the Brown Coal Research Institute, that were celebrated at the Institute of Energy Processing and Chemical Engineering (IEC), Freiberg University of Mining and Technology. The Institute of Energy Processing and Chemical Engineering preserves and continues the traditional cooperation with the Brown Coal Industry in the field of the energy conversion processes. The conference proceedings give the reader an impression of the presently meaning of fossil energy sources and explain the competence of the IEC in educating and researching on fuel techniques in future. (orig.) [German] Die Tagung wurde anlaesslich des 80. Jahrestages der Gruendung des Braunkohlenforschungsinstitutes an der TU Bergakademie Freiberg durchgefuehrt. Das Institut fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen fuehrt die traditionsreiche Kooperation mit der Braunkohleindustrie auf dem Gebiet der Energiewandlungsprozesse fort. Die Beitraege charakterisieren die derzeitige Bedeutung der fossilen Energietraeger und erlaeutern die Kompetenz des IEC fuer eine zukunftsorientierte Lehre und Forschung in der Brennstofftechnik. (orig.)

  4. Refrigeration engineering - facing new requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, G.

    1988-01-01

    From an analysis about the level of development in GDR's refrigeration engineering is derivated, that new requirements on refrigeration demand an effective push of development. Essentially are named as new requirements: reconstruction and improvement of food industry; key and high production-engineering; rational application of energy; utilization of geothermal energy; environmental protection and flue gas desulphurization; fluorochlorohydrocarbon/ozone problem; refrigerant mixtures; gas decomposition; high temperature superconduction; medical refrigeration; electronics application.

  5. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  6. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  7. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport—A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rogge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure planning. The analysis is based on real-world data of the bus network in Muenster, a mid-sized city in Germany. The outcomes underline the necessity to focus on entire vehicle schedules instead on individual trips. The tradeoff between required battery capacity and charging power is explained in detail. Furthermore, the impact on the electricity grid is discussed based on the load profiles of a selected charging station and a combined load profile of the entire network.

  8. 48 CFR 906.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 906.501 Section 906.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 906.501 Requirement. The Secretary of Energy...

  9. Difference between real and calculated energy consumption. Energy Performance Coefficient (EPC) to test energetic requirements of the Dutch Building Decree; Verschil tussen werkelijk en berekend energiegebruik. EPC-berekening moet energetische eisen Bouwbesluit toetsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berben, J.; Oomen, R. [BuildDesk, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The theoretical calculation of energy consumption from an EPC or energylabel calculation often does not exactly match the actual energy consumption as given by the meter. The behavior of the occupant appears to be the main cause. In the case that in energy saving calculations default behavior is also assumed, the deviation in calculated savings and payback period can be quite high. This might result in making the wrong investment decisions [Dutch] Het theoretische berekende energiegebruik uit een EPC- of energielabelberekening komt vaak niet precies overeen met het werkelijke energiegebruik op de meter. Het gedrag van de bewoner is hiervan de belangrijkste oorzaak. Als ook bij de besparingsberekeningen wordt uitgegaan van standaardgedrag kan de afwijking in berekende besparing en terugverdientijd enorm zijn. Dat kan tot verkeerde investeringsbeslissingen leiden.

  10. Natural gas ballast requirement to allow participation of thermal plants in the new energy auctions: analysis and proposals; Requisito de lastro de gas natural para viabilizar a participacao de termeletricas nos leiloes de energia nova: analise e propostas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro Luis de; Bezerra, Bernardo Vieira; Barroso, Luiz Augusto Nobrega; Pereira, Mario Veiga; Rosenblatt, Jose [PSR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Since the first New Energy Auction (LEN), held in December 2005, there has been a continuous process of improving the auction rules and mechanism. For the specific case of gas-fired plants, a significant change was observed between the LEN A-3/2011 and LEN A-5/2011, and refers to the need of natural gas ballast for candidate projects in the auction. This rule was introduced by ANP Resolution No. 52, which establishes that the gas supply agreements must be backed up by proven reserves (analogous to the requirement in the power sector contracts of physical guarantee backup), and Ordinance MME No. 21/2008, which deals with power plants qualification for the new energy auctions. The latter was amended by MME Ordinance No. 514, which requires proven natural gas reserves to support the GSA of all candidate projects in a LEN. In other words, the gas supplier now has to prove that there are sufficient gas reserves to meet requirements of all candidate project in an auction, regardless of the plausibility of their engagement in the auction. In this context, the present study discusses these issues and has as main contributions: (I) a review of current regulations on contract ballast in the Brazilian natural gas sector, (II) a proposal to conciliate the need of fuel supply contract ballast to the dynamics of the natural gas sector, and (III) a proposal to conciliate the need for fuel contract ballast to the contracting process of the thermoelectric power in the new energy auctions. These contributions aim at a better integration between the sectors of natural gas and electricity in Brazil, leading to a more efficient use of resources and infrastructure development. (author)

  11. Power System Concepts for the Lunar Outpost: A Review of the Power Generation, Energy Storage, Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System Requirements and Potential Technologies for Development of the Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Z.; Vranis, A.; Zavoico, A.; Freid, S.; Manners, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will review potential power system concepts for the development of the lunar outpost including power generation, energy storage, and power management and distribution (PMAD). In particular, the requirements of the initial robotic missions will be discussed and the technologies considered will include cryogenics and regenerative fuel cells (RFC), AC and DC transmission line technology, high voltage and low voltage power transmission, conductor materials of construction and power beaming concepts for transmitting power to difficult to access locations such as at the bottom of craters. Operating conditions, component characteristics, reliability, maintainability, constructability, system safety, technology gaps/risk and adaptability for future lunar missions will be discussed for the technologies considered.

  12. A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS. The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats in the SRNS are predicted based on the equations developed for CNCPS-S, modified to account for specific requirements of goats, including maintenance, lactation, and pregnancy requirements, and body reserves. Feed biological values are predicted based on carbohydrate and protein fractions and their ruminal fermentation rates, forage, concentrate and liquid passage rates, and microbial growth. The evaluation of the SRNS for sheep using published papers (19 treatment means indicated no mean bias (MB; 1.1 g/100 g and low root mean square prediction error (RMSPE; 3.6 g/100g when predicting dietary organic matter digestibility for diets not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS accurately predicted gains and losses of shrunk body weight (SBW of adult sheep (15 treatment means; MB = 5.8 g/d and RMSPE = 30 g/d when diets were not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS for sheep had MB varying from -34 to 1 g/d and RSME varying from 37 to 56 g/d when predicting average daily gain (ADG of growing lambs (42 treatment means. The evaluation of the SRNS for goats based on literature data showed accurate predictions for ADG of kids (31 treatment means; RMSEP = 32.5 g/d; r2= 0.85; concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, = 0.91, daily ME intake (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.24 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.99; CCC = 0.99, and energy balance (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.20 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.87; CCC = 0.90 of goats. In conclusion, the SRNS for sheep can accurately predict dietary organic matter digestibility, ADG of growing lambs and changes in SBW of mature sheep. The SRNS

  13. Continuous Monitoring of Specific mRNA Expression Responses with a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Based DNA Nano-tweezer Technique That Does Not Require Gene Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeto, Hajime; Nakatsuka, Keisuke; Ikeda, Takeshi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio; Funabashi, Hisakage

    2016-08-16

    This letter discusses the feasibility of continuously monitoring specific mRNA expression responses in a living cell with a probe structured as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based DNA nano-tweezer (DNA-NT). The FRET-based DNA-NT, self-assembled from three single-stranded DNAs, alters its structure from an open state to a closed state in recognition of a target mRNA, resulting in the closing of the distal relation of previously modified FRET-paired fluorescent dyes and generating a FRET signal. The expressions of glucose transporters (GLUT) 1 and 4 in a mouse hepato-carcinoma (Hepa 1-6 cells) were selected as the target model. Live-cell imaging analysis of Hepa 1-6 cells with both FRET-based DNA-NTs indicated that the behaviors of the FRET signals integrated in each individual cell were similar to those measured with the conventional mass analysis technique of semiquantitative real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From these results, it is concluded that continuous monitoring of gene expression response without gene recombination is feasible with a FRET-based DNA-NT, even in a single cell manner. PMID:27458920

  14. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  15. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  16. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  17. Quality goals for energy resources - an innovative approach to transposing the EU requirements for energy efficiency and use of renewables to the national level; Energietraegerqualitaetsziele - ein innovativer Ansatz zur Weitergabe der Synergie von Energieeffizienz- und REN-Verpflichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhmann, H.J.; Lechtenboehmer, S.; Venjakob, J. [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH (Germany). Forschungsgruppe 1 - Zukuenftige Energie- und Mobilitaetsstrukturen

    2008-06-15

    One of the main commitments contained in the EU package of 23 January 2008 for the realisation of the so-called 20-20-20 goals is to increase the share of renewable energies in the energy mix. This is to be achieved by means of a EU directive to be transposed into national law. The directive already exists as a draft. Although there is still some discussion about the alternatives of having either an EU-wide uniform system based on the trade in quotas or permits or national promotion systems, ultimately there is likely to be some form of coexistence at the national level of legislation similar to the German Electricity Feed Law on one side and quota-based systems on the other. With this situation in mind the following article explores innovative options for member states given the new legal situation at the EU level.

