Sample records for bowen basin australia

  1. Evaluation of rock mass classification schemes: a case study from the Bowen Basin, Australia (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Hebblewhite, Bruce; Mitra, Rudrajit


    The development of an accurate engineering geological model and adequate knowledge of spatial variation in rock mass conditions are important prerequisites for slope stability analyses, tunnel design, mine planning and risk management. Rock mass classification schemes such as Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR), Q-system and Roof Strength Index (RSI) have been used for a range of engineering geological applications, including transport tunnels, "hard rock" mining and underground and open-cut coal mines. Often, rock mass classification schemes have been evaluated on subaerial exposures, where weathering has affected joint characteristics and intact strength. In contrast, the focus of this evaluation of the above classification schemes is an underground coal mine in the Bowen Basin, central Queensland, Australia, 15 km east of the town of Moranbah. Rock mass classification was undertaken at 68 sites across the mine. Both the target coal seam and overlying rock show marked spatial variability in terms of RMR, CMRR and Q, but RSI showed limited sensitivity to changes in rock mass condition. Relationships were developed between different parameters with varying degrees of success. A mine-wide analysis of faulting was undertaken, and compared with in situ stress field and local-scale measurements of joint and cleat. While there are no unequivocal relationships between rock mass classification parameters and faulting, a central graben zone shows heterogeneous rock mass properties. The corollary is that if geological features can be accurately defined by remote sensing technologies, then this can assist in predicting rock mass conditions and risk management ahead of development and construction.

  2. Variations in coal maceral chemistry with rank advance in the German Creek and Moranbah Coal Measures of the Bowen Basin, Australia, using electron microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Colin R.; Li, Zhongsheng; Gurba, Lila W. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 (Australia)


    Variations in the elemental composition of individual macerals in seams from the Permian German Creek and Moranbah Coal Measures in the Bowen Basin of Queensland have been studied over a wide range of coal ranks, using light-element electron microprobe techniques, to establish the coalification tracks of key macerals in a single coal-bearing interval from subbituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. Vitrinite reflectance (Rv{sub max}) in the seams studied increases from 0.39% in the western part of the basin to over 3.5% in the east, apparently due to increases in burial depth. The study extends significantly the rank range covered by previous work on elemental analysis of individual macerals in the Gunnedah Basin, and provides a more useful basis than whole-coal analysis to evaluate the performance of coals in different utilisation processes. The microprobe results show that the carbon content of the telocollinite increases dramatically from 66% to 90% as the vitrinite reflectance of the coals (Rv{sub max}) increases from 0.39% to around 1.75%, but increases only slightly, from 90% to 91%, as Rv{sub max} increases from 1.75% to 3.52%. Oxygen decreases from around 26% to approximately 5% as Rv{sub max} increases from 0.39% to around 1.75%, and then decreases only very slightly into the anthracite range. The nitrogen content of the telocollinite in these coals also appears to decrease slightly with rank advance, and appears moreover to display a relatively abrupt drop at around 2% Rv{sub max}. This may be associated with the development of ammonium illite in the mineral matter. Organic sulphur in the telocollinite, on the other hand, seems to remain essentially constant with rank advance, at least in this particular succession. In contrast to vitrinite, fusinite and inertodetrinite have significantly higher but somewhat more constant carbon contents, varying only from around 81% to 93% C over the rank range studied. Oxygen in these macerals decreases from

  3. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.


    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  4. In-situ analysis of solid bitumen in coal: Examples from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Glikson, M.


    Solid bitumen and associated vitrinite from selected coals from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin were studied using electron microprobe and micro-FTIR techniques. The coal studied covers a range of vitrinite reflectance from 0.59% to 1.33%. Carbon content in the bitumen is generally lower than in vitrinite in coals with vitrinite reflectance below 0.67%. In coals with reflectance above 0.67%, carbon content of bitumen is higher than in vitrinite, reflecting higher aromaticity due to hydrocarbon generation. Sulfur and iron content are comparable between vitrinite and bitumen. Functional group distribution suggests the presence of two types of bitumen in the Illinois Basin coals. The more aliphatic variety occurring in veins and cleats is interpreted as pre-gas generation bitumen, and the more aromatic variety filling cells and voids in inertinite as post-gas generation bitumen. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Solid bitumen and associated vitrinite from selected coals from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin were studied using electron microprobe and micro-FTIR techniques. The coal studied covers a range of vitrinite reflectance from 0.59% to 1.33%. Carbon content in the bitumen is generally lower than in vitrinite in coals with vitrinite reflectance below 0.67%. In coals with reflectance above 0.67%, carbon content of bitumen is higher than in vitrinite, reflecting higher aromaticity due to hydrocarbon generation. Sulfur and iron content are comparable between vitrinite and bitumen. Functional group distribution suggests the presence of two types of bitumen in the Illinois Basin coals. The more aliphatic variety occurring in veins and cleats is interpreted as pre-gas generation bitumen, and the more aromatic variety filling cells and voids in inertinite as post-gas generation bitumen.

  5. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky


    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (βCanning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture

  6. Geodynamic evolution of early Mesozoic sedimentary basins in eastern Australia (United States)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Babaahmadi, A.; Esterle, J.


    Eastern Australia is covered by a series of continental sedimentary basins deposited during the Triassic and Jurassic, but the geodynamic context of these basins is not fully understood. Using gridded aeromagnetic data, seismic reflection data, geological maps, digital elevation models, and field observations, we conducted a structural synthesis aimed at characterizing major structures and deformation style in the Triassic-Jurassic sedimentary basins of eastern Australia. Our results show evidence for four alternating episodes of rifting and contractional events during the Triassic. Two major episodes of rifting, characterized by syn-sedimentary steep normal faults and bimodal volcanism, resulted in the development of the Early-Middle Triassic Esk-Nymboida Rift System and the early Late Triassic Ipswich Basin. Faults in the Esk-Nymboida Rift System have been controlled by a pre-existing oroclinal structure. Each phase of rifting was followed by a contractional event, which produced folds, reverse faults and unconformities in the basins. Since the latest Late Triassic, thermal subsidence led to the deposition of continental sediments in the Clarence-Moreton Basin, which continued until the Early Cretaceous. We suggest that the geodynamic control on the alternating episodes of rifting and contraction during the Triassic in eastern Australia was ultimately related to plate boundary migration and switches between trench retreat and advance.

  7. Deep crustal reflection results from the central Eromanga Basin, Australia (United States)

    Mathur, S. P.


    From 1980 to 1982 deep seismic reflection profiles were recorded across the central Eromanga Basin in eastern Australia to study the regional structure, stratigraphy and geological history of the Eromanga Basin and infra-basins. The reflection data were recorded to 20 s to obtain additional information on the nature and structure of the crust below the sediments and their relationship to the development of the basins. The seismic sections show good quality reflections from the deep crust as well as from the sedimentary layers. Based on the character, strength, coherence, continuity and spatial distribution of the reflections, the sections can be divided into four zones. The tope zone between 0 and 2.5 s shows fairly uniform, coherent and continuous events which correlate with the Mesozoic and Late Palaeozoic sediments. The zone from 2.5 to 8 s (4 to 22 km) does not show any primary reflections and is interpreted as the highly-deformed metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Early Palaeozoic Thomson Orogen underlying the sediments. Without any recognisable reflection or diffraction patterns in this zone, it is difficult to say whether the faulting and folding observed in the sediments extend into the upper crustal basement. The deeper zone of numerous reflection segments between 8 and 12.5 s (22 to 36 km) is interpreted as thin laminae of alternating low and high velocity (intermediate and basic) rocks, and correlates with the lower crust bounded by refraction velocity discontinuities. The lowest zone of no reflections below 12.5 s corresponds with the upper mantle. The reflection character and thickness as well as the refraction velocity structure of the crust under the central Eromanga Basin area are significantly different from those of the Precambrian crust under the Georgina Basin to the northwest. It is proposed that the crust under the Eromanga Basin is extensionally attenuated crust which had been intruded by sills of basaltic melt from the underlying

  8. Use of Bowen Theory. (United States)

    Gibson, Joan M.; Donigian, Jeremiah


    Notes that theory-based approach to treatment of codependency is missing in fields of chemical dependency and mental health. Presents Bowen family systems therapy as foundation and framework for treatment goals and interventions. Illustrates similarities between characteristics of low levels of differentiation of self and codependency. (Author/NB)

  9. Conductivity models for the North Perth Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Hoskin, T. E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Jones, A. G.


    Exploration for geothermal resources in the North Perth basin, Western Australia, led to acquisition of new, high resolution Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) data, the first of its kind in the area. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques are widely used in geothermal exploration and ground water investigations and they are well suited for application in the Perth basin. Two east-west transects investigating the structure of the onshore basin and its eastern margin, the Darling Fault Zone, are compared with existing geological models and geophysical data. Down-hole temperature data and depth-to-basement models were used to define areas of investigation in the basin, but there are limited geophysical data available. 1D, 2D and 3D modeling of electromagnetic data have been used to produce new conductivity models using existing data to constrain modelling. EM data complement existing gravity and seismic data and support published models in the upper 4-6km. However in deeper parts of the basin, MT data provide additional information allowing for revision of depth-to-basement. In addition to this, we clearly identify a conductivity anomaly associated with the Darling Fault Zone and are able to image this anomaly penetrating into the upper mantle. Fault zone conductors have been imaged on other lithosphere faults around the world, with one explanation being fluids in the enhanced permeability of the damage zone. Evidence to explain the fault zone conductor of the Darling Fault is presented and discussed as it could have significant implications in the identification of new areas, prospective for geothermal resources in the basin.

  10. Upper Devonian microvertebrates from the Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Roelofs, Brett; Playton, Ted; Barham, Milo; Trinajstic, Kate


    A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.

  11. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  13. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj;


    Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow-water palaeoenvironm...

  14. A case of pigmented Bowen's disease* (United States)

    Vivan, Márcia Maria; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique; do Nascimento, Liliane Santos; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva


    Pigmented Bowen's disease is a rare subtype of Bowen's disease. Clinically it presents as a slow-growing, well-defined, hyperpigmented plaque, and should be included as a differential diagnosis of other pigmented lesions. The authors describe a challenging case of pigmented Bowen's disease with non-diagnostic dermscopy findings. PMID:28225972

  15. Forearc basin correlations from around the Texas Orocline, New England Orogen, east Australia (United States)

    Hoy, Derek; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Shaanan, Uri; Wormald, Richard


    The late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic New England Orogen occupies much of the eastern seaboard of Australia. The orogen formed by west-dipping subduction (present-day coordinates) of the paleo-Pacific plate beneath eastern Gondwana. The southern part of the orogen exhibits a series of tight bends (oroclines) that are evident in the curvature of a Devonian-Carboniferous subduction complex, in particular the forearc basin and accretionary complex. The Emu Creek Block is thought to be part of the forearc basin that is exposed in the eastern limb of the Texas Orocline, but until now the tectonostratigraphic origin of the Emu Creek Block has only been inferred from limited geological data. Here we present detrital zircon geochronology (U/Pb ICP-MS ages), a new geological map of the block, and a revised stratigraphic section. Lithological investigation of strata within the block and the age distribution of detrital zircons indicate that the sediments in the Emu Creek Block were derived from a Carboniferous magmatic arc and were most likely deposited in a forearc basin. Our new geochronological constraints indicate deposition during the late Carboniferous. We therefore propose that rocks in the Emu Creek Block are arc-distal correlatives of the forearc basin in the opposing (western) limb of the Texas Orocline, specifically the Willuri and Currabubula formations. Extensive orocline-parallel structures in the forearc basin indicate that the eastern limb of the Texas Orocline was rotated in the course of oroclinal bending by approximately 135 degrees relative to the western limb. The correlation of the forearc basin blocks on opposite limbs of the Texas Orocline provides an independent constraint on its geometry and further improves our understanding of New England Orogen tectonostratigraphy and the crustal structure of eastern Australia.

  16. The Geohydrology of MVT-Ore Genesis in the Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Garven, G.; Wallace, M. M.


    In the Lennard Shelf, Western Australia, epigenetic MVT-type Pb-Zn mineralization occurs in Middle Devonian evaporitic dolomites which were part of a barrier reef system (Hurley & Lohmann, 1989). Ore mineralization exhibits a strong structural control at the basin scale and normal faults probably controlled pathways for brine and petroleum migration that affected ore deposition (Wallace et al., 1999). For the Canning basin, finite element simulations show that compaction was the most important process for creating overpressures and driving basinal fluids in this thick extensional basin. Basinal fluids are shown to have been driven across the Fitzroy Trough through permeable and deeply buried Silurian-Ordovician aquifer units. The fluids then migrated upwards at rates of m/yr up during periods of episodic extension (Braun, 1992) where fluid flow was channeled by major normal fault zones like the Cadjebut and Pinnacles Faults. Reactive flow simulations test a petroleum-reservoir model for mineralization whereby metal-bearing brines mix with accumulated hydrocarbons (Anderson & Garven, 1987). The results show that compaction-driven flow, as proposed by Beales & Jackson (1966) and Jackson & Beales (1967), works rather well in this ore district--other mechanisms such as sealevel tidal pumping (Cathles, 1988) or topographic drive (Solomon & Groves, 1994) are more tenuous and really unnecessary from a mass transport or geohydrologic basis.

  17. Australia. (United States)


    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  18. Tectonic development of the Northwest Bonaparte Basin, Australia by using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (United States)

    Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Ragab Gaafar, Gamal; Yusoff, AP Wan Ismail Wan


    The Bonaparte Basin consist of majorly offshore part is situated at Australia's NW continental margin, covers an area of approx. 270,000km2. Bonaparte Basin having a number of sub-basins and platform areas of Paleozoic and Mesozoic is structurally complex. This research established the geologic and geomorphologic studies using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as a substitute approach in morphostructural analysis to unravel the geological complexities. Although DEMs have been in practice since 1990s, they still have not become common tool for mapping studies. The research work comprised of regional structural analysis with the help of integrated elevation data, satellite imageries, available open topograhic images and internal geological maps with interpreted seismic. The structural maps of the study area have been geo-referenced which further overlaid onto SRTM data and satellite images for combined interpretation which facilitate to attain Digital Elevation Model of the study area. The methodology adopts is to evaluate and redefine development of geodynamic processes involved in formation of Bonaparte Basin. The main objectives is to establish the geological histories by using digital elevation model. The research work will be useful to incorporate different tectonic events occurred at different Geological times in a digital elevation model. The integrated tectonic analysis of different digital data sets benefitted substantially from combining them into a common digital database. Whereas, the visualization software facilitates the overlay and combined interpretation of different data sets which is helpful to reveal hidden information not obvious or accessible otherwise for regional analysis.

  19. Minimal groundwater leakage restricts salinity in a hydrologically terminal basin of northwest Australia (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Rouillard, Alexandra; Grierson, Pauline


    The Fortescue Marsh (FM) is one of the largest wetlands of arid northwest Australia (~1200 km2) and is thought to act as a terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue River catchment. Unlike the playa lake systems that predominate in most arid regions, where salinity is driven by inflow and evaporation of groundwater, the hydrological regime of the FM is driven by inundation from irregular cyclonic events [1]. Surface water of the FM is fresh to brackish and the salinity of the deepest groundwater (80 m b.g.l.) does not exceed 160 g/L; salt efflorescences are rarely present on the surface [2]. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that persistent but low rates of groundwater outflow have restricted the accumulation of salt in the FM over time. Using hydrological, hydrochemical data and dimensionless time evaporation modelling along with the water and salt budget, we calculated the time and the annual groundwater discharge volume that would be required to achieve and maintain the range of salinity levels observed in the Marsh. Groundwater outflow from alluvial and colluvial aquifers to the Lower Fortescue catchment is limited by an extremely low hydraulic gradient of 0.001 and is restricted to a relatively small 'alluvial window' of 0.35 km2 because of the elevation of the basement bedrock at the Marsh outflow. We show that if the Marsh was 100% "leakage free" i.e., a true terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue Catchment, the basin water would have achieved salt saturation after ~45 ka. This is not the case and only a very small outflow of saline groundwater of Marsh and the steady-state conditions for salt concentration is between 58 and 164 ka. This is a minimum age of the Marsh but it can be much older as nearly steady-state conditions could be maintained infinitely. Our approach using a combined water and salt mass balance allows a more robust assessment of the hydrological budget of such a large-scale basin. The dimensionless time versus inflow over outflow ratio

  20. Groundwater flow and solute transport at the Mourquong saline-water disposal basin, Murray Basin, southeastern Australia (United States)

    Simmons, Craig; Narayan, Kumar; Woods, Juliette; Herczeg, Andrew


    Saline groundwater and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in some 200 natural and artificial saline-water disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their impact on underlying aquifers and the River Murray, one of Australia's major water supplies, is of serious concern. In one such scheme, saline groundwater is pumped into Lake Mourquong, a natural groundwater discharge complex. The disposal basin is hydrodynamically restricted by low-permeability lacustrine clays, but there are vulnerable areas in the southeast where the clay is apparently missing. The extent of vertical and lateral leakage of basin brines and the processes controlling their migration are examined using (1) analyses of chloride and stable isotopes of water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) to infer mixing between regional groundwater and lake water, and (2) the variable-density groundwater flow and solute-transport code SUTRA. Hydrochemical results indicate that evaporated disposal water has moved at least 100 m in an easterly direction and that there is negligible movement of brines in a southerly direction towards the River Murray. The model is used to consider various management scenarios. Salt-load movement to the River Murray was highest in a "worst-case" scenario with irrigation employed between the basin and the River Murray. Present-day operating conditions lead to little, if any, direct movement of brine from the basin into the river. Résumé. Les eaux souterraines salées et les effluents de drainage de l'irrigation sont stockés dans environ 200 bassins naturels ou artificiels destinés à retenir les eaux salines dans tout le bassin de Murray-Darling, en Australie. Leur impact sur les aquifères sous-jacents et sur la rivière Murray, l'une des principales ressources en eau d'Australie, constitue un problème grave. Dans une telle situation, les eaux souterraines salines sont pompées dans le lac Mourquong, complexe dans lequel les nappes se d

  1. Paleomagnetic Study of the Devonian Reef Complexes of the Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Yan, M.; Tohver, E.; Cawood, P. A.; Kirschvink, J.; Peek, S.; Playton, T.; Hocking, R.; Haines, P.; Montgomery, P.


    The reef systems in the Canning Basin, Western Australia perhaps are the best exposed and least deformed examples of ancient reef systems known in the world. The recently commenced multi-disciplinary research project in the Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin is a broad investigation of the depositional history of a carbonate platform using paleomagnetic, stable isotope geochemistry (inorganic and organic), sedimentology, and biostratigraphy. By focusing on the world-class exposures in the Canning Basin, this project seeks to provide a global stratigraphic reference frame for key intervals in life history such as the Frasnian-Fammenian mass extinction event, as well as providing a useful analogue for resource models of other carbonate reef systems elsewhere in the world. This reference frame will consist of a high resolution magnetostratigraphic profile to supplement the presently-sparse Global Polarity Timescale (GPTS) for the Devonian, as well as a chemostratigraphic profile (chiefly carbon isotopes) to identify possible shifts in the global carbon budget associated with biotic crises and/or climate change. Additional goals include identification of the conditions leading up to, and possible causes of the mass extinction event, and testing for a possible mid-Paleozoic episode of True Polar Wander. We report here on a paleomagnetic study of two magnetostratigraphic sections in the Canning Basin to address the goals mentioned above. Paleomagnetic samples have been drilled on the Late Frasnian limestones in the north of the Windjana Gorge National Park, with a total number of 400 core samples. So far preliminary paleomagnetic analysis on pilot samples reveals two characteristic remanent components. One component has a blocking temperatures less than 400 degree Celsius, probably a component of secondary overprint; another component has a blocking temperature around 580 and around 680 degree Celsius, indicating the presence of magnetite and hematite

  2. Basin-scale geothermal model calibration: experience from the Perth Basin, Australia (United States)

    Wellmann, Florian; Reid, Lynn


    The calibration of large-scale geothermal models for entire sedimentary basins is challenging as direct measurements of rock properties and subsurface temperatures are commonly scarce and the basal boundary conditions poorly constrained. Instead of the often applied "trial-and-error" manual model calibration, we examine here if we can gain additional insight into parameter sensitivities and model uncertainty with a model analysis and calibration study. Our geothermal model is based on a high-resolution full 3-D geological model, covering an area of more than 100,000 square kilometers and extending to a depth of 55 kilometers. The model contains all major faults (>80 ) and geological units (13) for the entire basin. This geological model is discretised into a rectilinear mesh with a lateral resolution of 500 x 500 m, and a variable resolution at depth. The highest resolution of 25 m is applied to a depth range of 1000-3000 m where most temperature measurements are available. The entire discretised model consists of approximately 50 million cells. The top thermal boundary condition is derived from surface temperature measurements on land and ocean floor. The base of the model extents below the Moho, and we apply the heat flux over the Moho as a basal heat flux boundary condition. Rock properties (thermal conductivity, porosity, and heat production) have been compiled from several existing data sets. The conductive geothermal forward simulation is performed with SHEMAT, and we then use the stand-alone capabilities of iTOUGH2 for sensitivity analysis and model calibration. Simulated temperatures are compared to 130 quality weighted bottom hole temperature measurements. The sensitivity analysis provided a clear insight into the most sensitive parameters and parameter correlations. This proved to be of value as strong correlations, for example between basal heat flux and heat production in deep geological units, can significantly influence the model calibration procedure

  3. Groundwater seepage controls salinity in a hydrologically terminal basin of semi-arid northwest Australia (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Rouillard, Alexandra; Grierson, Pauline F.


    Very small groundwater outflows have the potential to significantly impact the hydrochemistry and salt accumulation processes of notionally terminal basins in arid environments. However, this limited groundwater outflow can be very difficult to quantify using classical water budget calculations due to large uncertainties in estimates of evaporation and evapotranspiration rates from the surface of dry lake beds. In this study, we used a dimensionless time evaporation model to estimate the range of groundwater outflow required to maintain salinity levels observed at the Fortescue Marsh (FM), one of the largest wetlands of semi-arid northwest Australia (∼1100 km2). The groundwater outflow from aquifers underlying the FM to the Lower Fortescue catchment is constrained by an extremely low hydraulic gradient of flood water is fresh to brackish, and salt efflorescences are very sparse and evident only when the FM is dry. We show that if the FM was 100% "leakage free" i.e., a true terminal basin, groundwater would have achieved halite saturation (>300 g/L) after ∼45 ka. We calculated that only a very small seepage of ∼2G L/yr (∼0.03% of the FM water volume) is sufficient to maintain current salinity conditions. The minimum time required to develop the current hydrochemical groundwater composition under the FM ranges from ∼60 to ∼165 ka. We conclude that a dimensionless time evaporation model versus inflow over outflow ratio model is likely more suitable than classical water budget calculations for determining outflow from large saline lakes and to estimate groundwater seepage from hydrologically terminal basins.

  4. Connecting Bowen theory with its human origins. (United States)

    Innes, M


    Murray Bowen recognized the importance of grounding clinical practice within a clearly articulated theoretical framework, which could claim its place within the general scientific tradition. Bowen theory has established itself as a significant contribution to the field of family therapy. However, in its insistence on excluding, in the interests of rigorous inquiry, all contributions except those from a natural science perspective, Bowen theory has neglected the very elements that are the identifying characteristics of Homo sapiens. As well as recognizing the common systemic characteristics of all life forms, a theory of the family and family therapy that does justice to the human condition will also need to attend to the ways in which human systems are distinct from those of other life forms. In this enterprise, the social sciences will be as important as the natural sciences.

  5. An application of Bowen family systems theory. (United States)

    Haefner, Judy


    While nurse practitioners initially work with the identified patient, Murray Bowen maintains it is the reciprocal functioning of all the members of the family which contributes to the emotional intensity of the patient. The emotional symptoms of an individual are an expression of the emotional symptoms of the family, which are often embedded in patterns of behaviors from past generations. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate understanding Bowen's theoretical concepts of family systems theory and apply these concepts to a family in therapy.

  6. Generation and expulsion of oils from Permian coals of the Sydney Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Faiz, M.; Stalker, L. [CSIRO Petrology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Organic geochemical and petrological assessment of coals/coaly shales and fine grained sediments, coupled with organic geochemical analyses of oil samples, all from Permo-Triassic sections of the Southern Sydney Basin (Australia), have enabled identification of the source for the widely distributed oil shows and oil seeps in this region. The Permian coals have higher hydrogen indices, higher liptinite contents, and much higher total organic matter extract yields than the fine grained sediments. A variety of source specific parameters obtained from n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids, terpanes, steranes and diasteranes indicate that the oil shows and seeps were generated and expelled predominantly from higher plant derived organic matter deposited in oxic environments. The source and maturity related biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions of the oils are similar to those of the coals. The oil-coal relationship also is demonstrated by similarities in the carbon isotopic composition of the total oils, coal extracts, and their individual n-alkanes. Extracts from the Permo-Triassic fine grained sediments, on the other hand, have organic geochemical signatures indicative of mixed terrestrial and prokaryotic organic matter deposited in suboxic environments, which are significantly different from both the oils and coal extracts. The molecular signatures indicating the presence of prokaryotic organic matter in some of the coal extracts and oils may be due to thin sections of possibly calcareous lithologies interbedded within the coal measures. The genetic relationship between the oils and coals provides new evidence for the generation and expulsion of oils from the Permian coals and raises the possibility for commercial oil accumulations in the Permian and Early Triassic sandstones, potentially in the deeper offshore part of the Sydney Basin.

  7. Famennian mud-mounds in the proximal fore-reef slope, Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Webb, Gregory E.


    Famennian (Late Devonian) carbonate buildups and, in particular, mud-mounds, are poorly known, in general, and few have been documented in detail. Relatively small Famennian mud-mounds occur in proximal fore-reef slope settings in the Canning Basin, Western Australia. The Famennian platform margin facies passes from typical shoaling carbonate facies in the back reef, through massive, calcimicrobial, cement-rich reef-margin facies, to relatively steeply dipping (20-30°), well-bedded fore-reef slope facies containing shelf-derived, winnowed grainy sediments and extremely coarse reef-block debris. Isolated or coalescing mounds occur in the proximal slope, immediately adjacent to and, in some cases, possibly grading into the margin facies. Mounds are elongate perpendicular to the margin and some had synoptic relief greater than 2 m. Mounds are lithologically variable and consist of varying proportions of micrite, multiple generations of marine cement, abundant Rothpletzella, Renalcis, poorly preserved sparry microbial crusts and sporadically distributed laminar stromatoporoids. Surrounding grainy slope facies abut and slope off of mound flanks. Mound facies are very similar to nearby reef-margin facies, with the exceptions that stromatoporoids have not been observed in margin facies and solenoporoid algae, which occur in the margin, have not been observed in the mounds. Stromatolites are conspicuously absent from both facies. Mound facies appear to be more closely related to Frasnian and Famennian calcimicrobe cement-dominated reef-margin facies than to Famennian deep-water stromatolite-sponge-mound facies, such as those that occur elsewhere in the Canning Basin. The observed Canning Famennian reef and mound frameworks were constructed by communities that appear to be very similar to earlier Frasnian communities, despite the Frasnian-Famennian extinction event, and provide good examples of microbial reef framework construction in a high energy setting.

  8. Anthropogenic acceleration of sediment accretion in lowland floodplain wetlands, Murray-Darling Basin, Australia (United States)

    Gell, Peter; Fluin, Jennie; Tibby, John; Hancock, Gary; Harrison, Jennifer; Zawadzki, Atun; Haynes, Deborah; Khanum, Syeda; Little, Fiona; Walsh, Brendan


    Over the last decade there has been a deliberate focus on the application of paleolimnological research to address issues of sediment flux and water quality change in the wetlands of the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. This paper reports on the research outcomes on cores collected from sixteen wetlands along the Murrumbidgee-Murray River continuum. In all sixteen wetlands radiometric techniques and exotic pollen biomarkers were used to establish sedimentation rates from the collected cores. Fossil diatom assemblages were used to identify water source and quality changes to the wetlands. The sedimentation rates of all wetlands accelerated after European settlement, as little as two-fold, and as much as eighty times the mean rate through the Late Holocene. Some wetlands completely infilled through the Holocene, while others have rapidly progressed towards a terrestrial state due to accelerated accretion rates. Increasing wetland salinity and turbidity commenced within decades of settlement, contributing to sediment inputs. The sedimentation rate was observed to slow after river regulation in one wetland, but has accelerated recently in others. The complex history of flooding and drying, and wetland salinisation and eutrophication, influence the reliability of models used to establish recent, fine-resolution chronologies with confidence and the capacity to attribute causes to documented effects.

  9. Tube structures of probable microbial origin in the Neoarchean Carawine Dolomite, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. (United States)

    Murphy, M A; Sumner, D Y


    The approximately 2.63 Ga Carawine Dolomite, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia, preserves tube structures of probable microbial origin that formed in a low energy environment. The tubes are 0.4-1.8 cm in diameter and at least 10-16 cm long in outcrop. The tubes are defined by dark, 45-microm-thick dolomicritic walls, whereas the tube fill and host rock are composed of 30 microm, cloudy dolomite crystals and rare 170- to 425-microm-wide, dark well-sorted clasts. Closely spaced, rarely discontinuous laminae coat the insides of tubes; less closely spaced, peaked, discontinuous laminae coat the outsides of tubes. The laminae on the outsides of tubes are often intercalated with mammilate structures. The presence of probable microbial coatings on both the insides and the outsides of the tube walls requires that the tubes formed above the sediment-water interface. These tube structures probably formed during gas-charged fluid escape, similar to tubes observed in ancient and modern hydrocarbon seeps and cylindrical water transfer structures in sandstones. The laminae that coat the tubes have very similar geometries to modern biofilms that form in both turbulent and laminar flow, and their geometries probably reflect flow conditions during the fluid escape. The identification of these structures suggests that the preserved interaction between fluid escape and microbial growth in carbonates may be more common than previously thought.

  10. Review of recent results from continental deep seismic profiling in Australia (United States)

    Goleby, Bruce R.; Drummond, Barry J.; Korsch, Russell J.; Willcox, J. Barry; O'Brien, Geoffrey W.; Wake-Dyster, Kevin D.


    The Australian Geological Survey Organisation regularly collects 450-500 km of onshore deep seismic reflection data and up to 4500 km offshore each year in Australia. These recordings are made in a wide range of tectonic provinces, including, in the last few years, late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic intracontinental and Palaeozoic-Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental margin extensional basins, moderately deformed Palaeozoic transtensional basins and compressional fold belts, and Archaean greenstone terranes. Several of these provinces are major petroleum exploration provinces, whereas others contain significant mineral deposits. The primary purpose of the deep seismic profiling program is to resolve the tectonic history of the Australian continent, and thereby to encourage exploration for hydrocarbons and mineral resources in Australia. On the northwest Australian continental margin, major basin systems including the Bonaparte Basin, formed as a result of complex interactions since the Carboniferous, involving episodes of extension followed by strike-slip movements and inversion, which reactivated both the primary extensional and ancient basement structures. Off southeastern Australia, basins such as the Gippsland Basin formed as part of a linked transtensional system related to movement on a common mid-crustal detachment complex. On continental Australia, the Bowen Basin, in the northeast, was deformed by thrust faults that root in a major E-dipping detachment that flattens in the middle crust. The Cobar Basin, in the southeast, is a case where the seismic data support a detachment model in which the upper plate displacement vector can be calculated by plate reconstructions linking the geometry of the detachment surface with that of the basin. The greenstone terranes within the Eastern Goldfields region of Western Australia show crustal-scale fault systems that are planar and steep dipping, more in keeping with those interpreted in data from other Precambrian provinces rather than

  11. Bayesian uncertainty analysis for advanced seismic imaging - Application to the Mentelle Basin, Australia (United States)

    Michelioudakis, Dimitrios G.; Hobbs, Richard W.; Caiado, Camila C. S.


    Quantifying the depths of target horizons from seismic reflection data is among the most important aspects of exploration geophysics. In order to constrain these depths we need a reliable and accurate velocity model. Here, we apply Bayesian methods, such as Gaussian process emulators, to estimate the uncertainties of the depths of key horizons near the well DSDP-258 located in the Mentelle Basin, south west of Australia, and compared the results with the drilled core extracted from that well. Eventually, this method will be applied to identify the drilling targets for the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), leg 369. The Mentelle Basin is a sparsely explored, deep water sedimentary basin, located between the Naturaliste Plateau and the southern part of the Western Australian Shelf. Its main depocenter, is believed to contain sediments that span from Cretaceous to Holecene, but most importantly it hosts a continuous shale sequence that it is over a kilometer thick, the study of which, is crucial for the correlation between the paleoclimate conditions and the tectonic history of the region. Using two 2D multichannel seismic reflection profiles around the drill site, we generate detailed anisotropic velocity models for the well location in order to construct initially the optimum Pre -- stack time (PSTM) and eventually the Pre - stack depth migrated (PSDM) subsurface images. Moreover, in order to enhance the sub - basalt imaging of the region of interest with the goal to constrain the tectonic models of the area, we apply deterministic deconvolution filters using the source function extracted from our seismic data. The best velocity model created from the initial processing serves as the prior information to the Bayesian model. The final goal is to try to build a multi-layered model of n layers and estimate the zero offset two way time, t0, and the interval velocities,Vi, both for isotropic (Vxi ≈ Vzi) and anisotropic (Vxi ≠ Vzi) cases, in terms of a

  12. A Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician bivalve-dominated molluscan fauna from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian G. Jakobsen


    Full Text Available A bivalve-dominated molluscan fauna is described from the Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia. The fauna comprises 16 species of bivalves and rostroconchs plus six gastropod species which are treated under open nomenclature. Two new bivalves, Sthenodonta paenesymmetrica sp. nov. and Modiolopsis pojetai sp. nov., are described. The relatively low-diverse molluscan fauna constitutes around 62% of the total benthic macrofauna. Approximately 75% of the molluscs comprise bivalves, especially nuculoids, which were biogeographically restricted to low latitudes during the Ordovician. The molluscan assemblage displays a very high degree of endemism at species level, though the bivalve Sthenodonta eastii also occurs in the Georgina Basin farther to the northeast. This indicates a possible marine connective seaway between the Georgina and Amadeus basins during the Darriwilian. Nuculites, Cyrtodonta, and Modiolopsis are cosmopolitan and previously reported from North China, Avalonia, and Southern Gondwana.

  13. Codependency: another name for Bowen's undifferentiated self. (United States)

    Fagan-Pryor, E C; Haber, L C


    Codependency is a term used to describe personality characteristics of people involved in unhealthy relationships. The authors purport that characteristics of codependency can be organized and interpreted using concepts from Bowen's family systems theory. Having such a framework addresses the criticisms that the concept of codependency lacks a solid theoretical foundation. In addition, nurses need to understand the concept if they are to evaluate their own actions regarding codependent behaviors.

  14. CO 2 degassing and trapping during hydrothermal cycles related to Gondwana rifting in eastern Australia (United States)

    Uysal, I. Tonguç; Golding, Suzanne D.; Bolhar, Robert; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Baublys, Kim A.; Greig, Alan


    Intensive carbonate and clay mineral authigenesis took place throughout the Late Permian Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney basin system in eastern Australia. We conducted isotopic and trace element analyses of carbonate and clay minerals from clastic sedimentary rocks of the Gunnedah Basin and the Denison Trough in the Bowen Basin. Rb-Sr isochron age data of the illitic clays are consistent with episodic hydrothermal fluid flow events that occurred in association with Gondwana rifting accompanied by alkaline magmatism at ˜85 Ma and ˜95 Ma. Stable isotope data of carbonate and clay minerals from the Gunnedah Basin are indicative of meteoric waters from a high-latitude environment as the main fluid source, whereas trace element, Sr and Nd isotope data highlight mixing of meteoric fluids with magmatic and/or crustal components, with a possible input from marine carbonates for some samples. Trace metals, oxygen and strontium isotopes of dawsonites from the Denison Trough are interpreted to have been mobilised by fluids that interacted with evolved clastic sedimentary and marine carbonate end members. According to the carbon isotope data, CO 2 for calcite and ankerite precipitation was sourced mainly from thermal degradation of organic matter and magmatism, whereas the CO 2 used for dawsonite formation is inferred to have been derived from magmatic and marine sources. In the low permeability environments (particularly in coal seams), the increasing accumulation and oversaturation of CO 2 particularly promote the precipitation of dawsonite.

  15. Crustal structure of the northern Perth Basin, southwest margin of Australia: insights from three-dimensional density models (United States)

    Holzrichter, Nils; Hackney, Ron; Johnston, Stephen


    The northern Perth Basin formed from the Palaeozoic to Mesozoic within an obliquely oriented extensional rift system on the southwest continental margin of Australia. Knowledge of the basin in onshore and inboard areas reflects better accessibility and the existence of proven hydrocarbon resources. In contrast, outboard parts of the basin have poorer data coverage and hydrocarbon potential remains to be proven. In order to better constrain sediment thickness and crustal structure in the northern Perth Basin, particularly in offshore areas where coverage of seismic data is less extensive, we adopted a 3-D density modelling approach whereby simple models were initially constructed as a means to highlight the level of agreement between measured and calculated gravity. These initial models are based only on available constraints, automated extrapolation of interpreted horizons into areas without constraints, and different interpretations of Moho depth. The initial models show that the processes leading to formation of sediment depocentres in the northern Perth Basin are not governed by simple local isostasy. We show instead that a model incorporating an existing Moho model for the Australian region leads to a better fit. In this model, the Moho is deeper under the thick sediments of the onshore Dandaragan Trough. As a result, the crystalline crust between the Beagle Ridge and basin-bounding Darling Fault has a relatively constant thickness that is consistent with crustal-scale tilting and normal displacement on a steeply west-dipping Darling Fault. In the outboard parts of the basin, our modelling suggests that the deep water Zeewyck Sub-basin is a deep and steep-sided depocentre, but this area lacks constraints and uncertainty in its interpretation cannot be resolved without additional data. Despite this, the steep edges, thick sediments and the large lateral variations in Moho depth are consistent with the geometry expected of a transtensional basin. We also present

  16. Response of Riparian Vegetation in AUSTRALIA"S Largest River Basin to Inter and Intra-Annual Climate Variability and Flooding as Quantified with Landsat and Modis (United States)

    Broich, M.; Tulbure, M. G.


