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Sample records for br-2 reactor russian federation

  1. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  2. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, E.

    2007-09-15

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  3. FINANCIAL MEGAREGULATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochakovsky V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 2013 became year of changes for a financial system of the Russian Federation. On the basis of the Central bank of the Russian Federation there the financial mega-regulator began to work

  4. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of the BR2 Reactor to LEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Van den Branden, G. [SCK CEN (Belgium); Kalcheva, S. [SCK CEN (Belgium); Sikik, E. [SCK CEN (Belgium); Koonen, E. [SCK CEN (Belgium)

    2015-12-01

    BR2 is a research reactor used for radioisotope production and materials testing. It’s a tank-in-pool type reactor cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and light water (Figure 1). The reactor core consists of a beryllium moderator forming a matrix of 79 hexagonal prisms in a hyperboloid configuration; each having a central bore that can contain a variety of different components such as a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Based on a series of tests, the BR2 operation is currently limited to a maximum allowable heat flux of 470 W/cm2 to ensure fuel plate integrity during steady-state operation and after a loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure accident.

  5. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of the BR2 Reactor to LEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Van den Branden, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Kalcheva, S [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Sikik, E [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Koonen, E [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)

    2016-09-01

    BR2 is a research reactor used for radioisotope production and materials testing. It’s a tank-in-pool type reactor cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and light water. The reactor core consists of a beryllium moderator forming a matrix of 79 hexagonal prisms in a hyperboloid configuration; each having a central bore that can contain a variety of different components such as a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Based on a series of tests, the BR2 operation is currently limited to a maximum allowable heat flux of 470 W/cm2 to ensure fuel plate integrity during steady-state operation and after a loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure accident. A feasibility study for the conversion of the BR2 reactor from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel was previously performed to verify it can operate safely at the same maximum nominal steady-state heat flux. An assessment was also performed to quantify the heat fluxes at which the onset of flow instability and critical heat flux occur for each fuel type. This document updates and expands these results for the current representative core configuration (assuming a fresh beryllium matrix) by evaluating the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB), onset of flow instability (OFI) and critical heat flux (CHF).

  6. SoLid: Search for Oscillation with a 6Li Detector at the BR2 research reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Michiels, Ianthe

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, various nuclear reactor neutrino experiments have measured a deficit in the flux of antineutrinos coming from the reactor at short reactor-detector distances, when compared to theoretical calculations. One of the experiments designed to investigate this reactor antineutrino anomaly is the SoLid experiment. It uses the compact BR2 research reactor from the SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium, to perform reactor antineutrino flux measurements at very short baseline. These proceedings discuss the general detection concepts of the SoLid experiment and its novel detector technology. The performance of the SoLid design is demonstrated with some results of the analysis of the data gathered with the experiment's first large scale test module, SM1.

  7. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  8. First results of the deployment of a SoLid detector module at the SCK-CEN BR2 reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Ryder, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The SoLid experiment aims to resolve the reactor neutrino anomaly by searching for electron-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations. The search will be performed between 5.5 and 10 m from the highly enriched uranium core of the BR2 reactor at SCK-CEN. The experiment utilises a novel approach to anti-neutrino detection based on a highly segmented, composite scintillator detector design. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved using a combination of high neutron-gamma discrimination using 6 LiF:ZnS(Ag) and precise localisation of the inverse beta decay products. This compact detector system requires limited passive shielding as it relies on spacial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. The first full scale, 288 kg, detector module was deployed at the BR2 reactor in November 2014. A phased three tonne experimental deployment will begin in the second half of 2016, allowing a precise search for oscillations that will resolve the reactor anomaly using a three tonne detector running for thr...

  9. Loss-of-Flow and Loss-of-Pressure Simulations of the BR2 Research Reactor with HEU and LEU Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sikik, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Van den Branden, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Koonen, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)

    2016-01-01

    Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) is a research and test reactor located in Mol, Belgium and is primarily used for radioisotope production and materials testing. The Materials Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is supporting the conversion of the BR2 reactor from Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. The reactor core of BR2 is located inside a pressure vessel that contains 79 channels in a hyperboloid configuration. The core configuration is highly variable as each channel can contain a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Because of this variability, a representative core configuration, based on current reactor use, has been defined for the fuel conversion analyses. The code RELAP5/Mod 3.3 was used to perform the transient thermal-hydraulic safety analyses of the BR2 reactor to support reactor conversion. The input model has been modernized relative to that historically used at BR2 taking into account the best modeling practices developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and BR2 engineers.

  10. Loss-of-Flow and Loss-of-Pressure Simulations of the BR2 Research Reactor with HEU and LEU Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sikik, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Van den Branden, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Koonen, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)

    2016-01-01

    Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) is a research and test reactor located in Mol, Belgium and is primarily used for radioisotope production and materials testing. The Materials Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is supporting the conversion of the BR2 reactor from Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. The reactor core of BR2 is located inside a pressure vessel that contains 79 channels in a hyperboloid configuration (Figure 1). The core configuration is highly variable as each channel can contain a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Because of this variability, a representative core configuration (Figure 2), based on current reactor use, has been defined for the fuel conversion analyses [1]. The code RELAP5/Mod 3.3 [2] was used to perform the transient thermal-hydraulic safety analyses of the BR2 reactor to support reactor conversion. The input model has been modernized relative to that historically used at BR2 taking into account the best modeling practices developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and BR2 engineers.

  11. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  12. SoLid: An innovative anti-neutrino detector for searching oscillations at the SCK•CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Yamiel

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid experiment intends to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline from the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor (Mol, Belgium). A novel detector approach to measure reactor anti-neutrinos was developed based on an innovative sandwich of composite polyvinyl-toluene and 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillators. The system is highly segmented and read out by a network of wavelength shifting fibers and SiPM. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other standard technologies thanks to the combination of high granularity, good neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator and precise localisation of the Inverse Beta Decay products. This technology can be considered as a new generation of an anti-neutrino detector. This compact system requires limited passive shielding and relies on spatial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. We will describe the principle of detection and the detector design. Particular focus on the neutron discrimination will be made, as well as on the capability to use cosmic muons for channel equalisation and energy calibration. The performance of the first 288 kg SoLid module (SM1), based on the data taken at BR2 from February to September 2015, will be presented. We will conclude with the next phase, which will start in 2016, and the future plans of the experiment.

  13. Validation of SCALE4.4a for Calculation of Xe-Sm Transients After a Scram of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, S.; Ponsard, B.; Koonen, E.

    2007-07-15

    The aim of this report is to validate the computational modules system SCALE4.4a for evaluation of reactivity changes, macroscopic absorption cross sections and calculations of the positions of the Control Rods during their motion in Xe-Sm transient after a scram of the BR-2 reactor. The rapid shutting down of the reactor by inserting of negative reactivity by the Control Rods is known as a reactor scram. Following reactor scram, a large xenon and samarium buildup occur in the reactor, which may appreciably affect the multiplication factor of the core due to enormous neutron absorption. The validation of the calculations of Xe-Sm transients by SCALE4.4a has been performed on the measurements of the positions of the Control Rods during their motion in Xe-Sm transients of the BR-2 reactor and on comparison with the calculations by the standard procedure XESM, developed at the BR-2 reactor. A final conclusion is made that the SCALE4.4a modules system can be used for evaluation of Xe-Sm transients of the BR-2 reactor. The utilization of the code is simple, the computational time takes from few seconds.

  14. Ethnodemographic processes in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaz'mina, O E; Puchkov, P I

    1995-01-01

    This is an English translation of the introduction to a textbook on the ethnic demography of the Russian Federation. It explores the intricacies of multiple language groups, ethnic group interspersions, and the existence of small yet self-identifying populations without political territorial status. The political implications of demographic developments affecting ethnic groups, including migration, are also considered.

  15. [Current ascariasis situation in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchenkova, N N; Romanenko, N A; Chernyshenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), ascariasis remains to be the most common geohelminthiasis, in children in particular. With its overall reduction, the prevalence of ascariasis is very uneven on the RF territory. In the past 15 years, from 1991 to 2004, there was a steady-state decrease in the incidence of ascariasis from 79.5 to 46.0 per 100,000. Its incidence rates remained higher than the average Russian ones in 33 RF subjects and lower than those in 48 subjects and began reducing in 8 subjects in the past 4 years. Of the 33 RF subjects wherein the incidence rates were constantly greater than the average Russian ones, 27 subjects are located in the natural background-favorable areas. In the past 15 years, there was an increase in the impact of socioeconomic factors on the higher incidence of ascariasis: the population's migration; the delivery and transport of Ascaris egg-contaminated greens, vegetables, berries; the development of hothouse gardening, and, as a result, the occurrence of ascariasis in the northern areas of the country, as well as the use of discharged waters for soil fertilization to grow crops. The territory of Russia was first epidemiologically districted in the context of ascariasis, by taking into account the natural background and socioeconomic factors. The area of ascariasis is on the rise. In all RF subjects, public health and social security bodies should constantly keep in mind the problem in ascariasis control and prevention.

  16. Types of Identification and Intergroup Differentiation in the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minescu, Anca; Hagendoorn, Louk; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The fall of the Soviet Union affected the established identity patterns and intergroup relations in the Russian Federation. A survey investigates the effect of Russians’ and titulars’ identifications with their ethnic group, their republic, and the Russian Federation on intergroup stereotypes.We hyp

  17. Supervising development in petroleum industry of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Sizov, Aleksey Valentinovich; Tretyakov, Konstantin Nikolaevich; Boyarko, Grigory Yurievich; Shenderova, Inna Vladimirovna; Shakirov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Supervising has strongly consolidated in the domestic petroleum services market of the Russian Federation. But despite the rapid growth of the supervising services market, there is a definite need for its further development. In the article, the developments of supervising in petroleum industry of the Russian Federation, as well as possible ways of its improvement are considered.

  18. RUSSIAN FEDERATION STATE PRIZE IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Russian Federation State Prize in the field of Science and Technology for 2009 for "A Set of Scientific Works on the Development of Laser and Information Technologies in Medicine" (Presidential Decree N° 678, dated June 6th, 2010) was awarded jointly to Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the Institute of Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, V. Ya. Panchenko; to Doctor of Medical Sciences, Ac...

  19. Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys, dataset DSI-9808, contains routine snow surveys that run throughout the cold season every 10 days (every five...

  20. SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION ENERGY POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta NOWAKOWSKA-KRYSTMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Central Asia region in energy market creates certain approach of Russian Federation. It infl uences not only situation in the region but also short and long term prospects of economic development of adjacent regions, i.e. North, East and South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Russian economic policy determines and defi nes certain forms of international cooperation, which, in turn, results in its importance for international political relations. The article points out the essence of Russian Federation policy towards Central Asia and adjacent regions which consists in conducting geo-economic activities determining geo-political activities.

  1. [African swine fever in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; Aliper, T I; Grebennikova, T A; Verkhovskiĭ, O A; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Mur, Lina; Nepoklonov, E A; L'vov, D K

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious viral disease that causes high economic losses due to the necessity of depopulation of pigs in affected areas, sanitary measures, trade restrictions, etc. The virus (ASFV) is relatively stable in the unprocessed meat products and environment. Thus, large areas are at risk due to free movement of people and products. The ASFV does not affect people and animals, except the wild and domestic pigs. Some ticks can become infected and carry the virus for years. Adaptation of the virus by changing into the less virulent form would mean the threat of an endemic situation to the area. The disease is endemic in domestic and wild pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia, Italy. There is no treatment for ASF, and no vaccine has been developed. In case of infection with less virulent ASFV strains, the recovered pigs could spread the virus as long as their live. In terms of clinical symptoms, ASF is very similar to Classical Swine Fever. The methods of laboratory diagnostics are well developed and efficient for identification of ASFV and virus-specific antibodies. Experience of eradication of ASF in Spain suggests the importance of serological monitoring of pigs. In the spring of 2007, the ASF was detected in the Caucasus region. Same virus was detected in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Russia. The ASFV circulating in the Caucasus and the Russian Federation is a highly virulent virus. No reduction of the virulence was observed since the first outbreak in Georgia. In the last years, the ASF remained in the Caucasus, southern parts of Russia and appeared occasionally as far as St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg region, and in the area of Nizhny Novgorod. Domestic pigs play an important role in the ASFV spread; they transfer the virus to the wild boars. The virus circulates in the population of wild boars depending on their density in the area. Occasionally, the disease is spread from wild to domestic pigs. There is no evidence of

  2. Status of ITER task T213 collaborative irradiation screening experiment on Cu/SS joints in the Russian Federation SM-2-reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pokrovsky, A.S. [SRIAR, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Specimen fabrication is underway for an irradiation screening experiment planned to start in January 1996 in the SM-2 reactor in Dimitrovgrad, Russia. The purpose of the experiment is to evaluate the effects of neutron irradiation at ITER-relevant temperatures on the bond integrity performance of Cu/SS and Be/Cu joints, as well as to further investigate the base metal properties of irradiated copper alloys. Specimens from each of the four ITER parties (U.S., EU, japan, and RF) will be irradiated to a dose of {approx}0.2 dpa at two different temperatures, 150 and 300{degrees}C. The specimens will consist of Cu/SS and Be/Cu joints in several different geometries, as well as a large number of specimens from the base materials. Fracture toughness data on base metal and Cu/SS bonded specimens will be obtained from specimens supplied by the U.S. Due to lack of material, the Be/Cu specimens supplied by the U.S will only be irradiated as TEM disks.

  3. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation with the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia and Belarus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Karlberg, Olof; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Zinger, Irene

    2010-06-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral cooperation with Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in a number of projects financed by the European Union. This report gives an overview of the cooperation projects in 2009 as well as the framework in which they are performed. Summaries of each project are given in an Appendix. The project managers in the Section for Cooperation and Development in the Department of International Affairs are responsible for the cooperation projects and the implementation of the bilateral programmes. But the positive outcome of the projects is also dependent on a large number of experts at SSM who work with the regulatory functions in the nuclear and radiation protection fields in a Swedish context as well as on external consultants. Together, their experience is invaluable for the implementation of the projects. But the projects also give experience of relevance for the SSM staff.

  4. Transport of high enriched uranium fresh fuel from Yugoslavia to the Russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the relevant data related to the recent shipment (August 2002 of fresh highly enriched uranium fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to the Russian Federation for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gave its contribution to the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR Program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist actions against nuclear material potentially usable for the production of nuclear weapons.

  5. Strategies of Yota (Scartel - 4G Operator in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netra Pal Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Russian Federation is one of the high growth markets for telecom services which are expected to reach $48.5 billion by 2013.  With the granting of 4G LTE licenses, it is expected that 4G market in Russian Federation will be dominated by four cellular operators, i.e., MTS, Beeline, and MegaFon, Rostelecom along with two new startups, i.e., Osnova Telecom and Red Telecom (Iladi (2010. In addition, other companies such as Yota, Synterra, COMSTAR, Freshtel etc. are also operating in Russian WiMax & LTE telecom market to provide similar services. This paper is an attempt to analyze some of the parameters of LTE turn Yota WiMax Telecom Operator in Russian Federation. The paper covers current achievements of Yota, its reach in Russian Federation, its network size & technology, its services, expansion plans for future, strategies for survival (in question in a highly competitive market of big companies, and its ultimate fate.

  6. Prospects for the Russian Federation: Center-Regional Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Systemic Economic Failure ........................................ 10 b. Creating a Viable Public Finance System ................................... 13 c... public finance , and the creation of a viable system for international trade and investment. a. Avoiding Systemic Economic Failure The first pressing...organized crime). b. Creating a Viable Public Finance System The Russian Federation must create a viable system of public finance , while at the same time

  7. 76 FR 68404 - Uranium From the Russian Federation; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the Suspension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... International Trade Administration Uranium From the Russian Federation; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review... Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Uranium from the Russian Federation. SUMMARY: On July 1, 2011... Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Uranium from the Russian Federation (``Suspension...

  8. Competitiveness of the Russian Federation in the Global Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomir Bucher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the tourist industry is one of the fastest growing economic branches of the global economy. For many countries, it brings a significant portion of revenues to their national economies. In the article, the identification and assessment of the secondary data of the World Economic Forum published in The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report are carried out. In the Report, the strengths and weaknesses of some countries in the international tourist market are specified in detail. The plan of the analysis is in a more precise specification of competitiveness indices, which consist of compound indices: I — legal framework; II — business environment and infrastructure; III — human, cultural and natural resources for the Russian Federation and some states of Post-Soviet geopolitical space. The goals of the paper are the evaluation of the 14 factors that affect destination competitiveness and the comparison of the competitiveness levels in the Russian Federation. The paper also aimed to provide an understanding of the Russian position in the international tourism market and provide suggestions in order to improve weaknesses of the country. The competitiveness ranking 2015 for the tourism infrastructure, prioritization of travel and tourism, and national tourism perceptions suggest that Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia rank the top, relative to other former Soviet Union countries in the sample. Since these countries outperform in a tourism infrastructure, it is likely that they continuously try to improve their physical and financial infrastructure for tourists in the country. Therefore, it is a great challenge for Russia to constantly monitoring new trends and occurrences in the international tourism market, which are more diverse needs and demands of the tourist clientele. The findings of this study also shed light on the competitiveness of the Russian Federation operating in the international tourism market. As understood from

  9. 76 FR 61342 - Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Amended Final Results of... magnesium metal from the Russian Federation. See Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Preliminary... received a timely allegation of ministerial errors pursuant to 19 CFR 351.224(c) from US Magnesium LLC,...

  10. 76 FR 13128 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Revocation of Antidumping Duty... order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation. On February 10, 2011, the ITC determined ] that... Department is revoking the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation....

  11. 76 FR 39847 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final... investigation on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (``ammonium nitrate'') from the Russian Federation...: Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation, 64 FR 45236 (August 19, 1999)....

  12. Russian Image on the Federal Republic of Germany Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the image of Russia in the screen mirror of the Federal Republic of Germany for: determine the place and role of the image of the USSR and the Russian and Soviet / Russian characters in the movies from the beginning of the postwar German ideological confrontation to 1991 (the collapse of the Soviet Union as compared with the trends of the modern era (1992 – present; identify political, ideological, social and cultural contexts, the main stages of development, concepts, goals, objectives, authors of fiction films themes outlined above; classify and compare trends and stereotypes German films related to the Soviet / Russian theme: ideology, content model, genre modifications (including: socio-political analysis, stereotypes, ideological analysis, identification analysis, the iconographic analysis, narrative analysis, the characters etc..

  13. Climate changes and technological disasters in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Global warming and climate change are responsible for many ecological, economic and other significant influences on natural environment and human society. Increasing in number and severity of natural and technological disasters (TD) around the world is among of such influences. Great changes in geographical distribution of disasters are also expected. The study suggested examines this problem by the example of the Russian Federation. Using data base of TD and na-techs (natural-technological disasters) happened in the Russian Federation in 1992-2008 the most important types of disasters caused by various natural hazards were identified and classified for Russian federal regions. In concept of this study na-techs are considered as TD produced by natural factors. 88 percent of all na-techs occurring in the Russian Federation during the observation period were caused by natural processes related to various meteorological and hydrological phenomena. The majority of them were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37%), snowfalls and snowstorms (27%), rainfalls (16%), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12%). 11 types of na-techs caused by meteorological and hydrological hazards were found. These types are: (1) accidents at power and heat supply systems caused by windstorms, cyclones, and hurricanes, snowfalls and sleets, hard frost, rainfalls, hailstones, icing, avalanches, or thunderstorms (more than 50% of all na-techs registered in the data base); (2) accidents at water supply systems caused by hard frost, rainfalls, or subsidence of rock (3%); (3) sudden collapses of constructions caused by windstorms, snowfalls, rainfalls, hard frost, subsidence of rock, or floods (12%); (4) automobile accidents caused by snowfalls and snowstorms, icy conditions of roads, rainfalls, fogs, mist, or avalanches (10%); (5) water transport accidents caused by storms, cyclones, typhoons, or fogs (9%); (6) air crashes caused by windstorms, snowfalls, icing, or fogs; (7) railway

  14. HIV-INFECTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Smolskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

  15. THE BANKING SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: STATUS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Sotnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The features and current trends in the development of the banking system of the Russian Federation are highlighted in the article. The authors propose an original method of evaluation of activities of credit organizations with the use of statistical data and rating agencies. The concept of the banking system is summarized in this article. Also its structure is analyzed by the number of credit institutions and the quality of their operations. The authors identifie differences between the concepts of banking service, banking operation and banking product and propose classification according to different characteristics of banking institutions and operations that they carry out. Then the authors go to estimating the volume of banking services in Russia and their patterns in total. Separately the main passive (deposits and loans and active operations (lending to legal entities and individuals are characterized. The authors identifie the major developments in the banking system of the Russian Federation in 2014 due to political and economic sanctions by the U.S. and Eurozone countries. The article provides a vision of the authors on the further development of the banking activity in Russia and proposes specific measures to adapt the banking system of the Russian Federation in a constantly changing political and economic conditions (financial sanctions, a change of key Central Bank rates, devaluation, etc.. According to the authors' opinion the expected prospects of development of the banking system of the Russian Federation to 2015 are: the growth in savings accounts in banks; sanctions will be of a personal nature and will not affect the largest credit institutions; the active growth of the corporate loan portfolio will continue; the growth of retail lending portfolio will continue to slow; mortgage lending will increase in the total loan portfolio of the banking sector of Russia.

  16. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, GLOBALIZATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aleshkovski, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In the article, the author analyzes the impact of globalization on the transformation of international migration flows in the Russian Federation. The author considers the features of global trends in international migration in Russia: increasing involvement of Russia and its regions in the international migration, the qualitative changes in the structure of migration flows, the increasing role of international migration as a factor of the country's demographic development.

  17. Judicial system of the Russian Federation: reforming errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaydidey Yu.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of considering problems of modern Russian judicial system and judicial policy is emphasized. The author proves the necessity to study the judicial system of our country in detail. The content of judicial system is analyzed and its structural elements are described. Factors determining the structure of national judicial system are characterized. The main feature of the Russian judicial system is noted, notably: centralization (there is no independent judicial authority in regions except constitutional justice. Considering the judicial system as hierarchically structured set of courts is too simplified and is not conformable to modern justice tasks. The ways of optimizing the system of courts as well as the judicial system of the Russian Federation are proposed. Interim results of the reform in the form of abolishment of the RF Supreme Arbitration Court are negatively evaluated. Intraorganizational transformations have substituted the evolutionary development of the judicial system and the necessity to improve the justice itself. The author confirms that development of relevant draft bill was not accompanied by conducting public researches, studying statistical data, and making general conclusions, proving the efficiency of establishing an integrated supreme court. Threats and challenges to law order are ignored. Supreme courts integration has virtually established a new judicial system, though the proper legal base for it has not been developed. The viewpoints of researchers, warning against negative effects of such reform, are provided. It is concluded that the law under study does not meet present demands of the Russian judicial system.

  18. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint US/Russian Progress Report for Fiscal 1997. Volume 3 - Calculations Performed in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This volume of the progress report provides documentation of reactor physics and criticality safety studies conducted in the Russian Federation during fiscal year 1997 and sponsored by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program of the US Department of Energy. Descriptions of computational and experimental benchmarks for the verification and validation of computer programs for neutron physics analyses are included. All benchmarks include either plutonium, uranium, or mixed uranium and plutonium fuels. Calculated physics parameters are reported for all of the contaminated benchmarks that the United States and Russia mutually agreed in November 1996 were applicable to mixed-oxide fuel cycles for light-water reactors.

  19. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ACCORDING TO RUSSIAN ARTHRITIS REGISTRY DATA (COMMUNICATION I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the materials of the Russian Arthritis Registry (OREL that includes 3276 patients from 11 Russian Federation's largest research-and-practical centers situated in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Tula, Yaroslavl, Tyumen. It discusses the main goals of setting up registries, compares the results of an analysis of the data available in the Russian Registry OREL and registries of European countries and the USA. The findings suggest that there is non-uniform information on clinical, laboratory, and instrumental parameters in the national registers of a number of European countries and the USA. According to its basic characteristics, the Russian Registry OREL compares favorably with a number of other registries in the completeness of data collection, which allows a general idea of rheumatoidarthritis (RA patients in Russia. For further development of the OREL Registry, it is necessary to concentrate our attention on the following main areas: to improve the quality of filling out documents; to follow-up patients receiving different RA therapy regimens according to the guidelines of the Association of Rheumatologists of Russia for the treatment of RA; to conduct in-depth studies of comorbidity, primarily depressive disorders; to analyze adverse reactions that make RA therapy difficult; to actively use modules for patients' self-rating of their condition; to develop nursing care, etc.

  20. 77 FR 65532 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation: Notice of Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation: Notice... the antidumping duty order on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) from the... Administrative Review: Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate (Ammonium Nitrate) from the Russian...

  1. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  2. Systematic Approach to Modernization of the Russian Federal Spatial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimates the regional and municipal opportunities of spa- tial development modernization in the Russian Federation. In the post-crisis period, it is necessary to facilitate the innovative processes and society oriented state develop- ment to give way to the steady transition from the regional policy to the federal state structure, which requires scientifically based decision making in all the directions of social development. The author considers the ideology of such transition and recom- mends using the systematic approach to choosing priorities and development institu- tions. Several perspective factors such as education and science are analyzed in the context of systematic regional and territorial development along with the necessity for program-project modernization of the federal state structure. The following new insti- tutions for regional development are proposed: regional and municipal self-deve- lopment, business territories, program-project planning of spatial development. 

  3. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Registry data analysis shows stabilization of indicators of donor and transplant activity in 2011 after continuous growth within five years, increase in a share of effective donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, development of thoracic organs transplantation and living related donor kidney transplantation. In the conditions of decentralization of organ donation and transplant programs it is necessary to develop coope- ration between transplant centers and to expand the practice of an interregional exchange of donor organs. The federal law «About bases of health protection of citizens in the Russian Federation», accepted in 2011, creates a legal basis for development and acceptance of the new legislation in the sphere of organ donation and transplantation. 

  4. Federal Law "On Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation": Conditions of Adoption and Development Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Korobeynikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of the Federal Law "On Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" in 1992 took place in a tough fight in the time of privatization and restructuring. At this time, revealed numerous violations. Prosecution authorities stood on the position of the rule of law and the interests of the state, has become a serious obstacle to the forces that destroy the state and its economy. In the 90 years of the twentieth century, the prosecutor's office declined status in the society, which is reflected in the text of the new Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993, containing only one, 129 article devoted to the prosecuting authorities, while there were five (Article in the Constitution of the USSR of such articles . 164, 165, 166, 167, 168. Also, the law "On the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" does not include an article on the problems of supervision in this direction, as well as Art. 30 "to arrest". These changes to the law the prosecutor's office indicate the desire of the legislator to downplay the independence of the prosecution and its role in countering the massive violation of the law of the initial period of "perestroika". The role of politics in the legal regulation of the activities of the prosecutor's office is determined by the law "On the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" and the insertion in the amended. The activities of the prosecution authorities, the powers of prosecutors are regulated by criminal procedure, civil procedure, arbitration procedure and other legislation, which varies due to the effects of many political reasons.

  5. Neutron flux spectra and radiation damage parameters for the Russian Bor-60 and SM-2 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasiov, A.V. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Rresearch Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Greenwood, L.R. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective is to compare neutron irradiation conditions in Russian reactors and similar US facilities. Neutron fluence and spectral information and calculated radiation damage parameters are presented for the BOR-60 (Fast Experimental Reactor - 60 MW) and SM-2 reactors in Russia. Their neutron exposure characteristics are comparable with those of the Experimental Breeder Reactor (ERB-II), the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in the United States.

  6. 77 FR 73979 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Reinstated Final Results of Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Reinstated Final... antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation covering the period April 1, 2006... Corp. v. United States, 688 F.3d 751 (Fed. Cir. 2012) (AVISMA IV); see also Magnesium Metal from...

  7. Influence of the Participatory Budgeting on the Infrastructural Development of the Territories in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurkan, Marina V.; Sotskova, Svetlana I.; Aksinina, Olga S.; Lyubarskaya, Maria A.; Tkacheva, Oksana N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the need for the advancing of participatory budgeting practice in the Russian Federation. Due to insufficient development of theoretical, scientific, and methodological aspects of the participatory budgeting, very few territories in the Russian Federation use this tool effectively. The most…

  8. 76 FR 35405 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia). The review... solid urea from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union). See Antidumping Duty Order;...

  9. 75 FR 51440 - Solid Urea from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was produced and exported by MCC EuroChem (EuroChem). The...

  10. 78 FR 46571 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia). The period of...: Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is solid urea. The product is...

  11. 78 FR 67335 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia). For the final results, we continue to... solid urea from Russia.\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on the Preliminary Results....

  12. 76 FR 66690 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was produced and exported by MCC EuroChem (EuroChem). The...

  13. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 49471 (August 14, 2013) (``Initiation Notice''). \\2\\ See id., 78 FR at 49474. As explained in the memorandum from the... International Trade Administration Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement...

  14. Radioactive waste disposal in seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, A V

    2001-01-01

    The former USSR illegally dumped into the ocean liquid and solid radioactive wastes (RW) originating from nuclear-powered vessels and ships. The Russian President created a special Commission to analyse both the scale and consequences of this activity. According to documentary data and expert estimates at the Commission's disposal, the maximum activity of RW that entered the seas adjacent to Russian territory could have been as much as 2,500 kCi at the time of disposal. The greatest radio-ecological hazard comes from reactors from nuclear submarines and core plates of the nuclear icebreaker 'Lenin', which had spent nuclear fuel in place and which were dumped in shallow water in the Kara Sea near Novaya Zemlya. Editor's note: This article extracts material from a Commission which published a report produced in Russia in 1993. Numerous sources in many Ministries and other government agencies, noted in the text, formed the basis for the final draft. The authors of the draft report were A. Yablokov, V. Karasev, V. Rumyantsev, M. Kokeev, O. Petrov, V. Lystsov, A. Yemelyanenkov and P. Rubtsov. After approving the draft report, the Commission submitted the report to the President of the Russian Federation in February 1993. By Presidential decision, this report (after several technical corrections) was open to the public: it is known variously as 'the Yablokov Commission report, or more simply the 'Yablokov Report', the 'White Book' or 'Yablokov White Paper'. During April-May 1993, 500 copies were distributed among governmental agencies inside Russia, and abroad through a net of Russian Embassies. This article was later sent to Dr Mike Champ as part of the ongoing collections of papers on the Arctic published in this journal (edited by Champ et al.: 1997 'Contaminants in the Arctic', Marine Pollution Bulletin 35, pp. 203-385 and in Marine Pollution Bulletin 2000, vol. 40, pp. 801-868, and continued with the present collection).

  15. Hepatitis C in the Russian Federation: challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukomolov, Sergey; Trifonova, Galina; Levakova, Irina; Bolsun, Daria; Krivanogova, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world. Official registration of HCV infections in the Russian Federation started in 1994. Two clinical forms of infection - acute and chronic hepatitis C - are registered separately. Moreover, the HCV national surveillance system also includes reports from laboratories on results from testing ∼20 population risk groups for antibodies to HCV; approximately 15-16 million tests are performed annually. Modern epidemiological features of HCV infection in the Russian Federation are characterized by low incidence of the acute form of infection (acute HCV; one to two per 100,000) and a dramatic increase in chronic HCV (CHCV) cases. In 2013, the average nationwide rate of newly detected CHCV cases was 39.3/100,000. In the same year, the prevalence of CHCV demonstrating an accumulation of chronically infected patients in the country was much higher - 335.8/100,000. Four risk groups were identified as greatly affected by HCV, which were demonstrated by a high prevalence of antibodies to HCV: newborns from chronically infected women, persons from correctional facilities, patients with chronic liver diseases, and clients from clinics for sexually transmitted disease patients and drug users. It was found that several HCV genotypes circulated in different regions of the country; HCV1b had a prevalence of 55%-80% in almost every part of the country. However, in St Petersburg during the final decade of the last century and from 2001-2005, HCV3a subtype expanded circulation among young people due to increased intravenous drug addiction. Intravenous drug users were the major cause of a higher registration of double infection, with two different virus subtypes, and the appearance in Russia of new recombinant virus RF_2k/1b. It can be concluded that CHCV infection should be a focus of the health care system in Russia because serious epidemics of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma will be

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MORTALITY FROM EXTERNAL CAUSES IN ST. PETERSBURG, NORTHWEST FEDERAL DISTRICT AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Vorontsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mortality rate of St. Petersburg population from external causes in 2010–2015 in comparison with similar indicators for the Northwest Federal District and the Russian Federation. Materials and methods. The authors used the following data for analysis: annual long-term monitoring of St. Petersburg trauma services status conducted by coordination and methodological center of trauma and orthopedics; government reporting on mortality; data of Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat; data of St.Petersburg Statistics Service (Petrostat; data of St. Petersburg Medical Information Analysis Center (MIAС; studies on mortality issues as well as methods of descriptive statistics. Results. From 2003 to 2014 St. Petersburg population mortality rate demonstrated a steady decline as well as generally in Russia. 2015 featured a slight increase in absolute number of deaths per year (+1.2% in St.Petersburg, while the similar indicator across the Russian Federation was still declining (-5.9%. In 2015 mortality from external causes in St. Petersburg constituted 68 deaths per 100 thousand inhabitants, which is 1.6 times less than in the Northwest federal district (109.6 per 100 thousand inhabitants, and 1.7 times less than in the Russian Federation – 112 per 100 thousand population. In the overall mortality structure of St. Petersburg population the external causes have been consistently occupying third place within recent years. In 2015 the proportion of deaths from external causes in general mortality amounted to 5.7%. Conclusions. According to official statistics since 2000 in St. Petersburg the mortality rate from all the major external causes reduced gradually, as well as in the Northwest federal district and on the whole in Russia. Various national and regional programs that have been rolled out in Russia allowed to reduce by half the mortality of working age population from homicide and from suicide by

  17. Financial Support of Tour Operator Activities: Issues of Implementation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Valeryevna Zavyalova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studying the issues of implementation of financial support of tour operator activities in the Russian Federation, which have so far impeded the guaranteeing of protection of rights and legitimate interests of Russian tourists at a proper level, allows to formulate practical recommendations and suggestions for improvement of Russian legislation in order to enhance the efficiency of legal regulation of tourism field and protection of rights and legitimate interests of Russian citizens. The article presents a comparative study of the Russian financial guarantee institution and its foreign analogues, defines the causes of emergence of the institution of financial support of tour operator activities in Russian legislation and imposition of a prohibition on tour operator activities. We have come to the conclusion that acknowledgment of financial support of tour operator activities as financial guarantees of tour operator’s liability. Analysis of current Russian legislation allowed to detect its contradictions and develop practical recommendations for improvement of Russian tourism legislation. In particular, it allowed to draw a conclusion of the need to eliminate the non-conformance of standards of article 17.6 of the Federal law NO 132-FZ “On foundations of tourist activity in the Russian Federation” (“Tourist activity law” further on issued on 24.11.1996 to the standards of item 1 of article 48; item 1 of article 53; item 1, item 3 of article 56; article 402 of the Civil code of the Russian Federation (part one; federal law № 51-FZ issued on 30.11.1994 (the Civil code of the Russian Federation.

  18. The phylodynamics of the rabies virus in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashev, Alexander N.; Poleshchuk, Elena M.; Dedkov, Vladimir G.; Tkachev, Sergey E.; Sidorov, Gennadiy N.; Karganova, Galina G.; Galkina, Irina V.; Shchelkanov, Mikhail Yu.; Shipulin, German A.

    2017-01-01

    Near complete rabies virus N gene sequences (1,110 nt) were determined for 82 isolates obtained from different regions of Russia between 2008 and 2016. These sequences were analyzed together with 108 representative GenBank sequences from 1977–2016 using the Bayesian coalescent approach. The timing of the major evolutionary events was estimated. Most of the isolates represented the steppe rabies virus group C, which was found over a vast geographic region from Central Russia to Mongolia and split into three groups (C0-C2) with discrete geographic prevalence. A single strain of the steppe rabies virus lineage was isolated in the far eastern part of Russia (Primorsky Krai), likely as a result of a recent anthropogenic introduction. For the first time the polar rabies virus group A2, previously reported in Alaska, was described in the northern part of European Russia and at the Franz Josef Land. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that all currently circulating rabies virus groups in the Russian Federation were introduced within the few last centuries, with most of the groups spreading in the 20th century. The dating of evolutionary events was highly concordant with the historical epidemiological data. PMID:28225771

  19. 76 FR 56396 - Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping... of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian...) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on...

  20. Inference of the Russian drug community from one of the largest social networks in the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, L.J.; Yakushev, A.V.; Duijn, P.A.C.; Boukhanovsky, A.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The criminal nature of narcotics complicates the direct assessment of a drug community, while having a good understanding of the type of people drawn or currently using drugs is vital for finding effective intervening strategies. Especially for the Russian Federation this is of immediate concern giv

  1. International Field School on Permafrost: Yenisei, Russian Federation - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, K. E.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.

    2013-12-01

    The International Field School on Permafrost was established in Russia as part of International Polar Year activities. The first course was offered in 2007 in Northwestern Siberia and attracted students from Russia, Germany, and the United States. Over the past seven years undergraduate and graduate students representing eight different countries in North America, Europe, and Asia have participated in the field school. This annual summer field course visits different regions of the Russian Arctic each year, but the three course foci remain consistent, which are to make in depth examinations of, 1) natural permafrost characteristics and conditions, 2) field techniques and applications, and 3) engineering practices and construction on permafrost. During these field courses students participate in excursions to local museums and exhibitions, meet with representatives from local administrations, mining and construction industries, and learn field techniques for complex permafrost investigations, including landscape and soil descriptions, temperature monitoring, active-layer measurements, cryostratigraphy, and more. During these courses students attend an evening lecture series by their professors and also give presentations on various regionally oriented topics of interest, such as the local geology, climate, or historical development of the region. This presentation will relate this summer's (July 2013) field course which took place in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia. The course took place along a bioclimatic transect from south to north along the Yenisei River and featured extended stays in the cities of Igarka and Noril'sk. This year's students (undergraduate, masters, and one PhD student) represented universities in the United States, Canada, and the Russian Federation. The organization of this course was accomplished through the cooperation of The George Washington University's Department of Geography and the Lomonosov Moscow State University

  2. [THE PRESENT STATE OF EPIZOOTOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE NATURAL FOCI OF INFECTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trankvilevsky, D V; Tsarenko, V A; Zhukov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The facilities of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare play a leading role in epizootological monitoring. The specialists (zoologists and entomologists) of Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers do basic work in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained in the participation of different ministries and departments are used to analyze the results of monitoring. The latter is one of the important steps in the management of the epidemic, process in natural focal infections. In recent years, there has been an unjustified reduction in the volume of studies in the natural foci. This negatively affects the reliability of estimates and predictions of the epidemic activity of the natural foci of infections. Ensuring the national, security of the Russian Federation, epidemiological surveillance, and control of its natural foci requires staffing and appropriate professional training in the zoological and entomological subdivisions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare.

  3. BACTERIOCINS AND BACTERIOPHAGE LYTIC PROTEINS AS ALTERNATIVES TO ANTIBIOTICS FROM RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND USA COLLABORATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel anti-microbial peptides (bacteriocins) were isolated and characterized in collaborative research between PMSRU, ARS-USDA scientists and representatives of the State Research Center for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (SRCAMB) in Obolensk, Russian Federation. The bacteriocins are effect...

  4. Does nativity matter?: Correlates of immigrant health by generation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Buckley

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation has experienced simultaneous declines in health and rises in international migration. Guided by the "healthy migrant effect" found elsewhere, we examine two questions. First, do the foreign-born in the Russian Federation exhibit better overall health than the native-born? Second, to the extent positive health selectivity exists, is it transferred to the second generation? Using the first wave of the Russian Generations and Gender Survey, our findings support the idea of positive health selection among international migrants from non-Slavic regions. The effect of migrant status, regardless of origin, diminishes when age, sex, and native language are taken into account.

  5. 76 FR 52731 - Determination on Bilateral Assistance Relating to the Government of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination on Bilateral Assistance Relating to the Government of the Russian Federation Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the laws of the United States, including Section 7074(b) of the Department...

  6. 76 FR 17380 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... solid urea from the Russian Federation for the period July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010....

  7. 77 FR 17410 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation for the period...

  8. Upgrades for truck transportation of SNM in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, B.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kornilovich, E. [Construction Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment, Mytischy (Russian Federation)

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this project is the rapid reduction of risk to truck transportation of SNM in Russia. Enhanced protection is being accomplished by cooperation between the US Department of Energy, MINATOM of Russia, the Russian Ministry of Defense, and various Russian Institutes. This program provides an integrated program of specialized trucks that are equipped with hardened overpack (SNM vault) containers, alarm and communications systems, and armored cabs. Armored escort vehicles are also provided to increase the survivability of the guards escorting convoys. Only indigenous Russian equipment, modified and/or manufactured by Designing Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment (KBATO), is provided under this program. The US will not provide assistance in the truck transportation arena without a commitment from the Russian facility to provide heavily armed escorts for SNM movement. Each site conducts a detailed transportation needs assessment study that is used as the basis for prioritizing assistance. The Siberian Chemical Combine (Tomsk-7) was the initial site of cooperation. The designs used at Tomsk-7 are serving as the baseline for all future vehicles modified under this program. In FY98, many vehicles systems have been ordered for various institutes. Many additional systems will be ordered in FY99.

  9. Contemporary mass media and the communication of anthropogenic climate change in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Poberezhskaya, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the media coverage of anthropogenic climate change in the Russian Federation. It achieves this aim by testing Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky's Propaganda Model (1988) which argues that media coverage predominately stays within the boundaries defined by the 'elite's' interests. Through media analysis as well as elite interviews, this project has found that in the Russian case, regardless of the newspapers' ownership structure or dependence on advertising, there is li...

  10. Soviet Doctrine of Legal Education in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis G. Korovyakovskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soviet era of higher legal education in Russia began in 1917 and lasted until 1991 Despite the importance of scientific papers on the previous stage of development of Soviet higher legal education periods, for an understanding of general historical processes in higher legal education. They can not serve as a comprehensive framework for understanding the Soviet - very specific - stage in the development of higher legal education. In relation to recent work in this direction the author makes the following conclusions: First, they are very few in number; Secondly, quite fragmentary and relate only to certain aspects of this complex problem; Third, analysis of the issues of higher legal education in the Soviet period of the Russian state are often exhausted and emotional evaluation study contains historical predetermination and certain patterns of development of the Russian higher education as part of the legal world and national systems of higher education.

  11. PRIVATE REGULATORY LEGAL ACTS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Magomedov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory legal acts possess certain characteristics, the presence of which determines their qualities. Historically the development of forms of law in the world followed various tracks, which led to appearance of several legal systems. That is why the notion and the meaning of regulatory legal acts in them does not always coincide. This article presents a notion of private regulatory legal acts and an issue of their presence in the Russian legal system. In that context a notion of regulator...

  12. Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation (white raincoat) visiting the CMS crystal laboratory with (from l. to r.) Ph. Bloch, N. Koulberg, L. Riabev, First Deputy-Minister, MINATOM; F. Grichaev and A.N. Skrinsky. Photo 02: Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation (centre) visiting the CMS crystal laboratory with (from l. to r.) N. Koulberg, M. Koutchina, L. Riabev, First Deputy-Minister, MINATOM; F. Grichaev, Ph. Bloch, A.N. Skrinsky, A. Petrov, V. Stanislavov.

  13. [Molecular taxonomic identification of Trichinella spp. from the Arctic coasts of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M; Bukina, L A; Khiliuta, N V; Spiridonov, S É

    2013-01-01

    Epizootological surveys on the Arctic coasts of the Russian Federation revealed 8 terrestrial andmarine mammal species that were Trichinella carriers. The infection rate varied with the animal species from 1.6 to 92.8%. Analysis of the taxonomic affiliation of Trichinella isolated from the muscles of the terrestrial and marine mammals indicated that the Trichinella species T. nativa was widespread in the arctic areas of the Russian Federation. Analysis of sequences in the Cob gene of mtDNA revealed nucleotide differences between several isolates of this species.

  14. CAPITAL ACCUMULATION IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Budanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the approaches to evaluation of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation on the basis of the accumulation of capital. Features of reproduction process in the 2000th years are marked out. The main mechanisms providing investment growth and possibility of their improvement in the long term are considered. Options for assessing the prospects of economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation by criteria of increase in profi tability of investments and volume of savings are offered.