  18. 10 CFR 490.803 - Waiver requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver requirements. 490.803 Section 490.803 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... as specified in § 490.804 of this subpart, equal to the amount of alternative fuel used if...

  19. 10 CFR 470.17 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 470.17 Section 470.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.17 General... expenses, accounting practices, publication and publicity, copyrights, patents, discrimination, conflict...

  20. Storage requirement and its impact on the energy industry in implementation of political objectives of energy transition; Speicherbedarf und dessen Auswirkungen auf die Energiewirtschaft bei Umsetzung der politischen Ziele zur Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teufel, Felix Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The increasing integration of renewable energy generating systems pose fundamental challenges for the energy industry. This concerns not only the utility companies but also established simulation models for analyzing the markets. In the present work, a system dynamic bottom-up model is described, which imagines the German electricity market in a 15 minute resolution and a high integration of renewable energies. The above described developments are affecting increasingly the operation mode of storage power plants. A result of model is that the operation of storage power plants is increasingly no longer worthwhile in the near future. After 2020, however, in the daytime prices will be significantly lower than during the night, resulting in new economic application scenarios for storage power plants. Also an outlook is provided on the duration of future storage usage times in the presented model, after which there will be a considerable demand for increasingly shorter cycles under 4 hours and longer cycles with more than 32 hours. [German] Die zunehmende Integration regenerativer Energieerzeugungssysteme stellt die Energiewirtschaft vor grundlegende Herausforderungen. Dies betrifft nicht nur die Energieversorgungsunternehmen sondern auch etablierte Simulationsmodelle zur Analyse der Maerkte. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein systemdynamisches bottom-up Modell beschrieben, welches den deutschen Elektrizitaetmarkt in einer 15-minuetigen Aufloesung und einer hohen Integration der erneuerbaren Energien abbildet. Die oben beschriebenen Entwicklungen wirken sich zunehmend auf die Fahrweise von Speicherkraftwerken aus. Ein Resultat des vorgestellten Modells ist, dass sich der Betrieb von Speicherkraftwerken in naher Zukunft zunehmend nicht mehr lohnen wird. Nach 2020 werden jedoch tagsueber die Preise deutlich niedriger sein als die Nachtpreise, wodurch sich neue wirtschaftliche Einsatzszenarien fuer Speicherkraftwerke ergeben. Auch wird im vorgestellten Modell ein Ausblick

  1. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. Energy Requirement for 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun Black-Haired Pigs Estimated by Two Methods%2种方法估计10~20 kg湘村黑猪能量需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江碧波; 禹琪芳; 姚爽; 杨永生; 贺建华

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to establish relevant mathematical model for estimating energy re-quirement for 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun black-haired pigs,and offer technical parameters to formulate breeding standard for Xiangcun black-haired pigs. A total of 42 Xiangcun black-haired pigs( barrow)were selected to study the energy deposition and metabolism using a gradient feed intake feeding trial( linear regression)and a comparative slaughtering test. The results showed as follows:1)results from the comparative slaughtering test indicated that the maintenance metabolizable energy( ME)requirement for 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun black-haired pigs was 406.01 kJ/(W0.75·d),and the mathematical model for total ME requirement prediction was ME ( kJ/d)=406.01W0.75( kg)+12.99△W( g/d);2)while the estimation mathematical model established by line-ar regression for the ME requirement for 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun black-haired pigs was ME ( kJ/d )=230.76W0.75(kg)+19.40△W(g/d);3)the digestive energy conversion efficiency of 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun black-haired pigs was 94.22%. Based on the above results,it is suggested that the maintenance requirement of ME for 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun black-haired pigs is 406.01kJ/(W0.75·d).%本研究旨在建立湘村黑猪能量需要量的数学模型,研究10~20kg湘村黑猪的能量需要量,为制订湘村黑猪饲养标准提供部分技术参数。选用湘村黑猪(阉公猪)42头,采用梯度饲养试验(线性回归法)和比较屠宰试验,对10~20kg湘村黑猪能量沉积代谢规律进行研究。结果表明:1)比较屠宰试验测得10~20kg湘村黑猪代谢能(ME)维持需要量为406.01kJ/(W0.75·d),总的ME需要量模型为:ME(kJ/d)=406.01W0.75(kg)+12.99△W(g/d);2)线性回归法建立的10~20kg湘村黑猪ME需要量的估计模型为:ME(kJ/d)=230.76W0.75(kg)+19.40△W(g/d);3)10~20kg湘村黑猪消化能转化率为94.22%

  3. How to evaluate energy requirement of bum patients——a question still needs farther investigation%烧伤患者热量供应——尚待探讨课题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪仕良

    2008-01-01

    After a series of study of early feeding(EF),we consider the evaporative heat loss from the burn wound is not the main mechanism of burn hypermetabolism.EF could resuscitate the intestine,preserve its structural inte-gnty and function,prevent bacterial translocation and release of inflammatory mediators,reduce muscle protein catabolism and hypermetabolism.Our studies concerning the relationship between EF and hypermetabolism have already extended to involve hypothalamus now.At the end of 1960s,the advancement in "Intravenous Hyperalimentation" has epoch-making significance,but it has been found later that energy has been oversupplied by this measure,thus it exacerbated visceral loading and led to disorder of internal environment,and it has been found not beneficial to alleviate hypermetabolism.Whether "hypoealoric nutrition" for post-operative patients of G-I(gastro-intestine)surgery is applicable to severe bum patients remains as a problem.Some specialists suggest it is better to supply 126~146 kJ·kg-1·d-1 in severe burn patients.After evaluating the bias and precision of 46 methods of estimating energy supply of burn patients reported from 1953 to 2000,Dikerson RN et al.concluded that the most precise,unbiased methods were those of Milner(1994),Zawaeki(1970)and TMMU(1993,Third Military Medical University formula).Though formulas are simple and convenient to estimate energy supplementation,however,it is difficult to evaluate the requirement of energy when the patient's condition changes immensely.

  4. 面向系统调控需求的储能系统控制策略及其经济性评估%Control Strategy for Regulatory Requirements Oriented Energy Storage System and Evaluation on Its Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严干贵; 王月; 李军徽; 冯凯翔; 葛延峰; 高凯

    2015-01-01

    提出一种面向电力系统调控需求的储能系统集中控制策略,以提高电网接纳风电规模,减少弃风电量。同时根据储能系统荷电状态(state of charge,SOC),对储能系统充放电指令进行实时修正,防止储能系统过充过放,优化其运行性能。建立了储能系统经济性评估模型,用以评估储能系统提高风电接纳的运行经济效益。以收益最大为目标,确定储能系统容量配置。基于某地区实测数据对上述控制策略和经济性评估模型进行验证,结果表明提出的面向系统调控需求的储能系统控制方法能够扩大风电入网规模,有效利用电网可接纳风电空间。%A kind of centralized control strategy for regulatory requirements oriented energy storage system for the power system was proposed to improve scale of the power grid taking in wind power and reducing curtailed wind power energy. Ac-cording to state of charge (SOC)of the energy storage system,charge and discharge instructions of the system were revised in real time for preventing over charge and over discharge and optimizing its operational performance. Evaluation model for economy of the energy storage system was established for evaluating operational economic benefits of the system improving wind power adoption. Taking maximum profit as a target,capacity configuration of the energy storage system was deter-mined. Based on measured data in some region,verification on the control strategy and evaluation model was conducted. Results indicate that the control method for energy storage system could enlarge wind power networking scale and effectively use space of the power grid taking in wind power.

  5. 10 CFR 451.8 - Application content requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of a qualified renewable energy facility which generates electric energy using a fossil fuel, nuclear... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application content requirements. 451.8 Section 451.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES §...

