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Sample records for br2005 energy requirements

  1. New types of concrete elements corresponding to BR2005 energy requirements; Nye typer betonelementer svarende til BR2005 energikrav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In this project new solutions have been developed for buildings with concrete facade panels without ribs at window reveals and at horizontal joints, corresponding to panels with an un-broken insulation layer and limited thermal bridge effect. New general solutions for the mounting of windows have been developed together with airtight covering solutions at the window reveal based upon added window board and a separate vapor barrier. At the same time detailed calculations of the heat loss effects at the window-wall joint and foundation have been carried out and new solutions that reduce the heat loss substantially have also been shown. The new developed standard solutions are obvious means to meet the expected future energy demands in the new Building Regulations expected in 2005. The project has revealed that it is possible to obtain significant thermal improvements with only a minor increase in the insula-tion thickness. The new and, in many ways, better solutions will mean added costs regarding mounting of windows, stronger fittings etc. but the effect of a standardization of the window-placement could reduce those additional costs considerably. The total life cycle costs regard-ing these new types of concrete facade panels are economically reasonable. (au)

  2. Standard house corresponding to BR-2005 energy demand. Part 1: Optimization of constructions/systems; Typehus svarende til BR-2005-energikrav. Del 1: Optimering af konstruktioner/systemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, J.

    2001-02-01

    This report concludes the first phase of the project 'Optimisation of the building envelope as well as heating and ventilation system in a one family house with respect to energy consumption, indoor climate and economy'. The report heads of with a short description of the background and purpose of the project. In order to perform an optimisation of an insulation thickness in a building envelope component, it is necessary to first calculate the heat transfer coefficients for the component. In the report these calculations are described in detail for all components. Calculations were performed for building envelope components as they were before and after the optimisation. The building envelope components are described, and together with the detailed drawings given in the appendix, this presents a good overview of the constructions in their optimised state. The calculations are performed using PC-programs HEAT2 and HEAT3 for 2- and 3-dimensional heat flow, i.e. line and point heat loss coefficients, and the rules given in DS418 for 1-dimensional heat flow, i.e. U-values. The results of the calculations are summarised and the expected dimensioning heat loss is calculated. Results for the house as it was before the optimisation are also given for comparison. The optimal insulation thicknesses are calculated for each building envelope component (external wall, slab floor and roof), and with this background the chosen insulation thicknesses are discussed. In order to be able to evaluate whether or not the optimised house will fulfil the purpose of the project, i.e. reducing the energy consumption by 33 % and 50 % compared to the present frame for energy consumption, a series of simulations are performed. The simulations are performed using the PC-program tsbi3. In addition to the calculation of the building as defined by the optimisation, a number of parameters were analysed in order to evaluate the importance of different aspects of the building envelope. The

  3. Measurements of gross energy consumption in new buildings meeting Danish building Regulations 2005. Project summary; Maeling af bruttoenergiforbrug i nybyggeri svarende til BR2005 energikrav. Projektresume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2004-07-01

    During the heating season of 2003/2004, gross energy measurements have been made on a number of single-family houses that represent ordinary building systems in Denmark and meet future stricter energy requirements in new energy regulations of the building regulations. All the houses have floor heating and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. When new energy regulations are introduced in the building regulations, the primary energy requirements on buildings will be based on the gross energy consumption, corresponding to the total energy consumption except electricity consumption for appliances. In relation to this, the object of the project has been to document and analyse the test result that have come to light and to compare with future requirements on the gross energy consumption. The electricity consumption of appliances is interesting too, however, as this has an effect on the heat demand. The object of the project has therefore also been to gather operation experience for the electricity consuming equipment in general with a view to throwing light on its influence on the heat demand, including to investigate how large a part of the electricity consumption proves of use in the heating of the house, and more overriding how the electricity consumption influences the heat consumption. (au)

  4. Energy requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an appr

  5. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  6. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  7. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  8. The strictest energy requirements in the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    50 years of progressively strengthened energy requirements in the Danish building code appear to be a success, as the energy consumption has remained constant despite an increase in the total area in requirement of heating. This article however argues that the building code mechanism is heavily...

  9. Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...

  10. Energy requirements of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, S Eileen

    2004-01-01

    Energy requirements of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy appear to be disease-specific and different from the current recommendations for healthy children, varying depending upon functional capacity, degree of mobility, severity of disease, and level of altered metabolism. Feeding problems are prevalent in many of these children, and can result in inadequate energy intake. Wasting of voluntary muscles, a common symptom of cerebral palsy, contributes to reduced resting energy needs; nevertheless, the location of the central nervous system lesion may also influence energy requirements. To guarantee individualized, accurate, and optimal energy recommendations for this population, resting energy expenditure should preferentially be measured by indirect calorimetry. Equations and formulae to predict healthy people's resting energy expenditure are available, but tend to overestimate these children's energy needs. Future studies should address the role of the central nervous system in regulating energy metabolism in this population. When adequately nourished, children and adolescents with cerebral palsy appear more tranquil and require decreased feeding time, which gives caregivers time to develop the child's functional independence and character. Understanding energy requirements of this population will provide caregivers and health professionals with guidelines for providing optimal nutritional status.

  11. Nuclear Power and the World's Energy Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, V; Dunning-Davies, J

    2004-01-01

    The global requirements for energy are increasing rapidly as the global population increases and the under-developed nations become more advanced. The traditional fuels used in their traditional ways will become increasingly unable to meet the demand. The need for a review of the energy sources available is paramount, although the subsequent need to develop a realistic strategy to deal with all local and global energy requirements is almost as important. Here attention will be restricted to examining some of the claims and problems of using nuclear power to attempt to solve this major question.

  12. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  13. Energy Cost Impact of Non-Residential Energy Code Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-08-22

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code contains 396 separate requirements applicable to non-residential buildings; however, there is no systematic analysis of the energy cost impact of each requirement. Consequently, limited code department budgets for plan review, inspection, and training cannot be focused on the most impactful items. An inventory and ranking of code requirements based on their potential energy cost impact is under development. The initial phase focuses on office buildings with simple HVAC systems in climate zone 4C. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance. A preliminary estimate of the probability of occurrence of each level of non-compliance was combined with the estimated lost savings for each level to rank the requirements according to expected savings impact. The methodology to develop and refine further energy cost impacts, specific to building type, system type, and climate location is demonstrated. As results are developed, an innovative alternative method for compliance verification can focus efforts so only the most impactful requirements from an energy cost perspective are verified for every building and a subset of the less impactful requirements are verified on a random basis across a building population. The results can be further applied in prioritizing training material development and specific areas of building official training.

  14. Chipping machines: disc and drum energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Facello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and fossil fuel reserves exhaustion are increasing the importance of the biomass-derived products, in particular wood, as source of clean and renewable energy for the production of electricity or steam. In order to improve the global efficiency and the entire production chain, we have to evaluate the energetic aspects linked to the process of transformation, handling and transport of these materials. This paper reports results on a comparison between two chippers of similar size using different cutting technology: disc and drum tool respectively. During trials, fuel consumption, PTO torque and speed, processing time and weight of processed material were recorded. Power demand, fuel consumption, specific energy and productivity were computed. The machine was fed with four different feedstock types (chestnut logs, poplar logs, poplar branches, poplar sawmill residues. 15 repetitions for each combination of feedstock-tool were carried out. The results of this study show that the disc tool requires, depending on the processed material, from 12 to 18% less fuel per unit of material processed than the drum tool, and consequently, from 12 to 16% less specific energy. In particular, the highest difference between tools was found in branches processing whereas the smallest was in poplar logs. Furthermore the results of the investigation indicate, that, in testing conditions, the productivity of drum tool is higher (8% than disc tool.

  15. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2006-08-01

    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%).

  16. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  17. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  18. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike;

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/3...

  19. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen;

    the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...

  20. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma N Bermingham

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75 body weight (BW. Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75·day(-1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9·day(-1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups. Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001: requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001, but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09. This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds is needed.

  1. Energy requirements and CO2 mitigation potential of PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the energy requirements of PV modules and systems and calculate the Energy Pay-Back Time for two major PV applications. Based on a review of past energy analysis studies we explain the main sources of differences and establish a "best estimate" for key system components.

  2. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (PMaintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (Pmaintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.

  3. Implementation of Energy Code Controls Requirements in New Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatten, Mike [Solarc Energy Group, LLC, Seattle, WA (United States); Jones, Dennis [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Cooper, Matthew [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Most state energy codes in the United States are based on one of two national model codes; ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1 (Standard 90.1) or the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Since 2004, covering the last four cycles of Standard 90.1 updates, about 30% of all new requirements have been related to building controls. These requirements can be difficult to implement and verification is beyond the expertise of most building code officials, yet the assumption in studies that measure the savings from energy codes is that they are implemented and working correctly. The objective of the current research is to evaluate the degree to which high impact controls requirements included in commercial energy codes are properly designed, commissioned and implemented in new buildings. This study also evaluates the degree to which these control requirements are realizing their savings potential. This was done using a three-step process. The first step involved interviewing commissioning agents to get a better understanding of their activities as they relate to energy code required controls measures. The second involved field audits of a sample of commercial buildings to determine whether the code required control measures are being designed, commissioned and correctly implemented and functioning in new buildings. The third step includes compilation and analysis of the information gather during the first two steps. Information gathered during these activities could be valuable to code developers, energy planners, designers, building owners, and building officials.

  4. Introducing cost-optimal levels for energy requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2012-01-01

    The recast of the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) states that Member States (MS) must ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieve cost-optimal levels”, and that the cost-optimal level must be calculated in accordance...... with a comparative methodology. The ultimate goal of this is to achieve a cost-optimal improvement of buildings’ energy performance (new and existing) in reality....

  5. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W(center dot)h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  6. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  7. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  8. Energy, material and land requirement of a fusion plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte; Hamacher, T.; Cabal, H.

    2001-01-01

    The energy and material necessary to construct a power plant and the land covered by the plant are indicators for the ‘consumption’ of environment by a certain technology. Based on current knowledge, estimations show that the material necessary to construct a fusion plant will exceed the material...... requirement of a fission plant by a factor of two. The material requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 2000 t/MW and little less than 1000 t/MW for a fission plant. The land requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 300 m2/MW and the land requirement for a fission plant is a little less than 200 m2/MW....... The energy pay back time, defined later in Section 6, is little more than half a year for a fusion plant with capacity 1 GWe. Only the electrical energy is accounted for as released energy not the thermal energy. In all these indicators, fusion compares well with conventional technologies while it consumes...

  9. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...... efficiencies for energy retention in protein (Kop = .50), fat (Kof = .79), and carbohydrates (Koc = .79)] increased from .26 Mcal at 27 wk of age to .29 Mcal at 48 wk, corresponding to 5.93 and 6.07 Mcal/kg egg....

  10. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  11. ENERGY REQUIREMENT FOR THYMINELESS DEATH IN CELLS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREIFELDER, D; MAALOE, O

    1964-10-01

    Freifelder, David (University of California, Berkeley), and Ole Maaløe. Energy requirement for thymineless death in cells of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:987-990. 1964.-Thymineless death in thymine-requiring Escherichia coli is arrested immediately and reversibly by nitrogenation if the bacterial population is growing in a medium containing a carbon source that can only be metabolized aerobically. The mechanism of death, therefore, involves a metabolic process.

  12. Analysis of annual cooling energy requirements for glazed academic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S.A. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hassan, A.H. [Vinyl Chloride Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Terengganu (Malaysia). Dept. of Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia experienced rapid increase in energy consumption in the last decade due to its high economic growth and increase in the standard living of household. Energy is becoming more costly and the situation is worsened by the global warming as a result of greenhouse gas emission. A more efficient energy usage and significant reduction in the released emission is therefore required. Space cooling with the use of air conditioners is practiced all year round in Malaysia and this accounts for 42% of total electricity energy consumption for commercial buildings and 30% of residential buildings. Reduction in the energy used for cooling in the built environment is a vital step to energy conservation in Malaysia. The objective of the present study was to analyze the annual cooling energy of highly glazed academic buildings which are located in a university in Malaysia. The outcome of the study would enable further remedial actions in reducing the energy consumption of the buildings' air conditioning system. The study is conducted by computer simulation using EnergyPlus software to calculate the cooling energy of a selected building or area. Comparison is made against the rated equipment load (i.e., the air handling unit) installed in the buildings. Since the buildings in the present study are not constructed parallel to each other the effect of building orientations with respect to the sun positions are also studied. The implications of shades such as venetian blind on the cooling energy are investigated in assessing their effectiveness in reducing the cooling energy, apart from providing thermal comfort to the occupants. In the aspect of operation, the present study includes the effects of reducing the set point air temperature and infiltration of outdoor air due to doors that are left open by the occupants. It is found from the present study that there are significant potentials for savings in the cooling energy of the buildings.

  13. Energy Requirement of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Mario Cappelletti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this chapter is to calculate the net energy of the production chain for virgin olive oil. Therefore, the determination was carried out for the direct and indirect energy inputs and the energy present as feedstock in the outputs (products and by-products. To perform this analysis, all of the production processes for olives and for oil extraction were studied. For the agricultural phase, three systems of cultivation were taken into consideration: the centenary olive grove (COO, the “intensive” olive grove (HDO and, the more recently introduced, “super-intensive” olive grove (HSDO. The last two models are distinguished by the high number of trees per hectare and by an intense mechanization of agricultural practices. Regarding the oil extraction phase, four different technologies were compared: the pressure system (PS, the two-phase system (2PS, the three-phase (3PS, and the system, called “de-pitted”, which provides for the separation of the pits before the oil is extracted (DPS. The analysis showed that the production of olives needs more than 90% of energy requirements, much of which is met by non-renewable sources of energy. The production of fertilizers, and also irrigation, are the production factors that require a considerable amount of energy. Among the three agricultural systems analyzed, the COO system of cultivation is the one that requires less energy as compared to the other systems. The scenario that enables the most energy return, however, is the SHDO system of cultivation, due to the greater amount of pruning residues that can be obtained.

  14. Drivers of Bacterial Maintenance and Minimal Energy Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempes, Christopher P; van Bodegom, Peter M; Wolpert, David; Libby, Eric; Amend, Jan; Hoehler, Tori

    2017-01-01

    Microbes maintain themselves through a variety of processes. Several of these processes can be reduced or shut down entirely when resource availability declines. In pure culture conditions with ample substrate supply, a relationship between the maximum growth rate and the energy invested in maintenance has been reported widely. However, at the other end of the resources spectrum, bacteria are so extremely limited by energy that no growth occurs and metabolism is constrained to the most essential functions only. These minimum energy requirements have been called the basal power requirement. While seemingly different from each other, both aspects are likely components of a continuum of regulated maintenance processes. Here, we analyze cross-species tradeoffs in cellular physiology over the range of bacterial size and energy expenditure and determine the contributions to maintenance metabolism at each point along the size-energy spectrum. Furthermore, by exploring the simplest bacteria within this framework- which are most affected by maintenance constraints- we uncover which processes become most limiting. For the smallest species, maintenance metabolism converges on total metabolism, where we predict that maintenance is dominated by the repair of proteins. For larger species the relative costs of protein repair decrease and maintenance metabolism is predicted to be dominated by the repair of RNA components. These results provide new insights into which processes are likely to be regulated in environments that are extremely limited by energy.

  15. Optimization of energy and manpower requirements in Nigerian bakeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.; Madu, A.C.; Nwanya, S.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Agunwamba, J.C. [Department Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2011-01-15

    A study on energy and manpower requirements for the bakery industry in Nigeria was carried out, covering 90 bakeries representing 75% of total registered bakeries in Onitsha city. Analysis of the energy and manpower related time series data, using engineering and statistical tools, resulted in the development of empirical model for the estimation of capacity, manpower and energy requirements in the bakery industry. This empirical model can be used for the design of a new bakery or expansion of existing one. The conditions for optimum inventory and design were determined through this optimization and the results were compared with existing system. The study revealed a huge capital investment which amounts to 5.6 billion Naira annually, a correlation between capacity of the bakery plants and resource usage (manpower, raw materials and energy use), and jobs creation potentials for 960 persons for Onitsha city alone. Diesel contributes 66.75% of total heating energy need, followed by firewood, 22.57% and petrol, 10.68%. Application of optimization techniques could result in 61% savings in inventory costs and cut in energy by about 7.4% with overall cost reduction of 8%. (author)

  16. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  17. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy

  18. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  19. Energy requirements for HE-3 mining operations on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    At the present rate of world energy consumption (10 TW-y/y) and allowing for an equilibrium consumption of 20 to 30 TW-y/y in mid 21st century, we will exhaust economically recoverable fossil fuels in the next 50 to 60 years. We will then have to rely on nuclear (fission and fusion) and renewable energy to feed, warm, and protect the world's population. Fusion energy is expected to play an important role in the 21st century and there a 2 billion dollar per year research program to commercialize that energy resource. A serious problem with this is its reliance on the D-T fuel cycle which releases 80 percent of its energy in the form of neutrons. These neutrons cause significant radiation damage and induce large amounts of radioactivity. There is another fusion fuel cycle involving the isotopes of Deuterium and Helium-3 which, if configured properly, releases 1 percent or less of its energy in neutrons. Obviously, such a fuel would be preferred, but there is no large source of He-3 known to satisfy world energy needs. Fortunately, a very large source of He-3 was found on the Moon, implanted over the past 4 billion years by the solar wind. Recent analysis of Apollo and Luna data reveals that over a million tons of He-3 sit on the Moon's surface. The potential energy in this He-3 fuel is 10 times that contained in all the coal, oil, and natural gas on the Earth. The purpose of this paper is to examine the energy required to extract the He-3 from the lunar regolith.

  20. On the Energy Required to Eject Processed Matter from Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2001-01-01

    We evaluate the minimum energy input rate that starbursts require for expelling their newly processed matter from their host galaxies. Special attention is given to the pressure caused by the environment in which a galaxy is situated, as well as to the intrinsic rotation of the gaseous component. We account for these factors and for a massive dark matter distribution, and develop a self-consistent solution for the interstellar matter gas distribution. Our results are in excellent agreement with the results of Mac Low & Ferrara (1999) for galaxies with a flattened disk-like ISM density distribution and a low intergalactic gas pressure ($P_{IGM}/k$ $\\leq $ 1 cm$^{-3}$ K). However, our solution also requires a much larger energy input rate threshold when one takes into consideration both a larger intergalactic pressure and the possible existence of a low-density, non-rotating, extended gaseous halo component.

  1. Manpower requirements for energy conservation: a case study of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, W.W.; McCarthy, M.A.; Moore, R.W.

    1982-07-15

    This case study of California's new energy conservation policies concludes the impact of such legislation is qualitative, not quantitative. Substantial numbers of new jobs are not created by these policies, but some new knowledge is required by the existing workforce to adequately comply. The study suggests that the conventional manpower requirements approach to planning that attempts to numerically match supply and demand is not a productive way to plan for qualitative changes in the workforce. Instead, the study details how regulations act to create an information and training system that operates on natural incentives. In California, these new energy policies created an immediate demand for relevant information by designers, builders and building officials. Further, the investigation describes the existence of a non-formal training system and how it emerges in the short-run to meet immediate knowledge demands. The study shows how building inspection that insures uniform compliance can act to close the system, thereby intensifying designers and builders demands for new knowledge which are met by non-formal training organizations - trade and professional associations and manufacturers. Though the study shows how this system driven by regulations on one end and bounded by inspection and enforcement on the other, operates without central guidance, it identifies key barriers that impede its effectiveness. The study recommends specific steps the US Department of Energy and state energy planners can take to improve the system's effectiveness by learning from the California experience.

  2. Net energy evaluation of feeds and determination of net energy requirements for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Noblet

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Feeds for pigs can be attributed different energy values according to, first, the step considered in energy utilization (DE: digestible energy, ME: metabolizable energy and NE: net energy and, second, the method used for estimation at each step. Reference methods for evaluating DE content are based on in vivo digestibility measurements; indirect estimates of DE values are obtained from in vitro methods or prediction equations based on chemical characteristics. Methods have also been proposed for estimating urinary energy (and gas energy to a smaller extent in order to calculate ME content from DE value. The NE values originate from energy balance studies (slaughter methods or, more commonly, indirect calorimetry measurements in respiration chambers and their compilation allows the calculation of NE prediction equations based on digestible nutrient contents or DE or ME contents. Such equations are applicable to both ingredients and compound feeds. They may differ between origins according to the fractionation method of organic matter or assumptions such as the NE requirement for maintenance (or fasting heat production. These measurements represent the bases for establishment of energy values in feeding tables. Results indicate that energy digestibility of feeds is negatively affected by dietary fibre content but this negative effect is attenuated with body weight increase, which suggests that feeds should be attributed DE values according to pig BW; in practice, at least two different DE values, one for growing-finishing pigs and one for mature pigs (reproductive sows, are recommended. The energy digestibility of pig feeds can also be affected by feed processing (pelletting, extrusion, etc.. Efficiency of ME utilization for NE averages 74-75% for conventional pig diets but it is directly dependent on diet chemical composition with efficiencies higher for ME from fat (90% or starch (82% than from protein or dietary fibre (60%. The hierarchy

  3. Energy requirements of the U. S. pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosman, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    According to the American Paper Institute, the paper industry is the fifth largest consumer of purchased energy in the U.S. and the largest consumer of fuel oil. Almost one-half of its total energy consumption comes from the industry's own process wasts: spent pulping liquors, bark, and hogged wood. In 1976 non-fossil fuels provided 44.6% of the total Btu consumption, up from 41.1% in 1972 and 42.6% in 1975. (Self-generated hydro power and other electricity produced from fossil fuel supplied another 1.5% of total needs in 1972 and 2.1% in 1975.) The industry has established a mechanism for self-policing by submitting periodic reports on its energy consumption to the API. The target set by the industry is a 20% saving of purchased energy by 1980. So far a reduction of about 15% has been achieved, making adjustments for add-ons required because of environmental regulations and other changes vs the base year of 1972.

  4. Design requirements for interfaces in solar energy conversion technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. L.

    1982-04-01

    Candidate materials for improving the durability and economics of solar energy conversion systems (SECS) are reviewed. A 30-yr lifetime is regarded as necessary for solar collector and concentrator materials in order to offset the high initial costs of SECS in parabolic dish, heliostat, parabolic trough, flat plate collector, OTEC, solar cell, and wind turbine configurations. The materials are required to transfer a maximum amount of intercepted energy without degrading from exposure to UV radiation, wind, water, dust, and temperature cycling. Glass and mirrored surfaces for reflecting or refracting optical subsystems are currently made from soda-lime, boro- and aluminosilicate, and must resist chemicals, abrasion, and permeability, and have good strength, flexibility, coefficient of expansion, and Young's modulus. Additional concerns are present in photochemical, solar cell, and in substrata components and systems.

  5. Production of cement requiring low energy expenditure. An industrial test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, S.; Blanco, M.T.; Palomo, A.; Puertas, F. (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    A new method for making cement is proposed. It is based on the use of CaF{sub 2} and CaSO{sub 4} for partial replacement of the usual raw materials in cement manufacturing. This paper shows the feasibility of the proposed method on an industrial scale. A test carried out in a Spanish cement factory (1500 t yield of the new cement) has revealed that the mehtod can not only be adapted to the current technology but also requires a much lower energy expenditure. The final product is shown to have excellent properties in comparison with OPC. (orig.).

  6. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  7. Physical and energy requirements of competitive swimming events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Sharp, Rick L

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic sports competitions held during the summer Olympic Games include diving, open-water swimming, pool swimming, synchronized swimming, and water polo. Elite-level performance in each of these sports requires rigorous training and practice to develop the appropriate physiological, biomechanical, artistic, and strategic capabilities specific to each sport. Consequently, the daily training plans of these athletes are quite varied both between and within the sports. Common to all aquatic athletes, however, is that daily training and preparation consumes several hours and involves frequent periods of high-intensity exertion. Nutritional support for this high-level training is a critical element of the preparation of these athletes to ensure the energy and nutrient demands of the training and competition are met. In this article, we introduce the fundamental physical requirements of these sports and specifically explore the energetics of human locomotion in water. Subsequent articles in this issue explore the specific nutritional requirements of each aquatic sport. We hope that such exploration will provide a foundation for future investigation of the roles of optimal nutrition in optimizing performance in the aquatic sports.

  8. The energy required to produce materials: constraints on energy-intensity improvements, parameters of demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Timothy G; Sahni, Sahil; Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    In this paper, we review the energy requirements to make materials on a global scale by focusing on the five construction materials that dominate energy used in material production: steel, cement, paper, plastics and aluminium. We then estimate the possibility of reducing absolute material production energy by half, while doubling production from the present to 2050. The goal therefore is a 75 per cent reduction in energy intensity. Four technology-based strategies are investigated, regardless of cost: (i) widespread application of best available technology (BAT), (ii) BAT to cutting-edge technologies, (iii) aggressive recycling and finally, and (iv) significant improvements in recycling technologies. Taken together, these aggressive strategies could produce impressive gains, of the order of a 50-56 per cent reduction in energy intensity, but this is still short of our goal of a 75 per cent reduction. Ultimately, we face fundamental thermodynamic as well as practical constraints on our ability to improve the energy intensity of material production. A strategy to reduce demand by providing material services with less material (called 'material efficiency') is outlined as an approach to solving this dilemma.

  9. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  10. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  11. ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

  12. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Solar Photovoltaic Energy Penetration in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  13. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  14. Black Hole Firewalls Require Huge Energy of Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Hotta, Masahiro; Funo, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the firewall paradox in quantum black holes. The reasoning of Almheiri et al. inevitably raises a firewall paradox in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of quantum measurements. No firewall with a deadly, huge energy flux appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  15. Emerging Energy Requirements for Future C4ISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    can occur without enormous increases in world energy consumption. Right now, the U.S. consumes a greater percentage of the world’s energy than any...2020 Q U A D R IL LI O N B T U INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Figure 2. World Energy Consumption by Region (1970-2020). World oil... World Energy Report has made a world oil reserve estimate of 1.6 trillion barrels of oil, a large percentage of this reserve is assumed to be heavy

  16. Renewable Energy Requirement Guidance for EPACT 2005 and EO 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Describes what counts toward the federal goals, the definition of "new" for renewable power/renewable energy certificate (REC) purchases, and what types of on-site projects will get double credit (Section 203 (C)).

  17. ECASTAR: Energy conservation. An assessment of systems, technologies and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology was presented for a systems approach to energy conservation actions and their potentials and impacts in the United States. Constraints affecting the approach were ranked, and the most important ones are the present economic and technical conditions. The following unresolved issues were identified: consumptive lifestyles vs. conservation ethic, environmental standards vs. energy conservation, capital availability, decentralization and vertical integration vs. centralization, fuel rich regions vs. fuel poor regions, supply vs. end use conservation, life cycle costing vs. initial cost, mandatory savings vs. voluntary savings, labor intensive vs. capital intensive, price control vs. free market. The following recommendations were made: provide action/impact assessment, establish regional energy centers, improve technology articulation with government, design total energy systems, utilize existing systems approach expertise.

  18. Experience with Energy Efficiency Requirements for Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication has been produced as part of the work programme in support of the Gleneagles Plan of Action (GPOA), where the IEA was requested to 'undertake a study to review existing global appliance standards and codes'. In accordance with the G8 request, this study investigates the coverage and impact of forms of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and comparative energy labelling programmes; which comprise the cornerstone of most IEA countries national energy efficiency strategy. This scope also reflects governments' aspirations to achieve ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, this study does not address endorsement labelling and associated voluntary programmes, although these are also important policy tools for national energy efficiency strategies.

  19. Energy performance requirements using the cost-optimal methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2013-01-01

    The Concerted Action EPBD (CA EPBD) has the main objective of assisting the EU Member States (MS) transpose and implement the recast Directive 2010/31/EU on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD), published on 19 May 2010, as well as the continued implementation of the actions initiated with ...

  20. Dynamic facades, the smart way of meeting the energy requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Winther, Frederik Vilbrad

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes an innovative dynamic façade system, developed in cooperation between two industrial companies, the Danish Building Research Institute and Aalborg University, Den¬mark. The system, named Energy Frames, is a newly developed industrially produced façade system based on the exper......The paper describes an innovative dynamic façade system, developed in cooperation between two industrial companies, the Danish Building Research Institute and Aalborg University, Den¬mark. The system, named Energy Frames, is a newly developed industrially produced façade system based...... on the experiences of a number of specially designed solutions for significant individual buildings all over the world. As the demand for energy efficiency of buildings grows throughout Europe, the necessity of developing energy efficient building envelope solutions increases, whilst maintaining acceptable indoor...... climate conditions. The dynamic façades play an important role in this development as it optimizes the interaction with the external environment in close correlation with the demand from the building and the users....

  1. Energy requirements of lean and overweight women, assessed by indirect calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight in the developed world and the increased mortality and morbidity risk of overweight people stimulate research into the imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Little information is available about the 24 hour energy expenditure and energy requirement of l

  2. High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV40 Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    TIAX has developed long-life lithium-ion cells that can meet and exceed the energy and power targets (200Wh/kg and 800W/kg pulse power) set out by DOE for PHEV40 batteries. To achieve these targets, we selected and scaled-up a high capacity version of our proprietary high energy and high power CAM-7® cathode material. We paired the cathode with a blended anode containing Si-based anode material capable of delivering high capacity and long life. Furthermore, we optimized the anode blend composition, cathode and anode electrode design, and selected binder and electrolyte compositions to achieve not only the best performance, but also long life. By implementing CAM-7 with a Si-based blended anode, we built and tested prototype 18650 cells that delivered measured specific energy of 198Wh/kg total energy and 845W/kg at 10% SOC (projected to 220Wh/kg in state-of-the-art 18650 cell hardware and 250Wh/kg in 15Ah pouch cells). These program demonstration cells achieved 90% capacity retention after 500 cycles in on-going cycle life testing. Moreover, we also tested the baseline CAM-7/graphite system in 18650 cells showing that 70% capacity retention can be achieved after ~4000 cycles (20 months of on-going testing). Ultimately, by simultaneously meeting the PHEV40 power and energy targets and providing long life, we have developed a Li-ion battery system that is smaller, lighter, and less expensive than current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  3. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and...

  4. The Giant Reed as an energy crop: assessing the energy requirements within its supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodias, Efthymis; Busato, P.; Bochtis, Dionysis;

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is one form of renewable energy sources that are in the core of interesting for many researchers. There many different biomass sources that can be exploited for energy production, such as crop residues, waste materials, forestry residues and energy crops. Regarding energy crops, th...... and the expected energy output is positive, providing a proof for the sustainability of the tested crop for a 10 year exploitation period....

  5. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  6. [Utilization of feed energy by growing pigs. 3. Energy requirement for the growth and fattening of pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, L; Schiemann, R; Jentsch, W

    1979-02-01

    The test series for the investigation of the energy consumption of growing pigs of the breeds large white and improved land race pig as well as cross breeds of the two breeds in a total of 369 metabolism periods (as described in the first two pieces of information of this publication series -- Hoffmann and others, 1977 and Jentsch and Hoffmann, 1977) were statistically analysed for the purpose of the derivation of the energy requirement for maintenance and the partial energy requirement for growth in order to test the possibilities of the factorial analysis for the derivation of energy requirement values of growing pigs. The dependence of the maintenance requirement of growing pigs (investigations in the live weight range of 10 to 40 kg -- see 1st information--were made with boars those in the live weight range of 30 to 120 kg were made with gelded boars, 2nd information) on the live weight can best be characterised by applying a power exponent of 0,61 or 0,62 for the live weight. A definition is offered to be discussed for the energetic maintenance requirement of productive live stock and laboratory animals as a conventional value. The energy requirement values derived from the doubly-factorial statistical analysis show a satisfactory adaptation to the measured values as such concerning energy intake and observed growth performance of the test animals. The conclusion is drawn that the factorial analysis of the energy requirement (maintenance plus partial performances) results in a better estimate of the requirement of growing animals than the assessment according only to live weight and live weight increase without characterising the energy requirement for partial performances. This is important for the further working on and more exact definition of requirement norms.

  7. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume II, energy requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This project analyzed the application of solar total energy systems to appropriate segments of the residential sector and determined their market penetration potential. This volume covers the work done on energy requirements definition and includes the following: (1) identification of the single-family and multi-family market segments; (2) regionalization of the United States; (3) electrical and thermal load requirements, including time-dependent profiles; (4) effect of conservation measures on energy requirements; and (5) verification of simulated load data with real data.

  8. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics. The case of the German basic chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Weiss, M.; Patela, M.K. [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Tam, C.; Trudeau, N. [International Energy Agency IEA, 9 rue de la Federation, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Gielen, D.J. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, IITC, Robert-Schuman-Platz 3, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Analyzing the chemical industry's energy use is challenging because of the sector's complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry's energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry's total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry's final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them usable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry.

  9. A hydrogen energy carrier. Volume 1: Summary. [for meeting energy requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, R. L. (Editor); Blank, L. (Editor); Cady, T. (Editor); Cox, K. E. (Editor); Murray, R. (Editor); Williams, R. D. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The production, technology, transportation, and implementation of hydrogen into the energy system are discussed along with the fossil fuel cycle, hydrogen fuel cycle, and the demands for energy. The cost of hydrogen production by coal gasification; electrolysis by nuclear energy, and solar energy are presented. The legal aspects of a hydrogen economy are also discussed.

  10. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Rebecca A; Witzel, Angela L; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was [Formula: see text] or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ([Formula: see text]). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study's population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council's (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of [Formula: see text] (National Research Council (NRC), 1974) and the [Formula: see text] reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990). Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc.) have similar energy requirements.

  11. Requirements of Integrated Design Teams While Evaluating Advanced Energy Retrofit Design Options in Immersive Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant ways to save energy use in buildings is to implement advanced energy retrofits in existing buildings. Improving energy performance of buildings through advanced energy retrofitting requires a clear understanding of the cost and energy implications of design alternatives from various engineering disciplines when different retrofit options are considered. The communication of retrofit design alternatives and their energy implications is essential in the decision-making process, as it affects the final retrofit selections and hence the energy efficiency of the retrofitted buildings. The objective of the research presented here was to identify a generic list of information requirements that are needed to be shared and collectively analyzed by integrated design teams during advanced energy retrofit design review meetings held in immersive settings. While identifying such requirements, the authors used an immersive environment based iterative requirements elicitation approach. The technology was used as a means to better identify the information requirements of integrated design teams to be analyzed as a group. This paper provides findings on information requirements of integrated design teams when evaluating retrofit options in immersive virtual environments. The information requirements were identified through interactions with sixteen experts in design and energy modeling domain, and validated with another group of participants consisting of six design experts who were experienced in integrated design processes. Industry practitioners can use the findings in deciding on what information to share with integrated design team members during design review meetings that utilize immersive virtual environments.