  15. The Russian Federation legislation. The new laws. Prospects for international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A. YE. [Department of project management TENEX, 26, Staromonetnyi Per., 109180 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Survey of the regulatory basis for the international cooperation of the Russian Federation in the area of foreign commercial and research spent fuel management. Analysis of the latest legislative amendments. Complex approach and environmental priorities of the new legislative initiatives (three Federal laws): Amendments to Articles 1, 47 and 64 of the Federal Law on {sup U}tilization of atomic energy{sup ;} Amendments to Articles 50 of the Federal Law on {sup E}nvironmental protection{sup ;} The new Federal Law {sup O}n Special ecological programs for the clean- up of areas, contaminated by radiation{sup .} (author)

  16. Law status of journalists and bloggers in the newest information legislation of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustina Anna Georgievna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author carries out a comparative analysis of Russian national rights and responsibilities of journalists and bloggers, distinguishes fundamental differences in the legal status of the subject of information relations, determines the trend of development of the Russian legislation activity regulation of participants of information relations in the Russian segment of the Internet. On August 1, 2014 the Law on bloggers entered into force that, on the one hand fixed the differences between journalism as a profession and the blogosphere as a kind of social activity. On the other hand, at the legislative level it has solved the problem of the responsible attitude to bloggers - often influential and popular sources of information - to the broadcasting of messages. It is obvious that in Russian Federation it is being actively formed a system of legal regulation of information relations on the Internet, existed for many years legal gaps in this area are gradually disappearing.

  17. 76 FR 12938 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... a notice of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal... antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation. See Magnesium Metal From the...

  18. 76 FR 13355 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Court Decision Not in... amending the final results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal... antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation for the period of review (POR) April...

  19. 76 FR 19747 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Final Results of the...) initiated the third sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from the Russian Federation... the notice of initiation of the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on solid urea...

  20. 78 FR 61334 - Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of the Expedited... silicon metal from the Russian Federation.\\1\\ The Department finds that revocation of this antidumping...-0197. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty order on silicon metal from...

  1. 76 FR 47143 - Opportunity for U.S. Businessmen and Women To Train in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Russian Federation AGENCY: International Trade Administration (ITA), U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC.... Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke and Russian Minister of Economic Development Elvira Nabiullina signed a... through the Federal Resource Center, an agency of the Ministry of Economic Development of the...

  2. 78 FR 73827 - Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from the Russian Federation, 68 FR 3859 (January 27, 2003... of the Antidumping Duty Suspension Agreement, 78 FR 61333 (October 3, 2013) and accompanying Decision... Russian Federation; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Enforcement...

  3. Russian DEMO-S reactor with continuous plasma burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatalov, G. E-mail: geshat@qq.nfi.kiae.su; Kirillov, I.; Sokolov, Yu.; Strebkov, Yu.; Vasiliev, N

    2000-11-01

    A conceptual study of DEMO-S steady state reactor is being carried out in RF. The main goals of the study are aimed at establishing physics and engineering basis and limitations of the reactor. It was assumed that DEMO is a next step after international thermonuclear experimental reactors (ITER) operation, and so conservative assumptions were used in the study based on ITER engineering. A steady state operation mode is recommended with fusion power of 2-3 GW and maximum first wall (FW) neutron load of 3-4 MW m{sup -2}. The reactor has to operate in advance plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. The reversed shear regime and operation in H-mode are evaluated. A lifetime of 30-40 MW m{sup -2} is assumed for the DEMO plant, with three to four changes of plasma facing components. The general reactor layout is determined. Two options of breeding blanket with ceramic and liquid lithium breeders are presented, supported by neutronic, thermalhydraulic and mechanical calculations. A conventional type of water or Li cooling divertor targets with maximum heat load of {approx}10 MW m{sup -2} was chosen. Heat to electricity conversion schemes are analysed for both helium and liquid metal coolant with net efficiency of 35-40%. Aspects of radioactive waste management are considered.

  4. To the Question of the Russian Federation Law "About the International Commercial Arbitration" Сhanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Sitkareva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL has prepared a Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1985, which became the main legislation on arbitration for nearly 70 countries, including Russian Federation, and, thereby, set world legislation standards for arbitration. A number of other international instruments were adopted. In the present article authors consider questions of international law and national regulatory activities of international commercial arbitration tribunals in general, as well as present detail of the provisions of law introduced to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation on amendments to the Law of the Russian Federation "On International Commercial Arbitration", which is aimed to align provisions of Russian legislation on international commercial arbitration with internationally recognized legislative approaches on key aspects of international commercial arbitration management practice. Author illustrates process of bill consideration and provide detailed characterization of the proposed changes. In addition to considering proposed innovations, authors critically analyze possible implications of the bill as amended and present opinions of specialists, experts, jurists, as well as represent their own justification.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  6. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from pigeons in the territory of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a continual problem for the poultry industry with synanthropic birds representing one of the possible reservoirs of infection. Outbreaks of ND are regularly confirmed among pigeons in different regions of the Russian Federation. The spread of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) a...

  7. 76 FR 78885 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Continuation of... International Trade Commission (ITC) that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from the... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine,\\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930,...

  8. The Role of Technical and Vocational Education in the Education System of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I.; And Others

    The deep economic and social problems associated with the Russian Federation's move to a market economy have extended to Vocational Education (VE). Nearly 50% of 1994's VE graduates could not get a job, and Russia's new constitution has thrown vocational schools into the market without any state support, thereby forcing many schools to become…

  9. Molecular-genetic analysis of field isolates of Avian Leucosis Viruses in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial poultry farms in 14 regions of Russian Federation were monitored for avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection using virus isolation tests and serology. Results indicated the presence of two subgroups of ALV in farms located in 11 of 14 regions. Analysis of the genomes of 12 field isolates of...

  10. Changing Symbolic and Geographical Boundaries between Penal Zones and Rural Communities in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallot, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the processes involved in the integration of the USSR's secret places into mainstream rural society in the Russian Federation. Taking the example of one rural district in the Volga-Ural region that has been the site of a large prison complex over a period of ninety years, the article examines how economic changes and local…

  11. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  12. Family Formation Trajectories in Romania, the Russian Federation and France : Towards the Second Demographic Transition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda; Lesnard, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This study examines family formation trajectories as a manifestation of the second demographic transition (SDT) in three countries, comparing and contrasting two post-socialist countries (Romania and the Russian Federation) with France as benchmark country advanced in the SDT. By examining combined

  13. HISTORIOGRAPHY OF ARCHIVE’S INFORMATISATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (1991 ‒ EARLY 2000s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu. Yumasheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the second phase of informatization of archives in the Russian Federation, the beginning of which coincided with the period of «microcomputer revolution» turn of 1980‒ 1990, and the end ‒ with the adoption of the Okinawa Charter on Global Information Society 2000. On the basis of extensive complex of the historical sources (more than 1500 sources, including: the Government of the Russian Federation official documents, reports of research work performed by VNIIDAD’s employees in the development of the Concept and the first (pilot Program of the Russian Archives Informatization, dissertation research, articles published by archivists and historians at that time, the author traces the main trends of research, which allowed to form a single systematic approach to the archive sector and identify key areas of archive’s informatization. These areas are: the organization of the automated acquisition and recording of Archival fund of the Russian Federation documents; the tasks and use in electronic document publishing environment; the use of automated means to conduct research and methodical works in the archives; automation of management of archival institutions. The implementation of these directions has been concretized in the framework of 1996, the Informatization Program and included such practical steps as the computerization of the archives, the development and implementation of industry-wide software systems to automate archive’s processes; the creation of thematic information resources (databases on the basis of the first time introduced into scientific circulation complexes of archival documents and the establishment of industry-wide internet portal «Russian Archives». The solution of these tasks will allow to recognize the pilot Program of the russian archive’s informatisation done and proceed to the next stage of implementation of information technology in the practice of archives.

  14. H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (centre) with (from left to right) F. Grishaev, Adviser, Mission of the Russian Federation and R. Cashmore. Photo 02: H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (right) with F. Grishaev, Adviser, Mission of the Russian Federation.

  15. Development of the work on fuel cells in the Ministry for Atomic Energy of Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubovin, B.Y.; Novitski, E.Z.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes research on fuel cells in the Russian Federation. The beginning of the practical work on fuel cells in Russia dates back to the 50`s and 60`s when the Ural Electrochemical Plant and the Ural Electromechanical Plant of the Ministry of Medium Machine-Building of the USSR, all Russian Research Institute of the power sources and many other institutes of the Ministry of Electrotechnical Industry of the USSR got to the development of the alkaline fuel cells for the spaceships according to the tasks of the SPC `Energy` and for the submarines on the tasks of the Ministry of Defense.

  16. TRENDS IN POULTRY PRODUCTION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the factors, which influence the formation of the market of poultry production. Agricultrual producers have developed diversified business channels, which depend on the nature of the economic interests of the owners of farms, local market conjuncture, the level of development of its own product processing and logistics structures. The growing share of imports has created a tangible threat to food security and the increasing dependence of megalopolises and big cities on import, in addition long-term relationaships have been destroyed within the existing socialist system, increased prices disparity. Only at the beginning of the 21st century Russian poultry industry started to get rid of the consequences of liberal market reforms. In many ways, the development of industry were contributed by the realization of the priority national project «Development of agriculture» and by the State program of development of agriculture and regulation of markets for agricultural products, raw materials and food for 2008-2012. However, the modernization of poultry subcomplex was mainly catching and accompanied by increasing dependence on imports cross, equipment, premixes and feed. Poultry organizations have high debt on loans, subsidies for reimbursement of the cost of interest com unevenly, putting poultry farms in a disastrous situation. In 2014, Russia has 21 region – poultry donor (where the volume of domestic production exceeds consumption and 61 recipient regions (where the volume of domestic production is less than consumption

  17. Ecological review of some problems in the sphere of forest use within the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, P.A. [State Environment Protection Committee of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The forests of the Russian Federation play some very important roles even in global level: they are an important element of our environment and they are a valuable renewable resource. Forest ecosystems are very effective in preventing erosion, in protecting water ecosystems, and in maintaining their balance. They are also a very important element of biodiversity protection and they are a significant buffer of coal. The state of the forests has a great impact on the ecological environment within the Russian Federation as a whole, as well as in certain regions, especially in forest regions. Taking into consideration the multifunctional character of forests, the interests of different groups, different levels of authority, Ministries and Committees, forest policy and practice do not always coincide, and conflicting situations appear. Forest policy should take into account these interests, find the ways for solving problems, and the management system should take all necessary steps to successfully apply the forest policy. The state of the forests within the Russian Federation is proof of the Federation`s forest policy and management practice having come to a crisis with their negative ecological impacts. (orig.)

  18. [Analysis of regulatory basis for organization of clinical nutrition in medical institutions of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutel'ian, V A; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Pogozheva, A V; Plotnikova, O A

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes regulatory basis for organization of clinical nutrition in medical institutions of Russia. It is shown that the strategy of therapeutic measures in acute and chronic diseases a central place to take dietary therapy with adequate provision of energy and plastic body's needs, correction of metabolic disorders and risk factors for comorbidity. Prior to the confirmation of the order of Ministry of Health of Russia from 05.08.2003, No 330 "On measures to improve nutritional care in health care institutions in the Russian Federation" clinical nutrition in medical institutions was based on the nosological principle, in the form of daily diet--a diet designed for each concrete Diseases which are identified by a number from 1 to 15. According to the order of Ministry of Health of Russia from 05.08.2003, No 330 in the health care practice has introduced a new range of diets (system standard diets), which is based on the principle of adapting the chemical composition and energy value of the diet to the individual clinical and pathogenic features of the disease and combines previously used diet numbering system. It is shown that the organization of clinical nutrition should be based on common requirements imposed on the federal level and at the level of the subject of the Russian Federation. In order to optimize clinical nutrition is necessary to determine the methodological approaches to personalization through the introduction of diet in health care practice of modern innovative technologies health food, performing preventive and treatment of the problem (implementation of Article 39 of the Federal Law of 21.11.2011 No 323--FZ "On the basis of health protection in the Russian Federation", the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 25.10.2010 No 1873-r "On the basis of the state policy in the field of nutrition to 2020 year").

  19. On the modernization of public production in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Gezevich Aganbegyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies a number of key areas of economic modernization - modernization of property, modernization of financial system, modernization of regional governance and modernization of social sphere. The problems that arise in these areas and their solutions are noted. Disclosure of modernization of the real sector of the economy is made. Mechanisms of technological renovation and restructuring, the sources of the rapid modernization of public production are defined. Modernization of property includes: mass privatization of state property, aimed at its commercial use and creation of favorable economic environment for small business development. Modernization of the financial system must follow the path of reducing the tax burden on business and increasing the role of banks (assets of the banks should not be less than 150% of GDP. Technological upgrade in the real sector will allow raising productivity by 2-3 times in the next 7-10 years, to halve energy intensity of GDP, to create material conditions for manufacturing of innovative products. The restructuring will help diversify the economic structure and exports, create competitive advantages for taking leading position in the field of aerospace engineering, production and export of electricity and electric machine manufacturing products, production of finished goods made from synthetic materials of forest products over time to become the world's leader. A prerequisite condition of rapid modernization are doubling investment rate on the basis of large-scale privatization, redemption of government bonds, formation of the Russian market funds of "long" money (funded pensions, insurance, mutual funds and development of banking system.

  20. Speculation about Options for Teen Tobacco Use Cessation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Andrey

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper summarizes prevalence and consequences, recent policies, prevention and cessation efforts, recent developmental work (focus groups, and speculation about the current status of cigarette smoking in the Russian Federation. Unique aspects of modern Russian society are suggested as leading to relatively high prevalence internationally of smoking among Russian males. Similar factors may lead to deflated smoking cessation attempt and quit rates. We believe that the future of tobacco control in Russia is close, but that it will involve raising the prices of tobacco products, enforcing no tobacco use policies among minors, ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and implementation of evidenced-based tobacco use prevention and cessation programs.

  1. Bioethical differences between drug addiction treatment professionals inside and outside the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendelevich Vladimir D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange, euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts.

  2. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2013 6th report of National Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the state and prospects of the development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2013. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the register in 2013 in the Russian Federation functioned 35 centers of kidney transplantation, 15 centers of liver transplantation and 10 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation included more than 4000 potential recipients that makes 15–16% of total number of the patients receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity made 2,9 per million population (pmp. Effi ciency of donor programs continues to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2013 increased to 72,4%, the share of multiorgan explantation increased to 52,9%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2,6. The rate of kidney transplantation made 6,5 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 1,9 pmp; the rate of heart transplantation made 1,1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The signifi cant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half of all kidney transplantations and 70% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. In 2013 Ministry of Health of Russia continued development of the new federal law «On donation of human organs and their transplantation». Under the auspices of the Russian Transplant Society 11 clinical guidelines about organ donation and transplantation were developed and approved. Together with earlier approved

  3. Governmental structure of the Russian Federation with respect to environmental and energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, R.V.; Reistroffer, E.L. [Environmental Planning Group, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL (United States); Edgar, D.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.

    1992-09-01

    An investigation was conducted by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., to provide an overview of the structure of government environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. The investigation was undertaken to provide a baseline of information to the US Department of Energy (DOE), so that technologies applicable to DOE environmental restoration and monitoring programs can be identified, tested, and transferred. Data for the report were collected through a network of Russian and American sources knowledgeable about environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. Sources of information included both US and Russian government personnel, nongovernmental organizations, private consultants, and experts from the academic and scientific communities. The peculiarities of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) remain prevalent in the structure of the Newly Independent States, especially in Russia. The legacy of communism is visible in all aspects of society, most particularly in the extreme environmental degradation that has resulted from careless central planning and policies of forced industrialization. Reforms initiated under Mikhail Gorbachev during the period of Perestroika were aimed at shifting power from the party to the respective government organs. In 1992 the Commonwealth of Independent States was created, joining 11 of the 15 republics into a loose federation. The investigation undertaken by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., focused on the executive organs of the present Russian government in an effort to define key ministries with environmental and energy responsibilities. The structure of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (Minpriroda) and the Ministry of Atomic Power (Minatom) are presented. The Academy of Sciences and other ministries that have relevance to the transfer of technologies are discussed, as well as research institutions in which technologies appropriate to DOE programs are likely to reside.

  4. 75 FR 38983 - Magnesium Metal From the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the People's Republic of China and the Russian... magnesium metal from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') and the Russian Federation (``Russia... Magnesium LLS, the petitioner in the magnesium metal investigation, notified the Department that it...

  5. Application of a Russian nuclear reactor simulator VVER-1000; Aplicacion de un simulador de reactor nuclear ruso VVER-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Peniche S, A. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Salazar S, E., E-mail: alpsordo@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, 62250 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The objective of the present work is to give to know the most important characteristics in the Russian nuclear reactor of pressurized light water VVER-1000, doing emphasis in the differences that has with the western equivalent the reactor PWR in the design and the safety systems. Therefore, a description of the computerized simulation of the reactor VVER-1000 developed by the company Eniko TSO that the International Atomic of Energy Agency distributes to the states members with academic purposes will take place. The simulator includes mathematical models that represent to the essential systems in the real nuclear power plant, for what is possible to reproduce common faults and transitory characteristic of the nuclear industry with a behavior sufficiently attached to the reality. In this work is analyzed the response of the system before a turbine shot. After the accident in the nuclear power plant of Three Mile Island (US) they have been carried out improvements in the design of the reactor PWR and their safety systems. To know the reach and the limitations of the program, the events that gave place to this accident will be reproduced in the simulator VVER-1000. With base to the results of the simulation we will conclude that so reliable is the response of the safety system of this reactor. (Author)

  6. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  7. What does a study of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sales statistics give the Russian Federation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Georgievna Barskova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the data obtained by Pharmexpert on the sales of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the Russian Federation. Ibuprofen, ketorolac, diclofenac, and nimesulide are sales leaders. Possible reasons for the popularity of a number of medications and whether it is expedient to use intramuscular formulations are considered. The WHO data on indi-cations for and contraindications to the use of injectable dosage form are given.

  8. Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation (4th from right) in the ATLAS assembly hall. A. Dudarev explains the integration details for the ATLAS barrel and the end-cap toroid magnets. The Minister is accompanied by (from l. to r.) V. Stanislavov, A. Petrov, P. Jenni, F. Grichaev, L. Riabev, First Deputy-Minister, MINATOM; A.N. Skrinsky and N. Koulberg. Photo 02: Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation (4th from left) visiting the fully assembled ATLAS Lar hadronic end-cap calorimeter wheel (HEC) with (from l. to r.) P. Jenni, V. Stanislavov, A. Petrov, A.N. Skrinsky, F. Grichaev, L. Riabev, First Deputy-Minister, MINATOM and N. Koulberg. Photo 03: Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation (2nd from right - behind) inside one of the two ATLAS end-cap vessels with the thermal superinsulation installed. The Minister is accompanied by (from l. to r.) P. ...

  9. Theoretical-Methodological Preconditions for the Formation of Mixed Economy in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author’s point of view on the formation of the mixed (convergent, doubletrack model of socio-economic and community development in the Russian Federation – as inherent in the federal state with multinational population, open space, and diversified economic orders determined by historical and national-cultural traditions. The author’s stance is based on the wildly discussed and debated thesis about the necessity of organic combination of primary state regulation of macroeconomic processes with predominant market self-regulation of microeconomic processes. The framework of the mixed model of socio-economic and community development presupposes more active and effective use of the “point” state regulation in the creation of favorable and equal conditions for the systematic development of all forms (private, with public participation of business and the expansion of the “corridor of opportunities” for the spatial development of all regions and the improvement of quality and standard of living of the Russian population (regardless of place of residence and position. The article substantiates theoretical and methodological possibility of successful implementation of the mixed model in the Russian Federation

  10. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2014 7th REPORT OF NATIONAL REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2014. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the Register in 2014 in the Russian Federation functioned 36 centers of kidney transplantation, 14 centers of liver transplantation and 9 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2014 included 4636 potential recipients that makes 16% of total number of the patients 29 000 receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2014 made 3.2 per million population (pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2014 continued to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2014 increased to 77.2%, the share of multiorgan explantation made 50.5%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2.6. In 2014 the rate of kidney transplantation made 7.0 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 2.1 pmp and the rate of heart transplantation made 1.1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The significant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. Conclusion. In theRussian Federation the potential for further development of the transplantology remains. In particular, at the expense of increase in the efficiency of regional donation programs, introduction of technologies, expansion of the practices of multiorgan donation and transplantations of

  11. Radiocarbon chronologies and extinction dynamics of the Late Quaternary mammalian megafauna of the Taimyr Peninsula, Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacPhee, RDE; Tikhonov, AN; Mol, D; Maliave, CD; Van der Plicht, H; Greenwood, AD; Flemming, C; Agenbroad, L; MacPhee, Ross D.E.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Marliave, Christian de; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents 75 new radiocarbon dates based on late Quaternary mammal remains recovered from eastern Taimyr Peninsula and adjacent parts of the northern Siberian lowlands, Russian Federation, including specimens of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), steppe bison (Bison priscus), muskox (

  12. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van Der Auwera, J

    1998-07-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed.

  13. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVENESS FACTORS OF REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Bakanach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of market economy the competition is the main driving force of economic growth. The idea about existence of the interregional competition isn't conventional and demands the proof. The phenomena allowing to state existence of the interregional competitive relations which are realized through system of prerequisites of political, economic, legal and technological character were for this purpose studied. Competitiveness – one of the most important characteristics of the territory which level directly influences formation of positive tendencies in development of subjects of the Russian Federation. Productive indicators of level of competitiveness of the region are: a gross regional product on one occupied in economy, production of a gross regional product for one ruble of fixed assets, a gross regional product for one ruble of investments, a share of balanced financial result in a gross regional product. On the basis of private indicators the Pattern method received an integrated indicator of level of competitiveness of region. The quantitative assessment of the factors determining distinctions of regions of the Russian Federation by competitiveness level allowed to define that the competitiveness variation in the territory of regions in the greatest measure depends on a variation of number of graduates of educational institutions with higher education on 1000 people and the specific weight of investments into the enterprises occupied with mining. Regional values of competitiveness are most elastic relatively the specific weight of own investments, that is increase of this indicator for 1 % causes increase of competitiveness for 0.9 %. The practical importance of this work is caused by possibility of application of results of research by federal and regional executive authorities as information representation when developing programs of increase of level of competitiveness of regions of the Russian Federation. Besides, it is

  14. To the Question of the Minority Shareholders Rights Protection in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Ch. Saparov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author examines organizational and legal issues of legitimate rights and interests of the minority shareholders of the joint stock companies in Russian Federation protecting. In modern Russian joint stock companies it is important to allocate a special category of shareholders, whose rights and interests are very limited and often violated. This category of persons is minority shareholders. In many countries, including Russian Federation, legislation aimed at protecting rights and interests of this category of persons. Author gives particular attention to the questions of protection of the rights and interests of minority shareholders. Author notes that it is important to take into account the balance between the interests of minority shareholders and controlling shareholders. Author proves that non-observance of such balance can lead to the variety of negative consequences for the company, and also notes that protection of minority rights is aimed at creating favorable conditions for development, both joint-stock companies, and improving economic relations between shareholders and joint-stock companies. Author notes that with usual practice there are quite a number of ways to protect minority shareholders' rights enshrined in the various existing legal acts.

  15. Development and Attestation of Gamma-Ray Measurement Methodologies for use by Rostekhnadzor Inspectors in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Sanders

    2006-09-01

    Development and attestation of gamma-ray non-destructive assay measurement methodologies for use by inspectors of the Russian Federal Service for Environmental, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostekhnadzor, formerly Gosatomnadzor or GAN), as well as for use by Russian nuclear facilities, has been completed. Specifically, a methodology utilizing the gamma-ray multi group analysis (MGA) method for determining plutonium isotopic composition has been developed, while existing methodologies to determining uranium enrichment and isotopic composition have been revised to make them more appropriate to the material types and conditions present in nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation. This paper will discuss the development and revision of these methodologies, the metrological characteristics of the final methodologies, as well as the limitations and concerns specific to the utilization of these analysis methods in the Russian Federation.

  16. Building the effective innovation policy in the regions of the Russian Federation as a prerequisite for socio-economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Markovna Golova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic problems and contradictions of regional innovation policy formation in Russia are revealed. The need to move the Russian economy on an innovative way of development is seen as a condition of economic security. With the usage of global experience, priorities in innovational activity of Russian companies and measures to address systemic gaps between science and industry are grounded. Particular attention is paid to the legal aspects of the state innovational policy. Methodological approaches to the formation of regional innovational policy in the Russian Federation, taking into account the spatial distribution of the scientific, technical and production capacities of the country, their state and structure are revealed. The necessity of a major upgrade of the existing system of intergovernmental relations as a prerequisite for building a functioning innovation system is substantiated. The proposals on division of competence between the Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation in the regulation of relations in science, technology and innovations are given.

  17. Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Saez, Sebastian; Van der Marel, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Globalization is creating many new trade and growth opportunities, with services trade increasingly becoming an issue for export-oriented economies. Services are important to country trade strategies, because they represent activities in which countries may have a comparative advantage, and they are drivers of competitiveness for the whole economy. This paper uses data from the World Devel...

  18. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  19. Regional Logistics of Procurement of the Ferrous Scrap by the Iron-and-Steel Companies of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aleksandrovna Ivanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relevant problem of iron-and-steel companies saving on purchasing the scrap metal. The analysis of the current state of the ferrous scrap market in the Russian Federation, trends of its development, led the authors to an opportunity to reduce the cost for purchasing scrap trough the optimal distribution of the regions between Russian iron-and-steel companies where they purchase ferrous scrap. The optimization of the regional structure of the scrap procurement taking into account the regional volumes of its generation and consumption results from using the linear programming methods applying three variants of the problem statement: minimizing the total cost of the scrap delivery to the factory, minimizing the total cost of the scrap at the “export parity” price with delivery, minimizing the total cost of the scrap at the actual prices with delivery. The authors have developed software for performing the calculations. The source are the database of the JSC Russian Railways, which provides information about the transportation of the ferrous scrap between stations of the Russian Federation by railroad; railway rates guide between railway stations of the Russian Federation; statistical data on the prices for scrap metal of the type 3A in “export windows”; actual purchasing prices for the scrap of the 3A type for the range of separate companies of the Russian Federation for several years. As a result, the authors have obtained the optimal regional structure of scrap purchasing for customers in the Russian Federation. We have formulated the recommendations for individual companies regarding the optimal routes of the procurement with scrap. The study has confirmed the possibility to decrease expanses for purchasing the scrap metal for all iron-and-steel factories of the Russian Federation through the optimization of the regional structure of procurement. It is also has allowed to estimate the possibility to cut expenses

  20. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2015. 8th report of National Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of the organ donation and transplantation in theRussian Federationaccording to 2015.Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics by years, between certain regions of theRussian Federation, the transplantation centers is done.Results. According to the register in2015 inthe Russian Federation 36 centers of renal transplantation, 17 centers of liver transplantation and 10 centers of heart transplantation were functioning. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2015 included 4167 potential recipients that make 13% of the total number of the patients (31 500 receiving a dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2015 made 3.0 pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2015 continues to increase: the share of multiorgan retrievals made 57.8%, average number of organs, received from one effective donor, made 2.7. In 2015 the rate of kidney transplantation made 6.5 pmp; the rate of liver transplantation made 2.2 pmp; the rate of heart transplantation made 1.2 pmp. The number of transplantations of liver and heart in theRussian Federationcontinues to increase. The number of transplantations of kidney remains approximately at one level in the range of 950–1050.Moscowcapital region continues to be the center of stability and development of the organ donation and transplantation in the country, in which 10 centers of transplantation are functioning and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out.Conclusion. The potential for further development of the transplantation care in theRussian Federationcontinues to persist. In particular, at the expense of increasing efficiency of regional donation programs, expanding practices of multiorgan recuperation and transplantations of extrarenal organs, through

  1. On the role of fusion neutron source with thorium blanket in forming the nuclide composition of the nuclear fuel cycle of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    The possible role of available thorium resources of the Russian Federation in utilization of thorium in the closed (U-Pu)-fuel cycle of nuclear power is considered. The efficiency of application of fusion neutron sources with thorium blanket for economical use of available thorium resources is demonstrated. The objective of this study is the search for a solution of such major tasks of nuclear power as reduction of the amount of front-end operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and enhancement of its protection against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials with the smallest possible alterations in the fuel cycle. The earlier results are analyzed, new information on the amount of thorium resources of the Russian Federation is used, and additional estimates are made. The following basic results obtained on the basis of the assumption of involving fusion reactors with Th-blanket in future nuclear power for generation of the light uranium fraction 232+233+234U and 231Pa are formulated. (1) The fuel cycle would shift from fissile 235U to 233U, which is more attractive for thermal power reactors. (2) The light uranium fraction is the most "protected" in the uranium fuel component, and being mixed with regenerated uranium, it would become reduced-enrichment uranium fuel, which would relieve the problem of nonproliferation of the fissile material. (3) The addition of 231Pa into the fuel would stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties, thus making it possible to implement a long fuel residence time and, as a consequence, increase the export potential of the whole nuclear power technology. (4) The available thorium resource in the vicinity of Krasnoufimsk is sufficient for operation of the large-scale nuclear power industry of the Russian Federation with an electric power of 70 GW for more than one quarter of a century. The general conclusion is that involvement of a small number of fusion reactors with Th-blanket in the future nuclear power industry of the Russian

  2. ANALYSIS OF EQUIPMENT PROVISIONS FOR X-RAY DIAGNOSTICS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Vishnyakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of equipment provisions for X-ray diagnostics in the Russian Federation for the period from 2000 to 2006 is being presented. The article records the lag of Russia behind the countries with high level of public health service development both for total amount of X-ray diagnostic equipment and for the rate of their amount growth. The lag of national X-ray diagnostic equipment is especially high for the equipment for special X-ray examinations. Half of all X-ray equipment in Russia has a life time of 10 and more years. Equipment for the standard X-ray examinations prevails in its structure in contrast to the countries with high level of public health service. More than one third of equipment for fluoroscopy is not equipped with amplifiers of X-ray image. The share of digital X-ray diagnostic equipment for standard X-ray examinations is 5%, while in the economically developed countries mainly digital technologies are applied. Significant differences in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of current state of X-ray diagnostic equipment in the various Federal districts and administrative territories of the Russian Federation are observed.

  3. Barriers to sustainable tuberculosis control in the Russian Federation health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, R. A.; Samyshkin, Y. A.; Drobniewski, F.; Skuratova, N. M.; Gusarova, G.; Kuznetsov, S. I.; Fedorin, I. M.; Coker, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Russian Federation has the eleventh highest tuberculosis burden in the world in terms of the total estimated number of new cases that occur each year. In 2003, 26% of the population was covered by the internationally recommended control strategy known as directly observed treatment (DOT) compared to an overall average of 61% among the 22 countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. The Director-General of WHO has identified two necessary starting points for the scaling-up of interventions to control emerging infectious diseases. These are a comprehensive engagement with the health system and a strengthening of the health system. The success of programmes aimed at controlling infectious diseases is often determined by constraints posed by the health system. We analyse and evaluate the impact of the arrangements for delivering tuberculosis services in the Russian Federation, drawing on detailed analyses of barriers and incentives created by the organizational structures, and financing and provider-payment systems. We demonstrate that the systems offer few incentives to improve the efficiency of services or the effectiveness of tuberculosis control. Instead, the system encourages prolonged supervision through specialized outpatient departments in hospitals (known as dispensaries), multiple admissions to hospital and lengthy hospitalization. The implementation, and expansion and sustainability of WHO-approved methods of tuberculosis control in the Russian Federation are unlikely to be realized under the prevailing system of service delivery. This is because implementation does not take into account the wider context of the health system. In order for the control programme to be sustainable, the health system will need to be changed to enable services to be reconfigured so that incentives are created to reward improvements in efficiency and outcomes. PMID:15798846

  4. Targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklyarov, Oleg; Shumilov, Konstantin; Klimanov, Arkadii; Denisov, Aleksander

    2010-10-01

    The article presents a brief history of the brucellosis prevention in animals in the world and in the Russian Federation. Data are taken from studies on the immunogenic activity and epizootic efficacy of vaccines against brucellosis in animals, which made it possible, in the final analysis, to regard these preparations as highly important for brucellosis prevention. The relationship between the epizootic brucellosis situation in Russia and the employment of specific agents in targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats, and the sequence of their use, are presented briefly, substantiating the feasibility of their use and improvement.

  5. PROBLEMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Zotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP is a complex mechanism, which includes a variety of industry legislation, which together form a system of legislative regulation of relations at the interaction of private and public parties in the realization of long-term capital-intensive investment projects for the development of public infrastructure. The article describes the current state of PPP in the Russian Federation, the analysis of the main problems and needs integrated action (regulatory, institutional and investment to improve and develop this project.

  6. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by leading universities of Russian Federation

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    Science Festival in Russian Federation is a programme of events which take place at the leading scientific centres and museums in Russia. At the Science Festival scientists, engineers and students show to visitors the advances of modern science and technology in all scopes of life. Today the leading universities of Russia will feature a multipoint video conference with the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors of the Science Festival the opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Russia-2012.html

  7. A synopsis of original research projects published in scientific database in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Daria; Pavlichenko, Alexey; Karpenko, Olga; Schmeleva, Liubov; Morozov, Petr

    2015-06-01

    The article describes the current state of scientific publications in the field of psychiatry in the Russian Federation. Issues of academic dissertations, lack of access to recent Russian language research in foreign databases, and recent reforms in the Ministry of Education and Science for overcoming these limitations are discussed in detail. Four exemplary dissertation studies published in Russian language are summarized. The first research examines the contribution of patient's verbal behavior to the reliable diagnosis of mild depression, identifying objective signs for distinguishing it from normal sadness; the mood component influenced the whole mental status and was represented in both structure and semantics of patients' speech. The second paper describes the course of panic disorder with agoraphobia, with the notable results that debut of panic disorder with full-blown panic attacks, often declines to a second accompanied with agoraphobia, which after several years gives way to limited symptom attacks and decreased agoraphobic avoidance. The third study describes the high prevalence of affective and anxiety disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, and the role of personality traits in adherence to treatment in patients with poor glucose control. The fourth project uses functional MRI for probing the features of neuronal resting-state networks in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy; the association with affective symptoms provides a model for investigating the pathophysiology of mood disorder.

  8. 75 FR 78968 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... a notice of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium...

  9. UTC(SU) and EOP(SU) - the only legal reference frames of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelyaevsky, Nikolay B.; Blinov, Igor Yu; Pasynok, Sergey L.

    2015-08-01

    There are two legal time reference frames in Russian Federation. UTC(SU) deals with atomic time and play a role of reference for legal timing through the whole country. The other one, EOP(SU), deals with Earth's orientation parameters and provides the official EOP data for scientific, technical and metrological applications in Russia.The atomic time is based on two essential hardware components: primary Cs fountain standards and ensemble of continuously operating H-masers as a time unit/time scale keeper. Basing on H-maser intercomparison system data, regular H-maser frequency calibration against Cs standards and time algorithm autonomous TA(SU) time scale is maintained by the Main Metrological Center. Since 2013 time unit in TA(SU) is the second (SU) reproduced independently by VNIIFTRI Cs primary standards in accordance to it’s definition in the SI. UTC(SU) is relied on TA(SU) and steering to UTC basing on TWSTFT/GNSS time link data. As a result TA(SU) stability level relative to TT considerably exceeds 1×10-15 for sample time one month and more, RMS[UTC-UTC(SU)] ≤ 3 ns for the period of 2013-2015. UTC(SU) is broadcasted by different national means such as specialized radio and TV stations, NTP servers and GLONASS. Signals of Russian radio stations contains DUT1 and dUT1 values at 0.1s and 0.02s resolution respectively.The definitive EOP(SU) are calculated by the Main Metrological Center basing on composition of the eight independent individual EOP data streams delivered by four Russian analysis centers: VNIIFTRI, Institute of Applied Astronomy, Information-Analytical Center of Russian Space Agency and Analysis Center of Russian Space Agency. The accuracy of ultra-rapid EOP values for 2014 is estimated ≤ 0.0006" for polar motion, ≤ 70 microseconds for UT1-UTC and ≤ 0.0003" for celestial pole offsets respectively.The other VNIIFTRI EOP activities can be grouped in three basic directions:- arrangement and carrying out GNSS and SLR observations at five

  10. Monitoring study of the quality of work with gifted schoolchildren in the Russian Federation regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vyacheslavovich Chegodaev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research into the quality of work with talented schoolchildren in the Russian Federation subjects. It shows that it is the regional and municipal levels that should be most actively involved in the identification and development of such children. The author suggests his methodology of calculating the integral index of the quality of work with gifted schoolchildren in the regional educational systems. The article shows that Russia’s territories differ considerably according to this indicator. The highest value of the index is registered in the Volga Federal District (average rating is 0.499 and the Central (0.480 Federal District. The constituent entities of the North Caucasian (0.303 and Far Eastern (0.358 federal districts have the lowest average rating. The regions were divided into five groups by the index of quality of work with gifted schoolchildren. The Vologda Oblast joined the group in which the level of quality of work with gifted schoolchildren was above average; the Oblast ranked 22nd in the country and 5th in the Northwestern Federal District. The Oblast has the greatest progress by the set of indicators “Olympiad movement” (6th place among Russian regions. According to some indicators, the Oblast’s results were below the threshold indicators. The dynamics of the integral index of the quality of work with gifted students for 2012–2013 was analysed by the cross grouping of the regions according to the level and rate of growth (decline of the integral index. The Vologda Oblast was included in the group of regions with low growth rates of the integral index (94%, which creates the risk of decrease in the quality of work with gifted students. The article states the main reasons for the integral index decline; it also suggests certain measures for the improvement of the quality of work with gifted schoolchildren

  11. H.E. Mr Leonid A.Skotnikov Ambassador,PermanentRepresentative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (right) with CERN Director-General, L. Maiani. Photo 02: Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva. Photo 03: Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (right) with CERN Director-General, L. Maiani.

  12. Spatio-temporal modeling of the African swine fever epidemic in the Russian Federation, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korennoy, F I; Gulenkin, V M; Malone, J B; Mores, C N; Dudnikov, S A; Stevenson, M A

    2014-10-01

    In 2007 African swine fever (ASF) entered Georgia and in the same year the disease entered the Russian Federation. From 2007 to 2012 ASF spread throughout the southern region of the Russian Federation. At the same time several cases of ASF were detected in the central and northern regions of the Russian Federation, forming a northern cluster of outbreaks in 2011. This northern cluster is of concern because of its proximity to mainland Europe. The aim of this study was to use details of recorded ASF outbreaks and human and swine population details to estimate the spatial distribution of ASF risk in the southern region of the European part of the Russian Federation. Our model of ASF risk was comprised of two components. The first was an estimate of ASF suitability scores calculated using maximum entropy methods. The second was an estimate of ASF risk as a function of Euclidean distance from index cases. An exponential distribution fitted to a frequency histogram of the Euclidean distance between consecutive ASF cases had a mean value of 156 km, a distance greater than the surveillance zone radius of 100-150 km stated in the ASF control regulations for the Russian Federation. We show that the spatial and temporal risk of ASF expansion is related to the suitability of the area of potential expansion, which is in turn a function of socio-economic and geographic variables. We propose that the methodology presented in this paper provides a useful tool to optimize surveillance for ASF in affected areas.

  13. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY INNOVATIVE OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION BASED ON INFORMATION MODELING OF INDUSTRIAL AND CIVIL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерий Владимирович Трофимов

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the implementation of the Russian construction industry innovative development strategies based on information modeling of industrial and civil objects with the use of information technology. The use of such technologies as the BIM: Building Information modeling - BIM, 4D modeling, Multi-D modeling, Product LiveCycle Management - PLM, allows to activate innovative processes and supports the basic condition for the realization of innovative strategy of development of the construction industry of the Russian Federation.

  14. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONTROL, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PROPHYLAXIS OF CHOLERA IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, G G; Popova, A Yu; Kutyrev, V V; Smirnova, N I; Scherbakova, S A; Moskvitina, E A; Titova, S V

    2016-01-01

    Main problems of system of epidemiologic control for cholera active in Russian Federation, as well as laboratory diagnostics and vaccine prophylaxis of this especially dangerous infection, that had emerged in the contemporary period of the ongoing 7th pandemic of cholera, are discussed. Features of the genome of natural strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar, that possess a poten- tial epidemic threat, as well as problems, that have emerged during isolation of these strains from samples of water of surface water bodies during their monitoring, are also examined. The main direction of enhancement of the system of epidemiologic control for cholera consist in develop- ment of a new algorithm of differentiation of administrative territories of Russian Federation by types of epidemic manifestations, as well as optimization of monitoring of environment objects. Integration of modern highly informative technologies into practice, as well as development of new generation diagnostic preparations based on DNA-chips and immunechips is necessary to increase effectiveness of the conducted operative and retrospective diagnostics in the contemporary period. Creation of national cholera vaccine, ensuring simultaneous protection from cholera causative agents of both O1 and O139 serogroups, is also required.

  15. [Working conditions and occupational morbidity in workers of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2009-01-01

    To create healthy and safe working conditions are constantly in the focus of attention at all governmental levels. To reduce deaths and traumatism from occupational accidents and diseases, by providing safe working conditions is one of the priorities of the demographic policy pursued by the Government of the Russian Federation. In the able-bodied population, the current mortality from natural causes (accidents, poisonings, and traumas, including occupation-related ones) exceeds that by 2.5 and 1.5 times in developed and developing countries, respectively. The worse conditions remain to be those in coal-mining and shipbuilding industries, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, agriculture, tractor-building and agricultural engineering, building materials industry, road-building machinery, logging industry, power machine building, and civil engineering. On-going checks reveal low sanitary culture and industrial discipline, no package of sanitary-and-prophylactic measures, as well as poor knowledge about sanitary legislation requirements in the heads of small-scale business and private undertakings. In 2006, the Russian Federation notified 357 cases of occupational diseases among medical workers, of which there were 196 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and 39 cases of viral hepatitis. Despite the fact that the cases of occupational diseases are annually on the decrease, these are being underdetected.

  16. To the Question of Personnel Policy in Divisions of Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Chechko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the actual questions of human rights management at the Prosecutor's Office of Russian Federation. Main content of this research is analysis of the human resource management characteristics at the present stage. Author pays special attention to research issues of relevant training courses for prosecutors. Author substantiates the view that skilled personnel are the basis of the successful functioning of prosecutorial unit. Requirement for candidates for job in the prosecutor’s office is to have high moral standards, namely, honesty, objectivity, self-critical and demanding of themselves and others, integrity and responsible attitude toward human rights and freedoms, legal culture as the highest social values, poise, tact, humility and moral purity, realities of profession require careful attention to the person’s ability to resist any form of pressure on them. Author examines key requirements for individuals to serve in the prosecution. Author's opinion, based on the experience of working in the as prosecutor’s office may be of interest to human resources specialists and applicants for the position of the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation.

  17. [The provision of population of the Russian Federation with basic personnel resource of public health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepin, V O

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of complex scientific analysis of number and structure of physicians and paramedical personnel of public and municipal health care system of the Russian Federation. The provision of country population, its federal okrugs and federation subjects with physicians and paramedical personnel of various specialties are analyzed too, including ratio of physicians and paramedical personnel and territorial differentiation of provision of population with basic medical personnel. The study results demonstrate that in 2012 provision of population (per 10 000 of population) with physicians increased from 43.9 to 44.7. At the same time provision with paramedical personnel decreased from 92.3 to 90.8. in the Russian Federation are preserved significant territorial disproportions of provision of population with medical personnel resource. The provision of population with physicians and paramedical personnel is 4.3 times and 1.9 times higher in cities than in rural area. The differences between extreme indicators of provision of population of the Russian Federation with physicians and paramedical personnel are 2.9 and 2.4 times correspondingly. The differences between indicators of provision with physicians of clinical specialties are 2.6 times. The average ratio between physician and paramedical personnel is 1:2.03. The structure of medical manpower corresponds to the need of population in medical care in incomplete measure. The materials substantiate necessity to continue modernization, optimization and development of manpower support of public health care system in the Russian Federation.

  18. Microstructural investigations on Russian reactor pressure vessel steels by small-angle neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, A.; Boehmert, J.; Strunz, P.; Dewhurst, C.; Mathon, M.-H.

    The effect of radiation embrittlement has a high safety significance for Russian VVER reactor pressure vessel steels. Heats of base and weld metals of the as-received state, irradiated state and post-irradiation annealed state were investigated using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to obtain insight about the microstructural features caused by fast neutron irradiation. The SANS intensities increase in the momentum transfer range between 0.8 and 3 nm-1 for all the material compositions in the irradiated state. The size distribution function of the irradiation-induced defect clusters has a pronounced maximum at 1 nm in radius. Their content varies between 0.1 and 0.7 vol.% dependent on material composition and increases with the neutron fluence. The comparison of nuclear and magnetic scattering indicates that the defects differ in their composition. Thermal annealing reduces the volume fraction of irradiation defect clusters.

  19. The forest resources of the Russian Federation and their regional characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuev, Y.A. [Department of Forest Utilization and Inventory, The Federal Forest Service of Russia (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The forests of Russia amount to ca. 25% of the world`s forests. They cover a territory of ca. 1.2 billion hectares, i.e. 69% of the land area of the Russian Federation, stretching from the western to the eastern borders, from the subtundra in the north to the steppes of the south. These forests are differing in terms of their economic value, species composition, and age. All forest stands have a major impact on the climate, they protect the soil against erosion by water and wind, and they regulate the water regimes. Our knowledge of the forests is based on the data provided by inventories carried out by federal forest inventory enterprises following universally applied principles. These data form the main basis for the forest resource statistical accounting conducted every five years to demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative changes that have taken place in the Federation`s forest resources. Major annual changes in the forest resources of Russia are caused by economic activity, natural calamities and the administrative reorganization of district forestry units (reshow). These changes determine the period when the inventory materials (projects of forestry organization, inventory data, etc.) are elaborated. This period is 10 years in regions where intensive forestry is practised and 15 years in regions of low intensity of commercial forestry. (orig.)