  6. The Requirement for the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Luminaires Specification%美国能源之星对灯具的最新能效要求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童生华

    2011-01-01

    该文详细介绍了美国灯具能源之星规范1.0版的具体要求,该规范将于2012年4月1日替代4.2版的住宅照明设备和1.3版的固态照明产品的能源之星规范。%The article gives a detailed introduction to the requirement for the version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Luminaires specification which will replace the Residential Light Fixtures(RLF,V4.2) and Solid State Lighting Luminaires(SSL,V1.3) specificationson April 1,2012.

  7. Advantage Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Increased focus has been placed on the issues of energy access and energy poverty over the last number of years, most notably indicated by the United Nations (UN) declaring 2012 as the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All'. Although attention in these topics has increased, incorrect assumptions and misunderstandings still arise in both the literature and dialogues. Access to energy does not only include electricity, does not only include cook stoves, but must include access to all types of energy that form the overall energy system. This paper chooses to examine this energy system using a typology that breaks it into 3 primary energy subsystems: heat energy, electricity and transportation. Describing the global energy system using these three subsystems provides a way to articulate the differences and similarities for each system's required investments needs by the private and public sectors.

  8. 10 CFR 904.5 - Revenue requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revenue requirements. 904.5 Section 904.5 Energy... PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.5 Revenue requirements. (a) Western shall collect all electric service revenues from the Project in accordance with applicable statutes and regulations and deposit such...

  9. 10 CFR 110.5 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensing requirements. 110.5 Section 110.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.5 Licensing requirements. Except as provided under subpart B of this part, no person may...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2,...

  13. Safety Requirement for Nuclear Logging in Logging While Drilling as an Application of Nuclear Energy in Industrial Facilities; an Overview for the Improvement of Nuclear Energy Regulating Process in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setianingsih, Lilis Susanti [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Data transmission processes in LWD are basically performed in two ways: data transmission within the downhole assembly and data transmission to surface. Tools readings can either be stored in downhole memory or transmitted to surface using mud pulse telemetry. Whenever required the two methods can be combined by storing some data in memory and transmitting some in real time. Yet in the case of data supply exceeding data transmission capacity, only key data is transmitted uphole whilst the rest of some sensors output shall be stored downhole. Another way of transmitting data for real time reading is by taking a limited data sample, for example one in every four readings to be sent uphole. The remaining of data readings will be stored to be downloaded to computer once the memory-pack within the tool is brought to surface. In general, analog data from LWD are converted to binary form downhole. Data are transmitted by using a flow-restricting mechanism in the drilling-fluid flow stream and produce positive or negative pressure pulses which are then transmitted through the mud column inside the drill pipe, read at the surface by pressure sensors and later on recorded and processed. Data transmission can also be performed by using rotary valve pressure-pulse generators, which alternately restrict and and open the drilling-fluid flow, causing varying pressure waves generated in the drilling-fluid at carrier frequency which is proportional to the rate of interruption. Downhole sensor-response data are transmitted to the surface by modulating this acoustic carrier frequency

  14. 泌乳前期水牛能量代谢及其需要量初探%A Preliminary Study on Energy Metabolism and Requirement of Water Buffalo in Early Lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹彩霞; 杨炳壮; 韦升菊; 梁贤威; 李舒露; 覃广胜; 李丽莉

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在通过析因法获得泌乳前期水牛能量需要量.选用30头体况良好、上一泌乳期泌乳量相近、产犊胎次(2、3胎)接近、健康的泌乳前期水牛,随机分为3组,每组10头,采用等粗蛋白质(13.3%)、3种能量水平的精饲料,产乳净能分别为6.0、6.6和7.2 MJ/kg.预试期15 d,正试期30 d.于正试期第24、28天分别从每组选取3头进行为期7 d的消化代谢试验和3 d的气体代谢试验.结果表明,通过进食能量与畜体产热获得的维持净能(NEm)=263.40 kJ/(W0.75·d)×120%=316.10 kJ/(W0.75·d);通过直接测热获得的水牛乳乳能值为4.4 MJ/kg,在消化代谢期间水牛常乳转换为标准乳的转换系数为1.51,因此每生产1 kg水牛标准乳需要的净能为2.915 MJ.根据析因法原理,水牛泌乳前期净能需要量可表示为:NE(MJ/d)=0.316W0.75+0.290 7△W×W0.75+2.915FCM(式中NE为净能、W0.75为代谢体重,△W为日均体重变化,FCM为标准乳产量).%The objective of this study was to obtain the energy requirement of water buffalo in early lactation by factorial method. Thirty healthy water buffalo in early lactation with similar milk yield in the last lactation period and parities (2 or 3) were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 heads in each group. Water buffalo in the 3 groups were fed concentrates with 3 energy levels and an equal crude protein level ( 13.5% ), in which the net energy values for lactation were 6.0, 6.6 and 7.2 M J/kg, respectively. The preliminary trial period lasted for 15 d, and the trial period lasted for 30 d. Three heads in each group were selected for a 7-day digestive metabolism test and a 3-day gaseous metabolism test on the 24th and 28th day of the trial period, respectively. The results showed as follows: the net energy for maintenance (NEm) was calculated by energy intake and heat production, NEm =263.40 kJ/(W0.75 · d) ×120% =316.10 kJ/(W0.75 · d); the milk energy was 4.4 MJ/kg, the transfer coefficient

  15. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    White, G R

    2001-01-01

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support.

  16. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, Dulce Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Requirements evolution is a generally known problem in software development. Requirements are known to change all throughout a system's lifecycle. Nevertheless, requirements evolution is a poorly understood phenomenon. Most studies on requirements evolution focus on changes to written specifications

  17. Energie-Cites opinion on the directive project of CHP. To meet urban energy requirements with optimal energy efficiency and production closer to residents; Avis d'Energie-Cites sur le project de directive cogeneration. Satisfaire les besoins energetiques urbains avec la meilleure efficacite energetique et une production plus proche des habitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    The Directive on ''the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market'' should be adopted very soon. The initial aim of the Directive is to strengthen existing measures to promote CHP in line with the Community target of doubling the share of CHP in EU electricity generation from 9% in 1994 to 18% by 2010. But no target has been mentioned. Energie-Cites states, in this document, its opinion of this draft proposal. Cogeneration is a well-tried and proven technology which has achieved tangible results and is one of the more efficient ways for the EU to fulfill the commitments it made under the Kyoto Protocol. (A.L.B.)

  18. Evaluation of Net Energy Requirement of Tianfu Meat Ducks Aged from 2 to 3 Weeks%2~3周龄天府肉鸭净能需要量的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于乐晓; 贾刚; 赵华; 陈小玲; 刘光芒; 李华; 王康宁

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the net energy ( NE) requirement of Tianfu meat ducks aged from 2 to 3 weeks old. A total of 300 seven-day-old Tianfu meat ducks were selected for the experiment. To determine the apparent metabolizable energy ( AME ) of diets at different feeding levels, fifty ducks were selected and randomly distributed into five feeding levels consisting of ad libitum and 15%, 25%, 35%, 45%restriction groups. The remaining 250 ducks were used for the feeding experiment and comparative slaughter experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, ten ducks were selected and slaughtered to determine the initial body composition. The remaining ducks were randomly distributed into five feeding treatments ( same as the metabolic experiment) . At the age of 14 days, ten ducks were selected from the ad libitum group and slaugh-tered to determine the body composition; at the age of 21 days, ten ducks were selected from every treatment and slaughtered to determine the final body composition. Based on the data of AME of diets, growth perform-ance and body composition of ducks of the ad libitum group and restriction groups, heat production ( HP) and metabolizable energy intake (MEI) at different feeding levels were obtained. NE for maintenance (NEm) was estimated as the antilog of the intercept of the linear regression between MEI and log10 HP. NE for weight gain (NEg) was estimated based on the total body energy (BE) and body weight (BW) of ducks of the ad libitum group at different ages. The result showed as follows:there were significant differences of AME of diets, aver-age daily feed intake ( ADFI) , average daily gain ( ADG) , feed to gain ( F/G) , body fat content, body pro-tein content, body water content, body energy content, energy retained as fat (REf), energy retained as pro-tein (REp), MEI, body energy retention (RE), and HP at different feeding levels (P<0.05). AME of diets, F/G, body protein content and body water content of

  19. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  20. Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ongan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathlon athletes, …, eat vegetarian diets in order to meet increasing requirements of carbohydrate and manage their weight status. A healthily well planned vegetarian diet positively affect some parameters related with performance of the athlete. However in a diet based on vegetable, herbs and high fiber, inadequate energy intake should be avoided. Although many vegetarian athletes are warned about consuming high amounts of protein, athletes take less protein than omnivour ones. Therefore, vegetarians should increase dietary protein quality by mixing different foods such as legumes and cereals. Vegetarian athletes who avoid eating animal based foods are at risk of having inadequate energy, fat (essential fatty acids, vitamins B12, B2, D and calcium, iron and zinc. In this review, contribution of vegetarian diets on purpose of healthy eating and optimal athletic performance and nutritional strategies for vegetarian athletes were discussed.