  12. Income Growth, Urbanization, Changing Life Style and Energy Requirements in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Shi Minjun

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the effects of changing life style and consumption demands driven by income growth and urbanization on increase of energy requirements in China, and es- timate the impacts of improvement in household consumption on mitigating energy requirements towards 2020, based on input-out- put analysis and scenarios simulation approach. The result shows that energy requirement per capita has increased by 159% for urban residents and 147% for rural residents from 1995 to 2004. Growth in household consumption driven by income growth and urbanization may induce a successive increase in energy require- ments in future. Per capita energy requirements of urban residents will increase by 240% during 2002-2015 and 330% during 2002-2020. Urbanization might lead to 0.75 billion ton of increment of energy requirements in 2020. About 45%-48% of total energy requirements in China might be a consequence of residents' life styles and the economic activities to support consumption demands in 2020. Under low-carbon life style scenario, per capita energy requirements of urban residents may decline to 97% in 2015 and 92% in 2020 in contrast with baseline scenario. That implies that China needs to pay a great attention to developing green low- carbon life style in order to realize mitigation target towards 2020.

  13. Case study of the Brownell low energy requirement house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R F; Krajewski, R F; Dennehy, G

    1979-05-01

    An evaluation is made of the design and thermal performance of an innovative house built in 1977 in the Adirondacks area of New York State. The house has a very tight and well-insulated envelope, with the rigid insulation board applied to the outside of the frame. Passive solar gain through south-facing glass, along with internal free sources of heat, are shown to provide a substantial part of the building's heating requirements. Effective integral thermal storage, provided by the exposed interior structure, serves to keep interior temperature excursions within acceptable limits. Additional remote storage is provided in the form of a large thermal storage sand bed, with air ducts, located below the basement floor. Calculations and measured performance data show that the house's space heating needs are only about 40% of those of a similar size house built to HUD minimum property standards, and less than 25% of those of a typical inventory house in the Northeast United States.

  14. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an EE..., including any requirements for documenting customer energy efficiency and renewable energy......

  15. Analysis of the electrical energy requirements of the GSI facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ripp, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Die Veränderung auf dem deutschen Energiemarkt durch die Energiewende bringt eine Viel-zahl von Problemen mit sich. Der stetig ansteigende Ausbau von erneuerbaren Energien und die daraus resultierende starke Schwankung der eingespeisten Energiemengen zwingen die Netzbetreiber zum Ausbau der Stromnetze [1]. Die dadurch verursachten Kosten lassen die Netznutzungsgebühren steigen, welche an die Endkunden weitergegeben werden. Ebenfalls stieg die EEG-Umlage (Erneuerbare-Energie-Gesetz) von 3,6ct/kWh im Jahr 2012 über 5,3ct/kWh im Jahr 2013 auf 6,3ct/kWh für das Jahr 2014 [2], [3], [4]. Die extrem schnell steigenden Energiekosten zwingen die Verbraucher zur Erhöhung ihrer Energieeffizienz, um die laufenden Kosten so niedrig wie möglich zu halten [3]. Dies verlangt nach innovativen Ansätzen und Lösungen im unternehmenseigenen Energiemanagement. Besonders For-schungseinrichtungen mit großem Energiebedarf müssen eine höhere Energieeffizienz reali-sieren, um bei knappen Budgets ihrem Forschungsauftrag gerec...

  16. Comparison of 2006 IECC and 2009 IECC Commercial Energy Code Requirements for Kansas City, MO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yunzhi; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-03-22

    This report summarizes code requirements and energy savings of commercial buildings in climate zone 4 built to the 2009 IECC when compared to the 2006 IECC. In general, the 2009 IECC has higher insulation requirements for exterior walls, roof, and windows and have higher efficiency requirements for HVAC equipment (HVAC equipment efficiency requirements are governed by National Appliance Conversion Act of 1987 (NAECA), and are applicable irrespective of the IECC version adopted). The energy analysis results show that residential and nonresidential commercial buildings meeting the 2009 IECC requirements save between 6.1% and 9.0% site energy, and between 6.4% and 7.7% energy cost when compared to 2006 IECC. Analysis also shows that semiheated buildings have energy and cost savings of 3.9% and 5.6%.

  17. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  18. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, C.D.

    1977-11-15

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a significant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospect in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  19. Energy-efficient Ship Operation – Training Requirements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Baldauf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO, through its Maritime Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC, has been carrying out substantive work on the reduction and limitation of greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping since 1997, following the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol and the 1997 MARPOL Conference. While to date no mandatory GHG instrument for international shipping has been adopted, IMO has given significant consideration of the matter and has been working in accordance with an ambitious work plan with a view to adopting a package of technical provisions. Beside the efforts undertaken by IMO, it is assumed that e.g. optimized manoeuvring regimes have potential to contribute to a reduction of GHG emissions. Such procedures and supporting technologies can decrease the negative effects to the environment and also may reduce fuel consumption. However, related training has to be developed and to be integrated into existing course schemes accordingly. IMO intends to develop a Model Course aiming at promoting the energy-efficient operation of ships. This Course will contribute to the IMO’s environmental protection goals as set out in resolutions A.947(23 and A.998(25 by promulgating industry “best practices”, which reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact of global shipping on climate change. In this paper the outline of the research work will be introduced and the fundamental ideas and concepts are described. A concept for the overall structure and the development of suggested detailed content of the draft Model course will be exemplarily explained. Also, a developed draft module for the model course with samples of the suggested integrated practical exercises will be introduced and discussed. The materials and data in this publication have been obtained partly through capacity building research project of IAMU kindly supported by the International Association of Maritime Universities (IAMU and The Nippon

  20. Energy use pattern and optimization of energy required for broiler production using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Amid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review shows that energy consumption in agricultural production in Iran is not efficient and a high degree of inefficiency in broiler production exists in Iran. Energy consumption of broiler production in Ardabil province of Iran was studied and the non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to analyze energy efficiency, separate efficient from inefficient broiler producers, and calculate wasteful use of energy to optimize energy. Data was collected using face-to-face questionnaires from 70 broiler farmers in the study area. Constant returns to scale (CCR and variable returns to scale (BCC models of DEA were applied to assess the technical efficiency of broiler production. The results indicated that total energy use was 154,283 MJ (1000 bird−1 and the share of fuel at 61.4% was the highest of all inputs. The indices of energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy were found to be 0.18, 0.02 kg MJ−1, 59.56 MJ kg−1, and −126,836 MJ (1000 bird−1, respectively. The DEA results revealed that 40% and 22.86% of total units were efficient based on the CCR and BCC models, respectively. The average technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of broiler farmers was 0.88, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. The results showed that 14.53% of total energy use could be saved by converting the present units to optimal conditions. The contribution of fuel input to total energy savings was 72% and was the largest share, followed by feed and electricity energy inputs. The results of this study indicate that there is good potential for increasing energy efficiency of broiler production in Iran by following the recommendations for efficient energy use.

  1. Do changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in single-family houses result in the expected energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7 pct. reduction in natural gas consumption. For comparison the ex ante expectation was 25 pct. reduction in heating demand...

  2. Organizational Analysis of Energy Manpower Requirements in the United States Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    culture whereby all personnel are stewards committed to sustainable energy management practices, and who value the efficient use of clean and...variable Calculus 14 -0) 3 Alte rtUt.te Courae Undergraduate Enclosure (4 1 -- -- ---- -- - -- -- ---- - ----------- ---- 60 --- Required

  3. Quantification of the energy required for the destruction of Balanus Amphitrite larva by ultrasonic treatment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Seth, N.; Chakravarty, P.; Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.; Pandit, A.B.

    Ultrasonic treatment, a relatively less explored technology in water disinfection, was used to quantify the energy required for the destruction of larvae of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, which is a major marine fouling and a potential invasive...

  4. An Analysis of BIM Web Service Requirements and Design to Support Energy Efficient Building Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy Efficient Building (EEB design, construction, and operations require the development and sharing of building information among different individuals, organizations, and computer applications. The Representational State Transfer (RESTful Building Information Modeling (BIM web service is a solution to enable an effective exchange of data. This paper presents an investigation into the core RESTful web service requirements needed to effectively support the EEB project lifecycle. The requirements include information exchange requirements, distributed collaboration requirements, internal data storage requirements, and partial model query requirements. We also propose a RESTful web service design model on different abstraction layers to enhance the BIM lifecycle in energy efficient building design. We have implemented a RESTful Application Program Interface (API prototype on a mock BIMserver to demonstrate our idea. We evaluate our design by conducting a user study based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The results show that our design can enhance the efficiency of data exchange in EEB design scenarios.

  5. Renewable energy data requirements: A review of user opinions and data collection efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, G.G.

    1991-11-01

    Interest in the contribution of renewable energy to US energy supply is growing. This interest stems from environmental and energy security concerns and the desire to develop domestic resources. In order to plan for the use of renewable energy, data are essential to a variety of users both inside and outside the government. The purpose of this study is to identify priorities and requirements for gathering different types of renewable energy data. Results of this study are to be used by the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), in planning and evaluating its ongoing and future renewable energy information programs. The types of renewable energy addressed in this study include biomass (wood, agricultural residues, and crops grown for energy), municipal solid waste, geothermal energy, solar energy, and wind. To assess the relative importance of different types of information, we reviewed existing renewable energy data collection efforts and asked the opinions of renewable energy data users. Individuals in government, private industry, research organizations, industry trade associations, and public interest research groups were contacted and questioned about particular renewable energy data items. An analysis of their responses provides the basis for the conclusions in this report. The types of information; about which we asked each respondent included resource stock and flow information; quantities of energy inputs (e.g., wood) and outputs (e.g., electricity, heat); energy input and output costs and prices; numbers, location, and production capacities of energy conversion facilities; quantities and costs of energy conversion equipment; and quantities of pollutant emissions from energy conversion. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  6. Addressing Control of Hazardous Energy (COHE) Requirements in a Laser Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Michael; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    OSHA regulation 29CFR1910.147 specifies control of hazardous energy requirements for 'the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees.' Class 3B and Class 4 laser beams must be considered hazardous energy sources because of the potential for serious eye injury; careful consideration is therefore needed to safely de-energize these lasers. This paper discusses and evaluates control of hazardous energy principles in this OSHA regulation, in ANSI Z136.1 ''Safe Use of Lasers,'' and in ANSI Z244.1 ''Control of Hazardous Energy, Lockout/Tagout and Alternative Methods.'' Recommendations are made for updating and improving CoHE (control of hazardous energy) requirements in these standards for their applicability to safe laser operations.

  7. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P interaction between protein and energy (P nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations.

  8. Energy Requirements of US Army Special Operation Forces During Military Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Special Operations Forces (SOF regularly engage in physically demanding combat operations and field training exercises, resulting in high daily energy expenditure, and thus increased energy requirements. However, the majority of studies assessing energy requirements of SOF have been conducted on soldiers going through intense SOF initiation training. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the energy expenditure of SOF conducting military training operations. Thirty-one soldiers taking part in Pre-Mission Training (PMT n = 15 and Combat Diver Qualification Courses (CDQC n = 16 volunteered to participate in this observational study. Energy expenditure was determined using doubly labeled water. Body weight (83 ± 7 kg remained stable during both training periods. Overall energy expenditure adjusted for body composition was 17,606 ± 2326 kJ·day−1. Energy expenditure was 19,110 ± 1468 kJ·day−1 during CDQC and 16,334 ± 2180 kJ·day−1 during PMT, with physical activity levels of 2.6 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.3 during CDQC and PMT, respectively. Compared to the Military Dietary Reference Intakes for energy (13,598 kJ·day−1, these data are in agreement with previous reports that energy requirement for SOF Soldiers exceed that of the average soldier.

  9. Analysis of Marine Corps Renewable Energy Planning to Meet Installation Energy Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    to thank Randy Monohan for the data you provided and the time you spent helping us through the world of Marine Corps energy planning. Finally, we...from an emergency situation (e.g., natural disaster, act of terrorism) and a non-emergency situation (e.g., squirrels , equipment failure, overload

  10. Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Altan; Kinney, Kerry; Katz, Lynn; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup.

  11. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU......, also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  12. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompadre, T. F. V.; Neto, O. Boaventura; Mendonca, A. N.; Souza, S. F.; Oliveira, D.; Fernandes, M. H. M. R.; Harter, C. J.; Almeida, A. K.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets with

  13. Cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements in the Danish Building Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggerholm, S.

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the report is to analyse the cost optimality of the energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 2010, BR10 to new building and to existing buildings undergoing major renovation. The energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations have by tradition always been based on the cost and benefits related to the private economical or financial perspective. Macro economical calculations have in the past only been made in addition. The cost optimum used in this report is thus based on the financial perspective. Due to the high energy taxes in Denmark there is a significant difference between the consumer price and the macro economical for energy. Energy taxes are also paid by commercial consumers when the energy is used for building operation e.g. heating, lighting, ventilation etc. In relation to the new housing examples the present minimum energy requirements in BR 10 all shows gaps that are negative with a deviation of up till 16 % from the point of cost optimality. With the planned tightening of the requirements to new houses in 2015 and in 2020, the energy requirements can be expected to be tighter than the cost optimal point, if the costs for the needed improvements don't decrease correspondingly. In relation to the new office building there is a gap of 31 % to the point of cost optimality in relation to the 2010 requirement. In relation to the 2015 and 2020 requirements there are negative gaps to the point of cost optimality based on today's prices. If the gaps for all the new buildings are weighted to an average based on mix of building types and heat supply for new buildings in Denmark there is a gap of 3 % in average for the new building. The excessive tightness with today's prices is 34 % in relation to the 2015 requirement and 49 % in relation to the 2020 requirement. The component requirement to elements in the building envelope and to installations in existing buildings adds up to significant energy efficiency

  14. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-07-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  15. Minimum energy requirement of an endoreversible desalination system of sea water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen, Liwei Shu, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of a typical endoreversible desalination system of sea water is established and the minimum energy requirement for the system is optimized by using finite time thermodynamic theory. The heat exchange between the endoreversible desalination system of sea water and surroundings are delivered by two endoreversible Carnot heat pumps and three endoreversible Carnot heat engines. The minimum energy requirement for the system can be found by subtracting the power outputs from the power inputs. The results show that the minimum energy requirement for the distillation system depends on not only the properties of the input saline water, the output pure water and the brine water, but also the inherent features of the heat pumps and the heat engines, i.e. the total heat conductance of the heat pumps and of the heat engines. The results obtained herein are closer to those of practical system than those obtained based on reversible model.

  16. [Energy requirements in adolescents playing basketball in Russian Olympic reserve team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Petukhov, A B; Baeva, V S; Zemlianskaia, T A; Sokolov, A I; Peskova, E V; Tysiachnaia, E M

    2003-01-01

    The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.

  17. Required Assets for a Nuclear Energy Applied R&D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold F. McFarlane; Craig L. Jacobson

    2009-03-01

    This report is one of a set of three documents that have collectively identified and recommended research and development capabilities that will be required to advance nuclear energy in the next 20 to 50 years. The first report, Nuclear Energy for the Future: Required Research and Development Capabilities—An Industry Perspective, was produced by Battelle Memorial Institute at the request of the Assistant Secretary of Nuclear Energy. That report, drawn from input by industry, academia, and Department of Energy laboratories, can be found in Appendix 5.1. This Idaho National Laboratory report maps the nuclear-specific capabilities from the Battelle report onto facility requirements, identifying options from the set of national laboratory, university, industry, and international facilities. It also identifies significant gaps in the required facility capabilities. The third document, Executive Recommendations for Nuclear R&D Capabilities, is a letter report containing a set of recommendations made by a team of senior executives representing nuclear vendors, utilities, academia, and the national laboratories (at Battelle’s request). That third report can be found in Appendix 5.2. The three reports should be considered as set in order to have a more complete picture. The basis of this report was drawn from three sources: previous Department of Energy reports, workshops and committee meetings, and expert opinion. The facilities discussed were winnowed from several hundred facilities that had previously been catalogued and several additional facilities that had been overlooked in past exercises. The scope of this report is limited to commercial nuclear energy and those things the federal government, or more specifically the Office of Nuclear Energy, should do to support its expanded deployment in order to increase energy security and reduce carbon emissions. In the context of this report, capabilities mean innovative, well-structured research and development programs

  18. IMPACT OF ENERGY GROUP STRUCTURE ON NUCLEAR DATA TARGET ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR ADVANCED REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; H. Hiruta

    2011-06-01

    A target accuracy assessment study using both a fine and a broad energy structure has shown that less stringent nuclear data accuracy requirements are needed for the latter energy structure. However, even though a reduction is observed, still the requirements will be very difficult to be met unless integral experiments are also used to reduce nuclear data uncertainties. Target accuracy assessment is the inverse problem of the uncertainty evaluation. To establish priorities and target accuracies on data uncertainty reduction, a formal approach can be adopted by defining target accuracy on design parameters and finding out required accuracy on data in order to meet them. In fact, the unknown uncertainty data requirements can be obtained by solving a minimization problem where the sensitivity coefficients in conjunction with the constraints on the integral parameters provide the needed quantities for finding the solutions.

  19. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2014-06-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  20. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  1. Implementation plan review for Guam as required by the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-02-01

    Section IV of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, (ESECA) requires EPA to review each State Implementation Plan (SIP) to determine if revisions can be made to control regulations for stationary fuel combustion sources without interfering with the attainment and maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards. This document, which is also required by Section IV of ESECA, is EPA's report to the State indicating where regulations might be revised. (GRA)

  2. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  3. Colloquy and workshops: regional implications of the engineering manpower requirements of the National Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segool, H. D. [ed.

    1979-05-01

    The crucial interrelationships of engineering manpower, technological innovation, productivity and capital re-formaton were keynoted. Near-term, a study has indicated a much larger New England energy demand-reduction/economic/market potential, with a probably larger engineering manpower requirement, for energy-conservation measures characterized by technological innovation and cost-effective capital services than for alternative energy-supply measures. Federal, regional, and state energy program responsibilities described a wide-ranging panorama of activities among many possible energy options which conveyed much endeavor without identifiable engineering manpower demand coefficients. Similarly, engineering manpower assessment data was described as uneven and unfocused to the energy program at the national level, disaggregated data as non-existent at the regional/state levels, although some qualitative inferences were drawn. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 16 individual presentations for the DOE Energy Data Base (EDB); 14 of these were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA) and 2 for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA).

  4. Training Community College faculty in the techniques and skills required for Solar Energy System installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    A project to train a specified number of community college, vocational/technical faculty in the techniques and skills required to install solar energy systems is described. The planning that led to the contract, the development and conduct of the training workshops, and the outcomes are detailed. An overall evaluation of the project and recommendations for the future are included. (MHR)

  5. Utilization of respiratory energy in higher plants. Requirements for 'maintenance' and transport processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of both photosynthesis and respiration is required to understand plant growth and resulting crop yield. However, especially the nature of the energy demanding processes that are dependent on dark respiration in full-grown tissues is largely unknown. The main objective of the p

  6. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  7. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production.

  8. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Campos, M M; Machado, F S; Filho, S C Valadares; Castro, M M D; Dijkstra, J

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were slaughtered at 4 d of life to estimate the animals' initial body composition (reference group). The remaining 34 calves were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of life, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces (for 72 h) and urine (for 24 h). At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered, their gastro-intestinal tract was washed to determine the empty body weight (EBW; kg), and their body tissues were sampled for subsequent analyses. The net energy requirement for maintenance was estimated using an exponential regression between metabolizable energy intake and heat production (both in Mcal/EBW(0.75) per d) and was 74.3 ± 5.7 kcal/EBW(0.75) per d, and was not affected by inclusion of starter feed in the diet. The metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance was determined at the point of zero energy retention in the body and was 105.2 ± 5.8 kcal/EBW(0.75) per d. The net energy for gain was estimated using the EBW and the empty body gain (EBG; kg/d) as 0.0882 ± 0.0028 × EBW(0.75) × EBG(0.9050±0.0706). The metabolizable energy efficiency for gain (kg) of the milk was 57.4 ± 3.45%, and the kg of the starter feed was 39.3 ± 2.09%. The metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance was 3.52 ± 0.34 g/BW(0.75) per d. The net protein required for each kilogram gained was estimated as 119.1 ± 32.9 × EBW(0.0663±0.059). The metabolizable protein efficiency for gain was 77 ± 8.5% and was not affected by inclusion of starter feed

  9. A 2nd generation static model of greenhouse energy requirements (horticern) : a comparison with dynamic models

    CERN Document Server

    Jolliet, O; Munday, G L

    1989-01-01

    Optimisation of a greenhouse and its components requires a suitable model permitting precise determination of its energy requirements. Existing static models are simple but lack precision; dynamic models though more precise, are unsuitable for use over long periods and difficult to handle in practice. A theoretical study and measurements from the CERN trial greenhouse have allowed the development of new static model named "HORTICERN", precise and easy to use for predicting energy consumption and which takes into account effects of solar energy, wind and radiative loss to the sky. This paper compares the HORTICERN model with the dynamic models of Bot, Takakura, Van Bavel and Gembloux, and demonstrates that its precision is comparable; differences on average being less than 5%, it is independent of type of greenhouse (e.g. single or double glazing, Hortiplus, etc.) and climate. The HORTICERN method has been developed for PC use and is proving to be a powerful tool for greenhouse optimisation by research work...

  10. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lages Barbosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2 of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation, respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  11. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  12. Strategic study on energy-protein requirements for local sheep: 5. Ewes during lactation phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six Javanese thin-tail ewes in the end of late pregnancy phase were set out to study the energy and crude protein requirements during the first eight-week of lactation phase. The ewes were penned individually in doors and randomly assigned to a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three levels of energy (low, medium and high and three levels of crude protein (low, medium and high diets with four ewes per treatment. The diets were pelleted and offered four times daily in approximately equal amount. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, body weight and milk production were recorded. Results showed that, total lamb birth weights was not affected, but protein content on the ration treatments significantly altered (P0.05, while crude protein content on the ration highly significantly affected (P<0.01. Based on data recorded, the energy and protein requirements for ewes during lactation phase are highly significantly depended on ewes’ live weight, milk production and the ratio of energy metabolism and crude protein of the ration. It was concluded that in order to fulfil the crude protein and energy needs of the ewes during lactation phase, the ration given should contain crude protein and energy as much as 16% (based on dry matter and 13.4 MJ/kg dry matter respectively.

  13. Aerated lagooning of agro-industrial wastewater: depuration performance and energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafina Andiloro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive depuration plants have often shown low reliability and economic sustainability, when utilised for agro-industrial wastewater treatment, due to the particular wastewater properties: high organic load and essential oil concentrations, acidity, nutrient scarcity and qualitative-quantitative variability of effluents. Aerated lagooning systems represent a suitable alternative, because they are able to assure good reliability and low energy requirements, avoiding the drawbacks shown by the intensive depuration plants. In order to optimize performance of the lagooning systems, particularly in terms of energy requirements, depuration processes of aerobic-anaerobic aerated lagoons were investigated, both at full- and laboratory-scale. Citrus processing wastewater were subject to bubble aeration with low flow rates and limited time; the removal rate of organic load was evaluated and energy requirements of different depuration schemes were compared. The experimental investigations in full-scale aerated lagoons showed a low energy supply (0.21-0.59 kWh per kg of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand removed with an average value of 0.45 kWh kgCOD –1, an adequate equalisation capability and constantly good depurative performance also with high concentrations of essential oil (500-1000 ppm. The experimental investigations in lab-scale aerated tanks under controlled conditions indicated the possibility of decreasing energy requirements (down to 0.16 kWh kgCOD –1 by reducing aeration power (down to 0.6 W m–3 and limiting aeration time to night 12 hours only, when energy price is lower. In spite of the low aeration, the COD removal rates were on the average six-fold higher compared to the anaerobic tank. Other outcomes indicated an ability of the spontaneous microflora to adapt to high concentrations of essential oils, which however did not provide an increase of the removal rate of the organic load in the experimented scheme.

  14. Sex effects on net protein and energy requirements for growth of Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A P; St-Pierre, N R; Fernandes, M H R M; Almeida, A K; Vargas, J A C; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-03-22

    Requirements for growth in the different sexes remain poorly quantified in goats. The objective of this study was to develop equations for estimating net protein (NPG) and net energy (NEG) for growth in Saanen goats of different sexes from 5 to 45 kg of body weight (BW). A data set from 7 comparative slaughter studies (238 individual records) of Saanen goats was used. Allometric equations were developed to determine body protein and energy contents in the empty BW (EBW) as dependent variables and EBW as the allometric predictor. Parameter estimates were obtained using a linearized (log-transformation) expression of the allometric equations using the MIXED procedure in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The model included the random effect of the study and the fixed effects of sex (intact male, castrated male, and female; n = 94, 73, and 71, respectively), EBW, and their interactions. Net requirements for growth were estimated as the first partial derivative of the allometric equations with respect to EBW. Additionally, net requirements for growth were evaluated based on the degree of maturity. Monte Carlo techniques were used to estimate the uncertainty of the calculated net requirement values. Sex affected allometric relationships for protein and energy in Saanen goats. The allometric equation for protein content in the EBW of intact and castrated males was log10 protein (g) = 2.221 (±0.0224) + 1.015 (±0.0165) × log10 EBW (kg). For females, the relationship was log10 protein (g) = 2.277 (±0.0288) + 0.958 (±0.0218) × log10 EBW (kg). Therefore, NPG for males was greater than for females. The allometric equation for the energy content in the EBW of intact males was log10 energy (kcal) = 2.988 (±0.0323) + 1.240 (±0.0238) × log10 EBW (kg); of castrated males, log10 energy (kcal) = 2.873 (±0.0377) + 1.359 (±0.0283) × log10 EBW (kg); and of females, log10 energy (kcal) = 2.820 (±0.0377) + 1.442 (±0.0281) × log10 EBW (kg). The NEG of castrated

  15. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2013-09-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  16. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  17. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  18. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Lages Barbosa; Francisca Daiane Almeida Gadelha; Natalya Kublik; Alan Proctor; Lucas Reichelm; Emily Weissinger; Gregory M. Wohlleb; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/...

  19. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  20. 78 FR 27982 - U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE... issuance of an International Energy Efficiency Certificate and the preparation of a Ship Energy Efficiency... Energy Efficiency Design Index. These requirements apply to all U.S. flag ships 400 gross tonnage...

  1. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  2. Digital nuclear radiation spectroscopy: Hardware requirements to minimize energy resolution degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M., E-mail: Marco.Riva@enea.it; Esposito, B.; Marocco, D.; Belli, F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Systematic requirement analysis of the digitizing process. • Synthetic pulses with different Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM). • Statistical and systematic error study. • Effects of the pulse amplitude reduction respect to the full scale on the error. • Hardware architecture considerations. - Abstract: Nuclear radiation spectroscopy is now often relying on digital acquisition techniques. The present paper addresses the problem of analyzing the requirements of the digitizer in terms of sampling frequency and number of bits to minimize the energy resolution degradation caused by the digitizing process. The analysis is performed using synthetic pulses (with different amplitude and Full Width Half Maximum) of typical nuclear spectroscopy detectors and the pulse area as energy estimate. Additional relevant issues, such as the hardware architecture and the data throughput speed, are also discussed.

  3. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials' (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U[sub o]-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for group R'' residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  4. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub o}-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for ``group R`` residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  5. Energy Requirements for Maintenance and Growth of German Mutton Merino Crossbred Lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Kai-dong; DIAO Qi-yu; JIANG Cheng-gang; TU Yan; ZHANG Nai-feng; LIU Jie; MA Tao; ZHAO Yi-guang; XU Gui-shan

    2013-01-01

    A comparative slaughter trial and a metabolism trial were conducted to determine the requirement of net energy (NE) and metabolizable energy (ME) by the crossbreed of German Mutton Merino×Inner Mongolia Merino for fattening from 35 to 50 kg of body weight (BW). 49 crossbred female lambs ((33.9±2.3) (SD) kg BW) of German Mutton Merino×Inner Mongolia Merino were used. 34 lambs were randomly chosen for comparative slaughter, which were offered an identical mixture diet (concentrate:roughage=55:45) at 100, 75 or 55%of ad libitum intake, whereas the remainders were used in the metabolism trial to evaluate the ME of the diet after methane production was measured by open-circuit respirometry. As feed intake decreased from 100 to 75 and 55%of ad libitum intake, the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) linearly increased (P=0.010) from 60.8 to 63.6 and 66.9%, respectively, and methane production decreased from 52.1 to 44.3 and 39.9 L d-1, respectively, but the ratio of methane energy to gross energy intake increased linearly (P=0.010) from 8.20 to 8.96 and 10.97%, respectively. Consequently, the ME values of the diet increased from 9.35 to 9.64 and 9.85 MJ kg-1 DM, respectively. The NE requirement for maintenance (NEm) was 255 kJ kg-1 BW0.75, and the ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) was 352 kJ kg-1 BW0.75, with a partial energy efficiency for maintenance (km) of 0.72. The NE requirement for growth (NEg) ranged from 1.26 to 4.66 MJ d-1 as average daily gains increased from 100 to 300 g d-1, with a partial energy efficiency for growth (kg) of 0.45. These results indicated that the NEg required by crossbred female lambs of German Mutton Merino×Inner Mongolia Merino was lower than the recommendation of the American or British nutritional system.

  6. A Study of Airbase Facility/Utility Energy R and D Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The boiler on top of the tower captures the heat focused on it by the heliostat field and transfers it to a working fluid. The working fluid is then...The operation of these airbases, each similar to a small city, in a posture of readiness requires large amounts of energy for electric power, heating ...118 76 Simplified Schematic of a Stirling Cycle Heat Engine

  7. Charging a renewable future: The impact of electric vehicle charging intelligence on energy storage requirements to meet renewable portfolio standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kate E.; Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-12-01

    Increased usage of renewable energy resources is key for energy system evolution to address environmental concerns. Capturing variable renewable power requires the use of energy storage to shift generation and load demand. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles, however, impacts the load demand profile and therefore the capacity of energy storage required to meet renewable utilization targets. This study examines how the intelligence of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) integration impacts the required capacity of energy storage systems to meet renewable utilization targets for a large-scale energy system, using California as an example for meeting a 50% and 80% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2030 and 2050. For an 80% RPS in 2050, immediate charging of PEVs requires the installation of an aggregate energy storage system with a power capacity of 60% of the installed renewable capacity and an energy capacity of 2.3% of annual renewable generation. With smart charging of PEVs, required power capacity drops to 16% and required energy capacity drops to 0.6%, and with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) charging, non-vehicle energy storage systems are no longer required. Overall, this study highlights the importance of intelligent PEV charging for minimizing the scale of infrastructure required to meet renewable utilization targets.

  8. Industry requirements for introduction of alternative energies with emphasis on hydrogen fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabbio, F. [Rio Tinto, Canadian Exploration Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Starbuck, D. [Newmont Mining Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Akerman, A. [CVRD-Inco, Toronto, ON (Canada); Betournay, M.C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed issues related to the use of alternate sources of energy in underground mining applications. Hydrogen power systems were examined in relation to operational drivers, available commercial supplies, site supplies, health and safety issues, capital and operating costs, mine production, and the role of government. Hydrogen power systems are being considered for mining applications in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce cooling and ventilation requirements. This article examined a range of issues that must be addressed before alternate energy systems such as hydrogen fuel cell technology can be used in larger-scale underground mining applications. The mining industry supports the development of new technologies. However, the introduction of alternate energy technologies must proceed in steps which include proof of concept testing, the development of generic infrastructure, power systems and regulations, and whole operating system studies. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Water and Energy Dietary Requirements and Endocrinology of Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  10. Pressure and specific energy requirements for densification of compost derived from swine solid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pampuro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compost derived from swine solid fraction is a low density material (bulk density less than 500 kg m-3. This makes it costly to transport from production sites to areas where it could be effectively utilized for value-added applications such as in soil fertilization. Densification is one possible way to enhance the storage and transportation of the compost. This study therefore investigates the effect of pressure (20-110 MPa and pressure application time (5-120 s on the compaction characteristics of compost derived from swine solid fraction. Two different types of material have been used: composted swine solid fraction derived from mechanical separation and compost obtained by mixing the first material with wood chips. Results obtained showed that both the pressure applied and the pressure application time significantly affect the density of the compacted samples; while the specific compression energy is significantly affected only by the pressure. Best predictor equations were developed to predict compact density and the specific compression energy required by the densification process. The specific compression energy values based on the results from this study (6-32 kJ kg-1 were significantly lower than the specific energy required to manufacture pellets from biomass feedstock (typically 19-90 kJ kg-1.

  11. Load profile impact on the gross energy requirement of stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiaux, Y.; Seigneurbieux, J.; Multon, B.; Ben Ahmed, H. [SATIE, ENS CACHAN Bretagne, CNRS, UEB, Avenue Robert Schuman, F-35170 Bruz (France)

    2010-03-15

    The sizing optimization of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic system (SAPV) is a very complex issue. Therefore, a compromise solution must be made between having an acceptable energy and economic cost for the consumer, and a relatively correct energy supply quality. The Gross Energy Requirement (GER) of an SAPV system corresponds to the primary energy total amount required for the production, the maintenance and the recycling of this system. Reducing the GER is thus, an effective way to promote the development of SAPV systems. Therefore, the load profile management, in order to get closer to the ideal 'solar' consumer, allows the downsizing of the system. In this paper, a methodology for studying the impact of load profiles on GER is proposed. Two different modifications parameters have been considered theoretically on idealized load and production profiles: the load shifting which seems simpler to implement in the reality, and the amplitude modulation. Furthermore, the NSGA-II genetic algorithm has been used to confirm theoretical outcomes and to optimize SAPV system sizing for three realistic load profiles, with the aim of quantifying the GER reduction, by minimizing the storage capacity (taking into account the replacements due to cycling) which is one of the weak points of such a system, and by PV panels downsizing. (author)

  12. Intergovernmental relations inherent in the Energy Management Partnership Act: a workshop on information requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoop, W.J.; Edelson, E.