  20. Scenarios of forestry carbon sequestration measures in the Russian Federation and priorities for action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorin, A.O. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Development of forestry mitigation strategy under Russian transition economy conditions has many difficulties and specific features. The most important factors are: shortage in funds; absence of well defined legislation, rules and standards; absence of adequate control systems; weak transport infrastructure and export problems. Assessment of economic possibilities, potential, short- and middle-term measures show that strategies have to be focused on improvement and promotion of current carbon sequestration activity. Five baseline forestry scenario (No. 1) and four other scenarios (No. 2 - No. 5) for 2000-2040 were developed. Each scenario covers all forested area but provides separate analysis of 30 `forestry ecoregions`. Three types of forestry management were included in scenarios: clear-cut logging and reforestation (by scenarios No. 2 and No. 3); selective logging and thinning (No. 4); measures to prevent and manage fires (No. 5). The baseline scenario results in a constant net-sink of about 150 MtC/yr. An increase in clear-cut logging on the basis of current forestry practice will cause a rapid drop of net-sink. Implementation of a modest increase in clear-cut logging with active forest fire and selective logging measures could provide with a slight increase of net-sink. Consideration of scenarios helps identify regional forestry priorities for Russian Climate Change Action Plan. The priorities by region include: European-Ural: (1) creation of economy mechanism to increase forestry effectiveness on the same cutting areas, (2) assistance to natural reforestation. Central and North-East Siberia: promotion of forest fire protection system. South Siberia and Primorie and Priamurie: limit of clear-cut logging and creation market situation for better forestry efficiency. The proposed Joint Implementation Vologda reforestation project which is being considered now by special bodies of the USA and the Russian Federation is in good agreement with these priorities.

  1. The regional approach in the policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This author uses regionalism as a theoretical framework for analyzing the foreign policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia. Regionalism is interpreted as a situation, when a political leader’s beliefs change depending on what region of the world is considered. Leaders of great powers often assume that, for example, small European countries are subject to a treatment different from that of small Middle Eastern countries. The method of operational coding is employed to identify the impact of the regional approach on the beliefs of political leaders. The author comes to the conclusion that Russia’s policy towards Estonia largely depends on Russia’s policy towards the regions which the Russian elite relate Estonia to — the Baltic States, Northern Europe, and Europe as a whole. The results of the study can further the understanding of Russia’s policy towards Estonia both in Russia and abroad. Lack of understanding sometimes results in sharing the views of radical Estonian politicians who claim that Russia’s policy towards Estonia is unpredictable and thus poses a threat to security and stability in Europe.

  2. Characteristics of Populations of the Russian Federation over the Panel of Fifteen Loci Used for DNA Identification and in Forensic Medical Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, V.; Balanovsky, O.; Melnikov, A; Lash-zavada, A.; Khar'kov, V.; Tyazhelova, T.; Akhmetova, V.; Zhukova, O.; Shneider, Yu; Shil'nikova, I.; S Borinskaya; Marusin, A.; Spiridonova, M.; Simonova, K.; Khitrinskaya, I.

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen population groups within the Russian Federation were characterized for the first time using a panel of 15 genetic markers that are used for DNA identification and in forensic medical examinations. The degree of polymorphism and population diversity of microsatellite loci within the Power Plex system (Promega) in Russian populations; the distribution of alleles and genotypes within the populations of six cities and 11 ethnic groups of the Russian Federation; the levels of intra- and ...

  3. The current state of the Russian reduced enrichment research reactors program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, V.G.; Kartashov, E.F.; Lukichev, V.A. [and others

    1997-08-01

    During the last year after the 16-th International Conference on Reducing Fuel Enrichment in Research Reactors held in October, 1993 in Oarai, Japan, the conclusive stage of the Program on reducing fuel enrichment (to 20% in U-235) in research reactors was finally made up in Russia. The Program was started late in 70th and the first stage of the Program was completed by 1986 which allowed to reduce fuel enrichment from 80-90% to 36%. The completion of the Program current stage, which is counted for 5-6 years, will exclude the use of the fuel enriched by more than 20% from RF to other countries such as: Poland, Czeck Republick, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Libya, Viet-Nam, North Korea, Egypt, Latvia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. In 1994 the Program, approved by RF Minatom authorities, has received the status of an inter-branch program since it was admitted by the RF Ministry for Science and Technical Policy. The Head of RF Minatom central administrative division N.I.Ermakov was nominated as the Head of the Russian Program, V.G.Aden, RDIPE Deputy Director, was nominated as the scientific leader. The Program was submitted to the Commission for Scientific, Technical and Economical Cooperation between USA and Russia headed by Vice-President A. Gore and Prime Minister V. Chemomyrdin and was given support also.

  4. H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (far right). On his right F. Grishaev, Adviser, Mission of the Russian Federation; opposite N. Koulberg and L. Maiani, CERN Director general

  5. Investigations on inertial confinement fusion at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garanin, S; Kirillov, G A; Kochemasov, G G; Mkhitaryan, L S; Murugov, V M; Sukharev, S A; Zhidkov, N V [Institute for Laser Physics Researches, Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF, 37 Prospect Mira, Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod Reg., 607190 (Russian Federation)

    2003-12-01

    Since 30 years already, the All-Russia Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) is engaged in investigations on the problem of inertial confinement fusion. The high-power laser facilities 'Iskra 5' (Kirillov G A et al 1990 Laser Particle Beams 8 827-31) and 'Luch' (Sukharev S A 3rd Int. Conf. on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion ed W H Lowdermilk Proc. SPIE 3492 12-24) were created and are operating now in the framework of this programme. The main lines of the work at these facilities are the investigation of the physics of thermonuclear targets and the development of laser technologies. This work resulted in the development of a project of the new generation facility 'Iskra-6'. This report presents the main results of these works carried out at Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF in the period 1991-2002.

  6. A THEORETICAL APPROACH ON THE STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan-Alexandru GENTIMIR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the theoretical approaches of the „strategic partnership” concept, and then applying them to the relationship and cooperation between the European Union and the Russian Federation, thus emphasizing its evolution. The base of this article lays on a literature review that gathers recent articles and several studies of some researchers in the field, providing some professional information on the subject. Findings reveal that there has not yet got to a general definition of the concepts, researchers and not only would agree upon, and, when applying it to the EU-Russia relation, that there are some mutual benefits as a result of the cooperation. This article shows that, despite of the fact that the startup of the cooperation between the two major global powers was a good one, it now has reached some kind of dead moment, when policy contradictions block the evolution of the partnership.

  7. Socio-economic monitoring of hiv/aids threat in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Aleksandrovich Chereshnev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thesubject of theinvestigation issocial and economic aspects of thethreat of HIV/AIDS in the Russian Federation.Theinvestigation was aimed at improving socio-economic monitoring of the HIV / AIDS threat. The methodology of systemic analysis and statistical methods were used. Three main sections of socio-economic monitoring of HIV / AIDS were defined with their problems, challenges and areas for improvement. Results of the study are applicable in justifying and shaping public policy to counter the threat of HIV / AIDS. Planned costs of measures to counter thethreat of HIV / AIDS must be based on requirements, allocation and results achieved. Systemic approach to planning requires an analysis of interrelation between costs, requirements and results. The absence of a systemic approach to coordination of costs and requirements leads to inefficient use of resources

  8. Thermal degradations of wood biofuels, coals and hydrolysis lignin from the Russian Federation: Experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Evgeniya; Chernov, Aleksandr; Maryandyshev, Pavel; Brillard, Alain; Kehrli, Damaris; Trouvé, Gwenaëlle; Lyubov, Viktor; Brilhac, Jean-François

    2016-10-01

    The thermal degradation of wood biofuels (spruce, pine), of coals from different fields of the Russian Federation and of hydrolysis lignin is investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer under different heating conditions and under non-oxidative or oxidative atmospheres. The samples are indeed submitted to a linear temperature ramp of 10K/min or to a temperature ramp of 200K/min up to a residence temperature between 250 and 450°C where they are maintained during 4h (isothermal conditions). The values of the kinetic parameters are determined for these different samples in both thermal conditions, either using the differential isoconversional method or by means of an Extended Independent Parallel Reaction (EIPR) model. The values of the kinetic parameters obtained with this EIPR model for spruce trunk are also compared with that of its main constituents (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin).

  9. Rheumatic diseases in children and adolescents in the Russian Federation (2009—2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Mikhailovna Balabanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In pediatrics, rheumatic diseases (RD are characterized by particularly severe social consequences. This investigation was undertaken to clarify the prevalence of RD from the 2009—2010 statistical data of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation. Analysis of these data has led to the conclusion that the acute rheumatic fever situation is relatively favorable in Russia. As for musculoskeletal system diseases, patients with inflammatory RD are a small percentage among those with this pathology; however, they are critically ill and become disabled early and frequently despite the fact that the majority of novel highly effective drugs have not approved for use in children, which makes their timely use difficult. Most children with locomotor diseases suffer from non-inflammatory diseases. This shows the importance of measures for the prevention, early detection, and correction of acquired or inherited pathology of the joints and vertebral column.

  10. [Biological properties of Trichinella spp. isolated from the Central Region of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of Trichinella isolated from the muscles of a common fox inhabiting in the Central Region of the Russian Federation have been studied. The paper presents the results of passaging this isolate of Trichinella on laboratory rats and mice, shows morphometric variability in relation to the change of Trichinella habitat. Evidence is provided that the shape and size of Trichinella capsules depend on the strain of the parasite and the species of an animal host the muscles of which contain these tissue helminths. The morphological data, biological properties, and high negative temperature resistance of the Trichinella that are present in the muscles of a fox shot in the Ryazan Region allow the above isolate to be classified as Trichinella nativa.

  11. The system of Collective Security of the Russian Federation in the format of CSTO and preconditions of its creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontar Sergey Mikhailovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the essence of the security of the States included in the Collective Security Treaty Organization. The author gives the definition to the system of collective security in the CSTO. The main intergovernmental bodies of the Organization and the structure of the forces and means of the CSTO collective security system are outlined. The author enumerates the main sources of a military threat and threats to the national security of the Russian Federation arising at the turn of the XXI century, as well as peculiarities of their arising and development. The prerequisites for a system of collective security of the Russian Federation in the format of CSTO are identified. On the basis of the conducted research the author proposes the basic directions of activity of the Russian leadership in the field of development of the CSTO as an integral part of Eurasian security.

  12. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  13. Chronic respiratory diseases and risk factors in 12 regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuchalin AG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexander G Chuchalin,1 Nikolai Khaltaev,2 Nikolay S Antonov,1 Dmitry V Galkin,3 Leonid G Manakov,4 Paola Antonini,5 Michael Murphy,5 Alexander G Solodovnikov,6 Jean Bousquet,7 Marcelo HS Pereira,8 Irina V Demko9 1Institute of Pulmonology, Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia; 2Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD, Genève, Switzerland; 3GlaxoSmithKline, Moscow, Russia; 4Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk, Russia; 5Worldwide Clinical Trials, King of Prussia, PA, USA; 6Worldwide Clinical Trials, Ekaterinburg, Russia; 7Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Montpellier, France; 8Research and Development Chief Medical Office, International Medical, GlaxoSmithKline, London, United Kingdom; 9Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia Background: Estimation suggests that at least 4 million people die, annually, as a result of chronic respiratory disease (CRD. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD was formed following a mandate from the World Health Assembly to address this serious and growing health problem. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of CRD in Russian symptomatic patients and to evaluate the frequency of major risk factors for CRD in Russia. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study using the GARD questionnaire on adults from 12 regions of the Russian Federation. Common respiratory symptoms and risk factors were recorded. Spirometry was performed in respondents with suspected CRD. Allergic rhinitis (AR and chronic bronchitis (CB were defined by the presence of related symptoms according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma and the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines; asthma was defined based on disease symptoms; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD was defined as a post

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Rock Dove (Columba livia) in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Kseniya S; Sivay, Mariya V; Glushchenko, Alexandra V; Alkhovsky, Sergey V; Shchetinin, Alexey M; Shchelkanov, Michail Y; Shestopalov, Alexander M

    2015-01-29

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV/Altai/pigeon/770/2011, isolated from a rock dove in the Russian Federation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, this strain was clustered into genotype VIb class II.

  15. THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION PRIOR AND AFTER THE CREATION OF THE COMMON ECONOMIC SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan-Alexandru GENTIMIR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its geographical position and its cultural links, Russia has always had a special relation with Europe. In its attempt to shape its own place on the global stage, the Russian Federation has sometimes seen itself as an authentic European state, while in other cases and circumstances, it strongly supported and claimed its “Eurasian” features. Due to the enlargement of the European Union and its rise as a heavy international player, the European Union has turned into a geographical neighbor of the Russian Federation. From this perspective, it is not a surprising fact that the Russian Federation is to develop specific relations and shape a foreign policy with strategic features regarding the European Union. The institutional cooperation between the European Union and the Russian Federation aims at shaping a series of common objectives regarding the relations between the two sides and defining the actions needed in order to reach the proposed objectives, the implementation of the common projects considering the agreed order of priorities.

  16. Supplemental Thermal-Hydraulic Transient Analyses of BR2 in Support of Conversion to LEU Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sikik, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Van den Branden, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Koonen, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)

    2016-01-01

    Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) is a research and test reactor located in Mol, Belgium and is primarily used for radioisotope production and materials testing. The Materials Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is supporting the conversion of the BR2 reactor from Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. The RELAP5/Mod 3.3 code has been used to perform transient thermal-hydraulic safety analyses of the BR2 reactor to support reactor conversion. A RELAP5 model of BR2 has been validated against select transient BR2 reactor experiments performed in 1963 by showing agreement with measured cladding temperatures. Following the validation, the RELAP5 model was then updated to represent the current use of the reactor; taking into account core configuration, neutronic parameters, trip settings, component changes, etc. Simulations of the 1963 experiments were repeated with this updated model to re-evaluate the boiling risks associated with the currently allowed maximum heat flux limit of 470 W/cm2 and temporary heat flux limit of 600 W/cm2. This document provides analysis of additional transient simulations that are required as part of a modern BR2 safety analysis report (SAR). The additional simulations included in this report are effect of pool temperature, reduced steady-state flow rate, in-pool loss of coolant accidents, and loss of external cooling. The simulations described in this document have been performed for both an HEU- and LEU-fueled core.

  17. Diocese of Donetsk, Don and Caucasus of Russian Old-Orthodox Church accepting Belokrinitsky hierarchy in the documents of the Russian Federation archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduced publication of the documents is dedicated to the Diocese of Donetsk, Don and Caucasus of Russian Old-Orthodox Church accepting Belokrinitsky hierarchy, which existed in 1947–1948 years. The documents, which were revealed in the State Archive of Rostov weren’t published earlier. In the introduction article and notes were used the documents of the Religious Cults Matters’ Council al the Council of People’s Commissars of USSR and his representatives in Rostov Oblast, Stalingrad Oblast, Astrakhan Oblast, Stavropol Krai and Krasnodar Krai, which are stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation and State Archive of Volgograd Oblast. In the documents were reflected the changes in number and geography of the church parishes, deaneries and diocese’s borders, was showed internal church life. The episcopate’s autobiographies are testifying about difficult destiny of the Old-Believers clergy in USSR. Published documents are allowing to add our representation about Old-Believers’ history, about religious situation in the South of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, about the state and confessional policy in USSR in the middle of XX century.

  18. Transformation of the concept of border in the transition from USSR to Russian Federation: Implications for State survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Añorve Añorve

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Russian foreign policy is judged by the Western world on the basis of a series of depreciatory adjectives. The aim of this paper is to effect an historical review of the Russian (and Soviet perception of their frontier. The Russian frontier is continually changing; and the country has been both invader as well as invaded. For historical reasons, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union kept both a close watch and a strong control over the Soviet frontier, to the point of rendering it almost impenetrable. During the early years of transition, border policies relaxed consederably, to the point of instability and placing the Russian Federation on the verge of balkanization. Both Putin and Medvedev put a stop to this process. Now, partially as a result of Western pressure and reluctance to cooperate, Russia has undertaken an aggressive border policy that threatens expansion. The enormous Russian diaspora has turned out to be a successful justification for the expansion of the Russian border.

  19. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2000-07-24

    The Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom) is one of Russia's largest and most influential federal bodies. Throughout 1999 its head, Yevgeny Adamov, has worked to increase the Ministry's commercial competitiveness by consolidating redundant facilities and tightening control over subsidiary organizations. Economic difficulties and budget constraints, however, have hindered Minatom's ability to achieve many of its programs and goals. As a result, the Ministry has continued, renewed or initiated contracts with several countries possessing questionable commitments to nonproliferation and has sought to expand its role in international nuclear waste management and spent fuel reprocessing in order to raise new sources of revenue. While many of these programs are not likely to come to fruition, others raise significant nonproliferation and environmental concerns. This paper reviews select programs driving Minatom's efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the United States over the next three to five years.

  20. PROGRESS IN ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2006–2010. 3RD REPORT OF NATIONAL REGISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the third report of the Registry of Russian transplant society, taking into account donor and transplant activity in the Russian Federation in 2006–2010. Data analysis proves clear positive trends during the last 5 years. The further progress is possible through the creation and modernization of regional donor infra- structures whose activities should be aimed at increasing of the number of donor hospitals and its rational use by expansion of brain death verification and performance of multiorgan procurement. 

  1. Legal Regulation Of Citizens Of The Russian Federation Participation In The Electoral Process At The Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy O. Ezhevskiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes features of the current legislation about elections in the Russian Federation with the latest changes. We consider legal regulation of Russian citizens participation in the electoral process, as well as the role and importance of the state and its agencies as participants in the electoral process. Legitimacy of free and fair elections at all levels requires that they relied on a solid legal basis, created in the democratic rule of law. Ongoing in the Russian Federation reforms of the political and economic systems are designed through the democratization of all aspects of life to connect the interests of the individual and society, in fact, to put people at the center of social development, to provide them decent living conditions, freedom and the opportunity to participate in managing state affairs both directly and through their elected representatives. According to the author, in terms of democratization of state and society an important role is played by the polling relationships, based on the electoral law and the electoral process in the Russian Federation. In conclusion, author underlines that the distinguishing feature of the legal status of election commissions, government agencies, local governments, enterprises, organizations, institutions, media, as well as their officials is that they have the right to participate in the electoral legal relations strictly within their authority and cannot go beyond these powers, no matter what reasons motivated the necessity and expediency of actions that go beyond the law.

  2. The Future of Eurasian Boreal Forests: Ecological Modeling Projections in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D.; Shugart, H.

    2008-12-01

    variables extracted by remote sensing such as biomass and LAI. These steps will ensure that the model's predictions of forests under future climate will be acceptable. The updated and expanded version of FAREAST will be run for several future climate scenarios using projections from the PCMDI. Comparison between future and present FAREAST runs of the Russian federation will provide information regarding potential changes of the region's forests and land cover. Implications for biodiversity and climate interactions from these results will be analyzed, as well as socio-economic impacts for regional and local economies.

  3. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CM Johnson

    2000-07-24

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain

  4. [MALARIA IMPORTATION BY RUSSIA'S CITIZENS AND FOREIGNERS, INTO THE CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, A M; Guzeeva, T M; Ivanova, T N; Tanygina, E Yu; Morozova, L F

    2016-01-01

    A total of 436 malaria cases, including 12 from the CIS countries and 424 from far foreign countries (of Africa and Central and South-East Asia), were imported into the Russian Federation in 2010-2014. Most (96.6%) cases were notified in the urban areas of 52 administrative subjects of Russia. The largest number of the imported cases were seasonal workers (39.2%), tourists (31.3%), students and foreign postgraduate students (19.5%), and ship or aircraft crews (10%). During a short malaria transmission season (June to August), there were 150 cases of different types, out of them there were only 63 cases of tertian malaria (its pathogen is Plasmodium vivax, to which malaria mosquitoes of Russia's fauna are susceptible). The relatively small number of infection sources in the short transmission (June to August) season of malaria, its importation into low-susceptibility large towns, and a small proportion of imported vivax malaria cases substantially reduce the risk of malaria in the highrisk areas of the country.

  5. Experiences in control of avian influenza in Europe, the Russian Federation and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I H; Pittman, M; Irza, V; Laddomada, A

    2007-01-01

    An unprecedented global epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has and continues to present enormous challenges to the international community for control in the animal reservoir. Enhanced biosecurity, good surveillance, both passive and active, supplemented by strong veterinary services, can reduce the risk for incursion and subsequent spread in free countries. Surveillance of mortality and laboratory testing among wild birds are useful early indicators of incursion of the virus into areas in which domestic poultry are not infected. Conventional control methods used widely in Europe and the Middle Eastern region involve stamping-out, zoning, quarantine, movement restrictions, enhanced surveillance and disinfection. Use of preventive vaccination is increasing in the region. In the Russian Federation, all backyard poultry considered to be at high risk for infection have been vaccinated since 2006. Several countries in the Middle East permit the use of vaccine, although rarely as part of a formal statutory programme. In the European Union, conventional approaches for control have proved effective, but both emergency and preventive vaccination could be used. Application of such programmes would have to be preceded by an evaluation of the risks for introduction and spread and might be restricted.

  6. Food security and nutrition in the Russian Federation – a health policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Lunze

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Russian Federation (Russia, an elevated burden of premature mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs has been observed since the country's economic transition. NCDs are largely related to preventable risk factors such as unhealthy diets. Objective: This health policy study's aim was to analyze past and current food production and nutritional trends in Russia and their policy implications for Russia's NCD burden. Design: We examined food security and nutrition in Russia using an analytical framework of food availability, access to food, and consumption. Results: Agricultural production declined during the period of economic transition, and nutritional habits changed from high-fat animal products to starches. However, per-capita energy consumption remained stable due to increased private expenditures on food and use of private land. Paradoxically, the prevalence of obesity still increased because of an excess consumption of unsaturated fat, sugar, and salt on one side, and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables on the other. Conclusions: Policy and economic reforms in Russia were not accompanied by a food security crisis or macronutrient deprivation of the population. Yet, unhealthy diets in contemporary Russia contribute to the burden of NCDs and related avoidable mortality. Food and nutrition policies in Russia need to specifically address nutritional shortcomings and food-insecure vulnerable populations. Appropriate, evidence-informed food and nutrition policies might help address Russia's burden of NCDs on a population level.

  7. Theoretical, methodological and methodical bases of structural policy of territorial subjects of the russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the maintenance of the various points of view on a category «the structural policy» is revealed. The sight of authors of the article is reflected: the structural policy is understood as a subsystem of a social and economic policy of the state, called to carry out function managing by development of branches of the economy together with private business, distributions of financial resources between sectors, control over use of the given money resources with a view of, actual for a certain historical stage, by use of administrative, standard and financial tools of regulation. The methodological basis of a structural policy is defined, functions with that end in view reveal, the target system, subjects and objects, and also are specified principles and classification of tools of a structural policy. By sight authors, regional branch shifts which promote progressivechanges of branch structure of a region in directions of formation V and VI technological ways, increase of a diversification of manufacture by stimulation of innovative changes should become a target reference point of a structural policy. The most sensitiveto tactical both technological fluctuations and vulnerablein the economic plan are monospecialized regions. In this connection, the technique of carrying out of a structural policy in monospecialized subjects of the Russian Federation taking into account shifts in branches of their industrial specializations is offered.

  8. THE POSITION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY ON THE BALTIC REPUBLICS’ (LATVIA, LITHUANIA, ESTONIA JOINING THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Dmitrievna Portnyagina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the EU in 2004 was of great significance not only for the EU members, but for the Russian Federation as the candidates were former USSR republics and countries that had been under the influence of the USSR.  The purpose of this article is to uncover the attitude of Russian and German officials to Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia’s joining the EU. The study uses the methods of historicism and objectivity as its basis. A regional approach that describes the development of the region into global political process is used.The author proves that Russia has underestimated the consequence of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia’s joining the EU. The Russian Federation made the hasty judgement that the Baltic countries’ joining the EU would automatically solve the bilateral problems in relations between Russia, Latvia, Lithiania and Estonia. Russian politicians failed to detect negative economic consequences, which the Baltic states’ joining the European Union brought about. The position of the German government was ambiguous. It was impacted by the obligations within its role as the ‘motor’ of European integration, but also had to consider the direct interests of the Federal Republic of Germany.  The German ruling coalition by morally supporting the intention of the Baltic Republics to join the EU delegated the role of an ‘advocate’ of newly independent republics to the northern European countries while taking the right to defend primarily national interests of the Federal Republic of Germany.The materials of the study can be used for further research of the history of the Baltic Region, in lectures and special courses.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-32

  9. Matters of Responsibility for Marine Pollution under the Legislation of the Russian Federation. (Review of the Main Legislative Acts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodkin, A.L.; Kulistikova, O.V.; Mokhova, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    International Northern Sea Route Programme, INSROP, is a five-year multilateral research programme. The main phase of the programme started in 1993. The three principal cooperating partners are research institutes in Russia, Japan and Norway. The aim of INSROP is to build up a knowledge base to provide foundation for a long-term planning and decision making by state agencies and private companies etc., for purposes of promoting rational decision making on the use of the Northern Sea route for transit and regional development. This report reviews the main legislative acts of former USSR and the Russian Federation, systematized by the responsibility types: (1) civil (property), (2) criminal and (3) administrative. It also discusses the issues of responsibility for marine pollution in accordance with the draft of the new Merchant Shipping Code of the Russian Federation, which contains sections on liability for damage caused by oil pollution from ships or by transport of hazardous and noxious substances by sea. 18 refs.

  10. RADIATION MONITORING EXECUTED BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION SUBJECT TERRITORIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE RADIATION HYGIENIC PASSPORTISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of radiation monitoring management, done by the Russian Federation subject territories for the assessment of population radiation safety conditions and filling the radiation hygienic passport of the territory. An algorithm of generalized assessment of the radiation monitoring done by the territories is proposed based on the considerations of the scope of measurements and necessity of getting of all foreseen by the territory radiation hygienic passport values. Comparative analysis of radiation monitoring according to the data from radiation hygienic passports dated by 2009 is done with the use of proposed algorithm. On the base of this assessment Russian Federation subject territories were selected, which radiation monitoring were considered as unsatisfactory and needs serious improvement.

  11. Russia-China Trade Witnesses The Best Period——Interview with Sergey TSYPLAKOV, Trade Representative of the Russian Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Li Yinghong

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Russian Federation and the P.R. China have a long standing friendship, which has been highly praised from generation to generation. During recent years, the close bilateral political relations and high-level government visits between the two countries have made solid foundations for promoting bilateral economic and trade cooperation. In 2006, China is celebrating Russia Year, in 2007 Russia will celebrate China Year, giving unprecedented opportunities for the promotion of trade and investment cooperation between the two countries. In August, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Sergey TSYPLAKOV, Trade Representative for the Russian Federation (of Minister Rank), he stated: "The bilateral economic and trade cooperation between Russia and China has never been better!"

  12. MURDER COMMITTED BY EXCEEDING THE LIMITS OF NECESSARY DEFENSE, AMENDMENTS PROPOSED TO IMPROVE THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseny Georgyevich BABICHEV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined provisions of the current Criminal Code concerning the necessary defense, and considered the grounds for release of an accused, or for according mitigation in the seriousness of offence and the severity of sentence for crime committed in excess of the limits of necessary defense. The study cast light upon the specifics of the corpus delicti specified by the Russian Federation Criminal Code, Article 108, Part 1, and suggested amend-ments to improve legislation.

  13. Impact of WTO Accession and the Customs Union on the Bound and Applied Tariff Rates of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Tarr, David G.

    2012-01-01

    After 18 years of negotiations, Russia has joined the World Trade Organization. This paper assesses how the tariff structure of the Russian Federation will change as a result of the phased implementation of its World Trade Organization commitments between 2012 and 2020 and how it has changed as a result of its agreement to participate in a Customs Union with Kazakhstan and Belarus. The an...

  14. Comparison of mortality in Asbest city and the Sverdlovsk region in the Russian Federation: 1997–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalevskiy, E. V.; Schonfeld, S. J.; E. Feletto; Moissonnier, M.; Kashanskiy, S. V.; I.V. Bukhtiyarov; Schüz, J

    2016-01-01

    Background The Sverdlovsk region of the Russian Federation is characterised by its abundance of natural resources and industries. Located in this region, Asbest city is situated next to one of the largest open-pit chrysotile asbestos mines currently operational; many city residents are employed in activities related to mining and processing of chrysotile. We compared mortality rates from 1997 to 2010 in Asbest city to the remaining Sverdlovsk region, with additional analyses conducted for sit...

  15. Reproductive Ratio for the Local Spread of African Swine Fever in Wild Boars in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Montes, F; Perez, A; Gogin, A; Kolbasov, D; de la Torre, A

    2016-12-01

    African swine fever (ASF) has caused the swine industry of the Russian Federation substantial economic losses over the last 7 years, and the disease spread from there to a number of neighbouring countries. Wild boar has been involved in the spread of the disease both at local and at transboundary levels. Understanding ASF dynamics in wild boars is prerequisite to preventing the spread and to designing and applying effective surveillance and control plans. The reproductive ratio (R0 ) is an epidemiological indicator commonly used to quantify the extent of disease spread. Here, it was estimated in nine spatio-temporal clusters of ASF in wild boar cases in the Russian Federation (2007-2013). Clusters were defined by exploring the maximum distance of association of ASF cases using K Ripley analysis and spatio-temporal scan statistics. A maximum spatial association of 133 km in wild boar cases was identified which is within de the conventional radius of surveillance zone (100-150 km). The mean range value of R0  = 1.58 (1.13-3.77) was lower compared to values previously estimated for ASF transmission within farms but similar to early estimates between farm (R0  = 2-3), in domestic pigs using notification data in the Russian Federation. Results obtained provide quantitative knowledge on the epidemiology of ASF in wild boars in the Russian Federation. They identify the ASF transmission rate value in affected natural wild populations, for the first time, which could provide basis for modelling ASF transmission and suggest that current surveillance radius should be reviewed to make surveillance in wild nature more targeted and effective.

  16. Comparative analysis of public service advertising regulation in Russian Federation and European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureeva Maria, R.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern world public service advertising is a direct reflection of social values, humanistic relationships between people, level of cultural development of the society. The aim of PSA is to form social challenges in the society’s mind, to lead to reforms in social sphere. Underestimation and inattentiveness towards social problems could lead to loss of moral values, destruction of culture and forming the basis for aggravation in relation between different levels of society. The tasks of the research are the following: to analyze the legislative base of public service advertising, to determine their strengths and weaknesses; to find out typical problems arising while PSA realization in Russia and Europe; to determine the main obstacles, preventing from creation of efficient and qualitative PSA and to find out and provide the measures of creating an efficient and qualitative public service advertising. In the first part of the paper we compare PSA regulation, sort out PSA legislative and practical issues in Russia and Europe. In the second part we consider the process of efficient PSA realization. For this purpose there were investigated the main obstacles on the way of realization of PSA strategy in Russia and Europe, possibilities of application of marketing mix approach. Though the level of social activity has increased in Russia especially in recent years, PSA market is only in the process of formation – there are huge potentials for investigations, initiatives and improvements. We could conclude that modern PSA legal base of Russian Federation restrains the development of PSA in our country and puts obstacles in the way of PSA participants: government, non-commercial organizations and businesses. In comparison with EU our country fails behind European countries both in the level of legislative regulation and practical experience. The most important difference between PSA practice in Russia and in Europe is that in Europe there is clear

  17. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  18. [The main tasks concerning the organization of surveillance and prophylaxis of HIV-infection in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The main task concerning striving against HIV/AIDS epidemic is effective use of present political, financial, organizational, and informative possibilities. However, despite efforts, the epidemic situation with HIV/AIDS is constantly worsening. Approaches to and stereotypes of the organization of this work and its fulfillment cannot provide a complete solution to this problem. Among strategic tasks that should be fulfilled at the federal level are the following: strengthening of coordination of actions from the departmental level to interaction with Russian and international organizations and the community of people living with HIV/AIDS; determination of requirements and purchase of necessary diagnostic test systems for HIV-infection detection as well as pharmaceuticals, and providing subjects of Russian Federation with them. Tactical tasks that should be fulfilled at the level of subjects of Russian Federation are the following: medical aid to patients with HIV/AIDS should become more approachable; complete dispensary observation and treatment of these patients should be organized. Civil society and interaction between non-profit organizations and governmental structures play an important role in organization and fulfillment of striving against HIV epidemic.

  19. H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (centre) with (from left to right) V. Kaftanov, Ph. Bloch, N. Koulberg, F. Grishaev Photo 02: H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (centre) with Ph. Bloch (behind the Ambassador, V. Kaftanov) visiting the crystal laboratory in building 27.

  20. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Nelson, A Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Shin, Sonya S

    2016-01-01

    Russian Federation's (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  1. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Miller

    Full Text Available Russian Federation's (RF HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961 randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months, clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5% endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.95, 7.95, age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04, drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77, history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90, low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03 and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46 were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58, incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17 and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10 continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  2. FEATURES OF PRICING OF THE MORTGAGE MARKET IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana KASYANENKO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is determined by the importance of the market of mortgage loans as the main instrument of social policy. The aim of the article is to identify the relationship between the volume of mortgage loans and the value of residential real estate on both the primary and secondary markets. The article consists of two parts. The main objective of the first part of this article is to clarify the concepts and features of mortgage loans, and identification of peculiarities of mortgage loans in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova. The methodological basis of the work is made up of methods of analysis and synthesis, the combination of logical and historical approaches, methods of economic comparison and statistical analysis. The result of the study of the first part of the article is to identify the stages of development of mortgage loans in the Russian Federation, an analysis of prices in the primary and secondary markets of residential property on the basis of aggregate statistical indicators that reflect the status and characteristics of the housing market. The Russian experience is correlated with the peculiarities of the development of the mortgage market in the Republic of Moldova.

  3. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  4. UV-Induced Anisotropy In CdBr2-CdBr2: Cu Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Naggar A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have found an occurrence of anisotropy in the nanostructure CdBr2-CdBr2: Cu nanocrystalline films. The film thickness was varied from 4 nm up to 80 nm. The films were prepared by successive deposition of the novel layers onto the basic nanocrystals. The detection of anisotropy was performed by occurrence of anisotropy in the polarized light at 633 nm He-Ne laser wavelength. The occurrence of anisotropy was substantially dependent on the film thickness and the photoinduced power density. Possible mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  5. Implications of a Resurgent Russian Federation for U.S. European Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    republic and a member of NATO and the EU.174 The president of the Czech Republic is Vaclav Klaus ; elected to a five-year term in 2008.175 Russian...Republic has a Russian-leaning president in Vaclav Klaus , who seeks closer ties between the Czech Republic and Russia.212 This- coupled with growing...Eorsi, Istvan Gyarmati, Vaclav Havel, Rastislav Kacer, Sandra Kalniete, Karel Schwarzenberg, Michal Kovac, Ivan Krastev, Alexander Kwasniewski, Mart

  6. Building of the rating assessments of the Russian Federation subjects by the blocks of socio-economic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Molchanova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article implements the econometric approach to the building of rating assessments of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The author defines three blocks of indicators for the construction of integral indices: “quality of the population”, “welfare of the population” and “quality of the social sphere”. They serve as the basis for determining the value of a single combined integral indicator. The author also gives recommendations on the improvement of the medical and demographic situation and enhancement of the “quality of the population” at the regional level

  7. Human smuggling in Austria: a comparative analysis of data on smuggled migrants from former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka-Benton, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the author’s research on human smuggling in Austria comparing migrants from Former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation. The project’s primary intent was to collect more detailed information on migrants seeking asylum in Austria and their use of smuggling services to leave their home countries, including detailed information on demographics, force or threat of force by smugglers, routes and methods of transportation, costs of smuggling, payment methods, and deeper perceptual questions regarding the flight. Another central premise of the article discusses how current distinctions between human smuggling and human trafficking are arbitrary in many regards.

  8. [Prospective planning of activity of the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Redkin, E E; Bershev, M A; Murzo, A V

    2016-04-01

    The article reflects the characteristics of the Plan of activities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020--an important long-term planning document of the Armed Forces. It stressed the need for synchronization of activities for chain of command and deadline. Presented structure of the Medical Service Plan Military District operations (fleet) military medical organization. The attention is focused on the content of its sections. For example, a military hospital layouts presented an action plan and a schedule of events. Reflecting the requirements of the Minister of Defense for the development and adjustment plans, indicators of their performance.

  9. Experience of Internal and External Education Quality Rate: Esg and the Legislation of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikanorov Ivan N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of regulation of internal and external education quality rate has been presented. The development of regulation an independent assessment of higher education in Russia in the context of ESG has been considered. Authors noticed, that instruments of internal and external quality rate interact in Russian legislation insufficiently.

  10. Use of Modern Methods of Credit Portfolio Risk Management in Commercial Banks of Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitrii S. Melnyk

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the structure and factors of credit portfolio risk, analyses existing models of portfolio risk assessment and develops recommendations on the implementation of risk management adapted methods, presents recommendations on the optimization of the approach to credit risk minimization in Russian banking system.

  11. Russian Federation, the World Trade Organization, and the Eurasian Customs Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrantino, Michael J.; Gillson, Ian; Schmidt, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses issues relating to tariffs and nontariff measures (NTMs) in relation to Russia's World Trade Organization (WTO) and Eurasian Customs Union (ECU) commitments. The analysis finds that full implementation of Russia's WTO tariff schedule through 2020, would raise goods imports by about $3.5 billion (1.1 percent) compared to 2012, with estimates of welfare gains to Russian ...

  12. Peculiar features of work of recruiting companies in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova M. A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite economic crisis personnel and recruiting remains one of the most important success factor of business in today’s Russia. This paper is devoted to the classification of recruitment agencies in Russia, describes selection and testing methods of candidates, focuses on basic tasks of recruitment process and the understanding of the Russian human resources risk factor.

  13. Multikulturalita Ruské federace a její reϐlexe ve školním vzdělávání. / Multiculturalism of the Russian Federation and its reflection in school education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Ježková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation is a considerably multicultural country, which also influences the school. The subjects of the study are two main areas: dealing with the nationalities issue and the language policy of the Russian Federation, namely at the level of the whole society and at the level of school education. In the summary the situation in the Russian Federation is compared to the situation in the Czech Republic and and other countries: Germany, Great Britain and Sweden.

  14. Visit of Mr. Mikhail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister of Science and Technology, Russian Federation at the LHC experiment exhibits (CMS, ALICE, LHC-B, ATLAS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1998-01-01

    From left: V. Matveev, Director INR Coordinator for the Russian Groups in CMS; A. Logounov, Director of the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP Protvino); O. Patarakin, Senior Specialist of the Ministry of Science of the RF; M. Della Negra, CMS spokesman; M. Kirpichnikov, Minister of Science and Technology of the Russian Federation; M. Danilov, Director of ITEP, Member of the CERN Scientific Committee. (Photo 05)

  15. [Results and prospects of the guarantee of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The issues of further development of scientific and methodological basis of the guarantee of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population of the Russian Federation are highlighted in accordance with the implementation of the Concept of the activity of the Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare until 2015. Features of this work over the past 5 years have been characterized, they include: changes in the structure of the objects under surveillance; integration processes in the economy of the country rise of attention to social problems of society strengthening the influence of epidemiological and natural man-made disasters in the world and the country, improvement of the supervisory authorities of the Service, the formation of its new structure and development of legislative assembly, including sanitary legislation.

  16. Model of analyzing and forecasting the dynamics of industrial production and space sector of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Yu. Ivanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to carry out a comparative analysis of the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of Russia. Methods an asynchronous method of harmonic analysis comparative method. Results the forecasts of the development of rocket and space industry for 2015 and 2016 are obtained which are compared with the data of the Ministry of Economic Development and the World Bank of Development. The comparison of the results showed that the analysis and forecast data of the Ministry of Economic Development and the World Bank of Development coincide only partially. The tendency to increase the volumes in rocket and space industry is shown. Scientific novelty the mathematical models are presented for the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of the Russian Federation built on the basis of the asynchronous harmonic analysis. The retrospective of the rocketspace complex development is considered. Practical significance using the proposed mathematical models of the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of the Russian Federation based on the economy cycles the more accurate forecasts of economic development can be made. nbsp

  17. Enhanced surveillance for measles in low-incidence territories of the Russian Federation: defining a rate for suspected case investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, N T; Bichurina, M A; Gerasimova, A G; Zvirkun, O V; Vladimerova, N P; Mamaeva, T; Lipskaya, G; Elsaadany, S; Spika, J S

    2011-02-01

    The rate of case investigation for measles-like illness (MLI) is an important indicator for the quality of measles surveillance in countries targeting measles elimination. However, a benchmark rate is still being discussed. We assessed different rates of investigation in 11 territories of the Russian Federation with low reported measles incidence during the previous 4-7 years. Each territory maintained their existing surveillance activities and also undertook additional surveillance activities for MLI over a 3-year period. The annual routine rate of investigation varied from 0·06 to 1·8/100,000 population; the overall rate of investigation, including enhanced surveillance, varied from 1·4 to 7·2/100,000. Forty-nine (30·8%) of 159 measles cases detected were identified through enhanced surveillance. Based on the results of this study, the Russian Federation concluded that a rate of routine investigation of 2/100,000 provided the best balance between available resources and sensitivity for detection of measles cases.

  18. The influence of external environment factors on the activity of higher educational establishments in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Leonidovna Guzakova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The instability of market economy development causes continuous changes in the activity of higher educational establishments. The article deals with the processes, taking place in the system of higher professional education in the Russian Federation in recent decades. On the basis of the analysis of statistical data and normative acts of the Government and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the key global and national trends in higher education are identified: increasing demand for higher education, resulted in its considerable offer (the growth of quantitative indicators is not always accompanied by improvement of higher education quality; reduction in the total number of students due to the demographic situation worsening; transition to a multi-level system of higher education under the Bologna process; change in specialties patterns and directions of training specialists with higher professional education due to the economy structural reforms and labor market needs; aggravation of competition. The tendencies lead to the emergence of demographic, political and economic risks. To reduce negative impact of the external risks to the universities’ activity it is necessary to develop corresponding state educational policy in the sphere of higher education and risk management in universities

  19. Imbalances of innovative industrial development of subjects of Federation, members of the Russian Arctic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharov V. S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of testing the previously developed methodological approach and methods of assessing the innovativeness level of the industrial development of the regions – subjects of the Federation (members of the Russian Arctic zone – on the basis of the calculation and analysis of scorecard values have been presented. It has been shown that during the years 2005–2013, the highest level of technological innovation of industrial development had been achieved in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. Представлены результаты апробации разработанных ранее методологического подхода и методики оценки уровня инновационности промышленного развития регионов – субъектов Федерации, входящих в Арктическую зону РФ, – на основе расчета и анализа значений системы показателей. Показано, что в течение 2005–2013 гг. наиболее высокий уровень технологической инновационности промышленного развития достигнут в Республике Саха (Якутия

  20. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus isolates originating from outbreaks in the Russian Federation between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malogolovkin, Alexander; Yelsukova, Alexandra; Gallardo, Carmina; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Kolbasov, Denis

    2012-08-17

    African swine fever is one of the most important viral diseases of pigs and which caused significant economic damage on the pig production worldwide. Nowadays, it is still present on the African continent, in Transcaucasus countries (TCC), on Island of Sardinia and in Russia. Outbreaks of the disease have been reported in Russia for the last four years, affected especially the Southern Federal District of the country. Since 2010, a new outbreak area has been observed in the Northwestern Federal District. In order to study the evolution of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates, strains were collected in the Russian Federation from 2007 to 2011 and investigated by means of partial sequencing and fragment length polymorphism. In detail, 7 variable regions, namely B646L, E183L, I196L, B602L, I73R/I329R, I78R/I215L and KP86R were investigated. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 100% nucleotide identity of B646L and E183L gene sequences of all examined isolates. All isolates formed one genetic cluster within genotype II. Moreover, no amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was observed for B602L, I196L, I73R/I329R, and I78R/I215L genes. The flanking primers used to amplify the KP86R gene failed to amplify a product in all the isolates. The obtained data strongly suggests that only one ASFV virus variant caused the outbreaks from 2007 to 2011 in the territory of the Russian Federation.

  1. [Poliomyelitis and vaccination strategy in Russian Federation in post-certification period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, O E

    2011-01-01

    Immunization schedules implemented in various countries by using poliovirus vaccines are presented. Approaches to prevent development of vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis and risk groups for this infection are discussed. In recent years poliomyelitis morbidity situation in the European region has become more complex, with the example of poliomyelitis outbreak in Tajikistan in 2010. The resulting problem of protection of Russian against emergence and spread of poliomyelitis caused by wild type virus is discussed.