    Australia is a continent subject to high rainfall variability, which has major influences on runoff and vegetation dynamics. However, the resulting spatial-temporal pattern of flooding and its influence on riparian vegetation has not been quantified in a spatially explicit way. Here we focused on the floodplains of the entire Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), an area that covers over 1M km2, as a case study. The MDB is the country's primary agricultural area with scarce water resources subject to competing demands and impacted by climate change and more recently by the Millennium Drought (1999-2009). Riparian vegetation in the MDB floodplain suffered extensive decline providing a dramatic degradation of riparian vegetation. We quantified the spatial-temporal impact of rainfall, temperature and flooding patters on vegetation dynamics at the subcontinental to local scales and across inter to intra-annual time scales based on three decades of Landsat (25k images), Bureau of Meteorology data and one decade of MODIS data. Vegetation response varied in space and time and with vegetation types, densities and location relative to areas frequently flooded. Vegetation degradation trends were observed over riparian forests and woodlands in areas where flooding regimes have changed to less frequent and smaller inundation extents. Conversely, herbaceous vegetation phenology followed primarily a `boom' and `bust' cycle, related to inter-annual rainfall variability. Spatial patters of vegetation degradation changed along the N-S rainfall gradient but flooding regimes and vegetation degradation patterns also varied at finer scale, highlighting the importance of a spatially explicit, internally consistent analysis and setting the stage for investigating further cross-scale relationships. Results are of interest for land and water management decisions. The approach developed here can be applied to other areas globally such as the Nile river basin and Okavango River delta in Africa or the

  17. Remote Sensing of Subsurface Fractures in the Otway Basin, South Australia (United States)

    Bailey, Adam; King, Rosalind; Holford, Simon; Hand, Martin


    A detailed understanding of naturally occurring fracture networks within the subsurface is becoming increasingly important to the energy sector, as the focus of exploration has expanded to include unconventional reservoirs such as coal seam gas, shale gas, tight gas, and engineered geothermal systems. Successful production from such reservoirs, where primary porosity and permeability is often negligible, is heavily reliant on structural permeability provided by naturally occurring and induced fracture networks, permeability, which is often not provided for through primary porosity and permeability. In this study the Penola Trough, located within the onshore Otway Basin in South Australia, is presented as a case study for remotely detecting and defining subsurface fracture networks that may contribute to secondary permeability. This area is prospective for shale and tight gas and geothermal energy. The existence and nature of natural fractures is verified through an integrated analysis of geophysical logs (including wellbore image logs) and 3D seismic data. Wellbore image logs from 11 petroleum wells within the Penola Trough were interpreted for both stress indicators and natural fractures. A total of 507 naturally occurring fractures were identified, striking approximately WNE-ESE. Fractures which are aligned in the in-situ stress field are optimally oriented for reactivation, and are hence likely to be open to fluid flow. Fractures are identifiable as being either resistive or conductive sinusoids on the resistivity image logs used in this study. Resistive fractures, of which 239 were identified, are considered to be cemented with electrically resistive cements (such as quartz or calcite) and thus closed to fluid flow. Conductive fractures, of which 268 were identified, are considered to be uncemented and open to fluid flow, and thus important to geothermal exploration. Fracture susceptibility diagrams constructed for the identified fractures illustrate that the

  18. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Harper, David Alexander Taylor;


    During the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) sandstones and siltstones were deposited in the epicontinental Larapintine Sea, which covered large parts of central Australia. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone has, for the first time, been sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils to track marine be...

  19. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  20. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR


    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  1. Using environmental isotopes and dissolved methane concentrations to constrain hydrochemical processes and inter-aquifer mixing in the Galilee and Eromanga Basins, Great Artesian Basin, Australia (United States)

    Moya, Claudio E.; Raiber, Matthias; Taulis, Mauricio; Cox, Malcolm E.


    Groundwater recharge processes, water-rock interaction and the hydraulic connectivity between aquifers of the Galilee and Eromanga Basins in central Queensland, Australia, were investigated using stable (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr) and radiogenic (36Cl) isotopes and dissolved methane concentrations, complemented by major ion chemistry. The central Eromanga and the upper sequence of the Galilee basins are both sub-basins of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), and the coal seams of the Galilee Basin are currently explored for their potential as commercial coal seam gas deposits. In order to understand the potential influence of depressurisation of coal seams required to release the gas on adjacent aquifers, a detailed understanding of recharge processes and groundwater hydraulics of these basins prior to any development is required. Each of the different isotope systems were used in this study to provide different information on specific processes. For example, the assessment of δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggested that carbonate dissolution is one of the major processes controlling the water chemistry within some aquifers. In addition, the combined assessment of δ2H, δ18O and major ion chemistry indicates that transpiration is the primary process controlling the solute concentration in the GAB recharge area, whereas evaporation appears to be less significant. Groundwaters in the Galilee Basin recharge area (outside the limits of the GAB) are different to any groundwater within the GAB units. This difference is attributed to the dissolution of potassium-bearing micas, which are absent in the GAB. Groundwater age estimates based on 36Cl/Cl ratios suggest that there is a steady increase along the flow paths, and this lack of anomalous age estimates from the recharge areas to the deeper parts of the basin indicates that there is no evidence for regional inter-aquifer mixing based in isotopes only. However, dissolved methane concentrations and groundwater chemistry

  2. Muddied Waters: the case for mitigating sediment and nutrient flux to optimise restoration response in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.


    Peter Andrew Gell; Michael eReid


    The waters of the Murray Darling Basin, Australia, have endured multiple stressors for more than a century. Detectable salinisation impacts are evident from 1880 CE and elevated fluxes of sediments and nutrients are now widespread. Most wetlands examined paleolimnologically have shown increased sedimentation rates or have lost aquatic plant communities due to the shading effect of increased turbidity, prompting the observation that the waterways of the Murray Darling Basin are among ten Austr...

  3. Potential of using WATCH forcing data to model a low land river basin of the upper Murray-Darling basin in Australia (United States)

    Kundu, D.; Van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.


    Scattered station based climate data is often not sufficient to describe the dynamics of the catchment processes and efficiently manage the water resources. Therefore, a lot of focus has been to identify alternative distributed data sources, such as; remotely sensed data or global re-analysis data. Hence, this study uses the Water and Global Change (WATCH) forcing data, based on 40 years ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40), to model a semi-arid low land flood plain river basin in a data sparse region. The semi-distributed Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the river basin (Warrego, 52140.6 square km) located in the upper Murray-Darling basin in Eastern Australia. Multi station model calibration was achieved using the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting -2 (SUFI-2) algorithm with the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) as the goal function against monthly observed flow data. Modelling of a low land river system is highly challenging, due to topographic heterogeneity, nonlinear climatic behavior and sparse observed flow data with extended periods of zero flows. Preliminary simulation results indicate a NSE of 0.26 to 0.86 for the calibration period and 0.04 to 0.47 for the validation period. Furthermore, the volume fraction explained by the model ranged from 0.69 to 2.71 in the validation period. While the unsatisfactory results may be attributed to the SWAT modelling framework, which struggles with modelling flow in flat flood plains, the study does reveal the potential to use remotely sensed data in low land river basins with little or no climate data.

  4. Elizabeth Bowen, Modernism, and the Spectre of Anglo-Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Wurtz


    Full Text Available The recent scholarly focus on Elizabeth Bowen’s modernism tends to reinforce a false dichotomy between Bowen as an Ascendancy Big House novelist and Bowen as a literary modernist. In keeping with Jameson’s argument that the colonial experience is at the root of Western modernism, I propose that her representations of Anglo-Irish Big House culture, in The Last September in particular, are in fact focal points for understanding Bowen as a modernist, and I argue that the Gothic, with its unavoidable political and colonial resonances, is fundamental to Bowen’s Irish modernism.

  5. Re-evaluation of the Mentelle Basin, a polyphase rifted margin basin, offshore southwest Australia: new insights from integrated regional seismic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maloney


    Full Text Available Vintage 2-D (two-dimensional seismic reflection surveys from the sparsely explored Mentelle Basin (western Australian margin have been reprocessed and integrated with a recent high-quality 2-D seismic survey and stratigraphic borehole data. Interpretation of these data sets allows the internal geometry of the Mentelle Basin fill and depositional history to be reanalysed and new insights into its formation revealed. Basin stratigraphy can be subdivided into several seismically defined megasequences separated by major unconformities related to both breakup between India-Madagascar and Australia-Antarctica in the Valanginian-Late Hauterivian and tectonically-driven switches in deposition through the Albian.

    Resting on the Valanginian-Late Hauterivian breakup unconformity are several kilometre-scale mounded structures that formed during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous extension. These have previously been interpreted as volcanic edifices although direct evidence of volcanic feeder systems is lacking. An alternative interpretation is that these features may be carbonate build-ups. The latter interpretation carries significant climatic ramifications since carbonate build-ups would have formed at high palaeolatitude, ~60° S.

    Soon after breakup, initial subsidence resulted in a shallow marine environment and deposition of Barremian-Aptian silty-sandy mudstones. As subsidence continued, thick successions of Albian ferruginous black clays were deposited. Internally, seismic megasequences composed of successions of black clays show previously unresolved unconformities, onlapping and downlapping packages, which reflect a complex depositional, rifting and subsidence history at odds with their previous interpretation as open marine sediments.

    Southwestwards migration of the Kerguelen hotspot led to thermal contraction and subsidence to the present day water depth (~3000 m. This was accompanied by Turonian-Santonian deposition of

  6. Population genetics and management units of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Nicholas, F W


    Common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into Australia on several occasions and are now the dominant fish in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), the continent's largest river system. In this study, variability at 14 microsatellite loci was examined in C. carpio (n = 1037) from 34 sites throughout the major rivers in the MDB, from 3 cultured populations, from Prospect Reservoir in the Sydney Basin and from Lake Sorrell in Tasmania. Consistent with previous studies, assignment testing indicated that the Boolara, Yanco and koi strains of C. carpio are present in the MDB. Unique to this study, however, the Prospect strain was widely distributed throughout the MDB. Significant genetic structuring of populations (Fisher's exact test, AMOVA and distribution of the different strains) amongst the MDB sub-drainages was detected, and was strongly associated with contemporary barriers to dispersal and population history. The distributions of the strains were used to infer the history of introduction and spread of C. carpio in the MDB. Fifteen management units are proposed for control programmes that have high levels of genetic diversity, contain multiple interbreeding strains and show no evidence of founder effects or recent population bottlenecks.

  7. Dating the Late Cenozoic glacial sequence, Pieman River basin, western Tasmania, Australia (United States)

    Augustinus, Paul C.


    The Pieman River basin, western Tasmania, displays one of the most complete Middle to Early Pleistocene glacial sequences from a Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude site. Most of the glacial deposits exceed the 14C limit, although mapping of the depositional units using morphostratigraphic, post-depositional weathering criteria and magnetostratigraphy, shows that the sediments of the Boco and Bobadil glaciation were deposited during the Brunhes normal chron (ferricretes and peat developed within and upon the sediment bodies whereby the deposits of the Boco and Bobadil glaciation are shown to be broadly correlative with Oxygen Isotope Stages 6 and 8, respectively. An older mid-Pleistocene glacial event (Animal Creek Glaciation) has also been recognised and dated to >275 kyr. Late Last (Margaret) Glaciation advances in the Pieman basin are much more restricted in extent and display evidence for multiple stillstand-readvance phases during the decay of the system, with most of the ice having disappeared by ˜14 kyr BP.

  8. A molecular and isotopic study of palaeoenvironmental conditions through the middle Cambrian in the Georgina Basin, central Australia (United States)

    Pagès, Anais; Schmid, Susanne; Edwards, Dianne; Barnes, Stephen; He, Nannan; Grice, Kliti


    The Cambrian period marks an important point in Earth's history with profound changes in the ocean's biogeochemistry and the occurrence of the most significant evolutionary event in the history of life, the Cambrian explosion. The Cambrian explosion is described as a succession of complex cycles of extinctions and radiations. This study integrates biomarkers and their compound-specific stable carbon isotopes to investigate the palaeoenvironmental depositional conditions in middle Cambrian (Series 3) sedimentary rocks (Thorntonia Limestone, Inca Formation and Currant Bush Limestone) from two drillholes in the Undilla Sub-basin in the eastern Georgina Basin, central Australia. The occurrence of photic zone euxinia (PZE) was detected throughout these three formations by the identification of green sulfur bacteria Chlorobiaceae-derived biomarkers, including a series of 2,3,6-aryl isoprenoids and the intact biomarker isorenieratane. Pulses of enhanced PZE conditions were detected in two core intervals (90-110 mKB, Currant Bush Limestone and 170-200 mKB, Inca Formation) by an increase in the 2,3,6-aryl isoprenoids and C19 biphenyl concentrations. These enhanced PZE conditions were followed by blooms of phytoplankton, as demonstrated by the increase in algal-derived biomarker (i.e. pristane, phytane and the C19n-alkane) concentrations and compound-specific isotopes. These observations confirm that palaeoenvironmental conditions were similar to those reported for the Permian/Triassic and Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction events. The sterane distributions varied across the three formations reflecting possible changes in the phytoplanktonic communities through time. Although a rise in atmospheric oxygen during the Cambrian has been previously associated with the rapid evolution of metazoans, the ecological challenges related to widespread anoxia must have had a major influence on the evolution of life in Cambrian oceans.

  9. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia (United States)

    Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Gaafar, Gamal Ragab; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan


    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  10. Trace Element Geochemistry of Matrix Glass from the Bedout Impact Structure,Canning Basin NW Australia (United States)

    Poreda, R. J.; Basu, A. R.; Chakrabarti, R.; Becker, L.


    We report on geochemical and petrographic analysis of separated matrix glass from Lagrange-1 and Bedout-1 drill cores that penetrated the Bedout structure offshore NW Australia. The results support the conclusion that the Bedout structure was produced by a a major ET impact at the end-Permian that generated shock melted glass and impact breccias (Becker et al., Science, v.304, p.1469, 2004) The Bedout structure is a 30 km, circular, 1.5 km uplifted basment high that occurs on the passive margin offshore NW Australia. The isolated feature, covered by 3 km of Triassic to Recent sediments,is not consistent with any typical volcanic province (i.e. arc or hotspot volcanism). This hypothesis is supported by the unique mineralogy and chemistry of the matrix glass. At Lagrange, major elements crudely resemble low-K, Fe-Ti basalts while the trace element patterns have two distinct signatures. The lower 250 m of Lagrange (3260 - 3010 m depth) have essentially flat REE and "spider" patterns that superficially resemble some E-MORB; a signal not typically found in arc, hotspot or continental margin settings. The upper 150 meters (3000 - 2850m) of Lagrange and the entire Bedout core (3030 - 3070m) have similar light REE-enriched patterns but low levels of alkalis, alkaline-earths and high field strength elements. Again, the chemistry is not consistent with an arc or hotspot setting, based on the low Ba and extremely low Sr (30-110 ppm) concentrations. Based on the geophysical, chemical and petrologic evidence, we hypothesize that the Bedout structure formed as the result` of an ET impact with Permian age rift margin basalts and continental sediment. The basalts did not completely melt as evidenced by the abundance of large (1 mm) An50 plagioclase,that exist as both crystalline plag and shock melted maskelynite. Plagioclase is the major repository of Sr in basalts and the lack of a plagioclase contribution to the melt glass is reflected in the low Sr abundance. Shock

  11. Field and synthetic experiments for virtual source crosswell tomography in vertical wells: Perth Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Almalki, Majed; Harris, Brett; Dupuis, J. Christian


    It is common for at least one monitoring well to be located proximally to a production well. This presents the possibility of applying crosswell technologies to resolve a range of earth properties between the wells. We present both field and synthetic examples of dual well walk-away vertical seismic profiling in vertical wells and show how the direct arrivals from a virtual source may be used to create velocity images between the wells. The synthetic experiments highlight the potential of virtual source crosswell tomography where large numbers of closely spaced receivers can be deployed in multiple wells. The field experiment is completed in two monitoring wells at an aquifer storage and recovery site near Perth, Western Australia. For this site, the crosswell velocity distribution recovered from inversion of travel times between in-hole virtual sources and receivers is highly consistent with what is expected from sonic logging and detailed zero-offset vertical seismic profiling. When compared to conventional walkaway vertical seismic profiling, the only additional effort required to complete dual-well walkaway vertical seismic profiling is the deployment of seismic sensors in the second well. The significant advantage of virtual source crosswell tomography is realised where strong near surface heterogeneity results in large travel time statics.

  12. Analysis of subsurface mound spring connectivity in shale of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin, South Australia (United States)

    Halihan, Todd; Love, Andrew; Keppel, Mark; Berens, Volmer


    Mound springs provide the primary discharge mechanism for waters of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia. Though these springs are an important resource in an arid environment, their hydraulics as they discharge from shale are poorly defined. The springs can include extensive spring tails (groundwater-dependent wetlands) and hundreds of springs in a given spring complex. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to evaluate spring subsurface hydraulic-connectivity characteristics at three spring complexes discharging through the Bulldog Shale. The results demonstrate that fresher GAB water appears as resistors in the subsurface at these sites, which are characterized by high-salinity conditions in the shallow subsurface. Using an empirical method developed for this work, the ERI data indicate that the spring complexes have multiple subsurface connections that are not always easily observed at the surface. The connections are focused along structural deformation in the shale allowing fluids to migrate through the confining unit. The ERI data suggest the carbonate deposits that the springs generate are deposited on top of the confining unit, not precipitated in the conduit. The data also suggest that spring-tail ecosystems are not the result of a single discharge point, but include secondary discharge points along the tail.

  13. Karst Aquifer Recharge: A Case History of over Simplification from the Uley South Basin, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne


    Full Text Available The article “Karst aquifer recharge: Comments on ‘Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers’, by Adrian D. Werner, 2014, Water 6, doi:10.3390/w6123727” provides misrepresentation in some parts of Somaratne [1]. The description of Uley South Quaternary Limestone (QL as unconsolidated or poorly consolidated aeolianite sediments with the presence of well-mixed groundwater in Uley South [2] appears unsubstantiated. Examination of 98 lithological descriptions with corresponding drillers’ logs show only two wells containing bands of unconsolidated sediments. In Uley South basin, about 70% of salinity profiles obtained by electrical conductivity (EC logging from monitoring wells show stratification. The central and north central areas of the basin receive leakage from the Tertiary Sand (TS aquifer thereby influencing QL groundwater characteristics, such as chemistry, age and isotope composition. The presence of conduit pathways is evident in salinity profiles taken away from TS water affected areas. Pumping tests derived aquifer parameters show strong heterogeneity, a typical characteristic of karst aquifers. Uley South QL aquifer recharge is derived from three sources; diffuse recharge, point recharge from sinkholes and continuous leakage of TS water. This limits application of recharge estimation methods, such as the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB as the basic premise of the CMB is violated. The conventional CMB is not suitable for accounting chloride mass balance in groundwater systems displaying extreme range of chloride concentrations and complex mixing [3]. Over simplification of karst aquifer systems to suit application of the conventional CMB or 1-D unsaturated modelling as described in Werner [2], is not suitable use of these recharge estimation methods.

  14. 3D seismic analysis of gravity-driven and basement influenced normal fault growth in the deepwater Otway Basin, Australia (United States)

    Robson, A. G.; King, R. C.; Holford, S. P.


    We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data to analyse the structural style and growth of a normal fault array located at the present-day shelf-edge break and into the deepwater province of the Otway Basin, southern Australia. The Otway Basin is a Late Jurassic to Cenozoic, rift-to-passive margin basin. The seismic reflection data images a NW-SE (128-308) striking, normal fault array, located within Upper Cretaceous clastic sediments and which consists of ten fault segments. The fault array contains two hard-linked fault assemblages, separated by only 2 km in the dip direction. The gravity-driven, down-dip fault assemblage is entirely contained within the 3D seismic survey, is located over a basement plateau and displays growth commencing and terminating during the Campanian-Maastrichtian, with up to 1.45 km of accumulated throw (vertical displacement). The up-dip normal fault assemblage penetrates deeper than the base of the seismic survey, but is interpreted to be partially linked along strike at depth to major basement-involved normal faults that can be observed on regional 2D seismic lines. This fault assemblage displays growth initiating in the Turonian-Santonian and has accumulated up to 1.74 km of throw. Our detailed analysis of the 3D seismic data constraints post-Cenomanian fault growth of both fault assemblages into four evolutionary stages: [1] Turonian-Santonian basement reactivation during crustal extension between Australia and Antarctica. This either caused the upward propagation of basement-involved normal faults or the nucleation of a vertically isolated normal fault array in shallow cover sediments directly above the reactivated basement-involved faults; [2] continued Campanian-Maastrichtian crustal extension and sediment loading eventually created gravitational instability on the basement plateau, nucleating a second, vertically isolated normal fault array in the cover sediments; [3] eventual hard-linkage of fault segments in both fault

  15. A future geodetic monitoring system for vertical land motion in the Perth basin, Australia (United States)

    Filmer, Mick; Featherstone, Will; Morgan, Linda; Schenk, Andreas


    SAR imagery. The InSAR component is necessary to avoid reliance on discrete monitoring stations and to provide larger scale mapping of the subsidence. As the framework for an ongoing monitoring programme, images are being acquired from the German Aerospace Centre's (DLR's) TerraSAR-X satellite mission under a collaborative science project among Geoscience Australia, Curtin University of Technology, Landgate and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This programme initially covers ~13 months (up to 30 images) and will provide sufficient data to lay the foundation for ongoing monitoring. This monitoring programme will be used to determine linear and non-linear VLM in Perth at time scales ranging from seasonal to long term over multiple years.

  16. Microbial community in a geothermal aquifer associated with the subsurface of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia. (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Sugihara, Maki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Patel, Bharat K C; Kato, Kenji; Hanada, Satoshi


    To investigate the biomass and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial community inhabiting the deep aquifer of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), geothermal groundwater gushing out from the aquifer was sampled and analyzed. Microbial cells in the groundwater were stained with acridine orange and directly counted by epifluorescence microscopy. Microbial cells were present at a density of 10(8)-10(9) cells per liter of groundwater. Archaeal and bacterial small-subunit rRNA genes (rDNAs) were amplified by PCR with Archaea- and Bacteria-specific primer sets, and clone libraries were constructed separately. A total of 59 clones were analyzed in archaeal and bacterial 16S rDNA libraries, respectively. The archaeal 16S rDNA clones were divided into nine operated taxonomic units (OTUs) by restriction fragment length polymorphism. These OTUs were closely related to the methanogenic genera Methanospirillum and Methanosaeta, the heterotrophic genus Thermoplasma, or miscellaneous crenarchaeota group. More than one-half of the archaeal clones (59% of total 59 clones) were placed beside phylogenetic clusters of methanogens. The majority of the methanogen-related clones (83%) was closely related to a group of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (genus Methanospirillum). The bacterial OTUs branched into seven phylogenetic clusters related to hydrogen-oxidizing thermophiles in the genera Hydrogenobacter and Hydrogenophilus, a sulfate-reducing thermophile in the genus Thermodesulfovibrio, chemoheterotropic bacteria in the genera Thermus and Aquaspirillum, or the candidate division OP10. Clones closely related to the thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizers in the genera Hydrogenobacter and Hydrogenophilus were dominant in the bacterial clone library (37% of a total of 59 clones). The dominancy of hydrogen-users strongly suggested that H(2) plays an important role as a primary substrate in the microbial ecosystem of this deep geothermal aquifer.

  17. Controls on syndepositional fracture patterns, Devonian reef complexes, Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Frost, Edmund L., III; Kerans, Charles


    Syndepositional fractures are an important feature of high-relief carbonate systems and exert a profound control on many facets of platform evolution and reservoir development. Based on data collected from the Canning Basin's Devonian reef complexes this study characterizes syndepositional fracture patterns as a function of variations in: lithofacies, depositional position, stratigraphic architecture, and mechanical stratigraphy. Fracture parameters, such as extension and fracture intensity, are documented to vary strongly as a function of lithofacies. The highest syndepositional extension values occurring in the microbial facies of the Famennian platform margin, with extension values three times higher than observed in equivalent Frasnian strata. Position along the depositional profile exerts a strong control on fracture patterns, with an approximate two-fold increase in syndepositional extension and fracture intensity typically observed from the platform interior to the platform margin. Syndepositional fracture intensity is shown to vary systematically with changes in platform-margin trajectory, with high fracture intensities observed in strongly progradational platforms and decreased fracture development in aggradational and retrogradational platforms. Evidence for the temporal evolution of the mechanical stratigraphy of the Devonian reef complexes is presented, with early-lithified strata effectively behaving as a single, large-scale (50-150 m) mechanical unit during syndepositional fracture development, while secondary fractures become increasingly affected by bed-scale (0.25-5 m) mechanical heterogeneity introduced by progressive diagenesis. The results presented here potentially provide a tool for predicting fracture characteristics (e.g., intensity, orientation, location, and vertical extent) from limited subsurface data and provide a method for characterizing syndepositional deformation in other systems.

  18. A combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural study of pyrite from roll-front uranium deposits, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia (United States)

    Ingham, Edwina S.; Cook, Nigel J.; Cliff, John; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Huddleston, Adam


    The common sulfide mineral pyrite is abundant throughout sedimentary uranium systems at Pepegoona, Pepegoona West and Pannikan, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. Combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural analysis of pyrite indicates variation in fluid composition, sulfur source and precipitation conditions during a protracted mineralization event. The results show the significant role played by pyrite as a metal scavenger and monitor of fluid changes in low-temperature hydrothermal systems. In-situ micrometer-scale sulfur isotope analyses of pyrite demonstrated broad-scale isotopic heterogeneity (δ34S = -43.9 to +32.4‰VCDT), indicative of complex, multi-faceted pyrite evolution, and sulfur derived from more than a single source. Preserved textures support this assertion and indicate a genetic model involving more than one phase of pyrite formation. Authigenic pyrite underwent prolonged evolution and recrystallization, evidenced by a genetic relationship between archetypal framboidal aggregates and pyrite euhedra. Secondary hydrothermal pyrite commonly displays hyper-enrichment of several trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Sb, W and Tl) in ore-bearing horizons. Hydrothermal fluids of magmatic and meteoric origins supplied metals to the system but the geochemical signature of pyrite suggests a dominantly granitic source and also the influence of mafic rock types. Irregular variation in δ34S, coupled with oscillatory trace element zonation in secondary pyrite, is interpreted in terms of continuous variations in fluid composition and cycles of diagenetic recrystallization. A late-stage oxidizing fluid may have mobilized selenium from pre-existing pyrite. Subsequent restoration of reduced conditions within the aquifer caused ongoing pyrite re-crystallization and precipitation of selenium as native selenium. These results provide the first qualitative constraints on the formation mechanisms of the uranium deposits at Beverley North. Insights into

  19. Late Devonian carbonate magnetostratigraphy from the Oscar and Horse Spring Ranges, Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Hansma, Jeroen; Tohver, Eric; Yan, Maodu; Trinajstic, Kate; Roelofs, Brett; Peek, Sarah; Slotznick, Sarah P.; Kirschvink, Joseph; Playton, Ted; Haines, Peter; Hocking, Roger


    The Late Devonian was a time of major evolutionary change encompassing the fifth largest mass extinction, the Frasnian-Famennian event. In order to establish a chronological framework for global correlation before, during, and following the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, we carried out a coupled magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of two stratigraphic sections in the Upper Devonian carbonate reef complexes of the Lennard Shelf, in the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Magnetostratigraphy from these rocks provides the first high-resolution definition of the Late Devonian magnetic polarity timescale. A 581-m-reference section and an 82-m overlapping section through the marginal slope facies (Napier Formation) of the Oscar Range as well as a 117-m section at Horse Spring (Virgin Hills Formation) were sampled at decimeter to meter scale for magnetostratigraphy. Conodont biostratigraphy was used to correlate both sections, and link magnetostratigraphic polarity zones to a globally established biostratigraphy. A stable, Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) with dual polarities (NE, shallowly upward and SW, shallowly downward) is recovered from ∼ 60% of all samples, with magnetite inferred to be the chief magnetic carrier from thermal demagnetization characteristics. These directions define a geomagnetic pole at 49.5°S/285.8°E and α95 = 2.4 (n = 501), placing the Canning Basin at 9.9°S during the Late Devonian, consistent with carbonate reef development at this time. A conservative interpretation of the magnetostratigraphy shows the recovery of multiple reversals from both sections, not including possible cryptochrons and short duration magnetozones. Field tests for primary remanence include positive reversal tests and matching magnetozones from an overlapping section in the Oscar Range. A strong correlation was found between magnetic polarity stratigraphies of the Oscar Range and Horse Spring sections, and we correlate 12

  20. A comparative study of historical droughts over Texas, USA and Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Factors influencing initialization and cessation (United States)

    Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Ren, Tong; Fernando, D. Nelun


    Water availability and food security are tightly coupled on a global scale. The occurrence of drought puts this balance at risk due to reductions in dryland farming production and water allocations to irrigated agriculture. Improved understanding of drought initiation and cessation would therefore be beneficial for drought planning and management. The study objective was to determine factors affecting drought initiation and cessation over the past century in two climatologically similar regions that represent net agricultural exporters; south central U.S. (Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin, MDB). Drought indices included the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, 1900-2014) for meteorological drought, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1981-2014) for agricultural drought, and the Streamflow Drought Index (SDI, 1930-2014) for hydrological drought. Results show that meteorological drought tends to develop gradually over a period of up to six months, with agricultural drought developing shortly thereafter (within one month) in both regions. Evidence of hydrological drought was observed within one month (Texas) and within four months (MDB) on average after meteorological drought was established. Further, droughts appear to cease more quickly than they initiate over Texas, whereas rates of drought initiation and cessation are similar over the MDB. Drought breaking rainfall in Texas is generally a result of a southward shift in the Polar Jet Stream or a low-pressure trough over central North America, whereas drought cessation in the MDB is typically associated with a monsoon trough or low-pressure system in the Tasman Sea/Great Australian Bight. Improved knowledge of the climate mechanisms controlling the onset and termination of drought periods should enhance drought forecasts and improve drought management practices, particularly in regions where water security is a primary objective.

  1. Measurement of fallout radionuclides, (239)(,240)Pu and (137)Cs, in soil and creek sediment: Sydney Basin, Australia. (United States)

    Smith, B S; Child, D P; Fierro, D; Harrison, J J; Heijnis, H; Hotchkis, M A C; Johansen, M P; Marx, S; Payne, T E; Zawadzki, A


    Soil and sediment samples from the Sydney basin were measured to ascertain fallout radionuclide activity concentrations and atom ratios. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) was measured using gamma spectroscopy, and plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) were quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Fallout radionuclide activity concentrations were variable ranging from 0.6 to 26.1 Bq/kg for (137)Cs and 0.02-0.52 Bq/kg for (239+240)Pu. Radionuclides in creek sediment samples were an order of magnitude lower than in soils. (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentration in soils were well correlated (r(2) = 0.80) although some deviation was observed in samples collected at higher elevations. Soil ratios of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu (decay corrected to 1/1/2014) ranged from 11.5 to 52.1 (average = 37.0 ± 12.4) and showed more variability than previous studies. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.117 to 0.165 with an average of 0.146 (±0.013) and an error weighted mean of 0.138 (±0.001). These ratios are lower than a previously reported ratio for Sydney, and lower than the global average. However, these ratios are similar to those reported for other sites within Australia that are located away from former weapons testing sites and indicate that atom ratio measurements from other parts of the world are unlikely to be applicable to the Australian context.

  2. Eccrine porocarcinoma arising within an area of Bowen disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowney, A C


    Summary Very little is known about the aetiology of eccrine porocarcinoma (EP), a rare malignant sweat-gland tumour. Most reported cases have arisen de novo, or from a benign eccrine poroma. We report an unusual case, in which eccrine porocarcinoma arose at the exact site of pre-existing Bowen disease (BD).

  3. Periungual Bowen's disease successfully treated with photodynamic therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zink, B.S.; Valente, L.; Ortiz, B.; Caldas, A.; Jeunon, T.; Marques-da-Costa, J.


    Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in situ is a malignancy of the skin confined to the epidermis that unusually involves the nail apparatus. The ideal treatment should complete clear the tumor, with preservation of the cosmetics and the function of the finger, which can be very difficult to

  4. All in the family: a belated response to Knudson-Martin's feminist revision of Bowen theory. (United States)

    Horne, K Blake; Hicks, Mary W


    The first formal attempt at revising Bowen theory within the marriage and family therapy literature is represented in the work of Knudson-Martin (1994). Claiming that several of the theory's concepts are defined at odds with female development, Knudson-Martin (1994) reconceptualizes and expands Bowen theory to rectify these perceived shortcomings. In turn, we address several fundamental concerns with Knudson-Martin's critique and revision of Bowen theory. An alternative representation of Bowen Theory, as well as its relationship to feminist thought, is put forth. Suggestions for the field's future relationship to Bowen theory are also discussed.

  5. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009) (United States)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis


    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  6. Drought to flood: a comparative assessment of four parallel surface water treatments during the 2010-2012 inflows to the Murray-Darling Basin, South Australia. (United States)

    Braun, Kalan; Fabris, Rolando; Morran, Jim; Ho, Lionel; Drikas, Mary


    Four treatment processes; conventional coagulation, magnetic ion exchange (MIEX)/coagulation, with and without granular activated carbon (GAC), and membrane treatment combining microfiltration (MF) and nanofiltration (NF), were operated in parallel using the same source water from the Murray-Darling basin in South Australia. During the two year study, high levels of natural organic matter and turbidity arising from floods affecting the Murray-Darling basin in 2010-2012 challenged the four processes. The comparative study indicated that all four processes could effectively meet basic water quality guidelines of turbidity and colour despite challenging source water quality but that the more advanced treatments improved overall organic and bacterial removal. Interestingly, the high organics and turbidity arising from the floods resulted in improved treatment efficiency for all treatments incorporating coagulation to the extent that, despite flood conditions, treated water quality could remain comparatively constant provided that the process was operated and optimised effectively.

  7. Hydrochemical and stable isotope indicators of pyrite oxidation in carbonate-rich environment; the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; McLean, Laura; Skrzypek, Grzegorz


    Sulphur (S) is a commonly occurring element in most aquifers, primarily in oxidised (sulphates) and reduced (sulphides) forms. Sulphides often constitute a risk to groundwater quality due to acid rock drainage, especially in catchments that are subject to mining excavations or groundwater injection. However, in semi-arid regions detection of the acid rock drainage risk can be challenging and traditional methods based on observations of increasing SO4 concentrations or SO4/Cl ratios in surface and groundwater, are not necessarily applicable. In addition, decreasing pH, usually accompanying pyrite oxidation, can be masked by the high pH-neutralisation capacity of carbonate and silicate minerals. Analysis of 73 surface and groundwater samples from different water bodies and aquifers located in the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia found that most of the samples are characterised by neutral pH but there was also a large spatial variability in the dissolved sulphate (SO4) concentrations that ranged from 1 mg/L to 15,000 mg/L. Not surprisingly, groundwater in aquifers that contained pyrite had high sulphate concentrations (>1000 mg/L). This was associated with low δ34SSO4 values (+1.2‰ to +4.6‰) and was consistent with the values obtained from aquifer matrix pyritic rock samples (-1.9‰ to +4.4‰). It was also found that the SO4 concentrations and acidity levels were not only dependent on δ34SSO4 values and existence of pyrite but also on the presence of carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix. The groundwater in aquifers containing both pyrite and carbonate minerals had a neutral pH and was also saturated with respect to gypsum and had high magnesium concentrations of up to 2200 mg/L suggesting de-dolomitisation as the process buffering the acidity generated by pyrite oxidation. Based on the findings from this study, a classification scheme has been developed for identification of the acid rock drainage contribution to groundwater that encompasses a myriad of

  8. On the impact of spatial heterogeneous permeability distributions on the development of free convection cells in the Perth Basin, Australia. (United States)

    Niederau, Jan; Ebigbo, Anozie; Freitag, Sebastian; Marquart, Gabriele; Clauser, Christoph


    Recent increase in exploration of the geothermal energy potential of the Perth Metropolitan Area (PMA) results in the need for reliable and robust reservoir models in order to explore rock properties and temperature distributions in the subsurface, where free convection in the main reservoir (Yarragadee Aquifer) is likely to occur [1]. While the structure of the Perth Basin has been refined recently, the heterogeneity and spatial complexity of permeability was up till now mainly neglected. An integrated, three dimensional tectonostratigraphic model of the PMA is constructed, using the modeling software '3D GeoModeller' and data of numerous artesian and petroleum wells. Comprising the region around the city of Perth, the model covers an area of about 5000 km2 up to a depth of 4.5 km, with focus on adequate representation of the main reservoir. We further construct a numerical model for fluid flow and heat transport in the Yarragadee Aquifer. Porosity distributions are deduced from well logs and linked to permeability by a calibrated correlation, based on a fractal approach. Three different cases are simulated using the FD code SHEMAT-Suite, in order to assess the influence of spatial heterogeneity of porosity and permeability on the development of free convection cells. constant porosity and permeability for the entire aquifer porosity and permeability decreasing with depth, thus reflecting compaction a conditional random permeability field within prescribed limits and for given correlation length In order to improve understanding of model correctness, as well as identification and comparison of convection cells in different simulations, we are developing a specialized visualization tool tailored to this purpose. The three different scenarios show distinctions in the distribution of convection cells. Where the Yarragadee Aquifer is in contact with overlying aquifers, regions of downflow develop. These in turn have a strong impact on the regional flow field and

  9. Patterns and processes of fluvial discontinuity and sediment residence times on the lower Macquarie River, Murray-Darling Basin, Australia (United States)

    Larkin, Zacchary; Ralph, Timothy; Hesse, Paul


    The supply, transport and deposition of fine-grained sediment are important factors determining the morphology of lowland rivers that experience channel breakdown and have wetlands on their lower reaches. Sediment supply and residence time determine whether reaches accumulate sediment (wetland areas) or erode sediment (channelised areas). This research investigated how processes of sedimentation and erosion drive channel breakdown and reformation in the Macquarie Marshes, a large anastomosing wetland system in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Channel breakdown is attributed to a dominance of in-stream sedimentation that leads to a point where single-thread river channels cannot be maintained and so avulsion and floodout processes create smaller distributary channels and wetlands. Avulsions may reconnect channels, changing the sediment supply regime in those particular channels. Channel reformation occurs on the trunk stream where the floodplain gradient steepens enough to allow convergence of small tributaries, locally increasing stream power (and erosive energy in channels). As each river reach reforms following channel breakdown, the channel is smaller, shallower and straighter than the previous reach. One reach in this system recently (in the 1970s) became connected with a parallel channel through avulsion and has morphological characteristics that indicate a significant change in flow and sediment supply. In a pilot study using uranium-series disequilibrium methods and OSL dating, a sediment residence time of 58 +/- 2 ka was determined for sediment in the base of the active channel and a sediment residence time of 153 +/- 5 ka was determined for sediment buried in an adjacent meander that was cut off from the main channel 1,000 years ago. The apparent dramatic decrease in sediment residence time to this active channel poses an interesting question about the role of relatively new channels in transporting and depositing sediment more rapidly than the

  10. Socio-hydrologic Modeling to Understand and Mediate the Competition for Water between Humans and Ecosystems: Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Li, Zheng; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert


    Around the world the demand for water resources is growing in order to satisfy rapidly increasing human populations, leading to competition for water between humans and ecosystems. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling development and evaluation of effective mediation strategies. We present a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. Interactions between patterns of water resources management and climate driven hydrological variability within the prevailing socio-economic environment have contributed to the emergence of new whole system dynamics over the last 100 years. In particular, data analysis reveals a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages of water resources development and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. A quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that explicitly includes the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment, is able to mimic broad features of this pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear differential equations that include four state variables describing the co-evolution of storage capacity, irrigated area, human population, and ecosystem health, which are all connected by feedback mechanisms. The model is used to generate insights into the dominant controls of the trajectory of

  11. Spectrophotometry of Bowen resonance fluorescence lines in three planetary nebulae (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Miller, Christopher O.