    1980-02-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the first of three workshops that were planned to assess the information needed by the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) to effectively evaluate the pending Energy Management Partnership Act (EMPA); the workshop concentrated on issues of the EMPA hierarchical partnership. The approach utilized offers two major benefits to CS. First, by considering the problem of program evaluation while EMPA is still in the planning stage, this study identifies any baseline information that should be collected prior to implementation of EMPA, and also provides CS with the opportunity to include evaluation considerations in the operating guidelines for the program. Second, by identifying the potential problems and benefits inherent in EMPA and then identifying the information necessary to evaluate these problems and benefits, information requirements tied to the reasons for needing that information are generated, rather than a long unrelated laundry list of information requirements. Drafting of EMPA is not yet complete. When the term EMPA is used here, it refers to a set of bills that are presently being melded together. The original EMPA bill, which originated in DOE, was designed to expand the role of state and local governments in achieving national energy goals. Specifically, EMPA would provide a total of $110 million annually to state and local governments over a five year period to (1) develop an overall state energy plan, (2) consolidate three existing federal energy grant programs, (3) allow the secretary to fund directly innovative projects at the local level, and (4) provide additional assistance to states to cover the administrative costs of existing energy programs. Other bills, which may be passed in conjuncttion with EMPA or incorporated into EMPA, place additional emphasis on the local level by allocating as much as $400 million annually to local governments.

  13. Revision of the energy conservation requirements in the manufactured home construction and safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C C; Lee, A D; Lucas, R G; Taylor, Z T

    1992-02-01

    Thermal requirements were developed for manufactured (mobile) homes in response to legislation requiring the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise its thermal standards for manufactured homes. A life-cycle cost minimization from the home owner's perspecetive was used to establish an optimum in a large number of cities for several prototype homes. The development of the economic, financial, and energy conservation measure parameters input into the life-cycle cost analysis was documented. The optimization results were aggregated to zones which were expressed as a maximum overall home U-value (thermal transmittance) requirement. The revised standard's costs, benefits, and net value to the consumer were quantified. 50 refs.

  14. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  15. Digestible energy requirements of Mexican donkeys fed oat straw and maize stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Roque, L; Colunga, B; Smith, D G; González-Ronquillo, M; Solis-Mendez, A; Castelán-Ortega, O

    2005-11-01

    The limited availability of food, together with the constraints that traditional management systems impose on the natural foraging behaviour of donkeys, often results in severe under-nutrition. Few studies have been conducted into the digestibility of different forages and little information exists on nutritional requirements of donkeys. In order to measure digestible energy requirements of donkeys under tropical conditions, an experiment was carried out at the Centre for Research in Agricultural Science (CICA) and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Universidad Aut6noma del Estado de México located in the Toluca valley, Central Mexico. Thirty-two donkeys of a body condition typical for Central Mexico were divided into four groups of 8 animals each according to their sex and live weight: group 1 (G1) comprised male donkeys below the average body weight (102+/-5 kg); group 2 (G2) comprised male donkeys of average body weight (121.5+/-4 kg); group 3 (G3) comprised female donkeys below average weight (111.8 +/- 5 kg); and group 4 (G4) comprised female donkeys of average weight (127.6 +/- 5 kg). A diet of oat straw or maize stover and 15% alfalfa hay was offered to meet exact maintenance requirements. The donkeys were monitored for 13 months. The live weight of all animals was recorded daily in order to monitor whether maintenance requirements were being met. Mean daily digestible energy (DE) requirements were measured during the winter, spring, summer and autumn of 2003-2004. Digestible energy requirements of all four sex and liveweight groups were significantly (p > 0.05) higher during the spring than during the other seasons of the year (13.5, 18.0, 10.4 and 14.3 MJ DE per day during winter, spring, summer and autumn, respectively). Predicted DE requirements of donkeys with a live weight range betweenn 90 and 150 kg using the data from the present study were less than those predicted using scaled-down horse feeding standards.

  16. Experimental assessment of energy requirements and tool tip visibility for photoacoustic-guided endonasal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Dagle, Alicia B.; Kazanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad M.

    2016-03-01

    Endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is an effective approach for pituitary adenoma resection, yet it poses the serious risk of internal carotid artery injury. We propose to visualize these carotid arteries, which are hidden by bone, with an optical fiber attached to a surgical tool and a transcranial ultrasound probe placed on the patient's temple (i.e. intraoperative photoacoustic imaging). To investigate energy requirements for vessel visualization, experiments were conducted with a phantom containing ex vivo sheep brain, ex vivo bovine blood, and 0.5-2.5 mm thick human cadaveric skull specimens. Photoacoustic images were acquired with 1.2-9.3 mJ laser energy, and the resulting vessel contrast was measured at each energy level. The distal vessel boundary was difficult to distinguish at the chosen contrast threshold for visibility (4.5 dB), which was used to determine the minimum energies for vessel visualization. The blood vessel was successfully visualized in the presence of the 0-2.0 mm thick sphenoid and temporal bones with up to 19.2 dB contrast. The minimum energy required ranged from 1.2-5.0 mJ, 4.2-5.9 mJ, and 4.6-5.2 mJ for the 1.0 temporal and 0-1.5 mm sphenoid bones, 1.5 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, and 2.0 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, respectively, which corresponds to a fluence range of 4-21 mJ/cm2. These results hold promise for vessel visualization within safety limits. In a separate experiment, a mock tool tip was placed, providing satisfactory preliminary evidence that surgical tool tips can be visualized simultaneously with blood vessels.

  17. Liquid-Desiccant Vapor Separation Reduces the Energy Requirements of Atmospheric Moisture Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gido, Ben; Friedler, Eran; Broday, David M

    2016-08-02

    An innovative atmospheric moisture harvesting system is proposed, where water vapor is separated from the air prior to cooling and condensation. The system was studied using a model that simulates its three interconnected cycles (air, desiccant, and water) over a range of ambient conditions, and optimal configurations are reported for different operation conditions. Model results were compared to specifications of commercial atmospheric moisture harvesting systems and found to represent saving of 5-65% of the electrical energy requirements due to the vapor separation process. We show that the liquid desiccant separation stage that is integrated into atmospheric moisture harvesting systems can work under a wide range of environmental conditions using low grade or solar heating as a supplementary energy source, and that the performance of the combined system is superior.

  18. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags using CO2 diluted sources: CO2 uptakes and energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato eBaciocchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry phase (L/S=5 l/kg, T=100 °C and Ptot=10 bar and the thin film (L/S =0.3-0.4 l/kg, T=50 °C and Ptot=7-10 bar routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake achieved as a function of the reaction time was analyzed and on this basis the energy requirements associated to each carbonation route and gas mixture composition were estimated considering to store the CO2 emissions of a medium size natural gas fired power plant (20 MW. For the slurry phase route, maximum CO2 uptakes ranged from around 8% at 10% CO2, to 21.1% (BOF-a and 29.2% (BOF-b at 40% CO2 and 32.5% (BOF-a and 40.3% (BOF-b at 100% CO2. For the thin film route, maximum uptakes of 13% (BOF-c and 19.5% (BOF-d at 40% CO2, and 17.8% (BOF-c and 20.2% (BOF-d at 100% were attained. The energy requirements of the two analyzed process routes appeared to depend chiefly on the CO2 uptake of the slag. For both process route, the minimum overall energy requirements were found for the tests with 40% CO2 flows (i.e. 1400-1600 MJ/t CO2 for the slurry phase and 2220-2550 MJ/t CO2 for the thin film route.

  19. Energy and pressure requirements for compression of swine solid fraction compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of pig slurry spread on soil has contributed to nitrate water pollution both in surface and in ground waters, especially in areas classified as vulnerable zones to nitrate in accordance with European Regulation (91/676/CEE. Several techniques have been developed to manage livestock slurries as cheaply and conveniently as possible and to reduce potential risks of environmental pollution. Among these techniques, solid-liquid separation of slurry is a common practice in Italy. The liquid fraction can be used for irrigation and the solid fraction, after aerobic stabilization, produces an organic compost rich in humic substances. However, compost derived from swine solid fraction is a low density material (bulk density less than 500 kgm–3. This makes it costly to transport composted swine solid fraction from production sites to areas where it could be effectively utilized for value-added applications such as in soil fertilization. Densification is one possible way to enhance the storage and transportation of the compost. This study therefore investigates the effect of pressure (20- 110 MPa and pressure application time (5-120 s on the compaction characteristics of compost derived from swine solid fraction. Two different types of material have been used: composted swine solid fraction derived from mechanical separation and compost obtained by mixing the first material with wood chips. Results obtained showed that both the pressure applied and the pressure application time significantly affect the density of the compacted samples; while the specific compression energy is significantly affected only by the pressure. Best predictor equations were developed to predict compact density and the specific compression energy required by the densification process. The specific compression energy values based on the results from this study (6-32 kJkg–1 were significantly lower than the specific energy required to manufacture pellets from

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.200 - What information are Federal agencies required to report to the Department of Energy (DOE)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)? Federal agencies, upon approval of GSA, must report to the DOE the energy consumption in buildings... Federal agencies required to report to the Department of Energy (DOE)? 102-74.200 Section 102-74.200...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy...

  1. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  2. In vitro RNA editing in plant mitochondria does not require added energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Mizuki; Verbitskiy, Daniil; van der Merwe, Johannes A; Zehrmann, Anja; Plessmann, Uwe; Urlaub, Henning; Brennicke, Axel

    2007-06-12

    RNA editing in flowering plant mitochondria is investigated by in vitro assays. These cauliflower mitochondrial lysates require added NTP or dNTP. We have now resolved the reason for this requirement to be the inhibition of the RNA binding activity of the glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH). Both GDH1 and GDH2 were identified in RNA-protein cross-links. The inhibition of in vitro RNA editing by GDH is confirmed by the ability of the GDH-specific herbicide phosphinothricin to substitute for NTP. NADH and NADPH, but not NAD or NADP, can also replace NTP, suggesting that the NAD(P)H-binding-pocket configuration of the GDH contacts the RNA. RNA editing in plant mitochondria is thus intrinsically independent of added energy in the form of NTP.

  3. Opportunities and requirements for experimentation at high energy e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, C.; Baltay, C.; Barklow, T.L.; Burchat, P.R.; Burke, D.L.; Cooper, A.R.; Dib, C.; Feldman, G.J.; Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.

    1988-05-01

    Over the past fifteen years of high-energy physics, electron-positron annihilation has been the most productive of all reactions probing the fundamental interactions. The e/sup +/e/sup /minus// annihilation process is unique in offering at the same time copious production of novel particles, low backgrounds from more conventional physics, and the most efficient use of the energy which an accelerator provides. These features have allowed the detailed characterization of the charm and bottom quark-antiquark systems and the unambiguous discovery of gluon jets---the crucial ingredients in the establishment of Quantum Chromodynamics as the correct theory of the strong interactions---as well as the discovery of the tau lepton and confirmation of the weak and electromagnetic properties of all the quarks and leptons at high energy. Over the past few years, experiments will begin at SLC and LEP, and we anticipate new discoveries from the detailed study of the Z/sup 0/ resonance. It is time, then to begin to think out how one might continue this mode experimentation to still higher energies. This document is the report of a committee convened by the Director of SLAC, Burton Richter, to set out the major physics goals of an e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collider in the energy range 600 GeV-1 TeV, corresponding to the next feasible step in accelerator technology. The committee was charged with the task of outlining the main experiments that such a collider might carry out and the requirements which those experiments place on the accelerator design. 106 refs., 105 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B

    2012-08-01

    beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R&D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF

  5. An Investigation into Energy Requirements and Conservation Techniques for Sustainable Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Jad

    Traditionally, societies use to design their built environment in a way that was in line with the climate and the geographical location that they evolved in, thereby supporting sustainable lifestyles (i.e. thick walls with small windows in cold climates). With the industrial revolution and the heavy use and reliance on cheap fossil fuels, it can be argued that the built environment has become more focused on aesthetics and cost savings rather than on true sustainability. This, in turn, has led to energy intensive practices associated with the construction of homes, buildings, cities and megalopolises. Environmental concerns with regards to the future have pushed people, entities and industries to search for ways to decrease human's energy dependency and/or to supply the demand in ways that are deemed sustainable. Efforts to address this concern with respect to the built environment were translated into 'green buildings', sustainable building technologies and high performance buildings that can be rated and/or licensed by selected certifying bodies with varying metrics of building construction and performance. The growing number of such systems has brought real concerns: Do certified sustainable buildings really achieve the level of sustainability (i.e. performance) they were intended to? For the purpose of this study, buildings' energy consumption will be analysed, as it is one of the main drivers when taking into consideration greenhouse gas emissions. Heating and cooling in the residential and commercial/institutional sector, combined account for approximately a fifth of the secondary energy use in Canada. For this reason, this research aims at evaluating the main rating systems in Canada based on the efficacy of their rating systems' certification methodology and the weighting and comparison of energy requirements under each scheme. It has been proven through numerous studies that major energy savings can be achieved by focusing primarily on building designs

  6. Energy and Protein Requirements for - to -Week-Age Gushi Chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Xiang-tao; TIAN Ya-dong; SONG Su-fang

    2002-01-01

    In this experiment, 540 male and female chicks of 1-day-age were selected respectively and reared separately. 3 × 3 factorial experiment was designed. Gushi chicks were fed with nine diets under different metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP). Effects of different diets on the performances and carcass ingredients of 0-to 4-week-age Gushi chicks were studied by rearing, comparative slaughter and metabolism experiments. Based on the results of three experiments, ME intake per kilogram metabolic weight was regarded as dependent variable (Y), and its corresponding net energy (NE) deposition per kilogram metabolic weight was regarded as independent variable (X), respectively. Lineal regressive analysis was made according to the mathematic model: Y=a+bX. Maintenance ME(MEm) and the converted coefficient from net energy for gain(NEg) to ME for gain(MEg) were found out, then ME requirement was divided into MErm+ MEg,which is ME = 359.14 W0.75 + 10.47/△W; CP intake and corresponding metabolic weight were regarded as dependent variable and independent variable respectively, and then regressive analysis was made. The result was CP = 0. 57 + 8.21 W0.75. Consequently, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake and metabolic weight were put into the regressive equations, and then ME and CP requirements for 0- to 4-week-age Gushi chicks were obtained, 12.38 MJ kg-1 and 20.13%, respectively, the ratio of CP to ME was 16.26 g MJ-1.

  7. The achievement of sustainable mobility requires the co-existence of numerous energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpin, Geoffrey; Holden, Erling

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Recent discussions concerning the decarbonisation of the transport sector facilitated by a transition from fossil fuel based transport to a more environmentally benign form of sustainable mobility tend to oversimplify the situation by suggesting a hierarchical evolution of alternative transport fuels. This is highlighted by the linear segregation of biofuel research and development into generations, now standing at current 1st generation-, through to proposed 4th generation biofuels, and with the assumption that hydrogen and electric based modes of transportation will eventually exclude, or greatly minimize, the need for other alternatives in the future. This view of the evolution of future transport fuels is counterproductive to the philosophy of industrial ecology, and its overlying goal of achieving sustainability. Through a review of relevant literature resources the field of industrial ecology and the concept of sustainable mobility is discussed. The criteria by which the sustainability of proposed alternative energy carriers is presented, and the application and validity of developed life-cycle-assessment methodology is reviewed, and argued for as the best available means by which to evaluate existing and proposed energy carriers. A brief review is then presented for the potential of, and limiting factors to current and proposed alternative transport fuels, and thereby clarifies the necessity of adopting a more relaxed view towards the future of sustainable transport fuels. The term 'fuel mosaic' is introduced to describe this future scenario in which fossil fuels co-exist alongside hydrogen, electricity, and biofuels as energy carriers. The variety of energy carriers is required by the presence of varied transport applications, technologies, and their limited factors of production. With this knowledge and the lack of realistic alternative technologies or modes of transportation, and coupled with the expected increase in demand for these

  8. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  9. LongTerm Energy Efficiency Analysis Requires Solid Energy Statistics: The case of the German Basic Chemical Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Trudeau, N.; Gielen, D.J.; Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply t

  10. Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and

  11. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention and pregnancy, and kl was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. Increasing FP significantly reduced ME intake and milk energy output, although the differences between the 2 low FP groups were not significant. However, increasing FP significantly increased the ratio of heat production over ME intake and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), with the exception that the increases did not reach significance in heat production/ME intake between FP energy requirement for maintenance significantly increased with increasing FP. However, the increase between the 2 high FP groups did not research significance. It is concluded that increasing diet FP had no effects on kl but significantly increased maintenance energy requirement (MJ/kg(0.75)). These results indicate that using the current energy feeding systems to ration dairy cows managed under low input systems may underestimate their nutrient requirements, because the majority of feeding systems adopted globally do not differentiate the maintenance energy requirements between low and high forage input systems.

  12. Determining the required accuracy of LST products for estimating surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, A. C.; Reichle, R.; Sujay, K.; Arsenault, K.; Privette, J. L.; Yu, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important parameter to assess the energy state of a surface. Synoptic satellite observations of LST must be used when attempting to estimate fluxes over large spatial scales. Due to the close coupling between LST, root level water availability, and mass and energy fluxes at the surface, LST is particularly useful over agricultural areas to help determine crop water demands and facilitate water management decisions (e.g., irrigation). Further, LST can be assimilated into land surface models to help improve estimates of latent and sensible heat fluxes. However, the accuracy of LST products and its impact on surface flux estimation is not well known. In this study, we quantify the uncertainty limits in LST products for accurately estimating latent heat fluxes over agricultural fields in the Rio Grande River basin of central New Mexico. We use the Community Land Model (CLM) within the Land Information Systems (LIS), and adopt an Ensemble Kalman Filter approach to assimilate the LST fields into the model. We evaluate the LST and assimilation performance against field measurements of evapotranspiration collected at two eddy-covariance towers in semi-arid cropland areas. Our results will help clarify sensor and LST product requirements for future remote sensing systems.

  13. Quantum dynamics study of energy requirement on reactivity for the HBr + OH reaction with a negative-energy barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Li, Yida; Wang, Dunyou

    2017-01-01

    A time-dependent, quantum reaction dynamics approach in full dimensional, six degrees of freedom was carried out to study the energy requirement on reactivity for the HBr + OH reaction with an early, negative energy barrier. The calculation shows both the HBr and OH vibrational excitations enhance the reactivity. However, even this reaction has a negative energy barrier, the calculation shows not all forms of energy are equally effective in promoting the reactivity. On the basis of equal amount of total energy, the vibrational energies of both the HBr and OH are more effective in enhancing the reactivity than the translational energy, whereas the rotational excitations of both the HBr and OH hinder the reactivity. The rate constants were also calculated for the temperature range between 5 to 500 K. The quantal rate constants have a better slope agreement with the experimental data than quasi-classical trajectory results.

  14. Model of an aquaponic system for minimised water, energy and nitrogen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Lastiri, D; Slinkert, T; Cappon, H J; Baganz, D; Staaks, G; Keesman, K J

    2016-01-01

    Water and nutrient savings can be established by coupling water streams between interacting processes. Wastewater from production processes contains nutrients like nitrogen (N), which can and should be recycled in order to meet future regulatory discharge demands. Optimisation of interacting water systems is a complex task. An effective way of understanding, analysing and optimising such systems is by applying mathematical models. The present modelling work aims at supporting the design of a nearly emission-free aquaculture and hydroponic system (aquaponics), thus contributing to sustainable production and to food security for the 21st century. Based on the model, a system that couples 40 m(3) fish tanks and a hydroponic system of 1,000 m(2) can produce 5 tons of tilapia and 75 tons of tomato yearly. The system requires energy to condense and recover evaporated water, for lighting and heating, adding up to 1.3 GJ/m(2) every year. In the suggested configuration, the fish can provide about 26% of the N required in a plant cycle. A coupling strategy that sends water from the fish to the plants in amounts proportional to the fish feed input, reduces the standard deviation of the NO3(-) level in the fish cycle by 35%.

  15. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B

    2012-08-01

    beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R&D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF

  16. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  17. Demand-driven energy requirement of world economy 2007: A multi-region input-output network simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhan-Ming; Chen, G. Q.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a network simulation of the global embodied energy flows in 2007 based on a multi-region input-output model. The world economy is portrayed as a 6384-node network and the energy interactions between any two nodes are calculated and analyzed. According to the results, about 70% of the world's direct energy input is invested in resource, heavy manufacture, and transportation sectors which provide only 30% of the embodied energy to satisfy final demand. By contrast, non-transportation services sectors contribute to 24% of the world's demand-driven energy requirement with only 6% of the direct energy input. Commodity trade is shown to be an important alternative to fuel trade in redistributing energy, as international commodity flows embody 1.74E + 20 J of energy in magnitude up to 89% of the traded fuels. China is the largest embodied energy exporter with a net export of 3.26E + 19 J, in contrast to the United States as the largest importer with a net import of 2.50E + 19 J. The recent economic fluctuations following the financial crisis accelerate the relative expansions of energy requirement by developing countries, as a consequence China will take over the place of the United States as the world's top demand-driven energy consumer in 2022 and India will become the third largest in 2015.

  18. Why EU renewable energy figures are misleading: Europe requires 150% renewable energy to become fossil-free

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Martien

    2016-01-01

    The EU is confident it will reach its target of 20% renewable energy by 2020. But according to Martien Visser, professor at the Hanze University of Applied Sciences in Groningen (The Netherlands), this 20% is in reality more like 14%. This is because a large part of our energy consumption is simply

  19. Methods for Calculating Energy Requirements for Processes in Which a Reactant Is Also a Fuel: Need for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, H. Y.; Olivas-Martinez, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    When a process involves both endothermic chemical reactions and heat generation from the combustion of fuels, the choice of endothermic reactions to include in computing the "energy requirement" for the overall process is arbitrary and can be a source of confusion. It is shown that the essential question becomes whether the heat of combustion of a reactant, which can be used as a fuel, should be included in the energy requirement value. It is noted that the choice is a matter of convention, but it is important to clearly state what convention is followed in presenting the results of energy calculations. There is a need to select a standard approach because the presented value of "energy requirement" of a process depends on the choice. This problem is illustrated using the example of ironmaking by different processes including a novel flash ironmaking process under development at the University of Utah. The authors advocate using just the "process energy requirement" as the standard value of the energy requirement for a process in which a reactant is also a fuel.

  20. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively......, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis...... with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude...

  1. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  2. 76 FR 41240 - Agave Energy Company; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Agave Energy Company; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and Reporting... Procedure, 18 CFR 385.202 (2011), Agave Energy Company (AEC) requests that the Commission grant a...

  3. Biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, CO2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ortigueira, Joana; Alves, Luís; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia; Silva, Carla

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole Scenedesmus obliquus biomass. The main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. This was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. The scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a potential application to a fuel cell hybrid taxi fleet. The H2 yield obtained was 7.3 g H2/kg of S. obliquus dried biomass. The results show that the production of biohydrogen required 71-100 MJ/MJ(H2) and emitted about 5-6 kg CO2/MJ(H2). Other studies and production technologies were taken into account to discuss an eventual process scale-up. Increased production rates of microalgal biomass and biohydrogen are necessary for bioH2 to become competitive with conventional production pathways.

  4. Energy data visualisation requires additional approaches to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Grant Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualisation diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind or solar based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way in which to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity can all be displayed together. This in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.

  5. Energy requirement for maintenance and gain for two genotypes of quails housed in different breeding rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jordão Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the energy requirements for maintenance and gain of Japanese and European quails under growth housed in two rearing systems: floor pens and cages. To determine maintenance requirements, two experiments were conducted with birds housed in cages in environmental chambers (experiment 1 and in floor pens at room temperature conditions (experiment 2. The experimental design was completely randomized with four levels of feed supply (100, 75, 50 and 25% and four repetitions. Energy requirements for maintenance were estimated by the comparative slaughter method through a feeding trial. In experiment 1, 64 Japanese and European quails per treatment were housed in cages of climatic chambers at 18, 24, and 28 °C, while in experiment 2, 352 quails per treatment were housed in floor pens at room temperature (26 °C. To estimate gain requirements, five slaughters were performed with quails receiving feed ad libitum and housed under controlled temperature of 18 °C (experiment 3. Prediction equations were obtained to estimate requirements for maintenance and gain of energy for the two genotypes of quails. The room temperature and breeding system affected the estimates of energy requirements for maintenance. The genotypes presented different estimates for maintenance and gain. Prediction models should be developed considering the room temperature and quails' genotypes.

  6. Metabolic energy is required in human platelets at any stage during optical aggregation and secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Jan Willem N.; Verhoeven, A.J.M.; Mommersteeg, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic energy and platelet aggregation and secretion was investigated by sudden exhaustion of the cell energy content after these platelet responses had been initiated. In normal platelets, optical aggregation was at any stage susceptible to energy exhaustion, whereas sin

  7. Predictors for achieving protein and energy requirements in undernourished hospital patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, Eva; Willeboordse, Floor; Bokhorst - de van der Schueren, A.E. van Marian; Visser, Marjolein; Weijs, J.M. Peter; Haans - van den Oord, Annelie; Oostenbrink, Jan; Evers , M. Anja; Kruizenga, M. Hinke

    2011-01-01

    Background & aims Providing sufficient protein an energy is considered crucial in the treatment of undernutrition. Still, the majority of undernourished hospital patients have a suboptimal protein and energy intake. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors for achieving protein and energy

  8. The greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy requirement of bioplastics from cradle to gate of a biomass refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian; Chen, Lilian X L

    2008-09-15

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are promising eco-friendly bioplastics that can be produced from cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as value-added coproducts. A cradle-to-factory-gate life cycle assessment is performed with two important categories: the greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions and fossil energy requirement per kg of bioplastics produced. The analysis indicates that PHA bioplastics contribute clearly to the goal of mitigating GHG emissions with only 0.49 kg CO(2-e) being emitted from production of 1 kg of resin. Compared with 2-3 kg CO(2-e) of petrochemical counterparts, it is about 80% reduction of the global warming potential. The fossil energy requirement per kg of bioplastics is 44 MJ, lowerthan those of petrochemical counterparts (78-88 MJ/kg resin). About 62% of fossil energy is used for processing utilities and wastewater treatment, and the rest is required for raw materials in different life cycle stages.

  9. Gamma-ray, neutron, and hard X-ray studies and requirements for a high-energy solar physics facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.; Dennis, B. R.; Emslie, A. G.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements for future high-resolution spatial, spectral, and temporal observation of hard X-rays, gamma rays and neutrons from solar flares are discussed in the context of current high-energy flare observations. There is much promise from these observations for achieving a deep understanding of processes of energy release, particle acceleration and particle transport in a complicated environment such as the turbulent and highly magnetized atmosphere of the active sun.

  10. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  11. Implementation of Legal Requirements for Energy Using Products (EuP in Lithuanian Industry: Problems and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Gurauskienė

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy using products (EuPs are of great concern, because of their proliferation in every-day activity and environmental impact through their life cycle. The greatest share of environmental impact is related to energy use in the usage stage. The new legal requirements implemented in the EU are intended for tackling the environmental impact of EuPs applying the life cycle approach. The aim of this paper is to present the legal requirements for EuPs and eco-design measures the manufacturing companies have to undertake in order to gain competitive advantage while implementing them at the production stage.

  12. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  13. Straw bale houses in a moderate climate: adaptable to meet future energy performance requirements?

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeeck, Griet; Ponet, Jolien

    2012-01-01

    The energy performance regulations for buildings, introduced in many countries during the last decade, will be tightened in the future, even up to zero energy level. Apart from that, ancient building techniques that use renewable materials, such as straw bales, have a revival, inspired by concerns about the environmental impact of building materials. However, straw bale construction related organisations are concerned whether this building technique will survive the upcoming severe energy per...

  14. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; Penergy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; Penergy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems.

  15. Keeping an eye on reliability: the organizational requirements of future renewable energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The reliable operation of energy infrastructures is more than just a technical matter. It is also dependent upon the organizational structure that enables and constrains entities in their management of operations. Yet this lesson seems forgotten in our planning of future renewable energy systems. Th

  16. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national

  17. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively...... with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude...... and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies....

  18. Market analysis, energy savings potential, and future development requirements for Radiance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), Building Equipment Division has funded the development of a sophisticated computer rendering program called Radiance at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The project review study included: (1) Surveys of the lighting profession to determine how designers would use an improved, user-friendly Radiance, (2) Elucidation of features, including how Radiance could be used to save energy, which could be incorporated into Radiance to facilitate its more widespread use, (3) Outline of a development plan and determination of what costs the DOE might incur if it were to proceed with the development of an improved version, and (4) Weighing the anticipated development costs against anticipated energy-saving benefits.

  19. A cautionary approach in transitioning to 'green' energy technologies and practices is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatiele, Puleng; Gulumian, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies (wind turbines, solar cells, biofuels, etc.) are often referred to as 'clean' or 'green' energy sources, while jobs linked to the field of environmental protection and energy efficiency are referred to as 'green' jobs. The energy efficiency of clean technologies, which is likely to reduce and/or eliminate reliance on fossil fuels, is acknowledged. However, the potential contribution of green technologies and associated practices to ill health and environmental pollution resulting from consumption of energy and raw materials, generation of waste, and the negative impacts related to some life cycle phases of these technologies are discussed. Similarly, a point is made that the green jobs theme is mistakenly oversold because the employment opportunities generated by transitioning to green technologies are not necessarily safe and healthy jobs. Emphasis is put on identifying the hazards associated with these green designs, assessing the risks to the environment and worker health and safety, and either eliminating the hazards or minimizing the risks as essential elements to the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green technologies. The perception that it is not always economically possible to consider all risk factors associated with renewable energy technologies at the beginning without hampering their implementation, especially in the poor developing countries, is dismissed. Instead, poor countries are encouraged to start implementing environmentally sound practices while transitioning to green technologies in line with their technological development and overall economic growth.

  20. 40-Hz square-wave stimulation requires less energy to produce muscle contraction: compared with the TASER® X26 conducted energy weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, James A; Jauchem, James R; Cox, D Duane; Crane, Carrie C; D'Andrea, John A

    2013-07-01

    Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) (including the Advanced TASER(®) X26 model produced by TASER International, Inc.) incapacitate individuals by causing muscle contractions. In this study using anesthetized swine, the potential incapacitating effect of primarily monophasic, 19-Hz voltage imposed by the commercial CEW was compared with the effect of voltages imposed by a laboratory device that created 40-Hz square waves. Forces of muscle contraction were measured with the use of strain gauges. Stimulation with 40-Hz square waves required less pulse energy than stimulation with the commercial CEW to produce similar muscle contraction. The square-pulse stimulation, at the higher repetition rate, caused a more complete tetanus at a lower energy. Use of such a simple shape of waveform may be used to make future nonlethal weapon devices more efficient.

  1. Legal Requirements for Human-Health based appeals of Wind Energy Projects in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Michael Engel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario’s Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario’s courts have been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals.

  2. Legal Requirements for Human-Health Based Appeals of Wind Energy Projects in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Albert M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario’s Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario’s courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals. PMID:25520946

  3. Legal requirements for human-health based appeals of wind energy projects in ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario's Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario's courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals.

  4. Energy requirements for CO2 capture from ambient air (DAC) competitive with capture from flue-gas (PCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Capture of CO2, whether from a flue gas source (PCC) or from distributed sources via ambient air (DAC), is a key enabling technology to provide carbon for sustainable synthetic energy carriers such as solar fuels. Based on thermodynamic minimum considerations, DAC is often expected to require about 3 times more energy (per ton CO2 captured) than PCC because CO2 in ambient air is more dilute. Here, we calculate the energy required for a humidity swing-based DAC installation that uses an anionic exchange resin as sorbent. The calculation uses recently measured equilibrium CO2 loadings of the sorbent as function of partial CO2 pressure, temperature, and humidity. We calculate the installation's electricity consumption to be about 45 kJ per mole of pure CO2 at 1 bar (scenario-dependent). Furthermore, we estimate the amount of heat provided by ambient air and thus provide context of the overall energy and entropy balance and thermodynamic minimum views. The electricity consumption is competitive with typical parasitic loads of PCC-equipped coal-fired power plants (40-50 kJ per mole at same pressure) and significantly lower than predicted for other DAC installations such as Na(OH) sorbent-based systems. Our analyses elucidate why DAC is not always more energy-intensive that PCC, thus alleviating often cited concerns of significant cost impediments. Financial support by ABB for research presented herein is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, William H.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  6. Analysis of the thermal energy requirements for the extraction of leaf protein concentrate from some green plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangka, Julius K. [Dschang Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Dschang (Cameroon)

    2003-12-01

    Extraction of protein from the leaves of green plants is very important because of the high cost of conventional forms of protein such as meat, milk and fish. In order to design machinery for this extraction, and also to embark on leaf protein concentrate extraction, it is necessary to measure and analyse the energy requirements to carry out each process involved in the extraction, using different plant species. Experiments were carried out to determine the amount of crude protein, and the thermal energy required to extract leaf protein concentrate, from juices obtained from the leaves of some plant species. Leaves from the following plants were selected: cassava (Manihot esculanta), Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), gliricidia (Gliricidia maculata) and thorny tree (Hura crepetans). The leaves from the plant species were macerated in a laboratory pulper. Juice was obtained from the samples using perforated cylinders and a hydraulic press. The specific heat capacity of the juices was determined using the cooling curve method. The values of the heat capacities were used to calculate the amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of each juice from its normal temperature of about 25 deg C to a total protein coagulation temperature of about 80 deg C. The crude protein content of the extract was determined using the Kjeldal method. Results indicate that the green coagulum extracted from all the juices all have a protein content of at least 37%. The thermal energy required to coagulate protein from the juices ranges from 1.59 kJ kg{sup -1} for Hura crepetans to 2.7 kJ kg{sup -1} for Vernonia amygdalina. The energy requirement to obtain crude protein (CP) ranges from 8 kJ kg{sup -1} [CP] with Bura crepetans to 182 kJ kg{sup -1} [CP] with Vernonia amygdalina. Both results are statistically significant at the 0.01 confidence interval. It is concluded that the choice of plant species can significantly lower the thermal energy

  7. Principles for Nearly Zero-energy Buildings. Paving the way for effective implementation of policy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S.; Groezinger, J.; Offermann, M. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany); Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J.; Aggerholm, S.O. [Danish Building Research Institute SBi, Aalborg University, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    The overarching objective of this study is to contribute to a common and cross-national understanding on: an ambitious, clear definition and fast uptake of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB) in all EU Member States; principles of sustainable, realistic nearly Zero-Energy Buildings, both new and existing; possible technical solutions and their implications for national building markets, buildings and market players. The study builds on existing concepts and building standards, analyses the main methodological challenges and their implications for the nZEB definition, and compiles a possible set of principles and assesses their impact on reference buildings. Subsequently the technological, financial and policy implications of these results are evaluated. Finally, the study concludes by providing an outlook on necessary further steps towards a successful implementation of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings.