  2. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DATA ON DOSES OF EXTERNAL TERRIGENOUS IRRADIATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION POPULATION IN MUNICIPAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By this time in the Russian Federation there is collected a huge file of data describing the influence of all natural sources of ionizing radiation on population in municipal conditions. These data are collected and generalized in radiation hygiene passports of the Russian Federation for the last 16 years and in the reporting forms of federal statistical supervision No 4-DOZ “Data on doses of population irradiation due to the natural and manchanged radiation background” for a period of 14 years. These data are received by direct measurements of gamma radiation dose rate in the premises and in the open air on the territory of settlements. Measurements were made with the most different dosimeters; their technical and metrological parameters differ considerably. In this regard of certain interest is evaluation of this data reliability degree; that will help to find out the reasons of higher levels of the Russian Federation population external irradiation in comparison with average global dose values.In this article an attempt was made to evaluate reliability degree of data on the population external irradiation doses using the radiation hygiene passports of territories and reporting forms No 4-DOZ for the whole period of supervision. For this there was used the known dependence between the gamma radiation dose rate and natural radionuclides effective specific activity (AEFF in inhabitancy objects. For this purpose there were used the data on average AEFF values of building raw materials and of local manufacture materials, which are presented in radiation hygiene passports of territories. Definition of design value of gamma radiation dose rate in the buildings and in the open air according to AEFF measurement data in building raw materials and in local manufacture materials actually enables to get an independent evaluation of the population external irradiation doses. Comparison of two evaluations of the population external irradiation levels

  4. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  5. The Role and Place of State of Event-Strategic Megaobjects in the Sustainable Territorial Development of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yuryevich Ivanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is actively trying to raise its image and rating in the international political, sports and social spheres. This can be achieved by hosting major All-Russian and international events such as APEC 2012 summit, the 2013 Summer Universiade, the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014, FIFA 2018, 2019 Winter Universiade etc. We point to the absence of complex scientific approach to managing such event-strategic megaobjects, and this has negative affect on the Russian economy. The subject of the present research is represented by the role of state event-strategic megaobjects in sustainable regional development of Russia. The analysis allowed to identify a number of features of these objects, and to point out key issues and risks in their implementation. We consider the use of innovative crowdfunding technology to be the positive aspect of public megaobjects’ management. The negative aspects include the excessive scale of the financial costs and problems of cost-effective use of megaobjects after the hosting events. The territorial aspect of the analysis revealed the absence of a systemic approach to the selection of regions for hosting international events, as well as the unevenness of the territorial distribution of megaobjects. The largest event-strategic megaobjects were implemented in the Far Eastern Federal district (APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012, the Southern Federal district (Krasnodar region, Sochi – The winter Olympic and Paralympic games in February 2014, Volga Federal district (the Universiade in Kazan in 2013. These districts did not become the leading regions in socio-economic development of Russia neither before nor after these events. The studies of such socio-economic and political phenomena will help to present theoretical and practical aspects of their application algorithm in the future for the purpose of balanced regional development of Russia.

  6. Reactor physics and safety aspects of various design options of a Russian light water reactor with rock-like fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, A. V.; Komissarov, O. V.; Kozmenkov, Ya. K.; Matveev, Yu. V.; Orekhov, Yu. I.; Pivovarov, V. A.; Sharapov, V. N.

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents results of analytical studies on weapons grade plutonium incineration in VVER (640) medium size light water reactors using a special composition of rock-like fuel (ROX-fuel) to assure spent fuel long-term storage without its reprocessing. The main goal is to achieve high degree of plutonium incineration in once-through cycle. In this paper we considered two fuel compositions. In both compositions weapons grade plutonium is used as fissile material. Spinel (MgAl 2O 4) is used as the 'preserving' material assuring safe storage of the spent fuel. Besides an inert matrix, the option of rock-like fuel with thorium dioxide was studied. One of principal problems in the realization of the proposed approach is the substantial change of properties of the light water reactor core when passing to the use of the ROX-fuel, in particular: (i) due to the absence of 238U the Doppler effect playing a crucial role in reactor's self-regulation and limiting the consequences of reactivity accidents, decreases significantly, (ii) no fuel breeding on one hand, and the quest to attain the maximum plutonium burnup on the other hand, would result in a drastical change of the fuel assembly power during the lifetime and, as a consequence, the rise in irregularity of the power density of fuel assemblies, (iii) both the control rods worth and dissolved boron worth decrease in view of neutron spectrum hardening brought on by the larger absorption cross-section of plutonium as compared to uranium, (iv) βeff is markedly reduced. All these distinctive features are potentially detrimental to the reactor nuclear safety. The principal objective of this work is that to identify a variant of the fuel composition and the reactor layout, which would permit neutralize the negative effect of the above-mentioned distinctive features.

  7. Russian-Iranian nuclear cooperation: 1992-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ter-oganov, Nugzar

    2008-01-01

    Following the disintegration of the U.S.S.R., the Russian Federation, as a successor State, continued cooperation with Iran. From the start, it focused on the nuclear (including military) sphere. Thus, on 17 August, 1992, a bilateral agreement was signed on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, making provisions for the delivery to the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) of two VVER 440 reactors. On 8 January, 1995, Viktor Mikhailov, the Russian atomic energy minister at the time; and Reza Amrollahi...

  8. ACCEPTABILITY EVALUATION FOR USING ICRP TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTORS TO CALCULATE EFFECTIVE DOSE VALUE FOR SEPARATE GENDER-AGE GROUPS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  9. The clinical course and standard therapy of systemic lupus erythematosus in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on the clinical course and treatment of such as the severe disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, are virtually lacking in Russia.Objective: to evaluate the clinical presentations of the disease and its treatment in adult patients with active SLE in the cities of three post-Soviet countries (Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan in the ESSENCE study.Patients and methods. This paper concerns Russian patients. The data of clinical cases of 232 patients who were followed up in 6 centers (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Voronezh, Yekaterinburg, Kursk, and Yaroslavl were studied. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, SLE activity, laboratory and instrumental findings, treatment, and consumed healthcare resources were assessed.Results. The demographic characteristics of patients with SLE were generally comparable to those in other international studies. However, the Russian patients were 4–10 years younger and their SLE duration was 3–7 shorter; the majority of patients were noted to have a severe course of the disease. The level of SLE activity was higher in the patients of our study. There were frequent hospitalizations and unplanned visits to a physician because of exacerbations. The Russian patients who had repeatedly sought medical advice had obvious and severe SLE complications. The disease remained with great probability undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in a sufficiently large number of patients. There were pitfalls in the treatment of SLE: less than half of the patients received antimalarial drugs; nearly 100% took glucocorticoids; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used rarely. The ESSENCE study can form a view of the clinical picture of SLE in Russia. These findings may help to plan healthcare resources in our country.

  10. Cardiovascular burden and percutaneous interventions in Russian Federation: systematic epidemiological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The situation with cardiovascular (CV) burden in Russian population is alerting, and becomes of interest due to high CV mortality, and shorter lifespan if compare with the Western society amid the absence of the established monitoring or screening system for major CV risk factors. The purpose of this systematic epidemiological update was to explore CV burden in Russia. The study represents pooled results with a systematic epidemiological review of the national mass screening, selected randomized clinical trials and statistical datasets of the national public health CV institutions exploring the trends of the CV burden in all 83 regions of Russia. We overviewed data from a number of the available Russian-speaking national data sources of 2001–2014, and NANOM-FIM trial (NCT01270139) as the only available real-world population study. The CV diseases in Russia accounted for 54.9% of all deaths in 2011–2014. The death rate was 13.3 per 1,000 citizens with CV mortality of 653.9 per 100,000. The life expectancy achieves 64.3 years for male and 76.1 years for female. The mean age of pts in trial was 51.6 years (77.2% males). A total of 175 Russian PCI centers implemented 205,902 angio a year, and 75,378 PCI achieving 531 PCI per 1,000,000 with placement of 101,451 stents (1.37 stents per PCI; 48,057 DES). The smoking (17.3% of screened with a 2,786 cigarettes a year; 70.6% in trial), excessive alcohol consumption (1.8% of screened with a 11.6 L per year; 50.6% in trial), unhealthy Russian diet (abundance of carbohydrates/sugar, saturated and trans fats in 24.3% of screened), psychosocial factors (20%) and physical inactivity (19.6% of screened) remain the major modifiable risk factors. They, in turn, affect such risk factors as dyslipidemia (86.7% in trial), obesity (16.7% of screened; BMI in trial was 28.4), and hypertension (40.8% suffered; 86.1% in trial). CV mortality was not directly associated with a level of poverty (r=0.26, P=0.02) or socio-economic development

  11. Phenomenon of organic carbon change in natural waters (system "catchment - Lake") of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Marina; Tatyana, Moiseenko; Tatyana, Kremleva; Natalia, Gashkina

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades in the Russian Federation was found significant increase in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon in many aqueous systems. Most obviously, these changes may be related to global warming. It is known that increasing the temperature dominate during dry periods and increases the concentration of nutrients, primary production increases, leading to an increase of the dissolved organic matter. At the same time, it is known that some of the increase in DOC may be largely due to a decrease of anthropogenic sulfur deposition and increasing organic matter in the soil. The European Russia (ER) is a region with substantial industrial emissions of sulphur. In the central part of ER are concentrated metallurgical productions. This has resulted in high concentrations of anthropogenic sulphate and an increase in the prevalence of acidification as well as a rise in metal concentrations in the lakes of North Kola. However, over the last 30 years, sulfur emissions in ?ola North have decreased substantially. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanisms to improve the content of natural organic matter and to assess its role in the processes of acidification and recovery of water quality while reducing the deposition of technogenic acid. The increasing of organic matter content in lake waters is being also observed for the totality of lakes in the Kola North. This conforms to the data reported by Skjelkvale et al. (2001a) which demonstrates the significant increase of DOC. Some authors explain the increased DOC levels by reduction in strong acid flow and return of water chemistry to its natural parameters of specifying organic matter concentrations in water. It is known that DOC level has a direct relationship with water color. In analyzing long-term study data with regard to the group of 75 lakes (obtained during 1990-2010) DOC is increased year-over-year, but the color decreased. The following chemical processes developing in water can explain

  12. Mining investment environment in Russian federation%俄罗斯联邦矿业投资环境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良玺; 陈正; 金玺; 陈超

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to the ore resources ,geological works ,investment and mining policies of Russian federation ,analyzes its pros and cons in mining sector and presents suggestions for Chinese mining investors .This paper recommends that the Chinese mining investors should strengthen their management and risk awareness under the guidance of the government ,using the law to safeguard their own interests ,resolving the issue of environmental protection ,actively looking for investment opportunities of the Russian mining market .%  俄罗斯联邦地处欧亚大陆北部,境内矿产资源丰富。本文整理了俄罗斯联邦的矿产资源情况、矿业管理部门及法规、投资政策等资料,分析了俄罗斯联邦矿业投资的有利及不利因素,建议企业在政府的主导下加强自身管理,提高风险意识,运用法律维护自身权益,妥善解决环境保护问题,积极寻找俄罗斯矿业市场的投资机会,为我国企业“走出去”提供支持。

  13. [VACCINE-ASSOCIATED PARALYTIC POLIOMYELITIS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION DURING THE PERIOD OF CHANGES IN VACCINATION SCHEDULE (2006-2013 yy.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, O E; Eremeeva, T P; Morozova, N S; Shakaryan, A K; Gmyl, A P; Yakovenko, M L; Korotkova, E A; Chernjavskaja, O P; Baykova, O Yu; Silenova, O V; Krasota, A Yu; Krasnoproshina, L I; Mustafina, A N; Kozlovskaja, L I

    2016-01-01

    The results of virologic testing of clinical materials and epidemiological analysis of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases obtained in 2006-2013 during AFP surveillance are presented. Among the 2976 cases of AFP 30 cases were VAPP. 15 cases were observed in OPV recipients, whereas 15 cases were observed in non-vaccinated contacts. The age of the patients varied from 4 months to 5.5 years (13.6 ± 12.4 months old). Children younger than 1 year constituted 63.3% of the group; boys were dominant (73.3%); 53.3% of children were vaccinated with OPV; the time period between receipt of OPV and onset of palsy was from 2 to 32 days (18.7 ± 8.2). Lower paraparesis was documented in 48.3% of patients; lower monoparesis in 37.9%; upper monoparesis, in 6.9%; tetraparesis with bulbar syndrome, in 6%. The majority of the patients (85.7%) had an unfavorable premorbid status. The violations of the humoral immunity were found in 73.9% cases: CVID (52.9%), hypogammaglobulinemia (41.2%); selective lgA deflciency (5.9%). In 70.6% cases damage to humoral immunity was combined with poor premorbid status. The most frequently observed (76%, p poliomyelitis in the Russian Federation, WHO Polio eradication initiative, WHO's European Regional Bureau, Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 15-15-00147).

  14. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE PROVISION FOR RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P.V.Ramzaev”The article is devoted to the actual issues ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety providing at the present stage. The important role of radiation-hygienic passportization is underlined in the process of the obtaining of objective information of radiation situation in the country, of population exposure doses from the all sources: artificial and natural, from the use of ionizing irradiation sources in medicine. The leading role is shown of the natural ionizing irradiation sources in the level of the country population exposure. The main directions of activities are stated aimed on the decreasing of population exposure doses from the natural sources. The brief characteristics is given of the radiation situation on the territories radioactively contaminated after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP, in the Pacific Ocean basin after the accident on the “Fukushima-1”NPP, of the main measures for radiation protection providing and for counteraction to radiation terrorism during the period of international sports and mass actions which were carried out in Russia in the last years (XXVII World Summer Universiade in2013 inKazan, XXII Olympic and XI Winter Paralympics Games in2014 inSochi. The most important tasks are defined for the improvement ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety at the present stage.

  15. Statistical Studies of Non-price Competition in the Structure of Public Procurement in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Aleksandrovna Sergeeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The principle of securing competition is one of the basic principles of the contract system in public procurement in the Russian Federation. The law on the contract system in procurement stipulates that the contract system in procurement is aimed at creating equal conditions to ensure competition between the parties to procurement. An important aspect is that the competition for procurement should be based on compliance with the principle of fair price and non-price competition. The purpose of this provision is to identify the best conditions for supplying goods, performing works and providing services. The analysis of the state of non-price competition in the procurement structure requires statistical studies of the phenomenon. The article considers the theoretical basis of non-price competition; it presents an analysis of methods of statistical study of non-price competition.

  16. A critical analysis and discussion of clinical research ethics in the Russian Federation and their implications for Western sponsored trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leintz, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Globalization, political upheavals, and Western economic struggles have caused a geographical reprioritization in the realm of drug development and human clinical research. Regulatory and cost hurdles as well as a saturation of research sites and subjects in Western countries have forced the pharmaceutical industry to place an unprecedented level of importance on emerging markets, injecting Western corporate initiatives into cultures historically and socially isolated from Western-centric value systems. One of the greatest recipients of this onslaught of Western business and research practices is the Russian Federation. Namely, market forces are dictating a focused research initiative in the traditional emerging markets, but this focus may be at the expense of individual and societal dignity.

  17. Specifics of Chemical Toxilogical Analyses in the Russian Federation for the Purpose of Identification of Narcotics in Biological Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, Cameron W [ORNL; Eisele, Gerhard R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The Russian Federation (RF) is committed to implementing a comprehensive drug testing program under its Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for military personnel involved in handling sensitive nuclear materials. This commitment leads to a number of mandatory requirements for the laboratory conducting the confirmation testing to ensure the legitimacy and integrity of the testing process. These requirements are established by the RF Duma to ensure that individuals conducting these tests have adequate training, certifications, and experience to conduct narcotic confirmation tests. This paper describes the facility requirements and personnel qualifications needed for conducting comprehensive drug abuse confirmation testing. Details regarding the personnel training and laboratory experience in the theory and practice of analytical forensic toxicology of drugs of abuse will be presented, as well as the facility requirements for the laboratory conducting such tests. Chain-of-custody, from sample receipt through completion of testing, reporting of results, and continuing until final disposition of specimens will be addressed.

  18. MODERN SITUATION AND FORECASTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data the paper compares modern situation and forecasts of electrical power engineering development in the Republic of Belarus and Russian Federation. The paper carries out an analysis of integrated structure of fuel balances of both countries till 2015. The paper notes the fact that thermal power stations (TPS will remain a main generating source till 2020 and gas will continue to be the main type of fuel in the structure of fuel balances. The paper investigates development of technological structures in the electrical power engineering. It has been revealed that one of the main factors that hinders development of the Belarussian power system is the absence of the required financial  mechanisms for obtaining additional investment possibilities. In connection with this fact a special attention should be given to the problems that are directed on improvement of tariff policy and mechanisms of tariff formation.

  19. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND FACTORS AT THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE HOUSING AND UTILITIES SECTOR IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Safronova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical marketing regional research on supply and demand factors of housing and communal services (HCS revealed determinants of customer loyalty and satisfaction with the service level and factors influencing on willingness to purchase additional services. Specific features of housing and utilities sector (HUS as a social significant industry determine requirements to models reflecting reciprocal influence of indices of satisfaction, loyalty and economic indices of operation. The article presents definition of requirements along with development of techniques for modeling influence of satisfaction and loyalty on consumer behaviour of clients. The authors demonstrate trustworthy statistical results of correlative interrelationship of different factors. There have been designed regression models for taking management solutions by executives of management company housing and communal services at the development environmental responsibility. The causes that lead and hamper development of socially oriented services in different regions of the Russian Federation have been identified.

  20. Statistical Exploration of Local Transmission Routes for African Swine Fever in Pigs in the Russian Federation, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, T; Gogin, A; Pfeiffer, D U

    2017-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating viral disease of swine that is present in both pigs and wild boar in the western part of the Russian Federation and the eastern part of the European Union. It represents a significant threat for the European pig production industry as neither treatment nor vaccine is available. This study analysed the spatial and spatio-temporal distributions of ASF cases that were reported in domestic pigs and wild boar for assessing the likelihood of wild boar-to-domestic pig and farm-to-farm transmission routes in the epidemic that occurred from 2007 to 2014 in the Krasnodar and the Tver regions, two of the most affected areas of the Russian Federation. Results suggest that in both regions, the spatial proximity to an infectious farm was a strong risk factor for infection of a susceptible farm. In the Krasnodar region, the results of the statistical analysis suggest that the epidemics in wild boar and in domestic pigs were independent from each other. In contrast, there seemed to be a dependence between the two epidemics in the Tver region. But because outbreaks in domestic pigs were not statistically significantly clustered around wild boar cases, the joint spatial distribution of wild boar cases and of outbreaks in domestic pigs in the Tver region may be explained by regular spillovers from the domestic pig to the wild boar population. These findings confirm the need to maintain high biosecurity standards on pig farms and justify strict control measures targeted at domestic pig production such as culling of infected herds and local movement restrictions.

  1. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of the Formation of Anti-Corruption Mechanisms in the System of Higher Education of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Ruslan A.; Sokolov, Maxim S.

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of the study lies in the fact that modern higher education in the Russian Federation are increasingly approaching the critical state--despite attempts to reform and use of successful foreign practices, our country is still lagging behind in the role. The aim of the article is the formation on the events that occurred in the country over…

  2. On Expansion Of The Circle Of Norms Providing Special Types Of Release From Criminal Liability In The Chapter 22 Of The Criminal Code Of The Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid A. Musaev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article author conducts analysis of the circle of the criminal code of the Russian Federation (Charter 22 norms expansion, providing special types of release from criminal liability. Analyzes of the foreign legislation allowed author to draw a conclusion that the majority of the stimulating legal analogs to the Chapter 22 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation are present in the legislation of the CIS countries – Azerbaijan, Georgia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and some other, and also that release from the criminal liability on the tax crimes – is not less widespread stimulating norm in the foreign legislation. Special attention is paid to the questions of the positive post criminal behavior of persons who committed economic crime stimulation. According to the author it appears to be reasonable to include into the alternative condition of the release from criminal liability a sign of the voluntary statement of the crime commission or giving criminal income and also an alternative sign of the "active contribution to the disclosure and/or crime investigation". Author comes to the conclusion that a problem of the expansion of the stimulating norms in the Chapter 22 of the Criminal Codes of the Russian Federation action is interesting and actual in the conditions of criminal legislation in the economic sphere liberalization. In particular, in the foreshortening of the economic amnesty questions author believes that introduction of the stimulating norms of the Chapter 186 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation isn't expected soon.

  3. ESTIMATION OF THE POPULATION EXPOSURE DOSES FROM NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES DUE TO DRINKING-WATER CONSUMPTION FOR THE INHABITANTS OF DIFFERENT AREAS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju. N. Goncharova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The report contains data on specific activity values of natural and artificial radionuclides in the water of underground and surface sources in 19 areas of Russian Federation and data on population internal exposure doses from drinking water consumption in these areas.

  4. Medico-ecological zoning of the territory of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubovtseva, Yu. S.; Kagan, A. I.; Pyatigina, O. O.; Voronova, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The medico-ecological state of Russian regions has been analyzed on the basis of statistical data. It is found that the incidence of different groups of diseases varies significantly in different regions. The regions of Russia are classified according to their medico-ecological parameters; the zones of maximal health risk caused by environmental pollutions, including air, water and soil pollution, are determined. The proposed methods for zoning by health level and the estimate of medico-ecological conditions in different administrative units provide the basis for the development of measures for the adaptation of population. These data can be used for the control of sanitary measures planned by regional organizations for the social-ecological protection of the population.

  5. OFFICIAL DISCIPLINE IN THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: WAYS OF IMPROVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Hasanbievna Mashekuasheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological preparedness is a set of formed and developed psychological characteristics that are relevant to the specific psychological character of the operational (combat field service and are the necessary internal precondition for its successful implementation. It is this kind of training that plays an important role for overcoming the psychological difficulties of professional activities, ensuring the successful solution of the tasks. Deviations and professional personal deformations of officers, whose duty is to prevent and stop dangerous social deviations, are not only visible, but also dangerous both for society and for the Interior Ministry system itself. The European Code of Police Ethics, adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 September, 2001 declares the main direction in implementation of the basic tasks of psychological service of the Russian Interior Ministry.

  6. Mechanism of realisation of state-private entrepreneurship in the social sphere of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratan Dmytro I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article states that the socio-economic development of a region rests on the higher-than-anticipated growth of its infrastructure. Formation of the social infrastructure of a region is based on practical realisation of social priorities directed at a higher satisfaction of needs of the population in social services. One of the mechanisms in development of social infrastructure is the state-private partnership. The article provides theoretical and methodical aspects of development of instruments of managing investment activity in Russian regions and levelling of territorial heterogeneity of availability of social objects on the basis of use of the state-private partnership (SPP. The article conducts assessment of possibilities of use of SPP models in the social sphere, regional economy and management of state property.

  7. Clinical and economic analysis of voriconazole using for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ignatieva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Based on clinical studies data voriconazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA – a widespread infectious complications occurring in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by severe clinical course and high mortality.The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of voriconazole compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice for the treatment of IA in adult patients.Materials and methods. The authors constructed a «decision tree» type of model, which compared the three treatment alternatives for the IA in adult patients, depending on the drug in first-line therapy: 1 voriconazole, 2, caspofungin, or 3 amphotericin B lipid complex (LC. Efficacy was assessed as the probability of patient survival within 14 weeks of starting treatment. We took into account the drugs cost and an increase in the hospitalization duration due to the development of serious adverse events. The model parameters were determined on the basis of the published results of clinical studies, the costs were calculated on the basis of medicines prices in the public procurement and the average bed-day cost in system of obligatory health insurance. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed.Results. It has been shown that the use of voriconazole for treatment of IA is the dominant strategy compared to the use of caspofungin and amphotericin B LC, providing cost reduction while achieving maximum effect. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (1000 simulations showed stability of the revealed pattern.Conclusion. The use of voriconazole in the treatment of IA allows to save the greatest number of lives at minimal cost compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice.

  8. Clinical and economic analysis of voriconazole using for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ignatieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Based on clinical studies data voriconazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA – a widespread infectious complications occurring in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by severe clinical course and high mortality.The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of voriconazole compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice for the treatment of IA in adult patients.Materials and methods. The authors constructed a «decision tree» type of model, which compared the three treatment alternatives for the IA in adult patients, depending on the drug in first-line therapy: 1 voriconazole, 2, caspofungin, or 3 amphotericin B lipid complex (LC. Efficacy was assessed as the probability of patient survival within 14 weeks of starting treatment. We took into account the drugs cost and an increase in the hospitalization duration due to the development of serious adverse events. The model parameters were determined on the basis of the published results of clinical studies, the costs were calculated on the basis of medicines prices in the public procurement and the average bed-day cost in system of obligatory health insurance. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed.Results. It has been shown that the use of voriconazole for treatment of IA is the dominant strategy compared to the use of caspofungin and amphotericin B LC, providing cost reduction while achieving maximum effect. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (1000 simulations showed stability of the revealed pattern.Conclusion. The use of voriconazole in the treatment of IA allows to save the greatest number of lives at minimal cost compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice.

  9. Quantification of the areas of saline and solonetzic soils in the Ural Federal Region of the Russian federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernousenko, G. I.; Kalinina, N. V.; Khitrov, N. B.; Pankova, E. I.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Yamnova, I. A.; Novikova, A. F.

    2011-04-01

    Soil Salinization Map of Russia on a scale of 1: 2500000 (the paper version) has been used for compiling an electronic map of the Ural Federal Region and an attribute database containing twelve characteristics of soil salinization. The areas of saline soils have been quantified for the entire region and its administrative districts. The total area of saline soils in the 0- to 200-cm layer averages up to 6.85 million ha or 5.53% of the plains in the region. The area of soilssaline in the 0- to 100-cm layer averages up to 4.91 million ha, including 4.13 million ha of weakly solonchakous soils (84%) and 0.78 million ha of solonchakous ones (16%). More than half of them (58.3%) are assigned to the moderately and strongly saline soils. The soils saline in the 0- to 100-cm layer are characterized by the neutral salinization type (45%) or the types of soda salinization and neutral salinization with soda (55%). The areas of the region with saline soils are dominated by solonetzic microassociations. The average area of the solonetzes is about 3 million ha. The area of solonchaks is about 0.09 million ha. The area of saline soils is the greatest in Kurgan oblast and the lowest in Sverdlovsk oblast and the Yamal-Nenets autonomous okrug. The formation of saline soils in the Ural Federal Region is related to the climatic conditions of the steppe zone with insufficient moistening and lithologicgeomorphologic conditions (saline Paleogene-Neogene deposits and poor drainage of the area).

  10. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2012 (V report of National Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of a condition and prospects of organ donation and transplantation development in Russia in the form of the National Registry is carried out under the auspices of the Profile commission on transplantology of Minis- try of Health of Russia and the Russian Transplant Society. According to the registry in 2012 the indicator of do- nor activity decreased, but the indicator of transplant activity remained at the level of the last years. Decrease the number of deceased donors managed to be compensated by means of increase of efficiency of donor programs: by increase of the number of donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, by increase in average of the organs received from one deceased donor. In 2012 the number of transplantations of heart and liver increased. The main funding mechanism for organs transplantation in Russia is the state task to the transplant centers (fede- ral financing, its role increases. For increase of stability of donor providing it is necessary to continue to develop legal base in the organ donation and transplantation sphere. 

  11. Cenoses of phototrophic algae of ultrasaline lakes in the Kulunda steppe (Altai krai, Russian Federation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Ph. V.; Kalinina, O. Yu.; Nikitin, M. A.; Samylina, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, expeditions of the Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, delivered samples of algo-bacterial mats from Kulunda steppe alkaline lakes (Petukhovskoe alkaline lake, Tanatar VI, and Gorchina III). The filamentous alga Ctenocladus circinnatus (Chlorophyta) acted as an edificator of the mats. The composition of cenoses algocomponents also included chlorophytes Dunaliella viridis and Picocystis salinarum as well as diatoms Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brachysira brebissonii, B. zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, N. cf. communis, and Nitzschia sp. 1. The composition and structure of phototrophic algae cenoses (including diatom taxocenes) were described for the investigated lakes for the first time. For the period from 2011 to 2012, the total mineralization significantly increased in lakes. This involved sensible alterations of cenoses. B. zellensis was the most permanent component of diatom taxocenes in both seasons. In the summer of 2011, it was often accompanied by A. sphaerophora and B. brebissonii. In the summer of 2012, A. sphaerophora was found only singularly in Lake Gorchina III, and some biotopes of Lake Tanatar VI were massively inhabited by N. cf. communis, including colonies that had not been previously described for the species. The genetic analysis of three diatoms, which are markedly different from each other in their appearance and were sampled from different lakes but were all determined as Nitzschia cf. communis, showed their complete similarity to each other with the 18S rRNA gene fragment and the highest similarity of all the three diatoms with the species Nitzschia communis.

  12. COMMERCIAL LEGAL ENTITIES ACCORDING TO THE RENEWED CIVIL CODE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsanov A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the question of reforming Russian public and private companies’ law and the various problems that accompany the reform of civil law. So it is noted that the Civil Code still maintain the existing division of legal persons for commercial and non-commercial, but offered no new legal entities. This is largely due to the fact that the legislator seeks only to remove the gaps. The author notes the lack of commitment of the legislator to offer promising models of commercial legal entities. However, the author notes that the elimination of errors only available legislation is not enough. For completeness of legal regulation it requires a new approach to the reform of civil law. We require the same approach for entrepreneurs as well. These subjects of civil and business relations need new models of business. Creating new models should be a subject to certain logic of their construction. The entire list of models of commercial legal entities must be built on the principle of scale. That is, each model of commercial entity must be subordinated to this principle on the basis of their economic importance

  13. Exceeding of Official Powers (Art. 286 of the Criminal Code of Russian Federation: Identification and Analysis of Signs of Object and Victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey D. Brazhnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors defines attributes of object and victim in the framework of offense "abuse of power" (Article 286 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and conduct comparative analysis. At the first place questions of what should be considered as object of crime in the Russian legal doctrine. Author believe that "vertical" objects are divided into general, intragenic, clan, group, specific and direct, "horizontal" - at primary, secondary and optional. Author carried out a comprehensive analysis of each object under consideration provisions of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Authors give particular attention to the study of victims of this crime. According to authors, lack of the unified approach to this issue is largely generated by the procedural legislation. Author concludes that victims of the power abuse in the criminal law sense may be citizens (any individual, organizations (legal entities, irrespective of their legal form, society and the state. Based on the comprehensive analysis of legal acts, court practice and a wide range of scientific sources authors justify the appropriateness of amending Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.

  14. Analysis of experience of legal regulation in the sphere of public administration of sanatorium providing of children in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko T.Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood and childhood are one of the main priorities of the government social policy for any country. The Ukrainian state, its President and government are keeping under scrutiny issues of improving quality of life and health of population, in particular, health of women and children. Continuing study of problems of Public Administration in the sphere of health resort services for children in Ukraine, in her previous scientific publications the author drew attention to insufficient scope of researches and weak grounds of theoretical justification of possible organizational changes in this sphere. This very fact stipulates the necessity to continue thorough scientific research and study, first of all, a positive experience of foreign countries as to implementing reforms in the sphere of health resort services for children. The share of separate factors of different nature, impacting indicators of public health depends on age, sex and individual-typological characteristics of a person. However, the greatest impact on a human health is made by his lifestyle that may be attributed to conditionally controlled process. In this case, it is appropriate to note that the controlled impact on lifestyle can be made both by internal factors (e.g., motivation, and external factors. One of the most powerful external factors of controlled impact on the public health is health resort provision. The experience of the Russian Federation in this area is extremely useful for the Ukrainian state, which is actively promoting the idea of the health system modernization in the domestic market as the area in need of such changes. Now, 1997 health resorts are operating in the Russian Federation, annually serving approximately 6 million people. The jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation encompasses 51 health resort facilities (HRF providing a wide range of health-improving services. The laws, government regulations

  15. Russian design studies of the DEMO-S demonstration fusion power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbasov, B.; Belyakov, V.; Borisov, A.; Kirillov, I.; Shatalov, G.; Sokolov, Yu.; Strebkov, Yu.; Vasiliev, N. [Kurchatov Institut (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Different concepts for a fusion power plant have been studied in Russia since 1975. Researchers have considered power facilities using tokamaks, stellarators and inertial fusion devices. Tokamak reactors appear the most promising at this stage of science development. Application of fusion reactors for generation of electricity, production of domestic and industrial heat, hydrogen production, transmutation of non-fissionable isotopes into fissionable ones, water desalination, and burning out of minor actinides was considered. Conceptual design studies of a tokamak-based demonstration fusion reactor have been carried out since 1991. The preferred concept was selected, which was a steady-state operating tokamak with superconducting magnets, one-null divertor configuration and a high contribution of bootstrap current into plasma current drive. The general reactor layout was determined. Plasma characteristics were optimized. Two most attractive blanket concepts were analyzed: (1) a He-cooled ceramic (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) design for tritium breeding, using ferritic steel as structural material, and (2) a blanket using liquid Li as tritium breeding material and coolant and a V-Cr-Ti alloy as structural material. The studies were supported by neutronic, heat-hydraulic and mechanical calculations. A conventional type of water or Li cooled divertor targets with maximum heat load of {proportional_to}10 MW/m{sup 2} was chosen. Blankets of both types require Be as a neutron multiplier and have to be replaced after the integral fusion neutron load on the first wall reaches 10 MW/m{sup 2}. Heat to electricity conversion schemes enable operation with net efficiency of 34% for the He-coolant design and 40% for the liquid Li one. Aspects of radioactive waste management and scarce materials refabrication are considered. In particular, a radiochemical extraction technology for separation of V alloy components and their purification from activation products after reactor

  16. PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE PERSONALITY AS PRIORITY TACTICAL TARGET OF CRIMINAL TRIAL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis N. Marinkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of Russia declares a priority of protection of the rights of the personality (person in Art. 2. Providing opportunities of realization of the rights and freedoms with citizens and their protection are carried out now by the specialized law enforcement agencies and for regulation of the public relations our legal system gives us a number of normative legal acts. Mandatory rules about legal responsibility, in particular, - criminal are of special interest for us (the most essential and rigid to the offender. It is necessary to recognize that the public relations protected by the criminal legislation are the most important for society and different options of protection of the rights are peculiar to practice of law enforcement. So, traditionally, refer self-defense and protection by means of specialized bodies to them. In the present time we can speak about a priority of human rights protection and for the existing Russian legislation the characteristic moment is existence of the principles on which all system of protection of the rights is under construction. So, continuous change of the legislation becomes a result of consecutive changes of priorities in the right. In this connection (and on some other the reasons practice of crime control and prevention that faces a number of problems. In work, on the basis of the conducted research by the author, the main problems of criminal trial in the context of designation are presented in the Constitution of Russia and the criminal procedure legislation of a main objective of criminal legal proceedings in the Russian Federation as protection of the rights of the personality (person. 

  17. Methodological Aspects of Analyzing and Assessing the Per Capita Consumption of Fish and Seafood in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mikhailovich Selin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of the economy and increased competition leads to the need to strengthen the functions of the Russian government to ensure food security of the country and, accordingly, the consolidation of mechanisms of state regulation of agricultural economy and food markets. The importance of solving the problems of information security, a high degree of reliability of the information provided by the Government of the relevant statistical authorities is growing. The relevance of obtaining high-quality statistical information for the adoption of timely and informed decisions by the government on the management of the national economy has increased significantly during the period of political and economic confrontation between Russia and the West in terms of sanctions and counter-sanctions. Taking fishing industry and its product – the water biological resources – as an example, the author of the present study carried out a structural analysis of the methodology for composing the balance of fish and fish products to determine the per capita level of consumption, described the different approaches to assessing the level of consumption of water biological resources, structured export indicators of water biological resources gathered from various official sources, on the basis of which the author revealed significant differences in the assessment of the situation. The subject of statistics as the problem was raised at the Presidium of the State Council from October 19, 2015 devoted to the development of the fishing industry of the Russian Federation and was reflected as a separate item in the Order of the President following the results of the State Council. Established by the Order of the Federal State Statistics Service dated October 21, 2013 No. 419, the new method of determining the level of per capita consumption of fish and fish products, based on the compilation of the balance of water biological resources, and composed after the

  18. Characteristics of Populations of the Russian Federation over the Panel of Fifteen Loci Used for DNA Identification and in Forensic Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Stepanov, V; Balanovsky, O P; Melnikov, A V; Lash-Zavada, A Yu; Khar'kov, V N; Tyazhelova, T V; Akhmetova, V L; Zhukova, O V; Shneider, Yu V; Shil'nikova, I N; Borinskaya, S A; Marusin, A V; Spiridonova, M G; Simonova, K V; Khitrinskaya, I Yu; Radzhabov, M O; Romanov, A G; Shtygasheva, O V; Koshel', S M; Balanovskaya, E V; Rybakova, A V; Khusnutdinova, E K; Puzyrev, V P; Yankovsky, N K

    2011-04-01

    Seventeen population groups within the Russian Federation were characterized for the first time using a panel of 15 genetic markers that are used for DNA identification and in forensic medical examinations. The degree of polymorphism and population diversity of microsatellite loci within the Power Plex system (Promega) in Russian populations; the distribution of alleles and genotypes within the populations of six cities and 11 ethnic groups of the Russian Federation; the levels of intra- and interpopulation genetic differentiation of population; genetic relations between populations; and the identification and forensic medical characteristics of the system of markers under study were determined. Significant differences were revealed between the Russian populations and the U.S. reference base that was used recently in the forensic medical examination of the RF. A database of the allelic frequencies of 15 microsatellite loci that are used for DNA identification and forensic medical examination was created; the database has the potential of becoming the reference for performing forensic medical examinations in Russia. The spatial organization of genetic diversity over the panel of the STR markers that are used for DNA identification was revealed. It represents the general regularities of geographical clusterization of human populations over various types of genetic markers. The necessity to take into account a population's genetic structure during forensic medical examinations and DNA identification of criminal suspects was substantiated.

  19. Medical irradiation risk assessment based on the data of radiation-hygienic passportization in the regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ju. Golikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at methodology development for collective risk assessment of medical irradiation, basing on results of radiation-hygienic passportization in the Russian Federation regions, i.e. using values of collective effective doses for big groups of medical technologies: photoroentgenography, roentgenography, roentgenoscopy, and computer tomography. Use of the effective dose concept for medical irradiation risk definition involves a number of essential restrictions. Age and sex of the employees and of general population (effective dose concept has been developed for these groups of people may essentially differ from those in patients. Lifelong risk of stochastic effects occurrence in children is 2-3 times higher than the rating values used in effective dose concept, while for elderly people (about 60 years at irradiation time it’s 4-5 times lower. The article suggests the algorithm of effective doses values correcting factors assessment for consideration of dependence of radiogenic cancer risk factors on age and sex. This enables to assess more correctly collective risk of radiology and nuclear medicine imaging. Since patients tend to be elderly and their risk factor is below the rating used in the effective dose concept, the values of these correcting factors for most radiology and nuclear medicine imaging are below one. Thus, in most cases, the effective dose concept leads to conservative assessment of medical irradiation collective risk.

  20. Concept Of The Public Safety In The Russian Federation As A Legal Measure Of The Educational Institutions (Organizations Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Chesnokov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author researches basic positions presented in the Concept of Public Security in the Russian Federation and focused on the educational institutions (organizations. Author analyzes main sources of threat to the public security: the threat of a criminal nature; terrorist threats; extremist activity; increase in the number of crimes; complication of the crime situation; increase in the number of criminals; high levels of corruption; illegal migration; internal migration; social tension in society; deterioration of the technical state of transport infrastructure; likelihood of emergencies; risk of harm to the human life and health, environment; high probability of fire occurrence in Russia; natural variations in the characteristics of the hydrological regime of water bodies; seismic hazard. Author defines goals of public security, outlines priority (main and other tasks, as well as the principles and key activities to ensure public security. In the conclusion author concludes that public safety, in fact, involves complex nature of activity and contributes to the legal security of educational institution (organization, gives definition of the public security of the educational institution (organization and results of operations for its assuring.

  1. General characteristics of the institute of bringing senior officials of the subjects of the Russian Federation to justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepus A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and practical aspects of the problem of bringing senior officials of the RF subjects to criminal liability are analyzed. Legal immunity as the most important feature of their legal status is considered. General characteristic of the liability of such senior officials in the context of the institute of state and law enforcement is provided. The current Russian legislation and judicial practice in this area are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the history of the issue of bringing senior officials to justice, on the example of the Federation Council member status. Basing on the other authors’ researches, the author proposes his own view on the issues of senior officials’ immunity. It’s suggested that in modern legal science the problems of the liability of senior officials of the RF regions aren’t given due attention. There’s no clear understanding of what should be the grounds of such liability, its procedures and application, the legal nature of its sanctions. The author substantiates the position that it’s not necessary to include the regional leaders or heads of executive authorities of the RF subjects in the list of persons having immunity from criminal or administrative prosecution. The arguments are the federal practice – the ministers of the RF Government don’t possess the immunity, and the recent practice – dismissal as a result of loss of confidence. The need to control the activities of the senior officials of the RF subjects and other persons holding the highest positions in the authorities of the RF subjects is substantiated.

  2. Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Gough, R; Hawkins, W; Knowles, S; Kreek, S; MacLeod, G; Rockett, P; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Wohletz, K

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises.

  3. [Peculiarities of regulation of legal relations in the field of environmental and hygiene safety of the population in The Russian Federation at the present stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, A O; Eremin, G B; Lomtev, A Iu

    2012-01-01

    The results of the comparative legal analysis of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of environmental security have been presented, theoretical and legal basis for the subsequent development of recommendations for the development and harmonization of legislation in the field of providing environmental security and environmental protection has been defined. The formation of ecological civil law and conceptual questions of territory development guaranteeing ecological safety have been considered. Objects of the study were international treaties, Constitution of Russian Federation, Law on Environmental Protection, Land Code and other laws containing positions concerning ecological safety and environmental protection. Identified as a result of the present study the contradictions in the area of law allow to develop and submit proposals for the improvement of legal regulation in the field of environmental and hygienic safety.

  4. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMS TARIFF POLICY IN FOREST FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT BORDER TO CHINA REGION (FOR EXAMPLE ZABAYKALSKY KRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Vladimirovna Kolesnikovа

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Availability of large amounts of forest resources in Russian Federation, as well as existence of the general border between Russia and China causes export orientation in the development of timber industry in regions of Russia, which have borders with China. On the basis of the actual material is considered the impact of ongoing customs and tariff policy on the development of the forestry sector toChina's border regions (for example, Zabaykalsky Kray.During the studies it was concluded that despite the ongoing customs and tariff policy in the Russian Federation is now forestry development of border regions is at an early stage. In addition, despite the existing flow of investment, including foreign investment it is by far not sufficient to change the current export-oriented raw timber industry complex border regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-23

  5. The BR2 refurbishment programme: achievements and two years operation feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Koonen, E.; Van der Auwera, J. [SCK/CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Mol (Belgium)

    1999-08-01

    The BR2 reactor was shutdown end of June 1995 for an extensive refurbishment after more than 30 years utilization. The beryllium matrix needed to be replaced and the aluminium vessel inspected for an envisaged 15 year life extension. Other aspects of the refurbishment programme aimed at the reliability and availability of the installations, safety of operation and compliance with modern safety standards. The reactor was started again in' April '97 and operated only for three cycles in 1997. These first irradiation cycles were intended as a demonstration of the safety and reliability of all components and systems after refurbishment. Also during the extended shutdowns non-critical refurbishment tasks were allowed to be continued and finalized. At the request of the Safety Authorities, some modifications and studies are still in progress without perturbation of the reactor operation. (author)

  6. Russian concept for a DEMO-S demonstration fusion power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbasov, B.N. [Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); D.V. Efremov Institute, Scientific Technical Centre ' Sintez' , 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kolbasov@nfi.kiae.ru; Belyakov, V.A.; Bondarchuk, E.N. [D.V. Efremov Institute, Scientific Technical Centre ' Sintez' , 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Borisov, A.A. [Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kirillov, I.R. [D.V. Efremov Institute, Scientific Technical Centre ' Sintez' , 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Leonov, V.M.; Shatalov, G.E. [Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sokolov, Yu.A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Strebkov, Yu.S. [N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE), P.O. Box 788, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, N.N. [Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-12-15

    Conceptual design studies for a tokamak-based demonstration fusion reactor have been carried out in Russia since 1991. The preferred concept was a steady-state operating tokamak with superconducting magnets, a single-null divertor configuration and a high contribution of bootstrap current into a plasma current drive. Two blanket concepts were analyzed: (1) a helium-cooled ceramic (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) design for tritium breeding, using ferritic steel as the structural material, and (2) a blanket using liquid lithium for the tritium breeding material and coolant and a vanadium-chromium-titanium alloy as the structural material. Conventional-type water/lithium-cooled divertor targets with a maximum heat load of {approx}10 MW/m{sup 2} were chosen. Blankets of both designs require beryllium as a neutron multiplier and have to be replaced after the integral fusion neutron load on the first wall reaches 10 MW a/m{sup 2}. The results of the analyses show the necessity of additional studies prior to choosing the most promising blanket concept for further development. Aspects of radioactive waste management and scarce material recycling were also considered.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus icigianus Strain G1w1T Isolated from Hot Springs in the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka (Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryanskaya, Alla V; Rozanov, Aleksey S; Logacheva, Maria D; Kotenko, Anastasia V; Peltek, Sergey E

    2014-10-23

    The Geobacillus icigianus G1w1(T) strain was isolated from sludge samples of unnamed vaporing hydrothermal (97°С) outlets situated in a geyser in the Troinoy region (Valley of Geysers, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russian Federation; 54°25'51.40″N, 160°7'41.40″E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 3,457,810 bp and encodes 3,342 genes.