    The results are presented of a uniquely complete, carefully reduced set of observations of the O III Bowen fluorescence lines in the planetary nebulae NGC 6210, NGC 7027, and NGC 7662. A detailed comparison with the predictions of radiative excitation verify that some secondary lines are enhanced by selective population by the charge exchange mechanism involving O IV. Charge exchange is most important in NGC 6210, which is of significantly lower ionization than the other nebulae. In addition to the principal Bowen lines arising from Ly-alpha pumping of the O III O1 line, lines arising from pumping of the O3 line are also observed. Comparison of lines produced by O1 and O3 with the theoretical predictions of Neufeld indicate poor agreement; comparison with the theoretical predictions of Harrington show agreement with NGC 7027 and NGC 7662.

  12. Benchmarking Passive Seismic Methods of Imaging Surface Wave Velocity Interfaces Down to 300 m — Mapping Murray Basin Thickness in Southeastern Australia (United States)

    Gorbatov, A.; Czarnota, K.


    In shallow passive seismology it is generally thought that the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method is more robust than the horizontal over vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method at resolving the depth to surface-wave velocity (Vs) interfaces. Here we present results of a field test of these two methods over ten drill sites in Victoria, Australia. The target interface is the base of Cenozoic unconsolidated to semi-consolidated clastic and/or carbonate sediments of the Murray Basin, which overlie Paleozoic crystalline rocks. Drilled depths of this interface are between 27 and 300 m. A three-arm spiral array, with a radius of 250 m, consisting of 13 Trillium compact broadband seismometers was deployed at each site for 7-21 hours. The Vs architecture beneath each site was determined through nonlinear inversion of HVSR and SPAC data using the neighborhood algorithm of Sambridge (1999) implemented in geopsy by Wathelet et al (2005). The HVSR technique yielded depth estimates, of the target interface (Vs > 1000 m/s), generally within 20% error. Successful estimates were even obtained at a site with an inverted velocity profile, where Quaternary basalts overlie Neogene sediments. Half of the SPAC estimates showed significantly higher errors than obtained using HVSR. Joint inversion provided the most reliable estimates but was unstable at three sites. We attribute the surprising success of HVSR over SPAC to a low content of transient signals within the seismic record caused by low degrees of anthropogenic noise at the benchmark sites. At a few sites SPAC curves showed clear overtones suggesting that more reliable SPAC estimates maybe obtained utilizing a multi modal inversion. Nevertheless, our study seems to indicate that reliable basin thickness estimates in remote Australia can be obtained utilizing HVSR data from a single seismometer, without a priori knowledge of the surface-wave velocity of the basin material, thereby negating the need to deploy cumbersome arrays.

  13. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy


    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  14. Platform margins, reef facies, and microbial carbonates; a comparison of Devonian reef complexes in the Canning Basin, Western Australia, and the Guilin region, South China (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Wei; Webb, Gregory E.; Jell, John S.


    Devonian reef complexes were well developed in Western Australia and South China, but no detailed direct comparison has been made between reef building in the two regions. The regions differ in several respects, including tectonic, stratigraphic and palaeoceanographic-palaeogeographic settings, and the reef building styles reflect minor differences in reef builders and reef facies. Similarities and differences between the two reef complexes provide insights into the characteristics of platform margins, reef facies and microbial carbonates of both regions. Here we present a comparison of platform margin types from different stratigraphic positions in the Late Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin, Western Australia and Middle and Late Devonian margin to marginal slope successions in Guilin, South China. Comparisons are integrated into a review of the reefal stratigraphy of both regions. Reef facies, reef complex architecture, temporal reef builder associations, 2nd order stratigraphy and platform cyclicity in the two regions were generally similar where the successions overlap temporally. However, carbonate deposition began earlier in South China. Carbonate complexes were also more widespread in South China and represent a thicker succession overall. Platforms in the Canning Basin grew directly on Precambrian crystalline basement or early Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, but in South China, carbonate complexes developed conformably on older Devonian siliciclastic strata. Pre-Frasnian reef facies in South China had more abundant skeletal frameworks than in Canning Basin reefs of equivalent age, and Famennian shoaling margins containing various microbial reefs may have been more common and probably more diverse in South China. However, Late Devonian platform margin types have been documented more completely in the Canning Basin. Deep intra-platform troughs (deep depressions containing non-carbonate pelagic sediments — Nandan-type successions) that developed along

  15. Orthorhombic fault fracture patterns and non-plane strain in a synthetic transfer zone during rifting: Lennard shelf, Canning basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Miller, John McL.; Nelson, E. P.; Hitzman, M.; Muccilli, P.; Hall, W. D. M.


    A complex series of faults occur within transfer zones normal to the WNW-trending rifted northern margin of the Canning basin (Western Australia). These zones controlled basinal fluid flow and the formation of some carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb deposits along the basin margin during Devonian to Carboniferous rifting. The study area has a regional fault geometry similar to a synthetic overlapping transfer zone. Surface and underground mapping in this transfer zone, combined with 3D modelling, indicate the faults and related extension fractures have an orthorhombic geometry. The orthorhombic fault-fracture mesh developed in response to three-dimensional non-plane strain in which the intermediate finite extension magnitude was non-zero. Pre-mineralisation marine calcite fill in the fault-fracture mesh indicates that it formed early in the deformation history. Later deformation that overprints the Zn-Pb mineralisation and fault-fracture mesh, was associated with a different maximum extension direction and this modified and reactivated the faults with both dip-slip and oblique-slip movement and tilting of earlier structures. The orthorhombic geometry is not observed at a regional scale (>10 × 10 km), indicating probable scale-dependant behaviour. This study indicates that this transfer zone developed either by (1) strain partitioning with synchronous strike-slip structures and adjacent zones of non-plane extension, or (2) by a component of non-plane extension sub-parallel to the basin margin followed by subsequent transtensional overprint of the system (preferred model). Synthetic overlapping transfer zones are inferred to be key regions where orthorhombic fault geometries may develop.

  16. Application of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, in the Murray-Darling Basin (southeastern Australia). (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H


    The Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) is currently one of the most popular pre-screening tools for freshwater fishes. A recent upgrade has ensured its wider climatic relevance to countries with subtropical regions. This enhancement is of particular importance to Australia, which encompasses tropical, arid, and temperate zones, and where the introduction of non-native fish species poses a significant risk to biodiversity. In this study, 55 fish species previously evaluated in a U.K.-based calibration of FISK are reassessed for their potential invasiveness in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB; southeastern Australia), the continent's largest catchment encompassing arid and temperate climates. Approximately half of the species were classed as "medium risk" and the other half as "high risk," and the ≥19 threshold previously identified from the calibration study was confirmed. The three highest scoring species (common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio, goldfish Carassius auratus, and eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki) were those already present and invasive in the area, whereas nearly half of the tropical and subtropical species had lower scores compared to U.K. assessments, possibly because of climate change predictions of drier conditions across the MDB. There were some discordances between FISK and two Australian-based assessment protocols, one of which is qualitative and the other represents a simplified version of FISK. Notably, the Australian origins of FISK should provide for an additional reason for further applications of the tool in other RA areas (i.e., drainage basins) of the continent, ultimately encouraging adoption as the country's reference screening tool for management and conservation purposes.

  17. Doença de Bowen : perspectivas globais e actuais


    Santos, Luís Miguel da Graça dos


    Trabalho final de mestrado integrado em Medicina (Dermatologia), apresentada á Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra Introdução: A Doença de Bowen (DB) é um carcinoma espinho-celular (CEC) in situ, que afecta frequentemente idosos (áreas expostas à radiação solar) e imunodeprimidos, e que tem um risco de até 10% de evolução para CEC invasivo. Por isso, estas lesões devem ser identificadas e tratadas precocemente. Objectivos: Avaliar a evidência disponível de modo a proceder a...

  18. Muddied Waters: the case for mitigating sediment and nutrient flux to optimise restoration response in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Gell


    Full Text Available The waters of the Murray Darling Basin, Australia, have endured multiple stressors for more than a century. Detectable salinisation impacts are evident from 1880 CE and elevated fluxes of sediments and nutrients are now widespread. Most wetlands examined paleolimnologically have shown increased sedimentation rates or have lost aquatic plant communities due to the shading effect of increased turbidity, prompting the observation that the waterways of the Murray Darling Basin are among ten Australian ecosystems most at risk from tipping points. This post-European heightened sediment flux threatens the potential ecological recovery from the application of scarce and expensive environmental water. Nutrients and fine sediments are implicated as drivers of regime shifts that advantage phytoplankton and inhibit the growth of productive macrophyte beds. However, with the river channels identified as likely sources of sediments and sediment-bound phosphorous, it remains possible that the documented ecological changes represent an ongoing response from continued doses from the River. Syntheses of multiple paleolimnological records provide evidence for the management focus to be on sediment supply to maximise the ecological benefit from environmental flow allocations. Here we use paleolimnology to examine in detail the nature and magnitude of the response in a subset of 17 wetlands, to propose means of optimising the ecological bounce from the release of river waters, encumbered with high doses of sediments and nutrients, to wetlands and floodplains.

  19. Underworld and multi-basin heat flow (United States)

    Quenette, S. M.; O'Neill, C.; Moresi, L. N.; Danis, C. R.; Mansour, J.


    We present an over arching method for non-linear heat flow assessments of large, multi-basin systems. Our example is the Sydney-, Gunnedah-, Bowen basins (Danis et al 2011), which covers an area of 800kms by 1900kms and depth of 5kms, on the east coast of Australia. It is used as a baseline towards further fluid and structural geodynamics oriented analysis. In contrast to reservoir scale geothermal models - basin, multi-basin and towards lithosphere scale models exhibit their own challenges in terms of physical/rheological behaviour and computational tractability. For instance we model a non-linear heat flow by means of temperature dependent conductivity, as indicated by Clauser and Huenges (1995), which allows crystalline basement rocks, such as granites, to show for example a significant decrease in conductivity from ambient temperature up to around 400C, dropping from around 3 mK**(units) to around 2. For this modelling, a specialisation of the geodynamics code 'Underworld' (Moresi et al 2007) called Underworld-GT is used. A toolbox is added to the otherwise un-touched Underworld code adding geothermal workflow and context to Underworld. A particular novel feature is the ability to load stratigraphic layers, and/or GoCAD or GeoModeller voxel sets as the constraining geological geometry, whilst allowing the heat assessment models to scale from 1 process to 1000s. Another is the ability to prescribe synthetic drill holes, and its use in stochastic-oriented assessments of model parameters. Following the Underworld platform's approach and its simple PDE abstraction layer, these model configurations from a baseline for further additions to the governing equations such as fluid flow and structure, enabling a bridge between reservoir and continental scale dynamics, albeit with their own computational challenges.

  20. GRACE Assimilation into Hydrological Model Improves Representation of Drought-induced Groundwater Trend over Murray-Darling Basin, Australia (United States)

    Schumacher, Maike; Forootan, Ehsan; Van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Crosbie, Russell S.; Kusche, Jürgen; Döll, Petra


    The Murray-Darling Basin, one of the largest and driest river basins over the world, experienced a long-term drought (over 2003-2009), the so-called Millennium Drought. As a result, the terrestrial water storage in the region decreased, which was attributed to dry meteorological conditions and extensive irrigation for agriculture. We used simulations of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) driven by monthly climate fields from the Climate Research Unit's Time Series (CRU TS 3.2) and precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) to estimate linear trends in soil, surface and groundwater compartments, as well as total water storage changes (TWSC). However, the model was not able to capture the effect of the Millennium Drought on the storage compartments likely due to missing processes in dry regions or climate forcing uncertainties. Particularly, TWSC simulated by standard WGHM did not reproduce the negative trend during 2003-2009. Therefore, in this study, we investigate whether assimilating TWSC from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission into WGHM enables a more realistic representation of the Millennium Drought on the basin hydrology. Firstly, the quality of monthly GRACE TWSC and its post-processing over the Murray-Darling Basin was assessed. An improved calibration and data assimilation (C/DA) approach (Schumacher et al., JoG-2016) was then applied to integrate GRACE TWSC along with its full error covariance information into WGHM during 2003-2009. Independent observations of soil moisture, groundwater and surface water extent were used to validate the model outputs after C/DA. Our investigations indicate that the integration of GRACE data indeed introduces a negative trend to TWSC simulations of WGHM, which occurred predominantly in the south (Murray Basin). The trend was found to be associated with the changes in groundwater storage, which was confirmed through validation with in

  1. Bowen fluorescence from companion stars in x-ray Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Casares


    Full Text Available Este art culo examina una nueva t ecnica para detectar estrellas compa~neras en los LMXB y las transitorias de rayos X durante la transferencia de masa utilizando las l neas NIII uorescentes de Bowen en 4634-4640. Estas l neas se reprocesan muy e cientemente en las atm osferas de las estrellas compa~neras proporcionando estimaciones de las velocidades K2 y funciones de masas. Este m etodo se aplic o a Sco X-1, X 822-371 y GB339-4 el cual, en este ultimo caso, proporciona una evidencia din amica de la presencia de un agujero negro acreciente. Tambi en se presentan resultados preliminares de una campa~na VLT sobre V801 Ara, V926 Sco y XTE J1814-338.

  2. Using 14C and 3H to delineate a recharge 'window' into the Perth Basin aquifers, North Gnangara groundwater system, Western Australia. (United States)

    Meredith, Karina; Cendón, Dioni I; Pigois, Jon-Philippe; Hollins, Suzanne; Jacobsen, Geraldine


    The Gnangara Mound and the underlying Perth Basin aquifers are the largest source of groundwater for the southwest of Australia, supplying between 35 and 50% of Perth's potable water (2009-2010). However, declining health of wetlands on the Mound coupled with the reduction in groundwater levels from increased irrigation demands and drier climatic conditions means this resource is experiencing increased pressures. The northern Gnangara is an area where the Yarragadee aquifer occurs at shallow depths (~50 m) and is in direct contact with the superficial aquifer, suggesting the possibility of direct recharge into a generally confined aquifer. Environmental isotopes ((14)C and (3)H) and hydrochemical modelling were used to assess the presence of a recharge 'window' as well as understand the groundwater residence time within different aquifers. Forty-nine groundwater samples were collected from depths ranging from 11 to 311 m below ground surface. The isotopic variation observed in the superficial aquifer was found to be controlled by the different lithologies present, i.e. quartz-rich Bassendean Sand and carbonate-rich sediments of the Ascot Formation. Rainfall recharge into the Bassendean Sand inherits its dissolved inorganic carbon from the soil CO(2). Organic matter throughout the soil profile is degraded by oxidation leading to anoxic/acidic groundwater, which if in contact with the Ascot Formation leads to enhanced dissolution of carbonates. Hydrochemical mass balance modelling showed that carbonate dissolution could contribute 1-2 mmol kg(-1) of carbon to groundwaters recharged through the Ascot Formation. The corrected groundwater residence times of the Yarragadee aquifer in the northern part of the study area ranged from 23 to 35 ka, while waters in the southeastern corner ranged from sub-modern to 2 ka. Groundwater ages increase with distance radiating from the recharge 'window'. This study delineates a recharge 'window' into the commonly presumed confined

  3. Evolving the Bowen-York initial data for spinning black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, R J; Price, R; Pullin, J; Gleiser, Reinaldo; Nicasio, Oscar; Price, Richard; Pullin, Jorge


    The Bowen-York initial value data typically used in numerical relativity to represent spinning black hole are not those of a constant-time slice of the Kerr spacetime. If Bowen-York initial data are used for each black hole in a collision, the emitted radiation will be partially due to the ``relaxation'' of the individual holes to Kerr form. We compute this radiation by treating the geometry for a single hole as a perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole, and by using second order perturbation theory. We discuss the extent to which Bowen-York data can be expected accurately to represent Kerr holes.

  4. Drought, floods and water quality: Drivers of a severe hypoxic blackwater event in a major river system (the southern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia) (United States)

    Whitworth, Kerry L.; Baldwin, Darren S.; Kerr, Janice L.


    SummaryHypoxic blackwater events are characterised by high levels of dissolved organic carbon in the water column, the metabolism of which depletes dissolved oxygen, which can cause fish and crustacean mortality. Understanding the drivers of and controls on hypoxic blackwater events is important in order to reduce the potential for detrimental water quality impacts from both managed and natural flows. After a decade-long drought in south-eastern Australia, a series of spring and summer flood events in 2010-2011 resulted in a large-scale hypoxic blackwater event in the southern Murray-Darling Basin that affected over 2000 km of river channels and persisted for 6 months. We examined the biogeochemistry and hydrology underpinning this extreme event and found that multiple drivers contributed to the development and persistence of hypoxic blackwater. Inundation of both forested and agricultural floodplains that had not been flooded for over a decade mobilised large stores of reactive carbon. Altered flow seasonality, due to a combination of climatic effects and river regulation, not only increased the risk of hypoxic blackwater generation but also shifted the proportion of bioavailable carbon that was returned to the river channels. Hypolimnetic weir discharge also contributed to hypoxia at some sites. These findings highlight the need for a whole-of-system perspective for the management of regulated river systems - especially in the face of a changing climate.

  5. A Re-Examination of the Bedout High, Offshore Canning Basin, Western Australia - Possible Impact Site for the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction Event? (United States)

    Becker, L.; Nicholson, C.; Poreda, R. J.


    The Bedout High, located offshore Canning basin in Western Australia, is an unusual structure and its origin remains problematic. K-Ar dating of volcanic samples encountered at total depth in the Lagrange-1 exploration well indicated an age of about 253+/-5 Ma consistent with the Permian-Triassic boundary event. Gorter (PESA News, pp. 33-34, 1996) speculates that the Bedout High is the uplifted core (30 km) of a circular feature, some 220 km across, formed by the impact of a large bolide (cometary or asteroidal) with the Earth near the end-Permian. Accepting a possible impact origin for the Bedout structure, with the indicated dimensions, would have had profound effects on global climate as well as significant changes in lithotratigraphic, biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic indicators as seen in several Permian-Triassic boundary locations worldwide. In this work, we re-examine some of the structural data previously presented by Gorter (1996) using some additional seismic lines. We have also evaluated several impact tracers including iridium, shocked quartz, productivity collapse, helium-3, chromium-53 and fullerenes with trapped noble gases from some Permian-Triassic boundary sites in the Tethys and Circum-Pacific regions. Our findings suggest that the Bedout structure is a good candidate for an oceanic impact at the end Permian, triggering the most severe mass extinction in the history of life on Earth.

  6. The use of environmental tracers to determine focused recharge from a saline disposal basin and irrigation channels in a semiarid environment in Southeastern Australia (United States)

    Robson, T. C.; Webb, J. A.


    Lake Tutchewop in southeastern Australia is a former ephemeral wetland that has been used as a saline disposal basin since 1968, forming part of the salinity management of the Murray River. The extent of saline focused recharge from Lake Tutchewop and fresh recharge from nearby unlined irrigation channels was determined using pore water and groundwater stable isotope and major ion chemistry, which were able to separate the influence of lake water, irrigation water and regional groundwater. In ∼45 years, saline water from Lake Tutchewop has infiltrated only up to 165 m from the lake edge in most directions, due to the underlying relatively impermeable clay-rich sediments, and a maximum of 700 m due to preferential groundwater flow along a sandy palaeochannel. The saline leakage has had limited, if any, impact on surrounding agricultural land use. Fresh water leakage from unlined irrigation channels extends up to 10 m deep, validating the current program to replace these channels with pipelines. This study demonstrates that focused recharge from different sources can be positively identified where the recharge waters have distinctive compositions, and that underlying clay-rich sediments restrict the extent of seepage. Therefore, management of focused recharge sources, particularly those that could decrease groundwater quality, requires a detailed knowledge of both the groundwater composition around the site and the underlying geology.

  7. Diagenesis and Fluid Flow History in Sandstones of the Upper Permian Black Jack Formation, Gunnedah Basin, Eastern Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Guoping; John B. KEENE


    The fluid flow history during diagenesis of sandstones in the Upper Permian Black Jack Formation of the Gunnedah Basin has been investigated through integrated petrographic observations, fluid inclusion investigations and stable isotope analyses. The early precipitation of mixed-layer illite/smectite, siderite, calcite, ankerite and kaolin proceeded at the presence of Late Permian connate meteoric waters at temperatures of up to 60℃. These evolved connate pore waters were also parental to quartz, which formed at temperatures of up to 87℃. The phase of maximum burial was characterized by development of filamentous illite and late calcite at temperatures of up to ~90℃. Subsequent uplifting and cooling led to deep meteoric influx from surface, which in turn resulted in dissolution of labile grains and carbonate cements, and formation of second generation of kaolin. Dawsonite was the last diagenetic mineral precipitated and its formation is genetically related to deep-seated mamagtic sourced CO2.

  8. Electrofacies in gas shale from well log data via cluster analysis: A case study of the Perth Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Torghabeh, Amir; Rezaee, Reza; Moussavi-Harami, Reza; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kamali, Mohammad; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali


    Identifying reservoir electrofacies has an important role in determining hydrocarbon bearing intervals. In this study, electrofacies of the Kockatea Formation in the Perth Basin were determined via cluster analysis. In this method, distance data were initially calculated and then connected spatially by using a linkage function. The dendrogram function was used to extract the cluster tree for formations over the study area. Input logs were sonic log (DT), gamma ray log (GR), resistivity log (IND), and spontaneous potential (SP). A total of 30 reservoir electrofacies were identified within this formation. Integrated geochemical and petrophysics data showed that zones with electrofacies 3, 4, 9, and 10 have potential for shale gas production. In addition, the results showed that cluster analysis is a precise, rapid, and cost-effective method for zoning reservoirs and determining electrofacies in hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  9. Rare earth element geochemistry of Late Devonian reefal carbonates, Canning Basin, Western Australia: confirmation of a seawater REE proxy in ancient limestones (United States)

    Nothdurft, Luke D.; Webb, Gregory E.; Kamber, Balz S.


    Rare earth element and yttrium (REE+Y) concentrations were determined in 49 Late Devonian reefal carbonates from the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Shale-normalized (SN) REE+Y patterns of the Late Devonian samples display features consistent with the geochemistry of well-oxygenated, shallow seawater. A variety of different ancient limestone components, including microbialites, some skeletal carbonates (stromatoporoids), and cements, record seawater-like REE+Y signatures. Contamination associated with phosphate, Fe-oxides and shale was tested quantitatively, and can be discounted as the source of the REE+Y patterns. Co-occurring carbonate components that presumably precipitated from the same seawater have different relative REE concentrations, but consistent REE+Y patterns. Clean Devonian early marine cements ( n = 3) display REE+Y signatures most like that of modern open ocean seawater and the highest Y/Ho ratios (e.g., 59) and greatest light REE (LREE) depletion (average Nd SN/Yb SN = 0.413, SD = 0.076). However, synsedimentary cements have the lowest REE concentrations (e.g., 405 ppb). Non-contaminated Devonian microbialite samples containing a mixture of the calcimicrobe Renalcis and micritic thrombolite aggregates in early marine cement ( n = 11) have the highest relative REE concentrations of tested carbonates (average total REE = 11.3 ppm). Stromatoporoid skeletons, unlike modern corals, algae and molluscs, also contain well-developed, seawater-like REE patterns. Samples from an estuarine fringing reef have very different REE+Y patterns with LREE enrichment (Nd SN/Yb SN > 1), possibly reflecting inclusion of estuarine colloidal material that contained preferentially scavenged LREE from a nearby riverine input source. Hence, Devonian limestones provide a proxy for marine REE geochemistry and allow the differentiation of co-occurring water masses on the ancient Lennard Shelf. Although appropriate partition coefficients for quantification of

  10. Morphologies and depositional/erosional controls on evolution of Pliocene-Pleistocene carbonate platforms: Northern Carnarvon Basin, Northwest Shelf of Australia (United States)

    Goktas, P.; Austin, J. A.; Fulthorpe, C. S.; Gallagher, S. J.


    The detailed morphologies, evolution and termination of latest Neogene tropical carbonate platforms in the Northern Carnarvon Basin (NCB), on the passive margin of the Northwest Shelf (NWS) of Australia, defined based upon mapping using 3D seismic images, reveal the history of local/regional oceanographic processes, fluctuations in relative sea-level and changing climate. Cool-water carbonate deposition, dominant during the early-middle Miocene, was followed by a siliciclastic influx, which prograded across the NWS beginning in the late-middle Miocene, during a period of long-term global sea-level fall. The resulting prograding clinoform sets, interpreted as delta lobes, created relict topographic highs following Pliocene termination of the siliciclastic influx. These highs constituted multiple favorable shallow-water environments for subsequent photozoan carbonate production. Resultant platform carbonate development, in addition to being a response to cessation of siliciclastic influx and the existence of suitable shallow-water substrate, was also influenced by development of the warm-water Leeuwin Current (LC), flowing southwestward along this margin. Four flat-topped platforms are mapped; each platform top is a sequence boundary defined by reflection onlap above and truncation below. Successive platforms migrated southwestward through time, along margin strike. All platforms exhibit predominantly progradational seismic geometries. Mapped tops are ≥10 km wide. Seismic evidence of karst on three of four platform tops, e.g., v-shaped troughs up to 50 m deep and ~1 km wide, and broader basins with areas up to 20 km2, suggests episodic subaerial exposure that may have contributed to platform demise. Platform 4, the most recent, is unique in having interpreted biohermal build-ups superimposed on the progradational platform base. The base of these interpreted patch reefs now lies at a water depth of ~153 m; therefore, we suggest that these reefs developed post

  11. Sequence development of a latest Devonian-Tournaisian distally-steepened mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp, Canning Basin, Australia (United States)

    Seyedmehdi, Zahra; George, Annette D.; Tucker, Maurice E.


    The sequence development and evolution of latest Devonian-earliest Carboniferous Fairfield Group in the Canning Basin have been established through integration of detailed sedimentological analysis of core, petrophysical data, existing biostratigraphic data and new seismic interpretations. The Fairfield Group on the Lennard Shelf was deposited on a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic distally-steepened ramp with a broad inner ramp, narrow mid ramp and steepened outer ramp. The majority of facies associations (FA1-FA8) were formed in intertidal-shallow subtidal conditions in proximal to distal inner ramp including siliciclastic tidal flats (FA1), carbonate intertidal flats (FA2), tidal flats and channels (FA3), lagoons (FA4-FA5), and shallow subtidal (FA6), backshoal (FA7) and fore-shoal areas (FA8). Bioclastic muddy sandstone (FA9) and bioclastic mudstone (FA10) are the dominant mid-ramp facies. Recognition of turbiditic facies of middle to lower slope of the outer ramp (FA11-FA13) led to the identification of a distally-steepened ramp. Antecedent topography exerted a significant control on platform morphology and the development of the widespread inner-ramp facies on the Lennard Shelf. A sequence-stratigraphic analysis reveals that the Fairfield Group ramp deposits consists of four third-order sequences (S1-S4) that were largely deposited during sea-level highstands (HST) characterized by progradational trends and dominant shallow subtidal inner-ramp facies associations. Transgressive systems tracts (TST) are well developed in S1 and S3 and have a retrogradational facies pattern with dominant deep subtidal mid-outer ramp facies associations. Lowstand systems tracts, characterized by lowstand wedges and turbiditic facies, are identified in the lower parts of S2 and S3. Coarse and fine-grained siliciclastic facies are mixed with carbonate facies as a result of coeval deposition on the inner and mid ramp, and reciprocal deposition on the outer ramp. A temporal variation in

  12. Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Implications for the management of environmental flows (United States)

    Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.


    Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

  13. Understanding the role of farm dams in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia through hydrological analysis coupled with stakeholder interviews (United States)

    Kuil, Linda; Winnubst, Madelinde; van Dijk, Albert


    Climate predictions suggest that surface water availability in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia is more likely to decline than to increase in the next decades. In 2000, farm dams were first recognized as a significant risk to future flows in the MDB and have since been the subject of hydrological research. This study was conducted to provide insight into the role of farm dams in the Yass catchment, which is a subcatchment of the MDB close to Canberra, in order to indentify obstacles for integrated water management. The role of farm dams was investigated from both a hydrological and social perspective. Model prediction and data inference were used to estimate the impact of farm dams on streamflow. The density of farm dams in the catchment was estimated at 5.7 dams km-2. The impact on the Yass River was simulated to be in the order of 20 percent of mean annual streamflow. To understand why farm dams are used, semi-structured interviews were conducted to capture views and opinions of land holders. Research found that farm dams play a very important role in terms of individuals' water supply, although other systems are also used. Furthermore, land holders are responsible for their own water supply for drinking and agricultural water needs. Water rights are based on a right to rainfall or groundwater that is present on an individual's property. This means that landholders have both a need and a right to collect and store runoff. Current legislation put in place by the New South Wales government to restrict the amount of rain water to be captured does not seem to affect most people. If additional policy to minimize the impact of farm dams on streamflow were to be introduced, this has to be based on well-thought-out arguments based on a long term vision as the interview results indicate that farm dams are deeply embedded in Australian rural culture.

  14. Socio-hydrologic drivers of the Pendulum Swing between agriculture development and environmental health: a case study from Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia (United States)

    Kandasamy, J.; Sounthararajah, D.; Sivabalan, P.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.; Sivapalan, M.


    This paper presents a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. In particular the paper traces the history of a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. The 100 yr history of development within Murrumbidgee is divided into four eras, each underpinned by the dominance of different norms/goals and turning points characterized by their changes. The various stages of development can be characterized by the dominance, in turn, of infrastructure systems, policy frameworks, economic instruments, and technological solutions. The paper argues that, to avoid these costly pendulum swings, management needs to be underpinned by long-term coupled socio-hydrologic system models that explicitly include the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment. Such coupled human-water system models can provide insights into dominant controls of the trajectory of their co-evolution in a given system, and can also be used to interpret patterns of co-evolution of such coupled systems in different places across gradients of climatic, socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions, and in this way to help develop generalizable understanding.

  15. Socio-hydrologic drivers of the pendulum swing between agricultural development and environmental health: a case study from Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia (United States)

    Kandasamy, J.; Sounthararajah, D.; Sivabalan, P.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.; Sivapalan, M.


    This paper presents a case study centred on the Murrumbidgee River basin in eastern Australia. It illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production, and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. In particular, the paper traces the history of a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, subsequent efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. The 100-year history of development within the Murrumbidgee is divided into four eras, each underpinned by the dominance of different values and norms and turning points characterized by their changes. The various stages of development can be characterized by the dominance, in turn, of infrastructure systems, policy frameworks, economic instruments, and technological solutions. The paper argues that, to avoid these costly pendulum swings, management needs to be underpinned by long-term coupled socio-hydrologic system models that explicitly include the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including the slow evolution of human values and norms relating to water and the environment. Such coupled human-water system models can provide insights into dominant controls of the trajectory of their co-evolution in a given system, and can also be used to interpret patterns of co-evolution of such coupled systems in different places across gradients of climatic, socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions, and in this way to help develop generalizable understanding.

  16. Socio-hydrologic Modeling to Understand and Mediate the Competition for Water between Humans and Ecosystems: Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia (Invited) (United States)

    Sivapalan, M.


    Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in coming decades in all parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. Interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability within the prevailing socio-economic environment have contributed to the emergence of new whole system dynamics over the last 100 years. In particular, data analysis reveals a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages of water resource development and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. A quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that explicitly includes the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment, is able to mimic broad features of this pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear differential equations that include four state variables describing the co-evolution of storage capacity, irrigated area, human population, and ecosystem health. The model is used to generate insights into the dominant controls of the trajectory of co-evolution of the coupled human-water system, to serve as the theoretical framework for more detailed analysis of

  17. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria


    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Origin and time-space distribution of hydrothermal systems in east-central Australian sedimentary basins: Constraints from illite geochronology and isotope geochemistry. (United States)

    Uysal, I. Tonguç


    Some well-known precious mineral deposits and hydrocarbon resources occur extensively in east-central Australian sedimentary Basins. The metal occurrences are abundant in northwestern and eastern part of Queensland, whereas no significant deposits are known in large areas further south, which may, however, be hidden beneath the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary basins. Important hydrocarbon resources exist within the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks at relatively shallow depths, of which the distribution represent zones of high paleo-geothermal gradients. This study examines the time-space distribution in relation to the regional tectonic history of concealed metal deposits and areas of high paleo-geothermal gradient leading to hydrocarbon maturation. To this end, authigenic illitic clay minerals representing various locations and stratigraphic depths in east-central Australia were investigated, of which the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar geochronology and stable isotope geochemistry assist in delineating zones of hydrothermal systems responsible for hydro-carbon maturation/migration and potentially ore deposition. The Late Carboniferous - Early Permian crustal extension that affected large areas of eastern Australia and led to the epithermal mineralisations (e.g., the Drummond Basin) is also recorded in northern South Australia and southwest Queensland. A Late Triassic - Early Jurassic tectonic event being responsible for coal maturation and gas generation in the Bowen Basin and the epithermal mineralisation in the North Arm goldfield in SE Queensland likewise affected the areas much further west in Queensland. Some illites from the basement in outback Queensland and fault gouges from the Demon Fault in NE New South Wales yield younger Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar ages indicating the effect of hydrothermal processes as a result of a Middle-Upper Jurassic tectonic event. The majority of illite samples from the crystalline basement rocks, Permian Cooper Basin, and Jurassic

  19. Modelling the impacts of climate change on wheat yield and field water balance over the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Enli; Liu, De Li


    The study used a modelling approach to assess the potential impacts of likely climate change and increase in CO2 concentration on the wheat growth and water balance in Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Impacts of individual changes in temperature, rainfall or CO2 concentration as, well as the 2050 and 2070 climate change scenarios, were analysed. Along an E-W transect, wheat yield at western sites (warmer and drier) was simulated to be more sensitive to temperature increase than that at eastern sites; along the S-N transect, wheat yield at northern warmer sites was simulated to be more sensitive to temperature increase, within 1-3°C temperature increase. Along the E-W and S-N transects, wheat at drier sites would benefit more from elevated [CO2] than at wetter sites, but more sensitive to the decline in rainfall. The increase in temperature only did not have much impact on water balance. Elevated [CO2] increased the drainage in all the sites, whilst rainfall reduction decreased evapotranspiration, runoff and drainage, especially at drier sites. In 2050, wheat yield would increase by 1-10% under all climate change scenarios along the S-N transect, except for the northernmost site (Dalby). Along the E-W transect, the most obvious increase of wheat yields under all climate change scenarios occurred in cooler and wetter eastern sites (Yass and Young), with an average increase rate of 7%. The biggest loss occurred at the driest sites (Griffith and Swan Hill) under A1FI and B2 scenarios, ranging from -5% to -16%. In 2070, there would be an increased risk of yield loss in general, except for the cool and wet sites. Water use efficiency was simulated to increase at most of the study sites under all the climate change scenarios, except for the driest site. Yield variability would increase at drier sites (Ardlethan, Griffith and Swan Hill). Soil types would also impact on the response of wheat yield and water balance to future climate change.

  20. A new method to measure bowen ratios using high resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, T.; Luxemburg, W.; Everson, C.; Mengistu, M.; Clulow, A.; Bastiaanssen, W.


    The Bowen ratio surface energy balance method is a relatively simple method to determine the latent heat flux and the actual land surface evaporation. Despite its simplicity, the Bowen ratio method is generally considered to be unreliable due to the use of two-level sensors that are installed by def

  1. Evolving the Bowen-York initial data for spinning black holes



    The Bowen-York initial value data typically used in numerical relativity to represent spinning black hole are not those of a constant-time slice of the Kerr spacetime. If Bowen-York initial data are used for each black hole in a collision, the emitted radiation will be partially due to the ``relaxation'' of the individual holes to Kerr form. We compute this radiation by treating the geometry for a single hole as a perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole, and by using second order perturbat...