  8. Determining required valve performance for discrete control of PTO cylinders for wave energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2012-01-01

    Within wave energy a large challenge remains in designing a Power Take-Off (PTO) system capable of converting the slow oscillations induced by waves into electricity. Fluid power is an essential part of most PTO-concepts. To implement an efficient control of the load force produced by a cylinder...... on a floating body, throttle-less force control by discrete variation of the effective cylinder area has been investigated and found feasible for the Wavestar wave energy concept. However, the feasibility study assumes adequate valve performance, such that only the compression loss remains. This paper...

  9. Energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles subject to stability and drivability requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ólafsdóttir, J.M.; Lidberg, M.; Falcone, P.; Iersel, S. van; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a combined control and estimation framework for energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles. We consider a fully electric powertrain, with a driven front axle operating on low friction road surfaces. Our objective is to find the blending of regenerative and friction braking th

  10. On Early Conflict Identification by Requirements Modeling of Energy System Control Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Control systems are purposeful systems involving goal-oriented information processing (cyber) and technical (physical) structures. Requirements modeling formalizes fundamental concepts and relations of a system architecture at a high-level design stage and can be used to identify potential design...... at later design stages. However, languages employed for requirements modeling today do not offer the expressiveness necessary to represent control purposes in relation to domain level interactions and therefore miss several types of interdependencies. This paper introduces the idea of control structure...

  11. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy...

  12. Model to Evaluate the Aerodynamic Energy Requirements of Active Materials in Morphing Wings

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Gregory William

    2001-01-01

    A computational model is presented which predicts the force, stroke, and energy needed to overcome aerodynamic loads encountered by morphing wings during aircraft maneuvers. This low-cost model generates wing section shapes needed to follow a desired flight path, computes the resulting aerodynamic forces using a unique combination of conformal mapping and the vortex panel method, computes the longitudinal motion of the simulated aircraft, and closes the loop with a zero-error control law. T...

  13. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  14. Space Station Control Requirements and Flywheel System Weights for Combined Momentum and Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    The specifications of the flywheel system for momentum storage and vehicle torquing are somewhat dependent upon the attitude control requirements of the space station in orbit. As a ground rule, the flywheel system will be sized large enough to provide all attitude maneuvers, if practical, to avoid or minimize turning on the reaction control system (RCS). The RCS, whenever used, expels expensive mass and tends to contaminate optical surfaces of the vehicle. The vehicle rate and acceleration specifications of 0.10 deg/sec and 0.01 deg/square sec are tentative, and may be reduced if lesser values are more practical for flywheel design. For local vertical attitude hold, the average attitude error should be zero, and not the classical 1 degree, since control moment gyro (CMG) gimbal angles provide an exact reference feedback for gravity gradient momentum. Docking presents a problem for docking transients and attitude alignment which will require use of the RCS.

  15. Effect of protein-energy malnutrition on erythropoietin requirement in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Arzu; Bilgic, Ayse; Sezer, Siren; Ozdemir, Fatma Nurhan; Olcay, Irem; Arat, Zubeyde; Haberal, Mehmet

    2007-04-01

    Possible interactions between inflammatory and nutritional markers and their impact on recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) hyporesponsiveness are not well understood. We investigated the role of nutritional status in rHuEPO requirement in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients without evidence of inflammation. This cross-sectional study included 88 MHD patients. The associations between required rHuEPO dose and malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) and several laboratory values known to be related to nutrition and/or inflammation were analyzed. Anthropometric measures including body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and midarm circumferences were also measured. Twenty-three patients with serum C-reactive protein levels >10 mg/L were excluded from the analysis. The remaining 65 patients (male/female, 41/24; age 49.1+/-11.4 years; dialysis duration 99.7+/-63.0 months) were studied. These patients had moderate malnutrition and the average MIS was 7.4 (range 3-17). The average weekly dose of administered rHuEPO was 69.1+/-63.1 U/kg. Malnutrition-inflammation score had a positive correlation with the serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas it had a negative correlation with anthropometric measures, total iron-binding capacity, prealbumin, phosphorus, creatinine, and triglyceride. According to Pearson's correlation analysis, significant relationships of increased MIS with increased required rHuEPO dose and rHuEPO responsiveness index (EPO divided by hematocrit) were observed (p=0.008, r=-0.326; p=0.017, r=-0.306, respectively). Recombinant human erythropoietin dose requirement is correlated with MIS and adverse nutritional status in MHD patients without evidence of inflammation. Further research should focus on reversing the undergoing microinflammation for a better outcome in dialysis patients.

  16. Computing requirements for high energy physics experiments at the LHC collider

    CERN Document Server

    Witek, Mariusz

    2002-01-01

    In this article the requirements for the future experiments of elementary particle physics are discussed. The nature of physics phenomena expected at the LHC collider at CERN leads to an unprecedented scale of the computing infrastructure for the data storage and analysis. The possible solution is based on the distributed computing model, and is presented within the context of the global unification of the computer resources as proposed by the GRID projects. (7 refs).

  17. Energy requirements of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes during non-pregnancy and lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Can; DIAO Qi-yu; SI Bing-wen; DENG Kai-dong; MA Tao; JIANG Cheng-gang; TU Yan; ZHANG Nai-feng; JI Shou-kun; CHEN Dan-dan

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the energy requirement of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes during non-pregnancy and lactation. Fifteen ewes after parturition were randomly assigned to three treatments:ad libitum(100%) feed intake and 80 or 60%ad libitum intake, and another nine non-pregnant ewes were assigned to a blank control group. Digestibility trials were performed in the non-pregnant ewes and in the lactating ewes on the 20th, 50th, and 80th d of lactation. In paralel with the digestibility trial, a respirometry experiment was conducted to determine the methane and carbon dioxide production with an open-circuit respirometry system that was equipped with respiratory chambers. The net energy (NE) and metabolizable energy (ME) requirements for maintenance and growth were calculated using the carbon and nitrogen balance method. The results revealed that the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) excretions and energy losses at faeces and urine, as wel as the output of methane and CO2, increased signiifcantly with decreasing feed intake (P<0.01). The apparent digestibilities of C in the stages of non-pregnancy and early, middle and late lactation were 55.8–58.3%, 62.5–73.8%, 64.8–71.3%, and 61.7–65.0%, respectively, and the apparent digestibilities of N were 45.2–51.3%, 73.7–82.7%, 72.8–80.5%, and 73.6–76.5%, respectively. The corresponding energy apparent digestibilities were 52.0–56.3%, 60.7–76.6%, 61.0–68.8%, and 61.4–67.7%, respectively. The ME/DE (digestible energy) values were 79.5–85.9%, 79.4–83.5%, 81.0%–85.3% and 78.6–82.9%, respectively. The maintenance requirements of NE, ME, and the efifciencies of ME utilisation for maintenance during the stages of non-pregnancy and early, middle and late lactation were 215.5, 253.1, 247.7, and 244.7 kJ kg–1 BW0.75 d, and 372.4, 327.1, 320.9, and 362.0 kJ kg–1 BW0.75 d, and 0.58, 0.77, 0.77, and 0.68, respectively. The ME requirement for the growth of non-pregnant ewes was

  18. What is required to make hydrogen a real energy carrier option?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, S.; Schindler, G.; Schwab, E.; Weck, A. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The driver for the introduction of hydrogen as mobile energy-carrier is regulatory measures to avoid the CO{sub 2} emissions which are related to the current fossil carbon based situation. H{sub 2} is a large volume chemical product with an annual production of about 45 million tons, most of which currently is also derived from fossil sources. The German transport sector consumes 2,6.10{sup 12} MJ/a which in terms of energy is equivalent to nearly 50% of the current world hydrogen production. There is the proposal to start the ''hydrogen economy'' with ''excess H{sub 2}'' which is believed to be available as inadvertently occurring byproduct of chemical processes. A potential {proportional_to}2 million tons is estimated for this ''excess H{sub 2}'' in Europe; the proposal however does not take into account, that current uses of this H{sub 2} would have to be substituted. Therefore, an overall gain for the environment cannot be expected. Therefore, a sustainable hydrogen based energy scenario has to rely on new sources. Besides Biomass gasification which in terms of technology would resemble the conventional fossil based hydrogen production, the only other viable carbon-free hydrogen source is water, which has to be split into its constituting elements. The current paper is restricted to the latter path, the feasibility of the biomass approach needs to be discussed elsewhere. If hypothetically the above mentioned energy for the German transport sector would be provided by H{sub 2} from water electrolysis an electricity input of 4.10{sup 12} MJ would be needed. This number exceeds the currently installed German wind turbine capacity by a factor of 6 and even by a factor of 36, if the weather-based {proportional_to}16% year-round on-stream factor for onshore plants is taken into account. (orig.)

  19. Requirements and impacts of the Federal Facility Compliance Act on the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L.; Tripp, S.C. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1993-03-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA, the Act) was signed into law on October 6, 1992, primarily as a means of waiving sovereign immunity for federal facilities with respect to requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE`s implementation of the FFCA will have significant effects on current and future DOE waste management operations. DOE will need to rethink its strategy in the area of future compliance agreements to ensure commitments and deliverables are made consistent throughout the different DOE facilities. Several types of agreements that address mixed waste land disposal restriction (LDR) compliance have already been signed by both DOE and the regulators. These agreements are in place at the Hanford Reservation, the Savannah River Site, the Oak Ridge Reservation (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, K-25, Y-12), and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The Rocky Flats Agreement is now being renegotiated. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia/Albuquerque National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory agreements are in progress. Major components of the FFCA include provisions on: sovereign immunity waiver; cost reimbursements; mixed waste requirements, including inventory reports on mixed waste and treatment capacity and technologies; and plans for the development of treatment capacities and technologies. Each of these components is discussed within this paper.

  20. Number of trials required to estimate a free-energy difference, using fluctuation relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The difference Δ F between free energies has applications in biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. The value of Δ F can be estimated from experiments or simulations, via fluctuation theorems developed in statistical mechanics. Calculating the error in a Δ F estimate is difficult. Worse, atypical trials dominate estimates. How many trials one should perform was estimated roughly by Jarzynski [Phys. Rev. E 73, 046105 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.046105]. We enhance the approximation with the following information-theoretic strategies. We quantify "dominance" with a tolerance parameter chosen by the experimenter or simulator. We bound the number of trials one should expect to perform, using the order-∞ Rényi entropy. The bound can be estimated if one implements the "good practice" of bidirectionality, known to improve estimates of Δ F . Estimating Δ F from this number of trials leads to an error that we bound approximately. Numerical experiments on a weakly interacting dilute classical gas support our analytical calculations.

  1. The effect of using low-polluting building materials on ventilation requirements and energy use in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Frontczak, M. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of the ongoing research project described in this paper was to study the potential for reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials, without compromising the indoor air quality. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality, were established for rooms furnished with different categories of polluting materials and the simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out. The exposure-response relationships were based on a summary of data reported in the literature on exposure-response relationships for materials tested in laboratory settings in small-scale glass chambers, and in full-scale in climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. New experiments were also considered in which the effect of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality was examined in test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates, low-polluting materials being selected in small glass chambers. The results suggest that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and that the perceived air quality can be improved considerably when polluting building materials are substituted with materials that pollute less. The preliminary energy simulations indicate that selecting low-polluting materials will result in considerable energy savings as a result of reducing the ventilation rates required to achieve acceptable indoor air quality. (au)

  2. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  3. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME. Overall, our review and analyses suggested that there is a strong linear relationship between DE and ME, which seems to be consistent across a wide range of dietary conditions, cattle types, and levels of intake. Applying this linear relationship to predict ME concentrations agreed with the original CNES calculations for NE requirements, thereby allowing the development of new equations for predicting dietary NEm and NEg values from ME.

  4. Optimizing the building envelopes with green roofs : a discussion of architectural and energy performance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerman, J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering]|[Rafael Vinoly Architects, New York, NY (United States); Hodge, D. [Rafael Vinoly Architects, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided recommendations for optimized green roof technologies inspired by an architect firm's involvement in designing a 255,000 square foot green roof on top of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Janelia Farm Research Campus in Virginia. During the course of the green roof construction and installation, the architects found that green roofs needed design flexibility to meet their conceptual design requirements. It was suggested that the use of a modular system might allow for easier inspection access as well as the ability for the planting material to be reconfigured. It was noted that green roof systems can sometimes conflict with water management strategies of the building envelope. Green roof component lists do not make reference to the layers of construction within the building envelope, as it is often assumed that they are irrelevant to green roof design. Modular products offer Architects flexibility in design and maintenance, and products can be incorporated into more sophisticated water management details, offering simplicity of design, ease of installation, and ease of roof membrane inspection. A thermal analysis of modular and monolithic roof assemblies was conducted which showed that the assemblies contributed very little to the overall thermal insulation envelope when the positive thermal benefits of the green roof failed. It was recommended that green roof installations should be designed to sit directly on top of the roof membranes to replace the building's insulation envelope. Foamglas was proposed as a material for building insulation and to prevent root penetration. An evaluation of the R-values of various green roof systems at failure was also provided to give guidance to Architects incorporating green roofs in building envelopes. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) platform configuration and integration. Final report. Volume I. Systems requirements and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Studies leading to the development of two 400 MW Offshore Thermal Energy Conversion Commercial Plants are presented. This volume includes a summary of three tasks: task IIA--systems evaluation and requirements; task IIB--evaluation plan; task III--technology review; and task IV--systems integration evaluation. Task IIA includes the definition of top level requirements and an assessment of factors critical to the selection of hull configuration and size, quantification of payload requirements and characteristics, and sensitivity of system characteristics to site selection. Task IIB includes development of a methodology for systematically evaluating the candidate hullforms, based on interrelationships and priorities developed during task IIA. Task III includes the assessment of current technology and identification of deficiencies in relation to OTEC requirements and the development of plans to correct such deficiencies. Task IV involves the formal evaluation of the six candidate hullforms in relation to sit and plant capacity to quantify cost/size/capability relationships, leading to selection of an optimum commercial plant. (WHK)

  6. High Level Requirements for the Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Johnson; Hyung Lee; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), has been tasked with the important mission of ensuring that nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy source in the U.S. The motivations behind this mission include cost-effectively meeting the expected increases in the power needs of the country, reducing carbon emissions and reducing dependence on foreign energy sources. In the near term, to ensure that nuclear power remains a key element of U.S. energy strategy and portfolio, the DOE-NE will be working with the nuclear industry to support safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants. In the long term, to meet the increasing energy needs of the U.S., the DOE-NE will be investing in research and development (R&D) and working in concert with the nuclear industry to build and deploy new, safer and more efficient nuclear power plants. The safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants and designing, licensing and deploying new reactor designs, however, will require focused R&D programs as well as the extensive use and leveraging of advanced modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S will play a key role in ensuring safe and efficient operations of existing and new nuclear reactors. The DOE-NE has been actively developing and promoting the use of advanced M&S in reactor design and analysis through its R&D programs, e.g., the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) and Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) programs. Also, nuclear reactor vendors are already using CFD and CSM, for design, analysis, and licensing. However, these M&S tools cannot be used with confidence for nuclear reactor applications unless accompanied and supported by verification and validation (V&V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes and procedures which provide quantitative measures of uncertainty for specific applications. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation

  7. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2011-02-15

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 C to 80 C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively. (author)

  8. Metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance and body composition of growing farm-raised male pastel mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R B; Travis, H F; Glinsky, M S

    1978-12-01

    The requirement of metabolizable energy (ME) for maintenance was studied in 31 male pastel farm-raised mink. The procedure used was a body balance regression technique that included an initial baseline group, a group allowed feed ad libitum, and a group allowed feed at the level of 65% of average intake of the ad libitum animals. The requirement for ME was 147.8 +/- 6.06 kcal/wtkg 0.734/day. This value falls within the range of estimates of maintenance requirements noted for younger animals of other species, such as the rat, chicken, and calf. The relationships of the chemical composition of the body to functions of body weight were also examined. The composition of the mink body was closely related to the weight of the animal rather than to age or conformation, as has been noted in other species. However, the fat-free dry body of the mink contained more protein and less ash than any other species studied up to this point. On a percentage basis, protein was 87.29 and ash was 12.72. Protein in the fat-free body of other species range from 80 to 82%.

  9. National Energy Policy Plan; A Report to the Congress Required by Title VIII of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    Since the third National Energy Plan in 1981 total energy efficiency has increased, domestic energy resources are being developed more effectively, oil prices have declined, US dependence on foreign energy sources has diminished, and the nation's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions has been reduced markedly. The policy goal is an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs. Strategies include minimizing federal control and involvement in energy markets while maintaining public health and safety and environmental quality and promoting a balanced and mixed energy resource system. Federal programs and actions in energy are reviewed.

  10. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  11. An integrated PMP model to assess the development of agro-energy crops and the effect on water requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Donati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated model for the economic and environmental assessment of the use of natural resources when new activities (i.e. biomass crops for energy production are introduced into the farm production plan. The methodology is based on the integration of positive mathematical programming (PMP with the AquaCrop model developed by FAO. PMP represents farmer decision processes and evaluates how farms react to the biomass-sorghum activity option at different price levels. AquaCrop evaluates the relationship between water needs and biomass production and assesses the effect of the land allocation on water requirements at regional level. The integration of these two models assists global policy evaluation at regional level as it makes it possible to identify the economic threshold for biomass crops, the change in land allocation and total water requirement. The model can help policy makers to evaluate the impacts of variations in crop profitability and market innovations on farm profitability, land use and water consumption and the sustainability of the market scenario.

  12. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  13. Exigências de energia de bovinos de corte em pastejo Energy requirements of beef cattle at pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as exigências e as eficiências de utilização de energia para ganho de peso e mantença de bovinos de corte em pastejo. A área experimental foi composta de cinco piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens. Utilizaram-se 27 bovinos anelorados não-castrados, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 311,0 kg e idade média de 14 meses. Três animais foram abatidos após o período de adaptação para servirem como referência para as estimativas do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ e da composição corporal iniciais dos animais mantidos no experimento. Dos 24 restantes, quatro foram designados ao grupo mantença com tempo de pastejo restrito para limitar o consumo de energia a nível próximo da mantença. Os animais restantes (20 foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos: mistura mineral, autocontrole, suplemento três vezes/semana (segunda, quarta e sexta; e suplemento diariamente. A exigência líquida de energia para mantença foi estimada como o anti-log do intercepto da equação obtida pela regressão linear entre o logaritmo da produção de calor (PC e o consumo de energia metabolizável (CEM, assim como pelo coeficiente "a" da equação de regressão exponencial entre a produção de calor e o consumo de energia metabolizável dos animais sob suplementação, juntamente com o daqueles sem suplementação e os do grupo mantença. As quantidades de energia e gordura no ganho aumentaram com o peso vivo dos animais. As exigências de energia líquida para ganho de peso de bovinos anelorados não-castrados em pastejo podem ser obtidas pela equação: ER = 0,0617*PCVZ0,75*GDPCVZ1,0564. O requisito energético diário para mantença foi de 64,00 kcal/PV0,75. A eficiência de uso da EM para mantença estimada foi de 0,64 e a eficiência de uso da EM para ganho de 0,26.A trial involving 27 zebu bulls at pasture with initial live weight (LW of 311.0 kg were conducted with the objective of determining their energy requirements. Three animals

  14. Nutritional requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals for maintenance and weight gain of young crossbred Nellore × Holstein bulls on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals of young Nellore/Holstein crossbreds bulls supplemented on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Thirty-five young bulls, at 8.53±0.18 months of age and with initial body weight of 230.6±6.1 kg were used. Ten animals were slaughtered as reference, in different weight range, and the other animals were slaughtered at the end of the experimental period. For estimate of net energy requirements for weight, a regression equation between log of retained energy (RE and log of empty body weight gain (EBWG was constructed. Net requirements of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K were determined by the equation Y' = a.b.Xb-1, in which a and b represent the intercept and the coefficient of equation of prediction of macrominerals in body content, respectively. Requirements of metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm were obtained from retained energy in function of metabolizable energy intake (MEI. The requirements of MEm of Nellore/Holstein crossbreds young bulls on pasture was 125 kcal/EBW0.75/day. The efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (k of grazing Nellore/Holstein crossbred young mbulls was 0.58 and 0.24 for gain. The total metabolizable protein requirements for an animal with 400 kg and with average daily gain of 1.0 kg, were 638.36 g/day. The dietetic requirements of Ca and P for an animal with 400 kg BW were 0.49 and 0.21% of DM, respectively. Daily metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance of grazing Nellore/Holstein crossbred young bulls was 11.6% greater than the values found for cattle in feedlot in Brazil (112 kcal/kg EBW0.75.

  15. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  16. Dynamic Modeling of Aerobic Growth of Shewanella oneidensis. Predicting Triauxic Growth, Flux Distributions and Energy Requirement for Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2013-01-01

    A model-based analysis is conducted to investigate metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 strain in aerobic batch culture, which exhibits an intriguing growth pattern by sequentially consuming substrate (i.e., lactate) and by-products (i.e., pyruvate and acetate). A general protocol is presented for developing a detailed network-based dynamic model for S. oneidensis based on the Lumped Hybrid Cybernetic Model (LHCM) framework. The L-HCM, although developed from only limited data, is shown to accurately reproduce exacting dynamic metabolic shifts, and provide reasonable estimates of energy requirement for growth. Flux distributions in S. oneidensis predicted by the L-HCM compare very favorably with 13C-metabolic flux analysis results reported in the literature. Predictive accuracy is enhanced by incorporating measurements of only a few intracellular fluxes, in addition to extracellular metabolites. The L-HCM developed here for S. oneidensis is consequently a promising tool for the analysis of intracellular flux distribution and metabolic engineering.

  17. Knockout of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons decreases fat mass via increasing energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuzhong; Xia, Tingting; Yu, Junjie; Deng, Yalan; Liu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous functions of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) have been identified, a role of IRE1α in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is largely unknown. Here, we showed that mice lacking IRE1α specifically in POMC neurons (PIKO) are lean and resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance, liver steatosis and leptin resistance. Furthermore, PIKO mice had higher energy expenditure, probably due to increased thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Additionally, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone production was increased in the hypothalamus of PIKO mice. These results demonstrate that IRE1α in POMC neurons plays a critical role in the regulation of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Our results also suggest that IRE1α is not only an endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, but also a new potential therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. PMID:27558934

  18. Adjustment of Energy requirements in TEK; TEK= Technical Regulations under the Norwegian Planning and Building Act; Justering av energikrav i TEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyholt, Marit; Dokka, Tor Helge; Schild, Peter; Grini, Catherine; Mysen, Mads; Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-01

    The National Office of Building Technology and Administration (BE) desired to review the consequences of different levels of ambition for requirements for heat gaining from vent air, as well as a possible requirement for energy efficient design of building fronts. In addition the energy scope in the regulation (TEK2007) should be adjusted according to the final establishment of a new calculation standard (Norwegian Standard - NS 3031:2007). A statement on these subjects has been carried out at SINTEF Byggforsk, and is described in this report. Adjustments of framework regulations.There are only minor differences between adjusted calculations according to NS 3031 and the original energy framework calculations, i.e. the difference for net energy need amounts to the size of 0 to 6 percent. Heat gain.The report shows that it is possible - both from techical and financial considerations - to increase the requirement level for heat gain from vent air for most categories of buildings. This implies a sharpening of the annual median temperature efficiency from 70 % to 80 %, for all building categories, except from hospitals, institutions and light industry/workshops. A possible sharpening of regulations for heat gain in houses has not been evaluated. Depending on building category a sharpening of regulations for heat gain from vent air will imply that net energy need will be reduced on a scale of 20 to 30 kWh/m2 per annum. The report demonstrates that despite a possible sharpening of the requirements on energy efficiency for heat recovery devices does not prevent the use of large areas of windows and window panes. Vulnerability analyses show that deviations from the prerequisites in the basis for the energy framework concerning air quantities and air temperatures give the possibility of weakening the building's heating characteristics. Building fronts. Different methods for added requirements for building fronts have been examined. The aim has been to find methods and

  19. Metabolizable energy requirement for starting barrow pigs (15 to 30 kg fed on the ideal protein concept based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the metabolizable energy (ME requirement for starting barrow pigs. Forty-three animals, selected for their high lean gain, were allotted in a completely randomized block design, divided in four treatments with five blocks and two animals in each experimental unit. The diet in Treatment 1 consisted of 3,264 kcal of ME/kg containing 0.96% of digestible lysine, 0.55% of digestible methionine+cystine, 0.60% of digestible threonine, and 0.188% of digestible tryptophan reaching the ideal protein pattern. The diets in Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were similar to the diet in Treatment 1; nevertheless, the levels of ME in Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were 2, 4, and 6% higher than those in Treatment 1. The lysine:ME ratio, was mantained the same (2.82 g in all treatments. The daily feed intake (DFI and the feed:gain ratio (F:G were not affected by the levels of ME. There was a linear increase of daily weight gain (DWG and of daily energy intake (DEI. Later, a linear reduction in carcass protein percentage (CPP and a linear increase of fat content and daily fat accretion (DFA occurred. Results suggested that the required ME was of 3,264 kcal/kg or less for improved barrows (15 to 30 kg, of the dam line, fed with diets containing 0.96% of digestible lysine, formulated according to the ideal protein concept.A exigência de energia metabolizável (EM para suínos machos castrados foi determinada no presente experimento. Foram utilizados 43 suínos geneticamente melhorados, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, cinco blocos e dois animais por unidade experimental. Tratamento 1 constituiu-se de uma dieta contendo 3.264 kcal de EM/kg contendo 0,96% de lisina digestível, 0,55% de metionina + cistina digestíveis, 0,60% de treonina digestível e 0,188% de triptofano digestível, atendendo ao conceito de proteína ideal. Tratamentos 2, 3 e 4 foram semelhantes à do

  20. National Energy Policy Plan; A Report to Congress Required by Title VIII of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This plan report is divided into the following chapters: the course ahead, currently predominant fuels (oil, gas), America's energy triad, sources of diversity and long-term supply, sources of uncertainty, summary of current projections, and public comments on the nation's policy toward energy. (DLC)

  1. Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...meet an emerging national crisis (war), emergency (natural disaster), or major impact event (Y2K). Certain resources are generally critical to the

  2. Optimal Management of DoD Lands for Military Training, Ecosystem Services, and Renewable Energy Generation: Framework and Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    training activity may have an impact on the natural resource base (e.g., degradation in soil , water, and vegetation conditions), ecosys- tem...availability of solar exposure for photovoltaic production. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or...Resources1 Geothermal Energy Resources1 Photovoltaic Solar Energy Resources2 Wind Energy Resources2 ERDC/CERL TR-13-2 7 Each type of

  3. District energy: an important factor in the socially and environmentally responsible solution for the electric power industry; (requiring greater accelerated capital cost allowance treatment for income tax purposes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, P. [HSBC James Capel Canada Inc. (Canada); Stevens, S. [Business Development Consumers Utilities (Canada)

    1996-09-01

    The considerable amount of risk associated with the investment in district energy systems was discussed. It was explained that district energy projects frequently require additional capital allowances, particularly in the initial years of a typical project, in order to attract private capital investments to the industry. Advantages of district energy systems were reviewed, among them reduction in CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, enhancing energy conservation through the use of high efficiency boilers or thermal waste energy, increasing tax revenue at various levels of government, providing much-needed capital injection into communities, providing construction and operation jobs, and allowing electric utilities to offer cogeneration from older plants helping to avoid stranded investments. 1 tab.

  4. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  5. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  6. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  7. The effect of type of carbohydrate (starch vs. nonstarch polysaccharides) on nutrients digestibility, energy retention and maintenance requirements in Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, Mahmoud N.; Petie, Mischa; Heinsbroek, Leon T.N.; Verreth, Johan A.J.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2016-01-01

    For Nile tilapia, the energetic value of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was compared to starch. It was assessed if carbohydrate type (NSP vs. starch) affected the energetic utilization for growth (KgDE) and the energy requirements for maintenance (DEm). Eighteen groups of fish were assigned in 2 ×

  8. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  9. Energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs of different sex classes in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Martins, Samara Rodrigues; da Silva, Ivonete Ferreira; Queiroz, Mário Adriano Ávila; Silva, Tiago Santos; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs (NDB) reared under Brazilian semiarid conditions. Sixty animals from three sex classes (20 intact males, 20 castrated males, and 20 females) with an average initial body weight of 18.1 ± 0.4 kg and an average age of 5 months were used. The nutritional requirements were estimated using the comparative slaughter. The animals in the final slaughter group were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (three sex classes and three feeding levels: ad libitum feeding (positive energy balance), 70% feed restriction (maintenance level), and 80% feed restriction (negative energy balance)). The net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) did not differ between sex classes (P > 0.05) and it was 68 kcal/kg of metabolic empty body weight (EBW(0.75))/day (P  0.05). The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg) was estimated by NEg (Mcal/day) = 0.29 × EBW(0.75) × EBWG(0.86) for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The net protein requirement for weight gain (NPg) was estimated by NPg (g/day) = 224.45 × EBWG - 0.025 × RE for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The NEg increased and the NPg decreased with the increase in body weight of NDB lambs.

  10. Effect of thermal energy storage in energy consumption required for air conditioning system in office building under the African Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgalil Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the African Mediterranean countries, cooling demand constitutes a large proportion of total electrical demand for office buildings during peak hours. The thermal energy storage systems can be an alternative method to be utilized to reduce and time shift the electrical load of air conditioning from on-peak to off-peak hours. In this study, the Hourly Analysis Program has been used to estimate the cooling load profile for an office building based in Tripoli weather data conditions. Preliminary study was performed in order to define the most suitable operating strategies of ice thermal storage, including partial (load leveling and demand limiting, full storage and conventional A/C system. Then, the mathematical model of heat transfer for external ice storage would be based on the operating strategy which achieves the lowest energy consumption. Results indicate that the largest rate of energy consumption occurs when the conventional system is applied to the building, while the lowest rate of energy consumption is obtained when the partial storage (demand limiting 60% is applied. Analysis of results shows that the new layer of ice formed on the surface of the existing ice lead to an increase of thermal resistance of heat transfer, which in return decreased cooling capacity.

  11. Role of Modeling When Designing for Absolute Energy Use Intensity Requirements in a Design-Build Framework: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Guglielmetti, R.; Torcellini, P. A.; Okada, D.; Antia, P.

    2011-03-01

    The Research Support Facility was designed to use half the energy of an equivalent minimally code-compliant building, and to produce as much renewable energy as it consumes on an annual basis. These energy goals and their substantiation through simulation were explicitly included in the project's fixed firm price design-build contract. The energy model had to be continuously updated during the design process and to match the final building as-built to the greatest degree possible. Computer modeling played a key role throughout the design process and in verifying that the contractual energy goals would be met within the specified budget. The main tool was a whole building energy simulation program. Other models were used to provide more detail or to complement the whole building simulation tool. Results from these specialized models were fed back into the main whole building simulation tool to provide the most accurate possible inputs for annual simulations. This paper will detail the models used in the design process and how they informed important program and design decisions on the path from preliminary design to the completed building.

  12. CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement analysis of power plant using modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.J.; Zhao, C.S.; Chen, H.C.; Ren, Q.Q.; Duan, L.B. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2011-03-15

    This paper examines the average carbonation conversion, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture system during the modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle. The limestone modified with acetic acid solution, i.e. calcium acetate is taken as an example of the modified calcium-based sorbents. The modified limestone exhibits much higher average carbonation conversion than the natural sorbent under the same condition. The CO{sub 2} capture efficiency increases with the sorbent flow ratios. Compared with the natural limestone, much less makeup mass flow of the recycled and the fresh sorbent is needed for the system when using the modified limestone at the same CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. Achieving 0.95 of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency without sulfation, 272 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} is required in the calciner for the natural limestone, whereas only 223 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} for the modified sorbent. The modified limestone possesses greater advantages in CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy consumption than the natural sorbent. When the sulfation and carbonation of the sorbents take place simultaneously, more energy is required. It is significantly necessary to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas before it enters the carbonator in order to reduce energy consumption in the calciner.

  13. Apparent Minimum Free Energy Requirements for Methanogenic Archaea and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in an Anoxic Marine Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christopher S.; DeVincenzi, Don (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the most fundamental constraints governing the distribution of microorganisms in the environment is the availability of chemical energy at biologically useful levels. To assess the minimum free energy yield that can support microbial metabolism in situ, we examined the thermodynamics of H2-consuming processes in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA. Depth distributions of H2 partial pressure, along with a suite of relevant concentration data, were determined in sediment cores collected in November (at 14.5 C) and August (at 27 C) and used to calculate free energy yields for methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. At both times of year, and for both processes, free energy yields gradually decreased (became less negative) with depth before reaching an apparent asymptote. Sulfate reducing bacteria exhibited an asymptote of -19.1 +/- 1.7 kj(mol SO4(2-)(sup -1) while methanogenic archaea were apparently supported by energy yields as small as -10.6 +/- 0.7 kj(mol CH4)(sup -1).

  14. Case series demonstrating the clinical utility of dual energy computed tomography in patients requiring stents for urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepperson, Maria A; Thiel, David D; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Broderick, Gregory A; Haley, William E

    2014-02-01

    Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) utilizes the material change in attenuation when imaged at two different energies to determine the composition of urinary calculi as uric acid or non-uric acid. We discuss a series of case reports illustrating DECT's ability to provide immediate determination of uric acid versus non-uric acid calculi and facilitate more informed clinical decision-making. Further, these cases demonstrate a unique population of patients with ureteral stents and percutaneous nephrostomy tubes that benefit from DECT's ability to create a virtual color contrast between an indwelling device and the stone material and thereby significantly impacting patient morbidity.