  8. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  9. On the Reaction Mechanism of Br2 with OCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Tao YU; Hua ZHONG; Ming Xia LI; Hong Gang FU; Jia Zhong SUN

    2005-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of photochemical reaction between Br2 ( 1 ∑ ) and OCS ( 1 ∑ ) is predicted by means of theoretical methods. The calculated results indicate that the direct addition of Br2 to the CS bond of OCS molecule is more favorable in energy than the direct addition of Br2to the CO bond. Furthermore, the intermediate isomer syn-BrC(O)SBr is more stable thermodynamically and kinetically than anti-BrC(O)SBr. The original resultant anti-BrC(O)SBr formed in the most favorable reaction channel can easily isomerize into the final product syn-BrC(O)SBr with only 31.72 kJ/mol reaction barrier height. The suggested mechanism is in good agreement with previous experimental study.

  10. His Excellency Mr Valery Loshchinin Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office in Geneva visit the ATLAS experiment in the cavern at Point 1 introducted by Prof. Peter Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Valery Loshchinin Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office in Geneva visit the ATLAS experiment in the cavern at Point 1 introducted by Prof. Peter Jenni.

  11. ACCIDENT AT «FUKUSHIMA-»I NPP: FIRST RESULTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE REPORT 2: ACTIVITIES OF THE ROSPOTREBNADZOR AUTHORITIES FOR THE RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION POPULATION ON THE EARLY STAGE OF ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic measures of the Rospotrebnadzor emergency response during the early stage of the «Fukushima-I» NPP radiation accident are being analyzed in the article. Radiation monitoring of the environmental objects of the territories of the Russian Federation Far East Federal District, radiation control of arriving from Japan vehicles, freights and passengers as well as imported from Japan food products were promptly organized. This allowed to get reliable evaluations of the levels of radioactive contamination at the Russian Federation territory and population exposure doses due to the «Fukushima-I» NPP accident, timely exclude the possibility of import to the Russian territory for the freights, vehicles, food products having contamination exceeding established in the Russian Federation standards.

  12. Replacement Of Reserves Zinc Producers In The Russian Federation Based On The Recycling Of Technogenic Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the key stage of the value chain in the zinc industry of the Russian Federation is considered. The study aims to examine the impact of technological change on the development of value chains in the mining and metallurgical complex in the Urals region. The relevance of the assessment of the impact of technological change on the development of value chains in the processing of primary and technogenic raw materials in terms of the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Complex is grounded. The methodological scheme of analysis of value chains and the impact on them of new technologies are developed in the study. It is shown that the analysis of value chains should be carried out, using as an analytical tool value added as well as a heuristic tool study of the value chain. Analysis of the value chain in the production of primary zinc and technogenic raw materials made in accordance with the proposed approach. An assessment of the value added in the production of zinc from primary raw materials held in the article. The gross volume and dynamics of revenue, net income and the cost of segments of the value chain in zinc production are analyzed. The leading role of the metallurgical segment in the value chain of the zinc industry is established. Share indexes of the metallurgical segment as a control link of the value chain in the structure of the consolidated revenue, profit, cost considered in the dynamics, the dynamics of change in the total expenditure on scientific and technological development and R & D expenditure are investigated. The conclusion about essential influence of new technologies on the change of value chains in terms of zinc production is confirmed.

  13. RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE PATIENTS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION, 1998–2011 (Report of the Russian Registry of Renal Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tomilina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the Russian Renal Replacement Therapy Registry covers the period from the year 1998 to 2011 and represents data on the national, regional, and individual patient levels. We summarize information about epidemiology of treated end-stage renal disease in Russia, and describe in details incidence and prevalence for all modalities of renal replacement therapy. The article contains broad spectrum of data on quality of treatment indicators, waiting list, pharmacological treatment, mortality, and survival patterns in patients on hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and with functioning renal graft. 

  14. 81Br NQR for Uncoordinated Br ions in trans-[CoBr2(en)2][H5O2]Br2 and trans-[CoBr2(en)2] [D5O2]Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H.; Sasane, A.; Miyagi, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Mori, Y.

    1994-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the 81Br NQR frequencies (vD) for uncoordinated Br- ions in trans-[CoBr2(en)2] [D5O2]Br2(D) has been determined by a continuous-wave spectrometer. vD amounted to 16.200 MHz at 273 K. This is lower by 418 kHz than the 81Br NQR frequency (vH) for trans-[CoBr2 (en2] [H5O2 ]Br2 (H). The frequency difference (Δv = vH -vD) remained almost constant in the temperature range studied. A shortening of the O-H bond length caused by deuteration could explain the magnitude and the sign of Av on the basis of a point charge model calculation. The compounds D and H yielded 81Br NQR lines in the range 110-320 K and 90-343 K, respectively. As to the 59Co NQR frequencies (7/2 - 5/2), the observed isotope frequency shifts (Δv1 = v1H - v1D) between D and H were smaller than 5 kHz. Below 160 K, 59Co resonances were only available by pulsed experiments. 59Co NQR spin-lattice relaxation times T1Q of 0.54 ms at 194 K and 4.8 s at 77 K for H have been observed.

  15. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF CADETS OF NATIONAL GUARD TROOPS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kozlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the role of information technology in daily process of training of cadets of military schools of national guard troops of theRussian Federation.Methods. The methods involve system-oriented analysis, generalization and modelling.Results and scientific novelty. Informatization of modern society is characterized by growing use of information resources for different spheres of professional activity, suggesting radical changes in the content and technologies of its organization. The problems of informatization of the Russian higher military school are revealed: absence of the uniform methodology for implementation of new information technologies in educational process; low level of cooperation and coordination of activities of educational institutions during creation of a uniform basis of the software; insufficient training of the faculty, etc. The informatization process of military service and military experts of national guard troops of theRussian Federation as members of the security institute in the structure of the state is primarily associated with the creation and maintenance of necessary level of the equipment in order to solve professional tasks in various conditions of the operational environment. Modern realias dictate the need of search of ways and means of improvement of information literacy of cadets of departmental higher education institutions of national guard troops of theRussian Federation. The author of article has designated the main directions of intensive informatization of education of future army officers. The system use of a complex of information technologies of the general and special purpose in educational process of military higher education institution is described. The options of integration of these technologies in the contents of training sections of military experts are shown. Special attention is paid to opportunities of distance learning.Practical significance. The

  16. Proactive coping and spirituality among patients who left or remained in antiretroviral treatment in St Petersburg, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Anna; Pacciolla, Aureliano; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mimiaga, Matthew; Kwiatek, Piotr; Blokhina, Elena; Verbitskaya, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Woody, George E

    2016-01-01

    Positive Psychology, the study of "positive" factors or strengths and evidence-based interventions to increase them, is a rapidly developing field that is beginning to be applied to HIV care. Proactive coping and spirituality are two positive characteristics that have been examined in multiple chronic serious health conditions. In the present study, lost-to-care (LTCs; did not attend treatment for ≥12 months; n = 120) and engaged-in-care HIV clinic patients (EICs; attended treatment for ≥12 months and adherent with antiretrovirals; n = 120) in Leningrad Oblast, Russian Federation were compared on the Proactive Coping Inventory and View of God Scale. EICs had higher scores in proactive coping [t(229) = 3.69; p = .001] and instrumental [t(232) = 2.17; p = .03] and emotional [t(233) = 2.33; p = .02] support, indicating that they engage in autonomous goal setting and self-regulate their thoughts and behaviors; obtain advice and support from their social network; and cope with emotional distress by turning to others. LTCs had higher scores in avoidance coping [t(236) = -2.31; p = .02]. More EICs were spiritual, religious, or both [ χ(2)(1, N = 239) = 7.49, p = .006]. EICs were more likely to believe in God/Higher Power [χ(2)(1, N = 239 = 8.89, p = .002] and an afterlife [ χ(2)(1, N = 236) = 5.11, p = .024]; have a relationship with God/Higher Power [ χ(2)(1, N = 237) = 12.76, p = .000]; and call on God/Higher Power for help, healing, or protection [ χ(2)(1, N = 239) = 9.61]. EICs had more positive [t(238) = 2.78; p = .006] and less negative [t(236) = -2.38; p = .002] views of God. Similar proportions, but slightly more EICs than LTCs were members of a faith community; members of a12-step group; or attended religious or spiritual services, meetings, or activities. More EICs than LTCs engaged in private spiritual or religious activities, such as

  17. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phase 4 and 5)[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van der Auwera, J.

    1998-07-01

    The extensive refurbishment of the BR-2 materials testing reactor should allow another 10 to 15years of continued operation. The refurbishment programme is required in order to comply with modern safety standards, to enhance the reliability of operation, and to compensate for the ageing of the installations of a facility that has reached about 35 years of intensive service. The main objectives and achievements of phase 4 and 5 are described.

  18. Phase Diagram of the System KCI-CsBr-CaBr2%KCI-CsBr-CaBr2相图的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包新华; 陈华莉; 陆文聪; 阎立诚

    2001-01-01

    A computer prediction for the regularities of formation of binary bromide system was made. The results indicate that CsBr-CaBr2 molten salt system is binary complex compound-forming system. The phase diagram of CsBr-CaBr2 system has been determined by visual polythermal method in order to prove the prediction. The phase diagrams of the quasibinary system KCl-CsBr, KC1-CaBr2 and the quasiternary system CsBr-CaBr2-KC1 were determined by using visual polythermal method. The phase diagrams of CsBr-CaBr2 and KCl-CaBr2 show that the intermediate compound is formed. The results are in agreement with the computer prediction. Here, the various parts of the phase diagram of the quasiternary system CsBr-CaBr2-KCl were discussed.

  19. Phase Diagram of the System KCI-CsBr-CaBr2%KCI-CsBr-CaBr2相图的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包新华; 陈华莉; 陆文聪; 阎立诚

    2000-01-01

    A computer prediction for the regularities of formation of binary bromide system was made. The results indicate that CsBr-CaBr2 molten salt system is binary complex compound-forming system. The phase diagram of CsBr-CaBr2 system has been determined by visual polythermal method in order to prove the prediction. The phase diagrams of the quasibinary system KCl-CsBr, KC1-CaBr2 and the quasiternary system CsBr-CaBr2-KC1 were determined by using visual polythermal method. The phase diagrams of CsBr-CaBr2 and KCl-CaBr2 show that the intermediate compound is formed. The results are in agreement with the computer prediction. Here, the various parts of the phase diagram of the quasiternary system CsBr-CaBr2-KCl were discussed.

  20. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  1. Influence of the type of state system on constitutional legislation: some issues of theory and practice. (by the example of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolybek Zhunuskanuly Zhunuskanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the basic laws of the constitutional law functioning of Kazakhstan Republic and the Russian Federation and its subjects in the system of law and legislation as an institutional phenomenon to study the impact of government form on the constitutional law of the state. Methods general scientific dialectic approach to cognition comparativelegal theoretical predictive etc. and other methods integral institutional situational systemicfunctional etc. have been used in combination with the requirements of objectivity comprehensiveness historicism specificity and consistency generally accepted in the analysis of the statelegal phenomena. Results on the basis of comparative legal analysis of the Kazakhstan Constitution the Constitutions and charters of subjects of the Russian Federation normative legal acts regulating the constitutionallegal relations and research of the views of scientists on this topic the impact of government form on the constitutional law of a state was examine a conclusion was made about the significance of the Constitution in shaping the constitutional law. Scientific novelty for the first time with the use of the public methods the role of the Constitution and constitutional legislation of the countries in the development of the modern RussianKazakhstan legal discourse was investigated. The impact of government form on constitutional law was analyzed the concept of constitutional law was proposed. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when addressing issues of the role of the Constitution and constitutional law in the development of the legal system and the impact of government form on them. nbsp

  2. Attitudes and Beliefs of Pig Farmers and Wild Boar Hunters Towards Reporting of African Swine Fever in Bulgaria, Germany and the Western Part of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, T; Guinat, C; Petkova, P; Gogin, A; Kolbasov, D; Blome, S; Molia, S; Pinto Ferreira, J; Wieland, B; Nathues, H; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of pig farmers and hunters in Germany, Bulgaria and the western part of the Russian Federation towards reporting suspected cases of African swine fever (ASF). Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire survey targeting pig farmers and hunters in these three study areas. Separate multivariable logistic regression models identified key variables associated with each of the three binary outcome variables whether or not farmers would immediately report suspected cases of ASF, whether or not hunters would submit samples from hunted wild boar for diagnostic testing and whether or not hunters would report wild boar carcasses. The results showed that farmers who would not immediately report suspected cases of ASF are more likely to believe that their reputation in the local community would be adversely affected if they were to report it, that they can control the outbreak themselves without the involvement of veterinary services and that laboratory confirmation would take too long. The modelling also indicated that hunters who did not usually submit samples of their harvested wild boar for ASF diagnosis, and hunters who did not report wild boar carcasses are more likely to justify their behaviour through a lack of awareness of the possibility of reporting. These findings emphasize the need to develop more effective communication strategies targeted at pig farmers and hunters about the disease, its epidemiology, consequences and control methods, to increase the likelihood of early reporting, especially in the Russian Federation where the virus circulates.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AVAILABILITY OF THE MEDICINES FOR PRIVILEGED CATEGORIES OF CITIZENS SUFFERING FROM DIABETES MELLITUS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND UKRAINE BASED ON THE PHARMACEUTICAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalov VV (Jr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World Health Organization paid close attention to the timely detection and treatment of diabetes mellitus, since there are more than 382 million people suffering from this disease in the world. Life expectancy of patients with diabetes mellitus is twice as less when compared to their peers who do not suffer health problems and leading a healthy way of life. Based on the statistical data shows that 80% of patients on diabetes live in countries with a low standard of living. The dynamics of diabetes considered not only as a serious disease, but also as an important medical and pharmaceutical, social, economic and criminal legal problem, which is now very important for the Russian Federation, Ukraine and other countries of the world. This is because there is a constant increase in the number of patients suffering from diabetes on, with chronic diseases, the development of micro- and macrovascular complications, which lead to a reduction in life expectancy due to deterioration of its quality. At the same time the availability of the medicines for privileged categories of citizens, who suffer from diabetes mellitus in the Russian Federation and Ukraine depends on many factors. Some of these factors are improving of the management measures and control over the circulation of medicines (drugs; prevention and disease prevention; the use of personalized pharmacotherapy; ensuring the availability of essential medicines for privileged categories of citizens.Therefore, the aim of the work was to study the particularities of legal documents in Ukraine and Russia, aimed at organizing the rules regulating the circulation of the medicines used for diabetes mellitus pharmacotherapy by generalizing forensic and pharmaceutical practices related to the violation of the rights of patients with diabetes. To improve the system of measures of state control over the increasing availability of medicines for citizens of privileged contingent based on the norms of

  4. A Discharge-Excited SrBr2 Vapour Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘佰良; 姚志欣; 陈钢

    2002-01-01

    A new-style discharge tube for a metal vapour laser has been designed and built. SrBr2 was successfullyused to replace the metal strontium as a working medium. Multi-line laser oscillations from resonance tometastable transition of strontium atoms (6.45um), ions (1.03um/1.O9um) and from strontium ion recombi-nation (416.2nm/430.5nm) have been obtained through longitudinal pulsed discharge. The problem of an in-compatibility reaction between metallic strontium and the discharge tube in the strontium vapour laser has beensolved. Some proposals are presented for further developments of strontium halide lasers.

  5. Russian privatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, Y.; Dmitriev, A.; Klimov, S. [Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy (Russian Federation)

    1998-08-01

    The Russian government instigated an intensive programme of federal shares sales in the coal companies at the end of 1997 with two large and viable companies: Kuzbassrazrezugol and Yuzhny Kuzbass Coal. 11 more joint-stock companies are included in the provisional privatisation schedule but it is unlikely these will be sold before the end of the third quarter of 1998. The article gives a brief description of the companies up for sale with details of shares, coal production employee numbers, coal sales, profit and losses, and state support funds. Despite the grave economic situation in Russia many coal companies have good prospects and are attractive for investors. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  7. TREND AND VALIDITY OF ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS PREVALENCE AND PATIENT MORTALITY RATES IN THE ADULT POPULATION OF THE TULA REGION VERSUS THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Sorotskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic systemic disease of the axial skeleton. Recently, there has been increased interest among practitioners and researchers in AS. Because of difficulties in conducting epidemiological surveys studying statistical data on its prevalence and patient mortality is of great importance. It permit introduction of necessary corrections into organization of medical care to patients on the basis of analysis of the situation in the region.Objective: to study the trend and validity of data on AS prevalence and patient mortality in the adult population of the Tula Region versus the Russian Federation.Subjects and methods. The investigators used the 2002–2010 statistical guidelines “Prevalence of diseases in adult populationof Russia” by the Ministry of Health of Russia; the 2006–2010 federal statistical inquiry forms No. 14 in the Tula Region and the Russian Federation; the European hospital database; the 2000–2011 mortality databases in the Tula Region, which had been obtained by the automated mortality registration systems, which contained 373,997 records and included all margins of “Medical Death Certificates”.Results and discussion. In the Russian Federation, overall prevalence of AS per 100,000 adult population increased from 27.6 in 2002 to 34.4 in 2010 (the increment was 24.6% while in the Tula Region its trend was unstable in this period. Incidence of AS here decreased by 31.8% from 2002 to 2010; in Russia its increment was 51.6%. From 2000 to 2011 in the Tula Region AS was registered as one of the causes of death in 29 cases.Conclusion. To plan measures aimed at improving the quality of medical care to AS patients, it is necessary to expand a comprehensive study of AS prevalence as well as outpatient and inpatient mortality from AS

  8. Russian Model Of The Administrative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja I. Jaroshenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 25, 2014 it would be twenty-one year since the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted on the national referendum on December 12, 1993. During this time, almost all constitutional provisions are implemented. The key point of course was the judicial reform in Russia, launched simultaneously with the adoption of Constitution of the Russian Federation. Adopted the new Civil Procedural Code, Criminal Procedural Code, Arbitration Procedural Code of the Russian Federation, Federal Constitutional Law "On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation", Federal Constitutional Law "On the courts of general jurisdiction in Russia", Federal Constitutional Law "On the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation". However, during twenty-one year of Russian Constitution work, the question on establishment of administrative courts in our country has not been resolved. Merger of the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, which happened in the year 2014, also shown the need to resolve the status of administrative courts in Russia. Previously submitted to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation the draft of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Federal Administrative Courts in the Russian Federation" and is on the revision, which does not correspond to changes in the judicial system of the Russian Federation. Despite the failure of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Federal Administrative Courts in the Russian Federation", in the opinion of the author, and it should be called that way, it Russia has already developed an own model of the Russian administrative justice, which is very specific.

  9. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  10. An assessment of the health and environmental situation in the mining community Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehdwall, H.; Rising, A.; Hjalmar, A.; Lindholm, I.; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H.

    1995-12-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the uranium activities as such have not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 15 tabs.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Enterprises Functioning in the Field of Nanoindustry in Germany and in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyntsev Ivan Dmitrievich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the development of the comparative analysis of the nanoindustry’s formation and functioning in various countries. Such comparative analysis would decrease the elaboration costs of effective solutions created for domestic economy. The article presents the diverse aspects of conducting the comparative analysis of enterprises according to their size, location, resources, profile, relation to basic structure and infrastructure, whether they form clusters which have well organized links with other enterprises functioning in Russian and German nanoindustry. The authors of the article discover the nanoindustry’s time, sectoral and space formation peculiarities in Russia and Germany, which are involved in the global trend of nanoindustry’s formation and development in different starting conditions. Thus, the authors take into account regional differences in state support and integration cooperation and nanogoods and services market expansion features in both countries. The authors present the differences in state nanotechnology and nanoindustry policy. After having investigated the operation of German and Russian nanoindustrial enterprises, the authors concluded that there is a lack of official statistical data in domestic nanoindustry economy. Currently, nanotechnologies’ and nano-relevant products’ statistics and the system of international standards in nanotechnology in Russia are being elaborated. Despite the problems, which prevent proper nanotechnological development, namely uncertain bounds, interdisciplinarity, dynamic and global nature and ambiguity of evolution ways, full and timely data in this sphere is an inalienable part of the nanotechnology’s efficient work.

  12. Minority Languages of the Russian Federation: Perspectives for a Ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers = Las lenguas minoritarias de la Federacion Rusa Perspectivas para una ratificacion de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales y Minoritarias. Mercator Documentos de trabajo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieytez, Eduardo J. Ruiz

    This paper describes the linguistic plurality of the Russian Federation, assessing the impact that the hypothetical ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages could have on it. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Part 1--The Linguistic Plurality of the Russian Federation": the linguistic…

  13. Minority Languages of the Russian Federation: Perspectives for a Ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers = Las lenguas minoritarias de la Federacion Rusa Perspectivas para una ratificacion de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales y Minoritarias. Mercator Documentos de trabajo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieytez, Eduardo J. Ruiz

    This paper describes the linguistic plurality of the Russian Federation, assessing the impact that the hypothetical ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages could have on it. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Part 1--The Linguistic Plurality of the Russian Federation":…

  14. 浅谈俄罗斯联邦的建设工程预算%Shallow discussion on construction project budget of Russian Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韧

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了俄罗斯预算规范化发展的历史及现状,分别阐述了俄罗斯联邦固定价格预算和单价预算的特点及实施要点,以指导进入俄罗斯的中国建筑施工企业熟练掌握以上两种预算方法。%With a brief introduction on the budget normalization development history and status of Russian Federation,it respectively describes features and implementation points of fixed price budget and unit price budge,with a view to guide Chinese construction en

  15. [The development of mass physical culture and sports in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation as a factor of formation of the healthy life style].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakorina, E P; Rudiakova, S E

    2011-01-01

    Provision of proper conditions for the creation of healthy life style is a priority of the state policy in this country with special attention given to the development of the mass physical culture and sports. The present paper contains information on the proportion of the population of the Russian Federation regularly engaged in physical culture and sports, provision of necessary sport facilities, and budgetary expenditures for the purpose in different constituent entities of the country. Public satisfaction with the conditions available for mass physical education and sports is discussed. Taking into account the low average life expectancy of the country's population and the increasing morbidity and traumaticity rates among the younger generation, it appears impossible to address the global challenge of improving the health of the nation without promotion of mass physical culture and sports and renewal of interest in these activities among the general population.

  16. [The order of coding road traffic injuries in accordance with ICD-10 at government forensic medical expertise institutions of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, G A; Kovalev, A V; Vaĭsman, D Sh

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the order of coding road traffic injuries in accordance with the 10th edition of the International Classification of the Disease (ICD-10) at government forensic medical expertise institutions of the Russian Federation. In addition, they analyse the application of the coding rules and the identification of the primary causes of death with a view to obtaining reliable road traffic accident mortality statistics compatible with the respective internationally available data. Special attention is given to the consideration and recommendation of the rules for making forensic medical diagnosis in accordance with the requirements of ICD-10 and its inclusion in the road traffic death certificates. The authors emphasize the importance of compliance with the rules for formulation of medical death certificates and identification of the cause of the fatal outcome for the reliable calculation of such demographically significant characteristic as road traffic accident mortality.

  17. Transition of the Russian federation to new educational standard: independent work of students as a factor in the quality of educational process*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremlev Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to changes in the organization of independent work of students. These changes are associated with transition of the Russian Federation to new educational standards. In this regard, systemically-active approach to educational process, which is also called competence-based approach, comes to replace the knowledge-based model of education. Independent work of students as one of the main components of the competence-based approach is aimed not only at achieving of educational goals, but mainly on the formation of personal qualities of the future specialist - self-knowledge, self-development and self-realization. These qualities form a new competent person who meets the requirements of the labor market. The research includes consideration of issues such as organization, planning, monitoring methods of self-dependent student work taking into account the requirements of the educational standard.

  18. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF APIXABAN AS COMPARED WITH WARFARIN AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. For prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF the following types of antithrombotic therapy are used: anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin, antiplatelet therapy (such as acetylsalicylic acid and novel oral anticoagulants such as apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran. Administration of vitamin K antagonists (VKA is complicated by the need for individual dose adjustment and frequent monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR. Both warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid are widely used for thrombosis prevention in patients with NVAF in the Russian Federation.Aim. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of apixaban compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid in patients with NVAF from the Russian Federation national health care system perspective.Material and methods. This analysis used a Markov model that allowed estimation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for apixaban as compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid over lifetime horizon in VKA suitable and VKA unsuitable patients with NVAF respectively. The model enclosed cardiovascular event rates based on the results of the randomized clinical trials comparing clinical effectiveness and safety of apixaban with warfarin (ARISTOTLE and acetylsalicylic acid (AVERROES. The following cardiovascular events were taken into consideration: ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic embolism, intracranial hemorrhage, other major bleeds, clinically relevant non-major bleeds and myocardial infarction. Direct medical costs were determined based on the rates of the compulsory national medical insurance system. The price of the antithrombotic drugs was taken as a weighted average tender price for the year 2013. In the model both costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life years and life-years were discounted at 3.5%. Cost-effectiveness threshold was set at 1.4 million rubles per quality

  19. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF APIXABAN AS COMPARED WITH WARFARIN AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. For prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF the following types of antithrombotic therapy are used: anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin, antiplatelet therapy (such as acetylsalicylic acid and novel oral anticoagulants such as apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran. Administration of vitamin K antagonists (VKA is complicated by the need for individual dose adjustment and frequent monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR. Both warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid are widely used for thrombosis prevention in patients with NVAF in the Russian Federation.Aim. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of apixaban compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid in patients with NVAF from the Russian Federation national health care system perspective.Material and methods. This analysis used a Markov model that allowed estimation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for apixaban as compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid over lifetime horizon in VKA suitable and VKA unsuitable patients with NVAF respectively. The model enclosed cardiovascular event rates based on the results of the randomized clinical trials comparing clinical effectiveness and safety of apixaban with warfarin (ARISTOTLE and acetylsalicylic acid (AVERROES. The following cardiovascular events were taken into consideration: ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic embolism, intracranial hemorrhage, other major bleeds, clinically relevant non-major bleeds and myocardial infarction. Direct medical costs were determined based on the rates of the compulsory national medical insurance system. The price of the antithrombotic drugs was taken as a weighted average tender price for the year 2013. In the model both costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life years and life-years were discounted at 3.5%. Cost-effectiveness threshold was set at 1.4 million rubles per quality

  20. Universal health coverage in emerging economies: findings on health care utilization by older adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The achievement of universal health coverage (UHC in emerging economies is a high priority within the global community. This timely study uses standardized national population data collected from adults aged 50 and older in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa. The objective is to describe health care utilization and measure association between inpatient and outpatient service use and patient characteristics in these six low- and middle-income countries. Design: Secondary analysis of data from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health Wave 1 was undertaken. Country samples are compared by socio-demographic characteristics, type of health care, and reasons for use. Logistic regressions describe association between socio-demographic and health factors and inpatient and outpatient service use. Results: In the pooled multi-country sample of over 26,000 adults aged 50-plus, who reported getting health care the last time it was needed, almost 80% of men and women received inpatient or outpatient care, or both. Roughly 30% of men and women in the Russian Federation used inpatient services in the previous 3 years and 90% of men and women in India used outpatient services in the past year. In China, public hospitals were the most frequently used service type for 52% of men and 51% of women. Multivariable regression showed that, compared with men, women were less likely to use inpatient services and more likely to use outpatient services. Respondents with two or more chronic conditions were almost three times as likely to use inpatient services and twice as likely to use outpatient services compared with respondents with no reported chronic conditions. Conclusions: This study provides a basis for further investigation of country-specific responses to UHC.

  1. Provision of educational service with the use of distance technologies for disabled persons (case study: the state of Alaska and Nothern regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lipatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distance education contributes to the solution of educational problems of disabled persons. The study of foreign experience is extremely important. North American universities saved up a wide experience in this sphere. Unlike self-made software products created by many Russian universities, Blackboard is the leading educational software package that professionally helps to solve educational problems of disabled persons. The international University of the Arctic has a growing interest in the use of information communication technologies and open educational resources and networks. In 2008 the subject network of University of the Arctic on distance education and e-learning began to function. The Internet and distance learning creates a new opportunity for disabled persons. Main goal: Whether distance education on Alaska and in Northern and Siberian regions of the Russian Federation promotes the solution of educational problems of the North for disabled persons. Main research problems: to reveal modern educational Arctic problems for disabled persons; to analyse specifics of remote education; to analyse a question of distance training of the circumpolar North; to carry out the comparative analysis of distance training on Alaska and in Russian northern and the Siberian regions; to analyse a contribution of distance training to wider problems of the Arctic policy and management. Relevance of work: The Arctic Human Development Report I specifi es that there are very few circumpolar researches in the fi eld of education, including for disabled persons. This article can begin initial discussion of a subject which can be in addition studied in future works. An emerging trend for Arctic education is its increasing accessibility. Accessibility is about students being able to take classes and fulfi ll their potential, that is, it concerns their possibilities for attending school, both physically and culturally. Even though this

  2. A Live Vaccine from Brucella abortus Strain 82 for Control of Cattle Brucellosis in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the first half of the 20th century, widespread regulatory efforts to control cattle brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were essentially nonexistent, and control was limited to selective test and slaughter of serologic agglutination reactors. By the 1950...

  3. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  4. CERN-HI-1202040 tirage 29 (front row) Russian Federation Secretary of the Security Council N. Patrushev with Adviser T. Kurtyka and Permanent Mission to the UN Adviser A. Petrov in the LHC tunnel at Point 1.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    On 14 February Nikolai Patrushev, secretary of the Security Council for the Russian Federation, was welcomed to CERN. He visited the ATLAS underground experimental area, the LHC tunnel and ATLAS Visitor Centre before viewing the Universe of Particles exhibition at the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  5. IS IT NECESSARY TO VACCINATE CHILDREN AGAINST HEPATITIS A ROUTINELY IN PRESENT TIME? THE EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF SUCH STRATEGY OF HEPATITIS A VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS IN SELECTED REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shakhgildian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Data about efficacy of conducting of routine vaccination of children against Hepatitis A are presented in the article. The results of realization such strategy of vaccine prevention of Hepatitis A in selected regions of Russian Federation are evaluated. The perspectives of using this experience in other regions of the country is discussed.

  6. Features of Touristic Territory Branding on the Example of Sochi City (Russian Federation and Jurmala City (Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gunare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The brand is a harmonic combination of social and cultural life, modern infrastructure, authorities and business activities, attractive investing climate and historical heritage. In a modern world territory brand formation and its successful integration is a key aspect in ensuring of well-being and development of society. Geographic mobility is increasing and it influences welfare of territories. Complex of branding activities provides a sustainable place in a market for territory. Russian experience in tourism development demonstrates that each ruble spent on tourism promotion returns to growth of tourist flow, tax revenues and local producers’ incomes. So territory brand promotion expenditures can give a heavy impact to socio-economic development of the region. The brand of territory is directed to diverse target audiences, the most important of whom are investors, tourists, consumers of goods and services in the external market, residents. The article considers the touristic territory branding experience of Russia and Latvia. Research aims to analyze how the implementation of branding activities contributed to achieving a new level in tourism and investment attractiveness of cities, and if it allowed creating an image of unique place for visiting.

  7. [Some problems of modern gerontology and geriatrics in the Russian Federation: the sight of the clinical physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miakotnykh, V S

    2012-01-01

    This article presents some problems of modern Russian gerontology and geriatrics by eyes of the scientist--the clinical physician having long-term experience in the field. Educational, scientific, practical aspects of gerontology and those stereotypes of understanding of problems of elderly which developed for years are subjected the certain criticism, decades, but in the modern world any more absolutely correspond to a today's reality. It is offered to transform the ideology of the major directions of gerontology, having put at the head of a corner not ideas of prolongation of life as that and carrying out basically actions in relation to seriously ill, but improvements of quality of life, preventive maintenance and treatment of set of the age-related diseases, overcoming of the developed practice of the relation to elderly and senile patients as to persons dependent and demanding the constant help. The author urges the public health governing bodies to reconsider the norms of the geriatric help existing for many years but not meeting modern requirements in the conditions of polyclinic and a hospital and to make more clear and claimed by a society the possibilities and achievements of gerontology.

  8. 78 FR 61333 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation; 2012; Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Federation, 68 FR 3859 (January 27, 2003). On January 31, 2013, Nucor submitted a request for an... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 78 FR 288 (January 3, 2013). The... Revocation in Part, 78 FR 13631 (February 28, 2013). The Department examined U.S. Customs and...

  9. [Normal values of temporal parameters of ECG in children according to results of clinico-epidemiological study ECG-screening of children and adolescents in Russian federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklashevich, I M; Shkol'nikova, M A; Kalinin, L A; Abdullatipova, I V; Osokina, G G; Deev, A D; Blinova, A V; Drozdova, A I; Lebed'kova, S E; Muratov, R A; Verevkina, O N; Timukova, A K; Lunegova, E V; Kozlova, L V; Svintsova, L I; Khomiakova, O I; Ashcheulova, N L

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable information about time-domain ECG parameters in Russian children and to analyse their links with physiological changes the Project "ECG screening of children and adolescents of the Russian Federation" was carried out in 2003-2008. Time domain ECG parameters were studied in the representative sample of 5387 healthy individuals aged 0 to 18 years. In each age group, lower and upper limits of the norm for heart rate (HR), P wave, PQ and QRS intervals were defined as 2nd and 98th percentiles of their distribution. The equivalent limits of QT interval duration were defined as its 5th and 95th percentiles. Relationship between time domain parameters of pediatric ECG and HR was analyzed as well as relationship of these parameters with sex and age. The most important differences from prior pediatric studies completed 30 years ago were obtained for the heart rate limits. Among children aged 0 to 3, there was a tendency toward lowering of age-specific lower limits and elevation of age-specific upper limits. At ages older than 3 years, there was a tendency toward lowering of both the upper and the lower limits of HR. The newly obtained 2nd percentiles of the heart rate were lower than the known lower limits in nearly all ages. This indicates the necessity for revision of criteria of bradicardia in children. The present study showed that 5th and 95th percentiles of QTc interval (Bazett's formula) varied between 340 ms and 465 ms and were not significantly dependent on children's age and only for ages under 13 also on sex. Results of the study allowed to build age-specific ranges of norm for the time domain ECG parameters presented in a tabular form.

  10. [Oxidation of mercury by CuBr2 decomposition under controlled-release membrane catalysis condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Gang; Qu, Zan; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Guo, Yong-Fu; Xie, Jiang-Kun; Jia, Jin-Ping

    2014-02-01

    CuBr2 in the multi-porous ceramic membrane can release Br2 at high temperature, which was employed as the oxidant for Hg0 oxidation. Hg0 oxidation efficiency was studied by a membrane catalysis device. Meanwhile, a reaction and in situ monitoring device was designed to avoid the impact of Br2 on the downstream pipe. The result showed that the MnO(x)/alpha-Al2O3 catalysis membrane had a considerable "controlled-release" effect on Br2 produced by CuBr2 decomposition. The adsorption and reaction of Hg0 and Br2 on the surface of catalysis membrane obeyed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with the rising of Br2 concentration. However, when Br2 reached a certain concentration, the removal efficiency was limited by adsorption rate and reaction rate of Hg0 and Br2 on the catalysis membrane. From 473 K to 573 K, the variation of Hg0 oxidation efficiency was relatively stable. SO2 in flue gas inhibited the oxidation of Hg0 while NO displayed no obvious effect.

  11. [The directions of activity of the medical service on prophylaxis and early revealing of tuberculosis in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalimov, Iu Sh; Beznosik, R V; Shitov, Iu N; Dantsev, V V; Muchaidze, R D

    2012-07-01

    The basic directions of system of antituberculous actions in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation includes: 1) non-admission of citizens, sick of tuberculosis, on military service; 2) allocation of group of persons with the raised risk of tuberculosis among all military servicemen, dispensary dynamic supervision over them and carrying out of chemoprophylaxis; 3) revealing of tuberculosis among military servicemen at preventive medical inspections (including fluorography), and also in case of reference for medical aid with the symptoms specifying on possibility of tuberculosis; 4) carrying out antiepidemic actions in military unit, in case of revealing patient, sick of tuberculosis, well-timed, qualitatively and in full. The major stage of antituberculous actions is a profound medical examination of young reinforcement (recruits under service call and under the contract) after the arrival in army. Preventive actions in group of persons with the raised risk of tuberculosis also are a priority for the medical service of military unit. Final desinfection, controllable emergency chemoprophylaxis and extraordinary fluorography of contact persons under epidemic indications are crucial important for decrease of morbidity in the army focuses of tuberculosis.

  12. The implementation of health care aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The summarizing of the experience of medical care at the cessation of tobacco use and the treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation (RF as well as suggestions for their improvement are presented.For the effective implementation of health care, aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the RF it is necessary to solve the following problems:to include doctors of all specialties in the process of medical care and treatment oftobacco addiction and consequences oftobacco consumption in the RF; to ensure effective implementation of the existing legal documents determining the procedure for providing medical aid, aimed at ending the use of tobacco, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, greater control over their performance and quality of their implementation; to expand of the network of medical offices for cessation of tobacco consumption on the basis of existing structures in primary health care settings (including women's and children’s outpatient clinics, as well as hospitals and health resorts, their provision of personnel and equipment, introduction of group forms of work; to ensure a permanent system of training on assistance at the cessation of tobacco consumption, the treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, including the introduction of medical assistance cycle on cessation of tobacco consumption for student training in medical schools and programs for postgraduate education of health professionals

  13. [Systemic Antimicrobials Consumption and Expenditures in Departments of Surgery of Multi-Profile Hospitals in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus: Results of Multicentre Pharmacoepidemiological Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Yu A; Rachina, S A; Kozlov, R S; Mishchenko, V M; Pavlukov, R A; Abubakirova, A I; Berezhanskiy, B V; Eliseeva, E V; Zubareva, N A; Karpov, I A; Kopylova, I A; Palyutin, Sh Kh; Portnyagina, U S; Pribytkova, O V; Samuylo, E K

    2016-01-01

    The results of the systemic antimicrobials (AM) consumption and expenditures assessment in the departments of surgery of multi-profile hospitals in different regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in 2009-2010 based on retrospective collection and analysis of the data from the hospital expenditure notes using ATC/DDD methodology are presented. The average AM consumption and expenditure rates in the above mentioned departments varied from 24.9 DDD/100 bed-days to 61.7 DDD/100 bed-days depending on the department profile, with beta-lactams (cephalosporins and penicillins) share in the consumption being as high as 70-90%, followed by fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Only 55-70% of the consumed AM belonged to the drugs of choice, whereas the improper AM consumption and expenditure rates amounted up to 10-18%. The study outputs can be used for the budget allocation and AM distribution improvement in the departments of surgery, as well as for the development and efficacy control of the local antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  14. Rare earth elements upon assessment of reasons of the geophagy in Sikhote-Alin region (Russian Federation), Africa and other world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichev, Alexander M; Popov, Vladimir K; Chekryzhov, Igor Yu; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Stolyarova, Tatiana A; Zakusin, Sergey V; Sergievich, Alexandr A; Khoroshikh, Pavel P

    2016-12-01

    Rocks eaten by wild animals on the Bolshoy Shanduyskiy kudur in the Sikhote-Alin region (Russian Federation) are zeolite-clay mineral complexes-products of weathering of zeolitized vitric tuffs of rhyolite composition, deposited in aqueous medium within the volcanic caldera of about 55 million years ago. By composition of rock-forming oxides, the tuffs refer to high-potassium calc-alkaline series. In trace elements of most favorite kudurites of the Bolshoy Shanduyskiy kudur, there are significantly increased contents of most of rare earth elements (2-5 times in comparison with surrounding rocks). The results of our analysis of geological and geochemical data on kudurs and kudurites in another part of the Sikhote-Alin, as well as on other regions of the world (particularly, in Africa and Indonesia), taking into account new data on the prevalence of rare earth elements in living matter and their medical and biological properties, enable us to consider the version of causal connection of the geophagy with rare earth elements.

  15. THE METHODICAL APPROACH TO THE ESTIMATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF TAXES IN FORMING OF INCOMES OF BUDGETARY SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE BELGOROD REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Tarasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted questions of formation of tax incomes of budgetary system of the Russian Federation. Approaches of a regional tax policy are proved by granting of tax privileges. The system of factors allowing quantitatively to estimate value of tax payments in formation own and aggregate prots of the budget is offered; approbation on an example of the budget of the Belgorod region is spent.

  16. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RATIONAL NUMBER OF THE CENTERS OF TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, THEIR GEOGRAPHY AND NOMENCLATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to calculate number of the centers of transplantation according to real requirement of the population and a donor resource, to prove their geography and the nomenclature, providing with donor organs. Methods and results. The analysis and comparison of statistical data on population, number of the centers of transplantation, their transplant activity in Russia and abroad are made. Calculation of number of the centers of transplantation is carried out and justification of their geography is offered. The analysis of statistical data on hospitals in the Russia is made, calculation of a rational number of donor hospitals according to need for a donor resource is carried out. Justification of transplant coordination in territorial subjects of the Russia, in federal districts is offered. Justification of the nomenclature of the centers of transplantation and donor hospitals is offered.Conclusion. Settlement data on a rational number of the centers of transplantation, their geography and the nomenclature, providing with the donor organs, suitable developments for planning of the hi-tech medical care in territorial subjects of the Russia are obtained. 

  17. Elaboration of the international transfer mechanism of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions on the basis of the Russian federal law {sup A}bout agreements of products sharing'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, N.R.; Koulikovskaya, L. [Petrozavodsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Suggestions for a comprehensive legal framework for the implementation in Russia of the flexibility mechanisms established under the Kyoto Protocol (i.e. joint implementation; clean development mechanism; international emissions trading) are proposed. It is suggested that the legal framework be established using the principles embodied in the existing Russian federal law, 'About agreements of product sharing' adopted in 1995. As a basic requirement, it is suggested that the new federal law must include the fundamental elements required to create possibilities for the Russian Federation to participate in the process of certified emission reductions (CER) transfer, emissions reduction unit (ERU) negotiation, and adjusted amount units (AAU) trading within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol implementation. The new law must also embody the basic procedures required to enter into agreements at the international, inter-regional and inter-sectoral levels. Failure to develop the legislative support and the legal framework to facilitate valid Russian participation in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol will prevent many valuable initiatives and projects from being realized.

  18. KARAKTERISASI DAN AKTIVITAS KATALITIK BERBAGAI VARIASI KOMPOSISI KATALIS Ni DAN ZnBr2 DALAM Γ-Al2O3 UNTUK ISOMERISASI DAN HIDROGENASI (R-(+-SITRONELAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ED Iftitah

    2014-06-01

    -EELS. The catalysts spesific surface area and porosity determined by adsorption-desorption of dinitrogen at 77 K. Pore distribution and volume were determined by the desorption isotherm at P/Po ≥ 0.3. The result showed that there was correlation between the catalyst characteristics and catalytic activity to (R-(+-Citronellal isomerisation and hydrogenation product. The activity test were performed in a mini fixed bed reactor with 0.5 g of catalyst and 3 mL of (R-(+-Citronellal using N2 and/or H2 gas atmosphere in 5 and 24 hours at each temperature 90 and 120 oC. The catalyst composition of the choice of gas atmosphere and temperature greatly influenced the activity as well as the selectivity of isomerisation and hydrogenation product formation. The highest conversion was achieved for A3=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (2:3 with complete conversion of (R-(+-Citronellal were obtained when it was running in 5 hours (4 hours N2 + 1 hour H2 at 90 oC and 24 hours (4 hours N2 + 20 hour H2 at 120 oC.