  2. Play, Healing, and Wellness as Seen by a Physician Who Clowns: An Interview with Bowen White (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2009


    Bowen White is a physician. He founded the Department of Preventive and Stress Medicine at the Baptist Medical Center in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1983 and later established the center's Department of Wellness and Health Promotion. White is also a clown who goes by the name of Dr. Jerko. For years he mixed these dual interests, skills, and egos…

  3. A case of Bowen’s disease responding well to radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur Kalkan


    Full Text Available Bowen’s disease is a form of intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma which is known as carsinoma in situ. The head, neck, and extremities are the most commonly affected anatomic locations. Treatment options for Bowen’s disease include observation, surgery, cryotherapy, electrodesiccation and curettage, topical application of 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod, Moh’s micrographic surgery, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy. Radiation therapy is advantageous in patients who refuse surgery, for large or multiple lesions, for lesions in cosmetically sensitive areas, and in patients who are predisposed to formation of keloids, with a high cure rate cited in the literature. Here we report a 70-year-old man who was diagnosed as Bowen’s disease and completely healed with the treatment of radiotherapy. By means of this case report, we will review the current literature and empasize that radiotherapy is an effective treatment alternative for Bowen's disease in the suitable lesions. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 813-817

  4. A comparison of groundwater dating with 81Kr, 36Cl and 4He in four wells of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia (United States)

    Lehmann, B. E.; Love, A.; Purtschert, R.; Collon, P.; Loosli, H. H.; Kutschera, W.; Beyerle, U.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.; Kipfer, R.; Frape, S. K.; Herczeg, A.; Moran, J.; Tolstikhin, I. N.; Gröning, M.


    The isotopic ratios 81Kr/Kr and 36Cl/Cl and the 4He concentrations measured in groundwater from four artesian wells in the western part of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in Australia are discussed. Based on radioactive decay along a water flow path the 81Kr/Kr ratios are directly converted to groundwater residence times. Results are in a range of 225-400 kyr with error bars in the order of 15% primarily due to counting statistics in the cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer measurement. Additional uncertainties from subsurface production and/or exchange with stagnant porewaters in the confining shales appear to be of the same order of magnitude. These 81Kr ages are then used to calibrate the 36Cl and the 4He dating methods. Based on elemental analyses of rock samples from the sandstone aquifer as well as from the confining Bulldog shale the in situ flux of thermal neutrons and the corresponding 3He/ 4He and 36Cl/Cl ratios are calculated. From a comparison of: (i) the 3He/ 4He ratios measured in the groundwater samples with the calculated in situ ratios in rocks and (ii) the measured δ 37Cl ratios with the 4He concentrations measured in groundwater it is concluded that both helium and chloride are most likely added to the aquifer from sources in the stagnant porewaters of the confining shale by diffusion and/or mixing. Based on this 'working hypothesis' the 36Cl transport equation in groundwater is solved taking into account: (i) radioactive decay, (ii) subsurface production in the sandstone aquifer (with an in situ 36Cl/Cl ratio of 6×10 -15) and (iii) addition of chloride from a source in the confining shale (with a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 13×10 -15). Lacking better information it is assumed that the chloride concentration increased linearly with time from an (unknown) initial value Ci to its measured present value C= Ci+ Ca, where Ca represents the (unknown) amount of chloride added from subsurface sources. Using the 81Kr ages of the four groundwater samples and a

  5. Low-temperature thermochronology of the northern Thomson Orogen: Implications for exhumation of basement rocks in NE Australia (United States)

    Verdel, Charles; Stockli, Daniel; Purdy, David


    The Tasmanides of eastern Australia record much of the Phanerozoic tectonic development of the retreating Pacific-Australia plate boundary and are an oft-cited example of an orogen that has undergone "tectonic mode switching." To begin to constrain the timing of exhumation of basement rocks that are now exposed in portions of the NE Tasmanides, we measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 180 Ma (Early Jurassic) to 375 Ma (Late Devonian). (U-Th)/He zircon ages from several individual samples are negatively correlated with effective uranium (eU), a pattern that is also true of the dataset as a whole, suggesting that variations in U and Th zoning and radiation damage are partially responsible for the age variability. The oldest zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages coincide with the formation of regionally extensive Late Devonian-early Carboniferous back-arc basins, suggesting that Late Devonian extension played a significant role in exhumation of parts of the northern Thomson Orogen. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages from a basement sample and a late Permian sandstone in the overlying Bowen Basin, which are also marked by intra-sample variability and age-eU correlations, span from the Early Cretaceous through Oligocene, in general agreement with previous apatite fission track data. In conjunction with observations of key geologic relationships and prior K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar data, our results suggest four overall phases in the thermal history of the northern Thomson Orogen: (1) Cambrian-early Silurian metamorphism during the Delamerian and Benambran Orogenies; (2) protracted cooling during the Late Devonian through mid-Permian that likely resulted from extensional

  6. An Integrated Rock Typing Approach for Unraveling the Reservoir Heterogeneity of Tight Sands in the Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkhchi, Rahim Kadkhodaie; Rezaee, Reza; Harami, Reza Moussavi;


    Tight gas sands in Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin show large heterogeneity in reservoir characteristics and production behavior related to depositional and diagenetic features. Diagenetic events (compaction and cementation) have severely affected the pore system. In order to investigate...

  7. Structural inversion of the Tamworth Belt: Insights into the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, Australia (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Robinson, J.; Glen, R.; Roberts, J.


    The middle to late Permian Hunter Bowen Event is credited with the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, yet contention surrounds the structural dynamics responsible for the development of this curvature. Debate is largely centred on the roles of orogen parallel strike-slip and orogen normal extension and contraction to explain the development of curvature. To evaluate the dynamic history of the Hunter Bowen Event, we present new kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt. The Tamworth Belt formed as a Carboniferous forearc basin and was subsequently inverted during the Hunter Bowen Event. Kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt are based on new maps and cross-sections built from a synthesis of best-available mapping, chronostratigraphic data and new interpretations of depth-converted seismic data. The following conclusions are made from our study: (i) the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly driven by margin normal contraction (east-west shortening; present-day coordinates), and; (ii) variations in structural style along the strike of the Tamworth Belt can be explained by orthogonal vs. oblique inversion, which reflects the angular relationship between the principal shortening vector and continental-arc margin. Given these conclusions, we suggest that curvature around the controversial Manning Bend was influenced by the presence of primary curvature in the continental margin, and that the Hastings Block was translated along a sinistral strike-slip fault system that formed along this oblique (with respect to the regional east-west extension and convergence direction) part of the margin. Given the available temporal data, the translation of the Hastings Block took place in the Early Permian (Asselian) and therefore preceded the Hunter Bowen Event. Accordingly, we suggest that the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly associated with enhancing curvature that was either primary in origin, or associated with fault block translation

  8. System mass constraints for the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338 using Bowen fluorescence (United States)

    Wang, L.; Steeghs, D.; Casares, J.; Charles, P. A.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Marsh, T. R.; Hynes, R. I.; O'Brien, K.


    We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of the millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1814-338 obtained during its 2003 outburst. The spectra are dominated by high-excitation emission lines of He II λ4686, Hβ, and the Bowen blend C III/N III 4630-50 Å. We exploit the proven Bowen fluorescence technique to establish a complete set of dynamical system parameter constraints using bootstrap Doppler tomography, a first for an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar binary. The reconstructed Doppler map of the N III λ4640 Bowen transition exhibits a statistically significant (>4σ) spot feature at the expected position of the companion star. If this feature is driven by irradiation of the surface of the Roche lobe filling companion, we derive a strict lower limit to the true radial velocity semi-amplitude K2. Combining our donor constraint with the well-constrained orbit of the neutron star leads to a determination of the binary mass ratio: q = 0.123^{+0.012}_{-0.010}. The component masses are not tightly constrained given our lack of knowledge of the binary inclination. We cannot rule out a canonical neutron star mass of 1.4 M⊙ (1.1 M⊙ mass is typical of the so-called redback pulsar binary systems (M2 ∼ 0.2 M⊙).

  9. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  10. A new method to measure bowen ratios using high resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Euser


    Full Text Available The Bowen ratio surface energy balance method is a relatively simple method to determine the latent heat flux and the actual land surface evaporation. Despite its simplicity, the Bowen ratio method is generally considered to be unreliable due to the use of two-level sensors that are installed by default in operational Bowen ratio systems. In this paper we present the concept of a new measurement methodology to estimate the Bowen ratio from high resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles. A short field experiment with Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS in a fibre optic cable having 13 levels was undertaken. A dry and a wetted section of a fibre optic cable were suspended on a 6 m high tower installed over a sugar beet trial near Pietermaritzburg (South Africa. Using the DTS cable as a psychrometer, a near continuous observation of vapour pressure and temperature at 0.20 m intervals was established. These data allows the computation of the Bowen ratio with a high precision. By linking the Bowen ratio to net radiation and soil heat flux, the daytime latent heat flux was estimated. The latent heat flux derived from DTS-based Bowen ratio (BR-DTS showed consistent agreement (correlation coefficients between 0.97 and 0.98 with results derived from eddy covariance, surface layer scintillometer and surface renewal techniques. The latent heat from BR-DTS overestimated the latent heat derived with the eddy covariance by 4% and the latent heat derived with the surface layer scintillometer by 8%. Through this research, a new window is opened to engage on simplified, inexpensive and easy to interpret in situ measurement techniques for measuring evaporation.

  11. A century-scale, human-induced ecohydrological evolution of wetlands of two large river basins in Australia (Murray) and China (Yangtze) (United States)

    Kattel, Giri R.; Dong, Xuhui; Yang, Xiangdong


    Recently, the provision of food and water resources of two of the world's largest river basins, the Murray and the Yangtze, has been significantly altered through widespread landscape modification. Long-term sedimentary archives, dating back for some centuries from wetlands of these river basins, reveal that rapid, basin-wide development has reduced the resilience of biological communities, resulting in considerable decline in ecosystem services, including water quality. Large-scale human disturbance to river systems, due to river regulation during the mid-20th century, has transformed the hydrology of rivers and wetlands, causing widespread modification of aquatic biological communities. Changes to cladoceran zooplankton (water fleas) were used to assess the historical hydrology and ecology of three Murray and Yangtze river wetlands over the past century. Subfossil assemblages of cladocerans retrieved from sediment cores (94, 45, and 65 cm) of three wetlands: Kings Billabong (Murray), Zhangdu, and Liangzi lakes (Yangtze), showed strong responses to hydrological changes in the river after the mid-20th century. In particular, river regulation caused by construction of dams and weirs together with river channel modifications, has led to significant hydrological alterations. These hydrological disturbances were either (1) a prolonged inundation of wetlands or (2) reduced river flow, both of which caused variability in wetland depth. Inevitably, these phenomena have subsequently transformed the natural wetland habitats, leading to a switch in cladoceran assemblages to species preferring poor water quality, and in some cases to eutrophication. The quantitative and qualitative decline of wetland water conditions is indicative of reduced ecosystem services, and requires effective restoration measures for both river basins which have been impacted by recent socioeconomic development and climate change.

  12. Use of Hydrochemistry, Stable Isotope, Radiocarbon, 222Rn and Terrigenic 4He to Study the Geochemical Processes and the Mode of Vertical Leakage to the Gambier Basin Tertiary Confined Sand Aquifer, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne


    Full Text Available The mode of vertical recharge to aquifers is important to the application of appropriate recharge estimation methods. This study identifies the origin, geochemical evolution and mode of vertical leakage to the Gambier Basin confined aquifer, south east of South Australia. The recharge zone spans areas of the Glencoe-Nangwarry-Nagwarry (GNN. The Hundreds of Glencoe and Nangwarry are in South Australia, and the Parish of Nagwarry adjoins Nangwarry in western Victoria. The plot of stable isotopes of water molecules, δ2H versus δ18O, indicates that local rainfall with minor surface evaporation is the source of recharge. The results of hydrochemical analysis indicate that the sources of ions in the recharge zone groundwater are derived from carbonate and silicate weathering with cation exchange. The majority of water types (66% of samples within the South Australian part of the recharge zone show Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl due to carbonate dissolution processes, and about 83% of samples within the Victorian part of the recharge zone show Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl water types, indicating cation exchange or mixing with other waters. The influence of faults on vertical leakage was studied at eight sites located in the Nangwarry and Nagwarry area using electrical conductivity logging, measuring the concentration of radiocarbon activity, δ18O, 222Rn and terrigenic 4He in the vertical profiles. Results show that regardless of land use in the study area, the interconnection of the unconfined Tertiary limestone aquifer with the Tertiary confined sand aquifer occurs, via both diffuse and preferential flows. Thus, the application of conventional vertical leakage estimation methods using Darcy’s equation or the application of tracer techniques may be inappropriate unless the duality of the flow system is considered.

  13. High-Resolution Magnetic Susceptibility Stratigraphy Spanning Late Devonian Global Change from a New Scientific Drillcore in Canning Basin, Northwest Australia (United States)

    Diamond, M. R.; Raub, T. D.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Playton, T. E.; Hocking, R. M.; Haines, P.; Tulipani, S.


    New shallow scientific drillcore has been recovered through the Frasnian-Famennian extinction boundary in northwest Australia’s Canning Basin. Previous work in the McWhae Ridge outcrop belt has identified patterns of turnover in trilobites and other fauna, change from sponge- and coral-dominated reefs to post-extinction microbial-dominated reefs, apparent sea level changes, and carbon isotopic evidence of late Devonian crisis. Continuous magnetic susceptibility (MS) stratigraphy yields highly structured oscillations spanning ~42 m of reef-slope carbonate. These oscillations appear to identify late Frasnian “Kellwasser” events and they may record sedimentary response to orbital variations, establishing a high-resolution relative chronostratigraphy of late Devonian global change. Magnetic susceptibility stratigraphy has been proposed as a generally useful chronometer for late Devonian time. Most of fifteen published MS stratigraphies crossing the Frasnian-Famennian boundary appear to share major excursions with the new McWhae Ridge result. Although upland tectonism in Canning Basin may be a caveat to straightforward eustatic interpretation of magnetic susceptibility variations, we suggest the higher-resolution and fresh drillcore context of this result prioritizes it as a standard for Frasnian-Famennian magnetic susceptibility variation.

  14. Socio-hydrologic modeling to understand and mediate the competition for water between agriculture development and environmental health: Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. van Emmerik


    Full Text Available Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in the coming decades in many parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling the development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a modeling study centered on the Murrumbidgee River Basin (MRB. The MRB has witnessed a unique system dynamics over the last 100 years as a result of interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability. Data analysis has revealed a pendulum swing between agricultural development and restoration of environmental health and ecosystem services over different stages of basin scale water resource development. A parsimonious, stylized, quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that simulates the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems of the MRB is used to mimic dominant features of the pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the interaction between five state variables that govern the co-evolution: reservoir storage, irrigated area, human population, ecosystem health, and a measure of environmental awareness. The model simulations track the propagation of the external climatic and socio-economic drivers through this coupled, complex system to the emergence of the pendulum swing. The model results point to a competition between human "productive" and environmental "restorative" forces that underpin the pendulum swing. Both the forces are endogenous, i.e., generated by the system dynamics in response to external drivers and mediated by humans through technology change and environmental awareness, respectively. We propose this as a generalizable modeling framework for coupled human hydrological systems that is potentially transferable to systems in different climatic and socio

  15. A Bowen Family Systems Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Romantic Relationship Distress. (United States)

    Priest, Jacob B


    Many individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) do not respond well to currently available treatments. Moreover, treatments are less effective when GAD is accompanied by romantic relationship distress. In order to develop effective treatments for GAD and relationship distress, it is necessary to conduct theory-based research to identify links common to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, the roles of family abuse/violence and differentiation in GAD and romantic relationship distress were examined using existing data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 2,312; 2005). As predicted, family abuse/violence was directly linked to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Differentiation mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and GAD, and partially mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and romantic relationship distress. Findings suggest that current and past relationship processes may help maintain chronic anxiety and that Bowen's theory may be a useful framework for developing couple therapy treatment of GAD and romantic relationship distress.

  16. A modified Bowen ratio method to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Liu


    Full Text Available The sensible heat flux (H and the latent heat flux (λE were measured above a grassland during June, 1997 (LINEX-97/1 Experiment, using the eddy covariance method (EC and the Bowen ratio/Energy balance method (BREB. The results indicate that HBREB is about (30 ± 20 Wm-2 higher than HEC, and λEBREB is about (180 ± 40 Wm-2 higher than λEEC during the daytime, and this is mainly caused by an imbalance in the closure of the surface energy balance in the BREB. In order to avoid the inaccuracies associated with the surface energy balance method, we propose a modified Bowen ratio method (MBR to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes without using the surface energy balance equation. The results and error analysis show that MBR can give more accurate results than BREB. For the MBR, a measurement system using a sonic anemometer together with temperature and humidity measurements at two levels is being recommended to obtain sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  17. Wide-area estimates of evapotranspiration by red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and associated vegetation in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Doody, Tanya M.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jarchow, Christopher J; Barreto-Munoz, Armando; Didan, Kamel


    Floodplain red gum forests (Eucalyptus camaldulensis plus associated grasses, reeds and sedges) are sites of high biodiversity in otherwise arid regions of southeastern Australia. They depend on periodic floods from rivers, but dams and diversions have reduced flood frequencies and volumes, leading to deterioration of trees and associated biota. There is a need to determine their water requirements so environmental flows can be administered to maintain or restore the forests. Their water requirements include the frequency and extent of overbank flooding, which recharges the floodplain soils with water, as well as the actual amount of water consumed in evapotranspiration (ET). We estimated the flooding requirements and ET for a 38 134 ha area of red gum forest fed by the Murrumbidgee River in Yanga National Park, New South Wales. ET was estimated by three methods: sap flux sensors placed in individual trees; a remote sensing method based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS satellite imagery and a water balance method based on differences between river flows into and out of the forest. The methods gave comparable estimates yet covered different spatial and temporal scales. We estimated flood frequency and volume requirements by comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from Landsat images with flood history from 1995 to 2014, which included both wet periods and dry periods. ET during wet years is about 50% of potential ET but is much less in dry years because of the trees' ability to control stomatal conductance. Based on our analyses plus other studies, red gum trees at this location require environmental flows of 2000 GL yr−1 every other year, with peak flows of 20 000 ML d−1, to produce flooding sufficient to keep them in good condition. However, only about 120–200 GL yr−1 of river water is consumed in ET, with the remainder flowing out of the forest where it enters the Murray River system.

  18. Early Triassic stromatolites in a siliciclastic nearshore setting in northern Perth Basin, Western Australia: Geobiologic features and implications for post-extinction microbial proliferation (United States)

    Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Wang, Yongbiao; Kershaw, Stephen; Luo, Mao; Yang, Hao; Zhao, Laishi; Feng, Yuheng; Chen, Jianbo; Yang, Li; Zhang, Lei


    An Early Triassic stromatolite deposit in Gondwana is documented from the Smithian succession of the Lower Triassic Kockatea Shale Formation in the Northampton area, northern Geraldton, Western Australia. Abundant tube-like sheaths of filaments and tiny circular microspherule balls are well preserved in laminae of the Northampton stromatolites, which are characterized by finely laminated domes and digitate high-relief columns. These filament sheaths are superficially analogous to their counterparts of modern stromatolites, and thus are interpreted as putative fossilized filamentous cyanobacteria. Elemental mapping of EDS analysis shows very high contents of both Fe and Si elements as well as common presence of both S and Al elements along the laminae of the stromatolites, suggesting that the stromatolites may have been ferritized or silicified. Both ferritization and silicification may have played a crucial role in the exceptional preservation of the micro-structures in the Northampton stromatolites. The high content of Al along the laminae indicates that the stromatolites may have been influenced by terrigenous fine-grained clastics during their growth. The Northampton stromatolites show several growth modes, initiating on either pebbles/conglomerates or sandy seafloor and building laminar domes and digitate, high-relief columns during an initial transgression period. Steady increase in sea level facilitated the growth of stromatolites. The Early Triassic stromatolites ceased growth due to either rapid rise in sea level or increased clay influx probably sourced from increased weathering on land at that time, or both. The occurrence of the Northampton stromatolites in the siliciclastic succession, in comparison with published records of Early Triassic microbialites, reveals that post-extinction microbialites were widespread in the Smithian. Stromatolites show a broad geographic distribution from low-latitude to southern high-latitude regions of Gondwana and

  19. Socio-hydrologic modeling to understand and mediate the competition for water between agriculture development and environmental health: Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Li, Z.; Sivapalan, M.; Pande, S.; Kandasamy, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.


    Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in the coming decades in many parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling the development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a modeling study centered on the Murrumbidgee River basin (MRB). The MRB has witnessed a unique system dynamics over the last 100 years as a result of interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability. Data analysis has revealed a pendulum swing between agricultural development and restoration of environmental health and ecosystem services over different stages of basin-scale water resource development. A parsimonious, stylized, quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that simulates the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems of the MRB is used to mimic and explain dominant features of the pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the interaction between five state variables that govern the co-evolution: reservoir storage, irrigated area, human population, ecosystem health, and environmental awareness. The model simulations track the propagation of the external climatic and socio-economic drivers through this coupled, complex system to the emergence of the pendulum swing. The model results point to a competition between human "productive" and environmental "restorative" forces that underpin the pendulum swing. Both the forces are endogenous, i.e., generated by the system dynamics in response to external drivers and mediated by humans through technology change and environmental awareness, respectively. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model further reveals that socio-hydrologic modeling can be used as a tool to explain or gain insight into observed co-evolutionary dynamics of diverse

  20. en Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bell


    Full Text Available El argumento de que los mercados financieros globales imponen una “camisa de fuerza dorada” consistente en políticas macroeconómicas restrictivas es probada con relación a la política monetaria australiana. En contraste con los argumentos comunes de los teóricos de la globalización y las restricciones de política se argumenta que las autoridades monetarias en Australia han sido capaces de forjar un enfoque de política relativamente distintivo que ha empujado al crecimiento. Se argumenta así, por lo menos en este caso, que los argumentos restrictivos de la política neoliberal no deberían retraer innovaciones en la elección de política interna.

  1. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 3. Fern-like foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, W.B.K. [Noonee Nyrang, Wellington, NSW (Australia)


    Two quarries in the Basin Creek Formation of the Middle Triassic Nymboida Coal Measures have yielded numerous examples of fern-like foliage. No affiliated fertile material is available to place the fronds in a natural classification. Twenty three species in twelve genera are described as morpho-taxa in Order and Family Incertae Sedis. Plants described in this paper are: Cladophlebis conferta sp. nov., C octonerva sp. nov., C. paucinerva sp. nov., C. relallachfisp. nov., C. sinuala sp. nov., C. lenuoinnula sp. nov., Diconymba sparnosa gen. et sp. nov., Gouldianum alelhopleroides gen. et sp. nov., Leconama stachyophylla gen. et sp. nov., Micronymbopteris repens gen. et sp. nov., Nymbiella lacerata gen. et sp. nov., Nymboidiantum glossophyllum (Tenison-Woods) gen. et comb. nov., N. multilobatum gen. et sp. nov., N. elegans gen. et sp. nov., N. fractiflexum gen. et sp. nov., N. robustum gen. et sp. nov., Nymbophlebis polymorpha gen. et sp. nov., Nymbopteron dejerseyi (Retallack) gen. et comb. nov.,N. foleyi gen. et sp. nov., N. uncinatum gen. et sp. nov., Nymborhipteris radiata gen. et sp. nov., Ptilotonymba curvinervia gen. et sp. nov. and Sphenopteris speciosa sp. nov. The diversity of this new material demonstrates the remarkable recovery of Gondwana vegetation following the end-Permian extinction event.

  2. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.


    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is m

  3. Applying econometric techniques to hydrological problems in a large basin: Quantifying the rainfall-discharge relationship in the Burdekin, Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Jarvis, Diane; Stoeckl, Natalie; Chaiechi, Taha


    This study seeks to explore the relationship between rainfall and river discharge within a large river basin flowing into the waters surrounding the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and to investigate the best method of measuring the relationship. This aim is addressed by focusing on three specific research questions: (A) Has there been any evidence that global climate change has impacted on either rainfall or river discharge resulting in any change to the relationship between these variables over time? (B) What is the best measure of rainfall to be used to quantify the rainfall-discharge relationship, including the optimal number of rain stations to be included in the sample? (C) What is the optimal temporal scale for measuring the relationship (ranging from fine scale monthly data, medium scale quarterly data, and coarse scale annual data)? Modern econometric time series techniques are utilised, and compared with results using an alternate technique developed by researchers from the bio-physical sciences; the widely used Thiessen Polygon method. Firstly, stationarity testing, using econometric unit root tests, did not find evidence to suggest that the data are non-stationary. Evidently, climate change has not had a measurable impact on rainfall or river discharge in the region during the period covered by this study. Secondly, the analysis shows that the when dealing with fairly simple models with a fairly small number of explanatory variables, those which best represent the river-discharge relationship are those using the coarser scales (both geographic and temporal). In other words, stronger and more robust results are derived from models using fewer rain stations, and annual data (rather than quarterly or monthly data). This approach provides a viable alternative that may be very useful in data-poor environments when it is not possible to use other more data-hungry modelling approaches. The econometric models provided a better explanation of the relationship than the

  4. The Importance of Geochemical Parameters and Shale Composition on Rock Mechanical Properties of Gas Shale Reservoirs: a Case Study From the Kockatea Shale and Carynginia Formation From the Perth Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Labani, Mohammad Mahdi; Rezaee, Reza


    Evaluation of the gas shale mechanical properties is very important screening criteria for determining the potential intervals for hydraulic fracturing and as a result in gas shale sweet spot mapping. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are two controlling mechanical properties that dictate the brittleness of the gas shale layers. These parameters can be determined in the laboratory by testing the rock sample under different conditions (static method) or can be calculated using the well-logging data including sonic and density log data (dynamic method). This study investigates the importance of the shale composition and geochemical parameters on the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using log data. The data set of this study is coming from five different wells targeting the Kockatea Shale and Carynginia formation, two potential gas shale formations in the Perth Basin, Western Australia. The results show that converse to the common idea the effect of organic matter quantity and maturity on the rock mechanical properties of the gas shale reservoirs is not so much prominent, while the composition of the rock has an important effect on these properties. Considering the weight percentage of shale composition and organic matter quantity it could be concluded that effect of these parameters on rock mechanical properties is dependent on their weight contribution on the shale matrix. As well as effect of thermal maturity on the shale matrix and consequently on the rock mechanical properties of the shales is dependent on the organic matter content itself; therefore, obviously with a low organic matter content thermal maturity has no prominent effect on the brittleness as well.

  5. Human papillomavirus infection in Bowen disease: negative p53 expression, not p16(INK4a) overexpression, is correlated with human papillomavirus-associated Bowen disease. (United States)

    Murao, Kazutoshi; Yoshioka, Rika; Kubo, Yoshiaki


    Genital Bowen disease (BD) has been linked to the high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Recently, it has been recognized that HPV also can be associated with extragenital BD. HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 interfere with the function of p53 and pRb, respectively, leading carcinogenesis. p16(INK4a) overexpression induced by inactivation of pRb is recognized as a surrogate marker for HPV-associated cervical cancer. In this study, we examined the presence of HPV DNA in 142 BD lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and determined the type of HPV by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism or direct DNA sequencing. HPV DNA was detected in 66.7% of genital BD and 8.3% of extragenital BD. The types of HPV detected were HPV types 6, 16, 33, 52, 56, 58 and 59. We also investigated the expression of p16(INK4a) , pRb and p53 by immunohistochemistry. Positive expression was detected in 88.6% for p16(INK4a) , 25.2% for pRb, and 63.8% for p53. There was no significant difference in p16(INK4a) and pRb expression between HPV-positive and -negative BD. However, a strong correlation of HPV positivity with p53 negativity was found. A total of 66.7% of HPV-positive BD showed no p53 expression, whereas the corresponding rate was 32.8% of HPV-negative BD. This study demonstrated that HPV can participate in the development of BD, not only in the genital lesion, but also in extragenital lesion. p16(INK) (4a) overexpression is not a marker for HPV infection in BD. Instead, negative p53 expression is correlated with HPV-associated BD.

  6. Verifying the distributed temperature sensing Bowen ratio method for measuring evaporation (United States)

    Schilperoort, Bart; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Luxemburg, Willem; Cisneros Vaca, César; Ucer, Murat


    Evaporation is an important process in the hydrological cycle, therefore measuring evaporation accurately is essential for water resource management, hydrological management and climate change models. Current techniques to measure evaporation, like eddy covariance systems, scintillometers, or lysimeters, have their limitations and therefore cannot always be used to estimate evaporation correctly. Also the conventional Bowen ratio surface energy balance method has as drawback that two sensors are used, which results in large measuring errors. In Euser et al. (2014) a new method was introduced, the DTS-based Bowen ratio (BR-DTS), that overcomes this drawback. It uses a distributed temperature sensing technique (DTS) whereby a fibre optic cable is placed vertically, going up and down along a measurement tower. One stretch of the cable is dry, the other wrapped with cloth and kept wet, akin to a psychrometer. Using this, the wet and dry bulb temperatures are determined every 12.5 cm over the height, from which the Bowen ratio can be determined. As radiation and wind have an effect on the cooling and heating of the cable's sheath as well, the DTS cables do not necessarily always measure dry and wet bulb temperature of the air accurately. In this study the accuracy in representing the dry and wet bulb temperatures of the cable are verified, and evaporation observations of the BR-DTS method are compared to Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements. Two ways to correct for errors due to wind and solar radiation warming up the DTS cables are presented: one for the dry cable and one for the wet cable. The measurements were carried out in a pine forest near Garderen (The Netherlands), along a 46-meter tall scaffold tower (15 meters above the canopy). Both the wet (Twet) and dry (Tdry) temperature of the DTS cable were compared to temperature and humidity (from which Twet is derived) observations from sensors placed along the height of the tower. Underneath the canopy, where there was


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯杨伟; 屈红军; 张功成; 范玉海; 关利群


    澳大利亚西北陆架贫油富气,在近年的勘探开发中显示出广阔的前景.通过对澳大利亚西北陆架大量相关文献的分析总结,区域上包括4个盆地和1个造山带:北卡那封盆地、柔布克盆地、布劳斯盆地、渡拿巴盆地和帝汶-班达褶皱带.西北陆架属边缘海型被动大陆边缘,构造演化经历了前裂谷期、裂谷期和被动大陆边缘期三大阶段,对应发育有三大沉积建造层序.西北陆架的油气绝大多数集中在中生界,且呈现“内油外气,上油下气”的分布特点.发育三套主要烃源岩:三叠系湖相泥页岩、侏罗系海陆过渡相碳质泥岩和煤系及海相泥岩及下白垩统海相泥页岩,烃源岩样品显示其大多具生气能力,揭示了形成烃源岩的4种模式;主力储集层为裂谷期海相砂岩,被动陆缘期白垩系浊积砂岩是潜在储层;下白垩统海相泥页岩是区域性盖层.根据形成储盖组合的沉积环境,主要发育海相型、海陆过渡相型和陆相型三大储盖组合类型,海陆过渡相型储盖组合是区域主要的成藏组合.油气运移的方式主要有构造脊运移、垂向运移和不整合面侧向运移,超压、断层和不整合面是本区影响运移的主要因素.油气成藏以近源下生上储占主导.随着勘探技术的进步,本区油气勘探前景广阔.%The North West Shelf of Australia is a world known gas province with great potential having proved by the exploration and exploitation in recent years. It is a typical passive margin of a marginal sea consisting of four basins and an orogenic zone, namely the North Carnarvon basin,Roebuck basin,Browse basin,Bonaparte basin and the Timor-Banda orogenic zone. It has experienced three stages of evolution, I. E. , the pre-rift stage from the Cambrian to Early Jurassic, the rift stage from the Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and the passive continental margin stage from the Early Cretaceous up to present

  8. Crop water parameters of irrigated wine and table grapes to support water productivity analysis in the Sao Francisco river basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bassoi, L.H.


    Energy and water balance parameters were measured in two commercial vineyards in the semiarid region of the São Francisco river basin, Brazil. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was acquired with the Bowen ratio surface energy balance method. The ratio of the latent heat flux to the available energy, or

  9. Suburban Energy Balance Estimates for Vancouver, B.C., Using the Bowen Ratio-Energy Balance Approach. (United States)

    Kalanda, B. D.; Oke, T. R.; Spittlehouse, D. L.


    The energy balance of a suburban site in Vancouver, B.C. in late summer is presented. The balance is obtained from direct measurements of net radiation, parameterized heat storage and turbulent fluxes determined according to the Bowen ratio-energy balance method with reversing psychrometers. An error analysis shows the turbulent fluxes are good to within 10-20% by day. Features of the suburban energy balance are found to be intermediate between those previously reported for urban and rural surfaces. Average daytime Bowen ratios are usually in the range 0.5-1.0 with some days as high as 2.5. The daytime sensible heat flux is in-phase with the net radiation. At night this flux is sometimes positive. Evapotranspiration is always an important term in the balance. The role of urban irrigation and microscale heat advection in maintaining evapotranspiration rates is discussed.

  10. Spectrophotometry near the atmospheric cutoff of the strongest Bowen resonance fluorescence lines of O III in two planetary nebulae (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Opal, Chet B.


    Spectrophotometric results are presented for the stronger, well-resolved Bowen O III resonance fluorescence emission lines in the planetary nebulae 7027 and NGC 7662 down to and including the intrinsically strong line at 3133 A. These data are combined with results from the IUE atlas of spectra and similar results for the longer wavelength lines by Likkel and Aller (1986) to give the first full coverage of the Bowen lines. Good agreement is found with fluorescence theory for the primary cascade lines, except for the Likkel and Aller results. The efficiency of conversion of the exciting He II Ly-alpha into O III lines is determined, and values comparable to other planetary nebulae are found.

  11. Taste and odor occurrence in Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1, Spartanburg County, South Carolina (United States)

    Journey, Celeste; Arrington, Jane M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey and Spartanburg Water are working cooperatively on an ongoing study of Lake Bowen and Reservoir #1 to identify environmental factors that enhance or influence the production of geosmin in the source-water reservoirs. Spartanburg Water is using information from this study to develop management strategies to reduce (short-term solution) and prevent (long-term solution) geosmin occurrence. Spartanburg Water utility treats and distributes drinking water to the Spartanburg area of South Carolina. The drinking water sources for the area are Lake William C. Bowen (Lake Bowen) and Municipal Reservoir #1 (Reservoir #1), located north of Spartanburg. These reservoirs, which were formed by the impoundment of the South Pacolet River, were assessed in 2006 by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) as being fully supportive of all uses based on established criteria. Nonetheless, Spartanburg Water had noted periodic taste and odor problems due to the presence of geosmin, a naturally occurring compound in the source water. Geosmin is not harmful, but its presence in drinking water is aesthetically unpleasant.

  12. Mesozoic/Cenozoic tectonic events around Australia (United States)

    Müller, R. Dietmar; Gaina, Carmen; Tikku, Anahita; Mihut, Dona; Cande, Steven C.; Stock, Joann M.

    We use an absolute and relative plate motion model for the plates around Australia to identify major plate tectonic events, evaluate their causes, and investigate their effects on anomalous intraplate subsidence or uplift and on the history of oceanic crustal accretion. An event at ˜136 Ma is marked by the onset of sea floor spreading between Greater India and Australia. At about this time long-lived subduction east of Australia ceased, probably due to subduction of the Phoenix-Pacific spreading ridge, changing this plate boundary to a transform margin. Between 130 and 80 Ma, Australia and East Antarctica moved eastward in the Atlantic-Indian mantle hotspot reference frame. This can be plausibly linked to ridge push from the NW-SE oriented spreading center NW of Australia and to the inferred geometry and continued subduction of the Phoenix plate beneath the West Antarctic margin. A drastic change in spreading direction between the Indian and Australian plates from NE-SW to N-S occurred at about 99 Ma, possibly caused by a change in absolute motion of the Pacific Plate. Chron 27 (˜61 Ma) marks the onset of relative motion between East and West Antarctica, and a change in the relative motion between Australia and Antarctica. It may be linked to the subduction of a segment of the Neo-Tethyan Ridge. Both events caused anomalous subsidence on the Northwest Shelf of Australia. The almost stationary position of Australia w.r.t. the mantle from ˜80 Ma to ˜40 Ma may reflect the progressive subduction of the Pacific-Phoenix ridge to the east of New Zealand preceding 80 Ma, resulting in a diminished trench suction force east of Australia. Preliminary reconstructions to close the Pacific-Australian plate circuit based on recently collected geophysical data indicate that a tectonic event at 43 Ma may mark the onset of renewed subduction east of Australia. At the same time spreading in the Wharton Basin between India and Australia ceased, and tectonic reactivation is

  13. Health Information Management Leaders and the Practice of Leadership through the Lens of Bowen Theory. (United States)

    Sheridan, Patty Thierry; Watzlaf, Valerie; Fox, Leslie Ann


    Even though leadership is one of the most examined topics in the organizational literature, its application in the field of health information management (HIM) has not been studied extensively. This descriptive, mixed-methodology study examined HIM leadership through the lens of Bowen theory. The researchers conducted surveys of HIM directors and managers, administrators and colleagues of HIM leaders, and HIM staff using focus groups, observations of meetings, and face-to-face interviews. Results showed that HIM leaders are valued for HIM expertise in electronic health records, privacy, security, and coding; for being the center or heart of the organization; and for commonly valued leadership behaviors and skills including dependability, strategic planning, project management, listening ability, and fairness. Leadership was seen as a reciprocal process, and a team approach was preferred. Good communication, education, and training on HIM topics were also valued. However, HIM leaders believed that they spend more time on management activities than on leadership activities, although they would prefer the reverse. Future research is needed to examine how HIM leadership can be practiced more consistently in the workplace across different HIM functions.