  1. Selection of Laser Material in Laser Driver Required for Inertial Fusion Energy%聚变能激光驱动装置的激光材料选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严雄伟; 郑建刚; 蒋新颖; 王振国; 张永亮; 李明中

    2012-01-01

    基于美国LIFE激光驱动装置的放大器构型,使用Nd玻璃,Yb∶YAG,Yb∶S-FAP,Yb∶CaF2四种材料的参数进行抽运储能过程的模拟计算,分析了介质口径、抽运强度、抽运脉宽及介质温度等参数对装置性能的影响,得到了各材料的优化设计参数,对上述材料应用于聚变能半导体抽运固体激光器(DPSSL)系统主放大器的可行性进行了判断,并提出了理想材料的参数要求,为寻找合适的激光材料提供依据.%Based on optical architecture of LIFE laser driver in USA, Nd : glass, Yb:YAG, Yb:S-FAP, Yb:CaF2 are chosen as the laser material candidates. And with their material properties, the pump and energy storage process of the main-amplifier is simulated. According to the results, the influence of media aperture, pump intensity, pump pulse width and media temperature on the performance of laser driver are analyzed, and optimal design parameters of the main-amplifier with each laser materials are acquired. After judging the feasibility of application of those materials to a laser driver required for inertial fusion energy, the qualification of an ideal material is presented, supplying basis for searching the suitable laser materials.

  2. 10 CFR 490.306 - Vehicle operation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vehicle operation requirements. 490.306 Section 490.306 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.306 Vehicle operation requirements. The alternative...

  3. 10 CFR 455.103 - Requirements for applications for credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for applications for credit. 455.103 Section 455.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Cost Sharing § 455.103 Requirements for applications for credit. (a) If...

  4. Energy efficiency through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    through a pilot demonstration energy audit project. External technical assistance from UNIDO is to provide expertise from energy efficiency programs undertaken in OECD country industries. The experience from textile industries shows that energy auditing can reduce specific energy consumption by about thirteen percent (13%) from entrepreneurial point of view, it is a profitable venture since its pay back is usually much shorter than anticipated (one year). From macro economical point of view, energy conservation reached through energy audits helps, inter alia, to postpone the necessity to construct new energy generating capacities which require extensive financial investments. Equally important benefit is the environmental protection. More efficient energy use means lower emissions of pollutants such as CO2, SO2, NOx and fly ash generated by fuel burning

  5. Framework for Requirements Traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, Uzair Akbar; Kamran, Kashif

    2008-01-01

    Requirements traceability provides support for many software engineering activities like impact analysis, requirements validation and regression testing. In addition requirements traceability is the recognized component of many software process improvement initiatives. Requirements traceability also helps to control and manage evolution of a software system. This thesis presents a systematic review and a framework for requirements traceability. The systematic review is aimed at presenting fai...

  6. Exigências de lisina digestível e de energia metabolizável para codornas de corte em crescimento Digestible lysine and metabolizable energy requirements of growing meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Ton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi estimar as exigências de lisina digestível e de energia metabolizável (EM para codornas de corte (Coturnix coturnix sp em crescimento. Foram utilizadas 1.680 codornas de 4 a 35 dias de idade, não-sexadas, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 4 (LD = 0,92; 1,12; 1,32 e 1,52% × EM = 2.800; 2.900; 3.000 e 3.100 kcal/kg de ração, totalizando 16 dietas, avaliadas com 3 repetições de 35 codornas por unidade experimental. O aumento dos níveis de lisina digestível na ração provocou aumento linear do peso corporal, do ganho de peso, do consumo de lisina e do rendimento de peito e redução do teor de água nos cortes. Quando houve aumento dos níveis de energia metabolizável na ração, observou-se redução linear no consumo de lisina e aumento do peso corporal e do rendimento de gordura abdominal. O aumento simultâneo dos níveis de lisina e energia metabolizável na ração, no entanto, provocou redução linear no consumo de ração e melhora linear da conversão alimentar no período de 4 a 35 dias, mas aumentou o teor de gordura nos cortes. A exigência nutricional de lisina digestível para máximo crescimento de codornas de corte é maior ou igual a 1,52%. O nível de 2.800 kcal/kg de EM na ração é suficiente para bom desempenho das aves, contudo, para melhor conversão alimentar, são necessário níveis mais elevados.The objective of this experiment was to estimate the digestible lysine and metabolizable energy (ME requirements for growing meat quails (Coturnix coturnix sp. A total of 1,680 quails from 4 to 35 days of age of both sexes were used in a complete random experimental design in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme (DL = 0.92; 1.12; 1.32 and 1.52% × ME = 2,800; 2,900; 3,000 and 3,100 kcal/kg of the ration totaling 16 diets evaluated with 3 replications of 35 quails per experimental diet. Increase of the levels of digestible lysine in the diet linearly

  7. Stone dust requirements and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Humphreys; Terry O' Beirne [ACIRL (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    This project investigated the level of stone dusting required to inert Australian coals to prevent the propagation of a coal dust explosion. Coal samples from Australian mines were tested to determine individual inerting levels and other explosibility factors. These properties were correlated against other coal properties such as volatile content and vitrinite reflectance. The impacts of ignition energy in the test apparatus and of the presence of methane presence were examined. Results show that the inerting requirements for individual coals are not correlated to volatile content or any other common coal property. For the range of coals mined by underground methods in Australia, the individual inerting requirement varies from 83% to 85% total incombustible content (TIC) which is the stone dust plus ash and moisture from the coal. The impact of methane is to increase the inerting requirement by 5% TIC for the first 1% of methane present. Large-scale testing of one of the Australian coals was undertaken at the Klopperbos facility in South Africa to be compared against the results obtained in the laboratory. The results obtained indicated an inerting requirement of between 81.8% and 86.3% compared to the laboratory results of 84.3% at 5kJ ignition energy.

  8. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  9. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  10. Deciphering energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book, the author aims at giving some explanations about the various terms regarding energy which are present in our everyday life, in speeches, in papers and magazines, on the air, in our energy bills, for instance: energy poverty, price of a barrel of oil, resources and proved reserves, intermittency and energy storage, fossil and renewable energies, and so on. In a first part, the author addresses issues ranging from the development needs of a society to the energy assessment of a country, i.e.: nature and quantity of needs in services provided by energy, analysis of the required quantity of energy products needed to satisfy these needs, stages between primary resources and service delivery, description of the French consumption of available final energy products (per product and per economic sector). In the second part, he addresses energy supply, energy sectors and environmental issues, thus focusing on the front end of the energy system, i.e. ways of production from primary energy resources to final energy products: main physical characteristics and description of the different fissile, fossil and renewable energies, description of the main sectors of production of final energy products (fuels, electricity, heat) with a specific attention to electricity. In this part, local, regional and global environmental issues related to the exploitation of these energy sectors are discussed: sources of atmospheric pollution related to energy, relationship between energy and global warming, role of the different greenhouse gases emitted by these sectors, and quantitative analysis of these emissions. The third part addresses the economy of energy systems. The author proposes a cost assessment method which can be used for the production analysis as well as the economic analysis of a specific energy product. He also described external costs and profits, and methods to take those hidden costs and profits into account. Other economic tools are discussed and compared

  11. Target input requirements for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the requirements a heavy ion accelerator must meet in order to initiate practical thermonuclear microexplosions. Particular emphasis is given to the question of maximum allowable ion energy

  12. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  13. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  14. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Pumareja, Dulce Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Requirements evolution is a generally known problem in software development. Requirements are known to change all throughout a system's lifecycle. Nevertheless, requirements evolution is a poorly understood phenomenon. Most studies on requirements evolution focus on changes to written specifications and on software architecture and design. Usually, the focus is when the software is under development. Little is known about how requirements evolve when software is put into use. Groupware is an ...

  15. Ontology Requirements Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the ontology requirements specification activity is to state why the ontology is being built, what its intended uses are, who the end users are, and which requirements the ontology should fulfill. This chapter presents detailed methodological guidelines for specifying ontology requirements efficiently. These guidelines will help ontology engineers to capture ontology requirements and produce the ontology requirements specification document (ORSD). The ORSD will play a key role dur...