  15. Insulation of pipelines and fittings. The requirements of the Energy Saving Ordinance; Daemmung von Rohrleitungen und Armaturen. Die Anforderungen der Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, Wolfgang [Kaimann GmbH (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    This article describes the requirements of the Energy Saving Ordinance (ENEV) regarding the insulation of pipelines and fittings. Unlike the Heating Systems Ordinance the ENEV now specifies time horizons by when uninsulated pipelines for heat distribution and warm water in cold rooms must be fitted with insulation in existing buildings. At the same time it defines minimum insulation thicknesses for various types of warm water lines. In practice this can lead to problems with increased space requirements which planners must take into account in their work.

  16. Sex-specific energy requirements in nestlings of an extremely sexually size dimorphic bird, the European sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, O; Dekker, AL; Visser, GH; Dijkstra, C

    2005-01-01

    Allocation of parental investment is predicted to be equal at the population level between both sexes of offspring, and should lead to sex ratio biases in species that exhibit a sex-difference in parental care. Sex-differences in parental care are rarely quantified. We measured daily energy expendit

  17. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Filatov, Yu; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzić, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, H; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B; Zhang, Y

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a brief summary of the science opportunities and program of a polarized medium energy electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab and a comprehensive description of the conceptual design of such a collider based on the CEBAF electron accelerator facility.

  18. Heating energy required for the electric heating of a resting pen for sucking pigs. Notwendiger Heizenergieeinsatz bei Anwendung der elektrisch beheizten Ferkelliegeflaeche zur Aufzucht von Saugferkeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresk, B.; Rehmann, U. (Institut fuer Angewandte Tierhygiene, Eberswalde-Finow (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    The authors present the results of measurements performed on the surface and plate inner temperatures, and on heat dissipation and input in an electrically heated piglet resting pen. Based on a working hypothesis and on a combination of the measurement results and literature findings, the authors derive an equation to calculate the required energy input in dependence from piglet age and stable-air temperature. (orig.).

  19. Wind energy in the United States and materials required for the land-based wind turbine industry from 2010 through 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The generation of electricity in the United States from wind-powered turbines is increasing. An understanding of the sources and abundance of raw materials required by the wind turbine industry and the many uses for these materials is necessary to assess the effect of this industry's growth on future demand for selected raw materials relative to the historical demand for these materials. The U.S. Geological Survey developed estimates of future requirements for raw (and some recycled) materials based on the assumption that wind energy will supply 20 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States by 2030. Economic, environmental, political, and technological considerations and trends reported for 2009 were used as a baseline. Estimates for the quantity of materials in typical "current generation" and "next generation" wind turbines were developed. In addition, estimates for the annual and total material requirements were developed based on the growth necessary for wind energy when converted in a wind powerplant to generate 20 percent of the U.S. supply of electricity by 2030. The results of the study suggest that achieving the market goal of 20 percent by 2030 would require an average annual consumption of about 6.8 million metric tons of concrete, 1.5 million metric tons of steel, 310,000 metric tons of cast iron, 40,000 metric tons of copper, and 380 metric tons of the rare-earth element neodymium. With the exception of neodymium, these material requirements represent less than 3 percent of the U.S. apparent consumption for 2008. Recycled material could supply about 3 percent of the total steel required for wind turbine production from 2010 through 2030, 4 percent of the aluminum required, and 3 percent of the copper required. The data suggest that, with the possible exception of rare-earth elements, there should not be a shortage of the principal materials required for electricity generation from wind energy. There may, however, be selective

  20. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements, March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leiby, Paul N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); James, Brian [Directed Technologies, Inc., Youngstown, OH (United States); Perez, Julie [Directed Technologies, Inc., Youngstown, OH (United States); Melendez, Margo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Unnash, Stefan [Life Cycle Associates, Portola Valley, CA (United States); Rutherford, Daniel [Life Cycle Associates, Portola Valley, CA (United States); Hooks, Matthew [TIAX, LLC, Lexingtion, MA (United States)

    2008-03-14

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself.

  1. Estimativa das necessidades energéticas em pacientes com doença renal crônica Estimating the energy requirement of chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cordeiro Dias Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Estabelecer as necessidades energéticas de pacientes com doença renal crônica é importante para que se possam tratar os distúrbios nutricionais encontrados nessa população. Segundo os guias de condutas voltados ao cuidado nutricional de pacientes com essa doença, a recomendação energética pode variar entre 30 e 40kcal/kg/dia. Contudo, trabalhos que avaliaram os componentes do gasto energético nos pacientes com doença renal crônica sugerem que as necessidades energéticas dessa população podem diferir do valor recomendado acima, a depender da condição clínica (presença de comorbidades, da modalidade de tratamento empregado e do nível de atividade física. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo fazer uma revisão dos estudos sobre o gasto energético de pacientes com doença renal crônica, com o intuito de abordar as seguintes questões: (1 as atuais recomendações de energia para pacientes com doença renal crônica estão adequadas? (2 qual equação de predição poderia ser empregada para estimar as necessidades energéticas desse grupo de pacientes? Assim, esta revisão busca auxiliar o nutricionista ao estimar as necessidades energéticas de pacientes com doença renal crônica.Estimating the energy requirement of patients with chronic kidney disease is highly important for treating the nutritional disorders often seen in this population. According to the specific guidelines for patients with chronic kidney disease, the currently recommended daily energy intake varies from 30 to 40kcal/kg/day. However, studies that investigated energy expenditure components of patients with chronic kidney disease suggested that the energy requirement may differ from the one proposed earlier, depending on overall clinical condition (i.e. presence of comorbidities, treatment modality and level of physical activity. With this perspective in mind, the present study aims to review the studies assessing energy expenditure

  2. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  3. Medium-term forecast up to 2016 as required by the Renewable Energies Law; Die EEG-Mittelfristprognose bis 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmuth, Matthias [Leipziger Institut fuer Energie GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Article 3 of the Ordinance on the Implementation of the Ordinance on the Further Development of the Federal Compensation Mechanism obliges transmission system operators to publish not only the following year's reallocation charge pursuant to the Federal Electricity Feed-in Law but also, by the 15 November of each calendar year, a forecast on the probable range of the reallocation charge in the year after next, and further of expected electricity feed-in rates and electricity sales for the following five calendar years. For this purpose they must also determine and publish the progress over time of the average compensation due to plant operators and the amounts of network charges avoided and must do so separately for each of the energy carriers promoted under Renewable Energies Law. The present article shows the results of the current feed-in forecast in compact form.

  4. Quality of energy consultancy services - Requirements, criteria for evaluation, and a case report; Energieberatungsqualitaet - Anforderungen, Messung und ein Fallbeispiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausser, K.

    1999-07-01

    The article initially pictures an optimized model of energy consultancy and continues with explaining an instrument available for quality assessment of services in general, (SERVQUAL), presenting approaches for modifying this tool so as to make it applicable to evaluating the quality of energy consultancy activities. Finally, the capabilities of the modified tool are discussed referring to a case study in an electric utility, the Neckarwerke Stuttgart. (orig./CB) [German] Energieberatung durch Energieversorgungsunternehmen wird in Deutschland fast flaechendeckend angeboten. Im Beitrag wird zuerst aufgezeigt, welche Anforderungen eine optimale Energieberatung erfuellen muss. Danach wird ein Instrument vorgestellt, das die Qualitaet von Dienstleistungen im allgemeinen misst und im Rahmen der o.g. Arbeit so weiterentwickelt wurde, dass es von nun an auch als Instrument zur Messung der Qualitaet von Energieberatung im Besonderen dienen kann: SERVQUAL (von SERVice QUALity). Zuletzt werden die Ergebnisse praesentiert, die in der o.g. Untersuchung unter Anwendung von SERVQUAL bei den Neckarwerken Stuttgart erzielt wurden. (orig./RHM)

  5. Minimization of the energy storage requirements of a stand-alone wind power installation by means of photovoltaic panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldellis, J. K.; Kostas, P.; Filios, A.

    2006-07-01

    Autonomous wind power systems are among the most interesting and environmentally friendly technological solutions for the electrification of remote consumers. In many cases, however, the battery contribution to the initial or the total operational cost is found to be dominant, discouraging further penetration of the available wind resource. This is basically the case for areas possessing a medium-low wind potential. On the other hand, several isolated consumers are located in regions having the regular benefit of an abundant and reliable solar energy supply. In this context the present study investigates the possibility of reducing the battery size of a stand-alone wind power installation by incorporating a small photovoltaic generator. For this purpose an integrated energy production installation based exclusively on renewable energy resources is hereby proposed. Subsequently a new numerical algorithm is developed that is able to estimate the appropriate dimensions of a similar system. According to the results obtained by long-term experimental measurements, the introduction of the photovoltaic panels considerably improves the operational and financial behaviour of the complete installation owing to the imposed significant battery capacity diminution. Copyright

  6. Digestible energy requirement for females of Rhamdia quelen on reproductive activity fed with ration based on vegetal ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie A Bombardelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth and reproductive parameters of Rhamdia quelen females fed with pelleted ration containing different levels of digestible energy, and to evaluate the vigor of their offspring. The breeders were placed in tanks under conditions of photoperiod and natural temperature. The fishes were fed for 255 days with isoproteic rations pelleted containing 35% of crude protein (CP and five levels of the digestible energy (DE (2700, 2950, 3200, 3450, 3700 kcal kg-1. The fishes were distributed in a randomized experimental design compounded by five treatments and three repetitions. A 16-m² tank containing six females and three males was considered as one experimental unit. The weight and weight gain was evaluated. During the reproductive season the females were induced to breeding by hormonal manipulation and were evaluated the percentage of spawning females, the total fecundity, relative fecundity (number of oocytes per gram of spawning females, the fertilization ratio, the time to hatching and the vigor of larvae. The growth and reproductive parameters were not influenced (P > 0.05 by the increasing levels of digestible energy of the rations. The feeding of R. quelen females in breeding fit can be carried out with 2700 kcal kg-1 pelletized ration based on vegetal ingredients, without damage to reproductive performance.

  7. Minimization of the energy storage requirements of a stand-alone wind power installation by means of photovoltaic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kostas, P. [TEI Piraeus, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Athens (Greece); Filios, A. [School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachines Lab., Athens (Greece)

    2006-07-01

    Autonomous wind power systems are among the most interesting and environmentally friendly technological solutions for the electrification of remote consumers. In many cases, however, the battery contribution to the initial or the total operational cost is found to be dominant, discouraging further penetration of the available wind resource. This is basically the case for areas possessing a medium-low wind potential. On the other hand, several isolated consumers are located in regions having the regular benefit of an abundant and reliable solar energy supply. In this context the present study investigates the possibility of reducing the battery size of a stand-alone wind power installation by incorporating a small photovoltaic generator. For this purpose an integrated energy production installation based exclusively on renewable energy resources is hereby proposed. Subsequently a new numerical algorithm is developed that is able to estimate the appropriate dimensions of a similar system. According to the results obtained by long-term experimental measurements, the introduction of the photovoltaic panels considerably improves the operational and financial behaviour of the complete installation owing to the imposed significant battery capacity diminution. (Author)

  8. The EU electricity production structure requires a differentiated energy policy; Die Stromerzeugungsstruktur der EU erfordert eine differenzierte Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-04-15

    For the electricity production of the EU there are differentiated structures which are based on different natural conditions, political decisions and investments of past decades. It has long been struggled committed to the ''one and correct'' energy policy. But precisely because of the differences in the individual countries, a unified energy and climate policy for the EU is not the right way. Diversity is a strength, which quite the EU Commission considered. Increased understanding of the specifics in other countries should just apply the German politics and the public that all too often judges from their own perspective. [German] Bei der Stromerzeugung in der EU bestehen differenzierte Strukturen, die auf unterschiedlichen natuerlichen Gegebenheiten, politischen Entscheidungen und Investitionen vergangener Jahrzehnte beruhen. Seit langem wird engagiert um die ''eine und richtige'' Energiepolitik gerungen. Doch gerade wegen der Unterschiede in den einzelnen Laendern kann eine vereinheitlichte Energie- und Klimapolitik fuer die EU nicht der richtige Weg sein. Vielfalt ist eine Staerke, was die EU-Kommission durchaus beruecksichtigt. Mehr Verstaendnis fuer die Spezifika in anderen Laendern sollte daher gerade die deutsche Politik und Oeffentlichkeit aufbringen, die allzu oft aus eigener Perspektive heraus urteilt.

  9. Comparison of alternative manure management systems: effect on the environment, total energy requirement, nutrient conservation, contribution to corn silage production and economics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.O.; Matthews, D.L.

    1983-09-01

    This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservation, corn silage production and total annual operating costs. The dairy production facility used was a confinement stall barn at the Agway Farm Research Center, Tully, New York. Provisions were made to handle the manure from the barn in three ways: (1) directly into a spreader for daily spreading, (2) by gravity into a liquid manure storage tank for spring application and immediate plow down, (3) hydraulic ram to a roof-covered above-ground manure storage for spring and fall spreading. Results of the study show that a manure storage system can reduce annual labor requirements by 65 percent and fuel requirement by 60 percent or more, compared to daily spreading.

  10. Preliminary designs for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) stationkeeping subsystems (SKSS). Task I. Design requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The results of Task I, Design Requirements, are presented. Environmental conditions for the Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico site are reviewed and synthesized to provide definition of current, wind and wave severity, direction, and occurrence for service, operational, and extreme sea states. SKSS performance requirements, including design life and watch circle, are followed by interface considerations particularly for the electrical transmission riser cable, and design criteria including safety and load factors. The SKSS concepts will be analyzed to evaluate performance, reliability, and cost. Performance analysis conducted included catenary anchor leg static calculations to size components, as well as drag due to environmental loads in the operational and extreme sea states for both ship and spar platforms. Dynamic analyses and trade studies to be conducted in Task II are presented. A reliability and risk assessment analysis of the three basic SKSS types - single-, multiple-, and tension-anchor-leg moors - was completed, indicating that the multiple-anchor-leg/multiple-point rotary or turret moor has the lowest risk-criticality for the ship, while that for the spar is the multiple-anchor-leg/multiple-point moor. The catenary single-anchor-leg/single-point moor has insufficient reliability for both platforms. The life cycle cost analysis methodology, including work breakdown structure, cost estimating, and cost minimization define the approach to costing to be followed throughout the study. The results of these design trades and analyses will first be applied to concept ranking required for recommendation of a SKSS concept for each platform.

  11. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  12. Abundance and energy requirements of eiders (Somateria spp.) suggest high predation pressure on macrobenthic fauna in a key wintering habitat in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Martin Emil; Rasmussen, Lars Maltha; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2011-01-01

    , remains unstudied. In this study, we describe prey availability and assess the trophic coupling between eiders and their macrobenthic prey in a shallow inlet, Nipisat Sound; a key wintering habitat in the southwest Greenland Open Water Area. Macrobenthic species abundance and biomass were studied...... on physiological costs of different activities in combination with the observed behavioural pattern, we obtained an estimate of the energy required for eiders to balance their costs of living, which amounted to 58% of the estimated total annual production of macrobenthos in Nipisat Sound. This result suggests...

  13. Analysis the Latest Energy Ecodesign Requirements for LED Lamps in Europe%欧盟对 LED 灯最新生态设计要求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志豪; 黄昊培; 李蕴

    2014-01-01

    为提高产品的能效和减少产品对环境的影响,从2013年9月起,欧盟规定对进入欧盟地区的LED照明产品必须满足Erp指令的要求,才可以加贴CE标识。本文对欧盟最新推出的Erp指令对LED灯的生态设计要求进行了详细介绍,在此基础上分析了该指令对我国LED照明产业的影响,并给出相应的应对措施,对企业应对国际贸易技术壁垒和增强自身市场竞争力具有积极的作用。%In order to improve the energy efficiency of the products and reduce the effect on the environment , LED lamps enter into the Europe must meet the Erp directive requirement to attaching CE logo from september 2013.This article discusses the ecodesign requirement of LED lamps of European Erp directive.Based on the research , this article probes into the impacts of this requirement on Chinese LED lighting industry .And this article also has a positive effect on helping the enterprises to deal with technical barriers to international trade and strengthen market competition .

  14. Hydrogen Scenario Analysis Summary Report: Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; James, Brian [Directed Technologies, Inc.; Perez, Julie [Directed Technologies, Inc.; Melendez, Margo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Unnasch, Stefan [Life Cycle Associates; Rutherford, Daniel [TIAX, LLC; Hooks, Matthew [TIAX, LLC

    2008-03-01

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself. The transition to hydrogen-powered transportation faces imposing economic barriers. The challenges include developing and refining a new and different power-train technology, building a supporting fuel infrastructure, creating a market for new and unfamiliar vehicles, and achieving economies of scale in vehicle production while providing an attractive selection of vehicle makes and models for car-buyers. The upfront costs will be high and could persist for a decade or more, delaying profitability until an adequate number of vehicles can be produced and moved into consumer markets. However, the potential rewards to the economy, environment, and national security are immense. Such a profound market transformation will require careful planning and strong, consistent policy incentives. Section 811 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 2005, Public Law 109-59 (U.S. House, 2005), calls for a report from the Secretary of Energy on measures to support the transition to a hydrogen economy. The report was to specifically address production and deployment of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure needed to support those vehicles. In addition, the 2004 report of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 2004), The Hydrogen Economy, contained two recommendations for analyses to be conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to strengthen hydrogen energy transition and infrastructure planning for the hydrogen economy. In response to the EPACT requirement and NAS recommendations, DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and

  15. Basic Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences, November 3-5, 2015, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Aurora [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Millis, Andy [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Gagliardi, Laura [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Thanos [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Siepmann, Ilja [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wolverton, Chris [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Vashishta, Priya [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Stevens, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Kent, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); va DAm, Kerstin Kleese [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Proffen, Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tull, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Diachin, Lori [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sethian, Jamie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Benali, Anouar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Jackie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Riley, Katherine [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, IL (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, TN (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Sciences (BES) mission need. Simulation, visualization, and data analysis are crucial for advances in energy science and technology. Revolutionary mathematical, software, and algorithm developments are required in all areas of BES science to take advantage of exascale computing architectures and to meet data analysis, management, and workflow needs. In partnership with ASCR, BES has an emerging and pressing need to develop new and disruptive capabilities in data science. More capable and larger high-performance computing (HPC) and data ecosystems are required to support priority research in BES. Continued success in BES research requires developing the next-generation workforce through education and training and by providing sustained career opportunities.

  16. Influence of the process control on the thermal energy requirement of convection dryers in the brick industry; Einfluss der Prozessfuehrung auf den thermischen Energiebedarf von Konvektionstrocknern in der Ziegelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretau, Anne

    2008-06-10

    Brick manufacturing demands high amount of energy. The energy flow analysis inside the brick factory shows that the convective drying of green bricks consumes more than half of the total thermal energy required for brick manufacturing. Therefore this paper deals with the theoretical analysis and investigation for the energy requirement of green bricks. For this, a physical-based model has been developed, which describes the dependence of drying-kinetics as well as the energy-requirement interims of the process parameter like mass of the supply air. It turns out that the specific energy requirement substantially depends on temperature and humidity of the ambience air and also supply air mass flow and its temperature. Due to the continuous temperature rise of the green bricks during the second drying section the specific energy requirement increases significantly with the progressive motion of the drying in a chamber dryer. This is due to the fact that the green brick as well as the air conditioning distance more and more from the cooling limit. Just a low part of the dryer exhaust air is saturated. The exhaust air is continuously sucked out and the green bricks are pulled inside the dryer. So the exhaust air has a relatively higher water saturation. On general, continuous dryers have a lower energy requirement than chamber dryer. For the both types of dryers, the mathematical model shows that the increasing of the supply air temperature combined with a commensurate subsidence of supply air mass flow, results in a reduction of drying energy requirement. The change of other essential parameters of drying like green brick thickness, and density as well as the moisture diffusion coefficient, and the vapour diffusity which are only important in the second drying section are of comparatively negligible effect. The developed mathematical model is successfully implemented for the energy investigation in the industrial dryers. The increase in supply air temperature results

  17. A dietary polyphenol resveratrol acts to provide neuroprotection in recurrent stroke models by regulating AMPK and SIRT1 signaling, thereby reducing energy requirements during ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The above article from European Journal of Neuroscience, published online on 5 March 2013 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejn.12162/full), has been retracted by agreement between the Editors-in-Chief, Paul Bolam and John Foxe, the authors and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as Dr Phillip Barber has informed the publisher that he had seen neither the original data nor any version of the manuscript, and had not been involved in the work reported. A subsequent Institutional investigation found evidence of misconduct on the part of the submitting author. Reference Wang, L.-M., Wang, Y.-J., Cui, M., Luo, W.-J., Wang, X.-J., Barber, P.A. & Chen, Z.-Y. (2013) A dietary polyphenol resveratrol acts to provide neuroprotection in recurrent stroke models by regulating AMPK and SIRT1 signaling, thereby reducing energy requirements during ischemia.

  18. Catecholamine-stimulated Growth of Aeromonas hydrophila Requires the TonB2 Energy Transduction System but is Independent of the Amonabactin Siderophore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhao Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth-stimulating effects of catecholamine stress hormones have been demonstrated in many pathogens. However, catecholamine-induced growth and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood in Aeromonas hydrophila. The present study sought to demonstrate that norepinephrine (NE, epinephrine (Epi, dopamine (Dopa and L-dopa stimulate the growth of A. hydrophila in iron-restricted media containing serum. NE exhibited the strongest growth stimulation, which could be blocked by adrenergic antagonists. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that NE could sequester iron from transferrin, thereby providing a more accessible iron source for utilization by A. hydrophila. The deletion of the amoA gene associated with amonabactin synthesis revealed that the amonabactin siderophore is not required for NE-stimulated growth. However, the deletion of the TonB2 energy transduction system resulted in the loss of growth promotion by NE, indicating that a specific TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor might be involved in the transport of iron from transferrin. Collectively, our data show that catecholamine sensing promotes the growth of A. hydrophila in a manner that is dependent on the TonB2 energy transduction system.

  19. Catecholamine-Stimulated Growth of Aeromonas hydrophila Requires the TonB2 Energy Transduction System but Is Independent of the Amonabactin Siderophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuhao; Liu, Jin; Pang, Maoda; Du, Hechao; Wang, Nannan; Awan, Furqan; Lu, Chengping; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    The growth-stimulating effects of catecholamine stress hormones have been demonstrated in many pathogens. However, catecholamine-induced growth and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood in Aeromonas hydrophila. The present study sought to demonstrate that norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), dopamine (Dopa), and L-dopa stimulate the growth of A. hydrophila in iron-restricted media containing serum. NE exhibited the strongest growth stimulation, which could be blocked by adrenergic antagonists. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that NE could sequester iron from transferrin, thereby providing a more accessible iron source for utilization by A. hydrophila. The deletion of the amoA gene associated with amonabactin synthesis revealed that the amonabactin siderophore is not required for NE-stimulated growth. However, the deletion of the TonB2 energy transduction system resulted in the loss of growth promotion by NE, indicating that a specific TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor might be involved in the transport of iron from transferrin. Collectively, our data show that catecholamine sensing promotes the growth of A. hydrophila in a manner that is dependent on the TonB2 energy transduction system. PMID:28018865

  20. A Framework for Better Understanding and Enhancing Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) in Terms of Module Design, Cost Analysis and Energy Required

    KAUST Repository

    AbuHannoud, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Water is becoming scarcer and several authors have highlighted the upcoming problem of higher water salinity and the difficulty of treating and discharging water. Moreover, current discoveries of problems with chemicals that have been used for pretreating or post-treating water alerted scientists to research better solutions to treat water. Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising technology that might replace current processes as it has lower pretreatment requirements combined with a tremendous ability to treat a wide range of feed sources while producing very high product quality. If it enters the market, it will have a big influence on all products, from food industry to spaceflight. However, there are several problems which make MD a hot topic for research. One of them is the question about the real cost of MD in terms of heating feed and cooling distillate over time with respect to product quantity and quality. In this work, extensive heating and cooling analyses are covered to answer this question in order to enhance the MD process. Results show energy cost to produce water and the main source of energy loss for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD), and several suggestions are made in order to better understand and hence enhance the process.

  1. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain regulates the energy requirement for EBV-induced membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Xianming; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is preceded by membrane fusion, which in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be mediated by the refolding of glycoprotein B (gB) from a prefusion to a postfusion state. In our current studies, we characterized a gB C-terminal tail domain (CTD) mutant truncated at amino acid 843 (gB843). This truncation mutant is hyperfusogenic as monitored by syncytium formation and in a quantitative fusion assay and is dependent on gH/gL for fusion activity. gB843 can rescue the fusion function of other glycoprotein mutants that have null or decreased fusion activity in epithelial and B cells. In addition, gB843 requires less gp42 and gH/gL for fusion, and can function in fusion at a lower temperature than wild-type gB, indicating a lower energy requirement for fusion activation. Since a key step in fusion is the conversion of gB from a prefusion to an active postfusion state by gH/gL, gB843 may access this activated gB state more readily. Our studies indicate that the gB CTD may participate in the fusion function by maintaining gB in an inactive prefusion form prior to activation by receptor binding. Importance: Diseases resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans range from the fairly benign disease infectious mononucleosis to life-threatening cancer. As an enveloped virus, EBV must fuse with a host cell membrane for entry and infection by using glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42. Among these glycoproteins, gB is thought to be the protein that executes fusion. To further characterize the function of the EBV gB cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain (CTD) in fusion, we used a previously constructed CTD truncation mutant and studied its fusion activity in the context of other EBV glycoprotein mutants. From these studies, we find that the gB CTD regulates fusion by altering the energy requirements for the triggering of fusion mediated by gH/gL or gp42. Overall, our studies may lead to a better understanding of EBV fusion

  2. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  3. A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi; Antonello Cannas; Danny Gene Fox

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S) was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS). The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME) and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats in the SRNS are predicted based on the equations developed for CNCPS-S, modified to account for ...

  4. High Energy Physics Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and High Energy Physics, June 10-12, 2015, Bethesda, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Salman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Roser, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Williams, Tim [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) convened a programmatic Exascale Requirements Review on June 10–12, 2015, in Bethesda, Maryland. This report summarizes the findings, results, and recommendations derived from that meeting. The high-level findings and observations are as follows. JJ Larger, more capable computing and data facilities are needed to support HEP science goals in all three frontiers: Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic. The expected scale of the demand at the 2025 timescale is at least two orders of magnitude — and in some cases greater — than that available currently. JJ The growth rate of data produced by simulations is overwhelming the current ability of both facilities and researchers to store and analyze it. Additional resources and new techniques for data analysis are urgently needed. JJ Data rates and volumes from experimental facilities are also straining the current HEP infrastructure in its ability to store and analyze large and complex data volumes. Appropriately configured leadership-class facilities can play a transformational role in enabling scientific discovery from these datasets. JJ A close integration of high-performance computing (HPC) simulation and data analysis will greatly aid in interpreting the results of HEP experiments. Such an integration will minimize data movement and facilitate interdependent workflows. JJ Long-range planning between HEP and ASCR will be required to meet HEP’s research needs. To best use ASCR HPC resources, the experimental HEP program needs (1) an established, long-term plan for access to ASCR computational and data resources, (2) the ability to map workflows to HPC resources, (3) the ability for ASCR facilities to accommodate workflows run by collaborations potentially comprising thousands of individual members, (4) to transition codes to the next-generation HPC platforms that will be

  5. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  6. Hydrogen Scenario Analysis Summary Report: Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; James, Brian [Directed Technologies, Inc.; Perez, Julie [Directed Technologies, Inc.; Melendez, Margo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Unnasch, Stefan [Life Cycle Associates; Rutherford, Daniel [TIAX, LLC; Hooks, Matthew [TIAX, LLC

    2008-03-01

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself. The transition to hydrogen-powered transportation faces imposing economic barriers. The challenges include developing and refining a new and different power-train technology, building a supporting fuel infrastructure, creating a market for new and unfamiliar vehicles, and achieving economies of scale in vehicle production while providing an attractive selection of vehicle makes and models for car-buyers. The upfront costs will be high and could persist for a decade or more, delaying profitability until an adequate number of vehicles can be produced and moved into consumer markets. However, the potential rewards to the economy, environment, and national security are immense. Such a profound market transformation will require careful planning and strong, consistent policy incentives. Section 811 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 2005, Public Law 109-59 (U.S. House, 2005), calls for a report from the Secretary of Energy on measures to support the transition to a hydrogen economy. The report was to specifically address production and deployment of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure needed to support those vehicles. In addition, the 2004 report of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 2004), The Hydrogen Economy, contained two recommendations for analyses to be conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to strengthen hydrogen energy transition and infrastructure planning for the hydrogen economy. In response to the EPACT requirement and NAS recommendations, DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and

  7. Mobilization of biomass for energy from boreal forests in Finland & Russia under present sustainable forest management certification and new sustainability requirements for solid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ranta, T.; Heinimö, J.; Gerasimov, Y.Y.; Karjalainen, T.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Forest biomass is one of the main contributors to the EU's renewable energy target of 20% gross final energy consumption in 2020 (Renewable Energy Directive). Following the RED, new sustainability principles are launched by the European energy sector, such as the Initiative Wood Pellet Buyers (IWPB

  8. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

  9. Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) Code Verification and Validation Data Standards and Requirements: Fluid Dynamics Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Weirs; Hyung Lee

    2011-09-01

    V&V and UQ are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of M&S and, hence, to establish confidence in M&S. Though other industries are establishing standards and requirements for the performance of V&V and UQ, at present, the nuclear industry has not established such standards or requirements. However, the nuclear industry is beginning to recognize that such standards are needed and that the resources needed to support V&V and UQ will be very significant. In fact, no single organization has sufficient resources or expertise required to organize, conduct and maintain a comprehensive V&V and UQ program. What is needed is a systematic and standardized approach to establish and provide V&V and UQ resources at a national or even international level, with a consortium of partners from government, academia and industry. Specifically, what is needed is a structured and cost-effective knowledge base that collects, evaluates and stores verification and validation data, and shows how it can be used to perform V&V and UQ, leveraging collaboration and sharing of resources to support existing engineering and licensing procedures as well as science-based V&V and UQ processes. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory in conjunction with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Argonne National Laboratory, Utah State University and others with the objective of establishing a comprehensive and web-accessible knowledge base to provide V&V and UQ resources for M&S for nuclear reactor design, analysis and licensing. The knowledge base will serve as an important resource for technical exchange and collaboration that will enable credible and reliable computational models and simulations for application to nuclear power. NE-KAMS will serve as a valuable resource for the nuclear industry, academia, the national laboratories, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and

  10. Energy requirement of patients after gastrointestinal surgery%胃肠道手术患者能量需要的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英华; 贺源; 杨雪艳; 薛长勇; 唐云; 卫勃; 徐庆; 张新胜; 李惠子; 于晓明; 张永; 刘钊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the energy requirement of patients after gastrointestinal surgery. Methods Rest energy expenditure (REE) in 203 patients before gastrointestinal surgery was assayed by indirect calorimetry(MedGem). Average energy intake in these patients after gastrointestinal surgery was calculated and compared to the value 1.2 x 1.1 x REE(SEE) and divided into 110% SEE group(high energy supplement group). Anthropometry, grip strength, biochemical and immune indices, subjective global assessment(SGA) were observed. Results The MAMC, grip strength, serum creatinine, magnesium, phosphorus were higher in 90%-110% SEE group than in the other two groups after surgery(P<0.05). The level of SGA in 90%-110% SEE group was higher than in the other two groups(P<0.05). Although significant differences were observed in blood albumin and hemoglobin of 90%-110% SEE group before and after operation(P<0.05), no significant difference was found in the other indices. The value of 90%-110% SEE was equivalent to (1.20 ± 0.15) x Harris-Benedict(HB) equation, (27.22 ± 3.95) x ideal body weight(kg)(IBW), and (26.00 ± 3.93) x real body weight (kg)(RBW). Conclusion Energy intake of 90%-110% SEE or 1.2HB, 27IBW may be appropriate in patients with gastrointestinal surgery.%目的 探讨胃肠道术后患者能量需要量.方法 选择胃肠道手术患者203例,术前采用MedGeM床旁代谢仪测定静息能量消耗(REE),收集术后临床资料,计算术后提供的平均能量,与REE×1.2×1.1(能量供给参考值SEE)比较,分为<90%SEE,90%-110%SEE,>110%SEE三组,比较三组人群术前术后人体测量指标、握力、生化指标、免疫营养指标、主观全面营养评定结果(SGA)等.结果 术后90%-110%SEE组上臂肌围、左右手握力、血肌酐、血清镁和磷均显著高于其他两组(P<0.05),平均住院日和术后停止胃肠减压时间、恢复排便时间和拆线时间与其他两组比较显著缩短(P<0.05),且SGA

  11. Cumulative input/output balance of a mechanical-biological waste treatment plant. Comparison of construction material requirements, operating energy expenditure, and the requirement of auxiliary materials in comparison with waste combustion; Kumulative Bilanzierung der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung - Baumaterialien und betrieblicher Energie- und Hilfsstoffaufwand im Vergleich zur Muellverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, R.; Fricke, K. [Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen (Germany); Vogtmann, H. [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Regionalentwicklung und Landwirtschaft, Kassel (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The study strikes a cumulative input/output balance of an existing waste conditioning plant considering not only operating energy demand but also the required construction materials for erecting the plant. In operation since 1996, the waste conditioning plant is entirely state of the art; hence the data obtained are up to date. The results are compared with relevant results for a waste processing plant and evaluated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Untersuchung erfolgt eine kumulative Bilanzierung einer bestehenden MBA-Anlage, wobei neben den betrieblichen Energieaufwendungen auch die Baumaterialien zur Herstellung der Anlage beruecksichtigt werden. Die seit 1996 in Betrieb befindliche Abfallbehandlungsanlage entspricht weitestgehend dem Stand der Technik der MBA, wodurch die Aktualitaet der Daten gegeben ist. Die Ergebnisse der Bilanzierung werden im Vergleich zu einer MVA dargestellt und bewertet. (orig.)

  12. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S. [eds.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  13. Installation technique on the road to 2020. Rigorous choices required for an optimal energy supply; Installatietechniek op weg naar 2020. Rigoureuze keuzen nodig voor optimale energievoorziening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H. [Autarkis, Almere (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Hypes determine, more than thoughtful visions, the energy supply of the built environment. Smart grids, power quality, hydrogen, electricity from the North Sea and Sahara, geothermal energy from a former coal mine in Heerlen, Netherlands, coal gasification, shale gases and nuclear energy are power sources. The future energy supply lies in the hands of builders and installers in the Netherlands [Dutch] Hypes bepalen, meer dan doordachte visies, de energievoorziening van de gebouwde omgeving. Smart grids, power quality, waterstof, Noordzee- en Sahara-elektriciteit], aardwarmte uit een voormalige kolenmijn te Heerlen, kolenvergassing, schaliegassen en kernenergie worden genoemd als krachtbronnen. De toekomstige energievoorziening ligt in handen van bouwend en installerend Nederland.