  14. Site-specific climate analysis elucidates revegetation challenges for post-mining landscapes in eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Audet


    Full Text Available In eastern Australia, the availability of water is critical for the successful rehabilitation of post-mining landscapes and climatic characteristics of this diverse geographical region are closely defined by factors such as erratic rainfall and periods of drought and flooding. Despite this, specific metrics of climate patterning are seldom incorporated into the initial design of current post-mining land rehabilitation strategies. Our study proposes that a few common rainfall parameters can be combined and rated using arbitrary rainfall thresholds to characterise bioregional climate sensitivity relevant to the rehabilitation these landscapes. This approach included assessments of annual rainfall depth, average recurrence interval of prolonged low intensity rainfall, average recurrence intervals of short or prolonged high intensity events, median period without rain (or water-deficit and standard deviation for this period in order to address climatic factors such as total water availability, seasonality and intensity – which were selected as potential proxies of both short- and long-term biological sensitivity to climate within the context of post-disturbance ecological development and recovery. Following our survey of available climate data, we derived site "climate sensitivity" indexes and compared the performance of 9 ongoing mine sites: Weipa, Mt. Isa and Cloncurry, Eromanga, Kidston, the Bowen Basin (Curragh, Tarong, North Stradbroke Island, and the Newnes Plateau. The sites were then ranked from most-to-least sensitive and compared with natural bioregional patterns of vegetation density using mean NDVI. It was determined that regular rainfall and relatively short periods of water-deficit were key characteristics of sites having less sensitivity to climate – as found among the relatively more temperate inland mining locations. Whereas, high rainfall variability, frequently occurring high intensity events, and (or prolonged seasonal

  15. Human Papillomavirus Infection and p16 Expression in Extragenital/Extraungual Bowen Disease in Immunocompromised Patients. (United States)

    Švajdler, Marián; Mezencev, Roman; Kašpírková, Jana; Kacerovská, Denisa; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Ondič, Ondrej; Michal, Michal


    An increased rate of second nonmelanoma skin cancers is found in immunocompromised patients. Epidemiological and molecular data implicate ultraviolet radiation as the major risk factor. In addition, there is increasing evidence supporting the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of premalignant and malignant skin lesions in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, the authors examined the expression of p16 by immunohistochemistry and the presence of mucosal (α-genus) and cutaneous/epidermodysplasia verruciformis (β-genus) HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction in 29 biopsy specimens of extragenital/extraungual Bowen disease (BD) from 24 Eastern European white immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, the author evaluated the association between the expression of p16 protein and the presence of HPV DNA. Among 25 specimens from 21 patients evaluable by polymerase chain reaction, HPV DNA was detected in 10 (40%) BD lesions from 9 patients. Beta-HPV predominated over alpha-HPV types. Among 29 immunohistochemically evaluable BD specimens, 22 lesions (∼76%) from 20 patients were scored as p16 positive. HPV DNA-positive and HPV DNA-negative lesions displayed the same proportion of p16 positivity (80%) and no correlation was found between the HPV DNA presence and the p16 expression status. Our pilot study demonstrated that β-HPV infections predominate in BD cases diagnosed among immunocompromised patients, although high- and low-risk mucosal (alpha) HPV genotypes may be detected in a minority of cases. In contrast to anogenital HPV-associated lesions, positive p16 expression is not a reliable marker of high-risk α-HPV infection in BD cases, as it can be also detected in β-HPV infected and HPV-negative cases.

  16. Regional Bowen ratio controls on afternoon moist convection: A large eddy simulation study (United States)

    Kang, Song-Lak


    This study examines the effect of the regional Bowen ratio β, the ratio of the domain-averaged surface sensible heat flux (SHF) to latent heat flux (LHF), on afternoon moist convection. With a temporally evolving but spatially uniform surface available energy over a mesoscale domain under a weak capping inversion, we run large eddy simulation of the afternoon convective boundary layer (CBL). We first prescribe a small β of 0.56 (a wet surface) and then the reversed large β of 1.80 (a dry surface) by switching the SHF and LHF fields. The perturbation fields of the fluxes are prescribed with the Fourier spectra of κ- 3 (κ is horizontal wave number; strong mesoscale heterogeneity) and κ0 (homogeneity). The large β cases have strong vertical buoyancy fluxes and produce more vigorous updrafts. In the heterogeneous, large β surface case, with the removal of convective inhibition over a mesoscale subdomain of large SHF, deep convection develops. In the heterogeneous, small β surface case, convective clouds develop but do not progress into precipitating convection. In the homogeneous surface cases, randomly distributed shallow clouds develop with significantly more and thicker clouds in the large β case. (Co)spectral analyses confirm the more vigorous turbulent thermals in the large β cases and reveal that the moisture advection by the surface heterogeneity-induced mesoscale flows makes the correlation between mesoscale temperature and moisture perturbations change from negative to positive, which facilitates the mesoscale pool of high relative humidity air just above the CBL top, a necessary condition for deep convection.

  17. Australia's southern margin: a product of oblique extension (United States)

    Willcox, J. B.; Stagg, H. M. J.


    Recently developed detachment models of continental margin formation interpret the southern margin of Australia to have formed when the lower-plate Australian margin was pulled out from beneath the upper-plate Antarctic margin. Data now available and summarised in this paper, point very strongly to a generally NW-SE direction of initial continental extension for the southern margin, in contrast to the widely held picture of simple N-S rifting. The evidence for this extension direction comes from the analysis of deep Seismic data acquired by the Bureau of Mineral Resources in 1986 in the central Great Australian Bight (GAB), the gravity field of the GAB, Seismic and magnetic basement structures in the Eyre Sub-basin, Polda Trough, Ceduna Depocentre and Duntroon Basin and from the analysis of the magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies produced during the slow first phase of drifting between Australia and Antarctica. Further, it is now believed that the formation of the southern margin of Australia can be described in terms of three phases of continental extension (El to E3) and two phases of drifting (D1 and D2). In summary, these phases were as follows. E1: approximately 300 km of Late Jurassic (?or older) to Early Cretaceous NW-SE-oriented extension in the GAB, with strike-slip motion in the nascent Otway Basin and along the Tasmanian margin. E2: 120 km of Early Cretaceous NNE-SSW-oriented extension which formed the basins of southeastern Australia (Otway, Bass, Gippsland) and which probably produced a structural overprinting in the GAB Basin. E3/D1: minor continental extension and the first 500 km of slow drift between Australia and Antarctica on an azimuth of 165°; wrenching on the Tasmanian margin. D2: 2600 km of fast drifting between Australia and Antarctica on a N-S azimuth.

  18. Wine Tourism in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    1.Introduction Wine tourism is now recognised as a growing subset of special interest tourism all over the world.It is an increasingly important tourism component for many wine producing regions(M.A.O’Neill&Palmer;,2004).Australia has recently become a large wine producing country.Therefore,wine tourism has emerged as a strong and growing area in Australia.The

  19. Validating Evapotranspiraiton Equations Using Bowen Ratio in New Brunswick, Maritime, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Monteith


    Full Text Available Three methods including the Penman-Monteith (PM, Priestley-Taylor (PT, and 1963 Penman equation (PE for calculating daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo were evaluated in the Maritime region of Canada with the data collected from 2004 to 2007. An automatically operated meteorological station located on the Potato Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, was used to collect required meteorological data for evapotranspiration modeling. A Bowen Ratio system (BR was setup near the Environment Canada grade one weather station to provide evapotranspiration observations for the validation research of reference evapotranspiration models. The results showed that the prediction from each of the tested models had a certain degree of offset in comparison with the observations obtained by the BR method. All of the tested models slightly overestimated evapotranspiration compared to the BR system by 5-14%, depending on the method. However, the PM generated a better fit to the pooled dataset while the PT produced the best prediction for the 2007 validation dataset. The PM generated the best estimation of evapotranspiration for year 2004 during a inter-annual comparison. The BR revealed that the average daytime ET for the site was around 2.5 mm day-1(±0.1 averaged for Julian day 157-276 in 2004 to 2006 and possible condensation was 0.16 mm day-1 for the same period. Crop coefficient (Kc varied with different models, for example, 0.42 for the PM, 0.44 for the PT, and 0.67 for the PE with a slight yearly variation. With this set of Kc values, a validation with additional dataset collected in 2007 indicated that all three equations achieved a good fit with observations using the above Kc values. The PT performed slightly better than the other two models. A single factor analysis did not show any statistically significant difference between predicted and measured ET. With a consideration of simplicity and

  20. Validating Evapotranspiraiton Equations Using Bowen Ratio in New Brunswick, Maritime, Canada. (United States)

    Xing, Zisheng; Chow, Lien; Meng, Fan-Rui; Rees, Herb W; Steve, Lionel; Monteith, John


    Three methods including the Penman-Monteith (PM), Priestley-Taylor (PT), and 1963 Penman equation (PE) for calculating daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) were evaluated in the Maritime region of Canada with the data collected from 2004 to 2007. An automatically operated meteorological station located on the Potato Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, was used to collect required meteorological data for evapotranspiration modeling. A Bowen Ratio system (BR) was setup near the Environment Canada grade one weather station to provide evapotranspiration observations for the validation research of reference evapotranspiration models. The results showed that the prediction from each of the tested models had a certain degree of offset in comparison with the observations obtained by the BR method. All of the tested models slightly overestimated evapotranspiration compared to the BR system by 5-14%, depending on the method. However, the PM generated a better fit to the pooled dataset while the PT produced the best prediction for the 2007 validation dataset. The PM generated the best estimation of evapotranspiration for year 2004 during a inter-annual comparison. The BR revealed that the average daytime ET for the site was around 2.5 mm day(-1)(±0.1) averaged for Julian day 157-276 in 2004 to 2006 and possible condensation was 0.16 mm day(-1) for the same period. Crop coefficient (Kc) varied with different models, for example, 0.42 for the PM, 0.44 for the PT, and 0.67 for the PE with a slight yearly variation. With this set of Kc values, a validation with additional dataset collected in 2007 indicated that all three equations achieved a good fit with observations using the above Kc values. The PT performed slightly better than the other two models. A single factor analysis did not show any statistically significant difference between predicted and measured ET. With a consideration of simplicity and application for

  1. The Rising Cost of Higher Education: Charles Eliot's "Free Money" Strategy and the Beginning of Howard Bowen's "Revenue Theory of Cost," 1869-1979 (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A.


    In order to explain the rising cost of higher education, economist Howard Bowen in 1980 proposed his "famous law" of institutional finance. Bowen based his "revenue theory of cost" on a study of aggregate quantitative data extending from 1929 to 1979. Neither he nor subsequent economists asked whether or how that…

  2. O efeito agudo da terapia Bowen no limiar de dor e controlo postural em indivíduos saudáveis


    Félix,Gonçalo José Silva


    Introdução: A fáscia é tecido conjuntivo inervado por terminações nervosas livres e por mecanoretores, tendo um papel importante na dor e na proprioceção. Acredita-se que a Terapia Bowen estimule os mecanorecetores e as terminações nervosas livres presentes na fáscia. Objetivos: Determinar o efeito imediato da Terapia Bowen no limiar de dor à pressão mecânica e no controlo postural em indivíduos saudáveis. Métodos: Este foi um estudo cruzado de amostras emparelhadas, duplamente cego, constitu...

  3. Limnological Conditions in Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, August to September 2005, May 2006, and October 2006 (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Spartanburg Water System, conducted three spatial surveys of the limnological conditions in Lake William C. Bowen (Lake Bowen) and Municipal Reservoir #1 (Reservoir #1), Spartanburg County, South Carolina, during August to September 2005, May 2006, and October 2006. The surveys were conducted to identify spatial distribution and concentrations of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, common trophic state indicators (nutrients, transparency, and chlorophyll a), algal community structure, and stratification of the water column at the time of sampling. Screening tools such as the Carlson trophic state index, total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratios, and relative thermal resistance to mixing were used to help compare data among sites and among seasons. Water-column samples were collected at two depths at each selected site: a near-surface sample collected above a 1-meter depth and a lake-bottom sample collected at a depth of 2.5 to 7 meters, depending on the depth at the site. The degree of stratification of the water column was demonstrated by temperature-depth profiles and computed relative thermal resistance to mixing. Seasonal occurrence of thermal stratification (August to September 2005; May 2006) and de-stratification (October 2006) was evident in the depth profiles of water temperature in Lake Bowen. The most stable water-column (highest relative thermal resistance to mixing) conditions occurred in Lake Bowen during the August to September 2005 survey. The least stable water-column (destratified) conditions occurred in Lake Bowen during the October 2006 survey and Reservoir #1 during all three surveys. Changes with depth in dissolved oxygen (decreased with depth to near anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion), pH (decreased with depth), and specific conductance (increased with depth) along with thermal stratification indicated Lake Bowen was exhibiting characteristics common to both mesotrophic and eutrophic

  4. Field Evaluation of Polymer Capacitive Humidity Sensors for Bowen Ratio Energy Balance Flux Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Savage


    Full Text Available The possibility of reliable, reasonably accurate and relatively inexpensive estimates of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes was investigated using a commercial combination thin-film polymer capacitive relative humidity and adjacent temperature sensor instrument. Long-term and unattended water vapour pressure profile difference measurements using low-power combination instruments were compared with those from a cooled dewpoint mirror hygrometer, the latter often used with Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB systems. An error analysis, based on instrument relative humidity and temperature errors, was applied for various capacitive humidity instrument models. The main disadvantage of a combination capacitive humidity instrument is that two measurements, relative humidity and temperature, are required for estimation of water vapour pressure as opposed to one for a dewpoint hygrometer. In a laboratory experiment using an automated procedure, water vapour pressure differences generated using a reference dewpoint generator were measured using a commercial model (Dew-10 dewpoint hygrometer and a combination capacitive humidity instrument. The laboratory measurement comparisons showed that, potentially, an inexpensive model combination capacitive humidity instrument (CS500 or HMP50, or for improved results a slightly more expensive model (HMP35C or HMP45C, could substitute for the more expensive dewpoint hygrometer. In a field study, in a mesic grassland, the water vapour pressure measurement noise for the combination capacitive humidity instruments was greater than that for the dewpoint hygrometer. The average water vapour pressure profile difference measured using a HMP45C was highly correlated with that from a dewpoint hygrometer with a slope less than unity. Water vapour pressure measurements using the capacitive humidity instruments were not as accurate, compared to those obtained using a dewpoint hygrometer, but the resolution magnitudes for the

  5. Field evaluation of polymer capacitive humidity sensors for Bowen ratio energy balance flux measurements. (United States)

    Savage, Michael J


    The possibility of reliable, reasonably accurate and relatively inexpensive estimates of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes was investigated using a commercial combination thin-film polymer capacitive relative humidity and adjacent temperature sensor instrument. Long-term and unattended water vapour pressure profile difference measurements using low-power combination instruments were compared with those from a cooled dewpoint mirror hygrometer, the latter often used with Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) systems. An error analysis, based on instrument relative humidity and temperature errors, was applied for various capacitive humidity instrument models. The main disadvantage of a combination capacitive humidity instrument is that two measurements, relative humidity and temperature, are required for estimation of water vapour pressure as opposed to one for a dewpoint hygrometer. In a laboratory experiment using an automated procedure, water vapour pressure differences generated using a reference dewpoint generator were measured using a commercial model (Dew-10) dewpoint hygrometer and a combination capacitive humidity instrument. The laboratory measurement comparisons showed that, potentially, an inexpensive model combination capacitive humidity instrument (CS500 or HMP50), or for improved results a slightly more expensive model (HMP35C or HMP45C), could substitute for the more expensive dewpoint hygrometer. In a field study, in a mesic grassland, the water vapour pressure measurement noise for the combination capacitive humidity instruments was greater than that for the dewpoint hygrometer. The average water vapour pressure profile difference measured using a HMP45C was highly correlated with that from a dewpoint hygrometer with a slope less than unity. Water vapour pressure measurements using the capacitive humidity instruments were not as accurate, compared to those obtained using a dewpoint hygrometer, but the resolution magnitudes for the profile

  6. Família e o processo de individuação na perspectiva de Murray Bowen


    Elizabeth Medeiros de Almeida Martins


    O estudo Família e o Processo de Individuação na Perspectiva de Murray Bowen tem como objetivo investigar a aplicabilidade do conceito de diferenciação do self em três casos clínicos, atendidos em clínica de terapia familiar, nos períodos de 1998 a 1999 e de 2002 a 2005. Pretendeu igualmente problematizar e ampliar uma análise crítica reflexiva, a partir do entendimento de que a família nuclear está inserida numa rede de relações multigeracionais na qual a sua funcionalidade é direcionada pel...

  7. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young


    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  8. Australia's polio risk. (United States)

    Martin, Nicolee; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N


    Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue.

  9. Why Study in Australia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Going overseas to pursue further studies is even more generalized in recent years. Students are open to a variety of op-tions to decide which country to go and which university to choose. Why wouldn’t you want to study with some of the best minds in the world? Australia is a leading global education power, with world’s best educators and facilities. It also provides both local and international students with a variety of quality study options. This essay presents some of the important reasons why in-ternational students should study in Australia in regard to education quality, affordable fees, government support, multiple cultures and immigration policies.

  10. Immigrant Teachers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins


    Full Text Available One of the features of contemporary society is the increasing global mobility of professionals. While the education industry is a key site of the demand for contemporary global professional migration, little attention has been given to the global circulation of education professionals. Over past decades, immigrant teachers have been an important component of skilled and professional immigration into Australia, there is no comprehensive contemporary national study of the experiences of immigrant teachers in Australia. This article aims to fill this gap and to answer questions about their decision to move to Australia, their experience with Australian Education Departments in getting appointed to a school, their experiences as teachers in the classroom and in their new Australian community. It draws on primary data sources - in the form of a survey of 269 immigrant teachers in schools in NSW, SA and WA conducted in 2008-9 - and secondary sources - in the form of the 2006 national census and Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants in Australia – to provide insights into immigrant teachers in Australian schools, adding also to our understanding of Australia’s contemporary immigration experience.

  11. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus. (United States)

    Gabriel, M.


    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  12. Australia in the Pacific. (United States)

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian


    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  13. Nucleopolyhedrovirus Introduction in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Buerger; Caroline Hauxwell; David Murray


    Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has become an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) in many Australian agricultural and horticultural crops. This is the culmination of years of work conducted by researchers at the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (QDPI&F) and Ag Biotech Australia Pty Ltd. In the early 1970's researchers at QDPI&F identified and isolated a virus in Helicoverpa armigera populations in the field. This NPV was extensively studied and shown to be highly specific to Helicoverpa and Heliothis species. Further work showed that when used appropriately the virus could be used effectively to manage these insects in crops such as sorghum, cotton, chickpea and sweet corn. A similar virus was first commercially produced in the USA in the 1970's. This product, Elcar(R), was introduced into Australia in the late 1970's by Shell Chemicals with limited success. A major factor contributing to the poor adoption of Elcar was the concurrent enormous success of the synthetic pyrethroids. The importance of integrated pest management was probably also not widely accepted at that time. Gradual development of insect resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and other synthetic insecticides in Australia and the increased awareness of the importance of IPM meant that researchers once again turned their attentions to environmentally friendly pest management tools such NPV and beneficial insects. In the 1990's a company called Rhone-Poulenc registered an NPV for use in Australian sorghum, chickpea and cotton. This product, Gemstar(R), was imported from the USA. In 2000 Ag Biotech Australia established an in-vivo production facility in Australia to produce commercial volumes of a product similar to the imported product. This product was branded, ViVUS(R), and was first registered and sold commercially in Australia in 2003. The initial production of ViVUS used a virus identical to the American product but replicating it in an Australian Helicoverpa

  14. Long-term follow-up of metil aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT in difficult-to-treat cutaneous Bowen's disease. (United States)

    Cavicchini, Stefano; Serini, Stefano Maria; Fiorani, Roberta; Girgenti, Valentina; Ghislanzoni, Massimo; Sala, Francesco


    Bowen's disease (BD) is a form of intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, which is clinically characterized by gradually enlarging, well-demarcated erythematous plaques with irregular borders and surface crusting or scaling, affecting primarily the elderly. BD often presents with lesions difficult to treat with standard therapy as surgery, cryosurgery, or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the risk of significantly poor cosmetic outcome, failure rate, and adverse events, related mainly to the age of the patients. Topical PDT with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) represents a valid and approved therapy for BD lesions in many cases, especially for lesions located at poor healing sites or for large patches of disease, due to its high efficacy coupled with good tolerability and tissue-sparing attitude. In this study, we sought to investigate the efficacy, safety, and cosmetic outcome of MAL-PDT in a series of patients with BD lesions which were challenging to treat for clinical, surgical, and patient-related reasons, such as size of the lesion, difficult surgical approach for anatomical sites, or age of patients and request of the best cosmetic result. We also performed a long-term follow-up to assess recurrence rates and eventual late-onset adverse events.

  15. Year book Australia 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castles, I. (comp.)


    The Year Book is the principal reference work produced by the Central Office of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It provides a comprehensive and detailed statistical review of all asepcts of the economy and social conditions of Australia. In addition, it contains descriptive matter dealing with Australia's history, geography, physiography, climate and meteorology, government, defence, international relations, culture and environment. The first Official Year Book was published early in 1908. This is the seventieth Year Book issued under the authority of the Commonwealth Government and follows a similar pattern to previous editions. However chapters have been revised and new material has been added. Most of the statistics contained in this volume relate to the years ended June or December 1984 to 1985. More detailed, and in most cases more recent, statistics are available in other ABS publications.

  16. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik


    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  17. Melville Island, Australia (United States)


    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  18. American Outlaws in Australia



    An aspect of the diffusion of American popular culture is examined in this research drawing upon national survey data. Measuring Australians¡¯ knowledge of American and Australian outlaws, we found that Jesse James and Billy the Kid are better known in Australia than any of the local outlaws, or bushrangers, with the exception of Ned Kelly. While a relatively large proportion of Australians identified Ned Kelly, Ben Hall, Jesse James and Billy the Kid as outlaws, few identified other Australi...

  19. The regolith in Australia (United States)

    Ollier, C. D.


    Australian regolith materials are described, many of which are complex. Much Australian regolith dates back to the Tertiary, Mesozoic or earlier. There is a progressive change in the nature of alluvium through the Tertiary. Aridity, revealed through sand dunes and evaporites, is confined to the Quaternary. Ferricretes and silcretes are formed on lower slopes, often followed by inversion of relief. Tectonic isolation of Australia as well as climatic change is responsible for the change in the nature of terrestrial sediments since the Cretaceous.

  20. Is Western Australia. (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom


    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  1. Application of detailed temperature profile measurements for improving data quality check by Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance method (United States)

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav; Žalud, Zdeněk


    Water plays a key role in the functionality and sustainability of the ecosystems. In the light of the predicted climate change research should be focused on the water cycle and its individual components. Apart from the runoff, the major component of the water balance which drives the water from the ecosystems is represented by the evapotranspiration (ET). One of the standard methods for measuring ET is Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance method (BREB). It is based on the assumption that the water vapour and heat are transported by identical eddies with equal efficiency. In fact, this basic premise is based on a more complicated Monin-Obukhov similarity theory that explains the relationship between the profiles of wind, temperature and water vapour in the surface layer of the atmosphere. When BREB method is used we assume that the profiles of temperature and air humidity are ideally logarithmic or at least consistent. However, as this method is usually based on the measurements of temperature and humidity in only two heights, it is difficult to verify this assumption. We therefore conducted a field experiment using 4m high measurement-mast with 20 thermocouples connected to data-logger for detailed measurement of air temperature profile above different covers, e.g. grassland, spring barley, poplar plantation. The main goal of our effort was to capture so called "kink" in the profile of the temperature and verify if the assumptions made by BREB hold under various weather conditions and over different canopies testing the basic requirements of the BREB method use. Finally we devised a technique improving data selection for subsequent ET calculation. This study was funded by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248,PASED - project supported by Czech program KONTAKT II No. LH12037 "Development of models for assessment of abiotic stresses in selected bioenergy plants" and LD130030 project supporting COST action ES1106.

  2. Electromagnetic induction in Australia (United States)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  3. Fresh Ideas for Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With Kevin Rudd at the helm,Australia seems poised to embrace major changesAustralia’s prime minister-elect Kevin Rudd has caught the atten- tion of the Chinese with his modest appearance,fluent Mandarin and personal bonds with China. Rudd,50,graduated from the Australian National University in Canberra, where he majored in Chinese language and history.He is the first Mandarin-speaking leader from an English-speaking country and is known in China by the elegant name Lu Kewen.As a diplomat,he worked in the Australian Embassy in Beijing in the 1980s.

  4. Energy budget measurements using eddy correlation and Bowen ratio techniques at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (United States)

    Den Hartog, G.; Neumann, H. H.; King, K. M.; Chipanshi, A. C.


    Fluxes of heat and water vapor were measured on a 20-m tower at Kinosheo Lake in the Hudson Bay lowlands using eddy correlation and Bowen ratio energy balance techniques. The study period was June 25 to July 28, 1990. Measurements were made over a peat bog consisting of a mixture of sphagnum moss and lichen hummocks and black pools. About 200 m west of the tower were several shallow ponds. The hummocks had a dry, insulating surface and were underlain by an ice layer near 50 cm depth until mid-July. At the beginning of the period the black pools were covered with water, and although the free water gradually disappeared over the study period, they remained saturated to the end of July. The depth of peat near the tower was about 3 m. Despite the ice layer under the hummocks, their daytime surface temperatures were high, near 35 C, and after the middle of July, above 40 C. Inspection of temperature, precipitation, and radiation data showed that the midsummer period of 1990 was warmer, drier, and sunnier than usual at Moosonee and so by influence at Lake Kinosheo. When all the data were combined to yield average diurnal energy balance components, the eddy correlation fluxes accounted for 90% of the available energy. Latent heat flux averaged 46% of the total available energy and the sensible heat flux averaged 34%. Daytime Bowen ratios were near 1 for the experimental period, suggesting that the bog behaved more like a dryland than a wetland. Eddy correlation measurements of sensible heat and latent heat flux were less than those measured using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique, the average ratios being 0.81 and 0.86 respectively. These differences were possibly due to the difficulty in measuring energy balance components of net radiation and ground heat flux over the mosaic surface.

  5. Família e o processo de diferenciação na perspectiva de Murray Bowen: um estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Medeiros de Almeida Martins


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a aplicabilidade do conceito de diferenciação do self elaborado por Murray Bowen na terapia da família. Focalizou a história de uma família mostrando como as histórias de vida do casal, a partir das primeiras triangulações, tanto na família nuclear quanto na extensa, foram transmitidas entre gerações até gerar uma história renovada do casal e de sua própria família.

  6. Família e o processo de diferenciação na perspectiva de Murray Bowen: um estudo de caso


    Elizabeth Medeiros de Almeida Martins; Elaine Pedreira Rabinovich; Célia Nunes Silva


    Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a aplicabilidade do conceito de diferenciação do self elaborado por Murray Bowen na terapia da família. Focalizou a história de uma família mostrando como as histórias de vida do casal, a partir das primeiras triangulações, tanto na família nuclear quanto na extensa, foram transmitidas entre gerações até gerar uma história renovada do casal e de sua própria família.

  7. Experiencias en Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pérez Fernández


    Full Text Available Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Australia y el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental (DEC, en la que participaron miembros de la comunidad Ngaanyatjarra, conocedores y cuidadores del territorio. El resultado científico se tradujo en la identificación de dos nuevas especies, así como numerosas nuevas citas de plantas y animales para el territorio. La minería es una de las actividades más impactantes en Australia, pero la concienciación social ha llevado a que las compañías desarrollen importantes campañas de protección de especies. El mulgara (Dasycercus cristicaula ocupaba zonas que hoy en día se dedican a la minería, y de las que prácticamente ha desaparecido. Un programa de investigación financiado por la empresa Resolute Resources y dirigido por el Departamento de Conservación y Manejo del Territorio (CALM ha permitido identificar poblaciones de este marsupial carnívoro y diseñar un programa de manejo cuyo objetivo es evitar actuaciones incompatibles con su actividad biológica. El resultado más relevante en ambas iniciativas ha sido la colaboración entre diferentes agentes implicados, con intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias. Especialmente importante ha sido la posibilidad de diseñar planes de manejo y actuación sobre el territorio, orientados a la preservación de valores naturales y culturales antiguos.

  8. Australia's marine virtual laboratory (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe


    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  9. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...... central for race ideologier, som skabte den australske nation. Denne bog forfølger fundamenterne af hvide Australien på tværs af forskellige lokaliteter. Den placerer også  udviklingen af Australisk hvidhed som led i den bredere kejserlige og globale indflydelse. Som den seneste Undskyldning til Stjålne...

  10. On some Aphyllophorales from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jülich, W.


    A collection of Aphyllophorales from Australia and Tasmania has been studied. Fifteen species have been identified and the following new taxa are described: Amaurohydnum flavidum gen. et spec. nov., Amauromyces pallidus gen. et spec. nov., Hyphoderma cinnamomeum, Lindtneria pellicularis, Resinicium

  11. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads (United States)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander


    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  12. The Politics of Model Maintenance: The Murray Darling and Brantas River Basins Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Bhat


    Full Text Available This paper explores river basin management in two highly developed basins whose basin governance arrangements are currently undergoing transition: the Murray-Darling basin of Australia and the Brantas basin of Indonesia. Though basin-scale management has been longstanding in both of these cases and the respective models for carrying out integrated river basin management have been considered noteworthy for other countries looking to develop basin institutions, these basin-level arrangements are under flux. This paper indicates some of the difficulties that exist for even widely favoured 'textbook' cases to maintain institutional efficacy within their given shifting contexts. This paper explores drivers behind policy reform and change in scale at which authority is held, concluding with a discussion of the nature of institutional transition given political realities in these basins.

  13. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)


    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  14. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy


    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  15. Limnological Conditions and Occurrence of Taste-and-Odor Compounds in Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, 2006-2009 (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Arrington, Jane M.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Bradley, Paul M.


    Limnological conditions and the occurrence of taste-and-odor compounds were studied in two reservoirs in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, from May 2006 to June 2009. Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1 are relatively shallow, meso-eutrophic, warm monomictic, cascading impoundments on the South Pacolet River. Overall, water-quality conditions and phytoplankton community assemblages were similar between the two reservoirs but differed seasonally. Median dissolved geosmin concentrations in the reservoirs ranged from 0.004 to 0.006 microgram per liter. Annual maximum dissolved geosmin concentrations tended to occur between March and May. In this study, peak dissolved geosmin production occurred in April and May 2008, ranging from 0.050 to 0.100 microgram per liter at the deeper reservoir sites. Peak dissolved geosmin production was not concurrent with maximum cyanobacterial biovolumes, which tended to occur in the summer (July to August), but was concurrent with a peak in the fraction of genera with known geosmin-producing strains in the cyanobacteria group. Nonetheless, annual maximum cyanobacterial biovolumes rarely resulted in cyanobacteria dominance of the phytoplankton community. In both reservoirs, elevated dissolved geosmin concentrations were correlated to environmental factors indicative of unstratified conditions and reduced algal productivity, but not to nutrient concentrations or ratios. With respect to potential geosmin sources, elevated geosmin concentrations were correlated to greater fractions of genera with known geosmin-producing strains in the cyanobacteria group and to biovolumes of a specific geosmin-producing cyanobacteria genus (Oscillatoria), but not to actinomycetes concentrations. Conversely, environmental factors that correlated with elevated cyanobacterial biovolumes were indicative of stable water columns (stratified conditions), warm water temperatures, reduced nitrogen concentrations, longer residence times, and high

  16. Papulose bowenóide: um aspecto clínico da infecção pelo HPV Bowenoid papulosis: a clinical feature of the HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal


    Full Text Available Papulose bowenóide é uma doença que acomete a pele da região anogenital e que se caracteriza pelas múltiplas pequenas pápulas planas ou aveludadas e de coloração que varia do róseo ao castanho-escuro. É provocada pelo HPV e a transmissão sexual é a forma mais freqüente de contaminação. As queixas mais comuns são prurido e dor. O aspecto é característico e o exame histopatológico confirma o diagnóstico. Junto com a doença de Bowen e a eritroplasia de Queyrat, é considerada como carcinoma in situ, ou neoplasia intra-epitelial de alto grau (NIAA, a lesão precursora do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anal. Sem tratamento, a maioria das lesões permanece benigna e estável. Várias modalidades terapêuticas estão disponíveis, incluindo as medicações tópicas para citodestruição e as técnicas ablativas. Os esquemas tópicos são efetivos. Cabe ao profissional médico escolher a terapia adequada, tendo em mente que a doença é benigna e raramente evolui para carcinoma. Como as recidivas são freqüentes e ainda persistem dúvidas quanto ao potencial de malignização, os doentes devem ser examinados periodicamente para diagnosticar as lesões iniciais.Bowenoid papulosis is an anogenital skin disease characterized by multiple little papules, flat or velvet, which color varies from pink to dark brown. It is provoked by HPV and its transmission is sexual. Most common symptoms are anal pain and itching. Its appearance is characteristic and hystopathological examination confirms diagnosis. Together with Bowen´s disease and Queyrat erythroplasia, is considered as an in situ carcinoma, or high grade intra-epithelial neoplasia (HAIN, a precursor of the squamous-cell carcinoma. Most of lesions remain benign and stable without treatment. There are several kinds of treatment including topical drugs for cytodestruction and ablative techniques. Topic schemes are effectives. The consultant doctor may choose the most adequate therapy

  17. Estimating evapotranspiration using remote sensing: A hybrid approach between MODIS derived enhanced vegetation index, Bowen ratio system, and ground based micro-meteorological data (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sumantra

    We investigated water loss by evapotranspiration (ET) from the Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) and the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR) in southern California bordering the Colorado River collaborating with the United States Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.B.R.). We developed an empirical model to estimate ET for the entire PVID using satellite derived MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and ground based measurements of solar radiation and vapor pressure. We compared our predictions with U.S.B.R. estimates through statistical cross validation and showed they agree with an error less than 8%. We tested the same model for an alfalfa field inside PVID to check its applicability at a smaller spatial scale. We showed that the same model developed for PVID is the best model for estimating ET for the alfalfa field. We collected data from three Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) towers installed in the invasive saltcedar (Tamarix spp) dominated riparian zone in the CNWR and a fourth tower in the alfalfa field in PVID. The riparian sites were selected according to different densities of vegetation. We collected data from these sites at various intervals during the period between June 2006 to November 2008. We reduced the errors associated with the Bowen ratio data using statistical procedures taking into account occasional instrument failures and problems inherent in the BREB method. Our results were consistent with vegetation density and estimates from MODIS EVI images. To estimate ET for larger patches of mixed vegetation we modified the crop coefficient equation and represented it in terms of EVI. Using this approach, we scaled the alfalfa field data to the entire PVID and compared the results with U.S.B.R. (2001-2007) estimates. We predicted ET well within the acceptable range established in the literature. We empirically developed ET models for the riparian tower sites to provide accurate point scale ET estimation and scaled for the entire riparian region in

  18. Trading practices in the coal market: application of the theory of bilateral monopoly to the Australia-Japan coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colley, P. [Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    It has long been agreed that trading prices in the Australia-Japan coal trade do not reflect competitive market prices. In Australia, the largest supplier to Japan (and the world), the dominant theory explaining the significantly lower delivered price for Australian coal relative to other major supplying nations has been the `bilateral monopoly` theory which postulates that an increased surplus available from the trade due to savings in freight costs because of proximity is shared between Japanese buyers and Australian sellers. The article examines the application of the theory made by Bowen and Gooday which shows a roughly equal distribution of the surplus from the trade in the period 1980-1990. This examination shows that major assumptions with respect to exogenously determined upper and lower prices within which bargaining between the parties occurs cannot be sustained. Small adjustments to the bargaining range produce results which show an unequal distribution of the surplus which consistently favours buyers over the period. The article examines a series of trading practices and differences in the composition of capital which may explain the long-term differences in bargaining power between the parties. 48 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Review of Australia's polio surveillance. (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N


    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezcano Liz


    Full Text Available Bowen's disease (BD is an in situ squamous cell carcinoma in which dysplastic changes occur throughout the full thickness of the epidermis. It usually affects fair-skinned people over 60 years. It is characterized by erythematous papules and plaques solitary or multiple, with a slow centrifugal growth. The differential diagnosis of BD should be established with chronic dermatoses such as psoriasis, chronic eczema, superficial basal cell carcinoma and Paget's disease of the skin. Only 5% of cases progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report the case of a woman of 63 years of age with BD treated with cryotherapy combined with topical 5% imiquimod who responded adequately to this combination therapy.

  1. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.


    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  2. Remembering the Battle for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rechniewski


    Full Text Available For the last two years, Australia has commemorated, on the first Wednesday in September, the ‘Battle for Australia Day’, to mark the role of Australian forces fighting the Japanese in the Pacific in WWII. The aim of this article is to identify the agents involved in the campaign for the gazetting of this day and the justifications advanced; to trace the conflicting narratives and political and historical controversies surrounding the notion of a ‘Battle for Australia’; and to outline the shifts in domestic and international politics and generational change that provide the context for the inauguration of this day.

  3. Governing International Education in Australia (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder


    This paper uses the international education sector in Australia as a case study to argue against understanding globalization as an exogenous force. It introduces the notion of globalization as a governmentality and discusses alternative interpretations which take into account notions of subjectivity, positionality and space/time. The paper…

  4. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia (United States)

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse


    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  5. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today (United States)

    Cox, Robyn


    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  6. Patterns of tidal flooding within a mangrove forest: Coombabah Lake, Southeast Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Knight, J. M.; Dale, P. E. R.; Dunn, R. J. K.; Broadbent, G. J.; Lemckert, C. J.


    Tidal flooding and surface drainage patterns have often been used to describe mangrove species zonation. However, in mangrove forests exhibiting little topography, ambiguous species distributions and/or few species, such approaches are ineffective. We identified four physiognomic mangrove forest types (Riverine, Fringing, Overwash and Basin) at Coombabah Lake, a tidal lake in southeast Queensland, Australia and investigated tidal flooding patterns using synoptic surveys of tidal observations at the local Standard Port combined with local water depth observation. Subsequently three sub-types of the basin forest type were identified: (1) Deep Basin Forest with mature trees, ˜50 cm standing water and ˜3 tides per year; (2) Medium Depth Basin Forest with intermediate tree development, ˜15-30 cm standing water and 20-40 tides per year; and (3) Shallow Basin Forest with relatively recent mangrove establishment, 5-15 cm standing water and ˜80 tides per year. These three basin sub-types were found to flood at different tide heights with the Shallow Basin flooding for tides above mean high water springs and the Deep Basin flooding only for tide heights approaching the highest astronomical tide. We propose that these basin types represent a succession in mangrove forest development that corresponds with increasing water depth and tree maturation over time. The succession not only represents increasing age but also change in basin substrate composition. This is manifest as increasing pneumatophore density and an increasing area of basin surface occupied by contiguous pneumatophore cover. As a result, it seems that mangrove development is able to modify tidal flooding into the basin by increasingly impeding water movement.