  16. REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawna; Sanjay Kumar; Amita Dhankar

    2012-01-01

    Requirement Engineering acts as foundation for any software and is one of the most important tasks. Entire software is supported by four pillars of requirement engineering processes. Goal-oriented requirements engineering is concerned with the use of goals for eliciting, elaborating, structuring, specifying, analyzing, negotiating, documenting, and modifying requirements. This areahas received increasing attention over the past few years.The paper has highlighted requirement engineering chall...

  17. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  18. 10 CFR 709.32 - Training requirements for polygraph examiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training requirements for polygraph examiners. 709.32 Section 709.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION PROGRAM Polygraph Examination and Examiner Standards § 709.32 Training requirements for polygraph examiners. (a) Examiners...

  19. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  20. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope Units of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-09-21

    The Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM) was created by presidential proclamation in 2000. It is located along the Columbia River in south central Washington and consists of five distinct units. The McGee Ranch-Riverlands and the North Slope units are addressed in this report. North Slope refers to two of the HRNM units: the Saddle Mountain Unit and the Wahluke Slope Unit. The Saddle Mountain and Wahluke Slope Units are located north of the Columbia River, while the McGee Ranch-Riverlands Unit is located south of the Columbia River and north and west of Washington State Highway 24. To fulfill internal U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, the DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Authorized limits for residual radioactive contamination were developed based on the DOE annual exposure limit to the public (100 mrem) using future potential land-use scenarios. The DOE Office of Environmental Management approved these authorized limits on March 1, 2004. Historical soil monitoring conducted on and around the HRNM indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the authorized limits (Fritz et al. 2003). However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope units were below the authorized limits. Sixty-seven soil samples were collected from the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope units. A software package (Visual Sample Plan) was used to plan the collection to assure an adequate number of samples were collected. The number of samples necessary to decide with a high level of confidence (99%) that the soil concentrations of radionuclides on the North Slope and McGee Ranch-Riverlands units did not exceed the

  1. Composição corporal e exigências de energia para ganho de peso de caprinos Moxotó em crescimento Body composition and energy requirements for weight gain of growing Moxotó goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliandra Souza Alves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 26 animais da raça Moxotó, machos não-castrados, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 15 kg e 7 a 8 meses de idade, alimentados com dieta contendo 2,6 Mcal de energia metabolizável, com o objetivo de avaliar a composição corporal e as exigências de energia para ganho de peso. Ao início do experimento, seis animais foram abatidos e serviram como referência na estimativa da composição corporal e do peso do corpo vazio (PCVZ iniciais. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (alimentação à vontade - AV; e 85, 70 ou 55% do consumo observado no grupo com AV e cinco repetições. Quando o PV dos animais com AV se aproximava de 25 kg, um animal de cada tratamento com restrição alimentar era abatido. Ajustaram-se as equações do logaritmo (log dos conteúdos corporais de gordura (CCG e energia (CCE em função do log do PCVZ. A concentração de água no corpo dos animais experimentais foi baixa, entretanto, as deposições de gordura, proteína e cinzas aumentaram com a maturidade dos animais. Foram observados aumentos de 78,55 para 125,38 g/kg de PCVZ nos conteúdos corporais de gordura e de 1,90 para 2,34 Mcal/kg de PCVZ nos conteúdos corporais de energia com o aumento de 15 para 25 kg no PV dos animais. Verificou-se relação linear positiva entre a composição em energia do ganho em PCVZ (GPCVZ (Mcal/kg GPCVZ e o PCVZ. Resposta semelhante foi constatada para os conteúdos de gordura no ganho. Os conteúdos corporais de gordura (g e energia (Mcal de caprinos Moxotó aumentam de 14,33 para 22,87 e 0,26 para 0,32 por 100 g de GPCVZ, respectivamente, à medida que aumenta o PCVZ.Twenty-six Moxotó non-castrated males kids, with average 15 kg BW and 7 to 8 mo old, were fed a diet containing 2.6 Mcal/kg ME were used to evaluate the body composition and energy requirements for weight gain. At the beginning of the experiment, six animals were slaughtered as a reference to

  2. Exigência Protéica e Relação Energia/Proteína para Alevinos de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Dietary Protein Requirement and Energy to Protein Ratio for Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a exigência protéica e correspondente relação energia/proteína em dietas para alevinos de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus. Seis dietas semi-purificadas isocalóricas foram formuladas para conter 3.000 kcal de energia metabolizável (EM/kg e concentrações de proteína bruta (PB de 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42%. Para essas concentrações, as relações E/P das dietas foram de 12,3; 11,6; 10,4; 9,2; 8,5 e 7,1 kcal EM/g PB, respectivamente. As fontes de proteína, lipídios e carboidratos digestíveis foram, respectivamente, caseína/gelatina, óleo de fígado de bacalhau/óleo de soja e dextrina. Após condicionamento de cinco dias, as dietas foram fornecidas, até a saciedade, em duas alimentações diárias, a 162 alevinos (27 peixes/dieta, que apresentaram 8,38 ± 0,09 g de peso médio inicial, distribuídos em 18 tanques de fibra-de-vidro de 100 L, conectados a um sistema de recirculação de água. A temperatura média da água foi de 26,3°C, com extremos de 23,7 e 30,2°C. Após 90 dias, a concentração de proteína na dieta que proporcionou ganho em peso máximo aos peixes foi 29% PB, com relação E/P igual a 10,4 kcal EM/g PB. As dietas com concentrações de PB iguais a 32, 36 e 42% não se mostraram superiores para conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, valor produtivo da proteína e retenção de energia bruta. A deposição corporal de proteína e gordura não sofreu influência da concentração de PB da dietaThe aim of this study was to determine the dietary protein requirement and associated energy to protein (E/P ratio for "Piracanjuba", Brycon orbignyanus, fingerlings. Casein-gelatin semipurified diets were formulated to contain six crude protein (CP concentrations: 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42% at one energy level, 3,000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg. These diets resulted in E/P ratios of 12.3, 11.6, 10.4, 9.2, 8.5 and 7.1 kcal ME/g CP, respectively. The protein, lipid

  3. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  4. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  5. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart;

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  6. Energy efficiency evaluation of zero energy houses

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ubiñas, Edwin Israel; Rodríguez Trejo, Sergio; Todorovich, Marija; Voss, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Given the global energy and environmental situation, the European Union has been issuing directives with increasingly demanding requirements in term of the energy efficiency in buildings. The international competition of sustainable houses, Solar Decathlon Europe (SDE), is aligned with these European objectives. SDE houses are low energy solar buildings that must reach the near to zero energy houses’ goal. In the 2012 edition, in order to emphasize its significance, the Energy Efficiency Cont...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Coolers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers that are effective as of February...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16,...

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Roof Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.3 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1,...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  18. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with p...

  19. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  20. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justifica...

  1. Guam Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    Describes various energy strategies available to Guam to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020.The information presented in this strategic energy plan will be used by the Guam Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, reducing energy consumption at federal facilities, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including buildings energy efficiency and conservation, renewable electricity production, and alternative transportation. The strategies are categorized based on the time required to implement them.

  2. Architecture and energy; Arkitektur og energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R.; Grupe Larsen, V.; Lauring, M.; Christensen, Morten

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this book is to illustrate the interaction between architecture and energy in an overall perspective starting from the new energy requirements. Architects make a lot of form related outlines early in the design process, and these have significant consequences for the energy consumption. Furthermore, the new energy requirements start from an overall evaluation, during which the architectural form is of decisive importance to minimization of the energy consumption. The book focuses on four themes: a) day lighting, which plays a decisive part in relation to our health and wellness inside buildings, b) solar heating; passive solar heating has traditionally been playing an important part in low-energy architecture, c) rough house; choice of materials can both increase and decrease buildings' energy consumption, and d) technology; modern buildings use a number of energy demanding installations, therefore the interaction between technology and energy is examined. (BA)

  3. Violation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff: a tempest in a (magnetic) Teapot? Why cosmic ray energies above 10(20) eV may not require new physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, G R; Piran, T

    2000-04-17

    The apparent lack of suitable astrophysical sources for the observed highest energy cosmic rays within approximately 20 Mpc is the "Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) paradox." We constrain representative models of the extragalactic magnetic field structure by Faraday rotation measurements; limits are at the microG level rather than the nG level usually assumed. In such fields, even the highest energy cosmic rays experience large deflections. This allows nearby active galactic nuclei (possibly quiet today) or gamma ray bursts to be the source of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays without contradicting the GZK distance limit.