  19. Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data

  20. Large-scale and Medium-scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Registered during Magnetic Storms over North-Eastern Region of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Vera; Kurkin, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Earth's ionosphere is dynamical steadily changed medium. On a level with daily and seasonal variations of ionospheric parameters there are irregular components connected with wave motions in neutral atmosphere. F2 ionosphere region disturbances are developed in global scale during geomagnetic storms and characterized considerable variations in F2-region critical frequencies and heights. High frequency oblique-incidence sounding method allows us to diagnose ionospheric parameters variations in regions poorly equipped with vertical sounding stations. In this work we provide the analysis of large-scale and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LS and MS TID's accordingly) registered during experiments from 2006 till 2011 which carried out by means of the monthly duration sets with 5-min intervals over oblique-incidence sounding paths located in the north-eastern region of Russian Federation. For the analysis we have been chosen experimental data obtained during minor and moderate geomagnetic storms. After ionograms processing maximum observed frequencies (MOF) deviations from median values were calculated. Using MOF deviations from medians the analysis of LS TID's appearance cases was carried out. Studied MOF deviations from medians can be caused by cusps on ionograms also. These cusps move with the course of time through the sequences of ionograms along upper rays from region with higher delays to region with lower delays. Such cusps on ionograms are caused by MS TID's. In this work the analysis of MS TID events registration by these cusps on ionograms was carried out. Then the comparison between LS and MS TID's appearance probability was performed. It is shown that registered MOF variations are caused by superposition of wave-like processes of different scales taken place in ionosphere during magnetic storms. This work was supported by the RFBR grants No 14-05-00259-a and No 14-05-00578-a.

  1. Risk of solid cancer in the offspring of female workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsareva, Y; Deltour, I; Sokolnikov, M; Okatenko, P; Vostrotin, V V; Schonfeld, S J; Schüz, J

    2016-08-01

    Studies of cancer risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation are limited in number, particularly for adult-onset cancers, and the evidence is unclear. In the present study, the risk of solid cancer incidence following in utero radiation exposure is examined among 8466 offspring of female nuclear workers at one of the largest nuclear facilities (Mayak Production Association) in the Russian Federation. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) per Gray (Gy). Mother's uterine gamma dose served as a surrogate for fetal gamma dose. During 277,002 person-years of follow-up (1948-2009), there were 177 first primary solid cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Estimated in utero gamma and plutonium doses exceeded zero for 41 and 23 % of offspring, respectively. Of the 177 solid cancers, 66 occurred among individuals with some in utero exposure to gamma radiation and 53 among those with estimated plutonium exposures. There was no indication of a statistically significantly increased risk of solid cancer incidence from in utero gamma exposure (linear ERR/Gy -1.0; upper 95 % confidence limit 0.5). This result was unchanged after accounting for subsequent occupational exposure. Plutonium doses were estimated but were too low to obtain meaningful risk estimates. Thus, in this cohort in utero radiation exposure was not associated with solid cancer risk. This is consistent with an earlier report of mortality in the cohort, but is based on twice as many cases and less susceptible to biases inherent in mortality analyses. Given the relatively young age of the cohort with respect to cancer, continued follow-up should be done as the number of cancer cases increases.

  2. Russian Reset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Holmgård, Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Christoffer Holmgård. Russian Reset. Installation. HyperKult XXV: Shutdown, Lüneburg, FRG, Jul 9-11, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Christoffer Holmgård. Russian Reset. Installation. HyperKult XXV: Shutdown, Lüneburg, FRG, Jul 9-11, 2015....

  3. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  4. Project of law authorizing the approval of the agreement between the government of the French republic and the government of the Russian federation relative to the civil liability by way of nuclear damage owing to the supply of materials from the French republic devoted to nuclear facilities in the Russian federation; Projet de loi autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le gouvernement de la republique francaise et le gouvernement de la federation de Russie relatif a la responsabilite civile au titre de dommages nucleaires du fait de fournitures en provenance de la republique francaise destinees a des installations nucleaires en federation de Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffarin, J.P.; Villepin, D. de

    2002-07-01

    An agreement between France and Russia was signed on June 20, 2000 about the civil liability of Russia because of the supply of French material devoted to Russian nuclear facilities. This agreement was necessary because Russia do not belong to any of the two big international civil liability systems relative to nuclear energy, i.e. the Paris convention from July 29, 1960 (in the OECD framework) and the Vienna convention from May 21, 1963 (in the IAEA framework). This agreement offers a protection to the French nuclear suppliers against any damage claims in the case of a nuclear accident occurring on the Russian federation territory. This project of law aims at approving this agreement. (J.S.)

  5. Water equivalent of snow retrieved from data of passive microwave scanning with the use of artificial neural networks over the Russian Federation territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Volchek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of the Chang model for calculation of the snow water equivalent on the basis of measurements of the Earth thermo-microwave radiation by means of scanning polarimeters (SMMR, SSM/I, AMSR-E from board of orbital satellites does not allow obtaining the accuracy needed hydrological purposes. Low accuracy of the calculations is caused by both simplified character of the mathematical model, and due to significant influence of the surface characteristics (relief, vegetation and complex structure of snow thickness upon the microwave radiation propagation. This work was aimed at finding a way to increase accuracy of calculations of the snow water equivalent on the Russian Federation territory with its different climate conditions by means of application the neural network approach for processing of results of the passive microwave scanning of the Earth surface. Feed-forward multi-layer artificial neural network was trained by back-propagation algorithm using SSM/I data and results of snow water equivalent in situ measurements obtained at 117 meteorological stations during the period from January 1st, 1988 till December 31st, 1988. Validation was performed using data from the same sources collected during 7 years (1992–1998. Results of performed numerical experiments and obtained values of rootmean-square error (σ = 24.9 мм; r = 0.39±0,01 allow coming to conclusion that the best estimation of water equivalent of a snow cover is provided by artificial neural network using as the input data a set of the SSM/I channels 19.35, 37.0, 85.5 GHz of horizontal and vertical polarizations with meteorological data differentiated by types of the snow survey route.It is shown that low correlation coefficients (< 0.5 as compared with similar studies on small areas is not caused by the chosen mathematical model and its realization but it is due to a strong diversity of climatic conditions and low density of meteorological stations on the land areas

  6. Overview of the Russian nuclear industry; Le panorama nucleaire russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    In 2004, President Poutine decided to replace the atomic energy ministry (Minatom) by the federal atomic energy agency (Rosatom). Several projects were launched during the next two years which aimed at bringing back Russia to the fore front of the world leaders of nuclear energy use and nuclear technology export. In 2007, Rosatom agency was changed to a public holding company and a new company, named Atomenergoprom, was created which gathers all civil nuclear companies (AtomEnergoMash for the exploitation of power plants, Technabsexport (Tenex) specialized in enrichment or Atomstryexport in charge of export activities). Thus, Rosatom is at the head of all civilian and military nuclear companies, of all research centers, and of all nuclear and radiological safety facilities. In 2006, Russian nuclear power plants supplied 15.8% of the whole power consumption. Russia wishes to develop its nuclear program with the construction of new reactors in order to reach a nuclear electricity share of 25% from now to 2020. This paper presents first the 2007 institutional reform of the Russian atomic sector, and the three sectorial federal programmes: 1 - development of the nuclear energy industrial complex for the 2007-2010 era and up to 2015 (future power plants, nuclear fuel centers and reactor prototypes), 2 - nuclear safety and radioprotection for the 2008-2015 era (waste management, remedial actions, radiation protection), 3 - military program (confidential). Then, the paper presents: the international actions (export of Russian technology, cooperation agreements, non-proliferation), the situation of the existing nuclear park (reactors in operation, stopped, under construction and in project), the fuel cycle activities (production of natural uranium, enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste management), the nuclear R and D in Russia, and the nuclear safety authority. (J.S.)

  7. A Roadmap and Discussion of Issues for Physics Analyses Required to Support Plutonium Disposition in VVER-1000 Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Pavlovichev, A.M. Styrine, Y.A.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the physics analyses that must be performed to successfully disposition weapons-usable plutonium in VVER-1000 reactors in the Russian Federation. The report is a document to support programmatic and financial planning. It does not include documentation of the technical procedures by which physics analyses are performed, nor are the results of any analyses included.

  8. Role of Universities in Forming a Competence of Innovative Activity as an Essential Factor of Successful Realization of a Strategy of Innovative Development of the Russian Federation Until 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Pestereva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available World economic crisis of 2008-2009 slowed down a development of Russian innovative system. Dedicated federal target programs have been worked out in order to restore after-crisis situation in the country and speed up a transfer to an innovative development. These programs envisage a range of activities aimed at forming competences of innovative activity, improvement of forms and scale of personnel training and re-training programs in engineering and scientific specializations, enhancing a range of educational programs in innovative entrepreneurship and technological management.The article describes mechanisms of attracting students, postgraduates and young researchers to solving tasks of Russia’s innovative development until 2020.

  9. Bromine-79 NQR for uncoordinated Br- ions in trans-[CoBr2(en)2][H5O2]Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasane, A.; Matsuda, T.; Honda, H.; Mori, Y.

    1992-02-01

    A single 79Br NQR line showing a frequency of 19.594 MHz at room temperature has been observed in the crystals of trans-[CoBr2(en)2] [ H5O2 ] Br2 and assigned to the Br - ions which are not coordinated to the central Co(III) atom. The electric field gradient (EFG) at the Br - nuclei arises from O-H • • • Br - hydrogen bond formation between the Br - ions and the terminal O - H hydrogen atoms in [ H5O2 ] + ions. The induced EFG is greater for the present bromine complex than that for the isostructural chlorine complex. A point charge model calculation explains well the relative magnitude of the EFG in the two crystals by introducing Sternheimer's antishielding factors for the halogen ions.

  10. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  11. Third party liability of nuclear installation decommissioning with Russian nuclear submarines as an example: insurance versus technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.D. [PREKSAT Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Derevyankin, A.A. [Reseaarch and Development Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khamyanov, L.P. [All-Russian Research Institute on NPP Operation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, V.N. [Ministry for Nuclear Energy Of Russian, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kovalivich, O.M. [Research and Technological Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Supervisory, Nuclear Energy State Commitee of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smirnov, P.L. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS

  12. JPRS Report: Proliferation Issues. Russian Federation: Foreign Intelligence Service Report. A New Challenge After the Cold War: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    properties of fuel, neutron beam and also the skilled personnel and material resources experiments, the improvement of nuclear reactor needed for the...positive development. 600,000 tonnes. There are plants for the manufacture of reactor fuel. In the Area of Chemical and Biological Weapons Nuclear activity...spokesman delivered the following statement in early 1993: "The 3. The 5 megawatt research nuclear reactor in Yongbyon. DPRK has never had any chemical

  13. Tarihsel Perspektif Işığında Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ve Rusya Federasyonu Arasındaki İlişkiler (Relations Between Republic of Turkey and Russian Federation In Consideration of Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DEMİR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In relations and state policies between Republic of Turkey and Russian Federation at present, we can see the traces of empires which were existent centuries before. Big wars occured between these empires, interests of these two empires conflicted with each other but both of them disappeared with the effect of nationalism movements, yet two new nation-states emerged from the ashes of these two empires: Republic of Turkey and Russian Federation. Long-term governments of Putin and Erdogan in Turkey and Russia provided these two states to make cooperation in the fields of politics, trade and energy, “win-win” strategy was followed but these two states had different policies in the areas of Cyprus, Chechnya, and Syrian Civil War. Especially the different oaths followed by two states in Syrian Civil War seems to be an important problem that can interrupt the good relations of these two countries. This study, while examining Russia and Turkey’s predecessors’ historical relations, at the same time reveals modern Russia and Turkey’s cooperation areas and foreign policy differences. In the light of these knowledges, predictions about relations between Turkey and Russia in the near future is left to readers’ discretion.

  14. Estimation of steady-state and transcient power distributions for the RELAP analyses of the 1963 loss-of-flow and loss-of-pressure tests at BR2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.; Tzanos, C. P. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-05-23

    To support the safety analyses required for the conversion of the Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, the simulation of a number of loss-of-flow tests, with or without loss of pressure, has been undertaken. These tests were performed at BR2 in 1963 and used instrumented fuel assemblies (FAs) with thermocouples (TC) imbedded in the cladding as well as probes to measure the FAs power on the basis of their coolant temperature rise. The availability of experimental data for these tests offers an opportunity to better establish the credibility of the RELAP5-3D model and methodology used in the conversion analysis. In order to support the HEU to LEU conversion safety analyses of the BR2 reactor, RELAP simulations of a number of loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure tests have been undertaken. Preliminary analyses showed that the conservative power distributions used historically in the BR2 RELAP model resulted in a significant overestimation of the peak cladding temperature during the transient. Therefore, it was concluded that better estimates of the steady-state and decay power distributions were needed to accurately predict the cladding temperatures measured during the tests and establish the credibility of the RELAP model and methodology. The new approach ('best estimate' methodology) uses the MCNP5, ORIGEN-2 and BERYL codes to obtain steady-state and decay power distributions for the BR2 core during the tests A/400/1, C/600/3 and F/400/1. This methodology can be easily extended to simulate any BR2 core configuration. Comparisons with measured peak cladding temperatures showed a much better agreement when power distributions obtained with the new methodology are used.

  15. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  16. Provision of educational service with the use of distance technologies for disabled persons (case study: the state of Alaska and Nothern regions of the Russian Federation)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Lipatov

    2016-01-01

    The distance education contributes to the solution of educational problems of disabled persons. The study of foreign experience is extremely important. North American universities saved up a wide experience in this sphere. Unlike self-made software products created by many Russian universities, Blackboard is the leading educational software package that professionally helps to solve educational problems of disabled persons. The international University of the Arctic has a growing interest in ...

  17. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  18. 75 FR 48933 - 2010 Russian Export Certification for Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX94 2010 Russian Export Certification for Fishery... requirements for exportation of fish and fishery products to the Russian Federation as set forth in the Memorandum of Understanding between Rosselkhoznadzor (the responsible Russian government agency) and...

  19. PROVIDING BUDGET CREDITS TO RUSSIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gelyakhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state budget of the Russian Federation can be called the primary means of accumulating financial resources in the country. Giving cash is seen as a measure to prevent the country's financial crisis. Public lending is its basic form. Nevertheless, in spite of the scientific and practical significance of the Russian Federation Public Credit, the issue has not been studied. These circumstances suggest that there are many unresolved issues in the field of public credit Russian Federation.Relevance of the topic of this article is revealed when considering the peculiarities of the legal regulation of public credit of the Russian Federation. In this article the author attempts to develop a series of recommendations to improve legislation at both the federal and regional levels. The growth of the budget deficit in the Russian Federation determines the need to find all the possible sources of financing, the most important of which acts as a budget loan, which refers to "funds provided by the budget to another budget of the budget system, the legal entity (except for state (municipal institutions, a foreign state, foreign legal entity on a returnable and paid basis "(art. 6 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation [1]. 

  20. High temporal resolution Br2, BrCl and BrO observations in coastal Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There are few observations of speciated inorganic bromine in polar regions against which to test current theory. Here we report the first high temporal resolution measurements of Br2, BrCl and BrO in coastal Antarctica, made at Halley during spring 2007 using a Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS. We find indications for an artefact in daytime BrCl measurements arising from conversion of HOBr, similar to that already identified for observations of Br2 made using a similar CIMS method. Using the MISTRA model, we estimate that the artefact represents a conversion of HOBr to Br2 of the order of several tens of percent, while that for HOBr to BrCl is less but non-negligible. If the artefact is indeed due to HOBr conversion, then nighttime observations were unaffected. It also appears that all daytime BrO observations were artefact-free. Mixing ratios of BrO, Br2 and BrCl ranged from instrumental detection limits to 13 pptv (daytime, 45 pptv (nighttime, and 6 pptv (nighttime, respectively. We see considerable variability in the Br2 and BrCl observations over the measurement period which is strongly linked to the prevailing meteorology, and thus air mass origin. Higher mixing ratios of these species were generally observed when air had passed over the sea-ice zone prior to arrival at Halley, than from over the continent. Variation in the diurnal structure of BrO is linked to previous model work where differences in the photolysis spectra of Br2 and O3 is suggested to lead to a BrO maximum at sunrise and sunset, rather than a noon-time maxima. This suite of Antarctic data provides the first analogue to similar measurements made in the Arctic, and of note is that our maximum measured BrCl (nighttime is less than half of the maximum measured during a similar period (spring-time in the Arctic (also nighttime. This difference in maximum measured BrCl may also be the cause of a difference in the Br2 : BrCl ratio between the Arctic and Antarctic. An

  1. Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to establish a systematic approach for future proliferation and environmental analyses of Russia's marine nuclear reactor systems, this paper summarizes and analyzes the available open-source information on the design properties of reactor systems and nuclear fuels. The most distinctive features of Russian marine reactor development are pointed out, and similarities and differences between Russian military and civilian reactor systems and fuel are discussed. Relevant updated information on all Russian vessels using nuclear propulsion is presented in Annex I. The basic analytic division in this paper follows vessel generations first to third generation; and reactor types PWR and LMC technology. Most of the available information is related to nuclear icebreakers. This information is systematically analyzed in order to identify stages in the development of Russia's civilian naval nuclear reactors. Three different reactor models are discussed: OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40, together with several versions of these. Concerning military reactors, it is not possible to identify characteristics for the individual reactor models, so the basic division follows vessel generations first to third generation. From the information available, however, it is possible to identify the main lines along which the design of submarines of especially the first and the second generation has been made. The conclusions contain a discussion of possible implications of the results, in addition to suggestions for further work. (au)

  2. [Problems of delivery of health care for children of servicemen and educates of general educational institutions of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalov, N P; Arsent'ev, V G; Tsiteladze, A A; Mikheev, A V

    2012-08-01

    On the basis of the legal, instructional-methodological data and evaluation of the organization of medical care for children and adolescents identified the main challenges of pediatric services for the optimization of the Russian Defense Ministry interagency medical personnel accompany the children and adolescents, pre-university students in military educational institutions, at the stage of military reform and optimize the structure of the military medical service. To provide medical assistance to children of servicemen and DVOU pupils in accordance with the standards of health required the integration of interagency efforts of the military-medical institutions and medical institutions of state and municipal health systems.

  3. Offense-defense theory analysis of Russian cyber capability

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev, Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Russian Federation is a key state actor in cyberspace; cyber events associated with Russian state and non-state actors have threatened Russia’s neighbors, shaped international cyber norms, as well as influenced strategists’ understanding of cyber power. This thesis seeks to understand Russian cyber capability through the lens of Robert Jervis’s offense-defense theory in order to answer the thesis’s central question: Do Russian cybe...

  4. Geologists of Russian origin in the francophone countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchoumatchenco, P.; Durand-Delga, M.; Ricour, J.; Wiazemsky, M.

    2016-10-01

    Many ethnic Russian geologists have lived and worked in Francophone countries. We describe in this paper the life and career of geologists (i.e. all Earth scientists - geologists, mineralogists, tectonicians, geophysicists, geochemists, paleontologists, mining and drilling engineers, hydrogeologists, cosmos - geologists, etc.), regardless of their original nationality (Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Germans, etc.) born in the territory of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union or the Russian Federation. (Author)

  5. 77 FR 2512 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; U.S. Fishermen Fishing in Russian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    .... Fishermen Fishing in Russian Waters AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION... Economic Zone of the Russian Federation. Russian authorities may permit U.S. fishermen to fish for allocations of surplus stocks in the Russian Economic Zone. Permit application information is sent to...

  6. Russian Federation’s Relations with Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin CANAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relations of the Russian Federation, that is one of the main players of the second “Great Game”, with Azerbaijan. Nagorno Karabakh issue, legal status of the Caspian and struggle for the pipelines influence both internal and foreign policies of Azerbaijan as well as the relations between Moscow and Baku. Therefore, Russian Federation’s relations with Azerbaijan will be examined within the context of these problems. It is mentioned that there are two rival groups in the region (Russian Federation-Armenia-Iran on the one side and USA-Turkey-Azerbaijan-Georgia on the other. This group will be discussed in this article by examing the relations between Russian Federation and Azerbaijan. This article argues that there are no such rival groups in the region.

  7. 16 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other international organisations at Geneva Ambassador A.Borodavkin signing the the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; visiting ATLAS underground experimental area with Collaboration Members O. Fedin, S. Malyukov and A. Romaniouk; throughout accompanied by Adviser T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    16 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other international organisations at Geneva Ambassador A.Borodavkin signing the the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; visiting ATLAS underground experimental area with Collaboration Members O. Fedin, S. Malyukov and A. Romaniouk; throughout accompanied by Adviser T. Kurtyka.

  8. 18 June 2012 - DST Global Founder Y. Milner signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the AD facility in building 193 with AEGIS Collaboration Spokesperson M. Doser and Adviser for the Russian Federation T. Kurtyka. Managing Director I. Osborne also present with Mrs J. Milner and DST Global A. Lebedkina.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    18 June 2012 - DST Global Founder Y. Milner signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the AD facility in building 193 with AEGIS Collaboration Spokesperson M. Doser and Adviser for the Russian Federation T. Kurtyka. Managing Director I. Osborne also present with Mrs J. Milner and DST Global A. Lebedkina.

  9. Fostering the Sustainable Development of the Economy of the Russian Federation via the Creation of Small Innovation Enterprises at Institutions of Higher Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail N. Dudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s relevance resides in the fact that, under present-day conditions, when the national economy is going through a stage of turbulence, there is a need to seek out new solutions that could help ensure the sustainability of national social-economic development in keeping with global trends. The paper explores the issue of ensuring Russia’s sustainable economic development via boosts in the innovation activity of entrepreneurship, which it is sought to achieve via a number of ways, including the creation of small enterprises at institutions of higher learning. The authors examine the experience of Russian and foreign educational institutions as to the creation of small innovation enterprises, look into the major forms of partnership between business and college, and describe a possible mechanism for implementing innovation projects at institutions of higher learning.

  10. Russian Military Politics and Russia’s 2010 Defense Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    63 Jacob W. Kipp 3. Russian Defense Doctrine .............................. 153 Alexander G. Savelyev About...came from abroad, internal threats were not recog- nized at first. However, since 1993 experiences such as Boris Yeltsin’s clash with the Duma ...consisting of delegates of federal state organs, the Duma , the Federation Council, the regional presi- dential representatives, the Russian Academy of

  11. Provisional Measures in the Case Concerning Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Thienel

    2009-02-01

    , to facilitate humanitarian assistance, and to generally refrain from any action which might prejudice the rights under adjudication in the case. The Order of the Court was made by a vote of eight to seven, and gave rise to a Joint Dissenting Opinion by seven judges. Those judges expressed not only their dissent from the making of the Order, but also their disagreement with the majority’s finding of even prima facie jurisdiction.[3]

    The case has already raised a few interesting issues relating to the Court’s jurisdiction to indicate provisional measures, and to the interpretation of CERD. These issues were all hotly contested not only between the parties, but also between the judges of the ICJ. This note will give a brief overview of the decision of the Court, and will comment on some outstanding features of the different opinions expressed.


    [1]        Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation, Order of 15 October 2008 (Georgia v. Russia, available at http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/140/14801.pdf (last visited 10

  12. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peh Bee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2. Methods Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1 inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2 comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs. Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Results Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. Conclusion This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  13. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  14. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION IN THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR ZONATION PURPOSES, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ja. Bruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Cu/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are 10 more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15,1991 «On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant». The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: – The average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; – Soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Cu/km2. The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2014. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the

  15. Investigation on the mechanism and applications of the reaction Cl2+2HBr=2HCl+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of reaction Cl2+2HBr=2HCl+Br2 has been carefully investigated with density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311G** level. A series of three-centred and four-cen- tred transition states have been obtained. The activation energy (138.96 and 147.24 kJ/mol, re-spectively) of two bimolecular elementary reactions Cl2+HBr→HCl+BrCl and BrCl+HBr→HCl+Br2 is smaller than the dissociation energy of Cl2, HBr and BrCl, indicating that it is favorable for the title reaction occurring in the bimolecular form. The reaction has been applied to the chemical engi-neering process of recycling Br2 from HBr. Gaseous Cl2 directly reacts with HBr gas, which pro-duces gaseous mixtures containing Br2, and liquid Br2 and HCl are obtained by cooling the mixtures and further separated by absorption with CCl4. The recovery percentage of Br2 is more than 96%, and the Cl2 remaining in liquid Br2 is less than 3.0%. The paper provides a good example of solving the difficult problem in chemical engineering with basic theory.

  16. Investigation on the mechanism and applications of the reaction Cl2+2HBr=2HCl+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鹤鸣; 王遵尧; 肖继军; 陈兆旭

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of reaction CI2+2HBr=2HCI+Br2 has been carefully investigated with density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311G** level. A series of three-centred and four-centred transition states have been obtained. The activation energy (138.96 and 147.24 kJ/mol, respectively) of two bimolecular elementary reactions CI2+HBr→HCI+BrCI and BrCI+HBr→HCI+Br2 is smaller than the dissociation energy of CI2, HBr and BrCI, indicating that it is favorable for the title reaction occurring in the bimolecular form. The reaction has been applied to the chemical engineering process of recycling Br2 from HBr. Gaseous CI2 directly reacts with HBr gas, which produces gaseous mixtures containing Br2, and liquid Br2 and HCI are obtained by cooling the mixtures and further separated by absorption with CCI4. The recovery percentage of Br2 is more than 96%, and the CI2 remaining in liquid Br2 is less than 3.0%. The paper provides a good example of solving the difficult problem in chemical engineering with basic theory.

  17. IUCN guidelines using for assessment of plants from the Red Book of Russian Federation at regional level: a case study for the Republic of Mordovia (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khapugin Anatoliy A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 15 plant species included in the Russian Red Book, which occur in the Republic of Mordovia: Najas tenuissima, Koeleria sclerophylla, Stipa dasyphylla, S. pennata, S. pulcherrima, S. zalesskii, Fritillaria ruthenica, Iris aphylla, Cypripedium calceolus, Cephalanthera rubra, Epipogium aphyllum, Neottianthe cucullata, Orchis militaris, Neotinea ustulata, Thymus cimicinus. Of these, only C. calceolus is included in the Global Red List as Critically Endangered. Threat status for studied species in Mordovia was assessed, and their distribution dynamics in this region throughout 12 years was described. Recent floristic studies, inspections of herbariums and literature were used for searches all provided data. Grid mapping and IUCN criteria were used. Nine taxa were determined as Critically Endangered, three as Endangered, one as Vulnerable, one as Near Threatened and one as Data Deficient. The areas of occupancy and extent of occurrence in Mordovia were assessed for each taxon. All studied species should be included in the next edition of the Mordovian Red Book. F. ruthenica, E. aphyllum, N. ustulata, T. cimicinus require additional studies to confirm earlier observations.

  18. Synthesis and crystal structure determination of Br2SeIBr polyhalogen–chalcogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Alemi; E Solaimani

    2004-06-01

    In this paper polyhalogen–chalcogen Br2SeIBr was synthesized and the crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. This compound was prepared in the temperature range 150–50°C which was brownish-red in colour and crystallized in monoclinic crystal system and space group 21/c with four molecules per unit cell. Lattice parameters were: = 6.3711(1), = 6.7522(2), = 16.8850(5) Å, = = 90°, = 95·96°, = 722·45 Å3.

  19. Phase diagram of the CsBr-CaBr2 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xinhua; CHEN Nianyi; LU Wencong; CHENG Zhixuan; LUO Yunyun; LU Weiying; XIA Yiben

    2006-01-01

    The phase diagram of the CsBr-CaBr2 system was re-determined by using differential thermal analysis and high temperature and room temperature X-ray diffraction analysis. It is concluded that there are three intermediate compounds in this system: a congruently melting compound, CsCaBr3, with a melting point of 823℃ and two incongruently melting compounds, Cs2CaBr4 and Cs3Ca2Br7, whose peritectic points being 597℃ and 635℃, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that compound CsCaBr3 is of slightly distorted perovskite structure.

  20. Structural and Physical Properties of τ--(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF) 2(AuBr2)1+Y and τ-(P-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavassiliou, G. C.; Mousdis, G. A.; Anyfantis, G. C.; Murata, K.; Li, L.; Yoshino, H.; Tajima, H.; Konoike, T.; Brooks, J. S.; Graf, D.; Choi, E. S.

    2004-12-01

    Some new findings concerning the structural, optical, transport and magnetotransport properties of τ -(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y and τ -(P-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y (y ≈ 0.75) are reported. Some similarities and dissimilarities in the properties are discussed. The dissimilarities are more pronounced at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. The results are compared to those obtained of other conducting multilayered systems.

  1. Ionothermal synthesis and structural characterization of [Cu(C4H6N2)4]Br2 and [Ni(C4H6N2)4]Br2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hong Wang; Bin Lu; Jingxiang Zhao; Qinghai Cai

    2015-07-01

    The ionothermal synthesis and spectroscopic, thermal and structural characterization of two new compounds [Cu(C4H6N2)4]Br2 (1) and [Ni(C4H6N2)4]Br2 (2) [(C4H6N2) = N-methylimidazole] are reported. In both 1 and 2, the central metal Cu (or Ni) ion adopts a square planar geometry and is bonded to the N-atoms of four terminal N-methylimidazole ligands.

  2. Thermal properties for the thermal-hydraulics analyses of the BR2 maximum nominal heat flux.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.; Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G. L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-05-23

    This memo describes the assumptions and references used in determining the thermal properties for the various materials used in the BR2 HEU (93% enriched in {sup 235}U) to LEU (19.75% enriched in {sup 235}U) conversion feasibility analysis. More specifically, this memo focuses on the materials contained within the pressure vessel (PV), i.e., the materials that are most relevant to the study of impact of the change of fuel from HEU to LEU. This section is regrouping all of the thermal property tables. Section 2 provides a summary of the thermal properties in form of tables while the following sections present the justification of these values. Section 3 presents a brief background on the approach used to evaluate the thermal properties of the dispersion fuel meat and specific heat capacity. Sections 4 to 7 discuss the material properties for the following materials: (i) aluminum, (ii) dispersion fuel meat (UAlx-Al and U-7Mo-Al), (iii) beryllium, and (iv) stainless steel. Section 8 discusses the impact of irradiation on material properties. Section 9 summarizes the material properties for typical operating temperatures. Appendix A elaborates on how to calculate dispersed phase's volume fraction. Appendix B shows the evolution of the BR2 maximum heat flux with burnup.

  3. Russian-German research and academic cooperation in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyev Vasily

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the stages of development of international research cooperation in the framework of research and education projects focusing on the study of marine and polar territories of the Russian Federation and the Federative Republic of Germany. The largest and most stable projects are the establishment of the Russian-German laboratory of polar and marine research named after the Russian polar explorer of German origin, Otto Schmidt, — OSL — on the premises of AARI, the Russian-German education project — the Applied polar and marine studies master's programme (POMOR — implemented by the Russian and German partners at Saint Petersburg State University, and the Laptev Sea system research programme bringing together around 20 Russian and German organisations.

  4. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  5. THEORETICAL-METHODOLOGICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF CIVIL POSITION OF CADETS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF RUSSIAN FEDERAL PENITENTIARY SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. KUZHEKOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moral and legal education of cadets of educational institutions of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia as the main tool for shaping their sustainable citizenship. The author touches upon the historical aspects of the problem, it is concluded that the traditional means of education suppressed personality, being based on the authoritarian nature of the pedagogical relationship. It is stated  that the timely realization of studying the essence of the unity of the content of morality and law, what is happening on the emotional and rational levels, contributes to the disparate mix of individual knowledge and understanding of the complex moral and legal convictions. The author notes that the effectiveness of the process of formation of civil position effectively revealed through strategic (compliance with the rules of interaction of teachers, students, parents on the humanization of life educational organization, ensuring their joint moral and legal activities, the practical organization of students of life and especially tactical objectives (performance cadets duties at the university and outside it, the protection of their rights and freedoms, the practical organization of joint activities in the dyad "teacher-student", their interaction analysis in the organization of events on legal education, compliance with the established rules and standards in the development of university traditions, ways to overcome the stereotype of no confidence moral and legal education of cadets. The author concludes that the presented theoretical and methodological structure of the study will provide the necessary empirical basis of research and will be a guarantee of its effectiveness and usefulness. 

  6. Russian delegation visits NIH and NCI to discuss research collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Center for Global Health hosted a delegation from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research to discuss ongoing and future collaborations in cancer research. The delegation was accompanied by representatives from the US Embassy in Moscow and the Embassy of the Russian Federation in Washington DC.

  7. Biopharmaceuticals. Official position of Russian Association of Endocrinologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Russian Association of Endocrinologists

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Some of the glucose-lowering drugs are biopharmaceuticals. This letter states the official position of the Russian Association of Endocrinologists about the treatment with biopharmaceuticals of patients with endocrine disorders. This topic has not yet beenadequately reflected in the legal regulation of the drug market in the Russian Federation 

  8. PHASE ANALYSIS OF THE CYCLICAL NATURE OF THE SHARE OF NATURAL GAS IN THE STRUCTURE OF EXPORTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION Фазовый анализ цикличности доли природного газа в структуре экспорта Российской Федерации

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyasov R. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Russia's economy has a pronounced raw-material orientation. A significant share in the export of the Russian Federation occupies natural gas. Analysis of the dynamics of the share of natural gas in Russia's exports show a tendency of to its insignificant reduction. Phase analysis on the basis of spline-approximation detects the cyclic dynamics of the share of natural gas in the structure of export of the Russian Federation

  9. Microstructure and Thermal Properties Analysis of (1-x)As2S3-xCdBr2 Glass System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Hai-zheng; ZHAO Xiu-jian; JING Cheng-bin; WANG Xiao-hu

    2004-01-01

    The homogeneous glass sample for the (1-x)As2S3-xCdBr2,where x=0.015,0.035,0.05, was prepared by the conventional melt-quenched method.Amorphous (1-x)As2S3-xCdBr2 alloys were determined by X-ray diffraction, thermal comprehensive analysis and Raman scattering. The glass transition temperature (Tg) decreases a bit with the addition of CdBr2. Based on the experimental data, the microstructure is considered to be the discrete molecule species of AsBr3 and Cd-S atomic bonds or clusters are homogeneously dispersed in a disordered polymer network formed by AsS3 pyramids interlinked by sulfur bridges.

  10. Magnetic dilution in the cadmium-doped spin ladder compound Cdx Cu1 - x (quinoxaline) Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Brian; Landee, Chris; Turnbull, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Both Cu (quinoxaline) (Br2) and Cu (quinoxaline) (Cl2) are examples of molecule-based magnets where the CuX4 dimers are linked into ladders by quinoxaline molecules, where X is either Cl or Br. The rung exchange occurs through the bridging halides while the rail exchange occurs through the quinoxaline rings. Introducing random rung interactions into the system [ Cu (quinoxaline) (Br2)1-x (Cl2)x ] has caused the spin gap to close, in contrast with the gapped pure spin ladder parents. Crystal growth of non-magnetic-doped molecular magnets, CdxCu1 - x (2 , 3 - dimethylpyrazine)Br2 , have been performed for several values of the nominal conentration, x, and have been confirmed. The magnetizations and susceptibilities of the magnetically diluted ladder assemblage are presented along with a comparison of the effects of dilution from the pure case (x=0).

  11. The role of MgBr2 to enhance the ionic conductivity of PVA/PEDOT:PSS polymer composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam M. Sheha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A solid polymer electrolyte system based on poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA and poly(3,4-Etylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS complexed with magnesium bromide (MgBr2 salt was prepared using solution cast technique. The ionic conductivity is observed to increase with increasing MgBr2 concentration. The maximum conductivity was found to be 9.89 × 10−6 S/cm for optimum polymer composite film (30 wt.% MgBr2 at room temperature. The increase in the conductivity is attributed to the increase in the number of ions as the salt concentration is increased. This has been proven by dielectric studies. The increase in conductivity is also attributable to the increase in the fraction of amorphous region in the electrolyte films as confirmed by their structural, thermal, electrical and optical properties.

  12. CEVADA BR 2: CULTIVAR DE CEVADA CERVEJEIRA RESISTENTE À MANCHA-RETICULAR CAUSADA POR PYRENOPHORA TERES BARLEY CULTIVAR BR 2: MALTING QUALITY AND RESISTANCE TO NET BLOTCH CAUSED BY PYRENOPHORA TERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUCLYDES MINELLA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A Cevada BR 2, criada pela Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT, foi lançada para cultivo em 1989. Originou-se de sete plantas selecionadas em F3 do cruzamento FM 424/TR 206, realizado em 1979, em Passo Fundo, RS. A BR 2 é uma cevada de primavera, do tipo de duas fileiras de grãos, com ciclo precoce, ampla adaptação e porte baixo. É a primeira cultivar brasileira resistente a Pyrenophora teres, agente causal da mancha-reticular, principal moléstia da cevada no Brasil. Em oito anos de avaliação no Ensaio Nacional de Cevada, conduzido em 12 locais da Região Sul, a BR 2 rendeu entre 1.621 e 4.014 kg/ha de grãos de primeira qualidade, superando a cultivar Antarctica 05 em 3% no RS e SC, em 13% no PR, e em 6% na média dos 96 experimentos (12 locais x 8 anos. Na lavoura, a BR 2 tem produzido rendimentos acima de 5.000 kg/ha. Aprovada como cervejeira em 1992, ocupou 30% da área semeada em 1993 e 90% em 1997. A BR 2 representa um marco no progresso do melhoramento genético da cevada no país, contribuindo decisivamente para o aumento da competitividade da produção doméstica.Barley cultivar BR 2 developed by the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT was released in 1989. BR 2 traces back to seven plants selected in the F3 from the cross FM 424/TR 206 made in Passo Fundo, RS, in 1979. BR 2 is a two row spring barley with wide adaptation, earliness and short straw. It is the first Brazilian cultivar resistant to Pyrenophora teres, causal agent of net blotch, a major barley disease in Brazil. In eight years of yield testing in the National Barley Trial in twelve locations of Southern Brazil, BR 2 yielded between 1,621and 4,014 kg/ha of plump kernels, with 3%, 13% and 6% yield increase over the check cultivar Antarctica 05 in the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Paraná and in the mean of 96 trials, respectively. On the farm fields, BR 2 has yielded over 5,000 kg/ha. Since its approval as a malting

  13. Br2, BrCl, BrO and surface ozone in coastal Antarctica: a meteorological and chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is much debate over the source of bromine radicals in the atmosphere that drives polar boundary layer ozone depletion events (ODEs, but there is strong evidence to suggest a source associated with the sea ice zone. Here we report the first high temporal resolution measurements of Br2, BrCl and BrO in coastal Antarctica, made using a Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS. Mixing ratios ranged from instrumental detection limits to 13 pptv for BrO, 45 pptv for Br2, and 6 pptv for BrCl. We find evidence for blowing snow as a source of reactive bromine both directly during a storm and subsequently from recycling of bromide deposited on the continental snowpack. An unusual event of trans-continental air mass transport might have been responsible for severe surface ozone depletion observed at Halley. The halogen source region was the Bellingshausen Sea, to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula, the air mass having spent 3 1/2 days in complete darkness prior to arrival at Halley. We, further, identify an artefact in daytime BrCl measurements arising from conversion of HOBr, similar to that already identified for CIMS observations of Br2. Model calculations using the MISTRA 0-D model suggest a 50–60% conversion of HOBr to Br2, and 5–10% conversion to BrCl. Careful data filtering enabled us to use the halogen observations, in conjunction with the MISTRA model, to explore the temperature dependence of the Br2:BrCl ratio. We find evidence of a ratio shift towards Br2 at temperatures below ~−21 °C, suggesting a relationship with hydrohalite (NaCl.2H2O precipitation. This suite of Antarctic data provides the first analogue to similar measurements made in the Arctic.

  14. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties During a Rare Case of Long-range Transport of Mixed Biomass Burning-polluted Dust Aerosols from the Russian Federation-kazakhstan to Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papayannis Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar measurements with elastic depolarization at 532 nm were combined with sun photometry during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece, on May-June 2014. We retrieved the aerosol optical [3 aerosol backscatter profiles (baer at 355-532-1064 nm, 2 aerosol extinction (aaer profiles at 355-532 nm and the aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ at 532 nm] and microphysical properties [effective radius (reff, complex refractive index (m, single scattering albedo (ω]. We present a case study of a long distance transport (~3.500-4.000 km of biomass burning particles mixed with dust from the Russian Federation-Kazakhstan regions arriving over Athens on 21-23 May 2014 (1.7-3.5 km height. On 23 May, between 2-2.75 km we measured mean lidar ratios (LR of 35 sr (355 nm and 42 sr (532 nm, while the mean Ångström exponent (AE aerosol backscatter-related values (355nm/532nm and 532nm/1064nm were 2.05 and 1.22, respectively; the mean value of δ at 532 nm was measured to be 9%. For that day the retrieved mean aerosol microphysical properties at 2-2.75 km height were: reff=0.26 μm (fine mode, reff=2.15 μm (coarse mode, m=1.36+0.00024i, ω=0.999 (355 nm, fine mode, ω=0.992(355 nm, coarse mode, ω=0.997 (532 nm, fine mode, and ω=0.980 (532 nm, coarse mode.

  15. Coal Mine Methane in Russia [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  16. Studies on the acid-base properties of the ZnBr2NaBr molten salt system

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The acid-base properties of the ZnBr2-NaBr melts at 623 K were investigated on the basis of the electromotive forcemeasurements of a zinc-zinc concentration cell. The following two chemical equilibria were postulated to describe theacid-base character of the melts.

  17. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ashley S; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco control policies that lead to a significant reduction in tobacco industry marketing can improve public health by reducing consumption of tobacco and preventing initiation of tobacco use. Laws that ban or restrict advertising and promotion in point-of-sale (POS) environments, in the moment when consumers decide whether or not to purchase a tobacco product, must be correctly implemented to achieve the desired public health benefits. POS policy compliance assessments can support implementation; however, there are challenges to conducting evaluations that are rigorous, cost-effective, and timely. Data collection must be discreet, accurate, and systematic, and ideally collected both before and after policies take effect. The use of mobile phones and other mobile technology provide opportunities to efficiently collect data and support effective tobacco control policies. The Russian Federation (Russia) passed a comprehensive national tobacco control law that included a ban on most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, effective November 15, 2013. The legislation further prohibited the display of tobacco products at retail trade sites and eliminated kiosks as a legal trade site, effective June 1, 2014. Objective The objective of the study was to develop and test a mobile data collection protocol including: (1) retailer sampling, (2) adaptation of survey instruments for mobile phones, and (3) data management protocols. Methods Two waves of observations were conducted; wave 1 took place during April-May 2014, after the advertising and promotion bans were effective, and again in August-September 2014, after the product display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Sampling took place in 5 Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan. Lack of access to a comprehensive list of licensed tobacco retailers necessitated a sampling approach that included the development of a walking protocol to

  18. CMS Honours Three Russian and Bielorussian companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 7 March, CMS handed out the three latest Gold Awards under its scheme for honouring its best suppliers suppliers (c.f. Bulletin n°10/2003). Three Russian and Bielorussian firms were honoured, on the occasion of a visit by dignitaries from the two countries. CERN played host to Anatoly Sherbak, Head of the Fundamental Research Department of the Russian Federation Ministry of Industry and Science, Ambassador Sergei Aleinik, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Belarus to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva, Andrei Pirogov, Assistant Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the Office of the United Nations, and Alexei Sissakian, Vice Director of the JINR (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) at Dubna in Russia. The directors of the three Russian and Bielorussian firms have received their awards and are seen with the visiting Russian and Bielorussian dignitaries and the CMS leaders in front of the CMS hadron calorimeter, on the spot where the detector is being assembled.These promi...

  19. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ott

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of ~5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2, with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere (LS obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr−1 for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr−1 for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes ~5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from the source gas degradation (BryVSLS in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to ~100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of BryVSLS occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa and BryVSLS in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection.

  20. [Bovine viral diarrhea control in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliukin, M I; Iurov, K P; Glotov, A G; Donchenko, N A

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the greatest challenges for breeding and commercial livestock. It is characterized by lesions of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, abortion, infertility, immune deficiency, and persistence of the pathogen. In this work, a set of measures for the rehabilitation and prevention of BVD in cattle is described. It includes the data of the literature, guidance documents for the diagnosis and control of BVD adopted by OIE, EU countries, USA, as well as the results of this research.

  1. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Labour of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2004. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  2. Sources of Error in Remote Sensing-Based Bottom-Up Emission Estimates of Carbon and Air Quality Emissions from Crop Residue Burning in the Contiguous United States and the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Romanenkov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Since its publication in 1980, the Seiler and Crutzen bottom-up method of estimating biomass burning emissions has become an accepted and standard approach cited in nearly 500 peer-reviewed scientific publications. As the science of biomass burning emissions advances, the need to quantify error in variable inputs has also grown. This research focuses on bottom-up emission estimates of black carbon (BC), CO2, CO, CH4, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 from crop residue burning in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) and the Russian Federation. Crop residue burning emissions for the CONUS were estimated for a five-year period, 2003 through 2007, using multispectral remote sensing-derived products, specifically multi-year crop type maps, an 8-day difference Normalized Burn Ratio product, and calibrated area estimates of cropland burning from 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. An emission factor database was assembled from eleven published sources while fuel loads and combustion completeness were derived from expert knowledge and governmental reports. With the aim of transferring technique and knowledge to in-country collaborators, crop residue burning emissions in Russia were calculated from burned area estimates derived from the 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. A second analysis of burned area estimates from both a regionally tuned 8-day difference Normalized Burn Ratio product and the standard MODIS Burned Area product focused on the European region of Russia. For these analyses, BC emission factors were estimated by multiplying published BC to PM2.5 ratios to PM2.5 emission factors for similar crops in the CONUS. Errors and uncertainties were quantified for emission factors, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and accuracies of remote sensing products for both burned area and land cover type for the analyses in the CONUS and Russia. The uncertainty for the non-remote sensing variables was difficult to quantify given the lack of observations available. The results from this uncertainty

  3. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  4. Crimea and the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Bebler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent Russian-Ukrainian dispute over Crimea attracted wide international attention. The purpose of this paper is to explain its historic, demographic, legal, political and military strategic background, its similarities with and differences from other “frozen” conflicts on the periphery of the former Soviet Union, the roles of three main parties directly involved in the Crimean conflict, its linkage with secessionist attempts in Eastern and Southern Ukraine, wider international ramifications of the conflict and the ensuing deterioration of the West’s relations with the Russian Federation.