  7. Surveillance of Space in Australia (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  8. On the Equality Assumption of Latent and Sensible Heat Energy Transfer Coefficients of the Bowen Ratio Theory for Evapotranspiration Estimations: Another Look at the Potential Causes of Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Irmak


    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET and sensible heat (H flux play a critical role in climate change; micrometeorology; atmospheric investigations; and related studies. They are two of the driving variables in climate impact(s and hydrologic balance dynamics. Therefore, their accurate estimate is important for more robust modeling of the aforementioned relationships. The Bowen ratio energy balance method of estimating ET and H diffusions depends on the assumption that the diffusivities of latent heat (KV and sensible heat (KH are always equal. This assumption is re-visited and analyzed for a subsurface drip-irrigated field in south central Nebraska. The inequality dynamics for subsurface drip-irrigated conditions have not been studied. Potential causes that lead KV to differ from KH and a rectification procedure for the errors introduced by the inequalities were investigated. Actual ET; H; and other surface energy flux parameters using an eddy covariance system and a Bowen Ratio Energy Balance System (located side by side on an hourly basis were measured continuously for two consecutive years for a non-stressed and subsurface drip-irrigated maize canopy. Most of the differences between KV and KH appeared towards the higher values of KV and KH. Although it was observed that KV was predominantly higher than KH; there were considerable data points showing the opposite. In general; daily KV ranges from about 0.1 m2∙s−1 to 1.6 m2∙s−1; and KH ranges from about 0.05 m2∙s−1 to 1.1 m2∙s−1. The higher values for KV and KH appear around March and April; and around September and October. The lower values appear around mid to late December and around late June to early July. Hourly estimates of KV range between approximately 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.8 m2∙s−1 and that of KH ranges approximately between 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.7 m2∙s−1. The inequalities between KV and KH varied diurnally as well as seasonally. The inequalities were greater during the non

  9. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Australia. (United States)

    March, Lynette M; Bagga, Hanish


    Arthritis affects around 3 million people in Australia, representing about 15% of the population. Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of pain and disability among the elderly. Osteoarthritis is the third leading cause of life-years lost due to disability. Obesity and joint injury are important potentially modifiable risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Obesity is also an important predictor of progression of osteoarthritis. Currently, about 19000 hip and 20000 knee replacements are performed for osteoarthritis in Australia each year. Prevalence of osteoarthritis and the need for total joint replacement surgery are likely to increase because of a combination of increasing risk factors (age, obesity, injury), increasing expectations for improved quality of life, and improved surgical and anaesthetic techniques making surgery possible for more people. Services to provide these cost-effective procedures need to be increased. Primary and secondary prevention programs aimed at reducing obesity, preventing injury and improving rehabilitation and physical activity are urgently required.

  10. Slovene migrant literature in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver


    Full Text Available This article on the literary creativity of Slovene rnigrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished auth­ ors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those who are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentary, histori­ cal,or ethnological points of view. However, the genresfeatured here include the explicitly literary, the semi-literary fictionalized biography, the memoir and documentary fiction, and the literary journalistic text - all those fields and genres that nowadays straddle the division line between 'high' literature and so-called 'creative fiction'.

  11. Modelling Australia's Retail Mortgage Rate


    Abbas Valadkhani; Sajid Anwar


    There is an ongoing controversy over whether banks’ mortgage rates rise more readily than they fall due to their asymmetric responses to changes in the cash rate. This paper examines the dynamic interplay between the cash rate and the variable mortgage rate using monthly data in the post-1989 era. Unlike previous studies for Australia, our proposed threshold and asymmetric error-correction models account for both the amount and adjustment asymmetries. We found thatrate rises have much larger ...

  12. Karst and agriculture in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillieson David


    Full Text Available Much of the development and degradation of karst lands in Australia has occurred in the last two centuries since European settlement. Recent prolonged El Nino events add further climatic uncertainty and place real constraints on sustainable agriculture. The lower southeast of South Australia is perhaps the one area in Australia where karst, and particularly karst hydrology, impinge on the daily lives of the community in that pollution and overexploitation of the aquifer are readily apparent to the local population. Effluent from intensive dairy farms, piggeries and cheese factories enters the karst and has caused concern over pollution of water supplies. Human impacts on the Mole Creek karst of Tasmania have been well documented. The principal recent impacts on the karst arc associated with land clearance for farmland, forest cutting for timber, road building, refuse disposal and associated hydrological change. There is similar evidence of agricultural impacts un karst in central New South Wales, with clear evidence of vegetation clearance and soil stripping on the limestones at Wellington, Orange and Molong.

  13. Balanço de energia e estimativa da evapotranspiração em culturas irrigadas de maracujazeiro pelo método da razão de Bowen Energy balance and estimative of the evapotranspiration of irrigated passionfruit crops by the Bowen ratio method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny J. A. Silva


    Full Text Available A cultura do maracujazeiro-amarelo tem tido grande expansão da área cultivada no Estado de São Paulo e, apesar da importância da irrigação para a cultura, há poucos estudos sobre sua utilização. Este trabalho foi realizado na área experimental de irrigação, na Fazenda Areão, do Departamento de Engenharia Rural, da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP (Piracicaba - SP. Foram coletados dados de saldo de radiação, fluxo de calor no solo, gradientes de temperatura e pressão de vapor do ar com o objetivo de avaliar a partição da energia disponível e a evapotranspiração em cultivo de maracujazeiros em dois sistemas de plantio (linhas de cultivo norte-sul e leste-oeste. O método da razão de Bowen foi utilizado na determinação dos fluxos de calor sensível e latente. O saldo de radiação não foi influenciado pelo sistema de plantio, sendo equivalente a 60% da radiação global. O componente de maior contribuição no balanço de energia foi o calor latente de evaporação ocorrendo imediatamente após a chuva ou irrigação. A utilização do modelo de análise e exclusão de intervalos em que o método da Razão de Bowen falha, melhora a estimativa da evapotranspiração.Passionfruit crop has been having great expansion in the cultivated area of São Paulo State and beside the irrigation importance for crop; there are few studies about its utilization. This work was carried out at the experimental irrigation farm of the Engineering Department - College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Were collected micrometeorological data from net radiation, soil flux heat, temperature and vapor pressure gradient with the aim to evaluate the partition of available energy and evapotranspiration of passionfruit crop planted under two row directions (North-South and East-West. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine both sensible and latent fluxes. The net

  14. Comparison of eddy covariance and modified Bowen ratio methods for measuring gas fluxes and implications for measuring fluxes of persistent organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Bolinius


    Full Text Available Semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs cycle between the atmosphere and terrestrial surfaces, however measuring fluxes of POPs between the atmosphere and other media is challenging. Sampling times of hours to days are required to accurately measure trace concentrations of POPs in the atmosphere, which rules out the use of eddy covariance techniques that are used to measure gas fluxes of major air pollutants. An alternative, the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method, has been used instead. In this study we used data from FLUXNET for CO2 and water vapor (H2O to compare fluxes measured by eddy covariance to fluxes measured with the MBR method using vertical concentration gradients in air derived from averaged data that simulates the long sampling times typically required to measure POPs. When concentration gradients are strong and fluxes are unidirectional, the MBR method and the eddy covariance method agree within a factor of 3 for CO2, and within a factor of 10 for H2O. To remain within the range of applicability of the MBR method field, studies should be carried out under conditions such that the direction of net flux does not change during the sampling period. If that condition is met then the performance of the MBR method is not strongly affected by the length of sample duration nor the use of a fixed value for the transfer coefficient.

  15. Growth arrest in the ribosomopathy, Bowen-Conradi syndrome, is due to dramatically reduced cell proliferation and a defect in mitotic progression. (United States)

    Armistead, Joy; Patel, Nehal; Wu, Xiaoli; Hemming, Richard; Chowdhury, Biswajit; Basra, Gagandeep Singh; Del Bigio, Marc R; Ding, Hao; Triggs-Raine, Barbara


    Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is a ribosomopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and growth failure that typically leads to death by one year of age. It is caused by a c.257A>G, p.D86G substitution in the ribosomal biogenesis protein, Essential for Mitotic Growth 1 (EMG1). We generated a knock-in of the D86G substitution in mice to characterize the effects of EMG1 deficiency, particularly in the brain, where EMG1 expression is high. Embryos homozygous for the mutation in Emg1 were small for gestational age with neural tube defects, and died between embryonic days 8.5 and 12.5. These embryos exhibited dramatically reduced cell proliferation, which we also detected in autopsy brain tissue and bone marrow of BCS patients, consistent with a requirement for high levels of EMG1 in tissues with rapid cell proliferation. In fibroblasts derived from the BCS mouse embryos, we detected a high proportion of binucleated cells, indicating that a mitotic defect underlies the growth arrest in BCS. These studies add to growing evidence of a link between ribosome biogenesis, mitotic progression, and brain development that is currently unexplored.

  16. Immigration and unemployment in Australia. (United States)

    Tsokhas, K


    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  17. Crustal architecture across Phanerozoic Australia along the Eromanga-Brisbane Geoscience Transect: evolution and analogues (United States)

    Finlayson, D. M.


    The crustal architecture across Phanerozoic Australia has been established from seismic data along an 1100-km-long east-west transect, the Eromanga-Brisbane Geoscience Transect. This has enabled a better understanding of deep structures and processes that have controlled the development of major sedimentary basin systems. It has shown that crustal dynamics throughout geological history have played an important role in the development of these sedimentary basins and that structures developed during the early Palaeozoic have influenced, and continue to influence, basin systems. The transect crosses three major basement provinces of the Tasman Orogenic System in eastern Australia - the Thomson, northern Lachlan, and New England Orogens. The basement geology in the transect region has, until now, been only poorly understood because it is largely obscured by the Mesozoic cover rocks of the Eromanga, Surat and Clarence-Moreton Basins. The transect interpretation has firmly identified crustal-scale ramp structures, multiple intra-crustal detachment surfaces, strike-slip fault architecture, lower-crustal magmatism/underplating, Mono remobilisation, and intra-crustal terranes in the geological reconstructions of southern Queensland. The boundaries between the orogens, the Foyleview and Burunga—Mooki Geosutures, have been identified as lithospheric-scale structures that have influenced the evolution of the Tasman Orogenic System as a whole.

  18. Water: Drought, Crisis and Governance in Australia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sousa Júnior


    Full Text Available Despite huge differences in population, household income and development levels, Australia and Brazil have some temporal convergences in their water governance systems. Over the last 20 years, both countries have significantly reformed their water policies and practices by introducing a legal foundation for more integrated and participatory catchment/basin management based on the best information available. A critical test of any water reform is how effective it is in meeting the challenges of extreme and unpredictable conditions of drought and floods, which are expected to increase under climate changes scenarios. This paper compared the contemporary water governance frameworks of Australia and Brazil in relation to three elements of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM: integration, participation, and information/knowledge. We focused on insights from Brazil’s recent drought and Australia’s fluctuating water crises to derive lessons and recommendations for future changes. Among the main recommendations, we stress the need for both systems to improve effective participation and to embrace a more comprehensive approach to cope with water scarcity in future scenarios. Furthermore, water related decisions should be based on a transparent and well informed process, and take into account the lessons from similar situations worldwide in order to avoid unnecessary or ineffective measures. As demonstrated in the Australian case during the Millennium Drought, the most effective initiatives were those involving government, the private sector and society to achieve a more sustainable consumption pattern in all sectors. There is much to learn from the Brazilian and Australia experiences in water reforms and crises, but it is imperative to understand the social, economic and environmental context within which these took place. Continuing to develop the capacity and willingness of researchers and policy makers to work together can make an

  19. Origin of the New England Oroclines, eastern Australia (United States)

    Shaanan, U.; Rosenbaum, G.; Li, P.


    During most of the Paleozoic, the Australian continent has occupied a tectonic position between the Tethys Ocean in its northern boundary and the Circum-Pacific (Panthalassan) subduction zones in the east. The latter has been subjected to alternating episodes of trench advance and trench retreat, as expressed, in the Australian Tasmanides, by changes from accretionary processes to rifting and S-type magmatism. Geological observations from the easternmost and youngest component of the Tasmanides, the New England Orogen, show that this orogenic belt forms a strongly contorted ear-shaped structure, delineated by a number of early Paleozoic to early Permian tectonic elements. Bending and fragmentation of the continental margin commenced in the early Permian, at ~300 Ma, and was associated with the development of extensional sedimentary basins, large vertical-axis block rotations and oroclinal bending. In this work, we constrain the geometry and kinematics of the New England Oroclines by providing new structural, geochronological and paleomagnetic data from key localities along the bent system. We show that the process of oroclinal bending was intimately linked to the development of backarc sedimentary basins, suggesting that extensional tectonics may have played a major role in the formation of the oroclines. This may indicate that the process of oroclinal bending in eastern Australia was controlled by trench retreat and slab segmentation, similarly to the modern tectonics of the SW Pacific and Mediterranean regions. In the context of Paleozoic Australia, it is possible that such complex plate boundary processes originated from the kinematic interaction between the Tethyan and circum-Pacific systems.

  20. Skilled Migration: Australia. Working Paper No. 63 (United States)

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald


    Migration patterns to and from Australia are becoming complex with migration programmes increasingly targeted towards meeting the needs of the labour market and regional development. This paper provides an analysis of the permanent and temporary movements of people to and from Australia in the last three years and their impact on the skilled…

  1. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond


    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  2. Myristica lancifolia Poiret (Myristicaceae) new to Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessup, L.W.; Wilde, de W.J.J.O.


    Material of a Myristica recently collected in the Northern Territory of Australia appeared to belong to M. lancifolia Poiret, a species known from the Moluccas, not previously recorded for Australia. It is described as a new subspecies, M. lancifolia Poiret subsp. australiana Jessup & de Wilde, and

  3. Water reform in the Murray-Darling Basin (United States)

    Connell, Daniel; Grafton, R. Quentin


    In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin the Australian and state governments are attempting to introduce a system of water management that will halt ongoing decline in environmental conditions and resource security and provide a robust foundation for managing climate change. This parallels similar efforts being undertaken in regions such as southern Africa, the southern United States, and Spain. Central to the project is the Australian government's Water Act 2007, which requires the preparation of a comprehensive basin plan expected to be finalized in 2011. This paper places recent and expected developments occurring as part of this process in their historical context and examines factors that could affect implementation. Significant challenges to the success of the basin plan include human resource constraints, legislative tensions within the Australian federal system, difficulties in coordinating the network of water-related agencies in the six jurisdictions with responsibilities in the Murray-Darling Basin, and social, economic, and environmental limitations that restrict policy implementation.

  4. Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Trawley, Steven; Hendrieckx, Christel


    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes is a complex and demanding condition, which places a substantial behavioural and psychological burden on young people and their families. Around one-third of adolescents with type 1 diabetes need mental health support. Parents of a child with type 1 diabetes are also...... at increased risk of psychological distress. A better understanding of the motivators, behaviours and psychological well-being of young people with diabetes and their parents will inform improvement of resources for supporting self-management and reducing the burden of diabetes. The Diabetes MILES (Management...... and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Youth-Australia Study is the first large-scale, national survey of the impact of diabetes on the psychosocial outcomes of Australian adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. METHODS/DESIGN: The survey was web-based to enable a large-scale, national...

  5. Royal Commissions into Policing: Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley


    Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.

  6. Agricultural Innovation System In Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath Arumapperuma


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to document agricultural innovation systems (AIS in Australia. We identified eleven broad categories (actors in terms of their activities, namely: policy, education, finance and credit, marketing, input supply, research, extension and information, logistics, processing and storage, farmers and farm organisations and consumers. Survey results reveal that 11 kinds of innovation-related activities of research and education organisations with corresponding percentage weight are directly involved in innovation diffusion. Twelve pre-identified goals of innovation related activities of the above organisations surveyed with their corresponding percentage weight have also been revealed. The study reveals that the majority of funding (more than 80% for innovation activities comes from the Federal Government and funding bodies. Finally survey results indicate that the main constrains/incentives are other issues such as funding, lack of qualified staff, equipment, environmental and Government policy issues etc.

  7. Education, Place and Sustainability: A Literature Review and Overview of Curriculum and Policy in the States and the Territory of the Murray-Darling Basin (United States)

    Roberts, Philip; Downes, Natalie; Cook, Louise; Heiner, Irmgard; Caffery, Jo


    This report has been developed as part of the MDBfutures Collaborative Research Network project "Towards Place Based Education in the Murray-Darling Basin." The project explores the ways in which sustainability is understood in Murray Darling Basin (MDB) communities of Australia (including Indigenous, rural, small towns and regional…

  8. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra- and inter-annual water variability in large river basins (United States)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon


    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world’s 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 676 ‘basin-country units’ (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. When hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into BCUs enabled assessment of upstream dependency in transboundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardizing environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  9. Hydrocarbon potential of Blantyre-Mount Emu Region (Darling Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinelnikov, Andrei


    Currently available geologic and seismic data demonstrates a significant hydrocarbon potential within the Darling Basin, Australia . This region`s tectonic evolution has resulted in complex geological structures in which a wide range of hydrocarbon traps can be interpreted. This interpretation of seismic data shows that there are at least two reflectors (stratigraphic surfaces) considered favourable for the formation of stratigraphic traps. Seismic data and the structural maps presented lead to a new interpretation of Devonian traps. (author). figs., refs.

  10. Coal facies studies in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosdale, Peter J. [Coalseam Gas Research Institute, School of Earth Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4814 (Australia)


    Despite the economic importance of coal to the Australian economy, detailed studies of controls on variation in coal type are remarkably few. However, important contributions have been made in the understanding of coal facies development. Tertiary lignite deposits of the Gippsland Basin provide key insights into the development of lithotype cyclicity and its relationship to relative sea-level changes, with individual paling-up cycles being correlated to parasequences. Studies of Permian hard coals have identified relationships between coal type and surrounding sediments. Unfortunately, these relationships have been widely over-interpreted in a manner that has diminished their real value.

  11. Evaporation from groundwater discharge playas, Estancia Basin, central New Mexico (United States)

    Menking, Kirsten M.; Anderson, Roger Y.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Allen, Bruce D.; Ellwein, Amy L.; Loveland, Thomas A.; Hostetler, Steven W.


    Bowen ratio meteorological stations have been deployed to measure rates of evaporation from groundwater discharge playas and from an adjacent vegetated bench in the Estancia Basin, in central New Mexico. The playas are remnants of late Pleistocene pluvial Lake Estancia and are discharge areas for groundwater originating as precipitation in the adjacent Manzano Mts. They also accumulate water during local precipitation events. Evaporation is calculated from measured values of net radiation, soil heat flux, atmospheric temperature, and relative humidity. Evaporation rates are strongly dependent on the presence or absence of standing water in the playas, with rates increasing more than 600% after individual rainstorms. Evaporation at site E-12, in the southeastern part of the playa complex, measured 74 cm over a yearlong period from mid-1997 through mid-1998. This value compares favorably to earlier estimates from northern Estancia playas, but is nearly three times greater than evaporation at a similar playa in western Utah. Differences in geographical position, salt crust composition, and physical properties may explain some of the difference in evaporation rates in these two geographic regions.

  12. Climate change and wind power in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millais, C. [Greenpeace Australia Pacific, Sydney (Australia)


    The article represents a stern criticism of Australia's attitude to climate change. Its climate change policy is described as 'Neanderthal'. The Australian government is said to be strongly opposed to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The Government's policy appears to be driven by vested interests in fossil fuels. A list of eight flaws in Australia's 2% renewables target is given; the target is said to be far too small for a country with so much renewables potential. However, investment in the country's enormous wind power potential is increasing and targets are given; six reasons why Australia needs to invest in wind power are given. It is suggested that by the end of this decade, 10% of Australia's electricity could come from wind power - a web site address giving further details is given.

  13. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts? (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.


    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  14. Refugee women as entrepreneurs in Australia


    John van Kooy


    The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that ‘entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.

  15. Refugee women as entrepreneurs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John van Kooy


    Full Text Available The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that ‘entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.

  16. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia (United States)

    Garrick, Natalie


    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  17. Australia and the new reusable launch vehicles (United States)

    Stalker, R. J.

    The new generation of reusable launch vehicles represented by ESA's Hermes and HOTOL, NASA's National Aerospace Plane, and the DFVLR's Saenger, promises to radically alter the economic basis of space flight by allowing such operations as the on-orbit servicing of satellites. Attention is presently drawn to the opportunities that arise for Australia's aerospace industry from the availability in Australia of two wind tunnel facilities capable of furnishing the requisite hypersonic aerothermodynamics testing capabilities for these vehicles' development.

  18. Clean energy scenarios for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddler, H. [Energy Strategies Pty Ltd., Manuka (Australia); Diesendorf, M. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Institute of Environmental Studies; Denniss, R. [Parliament House, Canberra (Australia). Office of Senator Bob Brown


    Australia, a major producer and user of coal, has the highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the industrialised world. This study investigates whether in theory such a 'fossil-fuel dependent' country could achieve a 50% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from stationary energy by 2040, compared with its 2001 emissions. To do this scenarios are developed, using a combination of forecasting and backcasting methods, under conditions of continuing economic growth and a restriction to the use of existing commercial technologies with small improvements. The principal scenario achieves the above target by implementing on the demand-side a medium-level of efficient energy use and substantial solar hot water together with a supply side combination of mainly natural gas, bioenergy and wind power. In doing so the scenario also achieves a 78% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity. Within the large uncertainties in future prices, it is possible that the economic savings from efficient energy use could pay for all or a large part of the additional costs of renewable energy. (author)

  19. Bower ratio-energy balance associated errors in vineyards under dripping irrigation Erros associados pela razão de bowen ao balanço de energia em parreirais sob irrigação por gotejamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Monteiro Soares


    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Bebedouro Experimental Station in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, to evaluate the errors associated to the application of the Bowen ratio-energy balance in a 3-years old vineyard (Vitis vinifera, L, grown in a trellis system, irrigated by dripping. The field measurements were taken during fruiting cycle (July to November, 2001, which was divided into eigth phenological stages. A micrometeorological tower was mounted in a grape-plants row in which sensors of net radiation, global solar radiation and wind speed were installed at about 1.0 m above the canopy. Also in the tower, two psicometers were installed at two levels (0.5 and 1.8 m above the vineyard canopy. Two soil heat flux plates were buried at 0.02 m beneath the soil surface. All these sensors were connected to a Data logger 21 X of Campbell Scientific Inc., programmed for collecting data once every 5 seconds and storage averages for every 15 minutes. A comparative analysis were made among four Bowen ratio accepting/rejecting rules, according to the methodology proposed by Spano et al. (2000: betar1 - values of beta calculated by Bowen (1926 equation; betar2 - values of beta as proposed by Verma et al. (1978 equation; betar3 - exclusion of the beta values obtained as recommended by Unland et al. (1996 and betar4 - exclusion of the beta values calculated as proposed by Bowen (1926, out of the interval (-0.7 Este estudo foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Bebedouro, Petrolina-PE, Brasil, para avaliar os erros associados com a aplicação do balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen em um parreiral (Vitis vinifera, L com três anos de idade, conduzido em latada, sob irrigação por gotejamento. As medições foram feitas durante o ciclo produtivo de julho a novembro de 2001, que foi dividido em oito estádios fenológicos. Numa torre micrometeorológica localizada no centro do parreiral, foram instalados a 1,00 m acima do dossel da videira, os seguintes

  20. Return migration from Australia: a case study. (United States)

    Lukomskyj, O; Richards, P


    "The study investigates the departure from Australia of former settlers who arrived during the 1980 calendar year. The 1980 settler arrival cohort [consists] of 75,167 visaed migrants.... The study has three main aims: (i) to analyse departures from Australia of the 1980 settler arrival cohort with a view to gauging the success of Australia's immigration program in retaining settlers; (ii) to examine the retention rates of settlers with respect to characteristics...including age, sex, marital status, country of last residence, and settler eligibility category; and (iii) to consider implications of the findings." Australia's present immigration policy is discussed, previous research on return migration from Australia is summarized, and a detailed analysis of the departure data is presented. "This study found that by August 1984, 12.4 per cent of non-refugee settlers who arrived in Australia during 1980 had departed permanently but that only 0.6 per cent of the 1980 refugee cohort had done so." These figures represent a decline in immigrant departure rates since the 1960s and early 1970s. Small differences in departure rates by place of birth, age, and marital status, which may have demographic consequences if sustained over time, are noted. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  1. The Changing Nature of Drought Risk in South-east Australia Over the Past Two Millennia (United States)

    Kiem, A.; Ho, M. W.; Verdon-Kidd, D.


    The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) is one of the most important food and fibre regions in Australia, producing one-third of the national food supply and exporting produce to many other countries. In total, the Basin contains about 40% of Australia's farms and 70% of Australia's irrigated land area. However, the MDB is also one of the most spatially and temporally variable river systems in the world, with severe droughts a regular occurrence over the ~100 years of instrumental record and decadal-scale droughts (e.g. "Federation" (~1895-1902), "World War II" (~1937-1945) and "Millennium" or "Big Dry" (~1997-2010) droughts) matched by flood dominated epochs (e.g. 1950s, 1970s). The accurate estimation of drought risk in the MDB is hampered by relatively short instrumental records and also by the complexity of the region's climate teleconnections with several large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes in the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation), the Indian (Indian Ocean Dipole) and Southern Oceans (Southern Annular Mode). Climate-sensitive paleoclimate records provide an opportunity to resolve hydroclimatic variability over long time periods prior to the availability of instrumental records and therefore offer the potential for improved quantification of risks associated with hydroclimatic extremes. However, the MDB, as with many regions in Australia, currently lacks suitable in situ proxies necessary to do this. Therefore, remote paleoclimate rainfall proxies in the Australasian region spanning are used to develop new reconstructions of MDB rainfall over the Common Era (CE) (i.e. approximately the past 2000 years). The nature of MDB dry epochs from 749BCE to 1981CE are then compared with the frequency and duration of droughts recorded in instrumental records (i.e. approximately the past 100 years). Importantly, the results show that the probability of decadal scale droughts is three times greater than instrumental records suggest.

  2. Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Mirzaev


    Full Text Available Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years.

  3. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 7: Japanese. (United States)

    Marriott, Helen; And Others

    The report on the status of Japanese language teaching in Australia gives a broad view of Japanese study and discusses current educational issues in some detail. An introductory chapter offers a brief overview of the history, objectives, and issues of Japanese language instruction in Australia. The second chapter details features of instructional…

  4. Estimativa do balanço de energia em cambarazal e pastagem no norte do Pantanal pelo método da razão de Bowen Estimate of energy balance in cambarazaland pasture in the north of Pantanal by Bowen ratio method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sacardi Biudes


    Full Text Available O estudo do balanço de energia de uma superfície vegetada e a atmosfera é importante para caracterizar o microclima local, identificar interações entre variáveis ambientais e a vegetação, e identificar efeitos das atividades antropogênicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a variação sazonal do balanço de energia pelo método da razão de Bowen em uma área de vegetação monodominante de Cambará na RPPN SESC-Pantanal e uma área de pastagem na Fazenda Experimental da UFMT. Os componentes do balanço de energia apresentaram sazonalidade, com maiores médias na estação chuvosa nas duas áreas de estudo. No cambarazal houve maior variação do fluxo de calor latente da estação seca para a chuvosa que na pastagem. Entretanto, a variação sazonal do fluxo de calor sensível foi menor no cambarazal que na pastagem, devido ao efeito termo-regulador do cambarazal, em função da maior biomassa. A energia disponível aos dois sítios foi destinada prioritariamente em fluxo de calor latente, 80,0% no cambarazal e 56,6% na pastagem, seguido pelo fluxo de calor sensível, 19,1 e 42,9%, e pelo fluxo de calor no solo, 0,3 e 7,2%.The energy balance study of a vegetated surface and atmosphere is important to characterize the local microclimate, identify interactions among environmental variables and the vegetation and to identify anthropogenic activities effects. The objective of this work was estimate the seasonality of energy balance by Bowen ratio method in a monodominant vegetation of Cambará area in the RPPN SESC-Pantanal and a pasture area in UFMT's Experimental Farm. The energy balance components presented seasonality, with larger averages at the rainy station in two areas of study. In the cambarazal was a higher variation of the latent heat flux of the dry season for the rainy season that in the pasture. However, the seasonal variation of the sensible heat flux in the cambarazal was lower than in the pasture, due to the thermo

  5. Toward a sustainable energy future in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinrade, P. [Melbourne Univ., VIC (Australia). School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies; Marsden Jacob Associates, Camberwell, VIC (Australia)


    Envisioning Australia's energy future through a 'strong sustainability' framework would see a future that is based on the efficient and equitable use of energy, sourced from a diverse range of renewable, distributed energy systems. Supply and use of this energy would produce low or zero greenhouse gases and other emissions. A sustainable energy future in Australia would also see a shift in focus to meeting energy service needs (rather increased energy consumption). Importantly, energy users would be empowered, being knowledgeable and active participants in energy markets. In reality, Australia currently stands a long way from this vision: energy-related greenhouse gas emissions are growing rapidly; take up of renewable energy is slow, particularly of distributed energy forms such as solar photovoltaics; and energy intensity of the economy is declining at a slower rate than many other OECD economies. Furthermore, Australians consume far more energy than is required to meet the service needs of even modern lifestyles. If Australia is to move towards a sustainable energy future, then significant barriers must be overcome including aspects of Australia's economic structure, a misdirected energy market reform process and a lack of visionary thinking by decision makers. Hope comes in the form of the broader Australian community who intuitively support a sustainable energy vision but currently lack the institutional, market and regulatory support to make it happen. [Author].

  6. On the role of buoyancy force in the ore genesis of SEDEX deposits: Example from Northern Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG JianWen; FENG ZuoHai; LUO XianRong; CHEN YuanRong


    Finite element modeling on a highly conceptualized 2-D model of fluid flow and heat transport is un-dertaken to simulate the paleo-hydrological system as if the Mount Ise deposits were being formed in the Mount Isa basin, Northern Australia, and to evaluate the potential of buoyancy force in driving ba-sin-scale fluid flow for the formation of sedimentary-exhalative (SEDEX) deposits. Our numerical case studies indicate that buoyancy-driven fluid flow is controlled mainly by the fault penetration depth and its spatial relation with the aquifer. Marine water recharges the basin via one fault and flows through the aquifer where it is heated from below. The heated metalliferous fluid discharges to the basin floor via the other fault. The venting fluid temperatures are computed to be in the range of 115 to 160℃, with fluid velocities of 2.6 to 4.1 m/year over a period of 1 Ma. These conditions are suitable for the formation of a Mount Isa-sized zinc deposit, provided a suitable chemical trap environment is present. Buoyancy force is therefore a viable driving mechanism for basin-scale ore-forming hydrothermal fluid migration, and it is strong enough to lead to the genesis of supergiant SEDEX deposits like the Mount Isa deposit, Northern Australia.

  7. Clinical Effect of 5-aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Treating 10 Cases Bowen' s Disease%5-氨基酮戊酸光动力疗法治疗鲍温病10例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊林; 陆延娜; 万静; 魏亚东; 赵延东


    目的 观察5-氨基酮戊酸光动力疗法治疗鲍温病的临床疗效.方法 将20例鲍温病患者分为两组,各10例.治疗组予5-氨基酮戊酸外涂于皮损处,3h后予红光照射20min,能量密度100~120 J/cm2,1次/周,共4周.对照组外涂5-氟尿嘧啶软膏皮损处,2次/d,共4周.结果 治疗组完全缓解率为90.00%,对照组为30.00%,两组间完全缓解率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).且治疗组均未见严重不良反应,对照组有溃疡及瘢痕等不良反应.结论 5-氨基酮戊酸光动力疗法治疗鲍温病临床疗效较好,且无严重不良反应,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To observe the clinical effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy ( ALA-PDT) treating Bowen' s disease. Methods Twonty cases of Bowen' s disease were randomly divided into treatment group and control. Each group has 10 cases. Treatment group: applied 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to the skin lesions, 3 hours later red light irradiated 20min, energy density was 100 ~ 120 J/cm2, one time a week for 4 weeks. Control group: smearing 5-fluorouracil cream(5-Fu ointment) on skin lesions,, twice daily for 4 weeks. Results Completely remission rate was 90. 00% in treatment group and 30. 00% in control. The difference between them had statistical significance(P <0.05). There were no serious side effects in the treatment group, but the control group appeared ulcer, scar and other side effects. Conclusion 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic is a good therapeutic method for Bowen' s disease.

  8. The tectonic development and erosion of the Knox Subglacial Sedimentary Basin, East Antarctica (United States)

    Maritati, A.; Aitken, A. R. A.; Young, D. A.; Roberts, J. L.; Blankenship, D. D.; Siegert, M. J.


    Sedimentary basins beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) have immense potential to inform models of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica and its ice-sheet. However, even basic characteristics such as thickness and extent are often unknown. Using airborne geophysical data, we resolve the tectonic architecture of the Knox Subglacial Sedimentary Basin in western Wilkes Land. In addition, we apply an erosion restoration model to reconstruct the original basin geometry for which we resolve geometry typical of a transtensional pull-apart basin. The tectonic architecture strongly indicates formation as a consequence of the rifting of India from East Gondwana from ca. 160-130 Ma, and we suggest a spatial link with the western Mentelle Basin offshore Western Australia. The erosion restoration model shows that erosion is confined within the rift margins, suggesting that rift structure has strongly influenced the evolution of the Denman and Scott ice streams.

  9. Multiculturalism and transcultural nursing in Australia. (United States)

    Gorman, D


    The author looks at Australia's multicultural society and identifies the failure of the nursing profession to provide nursing services that meet the commitment of Australia to preserve the cultural backgrounds and meet the needs of the people nurses serve. The author suggests ways in which this problem can be addressed. It is argued that there is a need to ensure that transcultural nursing services are recognized and made accessible to people from diverse cultural backgrounds. Nurses need educational preparation to provide them with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to work with people from different cultures. Moreover, the cultural profile of the nursing profession should approximate those served. Nurses today must recognize these critical needs and be committed to provide transcultural nursing care that is so essential in Australia's multicultural society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the main restrictions of sustainable development. We examine whether or not freight transport is sensitive of the environment in Australia, particularly in the state of Victoria. Because, freight transports is one of the significant factors of environmental pollution. In the study we discuss the decision taken by the government of Victoria; and what kind of measurement is applied by the government. We also discuss which policy should be followed to achieve green transportation. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of environmental measurement on growing of the transport sector. The economics of Australia has a structure growing fast, in order to parallel the increasing growth of the transport sector. It tries to apply Kyoto protocol to the transport sector. In conclusion, the environmental pollution and CO2 emissions decrease in Australia although the transport sector grows day by day.

  11. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia. (United States)

    Wong, S


    "Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration."

  12. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Briskman


    Full Text Available In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. Vitriol is also directed at asylum seekers and refugees. Media, government and community discourses converge to promote Islam as dangerous and deviant.

  13. Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas F; Druce, Julian D; Chapman, Scott; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Wolf, Josh; Richards, Jack S; Korman, Tony; Birch, Chris; Richards, Michael J


    We report eight recent cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. Patients presented with fevers, rigors, headaches, arthralgia, and rash. The current Indian Ocean epidemic and Italian outbreak have featured prominently on Internet infectious disease bulletins, and Chikungunya virus infection had been anticipated in travellers from the outbreak areas. Diagnosis was by a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with confirmatory sequencing. Prompt diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infections is of public health significance as the mosquito vectors for transmission exist in Australia. There is potential for this infection to spread in the largely naïve Australian population.

  14. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy


    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  15. Glendonites as a paleoenvironmental tool: Implications for early Cretaceous high latitudinal climates in Australia (United States)

    De Lurio, Jennifer L.; Frakes, L. A.


    Glendonites, calcite pseudomorphs after the metastable mineral ikaite (CaCO 3 · 6H 2O), occur in the Late Aptian interval of the Bulldog Shale in the Eromanga Basin, Australia and in other Early Cretaceous basins at high paleolatitudes. Ikaite precipitation in the marine environment requires near-freezing temperatures (not higher than 4°C), high alkalinity, increased levels of orthophosphate, and high P CO2. The rapid and complete transformation of ikaite to calcite at temperatures between 5 and 8°C provides an upper limit on the oxygen isotopic composition of the pore waters: -2.6 <δ w <-3.4‰SMOW. If it is assumed that these pore waters are representative of the shallow Eromanga Basin, the calculated δ w can be used to reassess belemnite fossil oxygen isotopic paleotemperatures - temperature recorded by fauna living in the basin at the time of ikaite precipitation. Data previously reported as 11 to 16°C (assuming δ w = 0.0‰SMOW) yield paleotemperatures ranging from -1 to 5°C, squarely in the range of ikaite stability. The low δ w indicates hyposaline conditions, most likely caused by mixing high latitude meteoric waters with seawater. The 18O depleted, low temperature waters suggest that the region was at least seasonally colder than previously accepted.

  16. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Annual Conference Of Australia Sister Cities Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Australia Sister Cities Association(ASCA),the CPAFFC delegation visited Australia and attended the Annual Conference of ASCA in Devonport of Tasmania State from November 11 to 22,2006.

  17. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.


    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  18. Evapotranspiração do capim Tanzânia obtida pelo método de razão de Bowen e lisímetro de pesagem



    A irrigação de pastagens no Brasil apresentou crescimento acentuado nos últimos anos. No entanto, em função da ausência de pesquisas sobre a aplicação de água em pastagens, o manejo da irrigação não vem sendo realizado de maneira racional. Com o objetivo de contribuir para suprir a carência de informações, neste trabalho, comparou-se a evapotranspiração do capim Tanzânia estimada pelo método de razão de Bowen com a medida por lisímetro de pesagem. O experimento foi conduzido em Piracicaba - S...