  4. CNEN, IAEA and ISO normative requirements for measurement management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibrit, Eduardo [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Dept. da Qualidade], e-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2009-07-01

    International standard ISO 10012:2003 establishes requirements for measurement management systems, including requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment. ISO 9001:2008 presents requirements for quality management systems, including requirements for the control of monitoring and measuring equipment. ISO 17025:2005 presents general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. In the nuclear field the requirements for measurement management are established by standards published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and in Brazil, by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The present paper presents and discusses the normative requirements for measurement management, considering requirements established by National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). (author)

  5. Software Requirements Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Altalbe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Requirements are defined as the desired set of characteristics of a product or a service. In the world of software development, it is estimated that more than half of the failures are attributed towards poor requirements management. This means that although the software functions correctly, it is not what the client requested. Modern software requirements management methodologies are available to reduce the occur-rence of such incidents. This paper performs a review on the available literature in the area while tabulating possible methods of managing requirements. It also highlights the benefits of following a proper guideline for the requirements management task. With the introduction of specific software tools for the requirements management task, better software products are now been developed with lesser resources.

  6. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major keystone in this process in order to open up stakeholder's mind to new technologies, which do not yet exist. This paper dis-cusses the application of creativity in the requirements process and illustrate...

  7. Software Requirements Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Altalbe

    2015-01-01

    Requirements are defined as the desired set of characteristics of a product or a service. In the world of software development, it is estimated that more than half of the failures are attributed towards poor requirements management. This means that although the software functions correctly, it is not what the client requested. Modern software requirements management methodologies are available to reduce the occur-rence of such incidents. This paper performs a review on the available literatur...

  8. Testing agile requirements models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BOTASCHANJANJewgenij; PISTERMarkus; RUMPEBernhard

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a model-based approach to validate software requirements in agile development processes by simulation and in particular automated testing. The use of models as central development artifact needs to be added to the portfolio of software engineering techniques, to further increase efficiency and flexibility of the development beginning already early in the requirements definition phase. Testing requirements are some of the most important techniques to give feedback and to increase the quality of the result. Therefore testing of artifacts should be introduced as early as possible, even in the requirements definition phase.

  9. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In most IT system development processes, the identification or elicitation of user requirements is recognized as a key building block. In practice, the identification of user needs and wants is a challenge and inadequate or faulty identifications in this step of an IT system development can cause...... in the elicitation process. Cases and user requirement elements discussed in the book include: User requirements elicitation processes for children, construction workers, and farmers User requirements for personalized services of a broadcast company Variations in user involvement Practical elements of user...

  10. Planning criteria for thermal insulation of buildings. General concepts are required for sanitation from the energy view. Planungskriterien fuer die Technik der Waermedaemmung im Hochbau. Energetische Sanierung - notwendig sind Gesamtkonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschberger, A. (Weidlich Ingenieurgesellschaft, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-09-29

    Each improvement of an energy system mainly aims at reducing its heating energy consumption. There are two possibilities to attain this, on the one hand the reduction of energy streams flowing away from the useful area (e.g. reduction of heat transmission losses by thermal insulation or exchange windows and reduction of ventilation losses by joint filling, heat recovery) and on the other hand the reduction of energy streams which do not reach the useful area (e.g. reduction of losses of the heating system by exchanging the burner or boiler, thermal insulation of the distribution lines). With the example of 3 different types of buildings which are typical for Germany the positive effects of combined measures and the savings achieved with each measure are described. (BWI).

  11. Space power development impact on technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Fitzgerald, T. J.; Gilje, R. I.; Gordon, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the selection of a specific spacecraft power technology and the identification of technology development to meet system requirements. Requirements which influence the selection of a given technology include the power level required, whether the load is constant or transient in nature, and in the case of transient loads, the time required to recover the power, and overall system safety. Various power technologies, such as solar voltaic power, solar dynamic power, nuclear power systems, and electrochemical energy storage, are briefly described.

  12. Writing testable software requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirk, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  13. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  14. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major...... keystone in this process in order to open up stakeholder's mind to new technologies, which do not yet exist. This paper dis-cusses the application of creativity in the requirements process and illustrate through cases from the MAGNET and MAGNET Beyond projects....

  15. Energy 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium is focused on key issues emanating from the Academy's in-depth energy studies during 2005-2009. The symposium objectives are: - to formulate an outlook for environmentally friendly energy by 2050; - to understand how and when the current dependence on fossil fuels can be replaced by a sustainable energy system; - to find ways to mitigate the effects of CO2 emissions; e.g. efficient and clean use of coal; - to analyze how renewable energy sources with intermittent availability can be handled; - to understand the performance of the new generation of nuclear facilities with respect to fuel, waste and security; - to explore the best ways of increasing energy efficiency in transport, buildings and industrial production; - to indicate options for low-carbon vehicles; and, - to estimate resource requirements and the environmental impact of different energy sources over their life cycles. All presentations and discussions at the conference are available as documents and videos at the home page. Presentations available: Kjell Aleklett: Fossil motor fuels around 2050; Lennart Bengtsson: The status of climate change research; Peter Cox: Geoengineering the Climate: the findings of the Royal Society study; Mujid Kazimi: The future of nuclear energy; Julia King: Low carbon vehicles; Klaus Lackner: Managing the build-up of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption; George A. Olah: Beyond fossil fuels; Robert Pitz-Paal: Concentrating solar power: a roadmap from research to market; Carlo Rubbia: Innovation: the key to a successful development of renewable energies; Subcritical thorium reactors; Jean-Marie Tarascon: Batteries for transportation now and in the future; Sergio Ulgiati: A systems ecology view on bioenergy/biofuels; Alfred Voss: Life cycle analyses for different energy sources; Friedrich Wagner: Fusion energy - ready for use by 2050?; and, Hermann-Josef Wagner: Energy from wind.

  16. Requirements management at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, L.

    2001-01-01

    Requirements have always been acknowledged as the backbone of any system. However, in many past development efforts, requirements were paid little heed. At NASA, in recent years, the hue and cry for project development has been "Faster, Better, Cheaper and Safer". This has impacted the way we develop software; it has increased the risks to quality, safety and reliability. At NASA, the Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is working with projects to emphasize the criticality of requirements throughout development, not just in the initial phases. This emphasis is on requirements relationship to all aspects of quality, including reliability and safety. In this presentation, we will look at some of these relationships through the eyes of quality.

  17. Requirements management and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Red

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for thermal nuclear propulsion requirements and configuration definition is described in outline and graphic form. Functional analysis and mission attributes for a Mars exploration mission are also addressed.

  18. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  19. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Uniform requirements are instructions to authors on how to prepare manuscripts.If authors prepare their manuscripts in the style specified in these requirements, editors of the participating journals will not return the manuscripts for changes in style before considering them for publication.In the publishing process, however, the journals may alter accepted manuscripts to conform with details of their publication styles.

  20. Velocity Requirements for Causality Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modanese, Giovanni

    We re-examine the "Regge-Tolman paradox" with reference to some recent experimental results. It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity v of the moving system required to produce causality violation. This formula typically yields a velocity very close to the speed of light (for instance, v/c > 0.97 for X-shaped microwaves), which raises some doubts about the real physical observability of the violations. We then compute the velocity requirement introducing a delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that in principle for any delay it is possible to find moving observers able to produce active causal violation. This is mathematically due to the singularity of the Lorentz transformations for β →1. For a realistic delay due to the propagation of a luminal precursor, we find that causality violations in the reported experiments are still more unlikely (v/c > 0.989), and even in the hypothesis that the superluminal propagation velocity goes to infinity, the velocity requirement is bounded by v/c > 0.62. We also prove that if two oscopic bodies exchange energy and momentum through superluminal signals, then the swap of signal source and target is incompatible with the Lorentz transformations; therefore it is not possible to distinguish between source and target, even with reference to a definite reference frame.

  1. Power requirements for commercial communications spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billerbeck, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Historical data on commercial spacecraft power systems are presented and their power requirements to the growth of satellite communications channel usage are related. Some approaches for estimating future power requirements of this class of spacecraft through the year 2000 are proposed. The key technology drivers in satellite power systems are addressed. Several technological trends in such systems are described, focusing on the most useful areas for research and development of major subsystems, including solar arrays, energy storage, and power electronics equipment.

  2. Energy Emergency Contingency Plan: Clarence Cannon NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Energy Emergency Contingency Plan for Clarence Cannon NWR outlines energy requirements for the Refuge and tables of projected energy reduction, energy...