  5. CYBERTERRORISM PROBLEM IN TERMS OF RUSSIAN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa P. ZVERIANSKAIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cyber-terrorism in the international community is considered a priority, the annual losses from cyber terrorism and cybercrime have recites over 400 billion dollars. State and private companies spend millions of dollars on cyber defense against terrorists, and simple cyber group hackers. As for our country, the Russian Federation was faced with manifestations of cyber-terrorism are relatively not long ago, but now we can see examples of cyber-terrorism against our country. In science and practice is still going debate about the public danger of cyber terrorism and its consequences. One reason for this, is that in the current legislation of the Russian Federation there is no legal definition of the concept of terrorism and cyberterrorism can not completely cover the entire spectrum of cyber-terrorism. The author of the article a study of cyber-terrorism from the perspective of Russian society. Examples of recent cyber act of terrorism committed in the territory of the Russian Federation and against it. Analyzed the effects of committed cyber act of terrorism and social danger of cyberterrorism. As a result of research suggested the adoption of amendments to the existing legislation that affects the scope of the information space, computer crimes and cyberterrorism. 

  6. The protection of amphibians and reptiles in the Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Maslova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Russian Far East in the reserves and national parks of federal importance are presented, as well as the information on the representation of these groups of animals in regional Red Data Books and the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation is provided.

  7. Gas-Cooled Thorium Reactor with Fuel Block of the Unified Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shamanin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researches of new technological platform realization carried out in Russia are based on ideas of nuclear fuel breeding in closed fuel cycle and physical principles of fast neutron reactors. Innovative projects of low-power reactor systems correspond to the new technological platform. High-temperature gas-cooled thorium reactors with good transportability properties, small installation time, and operation without overloading for a long time are considered perspective. Such small modular reactor systems at good commercial, competitive level are capable of creating the basis of the regional power industry of the Russian Federation. The analysis of information about application of thorium as fuel in reactor systems and its perspective use is presented in the work. The results of the first stage of neutron-physical researches of a 3D model of the high-temperature gas-cooled thorium reactor based on the fuel block of the unified design are given. The calculation 3D model for the program code of MCU-5 series was developed. According to the comparison results of neutron-physical characteristics, several optimum reactor core compositions were chosen. The results of calculations of the reactivity margins, neutron flux distribution, and power density in the reactor core for the chosen core compositions are presented in the work.

  8. Russian Language Course

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The Russian Cultural Circle is organising a new course of "Russian for Beginners", and is continuing a course for Advanced Students (3rd year). Interested persons are invited to contact: Mrs M. Mikhailova e-mail : mailto:mmmacha@hotmail.com Tel. 022 788 27 53

  9. 3+ and [Sb13Se16Br2] 5+ - Double and quadruple spiro cubanes from ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2014-01-08

    The reaction of antimony and selenium in the bromine-rich Lewis acidic ionic liquid [BMIm]Br·4.7AlBr3 (BMIm: 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium) in the presence of a small amount of NbCl5 at 160 °C yielded dark-red crystals of [Sb7Se8Br 2][AlX4]3. For X = Cl0.15(1)Br 0.85(1), the compound is isostructural to [Sb7S 8Br2][AlCl4]3 [P212 121, a = 12.5132(5) Å, b = 17.7394(6) Å, c = 18.3013(6) Å]. For a higher chlorine content, X = Cl 0.58(1)Br0.42(1), a slightly disordered variant with a bisected unit cell is found [P21212, a = 12.3757(3) Å, b = 17.4116(5) Å, c = 9.0420(2) Å]. The [Sb 7Se8Br2]3+ heteropolycation (C 2 symmetry) is a spiro double-cubane with an antimony atom on the shared corner. From this distorted octahedrally coordinated central atom, tricoordinate selenium and antimony atoms alternate in the bonding sequence. The terminal antimony atoms each bind to a bromine atom. Quantum chemical calculations confirm polar covalent Sb-Se bonding within the cubes and indicate three-center, four-electron bonds for the six-coordinate spiro atoms. The calculated charge distribution reflects the electron-donor role of the antimony atoms. The use of a chlorine-rich ionic liquid resulted in the formation of triclinic [Sb13Se16Br2][AlX4] 5 with X = Cl0.80(1)Br0.20(1) [P$\\\\bar {1}$, a = 9.0842(5) Å, b = 19.607(1) Å, c = 21.511(1) Å, α = 64.116(6), β = 79.768(7), γ = 88.499(7)]. The cationic cluster [Sb13Se16Br2]5+ is a bromine-terminated spiro quadruple-cubane. This 31 atom concatenation of four cubes is assumed to be the largest known discrete main group polycation. A similar reaction in a chloride-free system yielded [Sb7Se 8Br2][Sb13Se16Br2] [AlBr4]8. In its monoclinic structure [P2/c, a = 27.214(5) Å, b = 9.383(2) Å, c = 22.917(4) Å, β = 101.68(1)], the two types of polycations alternate in layers along the a axis. In the series [Sb4+3nSe4+4nBr2](2+n)+, these cations are the members with n = 1 and 3. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  10. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Fatemeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Materials and Methods: Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3), followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM). Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Results: Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml). Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. Conclusion: In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  11. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  12. High Humanistic Directivity of Russian Patriotic Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Yanush

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is in high need of professionals, meeting the requirements of international standards, highly skilled, well-informed, legally savvy specialists, patriots of their work, having civil maturity and high moral and ethic qualities. Modern Russian society wants the employers of all levels to have deep understanding of civil importance and social significance of their activities, strong moral and spiritual basis, high cultural behavior.Training of such specialists is closely related to patriotic upbringing, creation of value-motivational core of the society and resource base of Russia’s restoration through the reproduction of a man of culture, citizen, patriot, moral, responsible, composite and spiritual personality, having distinct guidelines, ideas and ideals of the Russian patriotism. According to the president of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin: ‘We need the strategy of national policy, based on civil patriotism. High patriotic idea, the idea of statehood is the backbone, the foundation of the spirituality of modern Russian society and its future.”Nowadays, when Russia ‘gathers stones’ of its history, patriotism as the phenomenon of national spirituality and the component of public consciousness is as crucial for Russian reality as it was many centuries ago. The power of any country is mainly determined by the depth of patriotism of its citizens.

  13. Finding the Missing Stratospheric Br(sub y): A Global Modeling Study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Stolarski, R. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; Douglass, A. R.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Blake, D. R.; Atlas, E. L.; Ott, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of 5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr(exp -1) for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr(exp -l) for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes 5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from source gas degradation (BrSLS) in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv) of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CHzBr2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to 100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of Br(sub y)(sup VSLS) occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa. Our sensitivity study with wet scavenging in convective updrafts switched off suggests that Br(sub y)(sup SLS) in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection. Convective scavenging only

  14. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Blake

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of ~5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2, with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr−1 for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr−1 for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes ~5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from source gas degradation (BryVSLS in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to ~100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of BryVSLS occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa. Our sensitivity study with wet scavenging in convective updrafts switched off suggests that BryVSLS in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection. Convective scavenging only accounts for

  15. Formation of cluster policy in Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolaevna Kotlyarova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems of legal regulation of cluster development in the Russian Federation at the regional level. Basic regulations governing the formation and development of clusters were put in a system. It is concluded that own regulatory regions, and regions using mainly general federal approach to the formation of cluster policy are poorly developed. The practice of clustering of the Russian Federation was generalized. Prerequisites for the formation of clusters in the regions and their subsequent development were identified. A comparison of approaches to the formation of cluster policy in the Russian Federation was made, particularities in the areas of the clusters were highlighted and the types of state support for their formation were determined. The basic reasons for the development of regional clusters are: construction of the type of dominant firms, mutual cooperation of cluster members, active support from government and regional authorities (public-private partnerships and personal involvement of management in the region and bottom-up approach.

  16. Current report from Russian Diabetic Retinopathy Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valentinovich Lipatov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic expansion of diabetes mellitus (DM observed nowadays across the globe is increasingly acknowledged as a disaster by all peoples of the world. Statistical analysis indicates an annual increase in prevalence of DM in Russian Federation that had reached 3 779 423 registered patients by 01.01.2013. Besides the humanitarian aspects, DM poses severe economic challenges for this country – challenges that stem both from high mortality and growing disability rate due to limb loss, decrease in visual acuity and need for hemodialysis, plaguing many DM patients.Aim. To produce an epidemiological evaluation based on the dynamics of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the Russian Federation – nationwide and in individual regions – across the last 13 years.Materials and Methods. Current survey included patients from various regions of the Russian Federation that were examined during epidemiological missions conducted by the federal Endocrinology Research Centre (2000–2009, as well as National Programmes «Health» (2007 and «Diabetes – Learn In Advance» (2012–2013.Results. In the Russian Federation registered more than 630,000 patients with different stages of diabetic retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults (18 years and older with type 1 diabetes is 35.25%, while in type 2 diabetes - 16.67%. On average, this means that almost one in five patients (17.63% with diabetes have certain eye problems.Conclusion. In summary, our data indicate a dramatic growth in the rate of diabetic ocular complications, with a particular increase in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, complicated cataract and neovascular glaucoma. These findings call for an even closer attention to early diagnostics, adequate management and, above everything else, timely prevention of ocular pathologies in patients with DM.

  17. 对《俄罗斯社会经济超前发展区联邦法》及相关法律的解读%Interpretations to Federal Acts of Russian Social and Economic Advancing Development Zone and Its Relevant relevant laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳会新

    2015-01-01

    2014年底,俄罗斯出台《俄罗斯社会经济超前发展区联邦法》,目的是建立良好的投资环境,实现社会经济加速发展,创造宜居条件.规定了建设基础设施的资金保障、管理及市政监管、海关监管等方法.为配合该法,俄政府对联邦税法等相关法律进行了修订.%In the end of 2014, Russia issued Federal Acts of Russian Social and Economic Advancing Development Zone, aiming to establish good investment environment, accelerate the social and economic development and create favorable living conditions. The methods such as capital guarantee and management for infrastructure construction as well as municipal administration supervision and customs supervision, etc. are regulated. To cooperate with this Act, the Russian government made some revisions to the Federation Tax Law and relevant laws.

  18. Proceedings of the 5. joint Russian-American computational mathematics conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    These proceedings contain a record of the talks presented and papers submitted by participants. The conference participants represented three institutions from the United States, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and two from Russia, Russian Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF/Arzamas-16), and Russian Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics (RFNC-VNIITF/Chelyabinsk-70). The presentations and papers cover a wide range of applications from radiation transport to materials. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  20. Problems and Characteristics of Russian Platinum Metals Exporters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDREEV A. M.; KELCHEVSKAYA N. R.

    2012-01-01

    The paper revealed the place and role of Russia in the global market of platinum metals,highlighted features of pricing in the export of Russian platinum group metals,the main problems of pricing in the export contracts related to the instability of markets and imperfect currency and customs legislation of the Russian Federation,proposed innovative ways to solutions to existing problems in the preparation and conclusion of export contracts.

  1. A comparison of the Lithuanian and Russian Biotechnology sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vincentas Giedraitis; Alina Alekseyko

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare the development of the Lithuanian and Russian biotechnology sectors. In case of Lithuania we tried to uncover what are the circumstances surrounding the favorable development of the biotechnology sectors in Lithuania. In case of Russian Federation we looked at encouraging as well as discouraging circumstances surrounding this segment of economy. Drawing upon Schumpeter’s ideas of innovation and Porter’s business cluster theory, we argue that Lithuania is “...

  2. The New Russian Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed, Birgitte Beck

    This book takes up the obtrusive problem of visual representation of fiction in contemporary Russian book design. By analyzing a broad variety of book covers, the study offers an absolutely unique material that illustrates a radically changing notion of literature in the transformation of Soviet ...... the fields of Russian studies, contemporary book and media history, art, design, and visual studies.......This book takes up the obtrusive problem of visual representation of fiction in contemporary Russian book design. By analyzing a broad variety of book covers, the study offers an absolutely unique material that illustrates a radically changing notion of literature in the transformation of Soviet...... print culture to a post-Soviet book market. It delivers a profound and critical exploration of Russian visual imaginary of classic, popular, and contemporary prose. Among all the carelessly bungled covers of mass-published post-Soviet series the study identifies gems from experimental designers...

  3. Russian River Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis and summary of progress toward achieving the interim management objectives for the Russian River during the 1979 season. Additionally,...

  4. Russian scientists make desperate plea to save nuclear institute

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Scientists from a Russian nuclear research institute recently held a news conference in Moscow to publicize their work on a revolutionary new type of nuclear reactor. However, it transpired that the scientists were worried about their institute being closed down, and saw the news conference as an opportunity to draw attention to their plight (1 page).

  5. Russian Language Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Russian Cultural Circle is organising a new Russian course for beginners and will continue its course for advanced students (3rd year), both from September onwards. Anyone interested in taking part is invited to contact Mrs M. Mikhailova (e-mail: mailto:mmmacha@hotmail.com or tel. 022 788 27 53) or Mrs C. Kukowka (e-mail: mailto:christinekukowka@orange.fror tel. ++ 33 4 50 42 43 22 after 8.00 p.m.).

  6. WOMEN AND RUSSIAN MODERNIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    KIREGIAN ELISE

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes Russian women and their ability to embrace Western educational and business practices following the fall of the Soviet Union. As recently as the 1980s, women managers in Russia were rare. Today, a total of 42 percent of senior management posts in Russia are held by women. Unlike women in Western nations who tend to frame their emerging role in ideological terms, Russian women enrolled in academic programs that gave them valuable skills for the market economy. The paper a...

  7. Russian Influence on Ukrainian Strategic Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Romania, which went unanswered. Yushchenko and Tymoshenko sent subsequent letters to De Hoop Scheffer, German Chancellor Angela Merkel , and French...Ukrainian leadership may be difficult to determine. An assumption made during this research was that it is possible to determine, with some degree of...Sent_Country=Russian+Federation (accessed 6 June 2011). 22 expect a NATO co- leadership to develop between the two powers.41 While most of NATO does

  8. 5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

  9. Theoretical Study on the Reaction Mechanism of F2+2HBr=2HF+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The gas phase reaction mechanism of F2 + 2HBr = 2HF + Br2 has been investigated by (U)MP2 at 6-311G** level, and a series of four-center and three-center transition states have been obtained. The reaction mechanism was achieved by comparing the activation energy of seven reaction paths, i.e. the dissociation energy of F2 is less than the activation energy of the bimolecular elementary reaction F2 + HBr → HF + BrF. Thus it is theoretically proved that the title reaction occurs more easily inthe free radical reaction with three medium steps.

  10. PROBLEMS OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN A MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. NIKIFOROVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses questions of teaching Russian language in multicultural educational environment. Due to acceptance of the "Law on Education in Russian Federation", introduction of the second edition of Federal State Education Standards, and approval of "Concepts of Teaching Russian language and literature in Russian Federation" as well as "Professional Standard of Educator", educational paradigm has changed. The goal of this research is to analyze current problems of teaching Russian language in new socio-cultural conditions. Problems such as teaching Russian language in multinational environment, multicultural education, teaching expat children, handicapped children etc. demand enhancing educational system and teachers. When solving a problem of language learning one needs to rely on scientific, sociolinguistic and contrastive- comparative research. It is very important to conduct lessons in bilingual environment, to improve basic educational programs, to create online degree programs, to improve Master's degree programs quality, to create qualified departments within educational institutions that would improve both research and hands-on practical learning. Learning Russian language should help students achieve academic success in other disciplines. System of secondary education has huge potential to improve lingual abilities. More attention needs to be paid to developing educational methods of teaching Russian language that satisfy the requirements of modern era. The article finds solutions to aforementioned problems based on the previous educational experience.

  11. Impact of membrane characteristics on the performance and cycling of the Br-2-H-2 redox flow cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, MC; Cho, KT; Spingler, FB; Weber, AZ; Lin, GY

    2015-06-15

    The Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. In this paper, the effect of various aspects of material selection and processing of proton exchange membranes on the operation of the Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell is determined. Membrane properties have a significant impact on the performance and efficiency of the system. In particular, there is a tradeoff between conductivity and crossover, where conductivity limits system efficiency at high current density and crossover limits efficiency at low current density. The impact of thickness, pretreatment procedure, swelling state during cell assembly, equivalent weight, membrane reinforcement, and addition of a microporous separator layer on this tradeoff is assessed. NR212 (50 mu m) pretreated by soaking in 70 degrees C water is found to be optimal for the studied operating conditions. For this case, an energy efficiency of greater than 75% is achieved for current density up to 400 mA cm(-2), with a maximum obtainable energy efficiency of 88%. A cell with this membrane was cycled continuously for 3164 h. Membrane transport properties, including conductivity and bromine and water crossover, were found to decrease moderately upon cycling but remained higher than those for the as-received membrane. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Fulcrum of U. S. Regional Rebalancing: Russian and U.S. Securitization Moves in Contemporary Strategic Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    and cooperation in the Arctic, protecting the Arctic ecology , and guaranteeing the use of the Northern Sea Route. 47 The Russian Federation has...Foundations of Russian Federation Policy in the Arctic until 2020 and Beyond,” The Journal of International Security Affairs 10, no. 18 (Spring 2010): 101...and the Levant, Northern Africa, the Balkans , and the Caucasus.”73 The inclusion of the Caucasus in this list directly conflicts with Russian

  13. Institutionalisation of Mediation for Dispute Resolution in the Field of Social Bankruptcy of Citizens in Russia or how to prevent losses of 300 billions rubles of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdyev Marat Aleksandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The important problem of modern Russia is poverty of about 22,1 billions citizens. because of illegal action or practice of lending money at unreasonably high rates of interest. About 4,2 billions citizens of Russian are social bankrupts. There are many obstacles for human right in court. Total budget for legal expenses may estimates over than 1,5-2 average annual income of household. Therefore author considers mediation as alternative procedure for dispute resolution between creditors and debtors. Some amendment of law desirable for institutionalization of mediation practice in this types conflicts such as mandatory mediation and so on.

  14. THE ABSENCE OF THE LEGISLATIVE DEFINITION OF SUCH TERMS AS “INFORMATION” AND “COMPUTER INFORMATION” AS THE EDUCTION OF STRATEGIES TO COMBAT CYBERCRIME IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrisova Z. N.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains legal theoretical definition of the concept of information and computer information, its juridical essence and fundamental characteristics in the context of formation of informational society. We have also made a short stage analysis of the formation of legal norms in Russian law in informational sphere. On the basis of the analysis the author gives his own definition of the term of computer information and concludes that problem requires immediate complex measures which should be directed to improvement of legislative norm

  15. Reactor Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kalani; Reacteurs RBMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, D. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-01-01

    The Reactor Bolshoi Molshchnosti Kalani (RBMK) are pressure tubes reactor, boiling light water cooled. Exported since 1990 from the ex-USSR, they are today in three independent countries: Russian, Ukraine and Lithuania. Since this date, data exchange with the occident allowed the better knowledge of this reactor type. The design, the technical description (core, fuel, primary system), the safety and the improvement since Chernobyl are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  16. [CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SCHEMES OF ANTIVIRAL THERAPY OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS C GENOTYPE 1 IN PATIENTS WHO DID NOT ANSWER TO THE PRIOR THERAPY, IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyadushkina, E V; Avxentyeva, M V; Omelyanovsky, V V; Khachatryan, G R

    2015-01-01

    We conducted clinical and economic analysis of the protease inhibitor simeprevir versus currently available in Russia protease inhibitors (boceprevir and telaprevir) in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and dual therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 without polymorphism Q80K, who had not responded to previous treatment. Global cost-effectiveness model was adapted to the Russian health care system. We calculated differences in direct medical costs between the antiviral therapy schemes, treatment of long-term complications of chronic hepatitis C and the costs of achieving sustained virological response (SVR) to treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio - additional cost per life year saved was calculated as well. Available published data and the tariffs of the Russian healthcare system were used for the calculations. Simeprevir was shown to be more effective than dual therapy with acceptable additional costs and more effective than boceprevir and telaprevir in the number of life years saved being less costly therapy option.

  17. Sets of Reports and Articles Regarding Cement Wastes Forms Containing Alpha Emitters that are Potentially Useful for Development of Russian Federation Waste Treatment Processes for Solidification of Weapons Plutonium MOX Fuel Fabrication Wastes for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    2003-06-12

    This is a set of nine reports and articles that were kindly provided by Dr. Christine A. Langton from the Savannah River Site (SRS) to L. J. Jardine LLNL in June 2003. The reports discuss cement waste forms and primarily focus on gas generation in cement waste forms from alpha particle decays. However other items such as various cement compositions, cement product performance test results and some cement process parameters are also included. This set of documents was put into this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) releasable report for the sole purpose to provide a set of documents to Russian technical experts now beginning to study cement waste treatment processes for wastes from an excess weapons plutonium MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intent is to provide these reports for use at a US RF Experts Technical Meeting on: the Management of Wastes from MOX Fuel Fabrication Facilities, in Moscow July 9-11, 2003. The Russian experts should find these reports to be very useful for their technical and economic feasibility studies and the supporting R&D activities required to develop acceptable waste treatment processes for use in Russia as part of the ongoing Joint US RF Plutonium Disposition Activities.

  18. Russian Automobiles Horning in

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Russian cars, usually priced under 80,000 yuan (US$9700), will soon be a new choice for Chinese customers. The SOK Group, Russia's third largest auto maker, said in mid-May that it would set up a joint venture auto factory with an annual production capacity of 100,000 cars in China next year. Zhong Xiaoyan, general manager of Shenzhen SOK Import and Export Trading Co Ltd, said Russian SOK planned to invest at least US$200 million in the new plant. SOK has sent delegates to dozens of Chinese cities and has chosen Shenzhen, Zhengzhou, Beijing,Shanghai and Ninbo as candidate locations for the joint venture.

  19. 75 FR 28673 - Bureau of Verification, Compliance, and Implementation; Termination of Measures Against a Russian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... determined on May 12, 2010 that sanctions imposed effective October 23, 2008 (73 FR 206) on the Russian... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Bureau of Verification, Compliance, and Implementation; Termination of Measures Against a Russian...

  20. Attribution of the Kazakh Traditional Dress in the Collections of the Russian Ethnographic Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunanbayeva, Sholpan B.; Ibrayeva, Akmaral G.; Abzhanov, Hangeldy M.; Sadykov, Tlegen S.; Seitkazina, Kuralay O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes the collections of the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (MAE RAS) and the Russian Ethnographic Museum (REM) (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation). Their study is of great importance both in the scientific-theoretical and practical aspects. In theory, their study is of particular interest, since at the turn…

  1. Band gap opening in silicene on MgBr2(0001) induced by Li and Na

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2014-11-12

    Silicene consists of a monolayer of Si atoms in a buckled honeycomb structure and is expected to be well compatible with the current Si-based technology. However, the band gap is strongly influenced by the substrate. In this context, the structural and electronic properties of silicene on MgBr2(0001) modified by Li and Na are investigated by first-principles calculations. Charge transfer from silicene (substrate) to substrate (silicene) is found for substitutional doping (intercalation). As compared to a band gap of 0.01 eV on the pristine substrate, strongly enhanced band gaps of 0.65 eV (substitutional doping) and 0.24 eV (intercalation) are achieved. The band gap increases with the dopant concentration.

  2. Russian Sentence Adverbials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Elena; Durst-Andersen, Per

    2015-01-01

    to represent semantic paraphrases of Russian SAs in utterances from various types of discourse in order to show their exact contribution to the meaning conveyed by the entire utterance. They are further subdivided according to their function: (1) into connectives and non-connectives; (2) into attitudinal...

  3. Teaching Russian Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakar, Nicholas

    1949-01-01

    Prior to World War Two, Slavic studies in America treated history, literature, and language as isolated disciplines and often neglected the study of Russian literature written after 1917. The pragmatic necessities of the war questioned the relevance of this traditional approach and specialists appeared, concentrating their efforts on the recent…

  4. Soviet Standardization of Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Morton

    1961-01-01

    After a brief history of influences on the standardization of Russian since the Revolution, the descriptive and normalizing role of specific reference works of grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and morphology is discussed. Concluding remarks point out a problem caused by a lack of coordination of standardization efforts and the mounting demands for…

  5. Spoken Russian; Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Leonard; Petrova, Luba

    This course in spoken Russian is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. Book II in the two volume series is divided into three major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  6. BUCHAREST AS A CITY BRAND: HOW TO ATTRACT RUSSIAN TOURISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina OCHKOVSKAYA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the attractiveness of Bucharest and its perception by Russian tourists as well as to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the city and define the idea for positioning statement for this place. Bucharest has a deep history and cultural heritage that are highly appreciated by tourists seeking cultural tourism. Moreover, Bucharest had the nickname of "Little Paris" which implied the beauty of the city. Our study focuses mainly on the target audience of Russian people who appreciate cultural heritage. According to the Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat, the number of Russians who visited Romania as tourists increased by 73% in the first quarter of 2015 (http://russtd.com/destinations/eastern-europe-loses-almost-half-russian-tourists-year. This increase is a positive sign as it means that Romania and Bucharest are becoming more and more attractive for Russian tourists. Tourists can bring many benefits to the place, both economic and social. In turn, new places with heritage can enrich tourists with new knowledge and broaden their erudition. The study allows us to understand the perception of Bucharest by Russian tourists and single out the key elements of the city of Bucharest. The key elements of the city of Bucharest are rooted in cultural heritage and authenticity, including different styles of architecture, Orthodox churches, classical and folk music, outstanding musicians and food. Bucharest might thus be offered the positioning as a mysterious authentic city revealing the coexistence of different times.To some extent this paper contributes to the understanding of the image of Bucharest in Russian tourists’ eyes, their associations and fears. It gives some insights into factors that make Russians choose touristic destinations. In addition, some ideas for the city positioning, logos and slogans can derive from this paper. The study can be useful for touristic agencies or for the Ministry

  7. K-East and K-West Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hanford's "sister reactors", the K-East and the K-West Reactors, were built side-by-side in the early 1950's. The two reactors went operational within four months of...

  8. RUSSIAN “SOFT POWER”: BETWEEN EURASIA AND RUSSIAN WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Dmitrievna Ageeva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Author analyses the process of creation of Russian “Soft power” – establishment of institutions and organizations, elaboration of official documents, inclusion of the term in political discourse. Author defines Russian features in perception of soft power as a foreign policy tool. Emerging strategy of Russian soft power is studied through the prism of Joseph Nye’s theory. It is stated that a narrative which is attractive for foreign countries appears as a key component of an effective soft power strategy. Author analyses the history of Eurasia and Russian World narratives, which are in the forefront of Russian foreign policy. Emerging narratives’ contents are carefully studied and compared. Finally the author concludes that these narratives can be complementary but also can be contradictory and can have a values gap.Purpose: to define perspective of Eurasia and Russian World narratives inclusion in Russian foreign policy.Methodology: consists in historical and political analysis and comparative approach.Results: it is concluded that Eurasia and Russian World narratives can be potentially contradictory within Russian foreign policy.Practical applications: research results can be applied in the framework of elaboration Russian foreign policy strategy.

  9. Combining Work and Study by Russian Higher Education Institution Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Roshchin; Victor Rudakov

    2014-01-01

    Sergey Roshchin - Candidate of Science, Associate Professor, Prorector, Head of the Subdepartment of Labour and Population Economics, Director of the Laboratory for Labor Market Studies, National Research University - Higher School of Economics. E-mail: Rudakov - Analyst, Laboratory for Labor Market Studies, National Research University - Higher School of Economics. E-mail: Address: 26 Shabolovka str., Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation.Combin...

  10. Russian Medieval Military Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappoport, Pavel

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available In Russia defensive works were not less important than in Western Europe. Russian chronicles are full of reports of the building of towns, of their siege and defence. In Ancient Russian the word town meant not a town in the modern sense, but only a fortified settlement as distinct from an unfortified one. Thus the concept town applied to medieval towns proper and to citadels, feudal castles and even fortified villages. Every population centre with a wall round it was called a town. Moreover, until the 17th century this word was frequently applied to mean the fortifications themselves.

  11. Fiscal Federalism in Russia: A Canadian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers some of the key instrumental components of intergovernmental fiscal relations that arise in the Russian Federation -- expenditures, revenues, transfers, borrowing, and institutional arrangements -- in comparison both to Canada’s lengthy experience with federalism and to a framework developed on the basis of previous work on fiscal federalism in a variety of transitional and developing countries. Unsurprisingly, from either of these perspectives fiscal federalism in Russia...

  12. Pop Goes the Russian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Useful items built by the former Soviet Union keep popping up in the international aviation marketplace. Ejection seats for high-performance fighter planes are one of the latest products to attract serious interest in the West. The U.S. Air Force and Navy are testing the K-36D, a Russian-built ejection seat that can save pilots′lives during ejections at speeds up to 870 mph. The U.S.-built seat, called the Advanced Concept Ejection Seat,

  13. Special relativity (in Russian)

    CERN Document Server

    Grozin, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    A modern elementary introduction to special relativity for advanced school children or first-year university students, in Russian. I try to demonstrate that relativity does not contradict common sense; on the contrary, it follows from common sense logically. I discuss Minkowski space-time geometry in some detail. Geometrical approach, with few simple formulas but many pictures, makes results of the theory intuitively obvious.

  14. RUSSIAN LESSONS FOR 1999

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    This autumn, Russian courses will be continued at CERN for beginners and advanced.The first lesson for advanced students will take place on 6th September at 12.00 noon as scheduled.A general briefing for beginners is planned for Thursday30th September at 17.00 in 54-1-002.For further details, please contact the teacher, Mrs Macha Mikhailova by e-mail at: Vladimir.Mikhailov@cern.ch

  15. Transliteration of Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razran, G

    1959-04-24

    The objective of any system of transliteration is obviously to convey to the reader as closely as possible the phonetic value of the transliterated material. Barring phonetic transcriptions, this objective is doubtless best accomplished when (i) minimum use is made of extra marks and extra letter combinations that of necessity are arbitrary, unclear, and confusing to many readers, and when, of course (ii), there is only one uniform system and not a variety of varying ones. A detailed analysis reveals that present-day practices of transliterating Russian into English by no means conform to these desiderata, but that they could readily be made to do so. With only two extra letter combinations, zh for and kh for x, and a single and a double apostrophe for the "soft" and "hard" marks, a very close approximation of Russian phonology may be attained through a discriminating use of English as is. A complete and uniform transliteration of Russian into English, including the noncontroversial letters, is shown in Table 1.

  16. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  17. Russian expats seek research reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Over 170 Russian researchers working abroad have signed a letter addressed to the Russian president, Dmitry Medvedev, and prime minister Vladimir Putin raising concerns about "the catastrophic state of basic science" in the country. The letter, which appeared last month in the Moscow business paper Vedomosti, warns Russian leaders that unless urgent measures are implemented by the government, then science in the country may collapse.

  18. Russian electrometallurgy: Achievements, problems, prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utochkin, Yu. I.; Semin, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the Russian metallurgy, in particular, electric furnace steelmaking, having occurred in the recent years are analyzed. The main increase in the steelmaking output is due to putting into operation of new electric furnaces in new miniworks and enterprises equipped earlier with open-hearth furnaces. Reaching the rated capacity of a furnace in Russia substantially lags behind foreign enterprises. Only 30-35% of the Russian market of corrosion-resistant steel are provided by Russian metal.

  19. Russian Geologic Repository Technical Papers and Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L

    2002-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been actively and continuously engaged in Russian geologic disposal activities since 1995. The first joint US-Russian meeting on Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium was held in January 1995 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The meeting resulted in the appointment of Dr. L. J. Jardine from LLNL and Dr. T. A. Gupalo from the All-Russian Research and Design Institute of Production Engineering (VNIPIPT) as the US-Russian Federation (RF) joint co-chairs for geologic disposal of plutonium-containing materials, respectively. The initial joint studies focused on the geologic disposal of plutonium-containing materials and immobilized plutonium waste forms. These studies started in 1995, and continue in 2002. The first joint work of LLNL and VNIPIPT was documented in the October 1996 Paris P8 Nuclear Experts Meeting [1]. In summary, LLNL has been actively and continuously involved in various ways since 1995 in developing and participating in the current Russian geologic disposal program activities near the Mayak and MCC K-26 sites. Figure 1 illustrates how these various LLNL activities have been integrated, coordinated, and focused on developing geologic disposal in Russia. The various LLNL contracts are shown in the figure with the specific LLNL contract number. Reference 13 provides a summary of the status in 2000 of the past Russian repository program activities for the K-26 and Mayak sites. Because of this unique continuous and direct participation in the RF geologic disposal program activities, LLNL has either obtained or generated numerous technical papers and reports documenting various aspects of the RF geologic repository activities for the two sites near the Minatom industrial sites at Mayak and K-26. As a result, LLNL decided to collect these unique documents into one referenceable set and generated this report. This report collects these technical papers, technical reports, plans, and proposals for

  20. Monitoring of radioactivity at the Russian nuclear submarine Kursk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, I. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway); Lind, B. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Enviromental Protection Unit, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    In the morning of August 12th 2000, a Russian submarine accident occurred in international waters east of Rybatschi Peninsula in the Barents Sea about 250 km from Norway. The submarine, a Russian Oscar class II attack submarine, sunk to 116 meters depth at the position 69 deg. 36,99N, 37 deg. 34,50E. The submarine 'Kursk' is 154 meters long, equipped with two pressurised water reactors and the submerged displacement is 24000 tons. Each reactor has a thermal effect or 190 megawatt, or less than 10% of a typical nuclear power plant reactor. The submarines in Oscar-II class is one of the largest and most capable in the Russian Northern Fleet. No indications of leakage from the submarine have so far been observed during the monitoring expeditions. Elevated levels of radioactivity have note been detected in any dose-rate readings or at any of the measurements of environmental samples taken close to Kursk. Furthermore, no increased levels were measured on bits and pieces from the submarine or from water sampled inside the submarine. A more comprehensive report covering experience and monitoring results from the two expeditions term and impact assessments of possible future releases from Kursk. (LN)

  1. 76 FR 16016 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    .... ] Briefing on Small Modular Reactors (Public Meeting) (Contact: Stephanie Coffin, 301-415-6877) This meeting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission,...

  2. 76 FR 14107 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    .... Briefing on Small Modular Reactors (Public Meeting). (Contact: Stephanie Coffin, 301-415-6877). This... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  3. Carrier frequency of GJB2 and GALT mutations associated with sensorineural hearing loss and galactosemia in the Russian population

    OpenAIRE

    Abramov D.D.; Belousova M.V.; Kadochnikova V.V.; Ragimov A.A.; Trofimov D.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    This article continues a series of works estimating carrier frequencies of mutations associated with the development of common monogenic disorders in the Russian population. The study aimed to establish the frequency of GJB2 and GALT mutations in first-time blood donors. Genotyping of 1000 first-time blood donors who identify themselves as Russians and permanently reside in the Russian Federation detected 37 carriers of GJB2 mutations associated with sensorineural hearing loss (carrier freque...

  4. Relativistic and correlation effects on molecular properties .1. The dihalogens F-2, Cl-2, Br-2, I-2, and At-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, L; Dyall, K.G.

    1996-01-01

    A benchmark study of a number of relativistic correlation methods is presented. Bond lengths, harmonic frequencies, and dissociation energies of the molecules F-2, Cl-2, Br-2, I-2, and At-2 are calculated at various levels of theory, using both the Schrodinger and the Dirac-Coulomb-(Gaunt) Hamiltoni

  5. English/Russian and Russian/English glossary of physical protection terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo Hoo, M.S. [ed.

    1995-07-01

    This glossary was prepared in fulfillment of the Glossary Preparation Task identified in the Program Plan for providing Assistance to the Russian Federation in Nuclear Material Control and Accounting and Physical Protection. The Program Plan is part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program as provided for under House Resolution (H.R.) 3807 (Title II, as referenced under Public Law (P.L.) 102-229. The terms in this glossary were derived from physical protection training material prepared at Sandia. The training material, and thus refinements to the glossary, has undergone years of development in presentation to both domestic and international audiences. Also, Russian Colleagues and interpreters have reviewed the translations for accuracy.

  6. OLD RUSSIAN MANUSCRIPTS IN THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Moldovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with different types of the corpus representation of Old Russian manuscripts in their ability to solve linguistics problems. Collections of digital copies and e-books in PDF and DjVu formats are the simplest and widely spread type of electronic resources, containing old Russian manuscripts. Theoretically  more interesting, though much more difficult, is the representation  of digitized  editions as textual corpora and databases.  The main attention in the article is paid to the historical subcorpus within the Russian National Corpus representing the sources of the XI-XVII centuries and consisting of four parts: the Old Russian corpus, the Corpus of birchbark letters, the Middle Russian and the Church-Slavonic corpora.

  7. Preventing Social Orphanhood: the Russian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semya G.V.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the Russian model of social orphanhood eradicating based on the analysis of the dynamics of the adoption and foster care and social orphanhood prevention, the legislation development and a compari- son with the international experience. The effectiveness of the state policy is depends on focus of the top federal and regional officials, the dynamic legis- lative development, federal financial support and creative accomplishing the tasks of social orphanhood eradicating throughout the country. Author proposes methodology for evaluating the regions performance based on math- ematical models of the continuity equation. The article identifies a number of factors determine the features of the state policy implementation throughout Russia, including ethnic and religious factors, geographical proximity to the international experience, migration flows, climatic conditions, and the health level. It is pointed out that the implementation of the National Strategy for Action on Children plays a key role in forming the Russian model. The main modern challengers are defining the strategy and tactics of the family and foster care of children difficult to place in family, services on interdepartmental basis, and economic crisis, which may lead to an increasing return of children from foster families.

  8. PLATO Sitcom Dialogs for Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Clayton; Provenzano, Nolen

    1981-01-01

    Situation comedy (sitcom) dialogs that are included in PLATO lessons for first year Russian students are described. These comprehension exercises make use of both the touch panel and the audio capabilities of PLATO. The sitcom dialogs were written by a native speaker of Russian and are based on the vocabulary in the textbook plus a small number of…

  9. Construction of the migration flows forecasting into Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Tarasyev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model that can predict the dynamics of migration flows between source countries and host regions, as well as the dynamics of wage levels there. The model is constructed within the framework of neoclassical economics and human capital theory in continuous time. Thanks to liberalization of migration policy in Russia in 2007, the model could be successfully employed to Russian regions and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, which have visa-free entry regulations with the Russian Federation. Employing the model on statistical data, we forecast the number and origin composition of foreign labor force from the CIS into Russian regions for 2010-2016. The purpose of our further research is to classify migrants by skills

  10. 78 FR 37925 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 20, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013... Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched Uranium On June 25, 2012, by Executive Order 13617, I declared a... volume of weapons-usable fissile material in the territory of the Russian Federation. Full...

  11. Recent and future developments of the oil industry in Russian Federation and more particularly in the Republic of Baskortostan; Evolution recente et perspectives d'evolution de l'industrie petroliere en federation de Russie et plus specialement dans la Republique du Bachkortostan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garifullin, R

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the thesis is to analyse the actual situation in the Russian oil industry and to envisage basic ways if its future development. The first chapter evaluates the place of the former USSR and Russia in the world and particularly European systems of energy supply. The three next chapters analyse the currents situation in the sectors of oil exploration and production, logistics and refining in Russia. The fifth chapter aims to figure out the perspectives of the refining industry taking into account the evolution of demand for basic petroleum products and the production capacities. Optimisation of refining and production volumes between the Russian refineries is done by minimising the transportation cost between the refineries and consuming regions by using linear programming. The last chapter analyses the regional impacts of the oil industry taking the Republic of Baskortostan as example. The contribution of the oil industry to regional development is evaluated in the framework of the export base theory using the Input-Output analysis as mathematical tool. (author)

  12. Reactor based plutonium disposition - physics and fuel behaviour benchmark studies of an OECD/NEA experts group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hondt, P. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Gehin, J. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Na, B.C.; Sartori, E. [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France); Wiesenack, W. [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development/HRP, Halden (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    One of the options envisaged for disposing of weapons grade plutonium, declared surplus for national defence in the Russian Federation and Usa, is to burn it in nuclear power reactors. The scientific/technical know-how accumulated in the use of MOX as a fuel for electricity generation is of great relevance for the plutonium disposition programmes. An Expert Group of the OECD/Nea is carrying out a series of benchmarks with the aim of facilitating the use of this know-how for meeting this objective. This paper describes the background that led to establishing the Expert Group, and the present status of results from these benchmarks. The benchmark studies cover a theoretical reactor physics benchmark on a VVER-1000 core loaded with MOX, two experimental benchmarks on MOX lattices and a benchmark concerned with MOX fuel behaviour for both solid and hollow pellets. First conclusions are outlined as well as future work. (author)

  13. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the VNIIM, Russian Federation and ENEA-INMRI, Italy, in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m and KCRV update in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michottea, C.; Nonisa, M.; Alekseevb, I. V.; Kharitonovb, I. A.; Tereshchenkob, E. E.; Zanevskiyb, A. V.; Capognic, M.; De Felicec, P.; Fazioc, A.; Carconic, P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, comparisons of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the VNIIM (Russian Federation) and at the ENEA-INMRI (Italy), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m. Ampoules containing about 32 kBq of 99mTc solutions were measured in the SIRTI for three half-lives. There are now nine results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m comparison. This comparison is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m has been updated to include eligible results from BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR or the SIRTI and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Dvina is a Russian Name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamill P. Volsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The note gives a brief review of the most known versions of the origin of the name Dvina and provides some arguments in favour of its Russian origin. The author offers two versions of the Russian origin of Dvina. The first one brings the name into correlation with the dialectal word dvina attested in Smolensk Region with the meaning ‘a lot, a great amount of something’. The second one, which the author considers more plausible, suggests an etymological link between the river name Dvina and the Russian numeral dva ‘two’. This second version is supported, firstly, by the physical geographic characteristics of the Northern Dvina River formed by the confluence of two other big rivers — the Sukhona and the Yug. Secondly, in the dialects of the Russian North there exists a common noun dvina designating different “double” objects: ‘twins’, ‘uterine brother’, ‘double distilled wine’. The appellative word dvina corresponds to the structural and word-formational rules of the Russian language and is present in the microtoponymy of the Russian North. The author does not rule out that the name of the Western Dvina may have originated from the old Russian word dvina since it may be a secondary name derived from Dvina, the name of the lake at the head of the Western Dvina River.

  15. 76 FR 79023 - Determinations Under Section 1106(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988Russian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... and Competitiveness Act of 1988--Russian Federation Memorandum for the United States Trade Representative Pursuant to section 1106(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (19 U.S.C....

  16. Russian Orthography and Learning to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerek, Eugenia; Niemi, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    The unique structure of Russian orthography may influence the organization and acquisition of reading skills in Russian. The present review examines phonemic-graphemic correspondences in Russian orthography and discusses its grain-size units and possible difficulties for beginning readers and writers. Russian orthography is governed by a…

  17. Temperature-induced structural changes in CaCl2 , CaBr2 , and CrCl2 : A synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christopher J.; Kennedy, Brendan J.; Curfs, Caroline

    2005-12-01

    The halides CaCl2,CaBr2 , and CrCl2 all adopt, at room temperature, the same distorted rutile structure, in orthorhombic space group Pnnm , known as the calcium chloride structure. Upon heating, CaCl2 and CaBr2 each undergoes a continuous transformation to the true tetragonal rutile structure, in space group P42/mnm , the transition temperatures being 235 and 553 °C, respectively. By contrast, the structural change in CrCl2 upon heating is just further elongation of octahedra already lengthened by Jahn-Teller effects, and no phase transition occurs. The orthorhombic structure is maintained by a strong and temperature-dependent geometrical coupling of the orthorhombic strain to the order parameter, represented by the tilt angle of the CrCl6 octahedron.

  18. Solubility measurement and solid-liquid equilibrium model for the ternary system MgBr2 + MgSO4 + H2O at 288.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of magnesium minerals and the refractive index of the ternary system MgBr2 + MgSO4 + H2O at 288.15 K were investigated using an isothermal dissolution method. It was found that there are two invariant points in the phase diagram and the solubility isotherm of this ternary system consists of three branches, corresponding to equilibrium crystallization of Epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O, Eps, hexahydrite (MgSO4·6H2O, Hex and magnesium bromide hexahydrate (MgBr2·6H2O, Mb. Neither solid solutions nor double salts were found. The refractive indices calculated from empirical equation are in good agreement with the experimental data. Combining the results from solubility measurements with the single-salt parameters for MgBr2 and MgSO4, and the mixed ion-interaction parameter θBr,S0(4, the parameter ψMg,Br,S0(4 at 288.15 K was fitted using the Pitzer theory and Harvie-Weare (HW approach. In addition, the average equilibrium constants of the stable equilibrium solids at 288.15 K were obtained by a method using the activity product constant. A chemical model, which combined the Pitzer parameters and the average equilibrium constants, was constructed to calculate the solid + liquid equilibria in the ternary system MgBr2 + MgSO4 + H2O at 288.15 K. The model agreed well with the equilibrium solubility data for the magnesium salts.