  19. The Fluctuating Political Appeal of Water Engineering in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin R. Crase


    Full Text Available Like many nations, Australia has a mixed history with water engineering. For over a century the engineer was 'king' and water was harnessed as a vehicle for settling the harsh inland, creating wealth and building prosperity. By the 1960s it was becoming increasingly clear that this approach was not without its flaws. Mounting evidence of environmental degradation emerged in the 1970s and the trend towards fiscal responsibility in the 1980s subjected the engineering approach to even greater scrutiny. These events set the context for a series of water policy reforms that commenced in earnest in the early 1990s. Initially, the reforms favoured greater use of economic incentives and focussed attention on the ecological impacts of water management. In this environment, the status of the engineer was transformed from 'king' to 'servant'. However, the engineering profession was not to hold this status for long and the political difficulties of simultaneously dealing with the economics and ecology of water quickly became the rationale for reverting to engineering solutions. This paper traces these historical events and focusses specifically on the politically vexing issues that arise when water reallocation is attempted in a fully allocated basin.

  20. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee


    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  1. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future (United States)

    Shaw, Kelly


    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  2. "Smartening Up": Ongoing Challenges for Australia's Outback (United States)

    Cradduck, Lucy


    As the international community moves inexorably towards a "smart" future, the position of Australia's non-urban areas in that future is less certain. The (re-elected) Australian federal government made a commitment to moving Australian cities forward as part of the international "smart city" movement. However, the effectiveness…

  3. Conservation status of bryophytes in eastern Australia


    Streimann, Heinar


    No bryophyte conservation programs are in place in Australia as the knowledge of bryophytes is poor, especially of their habitat preferences and distribution. The conservation of species against habitats is discussed and it is maintained on present evidence that areas conserved for vascular plants and/or animal habitats, as national parks and forest reserves, in most cases would adequately conserve bryophytes.

  4. Lantern Festival —— Canberra, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol Keil


    <正>Each year, for the last 21 years, the ACT Branch of the Australia China Friendship Society has celebrated the Lantern Festival on the shores of Lake Burley Griffin. In preparation for the Festival we hold a lantern-making workshop for the general public

  5. Teaching Near and Far - Broome, Western Australia. (United States)

    Herceg, Christina; Renouf, Tia


    Broome is a remote coastal town in Western Australia. As a general practitioner working in Broome, I have been involved in the education of general practice trainee registrars both locally and remotely, as a supervisor with two different training programs.

  6. The Inclusive Secondary School Teacher in Australia (United States)

    Pearce, Michelle


    As a result of the 1992 Disability Discrimination Act in Australia and parental support for inclusion, regular teachers now include students with disabilities in their classes. Inclusion has been more successful in primary than in secondary schools. Secondary schools remain a challenge due to their traditional focus on curriculum, examinations,…

  7. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C


    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors) 28 refs., 11 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Australia's international health relations in 2003. (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon


    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  9. Gender Inclusive Policy Developments in Australia. (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn


    Traces two chronologies of gender-inclusive policy development in Australia's national and state education-policy arenas to demonstrate, from a feminist perspective, their limited applicability at the school level. Argues that more transformative conceptions of gender inclusiveness evident in the feminist academy be promoted in policy. (Contains…

  10. Legislation analysis on reducing GHG in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqi Mao; Li Chen


    ‘Greenhouse Effect’ derived from human activities has caused many concerns. This dissertation mainly analysis existing GHG reduction regulations in Australia, the relationship between those regulations, and the effectiveness of the regulatory framework to see whether the CPR Scheme and other complementary strategies can effectively improve the regulatory outcomes, namely reduces GHG emissions.

  11. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia. (United States)

    Marriott, Helen E.


    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  12. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia. (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P


    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  13. Australia's Universities--Through the Looking Glass. (United States)

    Penington, David


    Upheaval in Australia's university system in recent years can be attributed in large part to two influences dating to 1987: accession of John Dawkins to the Ministry of Employment, Education, and Training and the advent of federal regulation of industrial relations in education, which has undermined the collegial decision-making tradition. (MSE)

  14. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.


    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  15. Perception of Innovative Crop Insurance in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.


    Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so-called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low, possib

  16. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia. (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally


    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine.

  17. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana


    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  18. Eritrea: Lessons for Australia's Language Policy. (United States)

    Andreoni, Helen


    Discusses language policy matters and the management of cultural and linguistic diversity in the area of education, with particular reference to Eritrea in East Africa and its application to Australia's language situation. The article presents examples of the impact of the tyrannical imposition of language usage, including the long-term…

  19. New volcanoes discovered in southeast Australia (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna


    Scientists have discovered three new active volcanoes in the Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia. Researchers from Monash University in Melbourne describe in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences how they used a combination of satellite photographs, detailed topography models from NASA, the distribution of magnetic minerals in the rocks, and site visits to analyze the region.

  20. Physiotherapy in Critical Care in Australia



    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the l...

  1. Characterizing phenological vegetation dynamics amidst extreme climate variability in Australia with MODIS VI data (United States)

    Broich, M.; Huete, A. R.; Xuanlon, M.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Ratana, P.


    sequences allowing identification of growth periods with different magnitudes and durations anywhere in the time series. Results show that the highest absolute variability in peak greenness occurred in cropped areas while the highest relative variability (coefficient of variation) occurred in interior Australia particularly around Lake Eyre, the center of a closed drainage basin in the dry interior of the continent. Across the desert interior, the timing of the green-up onset and the peak greenness was correlated with the landfall of cyclones and the inland penetration and strength of the north Australian summer monsoon (represented by TRMM data). The variability of Australian land surface phenology magnitude and timing was found to be strongly correlated with the swings between La Nina and El Nino events. The information on vegetation dynamics represented here is critical for land surface, fuel accumulation, agricultural production, and permanent ecosystem change modeling in relation to climate trends. A unique research opportunity is provided by recent climate variability: in 2010 a persistent El Nino has given way to a strong two-year La Nina breaking a decade long drought that was followed by record-breaking rainfall across most of the continent and extensive flooding followed by sustained greening.

  2. Natural Seismicity in NW Australia: Another Look at Continental Intraplate Earthquakes (United States)

    Revets, S. A.; Keep, M.; Kennett, B. L.


    Northwestern Australia hosts a considerable number of smaller seismic events, but also Australia's largest earthquake on record (Meeberrie, 1941, M7.9). In 2005 we deployed a small network of seismometers to record natural seismicity in the region, to understand the amount, magnitude, nature and distribution of these events, and to interpret these events within a tectonic and neotectonic context. The region is largely underlain by Precambrian material, ranging from Archaean craton to Proterozoic mobile belts, and truncated to the west by the lithospheric-scale Darling Fault. This fault separates the Precambrian crustal elements from the younger Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Carnarvon Basin to the east, has a strike length of over 1400 km. It is thought to have been active since at least the Proterozoic. Estimates of slip on some southerly sections of this fault exceed 12 km. We believe that these various crustal elements (basins, cratons, mobile belts) respond differently to seismicity based on their rheology, thickness and deformation history. We supplemented data from our network with traces from some of the instruments of the national network of Australia. This data set proved adequate for the calculation of fault-plane solutions of some 13 mini- and micro- events in the region. The eventsrecorded occurred along or close to known faults, although field data for movement or reactivation on these faults is sparse. Most of our calculated events occur in close proximity to mechanical boundaries between crustal elements, indicating that the mechanical response of these elements controls the location of seismicity. The transitional tectonic setting of this part of the Australian margin---a passive margin sandwiched between two active margin segments---indicates that the term "intraplate" may be an inappropriate description of these seismic events.

  3. Land surface phenological response to decadal climate variability across Australia using satellite remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Broich


    Full Text Available Land surface phenological cycles of vegetation greening and browning are influenced by variability in climatic forcing. Quantitative information on phenological cycles and their variability is important for agricultural applications, wildfire fuel accumulation, land management, land surface modeling, and climate change studies. Most phenology studies have focused on temperature-driven Northern Hemisphere systems, where phenology shows annually reoccurring patterns. Yet, precipitation-driven non-annual phenology of arid and semi-arid systems (i.e. drylands received much less attention, despite the fact that they cover more than 30% of the global land surface. Here we focused on Australia, the driest inhabited continent with one of the most variable rainfall climates in the world and vast areas of dryland systems. Detailed and internally consistent studies investigating phenological cycles and their response to climate variability across the entire continent designed specifically for Australian dryland conditions are missing. To fill this knowledge gap and to advance phenological research, we used existing methods more effectively to study geographic and climate-driven variability in phenology over Australia. We linked derived phenological metrics with rainfall and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI. We based our analysis on Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS from 2000 to 2013, which included extreme drought and wet years. We conducted a continent-wide investigation of the link between phenology and climate variability and a more detailed investigation over the Murray–Darling Basin (MDB, the primary agricultural area and largest river catchment of Australia. Results showed high inter- and intra-annual variability in phenological cycles. Phenological cycle peaks occurred not only during the austral summer but at any time of the year, and their timing varied by more than a month in

  4. Early India-Australia spreading history revealed by newly detected Mesozoic magnetic anomalies in the Perth Abyssal Plain (United States)

    Williams, Simon E.; Whittaker, Joanne M.; Granot, Roi; Müller, Dietmar R.


    seafloor within the Perth Abyssal Plain (PAP), offshore Western Australia, is the only section of crust that directly records the early spreading history between India and Australia during the Mesozoic breakup of Gondwana. However, this early spreading has been poorly constrained due to an absence of data, including marine magnetic anomalies and data constraining the crustal nature of key tectonic features. Here, we present new magnetic anomaly data from the PAP that shows that the crust in the western part of the basin was part of the Indian Plate—the conjugate flank to the oceanic crust immediately offshore the Perth margin, Australia. We identify a sequence of M2 and older anomalies in the west PAP within crust that initially moved with the Indian Plate, formed at intermediate half-spreading rates (35 mm/yr) consistent with the conjugate sequence on the Australian Plate. More speculatively, we reinterpret the youngest anomalies in the east PAP, finding that the M0-age crust initially formed on the Indian Plate was transferred to the Australian Plate by a westward jump or propagation of the spreading ridge shortly after M0 time. Samples dredged from the Gulden Draak and Batavia Knolls (at the western edge of the PAP) reveal that these bathymetric features are continental fragments rather than igneous plateaus related to Broken Ridge. These microcontinents rifted away from Australia with Greater India during initial breakup at ~130 Ma, then rifted from India following the cessation of spreading in the PAP (~101-103 Ma).

  5. How streamflow has changed across Australia since the 1950s: evidence from the network of hydrologic reference stations (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong Sophie; Amirthanathan, Gnanathikkam E.; Bari, Mohammed A.; Laugesen, Richard M.; Shin, Daehyok; Kent, David M.; MacDonald, Andrew M.; Turner, Margot E.; Tuteja, Narendra K.


    Streamflow variability and trends in Australia were investigated for 222 high-quality stream gauging stations having 30 years or more continuous unregulated streamflow records. Trend analysis identified seasonal, inter-annual and decadal variability, long-term monotonic trends and step changes in streamflow. Trends were determined for annual total flow, baseflow, seasonal flows, daily maximum flow and three quantiles of daily flow. A distinct pattern of spatial and temporal variation in streamflow was evident across different hydroclimatic regions in Australia. Most of the stations in southeastern Australia spread across New South Wales and Victoria showed a significant decreasing trend in annual streamflow, while increasing trends were retained within the northern part of the continent. No strong evidence of significant trend was observed for stations in the central region of Australia and northern Queensland. The findings from step change analysis demonstrated evidence of changes in hydrologic responses consistent with observed changes in climate over the past decades. For example, in the Murray-Darling Basin, 51 out of 75 stations were identified with step changes of significant reduction in annual streamflow during the middle to late 1990s, when relatively dry years were recorded across the area. Overall, the hydrologic reference stations (HRSs) serve as critically important gauges for streamflow monitoring and changes in long-term water availability inferred from observed datasets. A wealth of freely downloadable hydrologic data is provided at the HRS web portal including annual, seasonal, monthly and daily streamflow data, as well as trend analysis products and relevant site information.

  6. The stratigraphic record of prebreakup geodynamics: Evidence from the Barrow Delta, offshore Northwest Australia (United States)

    Reeve, Matthew T.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Magee, Craig; Bastow, Ian D.


    The structural and stratigraphic evolution of rift basins and passive margins has been widely studied, with many analyses demonstrating that delta systems can provide important records of postrift geodynamic processes. However, the apparent lack of ancient synbreakup delta systems and the paucity of seismic imaging across continent-ocean boundaries mean that the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading remains poorly understood. The Early Cretaceous Barrow Group of the North Carnarvon Basin, offshore NW Australia, was a major deltaic system that formed during the latter stages of continental rifting and represents a rich sedimentary archive, documenting uplift, subsidence, and erosion of the margin. We use a regional database of 2-D and 3-D seismic and well data to constrain the internal architecture of the Barrow Group. Our results highlight three major depocenters: the Exmouth and Barrow subbasins and southern Exmouth Plateau. Overcompaction of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the South Carnarvon Basin, and pervasive reworking of Permian and Triassic palynomorphs in the offshore Barrow Group, suggests that the onshore South Carnarvon Basin originally contained a thicker sedimentary succession, which was uplifted and eroded prior to breakup. Backstripping of sedimentary successions encountered in wells in the Exmouth Plateau depocenter indicates that anomalously rapid tectonic subsidence (≤0.24 mm yr-1) accommodated Barrow Group deposition, despite evidence for minimal, contemporaneous upper crustal extension. Our results suggest that classic models of uniform extension cannot account for the observations of uplift and subsidence in the North Carnarvon Basin and may indicate a period of depth-dependent extension or dynamic topography preceding breakup.

  7. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training (United States)

    Davidson, Jim


    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  8. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey


    Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.

  9. A New Solar Thermal Facility in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W.; Imenes, A.; Hinkley, J.; Benito, R.; McEvoy, S.; Hart, G.; McGregor, J.; Chensee, M.; Wong, K.; Wong, J.; Bolling, R.


    The abundance of high quality solar radiation in Australia has long fuelled activity in solar energy, particularly CSP. The National Solar Energy Centre is being established in Australia as a centre to promote all facets of concentrating solar thermal technology, from fundamental R and D to active demonstrations and testing platforms. The Centre comprises a 550kW solar tower with very high heliostat packing density, linear concentrators that will drive both an organic Rankine cycle and solar chiller, and eventually a dish concentrator. Other papers in these conference proceedings discuss in detail particular aspects of design, fabrication and testing of components of the tower. This paper provides an overview of the intended activities of the Centre and particularly the opportunities for international collaboration, including high temperature receiver design and testing, medium temperature receivers, solarized Brayton cycles, thermochemical reactors and materials for solar hydrogen production, and improved small solar trough technology. (Author)

  10. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Sarre


    Full Text Available In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  11. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?


    Kingwell, Ross S.


    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  12. The Implementation of Monetary Policy in Australia


    Ric Battellino; John Broadbent; Philip Lowe


    In January 1990, the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) began announcing and explaining changes in the target cash rate. This has increased public understanding of monetary policy and, by increasing the attention given to changes in interest rates, has affected the way in which changes in policy are transmitted to the economy. In addition, the discipline of having to announce and explain changes in the target cash rate to the public has led to a clearer focus on the objectives of monetary policy...

  13. Happy New Year from Queensland, Australia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise; Noblet


    I hope you enjoyed a magical celebration. I have had an exciting time here.In Australia, we celebrate New Year’s Eve with champagne and parties. At 10seconds to midnight, everyone stops to count in the new year at full volume, beforeshouting" Happy New Year", kissing the nearest person, and breaking into araucous (沙哑的) version of "Auld Lang Syne". Loud cheers resound in hotels,halls, nightclubs and backyards across the country.

  14. Heroin users in Australia: population trends. (United States)

    Kaya, C Yalçin; Tugai, Yuliya; Filar, Jerzy A; Agrawal, Manju R; Ali, Robert L; Gowing, Linda R; Cooke, Richard


    The aim of this paper is to identify certain important population trends among heroin users in Australia for the period 1971 - 97, such as: population growth, initiation, i.e. the number who were initiated to heroin in a given year, and quitting, i.e. the number that quit using heroin. For this purpose, we summarize and extract relevant characteristics from data from National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS 1998) conducted in Australia in 1998. We devise a systematic procedure to estimate historical trends from questions concerning past events. It is observed from our findings that the size of the heroin user population in Australia is in a sharp increase, especially from the early 1980s onwards. The general trend obtained for the period 1971 - 97 is strikingly similar to that obtained by Hall et al. (2000) for the dependent heroin user population in Australia, even though their study was based on different datasets and a different methodology. In our reconstruction of the time history we also detect a levelling-off prior to 1990. Initiation is also observed to be on a sharp increase. The latter trend is accompanied by a similar trend of quitting, perhaps indicating a relatively short heroin use career. A sharp decrease in both initiation and quitting is observed after 1990. In conclusion, in the case of the trend in the population of heroin users a high rate of growth has been identified that is consistent with the existing literature. In the process, we demonstrated that even a static survey such as NDSHS 1998 can, sometimes, be used to extract historical (dynamic) trends of certain important variables.

  15. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  16. Australia, Give You Endless Possibilities as Imagination…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ It's a place where the light changes everything. From the friendly attitude of its people, to the breathtaking blue of its skies and glistening gold of its sandy beaches. A place unlike any other, with animals and scenery you'll find nowhere else on earth and an unmatched diversity of fiavours, scents and sights. It is Australia, where the possibilities are only as endless as your imagination.

  17. Australia, Give You Endless Possibilities as Imagination…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      It's a place where the light changes everything. From the friendly attitude of its people, to the breathtaking blue of its skies and glistening gold of its sandy beaches. A place unlike any other, with animals and scenery you'll find nowhere else on earth and an unmatched diversity of fiavours, scents and sights. It is Australia, where the possibilities are only as endless as your imagination.……

  18. Multiculturalism and legal plurality in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Dabner


    Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.

  19. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo


    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  20. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, L.


    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  1. Symptomotology and Racial Politics in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Buchanan


    Full Text Available Jindabyne (a movie directed by Ray Lawrence, 2006 begins with the murder of a young aboriginal woman, but its real focus is the way people respond to this murder. In doing so, it tells several interesting truths about race relations in Australia today. I want to suggest that Jindabyne can usefully be read as a national allegory (in Jameson’s sense of the word. It maps or diagrams the cultural and political tropes of the present moment in history. My basic hypothesis is that it cannot be a coincidence that Jindabyne should give such prominence to the cultural problematic of the apology at this particular juncture in Australia’s history. Although this aspect of the film is scarcely mentioned in any of the reviews that accompanied the film’s premier, it strikes me that the timing is symptomatic: it is a topic that as Deleuze once said about difference was very much in the air. Produced only two years before the official national apology the Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd made to the Indigenous peoples of Australia on February 13, 2008, Jindabyne responds to a complex assemblage of cultural problematics that have been on the national political agenda ever since the release in 1995 of Bringing Them Home, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission’s report on its national inquiry into the so-called “Stolen Generation”.

  2. A comparison of integrated river basin management strategies: A global perspective (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhong; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Guanghong

    In order to achieve the integrated river basin management in the arid and rapid developing region, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwestern China, one of critical river basins were selected as a representative example, while the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the USA were selected for comparative analysis in this paper. Firstly, the comparable characters and hydrological contexts of these three watersheds were introduced in this paper. Then, based on comparative studies on the river basin challenges in terms of the drought, intensive irrigation, and rapid industrialization, the hydrological background of the MDB, the CRB and the HRB was presented. Subsequently, the river management strategies were compared in three aspects: water allocation, water organizations, and water act and scientific projects. Finally, we proposed recommendations for integrated river basin management for the HRB: (1) Water allocation strategies should be based on laws and markets on the whole basin; (2) Public participation should be stressed by the channels between governance organizations and local communities; (3) Scientific research should be integrated into river management to understand the interactions between the human and nature.

  3. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)


    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  4. Assessment of Geogenic Contaminants in Water Co-Produced with Coal Seam Gas Extraction in Queensland, Australia: Implications for Human Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stearman


    Full Text Available Organic compounds in Australian coal seam gas produced water (CSG water are poorly understood despite their environmental contamination potential. In this study, the presence of some organic substances is identified from government-held CSG water-quality data from the Bowen and Surat Basins, Queensland. These records revealed the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in 27% of samples of CSG water from the Walloon Coal Measures at concentrations <1 µg/L, and it is likely these compounds leached from in situ coals. PAHs identified from wells include naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. In addition, the likelihood of coal-derived organic compounds leaching to groundwater is assessed by undertaking toxicity leaching experiments using coal rank and water chemistry as variables. These tests suggest higher molecular weight PAHs (including benzo[a]pyrene leach from higher rank coals, whereas lower molecular weight PAHs leach at greater concentrations from lower rank coal. Some of the identified organic compounds have carcinogenic or health risk potential, but they are unlikely to be acutely toxic at the observed concentrations which are almost negligible (largely due to the hydrophobicity of such compounds. Hence, this study will be useful to practitioners assessing CSG water related environmental and health risk.

  5. The Deep Ocean Sound Channel in Areas Around Australia, (United States)



  6. Mound Spring Complexes in Central Australia: An Analog for Martian Groundwater Fed Outflow Channels? (United States)

    Clarke, J. D. A.; Stoker, C.


    The arid inland of Australia contains a diversity of landscapes and landscape processes, often of great antiquity, extending back to the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. The potential of this landscape as a source of Mars analogs has, however, been little explored. The few examples studied so far include radiation-tolerant microbes in thermal springs and hematite-silica hydrothermal alteration near Arkaroola in the Finders Ranges, and aeolian landforms at Gurra Gurra water hole the north east of Arkaroola. Further Australian Mars analog studies were provided by the studies of Bourke and Zimbelman of the paleoflood record of the Todd and Hale Rivers in central Australia. To facilitate study of such analogues, Mars Society Australia has embarked on a project to construct a Mars Analog Research Station near Arkaroola. The international scientific community will soon have the opportunity to participate in Mars analog studies in central Australia utilizing this facility. An area of considerable Mars analog potential is the mound spring complexes that occur at the margins of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) which underlies 22% of the Australian continent and covers 1.7 million km2. The mound springs are formed when ground water flows to a topographic low, and subsurface strata dips up causing a hydrological head at the surface. Minerals precipitated at the spring discharge zone form low mesas or "mounds", the height of which are controlled by the hydrological head. This paper describes the Dalhousie Mound Spring Complex (DMC) in the northern part of South Australia (Figure 1), and its potential as a Mars analog. Hydrogeology: The DMC consists of a cluster of more than 60 active springs formed by natural discharge from the GAB). Total measured discharge from the GAB is 1.74 GL per day, estimated unfocussed natural leakage through the aquaclude is thought be approximately equal to this figure. Some 54 ML per day are currently discharged by the DMC, 3% of the measured total. The

  7. Tulare Basin protection plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  8. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program. A...

  9. California Air Basins (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  10. Watershed Planning Basins (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  11. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  12. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  13. Wetland Preservation in Australia: The Administrative and Policital Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Yaolin Wang


    The wetlands in Australia are of great physical, chemical and biological variety due to the continent's age, geological history and climate. The traditional physical and biological threats remain as the main challenges for wetland preservation in Australia. However, it has been increasingly recognized that the immediate survival of wetlands are being affected by more subtle threats, such as administrative and political threats. This paper identifies these non-physical threats and discusses how and why they have become the major barriers for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia. Finally, this paper calls for more practical policies and solutions to be implemented for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia.

  14. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downard, K.M.; de Laeter, J.R. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. It focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important contributions to the field.

  15. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia. (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E


    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  16. A propósito del tomo III y último de la «Historia de la educación occidental» de J. Bowen. Comentarios y consideraciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio VIÑAO FRAGO


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Con la misma diferencia cuatrienal que transcurrió, entre la edición castellana y la inglesa, en los dos tomos anteriores, la editorial Herder ha publicado el tomo III de la Historia de la Educación Occidental de James Bowen, que cubre los siglos XVII a XX. Aunque ya en su día, por razones profesionales, tuvimos que hacer un profuso uso de la edición original inglesa de 1981, esta traducción nos alegra por venir a completar una de las pocas historias de la educación en lengua castellana que se hallan en el mercado. Esto sólo ya es por sí mismo satisfactorio. Mucho más si con ella se pretende, en palabras del autor, desde una perspectiva «revisionista», la «construcción de un nuevo pasado» en el que basar una «nueva moral social y educativa».

  17. Mutation of EMG1 causing Bowen-Conradi syndrome results in reduced cell proliferation rates concomitant with G2/M arrest and 18S rRNA processing delay. (United States)

    Armistead, Joy; Hemming, Richard; Patel, Nehal; Triggs-Raine, Barbara


    Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is a lethal autosomal recessive disorder caused by a D86G substitution in the protein, Essential for Mitotic Growth 1 (EMG1). EMG1 is essential for 18S rRNA maturation and 40S ribosome biogenesis in yeast, but no studies of its role in ribosome biogenesis have been done in mammals. To assess the effect of the EMG1 mutation on cell growth and ribosomal biogenesis in humans, we employed BCS patient cells. The D86G substitution did not interfere with EMG1 nucleolar localization. In BCS patient lymphoblasts, cells accumulated in G2/M, resulting in reduced proliferation rates; however, patient fibroblasts showed normal proliferation. The rate of 18S rRNA processing was consistently delayed in patient cells, although this did not lead to a difference in the levels of 40S ribosomes, or a change in protein synthesis rates. These results demonstrate that as in yeast, EMG1 in mammals has a role in ribosome biogenesis. The obvious phenotype in lymphoblasts compared to fibroblasts suggests a greater need for EMG1 in rapidly dividing cells. Tissue-specific effects have been seen in other ribosomal biogenesis disorders, and it seems likely that the impact of EMG1 deficiency would be larger in the rapidly proliferating cells of the developing embryo.

  18. The Aquitaine basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biteau, J.-J.; Le Marrec, A.; Le Vot, M.; Masset, J.-M.


    The Aquitaine Basin is located in the southwest of France, between the Gironde Arch in the north and the Pyrenean Mountain Chain in the south. It is a triangular-shaped domain, extending over 35000km{sup 2}. From north to south, six main geological provinces can be identified: (1) the Medoc Platform located south of the Gironde Arch; (2) the Parentis sub-basin; (3) the Landes Saddle; (4) the North Aquitaine Platform; (5) the foreland of the Pyrenees (also known as the Adour, Arzacq and Comminges sub-basins); and (6) the Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt. Only the Parentis sub-basin, the foreland of the Pyrenean Chain and a minor part of the fold-and-thrust belt itself are proven hydrocarbon provinces. The Aquitaine Basin, in turn, is subdivided into four sub-basins - the Parentis, Adour-Arzacq, Tarbes and Comminges areas. The lozenge shape of these depocentres is related to the Hercynian tectonic framework of the Palaeozoic basement, reactivated during Early Cretaceous rifting. This rift phase aborted at the end of the Albian (prior to the development of an oceanic crust) in response to the beginning of the subduction of the Iberian plate under the European plate. During the Upper Cretaceous, continued subduction led to the creation of northwards-migrating flexural basins. In the Eocene, a paroxysmal phase of compression was responsible for the uplift of the Pyrenean Mountain Chain and for the thin-skinned deformation of the foreland basin. The resulting structuration is limited to the south by the internal core of the chain and to the north by the leading edge of the fold-and-thrust belt, where the Lacq and Meillon gas fields are located. Four main petroleum provinces have been exploited since the Second World War: (1) the oil-prone Parentis sub-basin and (2) salt ridges surrounding the Arzacq and Tarbes sub-basins; and (3) the gas-prone southern Arzacq sub-basin (including the external Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt and the proximal foreland sub-basin) and (4

  19. Millipedes from Australia, 1: Antichiropodini from South Australia (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeekel, C.A.W.


    Descriptions of two new species: Antichiropus mammillifer n.sp., the first species of the genus recorded from outside Western Australia, related to A. minimus Attems and A. sulcatus Attems, and Tridactylogonus obscurus n.g., n.sp., a small species, taxonomically rather isolated, and perhaps related

  20. Modelling Demand for Broad Money in Australia


    Abbas Valadkhani


    The existence of a stable demand for money is very important for the conduct of monetary policy. It is argued that previous work on the demand for money in Australia has not been very satisfactory in a number of ways. This paper examines the long- and short-run determinants of the demand for broad money employing the Johansen cointegration technique and a short-run dynamic model. Using quarterly data for the period 1976:3-2002:2, this paper finds, inter alia, that the demand for broad money i...

  1. Full Scale Explosive Tests in Woomera, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Two large explosion trials (5 000 kg TNT and 500 kg ANFO) were conducted in Woomera,Australia in April/May 2006.Advance Protective Technologies for Engineering Structures (APTES) group tested 2 large single-storey concrete modules with individual components such as doors,windows and tiled panels.A description of the trial and details of various modules tested in these trials are presented in the paper.Numerical modelling and simulations are performed using computer programs,CONWEP,AIR3D and AUTODYN.A comparison of the pressure time histories obtained using these codes is made along with the concluding remarks.

  2. Advice to speak English in Australia


    Martín, Mario Daniel


    Abstract This article addresses the issue of advice given to immigrant parents to speak English only with their children in Australia, as reflected in the Spanish-speaking community. The article shows that something that appears to be down to chance, i.e. whether this advice is given or not, has a social explanation. This social explanation is based on understanding several social variables such as the ethnic identity of the adviser and the year in which the advice was given, as we...

  3. The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Liu


    Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.

  4. Detecting regime shifts in marine systems with limited biological data: An example from southeast Australia (United States)

    Litzow, Michael A.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Frusher, Stewart D.; Dann, Peter; Tuck, Geoffrey N.


    The ability to detect ecological regime shifts in a data-limited setting was investigated, using southeast Australian ecosystems as a model. Community variability was summarized for 1968-2008 with the first two principal components (PCs) of recruitment estimates for six fish stocks and reproductive parameters for four seabird species; regional climate was summarized for 1953-2008 with the first two PCs for three parameters (sea surface temperature [SST], sea surface salinity, surface nitrate) measured at two stations; and basin-scale climate variability was summarized for 1950-2012 with mean South Pacific SST and the first two PCs of detrended South Pacific SST. The first two biology PCs explained 45% of total community variability. The first two PCs of basin-scale SST showed abrupt shifts similar to "regime" behavior observed in other ocean basins, and the first PC of basin-scale SST showed significant covariation with the first PC of regional climate. Together, these results are consistent with the strong community variability and decadal-scale red noise climatic variability associated with Northern Hemisphere regime shifts. However, statistical model selection showed that the first two PCs of regional climate and the first PC of biology time series all exhibited linear change, rather than abrupt shifts. This result is consistent with previous studies documenting rapid linear change in the climate and biology of southeast Australian shelf ecosystems, and we conclude that there is no evidence for regime shift behavior in the region's ecology. However, analysis of a large set of previously-published biological time series from the North Pacific (n = 64) suggests that studies using fewer than ∼30 biological time series, such as this one, may be unable to detect regime shifts. Thus we conclude that the nature of ecological variability in the region cannot be determined with available data. The development of additional long-term biological observations is needed

  5. Optimal dynamic water allocation: Irrigation extractions and environmental tradeoffs in the Murray River, Australia (United States)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom


    A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to optimally and dynamically allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, dynamic programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to optimally allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an optimal way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase optimal environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.

  6. Regional GRACE-based estimates of water mass variations over Australia: validation and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seoane


    Full Text Available Time series of regional 2°-by-2° GRACE solutions have been computed from 2003 to 2011 with a 10 day resolution by using an energy integral method over Australia [112° E 156° E; 44° S 10° S]. This approach uses the dynamical orbit analysis of GRACE Level 1 measurements, and specially accurate along-track K Band Range Rate (KBRR residuals (1 μm s−1 level of error to estimate the total water mass over continental regions. The advantages of regional solutions are a significant reduction of GRACE aliasing errors (i.e. north–south stripes providing a more accurate estimation of water mass balance for hydrological applications. In this paper, the validation of these regional solutions over Australia is presented as well as their ability to describe water mass change as a reponse of climate forcings such as El Niño. Principal component analysis of GRACE-derived total water storage maps show spatial and temporal patterns that are consistent with independent datasets (e.g. rainfall, climate index and in-situ observations. Regional TWS show higher spatial correlations with in-situ water table measurements over Murray–Darling drainage basin (80–90%, and they offer a better localization of hydrological structures than classical GRACE global solutions (i.e. Level 2 GRGS products and 400 km ICA solutions as a linear combination of GFZ, CSR and JPL GRACE solutions.

  7. The accreditation of nursing education in Australia. (United States)

    Ralph, Nicholas; Birks, Melanie; Chapman, Ysanne


    This paper aims to explore and discuss the role that ANMAC and the accreditation standards play in pre-registration nursing education nationally. The context of the discussion is situated in the continuum of events that mark the accreditation of nursing education in Australia. The National Registration and Accreditation Scheme has given rise to significant challenges related to the accreditation of nursing programs of education in Australia. Given the importance of accreditation to the quality of nursing education, ANMAC in its appointed role as accrediting authority, must fill the position rather than occupy it. Enhancing transparency and effectiveness is central to ensuring accreditation facilitates quality in nursing education. Given ANMAC's key position, further work is needed in developing a broad base of expertise by fostering scholarly output in the substantive area of nursing accreditation. There is a concerning lack of research centred on the accreditation of programs of nursing education along with the processes associated with it. This problem is not restricted to the Australian context but also extends internationally. In this context, the expertise of accreditors ought to be questioned along with the processes ANMAC use to identify individual capability. As such, the selection of experts needs to be articulated clearly by ANMAC along with the ownership of introducing a research culture into accreditation.

  8. Determinants of Business Exits in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li


    Full Text Available The annually increasing firm exits have significant financial, legal and social impacts on productivity, employment and economic growth in Australia. However, evidence of the impacts of firm exits is sparse. This paper undertakes a first-ever study that empirically investigates the determinants and their impacts on firm churn. This paper is innovative to the literature in four aspects: (1 Local Region Areas (LGAs data, rarely available in other countries, has been used for the analysis; (2 using LGAs as the basic analytical unit is able to eliminate the heterogeneity problems encountered by other studies which are based on national and cross-national data; (3 panel data modelling techniques identify robust evidence; (4 systematic statistical tests guarantees the robustness of the results. The dataset, provided by Australia Bureau of Statistics, include 3462 observations of 577 Local Government Areas (LGAs during 2004-2009. The research identifies variables positively and negatively affecting the exits and finds that size matters in determining business exits. The last section concludes with a discussion of limitations and future research directions.

  9. On-site wastewater technologies in Australia. (United States)

    Ho, G; Dallas, S; Anda, M; Mathew, K


    Domestic wastewater reuse is currently not permitted anywhere in Australia but is widely supported by the community, promoted by researchers, and improvised by up to 20% of householders. Its widespread implementation will make an enormous contribution to the sustainability of water resources. Integrated with other strategies in the outdoor living environment of settlements in arid lands, great benefit will be derived. This paper describes six options for wastewater reuse under research by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University and case studies are given where productive use is being made for revegetation and food production strategies at household and community scales. Pollution control techniques, public health precautions and maintenance requirements are described. The special case of remote Aboriginal communities is explained where prototype systems have been installed by RADG to generate windbreaks and orchards. New Australian design standards and draft guidelines for domestic greywater reuse produced by the Western Australian State government agencies for mainstream communities are evaluated. It is recommended that dry composting toilets be coupled with domestic greywater reuse and the various types available in Australia are described. For situations where only the flushing toilet will suffice the unique 'wet composting' system can be used and this also is described. A vision for household and community-scale on-site application is presented.

  10. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Wilcox


    Full Text Available Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those Australians constituted five in every thousand of their people, or three in every two hundred of their male workers. In South Africa they made up just one in every twenty-five soldiers in a British army of almost half a million.2 As these bald figures immediately suggest, Australia's contribution to the war was too small to be decisive, and its experience of the war involved too few of its people to make a powerful impact on its society, let alone wrench its history onto some different course. Still, that contribution and that experience were unprecedented for a people who had never before gone to war as a people, and deserve more attention - and more balanced, dispassionate, critical attention - than they've yet received from historians of the war, of Australia, and of the British empire.3 In this lecture I'll strive for such balance by outlining why and how Australians went to war in South Africa, what their soldiers did there, and the war's legacy for their country and their descendants today.

  11. Moderation in Australia-policy and achievements. (United States)

    Stockley, Creina


    Alcohol has been consumed in Australia since European settlement in 1788. In 1998, approximately 60% of Australians consumed an alcoholic beverage at least once per week. The effects of alcohol on the human body are dose dependent, where the harmful effects of alcohol are generally observed only when alcohol consumption exceeds moderate consumption levels of 30 to 40 g of alcohol per day. The discovery that a J-shaped curve described the relationship between level of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease was, however, only made in 1990-cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Thus prior to 1990, Australian public health policy focused primarily on the harmful effects of alcohol consumption and the health benefits of a moderate level of alcohol consumption have only recently been recognized in public policy. This paper chronicles changes in Australian Federal government policy on alcohol since the initial draft National health policy on alcohol in Australia was presented to the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy in 1987 to the National Drug Strategic plan for action 2001 to 2003-2004 which was launched in July last year.

  12. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.


    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism p

  13. The Evolution of Distance Education in Australia: Past, Present, Future (United States)

    Reiach, Stephen; Averbeck, Clemens; Cassidy, Virginie


    Australia's large size and scattered population made it a prime location for the development of correspondence education in the 1920s, and the country is still in the forefront of distance education. This article is based on an extensive interview with Terry Evans, professor at Deakin University in Australia, who reflects on the history of…

  14. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada. (United States)

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael


    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  15. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014 (United States)

    Mayer, Diane


    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  16. Harmonising and Matching IPR Holders at IP Australia


    T’Mir D. Julius; Gaétan de Rassenfosse


    This document describes the methodology developed by the Melbourne Institute to: (i) harmonise holders of intellectual property rights (IPRs) at IP Australia (applications for patent, designs, trademarks and plant breeder’s rights); (ii) match Australian IPRs holders to the Australian business register; (iii) identify the ultimate owners within Australia; and (iv) identify which holders are small and medium size enterprises.