  3. 10 CFR 11.13 - Special requirements for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements for transportation. 11.13 Section 11.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR... Authorization § 11.13 Special requirements for transportation. (a) All individuals who, after 365 days...

  4. 10 CFR 76.31 - Periodic application requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic application requirement. 76.31 Section 76.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.31 Periodic application requirement. The Corporation shall periodically apply to the...

  5. Estimation of requirements of eolic energy equivalent to the electric generation of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Estimacion de requerimientos de energia eolica equivalente a la generacion electrica de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A.; Hernandez M, I.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: maiki27@yahoo.com; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The advantages are presented that have the nuclear and eolic energy as for their low environmental impact and to the human health. An exercise is presented in the one that is supposed that the electric power generated by the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant (CNLV), with capacity of 1365 M W, it should be produced by eolic energy when in the years 2020 and 2025 the units 1 and 2 of the CNLV reach its useful life and be moved away. It is calculated the number of aero generators that would produce the electric power average yearly of the CNLV, that which is equal to install eolic parks with capacity of 2758 M W, without considering that it will also be invested in systems of back generation to produce electricity when the aero generators stops for lack of wind. (Author)

  6. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded.

  7. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear data requirements for experimental, demonstration and commercial fusion reactors are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the shield as well as major reactor components of concern to the nuclear performance. The nuclear data requirements are defined as a result of analyzing four key areas. These are the most likely candidate materials, energy range, types of needed nuclear data, and the required accuracy in the data. Deducing the latter from the target goals for the accuracy in prediction is also discussed. A specific proposal of measurements is recommended. Priorities for acquisition of data are also assigned. (author)

  8. Justified requirements in private transportation and a recommendation for improving the efficiency of household energy utilisation through the use of small ecologically-friendly or 'ultralight' vehicles for mass private transportation in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needs and ownership are sociobiologically manifested in the alter-ego of a Homo sapiens where the natural progression of events (a household being the fundamental microlevel) and the social order, i.e. globalisation, are based on ownership and needs as sacred rights, and for this reason universal values like energy conservation end up as the waste of the mindless worship of consumption. Justified needs are phenomena of a consumerist (egocentric, pragmatic, voluntary) social conscience and instinctive behaviour - an unpredictable cause resulting from freedom being the foundation of the quality of life, socio-economic and political changes but are mutually exclusive to understanding (expressing and gaining deeper and richer knowledge). Inbuilt limits and/or control of consumption, which are already used in household appliances with aforeset processes (goals) for unknown consumers, to achieve large energy savings in 'routine' functions are more effective than attempts to prevent mistakes (lack of user knowledge through repression). A private vehicle, as a symbol of the freedom and quality of life, is a mechanism for achieving 'justified' needs and presents another means of household energy utilisation. The consumer's desires regarding private transportation are not sufficiently reconciled with intelligent microprocessors (expert systems), which achieve (the most) optimal behaviour in the process of transportation. This detailed consideration (as part of investigating the technical system) cannot be examined on a strictly logical or scientific basis, as it only proposes a method of co-agreement (not co-reponsability) of manufacturers and consumers and an alternative logical way of thinking, or organisation of the interaction between vehicles and traffic in order to form a judgement of really justifiable needs, and to achieve a robotic private vehicle, transportation and traffic. The goal of this consideration is to establish the DIVISION of energy with the help of

  9. Energy Efficient Televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Dorothea; Remmen, Arne

    The EuP Directive sets the frame for implementing ecodesign requirements for energy-using and energy-related products. The aim of the Directive is to achieve a high level of protection for the environment by reducing the potential environmental impact of energy-related products. The focus of this...

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Bocharnikov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    The subject of bachelor’s thesis is about energy efficiency of the building. Much attention is being paid to energy saving problems all over the world. In the first part it theoretic base for thermal performance requirements of buildings. It includes main positions of Russian requirements for thermal performance. Also it is about general types of building envelope. The second part is about energy audit of buildings. In this part there is an energy efficiency assessment methodology. Energy eff...

  11. 10 CFR 835.401 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.401 General requirements. (a) Monitoring of individuals and areas shall be performed to: (1) Demonstrate compliance with... engineered and administrative controls in containing radioactive material and reducing radiation...

  12. Study of Radioisotope Requirements For Power Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Nathan W

    1962-01-01

    The tables of this report summarize firm and anticipated radioisotope requirements and list the projects for which radioisotope electric power generators may be used. This compilation represents the results of a study made by Nathan W. Snyder of Royal Research Corporation for the Division of Isotopes Development, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  13. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  14. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  15. INDECT Advanced Security Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Uruena, Manuel; Martinez, Maria; Niemiec, Marcin; Stoianov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the requirements for the security mechanisms that are currently being developed in the framework of the European research project INDECT. An overview of features for integrated technologies such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), Cryptographic Algorithms, Quantum Cryptography, Federated ID Management and Secure Mobile Ad-hoc networking are described together with their expected use in INDECT.

  16. Protein Requirements during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Courtney-Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR and recommended dietary allowance (RDA, respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals.

  17. Protein Requirements during Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Elango, Rajavel

    2016-01-01

    Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals. PMID:27529275

  18. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM... person or fleet applying for allocation of alternative fueled vehicle credits must submit a credit... acquired in model years before the first model year the fleet or covered person is required to...

  19. Energy management

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    Our present and future power network situation requires extra flexibility in the integration of distributed generation more than ever. Mainly for the small and medium energy converting systems including intelligent control and advanced power electronics conversion systems. This research study showed the visibility of various methods of forming an electric power supply system by paralleling power electronic inverters. These methods foundation is based on the conventional grid control methodolo...

  20. 10 CFR 51.41 - Requirement to submit environmental information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to submit environmental information. 51.41... Petitioners for Rulemaking § 51.41 Requirement to submit environmental information. The Commission may require... permit, license or other form of permission, or a petitioner for rulemaking to submit such information...

  1. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  2. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  3. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Geothermal energy is derived from the hot interior of the earth. The earth is a reservoir of heat energy, most of which is buried and is observed during episodes of volcanic eruption at the surfaces. Geothermal is one of the most promising renewable source of energy which is plentiful, eco-friendly, reliable and clean source of energy available in earth crust. In our country there is wide scope for the utilization of geothermal energy with proper strategically approach to meet the energy requirement. The future prospects of this heat energy as a sustainable source of renewable energy are indeed promising. Today India is the fifth largest consumer of electricity and by 2030 it will become third largest overtaking Japan and Russia according to statistical data available by Energy Planning Commission, Government of India.

  4. Shielding requirements in helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical tomotherapy is a relatively new intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment for which room shielding has to be reassessed for the following reasons. The beam-on-time needed to deliver a given target dose is increased and leads to a weekly workload of typically one order of magnitude higher than that for conventional radiation therapy. The special configuration of tomotherapy units does not allow the use of standard shielding calculation methods. A conventional linear accelerator must be shielded for primary, leakage and scatter photon radiations. For tomotherapy, primary radiation is no longer the main shielding issue since a beam stop is mounted on the gantry directly opposite the source. On the other hand, due to the longer irradiation time, the accelerator head leakage becomes a major concern. An analytical model based on geometric considerations has been developed to determine leakage radiation levels throughout the room for continuous gantry rotation. Compared to leakage radiation, scatter radiation is a minor contribution. Since tomotherapy units operate at a nominal energy of 6 MV, neutron production is negligible. This work proposes a synthetic and conservative model for calculating shielding requirements for the Hi-Art II TomoTherapy unit. Finally, the required concrete shielding thickness is given for different positions of interest

  5. Energy Deskbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of the Energy Deskbook is to serve as a convenient reference to definitions of energy-related terms and descriptions of current and potential energy sources and their utilization. The material is presented at a low technical level with emphasis on general principles, which are not difficult to understand, rather than technology. The entries vary in length from a few lines to several pages, according to circumstances. As a general rule, each topic is defined and outlined in the first paragraph; this may be followed by a more detailed treatment, as required. An important feature of the Deskbook is the use of boldface (heavy) type for cross references. Words in the text set in boldface are the titles of articles where the particular subjects are described.