  14. Nutrient requirements of energy and protein for Holstein × Zebu bulls finished in feedlot Requerimentos nutricionais de energia e proteína em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Pizzi Rotta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the nutritional requirements of energy and protein in crossbred (Holstein × Zebu bulls. An experiment of comparative slaughter was conducted with 44 (24 months old crossbred bulls of 338 ± 39 kg. Bulls were randomly separated as follows: four bulls to the control group, four bulls to the maintenance level group and 36 bulls were fed ad libitum. Corn silage (CS and sugar cane in natura (SC at 60 or 40% of dry matter (DM of total diets were utilized in the diets. The bulls of the last group were randomly assigned to one of six different diets: 1 60CS:40C(84 days; 2 60CS:40C (42 days and 40CS:60C (42 days; 3 40CS:60C (84 days; 4 60SC:40C (84 days; 5 60SC:40C (42 days, and 40SC:60C (42 days, and 6 40SC:60C (84 days. At the end of the experiment, bulls were slaughtered at Universidade Federal de Viçosa for estimation of the empty body weight. One sample located between the 9th and the 11th ribs of each bull was taken and completely dissected for estimation of the empty body composition using equations developed by BR-CORTE 2010. The data were analyzed as nonlinear models built by means of command NLIN of SAS (version 9.2, adjusted by the method of Gauss-Newton. For all the tests, 0.05 was utilized as critical level for probability of type I error. The net (NEm and metabolizable (MEm energy requirements for maintenance were 78.7 and 114.2 kcal/EBW0.75/day, respectively. The equations obtained for NEg and NPg were: Neg (Mcal/day = 0.0493 × EBW0.75 × EBWG1.0013 and NPg (g/day = 279.19 × EBWG – 22.8691 × RE, respectively. The model obtained for the percentage of retained energy as protein (%REp was %REp = 1.7202 × (RE/EBWG-1.351. Objetivou-se com este estudo estimar as exigências nutricionais de energia e proteína em bovinos cruzados (Holandês × Zebu. Um experimento de abate comparativo foi conduzido com 44 (24 meses bovinos cruzados pesando 338± 39 kg. Os bovinos foram aleatoriamente separados

  15. Consequences of the quota requirement for energy efficiency. Can a Swedish quota obligation systems give less energy usage?; Konsekvenser av kvotplikt foer energieffektivisering. Kan ett svenskt kvotpliktssystem ge mindre energianvaendning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkroth, Sara; Bladh, Mats; Holmberg, Rurik; Lock, Anna; Naderi, Ronak; Widerstroem, Glenn

    2012-11-01

    The Agency has on behalf of the government investigated what the consequences would be of the introduction of a compulsory quota system in Sweden. Under the proposed new EU directive on energy efficiency, all Member States should introduce a compulsory quota system, where energy companies actively initiate measures for energy efficiency among end users. In Sweden, a quota obligation system of this kind would mean energy efficiency of about 3 TWh per year, which can be difficult to achieve. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that if a compulsory quota system is introduced, the quota obligation should be placed on the network companies. If not, there is a risk of complications in the Swedish and Nordic electricity market. The Energy Markets Inspectorate consider that the quota obligation can not be on the network companies because of their function as regulated monopoly. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that efficiency measures can be implemented in all sectors, including transport.

  16. The influence of frontal alignment in the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis on energy cost and crutch force requirements during paraplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten J.; Baardman, Gert; Holweg, Gerlinde G.J.; Hermens, Hermie J.; Veltink, P.H.; Boom, H.B.K.; Zilvold, G.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of energy cost and upper body load during paraplegic walking is considered to be an important criterion in future developments of walking systems. A high energy cost limits the maximum walking distance in the current devices, whereas wrist and shoulder pathology can deteriorate because of

  17. Study of Manpower Requirements by Occupation for Alternative Technologies in the Energy-Related Industries, 1970-1990. Volumes I, IIA, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmanis, Ivars; And Others

    The report presents the methodology used by the National Planning Association (NPA), under contract to the Federal Energy Administration (FEA), to estimate direct labor usage coefficients in some sixty different occupational categories involved in construction, operation, and maintenance of energy facilities. Volume 1 presents direct labor usage…

  18. Advantage Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Increased focus has been placed on the issues of energy access and energy poverty over the last number of years, most notably indicated by the United Nations (UN) declaring 2012 as the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All'. Although attention in these topics has increased, incorrect assumptions and misunderstandings still arise in both the literature and dialogues. Access to energy does not only include electricity, does not only include cook stoves, but must include access to all types of energy that form the overall energy system. This paper chooses to examine this energy system using a typology that breaks it into 3 primary energy subsystems: heat energy, electricity and transportation. Describing the global energy system using these three subsystems provides a way to articulate the differences and similarities for each system's required investments needs by the private and public sectors.

  19. Methodology and assumptions for evaluating heating and cooling energy requirements in new single-family residential buildings: Technical support document for the PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) microcomputer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Wilson, D.; Hsui, C.; Foley, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides technical documentation for a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) developed by LBL. PEAR offers an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy savings associated with various energy conservation measures used in site-built, single-family homes. This program was designed for use by non-technical groups such as home builders, home buyers or others in the buildings industry, and developed as an integral part of a set of voluntary guidelines entitled Affordable Housing Through Energy Conservation: A Guide to Designing and Constructing Energy Efficient Homes. These guidelines provide a method for selecting and evaluating cost-effective energy conservation measures based on the energy savings estimated by PEAR. This work is part of a Department of Energy program aimed at conducting research that will improve the energy efficiency of the nation's stock of conventionally-built and manufactured homes, and presenting the results to the public in a simplified format.

  20. Design principles and requirements for the ICT of future smart energy systems; Designprinzipien und Anforderungen an die IKT fuer intelligente Energiesysteme der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eger, Kolja [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Mohr, Werner [Nokia Siemens Networks Management International GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The information and communication technology (ICT) is a key enabling technology for Smart Grids. With respect to very short innovation cycles for ICT compared to longer innovation cycles for the transition of the energy system there is a huge challenge to develop and exploit the potential of future ICT and their application in a future intelligent energy system. Different ICT technologies, such as Internet of Things or Cloud Computing are intensively being discussed. They can be summarized under the term ''Future Internet''. The EU project FINSENY is investigating the potential of Future Internet concepts and technologies in particular for Smart Energy systems. A series of design principles and the necessary ICT are developed, which are described in this paper. These design principles such as open interfaces, security-by-design, simplicity, maintenance, auto-configuration and modularity are of general nature. They will remain despite technology developments. Furthermore, several design principles are not only applicable to ICT but they are also related to design principles of intelligent energy systems like decentralized energy generation systems. (orig.)

  1. 80 years of IEC: Future requirements on teaching and research in the field of energy. Papers; 80 Jahre IEC: Zukuenftige Anforderungen an Lehre und Forschung auf dem Gebiet der Energie. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. [comp.

    2000-07-01

    The conference was part of the festivities of the 80{sup th} Anniversary of the Brown Coal Research Institute, that were celebrated at the Institute of Energy Processing and Chemical Engineering (IEC), Freiberg University of Mining and Technology. The Institute of Energy Processing and Chemical Engineering preserves and continues the traditional cooperation with the Brown Coal Industry in the field of the energy conversion processes. The conference proceedings give the reader an impression of the presently meaning of fossil energy sources and explain the competence of the IEC in educating and researching on fuel techniques in future. (orig.) [German] Die Tagung wurde anlaesslich des 80. Jahrestages der Gruendung des Braunkohlenforschungsinstitutes an der TU Bergakademie Freiberg durchgefuehrt. Das Institut fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen fuehrt die traditionsreiche Kooperation mit der Braunkohleindustrie auf dem Gebiet der Energiewandlungsprozesse fort. Die Beitraege charakterisieren die derzeitige Bedeutung der fossilen Energietraeger und erlaeutern die Kompetenz des IEC fuer eine zukunftsorientierte Lehre und Forschung in der Brennstofftechnik. (orig.)

  2. Which grid reconstruction is required by the energy policy turnaround? Under consideration of the network development plan 2012; Welchen Netzumbau erfordert die Energiewende? Unter Beruecksichtigung des Netzentwicklungsplans 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarass, Lorenz [Hochschule RheinMain Wiesbaden (Germany); Obermair, G.M.

    2012-07-01

    A structural and technical restructuring of the total electricity supply system is necessary as a part of the energy policy turnaround. That means a restructuring of the production, transfer and distribution of electrical energy. The authors of the book under consideration describe the fundamentals and measures for an efficient and cost-effective reconstruction of the power distribution system. The term ''reconstruction of the power distribution system'' shall include all the measures necessary for the enhancement of the maximal performance of power transfer by means of optimization and amplification of existing electric lines as well as by restructuring of the electric lines.

  3. Estimating the energy requirements and CO{sub 2} emissions from production of the perennial grasses miscanthus, switchgrass and reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, M.; Metcalfe, P.

    2001-07-01

    The perennial grasses miscanthus, reed canary and swithchgrass have attractions as energy crops in the United Kingdom: all have low demand for fertilizer and pesticide, and are harvested annually. Research on energy ratios and carbon ratios of the grasses is reported. A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed (from an ADAS database) and the input calculations and assumptions are explained. The study demonstrated the attractions of theses grasses as a source of fuel. The results agreed with those from a model developed for the SRC.

  4. Joint economic dispatch of energy and reserve. Reserve requirements determination from seconds considering the system dynamical behavior; Despacho economico conjunto de energia y reserva. Determinacion optima del requerimiento de reserva de segundos considerando el comportamiento dinamico del sistema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, R.A.; Vargas, A. [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina). Inst. de Energia Electrica]. E-mail: Rolcas@iee.unsj.edu.ar; Avargas@iee.unsj.edu.ar

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for calculation the joint economic dispatch of energy and Rotating Reserve of Seconds(RRS), taken into account the dynamical response from the system when facing different disturbances. This method not only assigns the electric power and RRS in the generation units in an optimal way, as well as determines the required optimum level for the system. The problem is not linear and can be solved using an iterative lineal procedure. Finally, it is made a comment involving the responsibilities which correspond to each generation unit with respect to the RRS system requirements.

  5. Ecodesign requirements for televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    to analyse if other environmental hotspots and life cycle phases should be included in the requirements in the IM of the Ecodesign Directive besides energy consumption in the use phase analysis. Methods The consequential approach is used. The data for the LCA have been gathered from two manufacturers of TVs......Purpose This paper concerns the Ecodesign Directive (2009/125/EC) and the implementing measures (IM) in which ecodesign requirements are set up for energy-using and energy-related products. Previous studies have found that the requirements have a unilateral focus on energy consumption and the use...... phase. This is not in line with the scientific understanding of ecodesign, where attention should be put on all life cycle phases and all relevant environmental impact categories. This study focuses on the requirements for televisions (TV). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out on two TVs...

  6. High Energy Charge as a Requirement for Axis Elongation in Response to Gibberellic Acid and Kinetin during Stratification of Acer saccharum Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, J A; Dumbroff, E B

    1974-01-01

    The growth potential of embryonic axes of Acer saccharum Marsh. increased during moist storage at 5 C but not at 20 C. During the period of increasing growth potential, the oxygen consumption of the axes remained constant. It was possible to distinguish three phases of the stratification-germination process at 5 C with respect to response of the axis to gibberellic acid and kinetin. From 0 to 10 days the growth regulators had no effect on elongation; from 10 to 60 days axis elongation was stimulated; and between day 60 and day 75, when germination had begun, the growth substances were inhibitory. The adenylate energy charge remained low (0.15) in axes of dry dormant seeds but increased to 0.78 following imbibition of water and 10 days of moist storage at 5 C. This phenomenon was not specifically related to low temperature stratification, since a rapid increase in the energy charge of the axes also occurred following imbibition and moist storage at 20 C. The excised axes would elongate in response to the growth substances only when a high energy charge (approximately 0.8) was maintained.

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2, 2014....

  10. Energy for Mankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincherle, L.; Rice-Evans, P.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses statistics concerning world energy requirements and supplies of different types of fuels. Also discusses the storage and transmission of energy and pollution problems related to energy utilization. (MLH)

  11. Quality goals for energy resources - an innovative approach to transposing the EU requirements for energy efficiency and use of renewables to the national level; Energietraegerqualitaetsziele - ein innovativer Ansatz zur Weitergabe der Synergie von Energieeffizienz- und REN-Verpflichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhmann, H.J.; Lechtenboehmer, S.; Venjakob, J. [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH (Germany). Forschungsgruppe 1 - Zukuenftige Energie- und Mobilitaetsstrukturen

    2008-06-15

    One of the main commitments contained in the EU package of 23 January 2008 for the realisation of the so-called 20-20-20 goals is to increase the share of renewable energies in the energy mix. This is to be achieved by means of a EU directive to be transposed into national law. The directive already exists as a draft. Although there is still some discussion about the alternatives of having either an EU-wide uniform system based on the trade in quotas or permits or national promotion systems, ultimately there is likely to be some form of coexistence at the national level of legislation similar to the German Electricity Feed Law on one side and quota-based systems on the other. With this situation in mind the following article explores innovative options for member states given the new legal situation at the EU level.

  12. Storage requirement and its impact on the energy industry in implementation of political objectives of energy transition; Speicherbedarf und dessen Auswirkungen auf die Energiewirtschaft bei Umsetzung der politischen Ziele zur Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teufel, Felix Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The increasing integration of renewable energy generating systems pose fundamental challenges for the energy industry. This concerns not only the utility companies but also established simulation models for analyzing the markets. In the present work, a system dynamic bottom-up model is described, which imagines the German electricity market in a 15 minute resolution and a high integration of renewable energies. The above described developments are affecting increasingly the operation mode of storage power plants. A result of model is that the operation of storage power plants is increasingly no longer worthwhile in the near future. After 2020, however, in the daytime prices will be significantly lower than during the night, resulting in new economic application scenarios for storage power plants. Also an outlook is provided on the duration of future storage usage times in the presented model, after which there will be a considerable demand for increasingly shorter cycles under 4 hours and longer cycles with more than 32 hours. [German] Die zunehmende Integration regenerativer Energieerzeugungssysteme stellt die Energiewirtschaft vor grundlegende Herausforderungen. Dies betrifft nicht nur die Energieversorgungsunternehmen sondern auch etablierte Simulationsmodelle zur Analyse der Maerkte. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein systemdynamisches bottom-up Modell beschrieben, welches den deutschen Elektrizitaetmarkt in einer 15-minuetigen Aufloesung und einer hohen Integration der erneuerbaren Energien abbildet. Die oben beschriebenen Entwicklungen wirken sich zunehmend auf die Fahrweise von Speicherkraftwerken aus. Ein Resultat des vorgestellten Modells ist, dass sich der Betrieb von Speicherkraftwerken in naher Zukunft zunehmend nicht mehr lohnen wird. Nach 2020 werden jedoch tagsueber die Preise deutlich niedriger sein als die Nachtpreise, wodurch sich neue wirtschaftliche Einsatzszenarien fuer Speicherkraftwerke ergeben. Auch wird im vorgestellten Modell ein Ausblick

  13. Energy and water use by invasive goats (Capra hircus) in an Australian rangeland, and a caution against using broad-scale allometry to predict species-specific requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Cooper, C E; Russell, B; Dawson, T J; McLeod, S R; Maloney, S K

    2012-02-01

    Feral goats (Capra hircus) are ubiquitous across much of Australia's arid and semi-arid rangelands, where they compete with domestic stock, contribute to grazing pressure on fragile ecosystems, and have been implicated in the decline of several native marsupial herbivores. Understanding the success of feral goats in Australia may provide insights into management strategies for this and other invasive herbivores. It has been suggested that frugal use of energy and water contributes to the success of feral goats in Australia, but data on the energy and water use of free-ranging animals are lacking. We measured the field metabolic rate and water turnover rate of pregnant and non-pregnant feral goats in an Australian rangeland during late summer (dry season). Field metabolic rate of pregnant goats (601 ± 37 kJ kg(-0.73)d(-1)) was 1.3 times that of non-pregnant goats (456 ± 24 kJ kg(-0.73)d(-1)). The water turnover rate of pregnant goats (228 ± 18 mL kg(-0.79)d(-1)) was also 1.3 times that of non-pregnant goats (173 ± 18 kg(-0.79)d(-1)), but the difference was not significant (P=0.07). There was no significant difference in estimated dry matter digestibility between pregnant and non-pregnant goats (mean ca. 58%), blood or urine osmolality, or urine electrolyte concentrations, indicating they were probably eating similar diets and were able to maintain osmohomeostasis. Overall, the metabolic and hygric physiology of non-pregnant goats conformed statistically to the predictions for non-marine, non-reproductive placental mammals according to both conventional and phylogenetically independent analyses. That was despite the field metabolic rate and estimated dry matter intake of non-pregnant goats being only 60% of the predicted level. We suggest that general allometric analyses predict the range of adaptive possibilities for mammals, but that specific adaptations, as present in goats, result in ecologically significant departures from the average allometric curve. In

  14. Development Status and Technical Requirements of Non-grains Biomass Energy Industry in Guangxi%广西非粮生物质能源产业发展现状及近期技术需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄纪民; 李海洪; 王何健; 黎贞崇

    2012-01-01

    The development status and R&D status of non-grains biomass energy industry in Guangxi at present in the aspects of fuel ethanol and biogas and pellet fuel were introduced, the main technical problems in non-grains biomass energy industry were analyzed, and the technical re-quirements in recent period were put forward.%介绍了广西非粮生物质燃料乙醇、生物沼气、颗粒燃料方面的产业发展现状与研发现状,分析了广西非粮生物质能源产业存在的主要技术问题,提出近期该产业的技术需求。

  15. New Test Requirement for Energy Efficiency of Air Conditioner for European Market%关于欧盟市场空调新能效的测试要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧松彦; 刘勃宏

    2013-01-01

      According to the new energy requirement for air conditioner performed from Jan. 1, 2013 and the newly-released European Standards (EN14825: 2012), the testing and calculation method of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) and Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) of air conditioner was illustrated with inverter air-conditioner, and it could be taken for reference.%  本文根据欧盟2013年1月1日起执行生效的空调新的能源要求,以及最新发布的欧洲标准(EN14825:2012),以变频空调为例阐述空调季节能效比(SEER)和季节性能系数(SCOP)的测试计算方法,以供相关人员参考。

  16. Natural gas ballast requirement to allow participation of thermal plants in the new energy auctions: analysis and proposals; Requisito de lastro de gas natural para viabilizar a participacao de termeletricas nos leiloes de energia nova: analise e propostas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro Luis de; Bezerra, Bernardo Vieira; Barroso, Luiz Augusto Nobrega; Pereira, Mario Veiga; Rosenblatt, Jose [PSR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Since the first New Energy Auction (LEN), held in December 2005, there has been a continuous process of improving the auction rules and mechanism. For the specific case of gas-fired plants, a significant change was observed between the LEN A-3/2011 and LEN A-5/2011, and refers to the need of natural gas ballast for candidate projects in the auction. This rule was introduced by ANP Resolution No. 52, which establishes that the gas supply agreements must be backed up by proven reserves (analogous to the requirement in the power sector contracts of physical guarantee backup), and Ordinance MME No. 21/2008, which deals with power plants qualification for the new energy auctions. The latter was amended by MME Ordinance No. 514, which requires proven natural gas reserves to support the GSA of all candidate projects in a LEN. In other words, the gas supplier now has to prove that there are sufficient gas reserves to meet requirements of all candidate project in an auction, regardless of the plausibility of their engagement in the auction. In this context, the present study discusses these issues and has as main contributions: (I) a review of current regulations on contract ballast in the Brazilian natural gas sector, (II) a proposal to conciliate the need of fuel supply contract ballast to the dynamics of the natural gas sector, and (III) a proposal to conciliate the need for fuel contract ballast to the contracting process of the thermoelectric power in the new energy auctions. These contributions aim at a better integration between the sectors of natural gas and electricity in Brazil, leading to a more efficient use of resources and infrastructure development. (author)

  17. A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS. The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats in the SRNS are predicted based on the equations developed for CNCPS-S, modified to account for specific requirements of goats, including maintenance, lactation, and pregnancy requirements, and body reserves. Feed biological values are predicted based on carbohydrate and protein fractions and their ruminal fermentation rates, forage, concentrate and liquid passage rates, and microbial growth. The evaluation of the SRNS for sheep using published papers (19 treatment means indicated no mean bias (MB; 1.1 g/100 g and low root mean square prediction error (RMSPE; 3.6 g/100g when predicting dietary organic matter digestibility for diets not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS accurately predicted gains and losses of shrunk body weight (SBW of adult sheep (15 treatment means; MB = 5.8 g/d and RMSPE = 30 g/d when diets were not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS for sheep had MB varying from -34 to 1 g/d and RSME varying from 37 to 56 g/d when predicting average daily gain (ADG of growing lambs (42 treatment means. The evaluation of the SRNS for goats based on literature data showed accurate predictions for ADG of kids (31 treatment means; RMSEP = 32.5 g/d; r2= 0.85; concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, = 0.91, daily ME intake (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.24 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.99; CCC = 0.99, and energy balance (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.20 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.87; CCC = 0.90 of goats. In conclusion, the SRNS for sheep can accurately predict dietary organic matter digestibility, ADG of growing lambs and changes in SBW of mature sheep. The SRNS

  18. Energie-Cites opinion on the directive project of CHP. To meet urban energy requirements with optimal energy efficiency and production closer to residents; Avis d'Energie-Cites sur le project de directive cogeneration. Satisfaire les besoins energetiques urbains avec la meilleure efficacite energetique et une production plus proche des habitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    The Directive on ''the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market'' should be adopted very soon. The initial aim of the Directive is to strengthen existing measures to promote CHP in line with the Community target of doubling the share of CHP in EU electricity generation from 9% in 1994 to 18% by 2010. But no target has been mentioned. Energie-Cites states, in this document, its opinion of this draft proposal. Cogeneration is a well-tried and proven technology which has achieved tangible results and is one of the more efficient ways for the EU to fulfill the commitments it made under the Kyoto Protocol. (A.L.B.)

  19. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with p...

  20. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  1. Safety Requirement for Nuclear Logging in Logging While Drilling as an Application of Nuclear Energy in Industrial Facilities; an Overview for the Improvement of Nuclear Energy Regulating Process in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setianingsih, Lilis Susanti [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Data transmission processes in LWD are basically performed in two ways: data transmission within the downhole assembly and data transmission to surface. Tools readings can either be stored in downhole memory or transmitted to surface using mud pulse telemetry. Whenever required the two methods can be combined by storing some data in memory and transmitting some in real time. Yet in the case of data supply exceeding data transmission capacity, only key data is transmitted uphole whilst the rest of some sensors output shall be stored downhole. Another way of transmitting data for real time reading is by taking a limited data sample, for example one in every four readings to be sent uphole. The remaining of data readings will be stored to be downloaded to computer once the memory-pack within the tool is brought to surface. In general, analog data from LWD are converted to binary form downhole. Data are transmitted by using a flow-restricting mechanism in the drilling-fluid flow stream and produce positive or negative pressure pulses which are then transmitted through the mud column inside the drill pipe, read at the surface by pressure sensors and later on recorded and processed. Data transmission can also be performed by using rotary valve pressure-pulse generators, which alternately restrict and and open the drilling-fluid flow, causing varying pressure waves generated in the drilling-fluid at carrier frequency which is proportional to the rate of interruption. Downhole sensor-response data are transmitted to the surface by modulating this acoustic carrier frequency

  2. How to evaluate energy requirement of bum patients——a question still needs farther investigation%烧伤患者热量供应——尚待探讨课题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪仕良

    2008-01-01

    After a series of study of early feeding(EF),we consider the evaporative heat loss from the burn wound is not the main mechanism of burn hypermetabolism.EF could resuscitate the intestine,preserve its structural inte-gnty and function,prevent bacterial translocation and release of inflammatory mediators,reduce muscle protein catabolism and hypermetabolism.Our studies concerning the relationship between EF and hypermetabolism have already extended to involve hypothalamus now.At the end of 1960s,the advancement in "Intravenous Hyperalimentation" has epoch-making significance,but it has been found later that energy has been oversupplied by this measure,thus it exacerbated visceral loading and led to disorder of internal environment,and it has been found not beneficial to alleviate hypermetabolism.Whether "hypoealoric nutrition" for post-operative patients of G-I(gastro-intestine)surgery is applicable to severe bum patients remains as a problem.Some specialists suggest it is better to supply 126~146 kJ·kg-1·d-1 in severe burn patients.After evaluating the bias and precision of 46 methods of estimating energy supply of burn patients reported from 1953 to 2000,Dikerson RN et al.concluded that the most precise,unbiased methods were those of Milner(1994),Zawaeki(1970)and TMMU(1993,Third Military Medical University formula).Though formulas are simple and convenient to estimate energy supplementation,however,it is difficult to evaluate the requirement of energy when the patient's condition changes immensely.

  3. 面向系统调控需求的储能系统控制策略及其经济性评估%Control Strategy for Regulatory Requirements Oriented Energy Storage System and Evaluation on Its Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严干贵; 王月; 李军徽; 冯凯翔; 葛延峰; 高凯

    2015-01-01

    提出一种面向电力系统调控需求的储能系统集中控制策略,以提高电网接纳风电规模,减少弃风电量。同时根据储能系统荷电状态(state of charge,SOC),对储能系统充放电指令进行实时修正,防止储能系统过充过放,优化其运行性能。建立了储能系统经济性评估模型,用以评估储能系统提高风电接纳的运行经济效益。以收益最大为目标,确定储能系统容量配置。基于某地区实测数据对上述控制策略和经济性评估模型进行验证,结果表明提出的面向系统调控需求的储能系统控制方法能够扩大风电入网规模,有效利用电网可接纳风电空间。%A kind of centralized control strategy for regulatory requirements oriented energy storage system for the power system was proposed to improve scale of the power grid taking in wind power and reducing curtailed wind power energy. Ac-cording to state of charge (SOC)of the energy storage system,charge and discharge instructions of the system were revised in real time for preventing over charge and over discharge and optimizing its operational performance. Evaluation model for economy of the energy storage system was established for evaluating operational economic benefits of the system improving wind power adoption. Taking maximum profit as a target,capacity configuration of the energy storage system was deter-mined. Based on measured data in some region,verification on the control strategy and evaluation model was conducted. Results indicate that the control method for energy storage system could enlarge wind power networking scale and effectively use space of the power grid taking in wind power.

  4. Exigências líquidas de energia e proteína de tourinhos Santa Gertrudes confinados, recebendo alto concentrado Energy and protein requirements of Santa Gertrudis young bulls in feedlot, fed high concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de energia e proteína para ganho de tourinhos Santa Gertrudes, 33 tourinhos, com idade de 12 meses e peso inicial médio de 314,6±33,2kg, foram confinados durante 115 dias, após 56 dias de adaptação. Seis animais foram abatidos após adaptação, para determinação da composição química corporal inicial. Os animais receberam dietas contendo 80% de concentrado, avaliando-se a inclusão de 0; 4,5; e 9,0% do subproduto concentrado da produção de lisina na matéria seca. As exigências de energia líquida de ganho (ELg foram estimadas em função do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ e do ganho de PCVZ (GPCVZ, e as exigências líquidas de proteína para ganho (PLg foram estimadas em função do GPCVZ e da energia retida (ER. As equações obtidas para ELg e PLg foram: ELg (Mcal/dia = 0,0061×PCVZ0,75×GPCVZ0,578; e PLg (g/dia = 208,1×GPCVZ - 1,0868×ER. A exigência de energia líquida encontrada para ganho de 1kg de PV foi de 3,93; 4,88 e 5,76Mcal, e a exigência de proteína metabolizável foi de 367,81; 393,59 e 391,63g, respectivamente, para animais com 300, 400 e 500kg de peso corporal. O valor de exigência líquida para mantença foi obtido por meio da regressão do logaritmo da produção de calor (PC, em função da ingestão de energia metabolizável, chegando-se ao valor de 75,6kcal/PVz0,75/dia. Concluiu-se que, devido ao aumento do teor de gordura na composição do ganho, animais de maior peso de corpo vazio apresentam maiores exigências líquidas de energia.The objective of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for gain of Santa Gertrudis young bulls. Thirty-three 12-month-year-old animals, with initial body weight of 314.6±33.2kg, were kept in individual pens during 115 days, after 56 days of adaptation. Six animals were slaughtered after adaptation and determined the chemical composition of initial body. The concentrate proportion in the diet was 80%, on dry

  5. Energy Requirement for 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun Black-Haired Pigs Estimated by Two Methods%2种方法估计10~20 kg湘村黑猪能量需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江碧波; 禹琪芳; 姚爽; 杨永生; 贺建华

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to establish relevant mathematical model for estimating energy re-quirement for 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun black-haired pigs,and offer technical parameters to formulate breeding standard for Xiangcun black-haired pigs. A total of 42 Xiangcun black-haired pigs( barrow)were selected to study the energy deposition and metabolism using a gradient feed intake feeding trial( linear regression)and a comparative slaughtering test. The results showed as follows:1)results from the comparative slaughtering test indicated that the maintenance metabolizable energy( ME)requirement for 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun black-haired pigs was 406.01 kJ/(W0.75·d),and the mathematical model for total ME requirement prediction was ME ( kJ/d)=406.01W0.75( kg)+12.99△W( g/d);2)while the estimation mathematical model established by line-ar regression for the ME requirement for 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun black-haired pigs was ME ( kJ/d )=230.76W0.75(kg)+19.40△W(g/d);3)the digestive energy conversion efficiency of 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun black-haired pigs was 94.22%. Based on the above results,it is suggested that the maintenance requirement of ME for 10 to 20 kg Xiangcun black-haired pigs is 406.01kJ/(W0.75·d).%本研究旨在建立湘村黑猪能量需要量的数学模型,研究10~20kg湘村黑猪的能量需要量,为制订湘村黑猪饲养标准提供部分技术参数。选用湘村黑猪(阉公猪)42头,采用梯度饲养试验(线性回归法)和比较屠宰试验,对10~20kg湘村黑猪能量沉积代谢规律进行研究。结果表明:1)比较屠宰试验测得10~20kg湘村黑猪代谢能(ME)维持需要量为406.01kJ/(W0.75·d),总的ME需要量模型为:ME(kJ/d)=406.01W0.75(kg)+12.99△W(g/d);2)线性回归法建立的10~20kg湘村黑猪ME需要量的估计模型为:ME(kJ/d)=230.76W0.75(kg)+19.40△W(g/d);3)10~20kg湘村黑猪消化能转化率为94.22%

  6. Requirements dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Knowing ‘what’ to build is an integral part of an Information System Development, and it is generally understood that this, which is known as Requirements, is achievable through a process of understanding, communication and management. It is currently maintained by the Requirements theorists that successful system design clarifies the interrelations between information and its representations...

  7. Architecture and energy; Arkitektur og energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R.; Grupe Larsen, V.; Lauring, M.; Christensen, Morten

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this book is to illustrate the interaction between architecture and energy in an overall perspective starting from the new energy requirements. Architects make a lot of form related outlines early in the design process, and these have significant consequences for the energy consumption. Furthermore, the new energy requirements start from an overall evaluation, during which the architectural form is of decisive importance to minimization of the energy consumption. The book focuses on four themes: a) day lighting, which plays a decisive part in relation to our health and wellness inside buildings, b) solar heating; passive solar heating has traditionally been playing an important part in low-energy architecture, c) rough house; choice of materials can both increase and decrease buildings' energy consumption, and d) technology; modern buildings use a number of energy demanding installations, therefore the interaction between technology and energy is examined. (BA)

  8. Guam Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    Describes various energy strategies available to Guam to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020.The information presented in this strategic energy plan will be used by the Guam Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, reducing energy consumption at federal facilities, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including buildings energy efficiency and conservation, renewable electricity production, and alternative transportation. The strategies are categorized based on the time required to implement them.

  9. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  10. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Coolers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers that are effective as of February...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16, 2015....

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  18. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  19. Evaluation of Net Energy Requirement of Tianfu Meat Ducks Aged from 2 to 3 Weeks%2~3周龄天府肉鸭净能需要量的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于乐晓; 贾刚; 赵华; 陈小玲; 刘光芒; 李华; 王康宁

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the net energy ( NE) requirement of Tianfu meat ducks aged from 2 to 3 weeks old. A total of 300 seven-day-old Tianfu meat ducks were selected for the experiment. To determine the apparent metabolizable energy ( AME ) of diets at different feeding levels, fifty ducks were selected and randomly distributed into five feeding levels consisting of ad libitum and 15%, 25%, 35%, 45%restriction groups. The remaining 250 ducks were used for the feeding experiment and comparative slaughter experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, ten ducks were selected and slaughtered to determine the initial body composition. The remaining ducks were randomly distributed into five feeding treatments ( same as the metabolic experiment) . At the age of 14 days, ten ducks were selected from the ad libitum group and slaugh-tered to determine the body composition; at the age of 21 days, ten ducks were selected from every treatment and slaughtered to determine the final body composition. Based on the data of AME of diets, growth perform-ance and body composition of ducks of the ad libitum group and restriction groups, heat production ( HP) and metabolizable energy intake (MEI) at different feeding levels were obtained. NE for maintenance (NEm) was estimated as the antilog of the intercept of the linear regression between MEI and log10 HP. NE for weight gain (NEg) was estimated based on the total body energy (BE) and body weight (BW) of ducks of the ad libitum group at different ages. The result showed as follows:there were significant differences of AME of diets, aver-age daily feed intake ( ADFI) , average daily gain ( ADG) , feed to gain ( F/G) , body fat content, body pro-tein content, body water content, body energy content, energy retained as fat (REf), energy retained as pro-tein (REp), MEI, body energy retention (RE), and HP at different feeding levels (P<0.05). AME of diets, F/G, body protein content and body water content of

  20. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  1. Selection of Laser Material in Laser Driver Required for Inertial Fusion Energy%聚变能激光驱动装置的激光材料选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严雄伟; 郑建刚; 蒋新颖; 王振国; 张永亮; 李明中

    2012-01-01

    基于美国LIFE激光驱动装置的放大器构型,使用Nd玻璃,Yb∶YAG,Yb∶S-FAP,Yb∶CaF2四种材料的参数进行抽运储能过程的模拟计算,分析了介质口径、抽运强度、抽运脉宽及介质温度等参数对装置性能的影响,得到了各材料的优化设计参数,对上述材料应用于聚变能半导体抽运固体激光器(DPSSL)系统主放大器的可行性进行了判断,并提出了理想材料的参数要求,为寻找合适的激光材料提供依据.%Based on optical architecture of LIFE laser driver in USA, Nd : glass, Yb:YAG, Yb:S-FAP, Yb:CaF2 are chosen as the laser material candidates. And with their material properties, the pump and energy storage process of the main-amplifier is simulated. According to the results, the influence of media aperture, pump intensity, pump pulse width and media temperature on the performance of laser driver are analyzed, and optimal design parameters of the main-amplifier with each laser materials are acquired. After judging the feasibility of application of those materials to a laser driver required for inertial fusion energy, the qualification of an ideal material is presented, supplying basis for searching the suitable laser materials.