  19. Synthesis, Structure and Photoluminescent Properties of the 2D Coordination Polymers Based on Cu2Br2 Unit with Flexible Thioether%基于柔性硫醚与Cu2Br2单元二维配位聚合物的合成、结构和荧光性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬青; 时文娟

    2009-01-01

    A complex [Cu2Br2(L)2]2 (1) (L=bis (2-pyrimidinylthio)methane) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. Complex 1 contains dinuclear Cu2Br2 units, which are linked by ditopic L to form a 2D layer structure with a 36-membered macrometallocycle. The adjacent layers are further connected through interpyrimidyl rings C-H strong green solid-state photoluminescence, due to metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) at room temperature. CCDC: 711434.

  20. Effect of non-graphitized carbon electrodes on the electrochemical characteristics of a thermocell with a Br 2/Br - redox couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Kazuhiko; Arakawa, Masayasu; Hirai, Toshiro

    Electrodes made from a non-graphitized carbon (Maxsorb) sheet with a large specific surface area greatly improved the electrochemical characteristics of thermocells with a bromine/bromide-ion redox couple and a KBr aqueous electrolyte saturated with Br 2. The Maxsorb electrodes provide a higher open-circuit voltage than graphite (Perma Foil) electrodes and the maximum discharge current density is 2.4 mA/cm 2 until the voltage reaches 0 V. The Maxsorb electrodes generate 5.68 mV/°C of thermoelectric power at a temperature difference greater than 40°C, which is 2.5 times the power reported previously. The Maxsorb electrodes also improve the cathodic polarization in the presence of a gas-liquid-solid interface in Br 2-free electrolyte, while the graphite electrodes do not. Nevertheless, this improvement is insufficient to observe when the KBr electrolyte is saturated with Br 2. An experimental cell with Maxsorb electrodes maintains a stable voltage up to 2.0 mA/cm 2 for over 450 h, even though the cell configuration has still to be optimized.

  1. Russian vodka a national tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Russian governments promoted vodka because it was a major source of income. As a result, Russians are culturally conditioned to consume alcohol and are facing tragic demographic declines never before seen in the developed world. Russia's autocratic governments are responsible for the development of vodka addiction. The crown used vodka as a source of income and steered the agrarian economy in the direction of vodka production. The Ru...

  2. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND EU ENERGY DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Smirnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the content, forms, methods, means energy diplomacy of Russia and the EU. The author focuses on the increasing role of energy diplomacy in the implementation of energy plans and the foreign policy interests of the Russian Federation and the EU. The article outlines structural variables, which create substantial preconditions for further strengthening of links between the two sides. Hence, it estimates potential for the increased Russia_EU cooperation in energy sphere as significant. 

  3. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND EU ENERGY DIPLOMACY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Smirnov

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the content, forms, methods, means energy diplomacy of Russia and the EU. The author focuses on the increasing role of energy diplomacy in the implementation of energy plans and the foreign policy interests of the Russian Federation and the EU. The article outlines structural variables, which create substantial preconditions for further strengthening of links between the two sides. Hence, it estimates potential for the increased Russia_EU cooperation in energy sphere as s...

  4. On the Rule of Law in the Context of Russian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lukyanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to analyze the Russian school of law features and history of development over the last century, characterized by the priority of the positivist theory of law over the natural law approach. In particular, the author examines the differences in interpretation of such concepts as ‘rule of law,’ ‘rule by law’ and ‘Law-Bound State’ by Russian and foreign lawyers and concludes that these concepts are mixed and misunderstood. Based on the differences of interpretation, the author concludes that there is a significant difference in mentality not only between Russian and foreign lawyers, but also between lawyers in Russia: law enforcers on the one hand and human rights activists, advocates and some independent scientists on the other and, consequently, there are specific criteria for the specialist selection in competent state bodies. As an example of the differences of interpretation, the author analyzes in detail the decision of the Russian Federation Constitutional Court of March 19, 2014, on the constitutionality of the Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on the admission of the Republic of Crimea into the Russian Federation and the establishment of new subjects within the latter.

  5. Transparency of Russian Parliaments: Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononenko Pavel Borisovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental method is becoming more and more popular in contemporary political sciences. In this paper the experimental research of the Russian regional legislatures’ informational openness and availability is presented. The parliaments were addressed with a standard appeal claiming for a set of formal data describing the organizational and political structure of the legislative body during the last two convocations - total number of deputies in a regional parliament, number of deputies working on a permanent basis, total number of fractions and their size. The experiment was performed both via phone calls and e-mail letters. The results obtained show a medium level of availability of regional representative bodies and a low level of transparency. Only the half of the regional legislatures showed a certain level of ability to work with a private citizen’s appeal and only 9 of them completely met the standards of formal procedure, established by federal and regional laws, and provided the requested information. In 19 cases the regional parliaments turned out to be unavailable for a citizen’s appeal – either an official representative of the body rejected the claim or officially specified telephone numbers were irregular. The experiment and the results of more conventional ways of investigating the problems of transparency via official websites’ monitoring. During the experiment it was found that Russian regional authorities are rarely open and cooperative with citizens.

  6. Russian institute receives CMS Gold Award

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The Snezhinsk All-Russian Institute of Scientific Research for Technical Physics (VNIITF) of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) is one of twelve CMS suppliers to receive awards for outstanding performance this year. The CMS Collaboration took the opportunity of the visit to CERN of the Director of VNIITF and his deputy to present the CMS Gold Award, which the institute has received for its exceptional performance in the assembly of steel plates for the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter. This calorimeter consists of two sets of 18 wedge-shaped modules arranged concentrically around the beam-pipe at each end of the CMS detector. Each module consists of steel absorber plates with quartz fibres inserted into them. The institute developed a special welding technique to assemble the absorber plates, enabling a high-quality detector to be produced at relatively low cost.RFNC-VNIITF Director Professor Georgy Rykovanov (right), is seen here receiving the Gold Award from Felicitas Pauss, Vice-Chairman of the CMS ...

  7. Ethnic Motives in Russian Mass Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines certain finding on ethnic aspects of mass consciousness in the Russian Federation, as presented in the journal Monitoring public opinion: economic and social changes (rus. Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены, published by the All-Russian Centre for the Study of Public Opinion. The problems of national identity and ethnic tension in Russia increased after the collapse of the Soviet empire. Ethnic phobias, complexes and ambitions reached a peak in the period 1993–1995. However, by 1999–2000, according to the surveys, they returned to the 1989–1990 level. The increase until 1995 occurred during the break-down of former Soviet political and administrative relations. By 1994 negative attitudes, apart from a traditional aversion to immigrants from the Caucasus, were directed to peoples of the newly independent former Soviet republics (especially to those from the Baltic states, and to ethnic groups such as the Vietnamese, Gypsies, etc. On the other hand, the subsequent decrease in negative attitudes to other ethnic groups was not so much the result of greater tolerance or the development of civil society, but rather due to an imperial tradition of indifference to ethnic problems. According to L. Gudkov, ethnic views in 1994–1995 showed traces inherited from the Stalinist period. Gudkov found that passivity and a “victim“ complex had assumed a central position in the self-image of Russians. Such a complex serves to exonerate the subject from any feeling of personal blame or deficiency, but also leads to a nostalgic idealisation of the past and a negation of the present. The result is a social syndrome that denies action and an ethnosocial self-awareness that prevents universalisation and the development of a national identity based on the principles of civil society. The “victim“ complex fosters a feeling of threat to the

  8. The development of tourist attractiveness of Russian territories: modern trends and management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Frolova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem of regional management - development of tourist at-tractiveness of Russian territories. The article discusses the concept of «tourist attractiveness», substantiates the author's position on its contents. Research methods include document analysis, opinion poll experts (heads of local authorities. On the basis of statistical and sociological data identified features and problems of tourism development in the Russian Federation in of objective and subjective indicators of the tourist infrastructure. Are determined dysfunction of modern ad-ministrative practices of tourism development in the Russian Federation, basic problems are revealed of realization program-target method of management in the modern state and regional policy. The article substantiates the concluded that the implementation of program-target method of tourist attractiveness associated with a number of shortcomings that limit their effectiveness. The authors identify the following main problems of implementation of the federal target program «Development of domestic tourism in the Russian Federation (2011-2018 years»: financial risks; declarative principle for selecting regions to participate in the federal program; target to achieve economic performance indicators, not to assess the long-term prospects of such aspects of the tourist attraction as the creation and / or development of unique tourist attraction, the image of the territory; high thresholds for co-financing of expenditure obligations for the implementation of the programs of regional budgets. On the basis of comparative analysis of the results of the survey population, and experts in the article highlights the main limitations of tourism development in the Russian Federation. The authors substantiates the need for the transformation of the state policy of direct intervention to indirect regulation model in tourism development. The article defines the main directions of

  9. REGULATION OF MIGRATORY PROCESSES AS BASIS OF RUSSIAN NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Silantyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with modern problems of migration, given the attempt to identify the causes of the migratory crisis in Europe, shows the state migration policy of Russia. Despite features of migration policy in separately taken European state, consequences of migratory processes for the countries of Europe the general. In Russia long time there was no complete system of the migratory legislation. However in recent years Russia has considerably progressed in the solution of migratory problems: the Concept of the state migration policy of the Russian Federation for the period till 2025 within which the principles and the main activities of the Russian Federation in the sphere of migration are established is accepted. It, in our opinion, has allowed reducing the number of labor migrants and those who illegally work in the territory of the Russian Federation. Based on the study of existing theoretical approaches, standards and applicable regulations made some conclusions about the nature of migration control. It was found that the effective implementation of the state migration policy will contribute to socioeconomic and demographic development, national security and maintain stability in society.

  10. Russian Higher Education in Library Information Profession:The Federal State Standard and the Educa- tional Orientation%俄罗斯图书馆学情报学高等专业教育:国家标准与发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王前

    2012-01-01

    After the 1990s, as a result of change of politics, economic system and the diffusely impact of modem information technol- ogy on library in Russia, higher education in Library Information Profession has encountered significant pressures and challenges, which is facing the arduous task of change. The promulgation and implementation of the Federal State Standard for Higher Professional Education in Library Information (third generation) has pointed out the direction of the change. The orientation is to train diversified types of professionals, to attach similar importance to both humanities and technology in the curriculum structure, and to institutionalize the educational quality assessment, which shows the good prospects of the Russian higher education in hbrary information profession.%20世纪90年代以后,由于国家政治、经济体制的变化和现代信息技术对图书馆事业的广泛影响,俄罗斯的图书馆学情报学教育遇到了重大的压力和挑战,面临变革的艰巨任务。第三版俄罗斯图书馆学情报学专业教育国家标准的出台并实施,明确了俄罗斯图书馆学情报学专业教育的变革方向,即专业人才培养类型多元化、课程结构人文化和技术化并重以及教育质量评估制度化,展示了俄罗斯图书馆学情报学专业教育的良好前景。

  11. Effect of Different Content of MgBr2 on the Electrochemical Performance of AZ31 Mg Alloy as Negative Electrode%不同浓度的MgBr2对AZ31负极材料电化学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘渝萍; 陈昌国; 张丁非; 倪桃; 陈浩; 蔡崇飞

    2012-01-01

    镁合金材料作电池阳极的研究是目前镁合金应用的重要方向之一.采用开路电位、线性扫描、恒电流放电、交流阻抗等电化学方法,系统研究了不同浓度MgBr2对镁合金AZ31在1mol/L Mg(ClO4)2溶液中的电化学性能影响,希望为寻找合适的镁干电池电解液提供基础.镁合金AZ31的开路电位并不随溴化镁浓度的增大而一直负向变化,当MgBr2的浓度为0.05mol/L时,镁合金AZ31的开路电位达到最负值.加入低浓度的MgBr2时,镁合金AZ31阳极材料明显被活化,极化作用减弱,腐蚀阻抗较大,电压滞后时间缩短,有利于镁合金阳极材料在化学电源中的应用.%The influence of different content of MgBr2 on the electrochemical performance of AZ31 Mg alloy in 1mol/L Mg(ClO4)2 solution was studied by OCP,LSV,CP and EIS, providing the basis on seeking the appropriate electrolyte for magnesium dry cell. The OCP value did not always shift in negative direction with the increasing of the MgBr2 concentration. Adding 0. 05mol/L MgBr2 , the open circuit potential of magnesium alloy AZ31 reached the ne gative peak. The addition of the smaller concentration of MgBr2 could activate the anode material, decrease the polari zation, increase the corrosion impedance and shorten the transient minimum voltage, favourable to the application of magnesium alloy in battery.

  12. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  13. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  14. Accelerating the Reduction of Excess Russian Highly Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, J; Wall, D; Parker, E; Rutkowski, E

    2004-02-18

    This paper presents the latest information on one of the Accelerated Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Disposition initiatives that resulted from the May 2002 Summit meeting between Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir V. Putin. These initiatives are meant to strengthen nuclear nonproliferation objectives by accelerating the disposition of nuclear weapons-useable materials. The HEU Transparency Implementation Program (TIP), within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is working to implement one of the selected initiatives that would purchase excess Russian HEU (93% 235U) for use as fuel in U.S. research reactors over the next ten years. This will parallel efforts to convert the reactors' fuel core from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) material, where feasible. The paper will examine important aspects associated with the U.S. research reactor HEU purchase. In particular: (1) the establishment of specifications for the Russian HEU, and (2) transportation safeguard considerations for moving the HEU from the Mayak Production Facility in Ozersk, Russia, to the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  15. Rossijsko-germanskoe nauchnoe i obrazovatel'noe sotrudnichestvo v Arktike [Russian-German research and academic cooperation in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyev Vasily

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the stages of development of international research cooperation in the framework of research and education projects focusing on the study of marine and polar territories of the Russian Federation and the Federative Republic of Germany. The largest and most stable projects are the establishment of the Russian-German laboratory of polar and marine research named after the Russian polar explorer of German origin, Otto Schmidt, — OSL — on the premises of AARI, the Russian-German education project — the Applied polar and marine studies master's programme (POMOR — implemented by the Russian and German partners at Saint Petersburg State University, and the Laptev Sea system research programme bringing together around 20 Russian and German organisations.

  16. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  17. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  18. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  19. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  20. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...

  1. Et2NH2C6H3(CO23SnBr2.4H2O: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAOUDA NDOYE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound has been obtained on allowing [C6H3(CO23(Et2NH23] to react with SnBr4. The molecular structure of Et2NH2C6H3(CO23SnBr2.4H2O has been determined on the basis of the infrared data. The suggested structure is a dimer in which each tin atom is hexacoordinated by two chelating C6H3(CO233- anions and two Br atoms. Cy2NH2+cations are involved through hydrogen bonds with non-coordinating CO2 groups. The suggested structure is a cage.

  2. Novel, efficient, and green procedure for the synthesis of 1,5-benzodiazepines catalyzed by MgBr2 in aqueous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivaji S. Pawar; Murlidhar S. Shingare; Shivaji N. Thore

    2009-01-01

    MgBr2 performs as a novel catalyst for the synthesis of various 1,5-benzodiazepine derivatives from wide range of substituted o-phenylenediamines and various ketones in good to excellent isolated yields (93-98%) using water as solvent at ambient temperature. Several solvents were examined for this reaction; however, in terms of reaction yield and time, water was found to be the optimum solvent. The remarkable advantages offered by this method are easily and inexpensive available catalyst, simple procedure, mild conditions, much faster (40-60 min) reactions and good to excellent yields of products.

  3. STATE SUPPORT OF AGRICULTURE AS A FACTOR OF COMPETITIVENESS OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is the problem of the need for governments supports for agriculture and the isolation the most promising mechanisms of its regulation for the creation in international trade sustainable competitive advantages of the Russian Federation. The retrospective mathematical-statistical analysis in the study of time series of the state support, as well as exploring the current legislation of the Russian Federation revealed vectors of state policy in the field of agricultural support and develop promising directions for its improvement

  4. Environmental Hazard Identification Technique Developing of Territorial Administrations Strategy as Exemplified in Siberian Federal District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Garmishev, V. V.; Lugovtsova, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    This work, on the example of the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation, presents a method for determining mass airbursts of combustion gaseous eco-toxicants, as a technique for assessing the contributory environmental load on the atmosphere. Potential environmental hazards are analyzed by mass of contaminated airbursts. A comparison of specific gross toxicants’ emissions in territorial entities of the Russian Federation is made.

  5. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which...... are also rooted in the lexical-semantic classification of Russian nouns. The presentation focuses on semantics, both lexical and grammatical, and not least the connection between these two levels of content. The principal theoretical impact is the insight that grammar and lexis should not be seen...

  6. Demographic Risks of the Pension Reform in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Konstantinovich Solovyev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze the impact of the demographic crisis in the country’s fiscal system. In the article, the pension system for the first time is considered as a multifactorial model, which during the different historical periods corrects the degree of its dependence on the interdependent complex of macroeconomic and demographic factors. The economically sound and socially correct accounting of the interference of retirement age and the specified development factors of pension system requires a fundamental change in the methodological approaches to the problem of raising the retirement age by using the actuarial methods of forecasting. The actuarial analysis of the problem of retirement age shows that the perception of the linear dependence on demographic parameters of the age when the national pension is awarded cannot be considered as a tool for regulating the efficiency of the pension system. For the science-based solution to the problem of rising the retirement age, along with the dynamics of demographic parameters, it is necessary to take into account the whole range of macroeconomic conditions for the state development as well as the long-term socio-economic consequences. Another significant result of the study are the specific parameters of the actuarial assessments of the impact of demographic and macroeconomic conditions of increasing the retirement age in Russia, conducted using the state statistical data. The practical proposals to mitigate the negative economic consequences are formulated. The key conclusion reached is that the raising of the retirement age should be aimed exclusively at the economic stimulation of the formation of the pension rights of the insured in the long term, rather than to the short-term savings of the state budget. The methodological approaches grounded in the work, and the quantitative results of the actuarial calculations may be applied in the shaping the public pension policy when preparing the regulations for raising the retirement age, the pension formula for calculating the pension rights of the insured, the mechanism of pension indexation

  7. Development of well construction and workover supervising in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizov, A.; Boyarko, G.; Shenderova, I.

    2014-08-01

    Despite long history of drilling supervising it still has a number of uncertainties. The period of rapid rise in supervising development at the beginning of the 90's changed in the 2000's. The necessity in the development of this sphere is obvious. The author describes the history of supervising, period of its market condition adaptation. The research also gives principles methods of supervising development and first steps for its position improvement.

  8. Lifelong Professional Education in the Russian Federation: Personal Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibatova, Aygul Z.; Ippolitova, Natalia V.; Mukhametgaliyeva, Safia Kh.; Rodionova, Anna E.; Yagafarova, Khafiza N.; Ikonnikova, Ludmila N.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the problem of realization of the postulate of "lifelong education" in the field of professional education in Russia, and reveals its importance for the development of personality of a future specialist. A brief overview and the results of the implementation of this principle in the process of professional training…

  9. Limitations of Technological Innovations in Modern Russian Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vladimirovich Chernysh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the economic growth in the conditions of current economic situation and the sanctions against Russia. The development of import replacement industries will allow rebuilding the Russian products competitiveness in quality and price in the domestic market and increasing the export to foreign markets. The author concludes that the strategy of the Russian Federation industries development is to modernize enterprises by implementing technological innovation programs. The main problems hindering the large-scale implementation of innovation policy were revealed on the basis of the analysis, and the possibilities of their solutions were offered. The study reveals that major factors hindering the large scale implementation of innovation policy are high risks and lack of finance. The diversity of approaches to programs efficiency estimation and the lack of a unified estimation methodology reasonably do not allow the enterprises to obtain additional funding from potential investors. To solve this task the author proposes to develop and adopt a single “recommended by the Russian Federation Government” methodology for estimating the technological innovation programs efficiency, which when applied by the company could attract potential investors due to clear and consistent indicators of project performance. The author reasons the necessity to consider some guidelines in this methodology: to estimate efficiency at each stage; to consider innovation process generation; to reflect operational, financial and investment efficiency and integral effect of the originator, producer, consumer and budget; to consider special characteristics of economic branches and technological innovation life cycles.

  10. Report realized on behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission, of Defense and Armed Forces on the law project allowing the agreement approbation between the French Republic Government and the Russian Federal Government relative to the civil liability concerning the nuclear damages occurring from goods supplying to nuclear facilities in Russian Federation and becoming from the French Republic; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees sur le projet de loi autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et le Gouvernement de la Federation de Russie relatif a la responsabilite civile au titre de dommages nucleaires du fait de fournitures en provenance de la Republique francaise destinees a des installations nucleaires en Federation de Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The first part presents the international civil liability system in the nuclear domain and details then the 20 june 2000 agreement. It presents also the main aspects of the french-russian cooperation in the nuclear domain. (A.L.B.)

  11. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  12. Teaching Russian Culture: Concepts of Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dianne

    Russian culture is very much influenced by its huge land area, peculiar topography, and harsh climate. To understand Russian culture one must know how Russians perceive nature. This paper discusses how this concept may be conveyed to U.S. middle school students through poetry. Poems about nature can provide students an opportunity to understand…

  13. The Generalizing Work on History and Culture of the Cossacks (Book Review: Essays on the History and Culture of the Cossacks of Southern Russia: Collective Monograph [Text] / ed. by G. G. Matishov, I. O. Tyumentsev ; Southern Scientic Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Volgograd Branch of Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration”. – Volgograd : Izd-vo Volgogradskogo Filiala FGBOU VPO RANKhiGS, 2014. – 624 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugay Nikolay F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a review of the collective monograph “Essays on the history and culture of the Cossacks of Southern Russia”, published in 2014 under the auspices of the Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Volgograd branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. The review provides a critical analysis of the material in the collective monograph on the problems of studying the history and culture of the Cossacks. The author notes that the revival of Cossacks that began in the 1990s, not only drew attention to the Cossack problem in modern Russia, but also stimulated scientific and public interest in the history and culture of the Cossacks. Russian Cossacks have rich past and its culture is colorful and specific, its role in the history of Russia is significant. Issues of origin and development of the Cossacks, their place among the peoples of Russia, the specificity of cultural practices are constantly causing great interest for researchers. All this has led scientistsspecialists in the history and culture of the Cossacks to the idea of the creation of this scientific work, which has become a generalization of accumulated research experience on the most important issues of the Cossacks’ historical existence. The authors of the monograph limited their research by Southern Russia because of the complexity of creating general work on all Cossack troops which have historically existed in the Russian state and had sometimes very great cultural differences and special historical destiny. The authors made a very successful attempt to highlight the main problematic aspects of the history and culture of the Cossacks. The genre of essay chosen for creating a collective monograph, has allowed not only to identify the most relevant topics of the Cossack history and culture, but also to consider them in relation and development. Each essay contains material that allows to

  14. A chopper system for shortening the duration of pulsed supersonic beams seeded with NO or Br2 down to 13 μs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jessica; Rennick, Christopher J.; Softley, Timothy P.

    2015-05-01

    A chopper wheel construct is used to shorten the duration of a molecular beam to 13 μs. Molecular beams seeded with NO or with Br2 and an initial pulse width of ≥200 μs were passed through a spinning chopper wheel, which was driven by a brushless DC in vacuo motor at a range of speeds, from 3000 rpm to 80 000 rpm. The resulting duration of the molecular-beam pulses measured at the laser detection volume ranged from 80 μs to 13 μs and was the same for both NO and Br2. The duration is consistent with a simple analytical model, and the minimum pulse width measured is limited by the spreading of the beam between the chopper and the detection point as a consequence of the longitudinal velocity distribution of the beam. The setup adopted here effectively eliminates buildup of background gas without the use of a differential pumping stage, and a clean narrow pulse is obtained with low rotational temperature.

  15. A chopper system for shortening the duration of pulsed supersonic beams seeded with NO or Br2 down to 13 microseconds

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Jessica; Softley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    A chopper wheel construct is used to shorten the duration of a molecular beam to 13 microseconds. Molecular beams seeded with NO or with Br2 and an initial pulse width of greater or equal to 200 microseconds were passed through a spinning chopper wheel, which was driven by a brushless DC in vacuo motor at a range of speeds, from 3,000 rpm to 80,000 rpm. The resulting duration of the molecular-beam pulses measured at the laser detection volume ranged from 80 microseconds to 13 microseconds, and was the same for both NO and Br2. The duration is consistent with a simple analytical model, and the minimum pulse width measured is limited by the spreading of the beam between the chopper and the detection point as a consequence of the longitudinal velocity distribution of the beam. The setup adopted here effectively eliminates buildup of background gas without the use of a differential pumping stage, and a clean narrow pulse is obtained with low rotational temperature.

  16. Synthesis and Structure of a New Copper(II)Complex Cu(C13H9N3O2Br)2·H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张修堂; 詹晓平; 吴鼎铭; 杨文斌; 卢灿忠

    2002-01-01

    The new copper(II) complex Cu(C13H9N3O2Br)2@H2O (N-(2-hydroxy-5-bromo- benzoyl)-N?-(picolinylidene)hydrazine is abbreviated as HL ) was obtained from the refluxing solution of Cu(CH3COO)2H2O and HL in the ethanol-N, N-dimethylformamide mix solvent. Crystal data: triclinic, space group P ī, a = 10.8620(3), b = 11.7453 (3), c = 12.4417(2) ?, α = 62.255(0), β = 79.097(2), γ = 86.764(2)°, V = 1378.52(6) ?3, Z = 2, Mr = 719.835, Dc = 1.734 g/cm3, F(000) = 714, μ(MoKα) = 3.739 mm-1, T = 293(2) K, final R = 0.0594 and wR = 0.1416 for 2943 observed reflections with I > 2.0σ(I). The structure of Cu(C13H9N3O2Br)2@H2O has been determined by X-ray analysis and revealed that two L-1 ligands coordinate to the copper(Ⅱ) ion through two oxygen and two nitrogen atoms from the hydrazine groups and two pyridine nitrogen atoms to form an elongated and distorted square-bipyramidal environment for Cu(Ⅱ). The complex is also characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopies

  17. Physical, Optical and Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of PbBr2-PbO-B2O3 glasses containing Cu2+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, K. Chandra; Hameed, Abdul; Chary, M. Narasimha; Shareefuddin, Md

    2016-09-01

    The glasses with the composition PbBr2-PbO-B2O3 glasses containing Cu2+ ions were prepared by melt quenching technique. X-ray diffractograms revealed the amorphous nature of the glasses. Density and molar volume were determined. Density is found to decrease while the molar volume increases with increase of PbBr2 content. The optical absorption spectra exhibited a broad band corresponding to the d- d transition of Cu2+ ion. From optical absorption spectra Eopt and Urbach energies were determined. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies were carried out by introducing Cu2+ as the spin probe. Glasses containing transition metal(TM) ions such as Cu2+ give the information about the structure and the site symmetry around the TM ions. EPR spectra of all the glass samples were recorded at X-band frequencies. From the EPR spectra spin-Hamiltonian parameters were evaluated. It was observed that g∥ >g±>ge (2.0023) and A∥>A±. From this values it is concluded that the ground state of Cu2+ is dx2-y2 (2B1g) and the site symmetry around Cu2+ ion is tetragonally distorted octahedral. From the EPR and Optical data bonding coefficients were evaluated. The in plane o-bonding(α2) is moderately ionic while out of plane 7t-bonding(β2) and in plane 7t-bonding(β1 2) are ionic nature

  18. Synthesis, Structure and Fluorescent Property of a Novel 2-D Sheet Inorganic-organic Hybrid Cadmium Polymer [CdBr2(bpdo)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel 2-D sheet inorganic-organic hybrid cadmium polymer, [CdBr2(bpdo)]n (bpdo = N,N'-O,O-4,4'-bipyridine) has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c, with a = 16.336(3), b = 3.9904(5), c = 18.479(3) (A), β = 91.640(6)°, Mr = 460.40, V = 1204.1(3) (A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 2.540 g/cm3, μ = 8.439 mm-1, F(000) = 864, R = 0.0314 and wR = 0.0733 for 1069 observed reflections (I>2σ(I)). X-ray diffraction reveals that the title compound consists of the 2-D inorganic-organic hybrid sheet constructed from [CdBr2]n chains and bpdo bridges in the packing motif of …ABAB…. The title compound exhibits intense blue photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature.

  19. RESTRICTIONS BY THE USE OF WEAPONS OF RUSSIAN CITIZENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyatsa A. Kodzokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article considers the restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons. The author analyzes the restrictions on the circulation of weapons, the procedure for their implementation in practice. Federal Law "On weapons" only in paragraph 6 p. 1, art. 6 "Restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons" refers to the prohibition of 'turnover as a civilian and service weapons and other items affecting the action is based on the use of radiation and biological factors; weapons and other items affecting the action is based on the use of electromagnetic, light, thermal, subsonic or ultrasonic radiation and which have output parameters that exceed the value set by state standards of the Russian Federation and the relevant regulations of the federal executive authority in the field of public health, as well as these weapons and items produced outside the Russian territory " How to regard this provision of the law? As the transfer of new weapons, not specific item. 25 of the Federal Law "On weapons", or items prohibited for circulation in the territory of our state? This inconsistency decreases the effectiveness of the legal regulation of arms trafficking. Unification of definitions in this area will allow applying the law correctly and reasonably, including criminal. But for this it is necessary taking into account the experience and the modern needs of the various branches of law provide a clearer definition of "weapon" and its species. The author's conclusions may be used in law enforcement. 

  20. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  1. Russian machine-building: course to import substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Karsuntseva

    2016-03-01

    innovative development of engineering complex in the Russian Federation. nbsp

  2. The problems and threats of innovative development of Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Markovna Golova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the main indicators of innovative development of the Russian Federation for 2006–2013, the most acute problems and risks impeding the transition economy of Russian regions to the innovative model are revealed. There are problems of a further narrowing of the science sector, the continued reduction of human scientific potential, extremely slow formation of innovation sector, in particular the small increase of the share of innovation active enterprises, as well as volumes of their new products. The article pays particular attention to the tasks of improving regional innovative policy aimed at creating of the conditions for the formation and expanded reproduction of full-cycle innovation, involvement the business sector in the innovation processes, and the correlation between the regions innovation and socio-economic policies.

  3. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  4. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice. Th

  5. Perspectives on Russian Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    issue of choos - ing between alignment with Russia and the West is associated with the choice between two models of so- cial development.”68 The aptness...Kalicki and Eugene K. Lawson, eds., Russian-Eurasian Renaissance? U.S. Trade and Investment in Russia and Eurasia, Stanford, CA: Stanford University

  6. Russian Transliteration Variations for Searchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterczyk, Catherine E.

    1985-01-01

    This article deals with problem created by numerous schemes in use for transliteration of Cyrillic alphabet when attempting to obtain retrieval of Russian author's works in scientific databases available through Dialog, Bibliographic Retrieval Services, and System Development Corporation. Highlights include basic strategy and complications of…

  7. Synthesis and structure of diorganotin dibromides, R2SnBr2 (R = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl or 2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl): Hydrolysis of (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)2SnBr2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vadapalli Chandrasekhar; Ramalingam Thirumoorthi

    2010-09-01

    The reaction of SnBr4 with in situ generated 2,4,6-trimethylphenylmagnesium bromide afforded a mixture of (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)2SnBr2 (1) and (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)3SnBr (2) which could be separated from each other by their solubility differences in diethyl ether. On the other hand, the reaction of tin metal with 2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2Br afforded (2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2SnBr2 (3). Hydrolysis of the latter using triethylamine as the base afforded [{(2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2Sn}2(-O)(Br)(-OH)]2.2CH2Cl2 (4) while the use of NaOH as the base afforded [{(2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2Sn}2(-O)(OH)(-OH)]2.2CH2Cl2 (5). Compounds 4 and 5 are dimeric tetraorganodistannoxanes consisting of a central distannoxane (Sn2O2) motif.

  8. Correlation Assessment of Tax System Risk and Profitability in the Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yuryevna Malkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is the risk, returnm and efficiency of the tax systems in the regions of the Russian Federation. Research methods: deflating GRP and tax revenues at regional level; calculating the standard deviations; G. Markowitz portfolio approach; W. Sharpe ratio calculating; correlation and regression analysis. Results obtained: 1 comparative risk profile of various taxes and their groups in the Russian Federation; 2 clustering the Russian regions in terms of risk and return of tax systems; 3 regression between the risk of regional tax systems, relative scale of regional economics and tax return based on panel data of the Russian regions in 2006-2012; 4 ranking of the RF regions on the effectiveness of their tax systems, estimated by W. Sharpe ratio. In the paper, the authors have concluded: 1 all taxes (tax group collected in the Russian regions demonstrate a positive statistical relationship between return and risk, but with different correlation; 2 the risk of regional tax system depends on the structure of tax revenues in given region, the risks of collected taxes and the covariance of different taxes revenues to each other, and joint effect of these factors is estimated by means of portfolio approach by G. Markowitz; 3 the correlation between return and risk of the tax systems of the subjects of Russian Federation considering the scale of regional economics accounts for 75 %; 4 the risk of the Russian tax system is significantly provided by 19 major high-risk regions with more than 65 share in the total state tax revenues; 5 the effectiveness of regional tax systems estimated by the Sharpe ratio depends on both the objective and subjective factors affecting the yield and volatility of tax revenues in a region. Obtained results can be used by researchers in further dynamic and comparative analysis of regional tax systems’ risk and return, as well as in identifying the reserves for increasing the regional tax policy

  9. Russian perspectives: The past shapes the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, R.P.

    1994-11-01

    This document contains an outline of a speech given to a group of professionals at Pacific Northwest Laboratory which was intended to give an unbiased view of Soviet perceptions. Topics discussed include: The new mission of US and Soviet labs and institutions to develop products and dedicate research to post cold war threat, historical prospectives of Russia, Russian military roles and missions, ideology of Russian politics, evils of capitalism, Russian civil war, communism, world war II, Russian losses during the war, the cold war, reasons why America should care what happens in Russia, the internal threat against a market-based economy, the US should help, and the Russian people and their attitudes.

  10. RUSSIANS AS STATE-NATION: PROBLEMS, DETAILS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai F. Bugay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Offered to the reader the article is rather a response to the outcome of the July 2016 forum of public associations of the Republic of Adygea, neighboring countries, the country's center, as well as representatives of scientists, politicians. The main issue was the recognition and giving the Russian people in Russia, his undisputed status as the state forming the community, who are building an alliance of nations and considered it his main task at many stages of development of Russian statehood.Participants of the forum based on their understanding of the problem, however, is based, naturally, on the terms and conclusions of the President of Russia VV article Putin, published by him in January 2012. According to the speakers, the federal authorities aimed to solve the problems the scope of national public policy, is not sufficient to decide whether, or simply do not show attention to him. Stage by stage carried out a kind of "zabaltyvanie" such a complex and fundamental issue, which is an alternative society, is not. It should be solved at all levels of government and society, and the position on the status of the Russian people, as a state-forming must be recorded in the Basic Law of the state - the Russian Federation Constitution.This article attempts to examine the understanding and perception of this problem in the multi-ethnic Russian community, its development, the first interim results.Named and the results of the forum in the Republic of Adygea, which indicates a high assessment of the role of the Russian people, which flows around the process of uniting the other peoples of Russia, including the peoples of the Caucasus. Attention is paid to the role and place of such spheres of life as a community of nations in economic development, in the dialogue of cultures, the estimation of the value of the measures carried out in the first place to consolidate the country's people, their progressive development. Sounds also call for the active

  11. Generation of counter ion radical (Br2(•-)) and its reactions in water-in-oil (CTAB or CPB)/n-butanol/cyclohexane/water) microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K; Sarkar, Sisir K; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2011-09-15

    Herein we report the generation of counterion radicals and their reactions in quaternary water-in-oil microemulsion. Hydrated electrons in the microemulsion CTAB/H(2)O/n-butanol/cyclohexane have a remarkably short half-life (∼1 μs) and lower yield as compared to that in the pure water system. Electrons are solvated in two regions: one is the water core and other the interface; however, the electrons in the water core have a shorter half-life than those in the interface. The decay of the solvated electrons in the interface is found to be water content dependent and it has been interpreted in terms of increased interfacial fluidity with the increase in water content of the microemulsion. Interestingly another species, dibromide radical anion (Br(2)(•-)) in CTAB and CPB microemulsions have been observed after the electron beam irradiation. Assuming that the extinction coefficient of the radicals is the same as that in the aqueous solution, the yields of the radicals per 100 eV are 0.29 and 0.48 for the Br(2)(•-) radical in CTAB and CPB containing microemulsions (W(0) = 40), respectively, under N(2)O saturated conditions. Further, we intended to study electron transfer reactions, which occur at and through the interface. The reaction of the Br(2)(•-) radical anion with ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] has been studied to generate the ABTS radical in the water core, and further, its reaction has been investigated with the water-insoluble molecule vitamin E (tocopherol) and water-soluble vitamin C (ascorbic acid). In the present study, we were able to show that, even for molecules which are completely insoluble in water, ABTS scavenging assay is possible by pulse radiolysis technique. Furthermore, these results show that it is possible to follow the reaction of the hydrated inorganic radical with solutes dissolved in the organic phase in a microemulsion without use of a phase transfer catalyst.

  12. The problems of detecting hydrides in metal carbonyl clusters by 1H NMR: the case study of [H4-n Ni22(C2)4(CO)28(CdBr)2]n- (n = 2-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Alessandro; Femoni, Cristina; Iapalucci, Maria Carmela; Longoni, Giuliano; Zacchini, Stefano

    2009-06-07

    The new tetra-acetylide carbonyl clusters [H(4-n)Ni(22)(C(2))(4)(CO)(28)(CdBr)(2)](n-) (n = 2-4) have been prepared by reacting [Ni(10)C(2)(CO)(15)](2-) with a large excess of CdBr(2).xH(2)O and the molecular structure of the di-anion [H(2)Ni(22)(C(2))(4)(CO)(28)(CdBr)(2)](2-) has been fully elucidated by means of X-ray crystallography. The corresponding [HNi(22)(C(2))(4)(CO)(28)(CdBr)(2)](3-) and [Ni(22)(C(2))(4)(CO)(28)(CdBr)(2)](4-) conjugated bases are quantitatively obtained upon dissolution of [H(2)Ni(22)(C(2))(4)(CO)(28)(CdBr)(2)](2-) salts in more basic solvents such as acetonitrile and DMSO, respectively. The hydride nature of both [H(2)Ni(22)(C(2))(4)(CO)(28)(CdBr)(2)](2-) and [HNi(22)(C(2))(4)(CO)(28)(CdBr)(2)](3-) has been directly proved by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Their resonances are very broad under all experimental conditions and their chemical shift greatly depends on solvent as well as temperature. Observation of the hydride resonances in [H(4-n)Ni(22)(C(2))(4)(CO)(28)(CdBr)(2)](n-) (n = 2, 3) makes these clusters a case study of the phenomena behind the loss of any NMR signal in higher-nuclearity metal carbonyl cluster anions (MCCA). In the attempt to obtain a better insight on this experimental spectroscopic behaviour, solutions of [NMe(4)](3)[HNi(22)(C(2))(4)(CO)(28)(CdBr)(2)] have been investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) at various concentrations. The DLS experiments point out the presence in solution of a distribution of particles with nominal hydrodynamic diameters enormously greater than those of the free cluster ions resulting, probably, from aggregation in solution. This could formally justify the observed NMR behaviour, even if the present observations are preliminary and their quantitative assessment requires further systematic studies on MCCA aggregation in solution.

  13. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  14. Determination of Russian innovative activity tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. Motova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an attempt to group main types of economic activity depending on intensity and efficiency of innovative activities on the basis of the available statistical information on dynamics of innovative activities in various industries of economy and with the use of the mathematic and statistical tool, in particular, cluster analysis tool. For this purpose, on the basis of the data, contained in the statistical report, characterizing the level of innovative activity (number of the innovation-active organizations, costs for technological innovations, amount of the shipped innovative products, etc. the indicators, characterizing intensity and efficiency of innovative activities were calculated. They have acted as the initial information for implementation of the cluster analysis.Further analysis results of the data, characterizing profitability of investments in various industries of economy are presented. Obviously, the activity of implementation of financial investments in various sectors of industrial production and service sector are directly connected with the profit on financial investments. On the basis of the dynamics analysis of investments’ profitability in various industries of economy for the period of 2005-2014 leaders and outsiders in this indicator are revealed. The following conclusion is made: the need to develop the forecast estimations on the indicators, characterizing profitability of financial investments on main types of economic activity.The analysis of innovative activities in the Russian Federation (results are given in the article, is based on the official statistics data. The main source of statistical information is the report «Information about innovative activity of organization «. The data, obtained as a result of the observation, are published in the editions «Indicators of Innovative Activity» (The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat and

  15. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF TOOLS OF CARRYING OUT THE ALL-RUSSIAN POPULATION CENSUS OF 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Manzhula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At a stage of preparation for the All-Russian population census of 2020 it is necessary to develop methodical and technological support of processes of carrying out census for increase of reliability of data collection and quality of information processing of population census of the Russian Federation with use of modern information and communication technologies, and also a technique of an assessment of efficiency of application of tools of carrying out census

  16. Steven E. Miller and Dmitri V. Trenin, eds., The Russian Military: Power and Policy, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Tsypkin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Russian military largely went below the radar of Western interest after the disintegration of the Soviet Union.  More than a decade after the creation of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, they have become again the object of interest for scholars – this time, both Western and Russian, as demonstrated by the reviewed volume, whose editors assembled a group of extraordinarily knowledgeable experts from Russia and the West.  In his introduction, Steven Miller explains that the purp...

  17. Does Russia Need Sex Education? The Views of Stakeholders in Three Russian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Ruzanna; Schmidt, Elena; Wall, Martin; Garnett, Geoffrey; Atun, Rifat; Maksimova, Svetlana; Davidenko, Ludmila; Renton, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the attitudes of the main stakeholders towards the introduction of sex education in schools in Russia. Design: Qualitative semi-structured interview study. Setting: Altai Krai, Volgograd Oblast, Moscow, Russian Federation. Participants: One hundred and fifty-three interviews with Intersectoral HIV/AIDS Committee members,…

  18. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  19. The NQR observation of spin-Peierls transition in an antiferromagnetic MX-chain complex [NiBr(chxn)2]Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Shinya; Tobu, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Goto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Okubo, Takashi; Mitani, Tadaoki; Ikeda, Ryuichi

    2004-02-18

    81Br Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement was performed in an S = 1/2 one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic metal complex [NiBr(chxn)2]Br2 (chxn: 1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane), having a halogen-bridged MX chain structure -Br-Ni3+-Br-Ni3+-Br-. Two 81Br NQR signals were observed below 40 K, while a single signal was observed above 130 K, showing the presence of two nonequivalent bridging Br sites below 40 K. This NQR result together with previously reported magnetic susceptibility and X-ray results indicate the occurrence of a transition into a spin-Peierls state between 40 and 130 K. This communication reports the first spin-Peierls transition in metal complexes in which pure d electrons contribute to the magnetism. In addition, we demonstrated a new experimental method for studying a spin-Peierls system.

  20. [Analysis of genetic diversity of Russian regional populations based on common STR markers used in DNA identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesik, V Yu; Fedunin, A A; Agdzhoyan, A T; Utevska, O M; Chukhraeva, M I; Evseeva, I V; Churnosov, M I; Lependina, I N; Bogunov, Yu V; Bogunova, A A; Ignashkin, M A; Yankovsky, N K; Balanovska, E V; Orekhov, V A; Balanovsky, O P

    2014-06-01

    We conducted the first genetic analysis of a wide a range of rural Russian populations in European Russia with a panel of common DNA markers commonly used in criminalistics genetic identification. We examined a total of 647 samples from indigenous ethnic Russian populations in Arkhangelsk, Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk, Rostov, Ryazan, and Orel regions. We employed a multiplex genotyping kit, COrDIS Plus, to genotype Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci, which included the genetic marker panel officially recommended for DNA identification in the Russian Federation, the United States, and the European Union. In the course of our study, we created a database of allelic frequencies, examined the distribution of alleles and genotypes in seven rural Russian populations, and defined the genetic relationships between these populations. We found that, although multidimensional analysis indicated a difference between the Northern gene pool and the rest of the Russian European populations, a pairwise comparison using 19 STR markers among all populations did not reveal significant differences. This is in concordance with previous studies, which examined up to 12 STR markers of urban Russian populations. Therefore, the database of allelic frequencies created in this study can be applied for forensic examinations and DNA identification among the ethnic Russian population over European Russia. We also noted a decrease in the levels of heterozygosity in the northern Russian population compared to ethnic populations in southern and central Russia, which is consistent with trends identified previously using classical gene markers and analysis of mitochondrial DNA.