  6. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper reveals how managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can utilise their participation in research-based training. Empirical research from a longitudinal study of 10 SMEs managers in the wind turbine industry is provided to describe a learning approach that SME managers can...... apply in industry. The findings of this study show that SME managers employ a practice-shaped holistic multi- and cross-disciplinary approach to learning. This learning approach is supported by theory dissemination, business challenge applications, and organisational prerequisites. Diversified learning...... that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  7. Business Process Requirement Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsa Etoundi Roger,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirement engineering is as an increasingly important discipline for supporting business process and workflow modeling, as these are designed to satisfy diverse customer needs, and increase the productivity of enterprise. Moreover, most customers hesitate to adopt a given product or service if the added value is not conformed to their desires. Dealing with customers, with a wide range of perspective, within an enterprise, is very complex. These perspectives are grounded in differences in skills, responsibility, knowledge and expertise of stakeholders. This holds more in the domain of business processes and workflows where the satisfaction of the customers is the must if these enterprises wish to deal with the pressure of the network economy. Based on the requirement engineering, we present in this paper an integration of RE approach in the modeling of business process and workflows. (Abstract

  8. Essential Requirements of PPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Shrotri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment industries are using various quality standards, such as ISO, TS, APQP etc. While applying these standards in any organizations there are certain procedures. Extensive technical documentation is the major requirement of every standard mentioned above. The Production Part Approval Process is one of the quality assurance procedures which is necessary in now days, especially in Automotive industries. The purpose of Production Part Approval Process (PPAP is as follows. 1 To provide the detailed information including design process, production process, inspection to the customer. 2 To assure the customer that the current manufacturing process is able to fulfill the requirement and special demands of the customer.

  9. Creativity, Requirements and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hoffmann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Is there room for more creativity in information systems? This article grew out of an AWRE’04 panel discussion on creativity in requirements engineering, and the impact of requirements engineering on creativity in systems engineering and systems use. Both panel and article were motivated by the goal of identifying a framework for understanding creativity in a larger context and thus establishing a potential structure for future research. The authors’ research backgrounds differ widely and, at times, our views conflict – occasionally, quite sharply. We make underlying world views - our own and those of relevant disciplines – explicit; identify the paradox caused by the need to be functionally creative while leaving room for creativity in successive stages; and argue for a multi-paradigm framework for resolving this paradox.

  10. [Constitutional requirements of rationing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Winfried

    2008-01-01

    Rationing is an emotive issue in the field of public health. This complicates the rational discourse, which is indispensable for analyzing the rationing conditions as set out by constitutional law and which requires manifold differentiation and consideration that shall briefly be outlined in the following short contribution. Of central significance is the distinction between indirect and direct rationing as well as the reference to the essential responsibility of legislators for rationing decisions. PMID:19004184

  11. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  12. Comment on "Violation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin Cutoff A Tempest in a (Magnetic) Teapot? Why Cosmic Ray Energies above $10^{20}$ eV May Not Require New Physics"

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon

    2000-01-01

    In a recent letter [1] with the same title, Farrar and Piran offered an explanation for the near isotropy of the arrival directions [2] of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and the apparent absence [3] of the so called `GZK cutoff' in their spectrum around $10^{20}$ eV due to pion photoproduction on the cosmic background radiation (CMB) that was predicted independently by Greisen [4] and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min [5]. They suggested that the extragalactic magnetic fields near the Milky Way are strong enough to deflect and isotropise the arrival directions of the UHECRs from a few nearby sources for which their travel time to Earth is shorter than their attenuation time by pion photoproduction on the CMB. They also estimated that this allows active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or gamma ray bursts (GRBs) to be the source of the UHECRs. However, these suggestions are inconsistent with various observations

  13. Requirements and Markets for Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    The semiconductor market grew 2010 by 70Bio. against 2009, more than in the previous 9 years taken together, and the semiconductor industry launched the biggest investment program in its history with 100Bio. over a 2-year period. This was the overture to a decade with great potential and great challenges. We look at the market segments and the required electronic functions, and we highlight four product and service areas: Approaching 6 Billion mobile-phone subscribers Access to education for any child One Carebot (personal robot) per family Efficient and safe personal mobility. At the level of over four billion active mobile phones 2010, it is clear that mobile electronic companions have become the drivers of nanoelectronic innovations with growth only limited by the creation and support of new, attractive features and services. Energy, bandwidth, size and weight requirements of these consumer products provide the largest pressure for System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures. Other exemplary new products are selected for their significance, some for their lengthy path into the market. Health care is such an example: The non-invasive glucose sensor and the portable ECG recorder" with automatic, neuroprocessor-driven event detection in the size of a quarter would serve hundreds of millions of people. Nanoelectronics for self-guided health is an area of public policy in view of the cost of "a posteriori" medical care. Access to information and education for any child/student will be provided by 1 tablets where service contracts and the spin-offs from surfing and cloud-computing will generate the revenue. Personal robots, coined by the ageing Japanese nation as the key product after the PC and ridiculed by others, will arrive as carebots for education, entertainment, rehabilitation, and home-service, accepted as a large-scale need by 2020 in most developed countries including China. Accident prevention systems on rail and road already would make millions of units per year

  14. 76 FR 39090 - Contract Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies; Notice of Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Contract Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies; Notice.... Enogex LLC and Atmos Energy filed comments in support. \\1\\ Contract Reporting Requirements of Intrastate... & Electric Company, AGL Resources, Energy Transfer Partners, L.P. Spectra Energy Corp., Regency...

  15. Public Shareholdership Energy Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National and international developments on the energy markets and changes in legislation and regulation require a renewed strategic orientation of energy companies and their shareholders. Decentralized authorities will have to reconsider their position as a shareholder in energy companies carefully. This report provides an overview of the recommendations of the Kist Commission on how provinces and municipalities can make a well-considered choice as shareholder of energy companies. [mk

  16. Diversification of energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  17. Energy Consumption of Escalators

    OpenAIRE

    Uimonen, Semen

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies the impact of passenger load and different load scenarios on the energy consumption of escalators. The scope of thesis is analysis of energy used, in kWh, by an escalator pair with specific technical requirements, and effect of the passenger flow on energy consumption of the selected escalator pair. Previous studies revealed lack of knowledge about the effects of power saving modes on the power consumption profiles of escalators. This study provides typical daily energy co...

  18. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Zaporozhets

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Disparities in the production structure, moral and physical obsolescence and depreciation offixed assets in economics, low-effective use fuel and energy resources (FER and water demands excessiveuse of energy, requiring substantial imports of energy resources (over 50% of needs. The resultingdependence of the basic branches of economy of Ukraine, primarily fuel and energy complex, from theexporting countries of fuel resources and, consequently, increasing the threat to energy safety. Meanwhile,such situation is in contrudiction of the principles of sustainable developments, adopted on the Summit inRio-de-Janeiro (1992. Ukraine needs the more active energy efficient policy.Keywords: energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy intensity of gross domestic product, energysafety state, fuel and energy resources, innovative development, structural changes ineconomy.

  19. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  20. Laserinduced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) of malignant liver tumors. Is it possible to gauge energy requirement for ablation with the aid of Hounsfield units?; Laserinduzierte Interstitielle Thermotherapie (LITT) maligner Lebertumoren. Kann durch eine Messung der Hounsfieldeinheiten des Lebergewebes der Energiebedarf fuer die Ablation vorhergesagt werden?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilberg, Anja

    2011-01-10

    Many malignant tumors such as colorectal cancer or breast cancer cause liver metastases. The therapy strategy is dependent on the primary tumor. Laser induced Interstitial Thermotherapy (LITT), together with various other minimally invasive approaches, is a thermotherapy and could be applied in addition to surgery or as the exclusive method of treating isolated liver metastases. Major advantages of such an approach are the possibility of implementing an outpatient scheme, as well as a lower occurrence rate of complications. After a CT-controlled puncture of the metastases the therapy is monitored in the MRI by using thermosensitive sequences. Liver tissue absorbs energy from laser photons; heat caused by this effect leads to the destruction of tumorous tissue. As the amount of energy required to destroy the metastases varies greatly even with the volume of lesions being the same, the aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a relation between energy requirement and liver density as gauged by means of CT before treatment. For this purpose 168 patients with 279 liver metastases originating from different primaries who were treated with LITT between March 2006 and March 2007 were included in this study. 55.4 % of the patients were pretreated with TACE, which reduces the blood flow in the liver, thus reducing amount of energy required from laser photon treatment. Prior to every single LITT sequence liver density was gauged by puncture CT with the aid of Hounsfield units; also, the volume of the induced necrosis in the 24h MRI image and in the control MRI after 3, 6 and 12 months was measured. It was possible to calculate the actual energy consumption on the basis of number, running time and energy output of the laser employed. Check-up examinations showed a decrease of the mean necrosis-volumes, which indicates that absence of recurrence of the tumor in those spots that had been laser-treated. Analysis of the average survival time after the first LITT over an