  2. Energy Deskbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of the Energy Deskbook is to serve as a convenient reference to definitions of energy-related terms and descriptions of current and potential energy sources and their utilization. The material is presented at a low technical level with emphasis on general principles, which are not difficult to understand, rather than technology. The entries vary in length from a few lines to several pages, according to circumstances. As a general rule, each topic is defined and outlined in the first paragraph; this may be followed by a more detailed treatment, as required. An important feature of the Deskbook is the use of boldface (heavy) type for cross references. Words in the text set in boldface are the titles of articles where the particular subjects are described.

  3. Exigências de lisina digestível e de energia metabolizável para codornas de corte em crescimento Digestible lysine and metabolizable energy requirements of growing meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Ton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi estimar as exigências de lisina digestível e de energia metabolizável (EM para codornas de corte (Coturnix coturnix sp em crescimento. Foram utilizadas 1.680 codornas de 4 a 35 dias de idade, não-sexadas, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 4 (LD = 0,92; 1,12; 1,32 e 1,52% × EM = 2.800; 2.900; 3.000 e 3.100 kcal/kg de ração, totalizando 16 dietas, avaliadas com 3 repetições de 35 codornas por unidade experimental. O aumento dos níveis de lisina digestível na ração provocou aumento linear do peso corporal, do ganho de peso, do consumo de lisina e do rendimento de peito e redução do teor de água nos cortes. Quando houve aumento dos níveis de energia metabolizável na ração, observou-se redução linear no consumo de lisina e aumento do peso corporal e do rendimento de gordura abdominal. O aumento simultâneo dos níveis de lisina e energia metabolizável na ração, no entanto, provocou redução linear no consumo de ração e melhora linear da conversão alimentar no período de 4 a 35 dias, mas aumentou o teor de gordura nos cortes. A exigência nutricional de lisina digestível para máximo crescimento de codornas de corte é maior ou igual a 1,52%. O nível de 2.800 kcal/kg de EM na ração é suficiente para bom desempenho das aves, contudo, para melhor conversão alimentar, são necessário níveis mais elevados.The objective of this experiment was to estimate the digestible lysine and metabolizable energy (ME requirements for growing meat quails (Coturnix coturnix sp. A total of 1,680 quails from 4 to 35 days of age of both sexes were used in a complete random experimental design in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme (DL = 0.92; 1.12; 1.32 and 1.52% × ME = 2,800; 2,900; 3,000 and 3,100 kcal/kg of the ration totaling 16 diets evaluated with 3 replications of 35 quails per experimental diet. Increase of the levels of digestible lysine in the diet linearly

  4. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  5. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Geothermal energy is derived from the hot interior of the earth. The earth is a reservoir of heat energy, most of which is buried and is observed during episodes of volcanic eruption at the surfaces. Geothermal is one of the most promising renewable source of energy which is plentiful, eco-friendly, reliable and clean source of energy available in earth crust. In our country there is wide scope for the utilization of geothermal energy with proper strategically approach to meet the energy requirement. The future prospects of this heat energy as a sustainable source of renewable energy are indeed promising. Today India is the fifth largest consumer of electricity and by 2030 it will become third largest overtaking Japan and Russia according to statistical data available by Energy Planning Commission, Government of India.

  6. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  7. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  8. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  9. 48 CFR 23.905 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Contractor Compliance With Toxic Chemical Release Reporting 23.905 Requirements. (a... Classification (SIC) codes or their corresponding North American Industry Classification System sectors:...

  10. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  11. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  12. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  13. RENEWABLE ENERGY IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA MIHĂILĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports published by the International Energy Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, regarding the global energy outlook for the first three decades of the XXI century, warns of global trends on energy demand, increasing dependence on energy imports, coal use and volume emissions of greenhouse gases, torism industry being one of the biggest energy consumption industry. Uncertainties on different models of regional development and access of the world to traditional energy resources require a change of orientation towards long-term scenarios for assessing energy domain, increasing the share of energy from renewable resources beeing one of the solutions. Intourism the renewable energy is a solution for a positive impact on enviroment , reduced operational costs and even won an extra-profit.

  14. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Zaporozhets

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Disparities in the production structure, moral and physical obsolescence and depreciation offixed assets in economics, low-effective use fuel and energy resources (FER and water demands excessiveuse of energy, requiring substantial imports of energy resources (over 50% of needs. The resultingdependence of the basic branches of economy of Ukraine, primarily fuel and energy complex, from theexporting countries of fuel resources and, consequently, increasing the threat to energy safety. Meanwhile,such situation is in contrudiction of the principles of sustainable developments, adopted on the Summit inRio-de-Janeiro (1992. Ukraine needs the more active energy efficient policy.Keywords: energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy intensity of gross domestic product, energysafety state, fuel and energy resources, innovative development, structural changes ineconomy.

  15. Diversification of energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  16. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  17. Wind energies; Energies eoliennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.

    1997-01-01

    The main part of this study is focused on the wind turbine, including a full overview of turbine types, with in each case advantages, disadvantages and conditions of use. Subsidiary elements are mentioned, for support or energy conversion (into electricity, water pumping, heat generation). A glimpse is added to energy storage, and an economic balance is stroke. (D.L.)

  18. Composição corporal e exigências de energia para ganho de peso de caprinos Moxotó em crescimento Body composition and energy requirements for weight gain of growing Moxotó goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliandra Souza Alves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 26 animais da raça Moxotó, machos não-castrados, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 15 kg e 7 a 8 meses de idade, alimentados com dieta contendo 2,6 Mcal de energia metabolizável, com o objetivo de avaliar a composição corporal e as exigências de energia para ganho de peso. Ao início do experimento, seis animais foram abatidos e serviram como referência na estimativa da composição corporal e do peso do corpo vazio (PCVZ iniciais. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (alimentação à vontade - AV; e 85, 70 ou 55% do consumo observado no grupo com AV e cinco repetições. Quando o PV dos animais com AV se aproximava de 25 kg, um animal de cada tratamento com restrição alimentar era abatido. Ajustaram-se as equações do logaritmo (log dos conteúdos corporais de gordura (CCG e energia (CCE em função do log do PCVZ. A concentração de água no corpo dos animais experimentais foi baixa, entretanto, as deposições de gordura, proteína e cinzas aumentaram com a maturidade dos animais. Foram observados aumentos de 78,55 para 125,38 g/kg de PCVZ nos conteúdos corporais de gordura e de 1,90 para 2,34 Mcal/kg de PCVZ nos conteúdos corporais de energia com o aumento de 15 para 25 kg no PV dos animais. Verificou-se relação linear positiva entre a composição em energia do ganho em PCVZ (GPCVZ (Mcal/kg GPCVZ e o PCVZ. Resposta semelhante foi constatada para os conteúdos de gordura no ganho. Os conteúdos corporais de gordura (g e energia (Mcal de caprinos Moxotó aumentam de 14,33 para 22,87 e 0,26 para 0,32 por 100 g de GPCVZ, respectivamente, à medida que aumenta o PCVZ.Twenty-six Moxotó non-castrated males kids, with average 15 kg BW and 7 to 8 mo old, were fed a diet containing 2.6 Mcal/kg ME were used to evaluate the body composition and energy requirements for weight gain. At the beginning of the experiment, six animals were slaughtered as a reference to

  19. Exigência Protéica e Relação Energia/Proteína para Alevinos de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Dietary Protein Requirement and Energy to Protein Ratio for Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a exigência protéica e correspondente relação energia/proteína em dietas para alevinos de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus. Seis dietas semi-purificadas isocalóricas foram formuladas para conter 3.000 kcal de energia metabolizável (EM/kg e concentrações de proteína bruta (PB de 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42%. Para essas concentrações, as relações E/P das dietas foram de 12,3; 11,6; 10,4; 9,2; 8,5 e 7,1 kcal EM/g PB, respectivamente. As fontes de proteína, lipídios e carboidratos digestíveis foram, respectivamente, caseína/gelatina, óleo de fígado de bacalhau/óleo de soja e dextrina. Após condicionamento de cinco dias, as dietas foram fornecidas, até a saciedade, em duas alimentações diárias, a 162 alevinos (27 peixes/dieta, que apresentaram 8,38 ± 0,09 g de peso médio inicial, distribuídos em 18 tanques de fibra-de-vidro de 100 L, conectados a um sistema de recirculação de água. A temperatura média da água foi de 26,3°C, com extremos de 23,7 e 30,2°C. Após 90 dias, a concentração de proteína na dieta que proporcionou ganho em peso máximo aos peixes foi 29% PB, com relação E/P igual a 10,4 kcal EM/g PB. As dietas com concentrações de PB iguais a 32, 36 e 42% não se mostraram superiores para conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, valor produtivo da proteína e retenção de energia bruta. A deposição corporal de proteína e gordura não sofreu influência da concentração de PB da dietaThe aim of this study was to determine the dietary protein requirement and associated energy to protein (E/P ratio for "Piracanjuba", Brycon orbignyanus, fingerlings. Casein-gelatin semipurified diets were formulated to contain six crude protein (CP concentrations: 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42% at one energy level, 3,000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg. These diets resulted in E/P ratios of 12.3, 11.6, 10.4, 9.2, 8.5 and 7.1 kcal ME/g CP, respectively. The protein, lipid

  20. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope Units of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-09-21

    The Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM) was created by presidential proclamation in 2000. It is located along the Columbia River in south central Washington and consists of five distinct units. The McGee Ranch-Riverlands and the North Slope units are addressed in this report. North Slope refers to two of the HRNM units: the Saddle Mountain Unit and the Wahluke Slope Unit. The Saddle Mountain and Wahluke Slope Units are located north of the Columbia River, while the McGee Ranch-Riverlands Unit is located south of the Columbia River and north and west of Washington State Highway 24. To fulfill internal U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, the DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Authorized limits for residual radioactive contamination were developed based on the DOE annual exposure limit to the public (100 mrem) using future potential land-use scenarios. The DOE Office of Environmental Management approved these authorized limits on March 1, 2004. Historical soil monitoring conducted on and around the HRNM indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the authorized limits (Fritz et al. 2003). However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope units were below the authorized limits. Sixty-seven soil samples were collected from the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope units. A software package (Visual Sample Plan) was used to plan the collection to assure an adequate number of samples were collected. The number of samples necessary to decide with a high level of confidence (99%) that the soil concentrations of radionuclides on the North Slope and McGee Ranch-Riverlands units did not exceed the

  1. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  2. 10 CFR 61.3 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License required. 61.3 Section 61.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 61.3 License required. (a) No person may receive, possess, and dispose of radioactive waste... license issued by the Commission pursuant to this part, or unless exemption has been granted by...

  3. 10 CFR 60.3 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License required. 60.3 Section 60.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 60.3 License required. (a) DOE shall not receive or possess source, special nuclear, or byproduct material at a geologic repository operations area except as authorized by a license issued by...

  4. 10 CFR 70.3 - License requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License requirements. 70.3 Section 70.3 Energy NUCLEAR... License requirements. No person subject to the regulations in this part shall receive title to, own... license issued by the Commission pursuant to these regulations....

  5. 10 CFR 35.11 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License required. 35.11 Section 35.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.11 License required. (a) A... for medical use only in accordance with a specific license issued by the Commission or an...

  6. 10 CFR 40.3 - License requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License requirements. 40.3 Section 40.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Provisions § 40.3 License requirements. A..., unless authorized in a specific or general license issued by the Commission under the regulations in...

  7. 10 CFR 63.3 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License required. 63.3 Section 63.3 Energy NUCLEAR... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.3 License required. (a) DOE may not receive nor possess source... except as authorized by a license issued by the Commission under this part. (b) DOE may not...

  8. 10 CFR 55.3 - License requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License requirements. 55.3 Section 55.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.3 License requirements. A person must be authorized by a license issued by the Commission to perform the function of an operator...

  9. Energy Handbook; Energy Vademecum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israels, E.; Stofberg, F.

    2010-05-15

    This is the third and revised print of the Handbook energy-conscious designing of new dwellings. The handbook addresses the latest developments in the field of developing, designing and realizing of new dwellings. [Dutch] Dit is een derde en sterk herziene druk van het 'Vademecum energiebewust ontwerpen van nieuwbouwwoningen', dat in 1992 verscheen. In het 'EnergieVademecum' komen de nieuwste ontwikkelingen op het gebied van energiebewust ontwikkelen, ontwerpen en realiseren van nieuwbouwwoningen aan bod.

  10. Violation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff: a tempest in a (magnetic) Teapot? Why cosmic ray energies above 10(20) eV may not require new physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, G R; Piran, T

    2000-04-17

    The apparent lack of suitable astrophysical sources for the observed highest energy cosmic rays within approximately 20 Mpc is the "Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) paradox." We constrain representative models of the extragalactic magnetic field structure by Faraday rotation measurements; limits are at the microG level rather than the nG level usually assumed. In such fields, even the highest energy cosmic rays experience large deflections. This allows nearby active galactic nuclei (possibly quiet today) or gamma ray bursts to be the source of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays without contradicting the GZK distance limit.

  11. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  12. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Fusion power production requires energy storage and transfer on short time scales to create confining magnetic fields and for heating plasmas. The theta-pinch Scyllac Fusion Test Reactor (SFTR) requires 480 MJ of energy to drive the 5-T compression field with a 0.7-ms rise time. Tokamak Experimental Power Reactors (EPR) require 1 to 2 GJ of energy with a 1 to 2-s rise time for plasma ohmic heating. The design, development, and testing of four 300-kJ energy storage coils to satisfy the SFTR needs are described. Potential rotating machinery and homopolar energy systems for both the Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor (RTPR) and tokamak ohmic-heating are presented.

  13. Principles of light energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, N.

    1994-01-01

    Six methods used to minimize excess energy effects associated with lighting systems for plant growth chambers are reviewed in this report. The energy associated with wall transmission and chamber operating equipment and the experimental requirements, such as fresh air and internal equipment, are not considered here. Only the energy associated with providing and removing the energy for lighting is considered.

  14. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  15. Annual Energy Review 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  16. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  17. Geothermal Energy; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal article, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  18. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  19. State Energy Program Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs

    1999-03-17

    The State Energy Program Operations Manual is a reference tool for the states and the program officials at the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and Regional Support Offices as well as State Energy Offices. The Manual contains information needed to apply for and administer the State Energy Program, including program history, application rules and requirements, and program administration and monitoring requirements.

  20. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  1. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  2. Energy-Friendly Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A building is a base for human activities, but it also consumes a large amount of energy and resources. Of all the newly constructed buildings throughout China, it is estimated only 10 to 15 percent are up to the state standard, and over 80 percent require enormous energy consumption. This

  3. Learning about Renewable Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

  4. Energy literacy and capitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Kok, N.; Quigley, J.

    2014-01-01

    The residential sector accounts for one-fifth of global energy consumption, resulting from the requirements to heat, cool, and light residential dwellings. It is therefore not surprising that energy efficiency in the residential market has gained importance in recent years. In this paper, we examine

  5. DTU International Energy Report 2016: The Energy-Water-Food Nexus - from local to global aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil......-users. The waste water is often returned to the environment after energy requiring waste water management....

  6. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Clothes Washers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers that are effective as of March...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Data Center Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Data Center Storage that are effective as of...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Clothes Dryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Dryers that are effective as of January...

  13. HISTORIC ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Cleaners

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners that are effective as of July...

  14. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  15. Dwelling Buildings’ Energy Certification by Total Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Belindževa-Korkla, O; Krēsliņš, A; Borodiņecs, A

    2005-01-01

    One of the requirements of the Directive 2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings is introduction in the EU member countries of energy certification of buildings. It has to be implemented starting from 2006. In Latvia the energy certification scheme for dwelling buildings was developed in RTU in 2000 and successfully implemented in Ogre in 2002-2004. The existing buildings’ energy certification scheme takes into account only energy consumption of space heating and hot water supply. I...

  16. Scalable Planning for Energy Storage in Energy and Reserve Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bolun; Wang, Yishen; Dvorkin, Yury; Fernandez-Blanco, Ricardo; Silva-Monroy, Cesar A.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kirschen, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage can facilitate the integration of renewable energy resources by providing arbitrage and ancillary services. Jointly optimizing energy and ancillary services in a centralized electricity market reduces the system's operating cost and enhances the profitability of energy storage systems. However, achieving these objectives requires that storage be located and sized properly. We use a bi-level formulation to optimize the location and size of energy storage systems which perform en...

  17. Energy intermittency

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    The first book to consider intermittency as a key point of an energy system, Energy Intermittency describes different levels of variability for traditional and renewable energy sources, presenting detailed solutions for handling energy intermittency through trade, collaboration, demand management, and active energy storage. Addressing energy supply intermittency systematically, this practical text:Analyzes typical time-distributions and intervals between episodes of demand-supply mismatch and explores their dependence on system layouts and energy source characteristicsSimulates scenarios regar

  18. Energy and Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies

  19. Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ongan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathlon athletes, …, eat vegetarian diets in order to meet increasing requirements of carbohydrate and manage their weight status. A healthily well planned vegetarian diet positively affect some parameters related with performance of the athlete. However in a diet based on vegetable, herbs and high fiber, inadequate energy intake should be avoided. Although many vegetarian athletes are warned about consuming high amounts of protein, athletes take less protein than omnivour ones. Therefore, vegetarians should increase dietary protein quality by mixing different foods such as legumes and cereals. Vegetarian athletes who avoid eating animal based foods are at risk of having inadequate energy, fat (essential fatty acids, vitamins B12, B2, D and calcium, iron and zinc. In this review, contribution of vegetarian diets on purpose of healthy eating and optimal athletic performance and nutritional strategies for vegetarian athletes were discussed.

  20. Energy metabolism during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Löf, Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes information regarding how human energy metabolism is affected by pregnancy, and current estimates of energy requirements during pregnancy are presented. Such estimates can be calculated using either increases in basal metabolic rate (BMR) or increases in total energy expenditure (TEE). The two modes of calculation give similar results for a complete pregnancy but different distributions of energy requirements in the three trimesters. Recent information is presented regarding the effect of pregnancy on BMR, TEE, diet-induced thermogenesis, and physical activity. The validity of energy intake (EI) data recently assessed in well-nourished pregnant women was evaluated using information regarding energy metabolism during pregnancy. The results show that underreporting of EI is common during pregnancy and indicate that additional longitudinal studies, taking the total energy budget during pregnancy into account, are needed to satisfactorily define energy requirements during the three trimesters of gestation.

  1. Energy sustainability through green energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Atul

    2015-01-01

    This book shares the latest developments and advances in materials and processes involved in the energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage. Chapters are written by researchers in the energy and materials field. Topics include, but are not limited to, energy from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; solar, wind, geothermal, hydro power, wave energy; energy-transmission, distribution and storage; energy-efficient lighting buildings; energy sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; energy policy for new and renewable energy technologies and education for sustainable energy development

  2. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recalde, Marina, E-mail: mrecalde@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS) - Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICET), 12 de Octubre 1198 piso 7, B8000CTX Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: > This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. > There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. > It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. > A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. > Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  3. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  4. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  5. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  6. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  7. Energy Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehfest, E. et al.

    2014-01-01

    Key policy issues – How will energy demand evolve particularly in emerging and medium- and low- income economies? – What is the mix of end-use energy carriers to meet future energy demand? – How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on t

  8. Energy expenditure in HIV infection123

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmiski, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Energy intake recommendations for adults should be based preferably on direct measurements of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) in corresponding populations who are maintaining healthy body weight and satisfactory physical activity levels. During adolescence, pregnancy, and lactation, energy requirements should be based on TDEE plus the additional energy required to advance these physiologic states. With illness, energy expenditure and energy intake change, but nutritional intervention is...

  9. Annual Energy Review 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2002. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications. Related Publication: Readers of the AER may also be interested in EIA’s Monthly Energy Review, which presents monthly updates of many of the data in the AER. Contact our National Energy Information Center for more information.

  10. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, Dulce Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Requirements evolution is a generally known problem in software development. Requirements are known to change all throughout a system's lifecycle. Nevertheless, requirements evolution is a poorly understood phenomenon. Most studies on requirements evolution focus on changes to written specifications

  11. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  12. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  13. Estimation of requirements of eolic energy equivalent to the electric generation of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Estimacion de requerimientos de energia eolica equivalente a la generacion electrica de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A.; Hernandez M, I.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: maiki27@yahoo.com; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The advantages are presented that have the nuclear and eolic energy as for their low environmental impact and to the human health. An exercise is presented in the one that is supposed that the electric power generated by the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant (CNLV), with capacity of 1365 M W, it should be produced by eolic energy when in the years 2020 and 2025 the units 1 and 2 of the CNLV reach its useful life and be moved away. It is calculated the number of aero generators that would produce the electric power average yearly of the CNLV, that which is equal to install eolic parks with capacity of 2758 M W, without considering that it will also be invested in systems of back generation to produce electricity when the aero generators stops for lack of wind. (Author)

  14. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  15. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  16. Sandia Laboratories energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundergan, C.D.; Mead, P.L.; Gillespie, R.S. (eds.)

    1977-03-01

    As one of the multiprogram laboratories of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Sandia Laboratories applies its resources to a number of nationally important programs. About 75 percent of these resources are applied to research and development for national security programs having to do primarily with nuclear weapons--the principal responsibility of the Laboratories. The remaining 25 percent are applied to energy programs and energy-related activities, particularly those requiring resources that are also used in nuclear weapon and other national security programs. Examples of such energy programs and activities are research into nuclear fusion, protection of nuclear materials from theft or diversion, and the disposal of radioactive waste. A number of technologies and disciplines developed for the weapon program are immediately applicable for the development of various energy sources. Instruments developed to detect, measure, and record the detonation of nuclear devices underground, now being used to support the development of in-situ processing of coal and oil shale, are examples. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of these and other energy programs being conducted by these laboratories in the development of economical and environmentally acceptable alternative energy sources. Energy programs are undertaken when they require capabilities used at the Laboratories for the weapon program, and when they have no adverse effect upon that primary mission. The parallel operation of weapon and energy activities allows optimum use of facilities and other resources.

  17. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  18. Energy, ecology, and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Richard F

    1974-01-01

    Energy, Ecology, and the Environment discusses how our need for energy and the different means required to obtain it affect the environment and the harnessing of different natural resources. The book also aims to show more efficient ways to use and generate energy. The book, after a brief introduction to the concept of energy, covers topics such as the different energy resources and the demands, costs, and policies regarding energy. The book also discusses the problems brought about by the production of energy such as the hazards to nature and man; environmental problems and pollution; and

  19. Annual Energy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  20. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  1. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  2. Copenhagen Energy Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David

    The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision...... of 100% RE can be achieved in a socio-economic and resource efficient way in Denmark, but local involvement is required to ensure the implementation of a Smart Energy System approach. A Smart Energy System perspective, which considers electricity, heating and transport, is applied in this study using...... the EnergyPLAN model. The model simulates the electricity, heating, cooling, industrial, and transport sectors on an hourly basis and enables the identification of new synergies between the sectors to 1) improve the efficiency of the energy system and 2) accommodate the short-term fluctuations in renewable...

  3. OBJECTIVITY REQUIREMENT FOR FLUID DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文楠

    2003-01-01

    A new flow theory is established through the objectivity requirement on the fluid dynamics. It was known that inhomogeneous fluid motion gave rise to viscous force while the selection of observers on different space-time points would change such an inhomogeneous character. Therefore, when the viscous force was considered as an objective existence foreign to the selection of observers, the form invariances of viscous force and momentum equation under local rotation transformation required a new dynamic field,namely the vortex field to be introduced. Then the dynamical equations of all flow fields were obtained through constructing the Lagrangian density of fluid system and using the variational approach of energy.

  4. Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of three energy experts on the issue of school facility energy management. The experts respond to the following questions: will energy deregulation occur in all 50 states and will it provide real savings; and will the majority of districts hire ESCOs to manage their energy needs? (GR)

  5. Energy Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; Wells, Lindsay; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Energy Theater is a dynamic, full-body activity that engages all students in representing the flow of energy in various phenomena, such as a light bulb burning steadily or a refrigerator cooling food. In Energy Theater, each participant acts as a unit of energy that has one form at a time. Regions on the floor correspond to objects in a physical…

  6. Energy Management. A Guide for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Association of School Boards, Winneconne.

    A successful energy management program in a single school or a school district requires an energy audit or survey. The audit identifies how much energy is being consumed, as well as where it is going. Furthermore, it shows opportunities for energy conservation. The walk-through energy conservation survey is the method that has the best prospect…

  7. Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The study provides energy estimates for the following four cases: current average mill energy consumption, state-of-the-art art mill energy consumption, mill energy consumption if advanced technologies requiring further R&D were employed, and theoretical minimum mill energy consumption.

  8. Energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, K.V.; Mudgal, A.G. (comp.)

    1980-01-01

    Energy sources and energy consumption in India are discussed. Human and animal power constitute the principal sources of energy; both are extremely efficient users of the energy in food if they get enough; the food itself takes little energy to grow if energy-intensive agriculture does not take over from traditional methods. Of the commercial sources of energy with which India is endowed, the scarcest are natural gas and petroleum; the most abundant and reasonably well distributed geographically, except for the metallurgical grade, is coal; the one which holds out the greatest promise for the future is nuclear energy. The most important aspect of the energy problem in India is the short supply of coal to steel plants, electric utilities, and such vital industries as cement and textiles. There is a stark confession of the absence of progress on the energy front during the past 18 years. (MCW)

  9. NANA Strategic Energy Plan & Energy Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson; Brian Yanity

    2008-12-31

    NANA Strategic Energy Plan summary NRC, as an Alaska Native Corporation, has committed to addressing the energy needs for its shareholders. The project framework calls for implicit involvement of the IRA Councils in the Steering Committee. Tribal Members, from the NRC to individual communities, will be involved in development of the NANA Energy Plan. NRC, as the lead tribal entity, will serve as the project director of the proposed effort. The NRC team has communicated with various governmental and policy stakeholders via meetings and discussions, including Denali Commission, Alaska Energy Authority, and other governmental stakeholders. Work sessions have been initiated with the Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, the NW Arctic Borough, and Kotzebue Electric Association. The NRC Strategic Energy Plan (SEP) Steering committee met monthly through April and May and weekly starting in June 2008 in preparation of the energy summit that was held from July 29-31, 2008. During preparations for the energy summit and afterwards, there was follow through and development of project concepts for consideration. The NANA regional energy summit was held from July 29-31, 2008, and brought together people from all communities of the Northwest Arctic Borough. The effort was planned in conjunction with the Alaska Energy Authority’s state-wide energy planning efforts. Over $80,000 in cash contributions was collected from various donors to assist with travel from communities and to develop the summit project. Available funding resources have been identified and requirements reviewed, including the Denali Commission, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Alaska Energy Authority. A component of the overall plan will be a discussion of energy funding and financing. There are current project concepts submitted, or are ready for submittal, in the region for the following areas: • Wind-diesel in Deering, Buckland, Noorik, and Kiana areas; potential development around Red Dog mine.

  10. National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.W. (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration is developing a new National Energy Modeling System to provide annual forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices on a regional basis in the United States and, to a limited extent, in the rest of the world. The design for the system was based on a requirements analysis, a comparison of requirements with existing modeling capabilities, and a series of widely circulated issue papers defining the choices and tradeoffs for 13 key design decisions. An initial prototpye of the new NEMS was implemented in late 1992, with a more complete, operational version in 1993. NEMS is expected to provide EIA and other users with a greatly enhanced ability to illustrate quickly and effectively the effects of a wide range of energy policy proposals.

  11. Future energy perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Christensen, J.M. [Risoe National Lab., Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-10-01

    Future energy perspectives: 1) The global energy consumption will continue to grow primarily in developing countries, their share of global energy consumption will grow from approx. 35% in 1990 to 60% in 2050. 2) Policy focus will be primarily on environmental concerns in the industrial countries and on energy for development and access to energy for the poor in developing countries. 3) With global climate concerns and the implementation of the Kyoto protocol, global environment issues will have increased prominence in energy sector priorities. 4) Fossil fuel resources are on a global level still abundant and prices are expected to be relatively low in the short to medium term. 5) Energy supply security has for geopolitical reasons become an increasing concern especially in the US and the EU. 6) Significant investments are required to ensure development of new clean energy technologies for introduction in the medium to long term. 7) Market reforms are being implemented in almost all regions of the world changing both the investment and policy regimes. 8) International studies (IPCC and WEC) have analysed several alternative energy scenarios Alternative policies and priorities can lead to a wide range of different energy futures. 9) WEC middle scenario B, from 1990 to 2050; predicts growth in GDP 3.5 times and primary energy consumption 2.2 times and CO{sub 2} 1.5 times. This scenario is expecting supply to be dominated by fossil fuel (80% in 1990 and still 65% in 2050), with high share of natural gas and nuclear with slow growth in renewable energy. 10) A more radical scenario (C1) is expecting renewable energy such as biomass, solar and wind to contribute 27% in 2050; declining oil and coal; increased use of natural gas and a minor contribution from nuclear. A development path like this require significant near-term investments in technology research and development. 11) The large increase in global energy demand in the next century will require large investments

  12. 18 CFR 3b.3 - Notice requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice requirements. 3b.3 Section 3b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  13. 18 CFR 3a.41 - Access requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access requirements. 3a.41 Section 3a.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Access to Classified Materials §...

  14. Complex Evaluation Model of Corporate Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ágnes Kádár Horváth

    2014-01-01

    With the ever increasing energy problems at the doorstep alongside with political, economic, social and environmental challenges, conscious energy management has become of increasing importance in corporate resource management. Rising energy costs, stricter environmental and climate regulations as well as considerable changes in the energy market require companies to rationalise their energy consumption and cut energy costs. This study presents a complex evaluation model of corporate energy m...

  15. Annual Energy Review 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  16. Annual Energy Review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  17. Annual Energy Review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  18. Annual Energy Review 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2000. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  19. Annual Energy Review 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  20. Solar Total Energy System: Large Scale Experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia. Final technical progress report. Volume I. Section 1. Conclusions and recommendations. Section 2. Systems requirements. [1. 72-MW thermal and 383. 6-kW electric power for 42,000 ft/sup 2/ knitwear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1977-10-17

    The Stearns-Roger Engineering Company conceptual design of ERDA's Large Scale Experiment No. 2 (LSE No. 2) is described. The various LSE's are part of ERDA's Solar Total Energy Program (STES) and a separate activity of the National Solar Thermal Power Systems Program. The object of this LSE is to design, construct, test, evaluate and operate a STES for the purpose of obtaining experience with large scale hardware systems and to establish engineering capability for subsequent demonstration projects. This particular LSE is to be located at Shenandoah, Georgia and will provide power to the Bleyle knitwear factory. The Solar Total Energy system is sized to supply 1.720 MW thermal power (both space heating and process heat) and 383.6 KW electrical power. The STES is sized for the extended knitwear plant of 3902 M/sup 2/ (42,000 sq-ft) which will eventually employ 300 people. The section on conclusions and recommendations described the baseline design recommendation, facility requirements, the solar system, power conversion system, schedules and cost, and additional candidate systems. The systems requirements analysis includes detailed descriptions and analyses of the following subtasks: load analysis, energy displacement, local laws and ordinances, life cycle cost, health and safety, environmental assessment, reliability assessment, and utility interface. (WHK)

  1. 78 FR 79423 - Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment: Petition of CSA Group for Classification as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment... Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... procedures, energy efficiency standards, and compliance certification requirements. 42 U.S.C....

  2. 77 FR 75400 - Labeling Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC84 Labeling Requirements for Commercial and Industrial... conservation standards for certain commercial and industrial equipment, and requires the Department of Energy... potential for establishing labeling requirements for covered commercial and industrial equipment,...

  3. Spacecraft Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Wilf; Hanks, James; Spina, Len; Havenhill, Doug; Gisler, Gary; Ginter, Steve; Brault, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Flywheel Energy Storage Systems represent an exciting alternative to traditional battery storage systems used to power satellites during periods of eclipse. The increasing demand for reliable communication and data access is driving explosive growth in the number of satellite systems being developed as well as their performance requirements. Power on orbit is the key to this performance, and batteries are becoming increasingly unattractive as an energy storage media. Flywheel systems offer ve...

  4. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  5. Energy audit and energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Agnieszka Kulessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In article, we present the issue of energy security. This article to answer the questions concerning the future of energy in Poland. These activities are directly related to energy security and the reduction of CO2 emissions. One element of this plan is the introduction in the EU energy certification of buildings. The energy certificates in Poland launched on 01.01.2009 and implements the objectives adopted by the European Union and contribute to energy security, increasing energy efficiency in construction and environmental protection.

  6. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i...... of the frame. The two geometry numbers are the area of the glazing unit relative to the window area and the length of the frame profiles relative to the window area. Requirements and classes for the energy performance of the window can be given by assigning values to the two energy performance parameters....... In this way the requirements and classes for the energy performance of the window become a function of the geometry of the window. Therefore the effect of the dimension and the configuration of the actual window are taken into account and make it possible to express the energy performance of all windows...

  7. Industrial energy management; Betriebliches Energiemanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, D.

    2007-07-01

    Effective and successful energy and facility management uses a holistic view in which the life cycles of plants and buildings are considered, plus efficient controlling and reporting. The challenge is not in short-term cost reduction but in ensuring long-term effects. This requires management strategies which make use of synergy effects by means of interdisciplinary measures. Main topics: management of energy utilization, energy conversion and energy supply. (GL)

  8. 7 CFR 1709.12 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.12 Reporting requirements... follows: (a) A financial status report listing project expenditures by budget category in such form and at... grant agreement is not being met, the report should discuss the problems or delays that may...

  9. Graph Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang; Gutman, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This book is about graph energy. The authors have included many of the important results on graph energy, such as the complete solution to the conjecture on maximal energy of unicyclic graphs, the Wagner-Heuberger's result on the energy of trees, the energy of random graphs or the approach to energy using singular values. It contains an extensive coverage of recent results and a gradual development of topics and the inclusion of complete proofs from most of the important recent results in the area. The latter fact makes it a valuable reference for researchers looking to get into the field of g

  10. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  11. Climate data and climate change - Analysis of the influence on energy demand, performance requirement and thermal comfort of buildings; Klimadaten und Klimawandel - Untersuchungen zum Einfluss auf den Energiebedarf, den Leistungsbedarf und den thermischen Komfort von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Karsten; Kuenz, Carolin [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Continuous research on climate change has improved the knowledge on climate forecast modelling, so that local and regional climate data sets for the application in building energy modelling are available. The paper analyses the data sets of most known sources and compares the relevant characteristics at four German locations. Simulation results for three commercial building examples (office, school and hotel) illustrate how the climate change may influence heating and cooling demands and capacities as well as the summer thermal comfort if no adjustments with respect to construction, service technology and user behaviour are applied. A significant decrease in space heating demand is contrasted by increased cooling demand and increased indoor temperatures during summer even until 2050. Especially for the office buildings, the summer conditions develop critical, so that active cooling will be mandatory in the summer hot regions. This trend was already detected during the past decade. The forecast is critical for all existing buildings. Significant improvements of the envelope properties such as glazing or shading and passive cooling options become mandatory. The changes predicted for schools and hotels remain moderate.

  12. Wind Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, Carol

    2017-02-01

    This book takes readers inside the places where daily discoveries shape the next generation of wind power systems. Energy Department laboratory facilities span the United States and offer wind research capabilities to meet industry needs. The facilities described in this book make it possible for industry players to increase reliability, improve efficiency, and reduce the cost of wind energy -- one discovery at a time. Whether you require blade testing or resource characterization, grid integration or high-performance computing, Department of Energy laboratory facilities offer a variety of capabilities to meet your wind research needs.

  13. Energy for all

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazilian, Morgan; Yumkella, Kandeh; Gielen, Dolf

    2010-09-15

    Large parts of humanity live without access to modern energy services. It is widely accepted that this lack of access to affordable, reliable, energy services is a fundamental hindrance to human, social, and economic development. A few success stories do exist, but if 'business as usual' conditions persist over the next decades the number of people without access to modern energy services will not decrease. Current efforts are thus insufficient in scale and scope, and a new approach along with a sustained political prioritisation is required.

  14. Alternative energies and innovative measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, P.

    1985-01-01

    Well-planned, simple and viable systems which use renewable energies are economically efficient in field use today. Operational safety and service life are very good indeed after eliminating the errors and failures of the early stages of this technology caused by the attempt to achieve a deceptive optimum by means of sophisticated intricateness of appliances and systems. Renewable energies are beneficial for the environment too. Of course there is some energy required for building systems for renewable energy: i.e. process energy for raw material production, transport energy for people and goods, fuel for heating the factories and business rooms, driving energy for machine tools etc. Correct analysis of these process chains is quite expensive and rather difficult. Upper limits for the energy invested into such plants can, however, be obtained from energy balances of whole industries. The ratio of energy invested and energy produced p.a. is the so-called energy return period; the ratio of service life and return period, called yield factor ought to be more than 1 of course. Detailed analysis of existing, adequate plants shows this factor to be usually much greater than 1. Renewable energies are therefore expected to make a small but most welcome contribution to the energy requirements of buildings, in the long run (50 years) they will help us to solve our environmental- and ressource problems in an efficient way. (orig./BWI).

  15. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  16. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  17. Energy collection via Piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, Ch

    2015-12-01

    In the present days, wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices. For powering them connection needs to be made to the power supply through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries require charging, replacement and other maintenance efforts. So, some alternative methods need to be developed to keep the batteries full time charged and to avoid the need of any consumable external energy source to charge the batteries. Mechanical energy harvesting utilizes piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means are directly converted to electrical charge via piezoelectric effect. The proposed work in this research recommends Piezoelectricity as a alternate energy source. The motive is to obtain a pollution-free energy source and to utilize and optimize the energy being wasted. Current work also illustrates the working principle of piezoelectric crystal and various sources of vibration for the crystal.

  18. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  19. Energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Develi, Abdulkadir; Kaynak, Selahattin (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Energy resources, the basic input in every area of the economy, have a fundamental function for society's welfare. Traditional energy resources are, however, rapidly decreasing. Energy supply has been falling behind in meeting global demand, and is causing increased focus on efficiency and economy concepts in recent energy policies. Since the existing energy resources are not spread evenly among the countries, but instead are concentrated in certain regions and countries, a monopolistic situation arises. Equally, supply assurance is an issue, since the energy supply is held by certain regions and countries who have monopolistic pricing power. Both the EU and many other countries are studying how to marketize energy. This book focuses on the importance of energy and the problems posed by it. It will be useful for the academic community, related sectors and decision makers.

  20. Laserinduced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) of malignant liver tumors. Is it possible to gauge energy requirement for ablation with the aid of Hounsfield units?; Laserinduzierte Interstitielle Thermotherapie (LITT) maligner Lebertumoren. Kann durch eine Messung der Hounsfieldeinheiten des Lebergewebes der Energiebedarf fuer die Ablation vorhergesagt werden?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilberg, Anja

    2011-01-10

    Many malignant tumors such as colorectal cancer or breast cancer cause liver metastases. The therapy strategy is dependent on the primary tumor. Laser induced Interstitial Thermotherapy (LITT), together with various other minimally invasive approaches, is a thermotherapy and could be applied in addition to surgery or as the exclusive method of treating isolated liver metastases. Major advantages of such an approach are the possibility of implementing an outpatient scheme, as well as a lower occurrence rate of complications. After a CT-controlled puncture of the metastases the therapy is monitored in the MRI by using thermosensitive sequences. Liver tissue absorbs energy from laser photons; heat caused by this effect leads to the destruction of tumorous tissue. As the amount of energy required to destroy the metastases varies greatly even with the volume of lesions being the same, the aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a relation between energy requirement and liver density as gauged by means of CT before treatment. For this purpose 168 patients with 279 liver metastases originating from different primaries who were treated with LITT between March 2006 and March 2007 were included in this study. 55.4 % of the patients were pretreated with TACE, which reduces the blood flow in the liver, thus reducing amount of energy required from laser photon treatment. Prior to every single LITT sequence liver density was gauged by puncture CT with the aid of Hounsfield units; also, the volume of the induced necrosis in the 24h MRI image and in the control MRI after 3, 6 and 12 months was measured. It was possible to calculate the actual energy consumption on the basis of number, running time and energy output of the laser employed. Check-up examinations showed a decrease of the mean necrosis-volumes, which indicates that absence of recurrence of the tumor in those spots that had been laser-treated. Analysis of the average survival time after the first LITT over an

  1. Laserinduced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) of malignant liver tumors. Is it possible to gauge energy requirement for ablation with the aid of Hounsfield units?; Laserinduzierte Interstitielle Thermotherapie (LITT) maligner Lebertumoren. Kann durch eine Messung der Hounsfieldeinheiten des Lebergewebes der Energiebedarf fuer die Ablation vorhergesagt werden?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilberg, Anja

    2011-01-10

    Many malignant tumors such as colorectal cancer or breast cancer cause liver metastases. The therapy strategy is dependent on the primary tumor. Laser induced Interstitial Thermotherapy (LITT), together with various other minimally invasive approaches, is a thermotherapy and could be applied in addition to surgery or as the exclusive method of treating isolated liver metastases. Major advantages of such an approach are the possibility of implementing an outpatient scheme, as well as a lower occurrence rate of complications. After a CT-controlled puncture of the metastases the therapy is monitored in the MRI by using thermosensitive sequences. Liver tissue absorbs energy from laser photons; heat caused by this effect leads to the destruction of tumorous tissue. As the amount of energy required to destroy the metastases varies greatly even with the volume of lesions being the same, the aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a relation between energy requirement and liver density as gauged by means of CT before treatment. For this purpose 168 patients with 279 liver metastases originating from different primaries who were treated with LITT between March 2006 and March 2007 were included in this study. 55.4 % of the patients were pretreated with TACE, which reduces the blood flow in the liver, thus reducing amount of energy required from laser photon treatment. Prior to every single LITT sequence liver density was gauged by puncture CT with the aid of Hounsfield units; also, the volume of the induced necrosis in the 24h MRI image and in the control MRI after 3, 6 and 12 months was measured. It was possible to calculate the actual energy consumption on the basis of number, running time and energy output of the laser employed. Check-up examinations showed a decrease of the mean necrosis-volumes, which indicates that absence of recurrence of the tumor in those spots that had been laser-treated. Analysis of the average survival time after the first LITT over an

  2. Energy and globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

    Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

  3. Wind energy in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Various types of wind energy systems were described. The most popular wind energy system uses a high speed propeller, and has a typical efficiency of 40 per cent. A 3 kW two blade propeller wind energy system was set up as a demonstration project at Fort Whyte Centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It generates about four per cent of the electrical requirements of the centre. Other types of wind energy systems include the Darrieus wind energy system using a wind turbine, the Savonius and Multiblade systems, and Hybrid systems. A group of wind energy systems working together is known as a wind farm; such farms have been in operation for many years in high wind areas of the USA. In Manitoba, no wind energy system operates for the sole purpose of generating and selling electricity to a local utility, but some wind energy systems can feed surplus energy into the utility system. A review of environmental impacts, economic considerations and an assessment of wind resources within Manitoba, was also provided. 4 figs.

  4. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  5. Energy Harvesting via Piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Dikshit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present era, wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices. For powering them connection needs to be made to the power supply through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries require charging, replacement and other maintenance efforts. For example, in the applications such as villages, border areas, forests, hilly areas, where generally remote controlled devices are used, continuous charging of the microcells is not possible by conventional charging methods .So, some alternative methods needs to be developed to keep the batteries full time charged and to avoid the need of any consumable external energy source to charge the batteries.. To resolve such problems, Energy harvesting technique is proposed as the best alternative. There exists variety of energy harvesting techniques but mechanical energy harvesting happens to be the most prominent. This technique utilizes piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means are directly converted to electrical charge via piezoelectric effect. Subsequently the electrical energy can be regulated or stored for further use. The proposed work in this research recommends Piezoelectricity as a alternate energy source. The motive is to obtain a pollution-free energy source and to utilize and optimize the energy being wasted. In this paper two important techniques are stressed upon to harness the energy viz Piezoelectric Windmill and Increased Bandwidth Piezoelectric Crystal. Current work also illustrates the working principle of piezoelectric crystal and various sources of vibration for the crystal.

  6. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  7. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  8. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  9. Atomic energy

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.

  10. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  11. Ontology Requirements Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the ontology requirements specification activity is to state why the ontology is being built, what its intended uses are, who the end users are, and which requirements the ontology should fulfill. This chapter presents detailed methodological guidelines for specifying ontology requirements efficiently. These guidelines will help ontology engineers to capture ontology requirements and produce the ontology requirements specification document (ORSD). The ORSD will play a key role dur...

  12. 24 CFR 200.78 - Energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy conservation. 200.78 Section... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Property Requirements § 200.78 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost effective...

  13. Eficiência de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso e exigências de energia metabolizável e nutrientes digestíveis totais de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore Efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for weight gain and requirements of metabolizable energy and total digestible nutrients in F1 Simental x Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a eficiência de utilização da energia metabolizável (EM, para ganho de peso, e as exigências de energia metabolizável e nutrientes digestíveis totais de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore, não-castrados, alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado. Foram utilizados 29 animais com, em média, idade de 17 meses e peso vivo inicial de 354 kg. Cinco animais foram abatidos ao início do experimento, como referência, e o restante foi alimentado à vontade e distribuído nos tratamentos, de forma inteiramente casualizada, de acordo com o nível de concentrado na ração: 25; 37,5; 50; 62,5; e 75%. Os animais foram abatidos quando atingiram o peso de 500 kg. As concentrações de energia líquida das rações foram calculadas e as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso foram estimadas, por análise de regressão, entre as energias líquidas para ganho, em relação à energia metabolizável (EM das rações. As exigências de EM para ganho de um quilograma de peso de corpo vazio aumentaram, à medida que se elevou o peso corporal dos animais e diminuíram, para mesmo peso vivo, à medida que se elevaram os níveis de concentrado nas rações. Estimaram-se as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso em: 0,27; 0,26; 0,36; 0,39; e 0,42. O nível de concentrado melhorou a eficiência de utilização da EM para ganho de peso.The objective of this work was to estimate the efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization (ME for weight gain, and the requirements of metabolizable energy and total digestible nutrients in F1 Simental x Nellore bulls fed diets containing different concentrate levels. Twenty-nine animals averaging 17 of age and initial live weight of 354 kg were used. Five animals were slaughtered in the beginning of the experiment, as a reference, and the remainders were full fed and allotted to a completely randomized

  14. Land use and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  15. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  16. Energy management and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    Energy management is treated by first exploring the energy requirements for a cryogenic tunnel. The requirement is defined as a function of Mach number, Reynolds number, temperature, and tunnel size. A simple program and correlation is described which allow calculation of the energy required. Usage of energy is also addressed in terms of tunnel control and research operation. The potential of a new wet expander is outlined in terms of cost saved by reliquefying a portion of the exhaust. The expander is described as a potentially more efficient way of recovering a fraction of the cold nitrogen gas normally exhausted to the atmosphere from a cryogenic tunnel. The role of tunnel insulation systems is explored in terms of requirements, safety, cost, maintenance, and efficiency. A detailed description of two external insulation systems is given. One is a rigid foam with a fiber glass and epoxy shell. The other is composed of glass fiber mats with a flexible outer vapor barrier; this system is nitrogen purged. The two systems are compared with the purged system being judged superior.

  17. Energy Security Means Energy Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-24

    robertbryce.com. i BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2009. ii Donald Losman, “Oil Denial: An...aer/txt/ptb0103.html xix BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2009. xx BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2009. xxi Author interview with...Betrand Barré, Areva headquarters, Paris, May 7, 2009. xxii BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2009. xxiii For a comparison of various fuels in

  18. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The five sources are electricity, natural gas, No. 2... of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Act) requires that DOE prescribe test procedures for...

  19. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential....S. Department of Energy (DOE) adopted amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. As required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), DOE...

  20. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    technologies or software has been developed. A variety of user requirements are provided illustrating the effect of changing the targeted user group with respect to age,; to the context and the different technologies or software as well as to the difference in viewpoint on ways of involving users...... in the elicitation process. Cases and user requirement elements discussed in the book include: User requirements elicitation processes for children, construction workers, and farmers User requirements for personalized services of a broadcast company Variations in user involvement Practical elements of user...... involvement and requirements elicitation Usable security requirements for design of privacy...

  1. Energy Efficient Televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Dorothea; Remmen, Arne

    The EuP Directive sets the frame for implementing ecodesign requirements for energy-using and energy-related products. The aim of the Directive is to achieve a high level of protection for the environment by reducing the potential environmental impact of energy-related products. The focus of this....... Furthermore, a comparative analysis of best available technology and conventional technologies implies that the standard for the environmental performance of TVs has been driven by technology push rather than a regulatory pull....... of this paper is on the Implementing Measures (IM) for televisions. The ambition level of the IM for televisions is investigated and it is argued that the IM have not succeeded in setting up sufficient ecodesign requirements, as only one life cycle phase and one environmental impact category is addressed...

  2. Energy Supply Security and Renewable Energy Policies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Topcu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of Turkey’s geopolitical position and its related requirements, energy is one of the fi elds where innovation is to be speeded up. However, as a natural consequence of unplanned and incorrect energy policies, Turkey’s rate of dependency on energy has reached 72%. Since the need for energy is increasingly growing, especially as a result of the manufacturing industry in Turkey, and a large part of the consumed energy is imported, dependency seems to continue to increase. Toward this end, this article focuses on studies related to reducing external dependency on energy, while also reviewing and discussing literature survey methodology and making policy recommendations concerning energy supply security. Renewable energy has been attached great importance worldwide as well as nationwide because of providing a reliable energy source that meets economic and environmental requirements. In order to meet the increasing electricity needs of Turkey as a developing country the number on renewable energy facilities has been growing. Domestic production of equipment for renewable energy, and producing and integrating those into the conventional system are of high importance because energy supply is a security factor, sustaining reserves is a major need and reducing foreign dependency is a policy priority.

  3. Energy parity games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent

    2012-11-02

    Energy parity games are infinite two-player turn-based games played on weighted graphs. The objective of the game combines a (qualitative) parity condition with the (quantitative) requirement that the sum of the weights (i.e., the level of energy in the game) must remain positive. Beside their own interest in the design and synthesis of resource-constrained omega-regular specifications, energy parity games provide one of the simplest model of games with combined qualitative and quantitative objectives. Our main results are as follows: (a) exponential memory is sufficient and may be necessary for winning strategies in energy parity games; (b) the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games can be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP; and (c) we give an algorithm to solve energy parity by reduction to energy games. We also show that the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games is logspace-equivalent to the problem of deciding the winner in mean-payoff parity games, which can thus be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP. As a consequence we also obtain a conceptually simple algorithm to solve mean-payoff parity games.

  4. Energy implications of bottled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs—for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration—are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  5. Energy expenditure, nutrition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskin, A E; Davies, J H; Wootton, S A; Beattie, R M

    2011-06-01

    Fundamental to appropriate nutritional prescription is an understanding of the conditions necessary for growth that include the requirements for energy in health and illness. Energy requirements need to be met by the dietary intake to prevent weight loss. A positive energy balance will result in weight gain. Energy requirement includes several components; the largest is the basal metabolic rate, although physical activity level and the energy needs of growth are important components. All aspects of energy metabolism are likely to be influenced by illness and impact on energy balance. Changes in dietary intake and physical activity are observed clinically but poorly described in most childhood illnesses. Changes in metabolic rate are poorly described in part owing to methodological problems. This review explores changes in energy expenditure associated with health and disease, highlights the lack of evidence underpinning this aspect of practical nutritional support and provides the clinician with a guide to the factors involved in estimating energy requirements, emphasising the importance of measuring the child's response to nutritional support.

  6. Solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  7. A Net Energy-based Analysis for a Climate-constrained Sustainable Energy Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Bardi, Ugo; Csala, Denes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from a fossil-based energy economy to one based on renewable energy is driven by the double challenge of climate change and resource depletion. Building a renewable energy infrastructure requires an upfront energy investment that subtracts from the net energy available to society. This investment is determined by the need to transition to renewable energy fast enough to stave off the worst consequences of climate change and, at the same time, maintain a sufficient net energy fl...

  8. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  9. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  10. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    The idea that food intake is motivated by (or in anticipation of) 'hunger' arising from energy depletion is apparent in both public and scientific discourse on eating behaviour. In contrast, our thesis is that eating is largely unrelated to short-term energy depletion. Energy requirements meal-to-meal are trivial compared with total body energy stores, and energy supply to the body's tissues is maintained if a meal or even several meals are missed. Complex and exquisite metabolic machinery ensures that this happens, but metabolic regulation is only loosely coupled with the control of energy intake. Instead, food intake needs to be controlled because the limited capacity of the gut means that processing a meal presents a significant physiological challenge and potentially hinders other activities. We illustrate the relationship between energy (food) intake and energy expenditure with a simple analogy in which: (1) water in a bathtub represents body energy content, (2) water in a saucepan represents food in the gut, and (3) the bathtub is filled via the saucepan. Furthermore, (4) it takes hours to process and pass the full energy (macronutrient) content of the saucepan to the bathtub, and (5) both the saucepan and bathtub resist filling, representing negative feedbacks on appetite (desire to eat). This model is consistent with the observations that appetite is reduced acutely by energy intake (a meal added to the limited capacity of the saucepan/gut), but not increased by an acute increase in energy expenditure (energy removed from the large store of energy in the bathtub/body). The existence of relatively very weak but chronic negative feedback on appetite proportional to body fatness is supported by observations on the dynamics of energy intake and weight gain in rat dietary obesity. (We use the term 'appetite' here because 'hunger' implies energy depletion.) In our model, appetite is motivated by the accessibility of food and the anticipated and experienced

  11. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  12. Transporation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2012-06-30

    This Transportation Energy Project is comprised of four unique tasks which work within the railroad industry to provide solutions in various areas of energy conservation. These tasks addressed: energy reducing yard related decision issues; alternate fuels; energy education, and energy storage for railroad applications. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team examined these areas and provided current solutions which can be used to both provide important reduction in energy usage and system efficiency in the given industry. This project also sought a mode in which rural and long-distance education could be provided. The information developed in each of the project tasks can be applied to all of the rail companies to assist in developing efficiencies.

  13. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  14. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart;

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  15. Wind Power: An Emerging Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    One may ask the question, What is energy? Typically the first answers that come to mind are oil, coal, and natural gas or nuclear energy. Most human activities require some form of energy consumption. This may be the energy produced by the food that one eats or the gasoline that is used in cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles. One cannot ignore…

  16. Energy Sustainability and the Green Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of campus energy sustainability, explaining that both demand- and supply-side strategies are required. Suggests that on the demand side, an aggressive campus energy conservation program can reduce campus energy consumption by 30 percent or more. Asserts that addressing the supply side of the energy equation means shifting…

  17. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  18. Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With an increasing number of countries becoming industrialized, energy, the so-called blood of modern economies, is becoming increasingly important Energy security has become an important factor that directly influences world economic stability and international relations. In an article posted on People's Daily Online, Liu Jianfei, professor at the International Strategic Research Center of the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, shares his opinions on energy security.

  19. Energy Savers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government has mandated a reduction in energy use this year, but many wonder whether and how that goal can be achieved Pressure is mounting for China to reduce its energy consumption, but many say the government's target of cutting energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 4 percent this year will be a major hurdle. Nearly half of the provinces and

  20. Stochastic energy balancing in substation energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shirzeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, a smart grid is considered as a network of distributed interacting nodes represented by renewable energy sources, storage and loads. The source nodes become active or inactive in a stochastic manner due to the intermittent nature of natural resources such as wind and solar irradiance. Prediction and stochastic modelling of electrical energy flow is a critical task in such a network in order to achieve load levelling and/or peak shaving in order to minimise the fluctuation between off-peak and peak energy demand. An effective approach is proposed to model and administer the behaviour of source nodes in this grid through a scheduling strategy control algorithm using the historical data collected from the system. The stochastic model predicts future power consumption/injection to determine the power required for storage components. The stochastic models developed based on the Box-Jenkins method predict the most efficient state of the electrical energy flow between a distribution network and nodes and minimises the peak demand and off-peak consumption of acquiring electrical energy from the main grid. The performance of the models is validated against the autoregressive moving average (ARIMA and the Markov chain models used in previous work. The results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms both the ARIMA and the Markov chain model in terms of forecast accuracy. Results are presented, the strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed, and possible future work is described.

  1. Energy justice and foundations for a sustainable sociology of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Hannah Ann

    This dissertation proposes an approach to energy that transcends the focus on energy as a mere technical economic or engineering problem, is connected to sociological theory as a whole, and takes issues of equality and ecology as theoretical starting points. In doing so, the work presented here puts ecological and environmental sociological theory, and the work of environmental justice scholars, feminist ecologists, and energy scholars, in a context in which they may complement one another to broaden the theoretical basis of the current sociology of energy. This theoretical integration provides an approach to energy focused on energy justice. Understanding energy and society in the terms outlined here makes visible energy injustice, or the interface between social inequalities and ecological depredations accumulating as the social and ecological debts of the modern energy regime. Systems ecology is brought into this framework as a means for understanding unequal exchange, energy injustice more generally, and the requirements for long-term social and ecological reproduction in ecological terms. Energy developments in Ecuador and Cuba are used here as case studies in order to further develop the idea of energy justice and the theory of unequal ecological exchange. The point is to broaden the framework of the contemporary critical sociology of energy, putting energy justice at its heart. This dissertation contains previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

  2. Long Life, High Energy Cell Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a need to develop higher energy density battery systems to meet the power requirements of future energy devices. In this proposed Phase I program, PSI will...

  3. Energy management study for lunar oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzolare, R. A.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    Energy management opportunities in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being investigated. An optimal energy system to supply the power requirements for the process will be determined.

  4. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, Jason; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-03-15

    Wind energy is a variable and uncertain renewable resource that has long been used to produce mechanical work, and has developed into a large producer of global electricity needs. As renewable sources of energy and feedstocks become more important globally to produce sustainable products, many different processes have started adopting wind power as an energy source. Many times this is through a conversion to hydrogen through electrolysis that allows for a more continuous process input. Other important pathways include methanol and ammonia. As the demand for sustainable products and production pathways increases, and wind power capital costs decrease, the role of wind power in chemical and energy production seems poised to increase significantly.

  5. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  6. Energy: nuclear energy; Energies: l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  7. Nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  8. Space power development impact on technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Fitzgerald, T. J.; Gilje, R. I.; Gordon, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the selection of a specific spacecraft power technology and the identification of technology development to meet system requirements. Requirements which influence the selection of a given technology include the power level required, whether the load is constant or transient in nature, and in the case of transient loads, the time required to recover the power, and overall system safety. Various power technologies, such as solar voltaic power, solar dynamic power, nuclear power systems, and electrochemical energy storage, are briefly described.

  9. Monitoring Energy Consumption of Smartphones

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Fangwei; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xuhai; Ma, Chengchuan

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of new and innovative applications for mobile devices like smartphones, advances in battery technology have not kept pace with rapidly growing energy demands. Thus energy consumption has become a more and more important issue of mobile devices. To meet the requirements of saving energy, it is critical to monitor and analyze the energy consumption of applications on smartphones. For this purpose, we develop a smart energy monitoring system called SEMO for smartphones using Android operating system. It can profile mobile applications with battery usage information, which is vital for both developers and users.

  10. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  11. Energy Use in Nanoscale Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Teresa; Boyd, Sarah; Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of key nanoscale manufacturing technologies, and qualitatively examines their fundamental process requirements with respect to energy demand. The processes requirements are related to semiconductor manufacturing, where applicable, and gaps in our understanding of these processes on the production scale are identified as goals for the research community. Finally, the paper proposes a framework for the systematic analysis of energy use in nanoscale manufacturing ...

  12. Semiosis and Energy Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborsky, Edwina

    2002-09-01

    Semiosis is understood as a process of transforming energy to mass via measurement. Measurement is an action of codification, organizing energy within different modes of relation. Measurement is examined within a series of ontological and epistemological cuts that increase asymmetry by first differentiating energy/mass into external and internal realms and then differentiating these realms into formal mind-models and informal mass-instances. These realms are examined within the three Peircean modes of Firstness. Secondness and Thirdness to explore five different processes of codification that encode energy to mass within a maturing complexity. Codification within these five processes is examined within classical and quantum mechanics and concludes that we require both mechanics of codification to provide a generative semiosis.

  13. Optofluidics for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Sinton, David; Psaltis, Demetri

    2011-10-01

    Since its emergence as a field, optofluidics has developed unique tools and techniques for enabling the simultaneous delivery of light and fluids with microscopic precision. In this Review, we describe the possibilities for applying these same capabilities to the field of energy. We focus in particular on optofluidic opportunities in sunlight-based fuel production in photobioreactors and photocatalytic systems, as well as optofluidically enabled solar energy collection and control. We then provide a series of physical and scaling arguments that demonstrate the potential benefits of incorporating optofluidic elements into energy systems. Throughout the Review we draw attention to the ways in which optofluidics must evolve to enable the up-scaling required to impact the energy field.

  14. Energy Security, Innovation & Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-30

    More than a dozen energy experts convened in Houston, Texas, on February 13, 2009, for the first in a series of four regionally-based energy summits being held by the Council on Competitiveness. The Southern Energy Summit was hosted by Marathon Oil Corporation, and participants explored the public policy, business and technological challenges to increasing the diversity and sustainability of U.S. energy supplies. There was strong consensus that no single form of energy can satisfy the projected doubling, if not tripling, of demand by the year 2050 while also meeting pressing environmental challenges, including climate change. Innovative technology such as carbon capture and storage, new mitigation techniques and alternative forms of energy must all be brought to bear. However, unlike breakthroughs in information technology, advancing broad-based energy innovation requires an enormous scale that must be factored into any equation that represents an energy solution. Further, the time frame for developing alternative forms of energy is much longer than many believe and is not understood by the general public, whose support for sustainability is critical. Some panelists estimated that it will take more than 50 years to achieve the vision of an energy system that is locally tailored and has tremendous diversity in generation. A long-term commitment to energy sustainability may also require some game-changing strategies that calm volatile energy markets and avoid political cycles. Taking a page from U.S. economic history, one panelist suggested the creation of an independent Federal Energy Reserve Board not unlike the Federal Reserve. The board would be independent and influence national decisions on energy supply, technology, infrastructure and the nation's carbon footprint to better calm the volatile energy market. Public-private efforts are critical. Energy sustainability will require partnerships with the federal government, such as the U.S. Department of Energy

  15. Energy and Protein Requirements for Maintenance of Doper Sheep and Hu Sheep Hybrid F1 Ewes during Pregnancy%杜湖杂交 F1代母羊妊娠期能量和蛋白质维持需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马铁伟; 聂海涛; 张浩; 纪宇; 王震; 邓凯平; 王锋

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for maintenance of Dor-per and Hu hybrid F1 ewes during pregnancy and to provide data for formulating diet for the mutton sheep. The experiment consisted of feeding experiment, digestion metabolism experiment and respirometary experiment. Fifteen sheep with body weight of (43.34±1.37) kg at the age of nine months were used. After the treatments of synchronization of estrus and free mating, the sheep were assigned randomly into three groups with five e-wes in each group, which were ad libitum ( Ad) group, 70% Ad group and 50% Ad group. Feces and urine were collected using total feces collection method on 40, 100 and 130 days of pregnancy;meanwhile, respiro-metary experiment was conducted, and metabolic parameters of nitrogen and energy at different periods of pregnancy were calculated;finally the requirements of net nitrogen, net energy and metabolic energy for main-tenance of the cross combination during pregnancy were calculated by establishing the allometric regressions re-spectively between nitrogen intake and nitrogen retention, the logarithm of heat production and metabolizable energy intake according to the results of digestion metabolism experiment and respirometary experiment. The re-sults showed as follows:1) the apparent digestibility of nitrogen on 40, 100 and 130 days of pregnancy were 56.16% to 62.24%, 60.43% to 65.47% and 58.79% to 62.01%, respectively. 2) The apparent digestibility of gross energy on 40, 100 and 130 days of pregnancy were 51. 18% to 64. 25%, 60. 86% to 66. 17%, and 63.20%~67.36%, respectively. 3) Requirements of net nitrogen, net energy and metabolic energy for mainte-nance of this breed on 40, 100 and 130 days of pregnancy were 287.9, 301.3 and 430.7 mg/(kg W0.75·d), 194.01, 244.59 and 256.08 kJ/(kg W0.75·d), and 283.18, 412.26 and 468.56 kJ/(kg W0.75·d), respec-tively. The research defines the energy and protein requirement parameters for Dorper sheep

  16. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  17. IEA EBC Annex 67 Energy Flexible Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Jensen, Søren Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    The foreseen large deployment of renewable energy sources may seriously affect the stability of energy grids. It will be necessary to control energy consumption to match instantaneous energy production. The built-in Energy Flexibility in buildings may be utilized for stabilizing the energy grids......, allowing for a larger roll out of renewable technologies. The Energy Flexibility of a building is the ability to manage its energy demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and grid requirements. Energy Flexibility of buildings will thus allow for demand side management...... and load control and thereby demand response based on the requirements of the surrounding grids. Currently there is, however, no overview or insight into how much Energy Flexibility different building types and their usage may be able to offer to future energy systems. Three is thus a need for increasing...

  18. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  19. Nanostructured energy devices equilibrium concepts and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bisquert, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the pressing needs of society, low cost materials for energy devices have experienced an outstanding development in recent times. In this highly multidisciplinary area, chemistry, material science, physics, and electrochemistry meet to develop new materials and devices that perform required energy conversion and storage processes with high efficiency, adequate capabilities for required applications, and low production cost. Nanostructured Energy Devices: Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics introduces the main physicochemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices. It inclu

  20. CORRELACIÓN ENTRE PROPIEDADES ANATÓMICAS, RESISTENCIA A FLEXIÓN ESTÁTICA Y ENERGÍA REQUERIDA PARA EL CORTE DE LA CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum L. CORRELATIONS AMONG ANATOMIC PROPERTIES, BENDING RESISTANCE AND ENERGY REQUIRED TO CUT SUGAR CANE (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alberto González Sánchez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La microestructura, estructura anatómica, la resistencia a la flexión y la energía requerida durante el corte de los tallos de tres variedades de caña de azúcar cultivadas en el Valle del Cauca (Colombia, fueron estudiados con el propósito de adquirir información útil para el desarrollo de cuchillas para corte de esta especie. Las labores de caracterización microestructural y anatómica se apoyaron en las técnicas de microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido. Las propiedades mecánicas se determinaron adaptando algunas normas ASTM para maderas, mientras que la energía al corte se evaluó usando un péndulo de impacto tipo Charpy modificado. En los tallos de las tres variedades estudiadas se observaron diferentes distribuciones y dimensiones geométricas de las fibras y se verificó la presencia de partículas de sílice. Se presentó en general mayor requerimiento de energía específica al corte en los entrenudos que en los nudos y un menor consumo específico de energía al corte con las cuchillas con ángulo de afilado de 20°. Se establecieron relaciones entre la microestructura de los tallos, comportamiento a la flexión y al corte, destacándose la relación proporcional entre el área transversal efectiva de fibra (ATEF y la energía específica al corte, así como entre el coeficiente de flexibilidad y el módulo de elasticidad en flexión.The microstructure, anatomical structure, bending resistance and the energy required to cut stems of three varieties of sugar cane cultivated in the Valle del Cauca ( Colombia , were studied in order to have useful data for the development of cutting blades. Microestructural and anatomical characterization tasks were performed by optical microscopy ( OM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The physical and mechanical properties were determined after adaptation of ASTM standards (which were developed for wood, while the consumption of energy during cutting was evaluated by using a