  17. Pathways to Marriage: Learning for Married Life in Australia. (United States)

    Simons, Michele; And Others

    In 1993-94, a random sample of 547 individuals authorized to perform marriages in Australia (marriage celebrants) and 560 couples from across Australia who had married in 1993 were surveyed regarding their views of premarriage education (PME) and the factors enhancing/inhibiting participation in PME programs (PMEPs). Of the marriage celebrants,…

  18. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les


    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  19. Political and economic structure and energy industry status of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)


    Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Solar battery power supply: A reliable power supply system for nursing clinic in Australia`s remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Div. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering


    Design and performance investigation of a new solar-battery system to power health clinics in Australia`s remote and isolated areas is a research project being conducted in the Department. The objective of this paper is to present the solar-battery system and to discuss the design factors of the system.

  1. Fluid Flow History in Lower Triassic Bulgo Sandstone, Central Sydney Basin, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The fluid flow history during diagenesis of the Lower Triassic Bulgo sandstone has been investigated through integrated analyses of petrography, stable isotope and fluid inclusion. Combined application of these techniques was intended to constrain the temperature, timing, chemistry and source of pore fluids during diagenetic cementation events in the Lower Triassic Bulgo sandstone. The dlagenesis proceeded in two different flow regimes: early dynamic fluid flow regime and late slow static fluid flow regime. The former was characterized by a slight increase of δ(18O) of pore waters form estimated -15 × 10-3 to -14 × 10-3 with the temperature increasing from ~ 10 ℃ to ~ 75 ℃. During early diagenesis, early clays and pore filling carbonates precipitated from the pore waters. The late slow flow/static fluid regime was characterized by a rapid 18O-enrichment process. δ(18O) of pore waters increased from -14× 10-3 to -5× 10-3 with the temperature increasing from 75 ℃ to 110 ℃. During the late diagenesis, kaolin (generation Ⅲ ), quartz and illite crystallized. Oil migrated to the sandstones of the Bulgo sandstone during quartz cementation.

  2. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  3. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter


    Motivation RNA folding is a complicated kinetic process. The minimum free energy structure provides only a static view of the most stable conformational state of the system. It is insufficient to give detailed insights into the dynamic behavior of RNAs. A sufficiently sophisticated analysis...... of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  4. The oxygen isotopic composition of phytolith assemblages from tropical rainforest soil tops (Queensland, Australia: validation of a new paleoenvironmental tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexandre


    Full Text Available Phytoliths are micrometric particles of amorphous silica that form inside or between the cells of higher plant tissues throughout the life of a plant. With plant decay, phytoliths are either incorporated into soils or exported to sediments via regional watersheds. Phytolith morphological assemblages are increasingly used as proxy of grassland diversity and tree cover density in inter-tropical areas. Here, we investigate whether, along altitudinal gradients in northeast Queensland (Australia, changes in the δ18O signature of soil top phytolith assemblages reflect changes in mean annual temperature (MAT and in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecipitation, as predicted by equilibrium temperature coefficients previously published for silica. Oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on 16 phytolith samples, after controlled isotopic exchange (CIE, using the IR Laser-Heating Fluorination Technique. Long-term mean annual precipitation (MAP and MAT values at the sampled sites were calculated by the ANUCLIM software. δ18Oprecipitation estimates were calculated using the Bowen and Wilkinson (2002 model, slightly modified. An empirical temperature-dependant relationship was obtained: δ18Owood phytolith-precipitation (‰ vs. VSMOW = −0.4 (±0.2 t (°C + 46 (±3 (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.05; n = 12. Despite the various unknowns introduced when estimating δ18Oprecipitation values and the large uncertainties on δ18Owood phytolith values, the temperature coefficient (−0.4 ± 0.2‰ °C−1 is in the range of values previously obtained for natural quartz, fresh and sedimentary diatoms and harvested grass phytoliths (from −0.2 to −0.5‰ °C−1. The consistency supports the reliability of δ18Owood phytolith signatures for recording

  5. Homicide-suicide in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Milroy, C M; Dratsas, M; Ranson, D L


    Thirty-nine incidents of homicide-suicide occurring in Victoria, Australia between 1985 and 1989 were examined. In 33 cases the assailants were men. The victims were spouses or women living in a de facto marriage. The majority of the victims were shot, and this was also the most frequent method of suicide. Breakdown in a relationship was the most frequent reason for killing. Mental illness of the assailant accounted for the killing in approximately 20% of cases. Physical ill health and financial stress were identified as important associative factors, particularly in the elderly. The pattern of homicide-suicide in Victoria is similar to that observed in other jurisdictions and represents an important and distinct subgroup of homicide.

  6. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie


    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  7. Growth dynamics of Australia's polar dinosaurs. (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia


    Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley


    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  9. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign. (United States)

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter


    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  10. Art Museums in Australia: A Personal Retrospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas


    Full Text Available A survey of, and reflections on, the growth of art museums in Australia based on personal experience and involvement. It starts with the early art collections and state galleries and their organisation. It looks at changing patterns of leadership and governance. It considers the roles of inter-state competition, the varying patters of organisation and support and the impact of federal institutions. It reflects on factors of race, gender and ethnicity and also the situation of Australian exhibitions and collections in the Global Village. It considers the effects of popularisation, commercialisation and celebrity culture on exhibition practices. It concludes that Australia’s art museums, more perhaps than any others, have become unusually well-suited to a post-European or post-North Atlantic age.

  11. Public policy in a multicultural Australia. (United States)

    Zubrzycki, J


    The debate on the consequences of large-scale immigration in the making of public policy began in 1968. Muliculturalism is for all Australians and any social policy designed for the benefit of one group in the population must have profound consequences on all people. 40% of the Australian population was born overseas or have at least 1 parent born overseas. Almost 1/4 of the population has ethnic roots in other than the Anglo-Celtic majority. The ideal of moral progress, greater equality, and improvement is the motive force in society. The presence of social heterogeneity--religious or ethnic--is linked with the issue of stability in a democratic system. There are 2 models of multiculturalism and corresponding public policy approaches. 1 model emphasizes the role of the political processes in Australian ethnic relations and sees ethnic structures (political, social, economic) as legitimate but separate interest groups, each having the exclusive responsibility for the realization of ethnic goals. The leading feature of this model is the structural fragmentation of Australian society into parallel segments of varying degrees of exclusiveness each with its own "ethnic" label. The 2nd model stresses the priority of the wholeness and welfare of the entire society. It assumes that a society based on satisfaction of individual needs through voluntary exchange is fertile ground for cultural enrichment. The goal is cohesion and unity in living together in Australia, seen as of central concern and consistent with the ideals of intercultural understanding and improved communication. The model assumes that the culture must be seen as a living, dynamic, changing, and interacting set of life patterns. The author prefers the 2nd model which stresses that the future vision of a multicultural Australia must be a shared one because only then can cultural diversity and national cohesion coexist within the 1 economic and political unit.

  12. Combining a climatic niche model of an invasive fungus with its host species distributions to identify risks to natural assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l. is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets.

  13. Catchment clearing accelerates the infilling of a shallow subtropical bay in east coast Australia (United States)

    Coates-Marnane, Jack; Olley, Jon; Burton, Joanne; Sharma, Ashneel


    Understanding processes that govern the transport and distribution of terrestrial sediments to and within bays is critical for interpreting the drivers of long-term changes in these ecosystems. On the east coast of Australia increased soil erosion and sediment delivery following extensive land clearing in the contributing catchments, associated with European settlement, is highlighted as a key driver of the decline of numerous nearshore habitats including seagrass meadows and in-shore coral reefs. Here we use optical, radiocarbon and radionuclide dating to estimate mass accumulation rates and type of terrestrial sedimentation in central Moreton Bay during the Holocene. We compare the long-term rates of infilling within the central basin with the recent past and show a 3-9 fold increase in sediment accretion over the last 100 years compared to the long term (last ∼ 1500 to 3000 yrs) average. Infilling during the Holocene is not spatially uniform, with preferential deposition occurring within the now submerged palaeochannels of the Brisbane and Pine rivers. We suggest that modern turbidity regimes in Moreton Bay are the result of the compounded effect of both a historical increase in fine sediment supply and a rapid decline in the effective storage capacity of the basin.

  14. Seismic anisotropy and heterogeneity in the crust beneath southeast Australia from ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Rawlinson, N.; Arroucau, P.; Young, M.; Salmon, M.; Kennett, B. L. N.


    The lithosphere beneath eastern Australia was formed during a protracted period of Palaeozoic orogeny that began in the Early Cambrian and terminated in the Middle Triassic. Accretion of new and reworked lithosphere occurred outboard of the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana, which at that time extended some 20,000 km along the east margin of Precambrian Australia, through west Antarctica and into western Argentina. In southeast Australia, the outward-stepping nature of the accretion can be observed in the Delamerian, Lachlan and New England orogens, which extend from the eastern margin of Precambrian Australia to the Tasman Sea. Although the basic building blocks of the region have been recognised, extensive Mesozoic and Cainozoic cover sequences have masked large regions of the Palaeozoic basement, which complicates the task of unravelling the tectonic evolution of this portion of the Australian plate. Over the last 14 years, a transportable seismic array project called WOMBAT has traversed much of southeast Australia with high density seismic arrays. To date, over 600 stations have been deployed as part of 14 separate array movements, making it the largest experiment of its type in the southern hemisphere. With a maximum station spacing of approximately 50 km, passive imaging of the crust and uppermost mantle is possible using a variety of techniques, including ambient noise tomography, which is the focus of this study. Interstation group and phase velocity curves corresponding to Rayleigh wave propagation have been extracted from ambient seismic noise recorded by WOMBAT. Group and phase velocity maps over a range of periods (1-20 seconds) are then constructed by traveltime inversion using all available station pairs. Two different approaches are used: the first assumes isotropic velocity variations but accounts for wavefront focusing and defocusing in response to heterogeneity; the second assumes great circle path propagation but accounts for azimuthal anisotropy

  15. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.


    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  16. Substantial genetic substructuring in southeastern and alpine Australia revealed by molecular phylogeography of the Egernia whitii (Lacertilia: Scincidae) species group. (United States)

    Chapple, David G; Keogh, J Scott; Hutchinson, Mark N


    Palaeoclimatic events and biogeographical processes since the mid-Tertiary are believed to have strongly influenced the evolution and distribution of the terrestrial vertebrate fauna of southeastern Australia. We examined the phylogeography of the temperate-adapted members of the Egernia whitii species group, a group of skinks that comprise both widespread low- to mid-elevation (E. whitii) and montane-restricted species (Egernia guthega, Egernia montana), in order to obtain important insights into the influence of past biogeographical processes on the herpetofauna of southeastern Australia. Sequence data were obtained from all six temperate-adapted species within the E. whitii species group, and specifically from across the distributional ranges of E. whitii, E. guthega and E. montana. We targeted a fragment of the ND4 mitochondrial gene (696 bp) and analysed the data using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our data reveal a deep phylogeographical break in the east Gippsland region of Victoria between 'northern' (Queensland, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory) and 'southern' (Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia) populations of E. whitii. This divergence appears to have occurred during the late Miocene-Pliocene, with the Gippsland basin possibly forming a geographical barrier to dispersal. Substantial structuring within both the 'northern' and the 'southern' clades is consistent with the effects of Plio-Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Pleistocene glacial cycles also appear to have shaped the phylogeographical patterns observed in the alpine species, E. guthega and E. montana. We used our results to examine the biogeographical process that led to the origin and subsequent diversification of the lowland and alpine herpetofauna of southeastern Australia.

  17. The geology of Darwin Crater, western Tasmania, Australia (United States)

    Howard, Kieren T.; Haines, Peter W.


    Darwin glass is a siliceous impact glass found in a 400 km 2 strewn field near Mt Darwin, western Tasmania, Australia. It has been dated by Ar-Ar methods at 816 ± 7 ka. A 1.2 km diameter circular depression, named Darwin Crater (42°18.39'S, 145°39.41'E), is the assumed source crater for the glass. Darwin Crater is situated in a remote rain forested valley developed within Siluro-Devonian quartzite and slate (Eldon Group). Earlier geophysical investigations demonstrated that the structure is an almost circular bowl-shaped sediment-filled basin. This paper provides the first detailed description of the geology of Darwin Crater. The centre of the crater has been penetrated by two drill cores, the deeper to a maximum depth of ˜ 230 m. The drill cores intersected fine-grained lacustrine sediments (˜ 60 m thick) overlying poorly sorted coarser crater-fill deposits. The pre-lacustrine crater-fill stratigraphy comprises an uppermost polymict breccia (˜ 40 m thick) of angular quartz and country rock, which contains very rare (≪ 1%) fresh glass fragments (Crater-fill Facies A). Beneath the polymict breccia facies, the drill core intersected monomict sandy breccias of angular quartz (Crater-fill Facies B), and a complicated package of deformed slate clasts (Crater-fill Facies C). Quartz grains in the crater-fill samples contain abundant irregular fractures. In some of the most deformed quartz grains, sub-planar fractures define zones of alternating extinction that superficially resemble twinning. Kinked micas are also present. While the deformation observed in clasts of the crater-fill facies is far greater than in rocks cropping out around the crater, no diagnostic shock indicators, such as planar deformation features (PDF's) in quartz, were observed. If the crater is of impact origin, as seems likely due to the close association with Darwin glass, this is another example of a simple crater where diagnostic shock indicators appear to be absent, preventing

  18. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew RM


    Full Text Available Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 6Bruce Lefroy Centre for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. Keywords: Tay-Sachs disease, genetic screening, Australia

  19. Exploring Themes in the Movie Australia on Culture Identity Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Gathering the history and emotions of the nation of Australia, the movie Australia not only reflects Australians’exer-tion to construct an equal harmonious diversified new Australia but also incarnates Australian people ’s nisus to pursue the sense of belonging internally and seek international recognition externally. In order to expand the perspective of researching this movie and give enlightenment on constructing an equal harmonious diversified international community, based on culture identity theo-ries, this paper tries exploring the themes of this movie.

  20. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram


    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  1. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.


    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  2. Natural frequency of regular basins (United States)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.


    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of ground water recharge in central Australia: a tracer approach. (United States)

    Harrington, Glenn A; Cook, Peter G; Herczeg, Andrew L


    Two environmental tracer methods are applied to the Ti-Tree Basin in central Australia to shed light on the importance of recharge from floodouts of ephemeral rivers in this arid environment. Ground water carbon-14 concentrations from boreholes are used to estimate the average recharge rate over the interval between where the ground water sample first entered the saturated zone and the bore. Environmental chloride concentrations in ground water samples provide estimates of the recharge rate at the exact point in the landscape where the sample entered the saturated zone. The results of the two tracer approaches indicate that recharge rates around one of the rivers and an extensive floodplain are generally higher than rates of diffuse recharge that occurs in areas of lower topographic relief. Ground water 2H/1H and 18O/16O compositions are all depleted in the heavier isotopes (delta2H = -67 per thousand to -50 per thousand; delta18O = -9.2 per thousand to -5.7%o) compared with the long-term, amount-weighted mean isotopic composition of rainfall in the area (delta2H = -33.8 per thousand; delta18O = -6.3 per thousand). This indicates that recharge throughout the basin occurs only after intense rainfall events of at least 150 to 200 mm/month. Finally, a recharge map is developed to highlight the spatial extent of the two recharge mechanisms. Floodout recharge to the freshest ground water (TDS recharge rate of approximately 0.2 mm/year to the remainder of the basin. These findings have important implications for management of the ground water resource.

  4. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina


    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  5. Preserved Ross-age(?) root beneath the Transantarctic Mountains and origin of the thinner crust beneath the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin (United States)

    Jordan, Tom; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Armadillo, Egidio; Bozzo, Emanuele


    models indicate that the crust is ~5 km thinner beneath the northern Wilkes Basin, compared to formerly contiguous segments of the Delamerian Orogen in south-eastern Australia. We put forward four possible explanations for the thinner crust we modelled beneath the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin: i) back-arc basin formation or orogenic collapse processes, coupled with major crustal-scale tectonic segmentation within the Ross-Delamerian orogens, ii) Jurassic to Cretaceous intraplate extension in East Antarctica, prior to later break-up between Australia and East Antarctica, iii) major glacial erosion within the Wilkes Subglacial Basin since East Antarctic Ice Sheet initiation, ca 34 Ma, or most likely- iv) a combination of these tectonic and erosional processes and their associated isostatic responses.

  6. Testing Potential New Sites for Optical Telescopes in Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Hotan, Claire E; Glazebrook, Karl


    In coming years, Australia may find the need to build new optical telescopes to continue local programmes, contribute to global survey projects, and form a local multi-wavelength connection for the new radio telescopes being built. In this study, we refine possible locations for a new optical telescope by studying remotely sensed meteorological infrared data to ascertain expected cloud coverage rates across Australia, and combine these data with a Digital Elevation Model using a Geographic Information System. We find that the best sites within Australia for building optical telescopes are likely to be on the highest mountains in the Hamersley Range in Northwest Western Australia, while the MacDonnell Ranges in the Northern Territory may also be appropriate. We believe that similar seeing values to Siding Spring should be obtainable and with significantly more observing time at the identified sites. We expect to find twice as many clear nights as at current telescope sites. These sites are thus prime locations...

  7. Generalized Geology of Australia and New Zealand (geo3cl) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age and rock type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Australia...

  8. The Special Broadcasting Service and Australia's Ethnic Broadcasting Activities. (United States)

    Sklovsky, G.A.


    Broadcasting services for non-English speaking peoples in Australia are reviewed both for radio and television. Broadcasting criteria for ethnic groups, funding levels, and current facilities are discussed. (RAO)

  9. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)


    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  10. Financial Worldwide Crisis: The Anti-Counter Cycle of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.

  11. Distance Education in Australia : Past, Present and Future


    Mavis, Kelly


    Compared with most other countries, Distance Education in Australia has a long history, spanning most of this century and is now used at all levels of education from elementary school to postgraduate courses as well as in vocational and in-service training in business and industry. In this paper, which focuses mainly on Distance Education at the post-secondary level, the author first outlines the current pattern of provision in the light of Australia's geography, population distribution and t...

  12. Lingue e migrazione. Un caso di studio: l’Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen


    Full Text Available Abstract – This chapter focuses upon two contrasting features of the linguistic situation in Australia. On the one hand, together with nationhood, the past hundred or so years have seen the evolution of a distinct national variety of English in Australia recognizable also outside Australia. On the other, Australia, though a young nation, has been continuously inhabited by the various Aborigine and Torre Strait Islander communities for thousands of years. These have traditionally spoken a wide variety of different languages, some of which of great interest to linguists due to their peculiarity. Increasingly, although the use of Aborigine languages has until very recently been in steady decline, since the 1950s in particular, diverse ethnic groups speaking a variety of languages, both European and Asian, have settled in Australia. The National Policy on Languages (1987 formally directed Australia towards multilingualism and the teaching of English as a first and second language is promoted together with that of Aborigine and community languages. Consequently, Australia has been one of the first nations to try to capitalise on its own linguistic diversity, both as a means of strengthening links with the outside world and as a way of promoting a multiethnic and multicultural society at home. Australia presents then an interesting case study for those working with discourse in immigration domains who are concerned with the way that language policy (or the lack of one may effect social harmony and serve not only as an indicator of the way that migrants are received and treated, but also a catalyst in itself for greater mutual respect.

  13. Demand for Wine in Australia: Systems Versus Single Equation Approach


    Chang, Hui-Shung (Christie); Bettington, Nicholas


    The objective of the study is to estimate demand for wine in Australia, based on both the systems approach and the single equation approach. Both approaches consider demand for three categories of alcoholic drinks (beer, wine and spirits) in a seemingly unrelated regression framework to take account of cross-equation correlations. Time series data on retail price indexes and apparent per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages for Australia for the period 1975/76 to 1998/99 are used for eco...

  14. The autoimmune blistering diseases in Australia: status and services. (United States)

    Daniel, Benjamin S; Dermawan, Andrew; Murrell, Dédée F


    The exact epidemiology of autoimmune bullous disorders in Australia is unknown. This article describes the establishment of a registry and support group to serve patients with these disorders. The registry aids research in Australia by providing epidemiologic data and maintaining an up-to-date database with patient contact details. The support group caters to the needs of patients and/or caregivers. Teledermatology, diagnosis, and management of autoimmune bullous disease are briefly reviewed.

  15. CPAFFC Publicity Group Visits Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Invited by the Australia-China Friendship Society and the New Zealand-China Friendship So-ciety, a 4-member CPAFFC publicity group visited Australia and New Zealand from September 14 to 27, 2003. The Group, consisting of Li Shantong, director general of the Research Department of Development Strategy and Regional Economy under the Development Research Centre of the State Council, Wang Qiliang, former Chi

  16. Integrated primary health care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawaine Powell Davies


    Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.

  17. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia. (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake


    The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures.

  18. Sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; Lapalombara, Hannah


    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These "sound symbolic" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting "smallness" or "nearness" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting "largeness" or "distance" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of "smallness" and "proximity" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.

  19. Nocturnal haemodialysis in Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    Agar, John W M


    Although early experience in Australia and New Zealand confirmed home haemodialysis to be well tolerated, effective and with lower morbidity and mortality compared with centre-based haemodialysis, the advent of ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 'satellite' haemodialysis has led to a steadily declining home haemodialysis population. However, the emergence of nocturnal haemodialysis, as a safe and highly effective therapy, has added to the modality choices now available and offers a new, highly attractive home-based option with many advantages over centre-based dialysis. For the patient, nocturnal haemodialysis means fluid and dietary freedom, less antihypertensive medication, the abolition of phosphate binders, the return of daytime freedom and the capacity for full-time employment. Potential biochemical benefits include normalization of the blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, beta(2) microglobulin, homocysteine and triglyceride levels and other nutritional markers. Improved quality of life and sleep patterns and a resolution of sleep apnoea have been shown. Left ventricular function has also shown marked improvement. For the provider, nocturnal home haemodialysis offers clear cost advantages by avoiding high-cost nursing and infrastructure expenditure. Although consumable and equipment costs are higher, the savings on wage and infrastructure far outweigh this added expenditure. These combined factors make nocturnal haemodialysis an irresistible addition to comprehensive dialysis services, both from a clinical outcome and fiscal perspective.

  20. Veterinary parasitology teaching in eastern Australia. (United States)

    Gasser, R B; Beveridge, I; Sangster, N C; Coleman, G


    There are tendencies in universities globally to change undergraduate teaching in veterinary parasitology. To be able to give considered advice to universities, faculties, governmental bodies and professional societies about a discipline and to establish how particular changes may impact on the quality of a course, is the requirement to record and review its current status. The present paper contributes toward this objective by providing a "snap-shot" of the veterinary parasitology courses at the Universities of Melbourne, Sydney and Queensland in eastern Australia. It includes a description of the veterinary science curriculum in each institution, and provides an outline of its veterinary parasitology course, including objectives, topics covered, course delivery, student examination procedures and course evaluation. Student contact time in veterinary parasitology during the curriculum is currently higher in Melbourne (183 h) compared with Sydney and Queensland (106-110 h). In the teaching of parasitology, Melbourne adopts a taxonomic approach (in the pre-clinical period) followed by a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach in the clinical semesters, whereas both Sydney and Queensland focus more on presenting parasites on a host species-basis followed by a problem-based approach.


    Freckelton, Ian


    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.

  2. Geotechnical considerations in mine backfilling in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Sivakugan; R.M. Rankine; K.J. Rankine; K.S. Rankine [James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering


    Mine backfilling can play a significant role in the overall operation of a mine operation. In the Australian mining industry, where safety is a prime consideration, hydraulic systems are the most common backfills deployed. Many accidents reported at hydraulic fill mines worldwide have mainly been attributed to a lack of understanding of their behaviour and barricade bricks. There are two basic types of backfilling strategies. The first, uncemented backfilling, does not make use of binding agents such as cement, and their characteristics can be studied using soil mechanics theories. A typical example of uncemented backfilling is the use of hydraulic fills that are placed in the form of slurry into the underground voids. The second category, cemented backfilling, makes use of a small percentage of binder such as Portland cement or a blend of Portland cement with another pozzolan such as fly ash, gypsum or blast furnace slag. This paper describes the findings from an extensive laboratory test programme carried out in Australia on more than 20 different hydraulic fills and several barricade bricks. A limited description of paste backfills is also provided, and the usefulness of numerical modelling as an investigative tool is highlighted. 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A review of severe thunderstorms in Australia (United States)

    Allen, John T.; Allen, Edwina R.


    Severe thunderstorms are a common occurrence in Australia and have been documented since the first European settlement in 1788. These events are characterized by large damaging hail in excess of 2 cm, convective wind gusts greater than 90 km h- 1 and tornadoes, and contribute a quarter of all natural hazard-related losses in the country. This impact has lead to a growing body of research and insight into these events. In this article, the state of knowledge regarding their incidence, distribution, and the resulting hail, tornado, convective wind, and lightning risk will be reviewed. Applying this assessment of knowledge, the implications for forecasting, the warning process, and how these events may respond to climate change and variability will also be discussed. Based on this review, ongoing work in the field is outlined, and several potential avenues for future research and exploration are suggested. Most notably, the need for improved observational or proxy climatologies, the forecasting guidelines for tornadoes, and the need for a greater understanding of how severe thunderstorms respond to climate variability are highlighted.

  4. An Australia telescope survey for CMB anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, R; Ekers, R D; Sinclair, M; Silk, J


    We have surveyed six distinct `empty fields' using the Australia TelescopeCompact Array in an ultra-compact configuration with the aim of imaging, with ahigh brightness sensitivity, any arcmin-scale brightness-temperatureanisotropies in the background radio sky. The six well-separated regions wereobserved at a frequency of 8.7 GHz and the survey regions were limited by theATCA primary beams which have a full width at half maximum of 6 arcmin at thisfrequency; all fields were observed with a resolution of 2 arcmin and an rmsthermal noise of 24 microJy/beam. After subtracting foreground confusiondetected in higher resolution images of the fields, residual fluctuations inStokes I images are consistent with the expectations from thermal noise andweaker (unidentified) foreground sources; the Stokes Q and U images areconsistent with expectations from thermal noise. Within the sensitivity of our observations, we have no reason to believe thatthere are any Sunyaev-Zeldovich holes in the microwave sky surveyed. Assumi...

  5. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia. (United States)

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela


    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland.

  6. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Park

    Full Text Available Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria, in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  7. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia. (United States)

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony


    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  8. Quarantine, exports and animal disease in Australia 1901-2010. (United States)

    Turner, Aj


    The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions.

  9. Contrasting Holocene sedimentary geologies of lower Daly River, northern Australia, and lower Sepik-Ramu, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Chappell, John


    The estuarine plain of the macrotidal Daly River, in monsoonal northern Australia, is underlain by extensive mid-Holocene mangrove swamp sediments which accumulated during the last stages of Post-glacial sea-level rise. Sediment yield from the catchment is too low to account for the volume which accumulated during sea-level rise, and onshore transport is invoked. This is supported by radiocarbon ages and facies analysis of the transgressive sediment tract beneath the maximum flooding surface (MFS), and of the tract of vertical sedimentation which extends from the MFS to the surface of estuarine/fluvial transition (the EFT). The EFT occurred about 5000 to 6000 BP throughout the estuarine plain. A contrasting situation exists in the lowland Holocene basin of the microtidal Sepik and Ramu rivers in Papua New Guinea, which derive sediment from highly tectonic catchments. A tectonic basin, which was a shallow brackish inland sea after Post-glacial transgression, is separated by a low divide from a deltaic plain. Progradation of the deltaic plain commenced about 3500 BP after regressive sedimentation eclipsed the inland sea in the tectonic basin. Contrasting organic facies, mangrove in the Daly and freshwater swamp deposits in the Sepik-Ramu, highlight differences between facies models of the two systems. Differences between fluvio-tidal regimes are reflected by the EFT, which is synchronous in the Daly and diachronous in the Sepik-Ramu, and possibly by the MFS which is diachronous in the Daly and may be synchronous in the Sepik-Ramu.

  10. HPV Typing and Expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in Bowen Disease%鲍温病HPV分型和hMLH1,hMSH2蛋白的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃; 袁伟; 贾常莎


    目的 探讨人乳头瘤病毒感染与不同部位鲍温病(Bowen)病发病的关系并检测肿瘤错配修复基因hM-LH1,hMSH2蛋白在Bowen病中的表达情况.方法 20例Bowen病组织来源于2004-2011年皮肤科病理证实标本,其中肛周和外生殖器共3例,其他部位共17例,另取10例正常皮肤为对照.采用人乳头瘤病毒核酸扩增分型方法对Bowen病皮损进行基因分型检测.免疫组化法检测Bowen病组织及10例正常皮肤组织中hMLH1,hMSH2蛋白的表达.结果 20例Bowen病患者中肛周和外生殖器、其他部位共检出6例HPV阳性(30.00%),为HPV16,HPV18,HPV33型.Bowen病组织中hMLH1,hMSH2蛋白阳性表达较正常皮肤组织降低,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05);Bowen病高危型HPV感染组中hM-LH1,hMSH2蛋白阳性表达低于非感染组(P<0.05).结论 Bowen病的发生可能与HPV感染有关,Bowen病患者皮损中hMLH1,hMSH2蛋白低表达也许与其进展为肿瘤有关联.

  11. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春


    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  12. Prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.

  13. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia (United States)


    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  14. Evolution of vocational rehabilitation competencies in Australia. (United States)

    Matthews, Lynda R; Buys, Nicholas; Randall, Christine; Biggs, Herbert; Hazelwood, Zoe


    Over the past decade, there has been growth in the delivery of vocational rehabilitation services globally, as countries seek to control disability-related expenditure, yet there has been minimal research outside the United States on competencies required to work in this area. This study reports on research conducted in Australia to determine current job function and knowledge areas in terms of their importance and frequency of use in the provision of vocational rehabilitation. A survey comprising items from the Rehabilitation Skills Inventory-Amended and International Survey of Disability Management was completed by 149 rehabilitation counselors and items submitted to factor analysis. T-tests and analyses of variance were used to determine differences between scores of importance and frequency and differences in scores based on work setting and professional training. Six factors were identified as important and frequently used: (i) vocational counseling, (ii) professional practice, (iii) personal counseling, (iv) rehabilitation case management, (v) workplace disability case management, and (vi) workplace intervention and program management. Vocational counseling, professional practice and personal counseling were significantly more important and performed more frequently by respondents in vocational rehabilitation settings than those in compensation settings. These same three factors were rated significantly higher in importance and frequency by those with rehabilitation counselor training when compared with those with other training. In conclusion, although 'traditional' knowledge and skill areas such as vocational counseling, professional practice, and personal counseling were identified as central to vocational rehabilitation practice in Australian rehabilitation agencies, mean ratings suggest a growing emphasis on knowledge and skills associated with disability management practice.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Bowen-Conradi syndrome (United States)

    ... Diverse diseases from a ubiquitous process: the ribosomopathy paradox. FEBS Lett. 2014 May 2;588(9):1491- ... Support Selection Criteria for Links Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & ...

  16. Foundation on Economic Trends v. Bowen. (United States)


    The National Enviromental Policy Act requires that government agencies make a detailed enviromental impact statement (EIS) for all research significantly affecting the environment. These statements must be supplemented if the project substantially changes or if new information is obtained. The Foundation on Economic Trends argued that three developments in recombinant DNA research will significantly alter the enviromental impact, thereby mandating a new EIS by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). These developments are cloning oncogenic viruses, engineering the human immunodeficiency virus into cells not normally susceptible to it, and introducing AIDS genetic codes into mice. The U.S. District Court, District of Columbia, held that the first two projects do not pose a greater risk and that the enviromental assessment being prepared by NIH on the third satisfies the requirements of the National Enviromental Policy Act.

  17. 退出江湖 Bruce Bowen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    这几年来在球员与球迷之间饱受批评的鲍文,终于宣布退休高挂球鞋。这个消息一出,包括布莱恩特(Kobe Bryant)、纳什(Steve Nash)等知名后卫球员,心情上大概都不会觉得太惋惜,其实连鲍文自己都说:"我相信不少人都感到很高兴。"

  18. Morphological Characteristics of Detrital Zircon Grains from Source to Sink (Western Australia) (United States)

    Markwitz, V.; Kirkland, C.


    Detrital zircon studies have become the tool of choice to address a wide range of geological questions including basin evolution, geodynamic setting, paleogeographic reconstructions, and determining source-sink relationships. However, grain destruction during transportation may be critical in understanding the detrital zircon record, yet it has not been explored in detail. In the magmatic crystallization environment zircon crystal shape is effectively a function of the magma chemistry and temperature. We address to what extent the zircon population represents an artefact of preservation, or a meaningful record of the magmatic events within the source terrain. We use image analysis of previously SIMS U-Pb dated zircon crystals to quantify how zircon grain shapes relate to the chemical composition of magmatic and detrital zircon crystals. We achieve this by testing the correlation between shape factors and the uranium, thorium content, apparent alpha dose, and isotopic signature of individual zircons with statistical methods. We focus our investigation on two different areas of Western Australia: (1) the Archean of the Yilgarn Craton and (2) the Proterozoic of the Musgrave Province, and their associated Proterozoic basin sediments: (1) The Yilgarn craton represents a Neoarchean amalgamation of c. 3.8 Ga and 2.6 Ga granite-greenstone belts including a variety of gneisses, metasedimentary and metavolcanic rock formations, and granites. Along the northern edge of the craton a series of four Proterozoic basins, with variable tectonic and metamorphic overprinting overlay this basement. (2) The West Musgrave Province consists of an east-west trending Meso- to Neoproterozoic belt dominated by granites and volcanics deformed by several major orogenic events between c. 1.35 Ga and 350 Ma. Based on age and Hf isotopic relationships the bedrock of the Musgrave Province is the source for the Neoproterozoic to Early Carboniferous Amadeus Basin to its north. Using rigorous

  19. Análise de sensibilidade dos métodos de estimativa da evapotranspiração de referência e razão de Bowen em cultura da cana-de-açúcar Sensitivity analysis of methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration and sugarcane evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce K. N Silva


    Full Text Available A técnica de análise de sensibilidade de modelos foi aplicada nos dados obtidos em experimento de campo conduzido no ano de 2009, na Destilaria Miriri, localizada no município de Capim, PB, e aos dados de evapotranspiração de referência (ETo, obtidos pela equação de Penman-Monteith (FAO/56, e da evapotranspiração da cultura da cana-de-açúcar (ETc, obtidos pelo balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen. As análises de sensibilidade e de erros foram aplicadas ao método da razão de Bowen para os intervalos de medição de 15, 30, 60 e 120 minutos enquanto o método de Penman-Monteith foi aplicado para a escala diária durante o ano de 2009. Os resultados evidenciam que o saldo de radiação é a variável mais sensitiva no cálculo do balanço de energia, enquanto o fluxo de calor no solo oferece a menor contribuição; já os erros relativos de todas as variáveis envolvidas do cálculo balanço de energia baseado na razão de Bowen aumentaram significativamente com o aumento do intervalo de amostragem. A variável mais sensível na determinação da ETo pelo método de Penman-Monteith é o saldo de radiação seguida da umidade relativa, velocidade do vento a 2m de altura e a temperatura média do ar.The sensitivity analysis technique of models was applied to the data obtained from field experiment carried out during 2009 at Distillery Miriri, Capim, PB. This technique was applied to the reference evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith (FAO/56 and the sugarcane evapotranspiration (ETc by energy balance equation based on Bowen ratio. The sensitivity analysis and errors were applied to the Bowen ratio method in measurement intervals of 15, 30, 60 and 120 min; however Penman-Monteith approach was applied on daily basis throughout the 2009 year. Results showed that the net radiation is the most sensitive variable in the energy equation balance and soil heat flux offers the lowest contribution. On the other hand, the relative

  20. Spatial Observation and Models for Crop Water Use in Australia (Invited) (United States)

    Hafeez, M. M.; Chemin, Y.; Rabbani, U.


    Recent drought in Australia and concerns about climate change have highlighted the need to manage agricultural water resources more sustainably, especially in the Murray Darling Basin which accounts for more than 70% of water for crop production. For Australian continent, approximately 90% of the precipitation that falls on the land is returned back to the atmosphere through actual evapotranspiration (ET) process. However, despite its significance nationally, it is almost impossible to measure or observe it directly at a meaningful scale in space and time through traditional point-based methods. Since late 1990's, the optical-thermal remote sensing satellite data has been extensively used for mapping of actual ET from farm to catchment scales in Australia. Numerous ET algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data acquired by optical-thermal sensors mounted on airborne and satellite platforms. This article concentrates on the Murrumbidgee catchment, where ground truth data has been collected on a fortnightly basis since 2007 using two Eddy Covariance Systems (ECS) and two Large Aperture Scintillometers (LAS). Their setup absorbed variability in the landscape to measure ET-related fluxes. The ground truthing measurement data includes leaf area index (LAI) from LICOR 2000, soil heat fluxes from HuskeFlux, crop reflectance data from CROPScan and from a thermal radiometer. UAV drone equipped with multispectral scanner and thermal imager was used to get very high spatial resolution NDVI and surface temperature maps over the selected farms. This large array of high technology instruments have been used to collect specific measurements within various micro-ecosystems available in our study area. This article starts by an overview of common ET estimation algorithms based on satellite remote sensing data. The algorithms are SEBAL, METRIC, Simplified Surface Energy Balance, Two Source Energy Balance and SEBS. They are used in Australia at both regional and

  1. 1992 WAMET/EUROMET Joint Expedition to Search for Meteorites in the Nullarbor Region, Western Australia (United States)

    Bevan, A.


    The Nullarbor Region is a limestone desert in the south of Australia. It forms part of the larger Eucla Basin, which straddles the border between South Australia and Western Australia. The portion of the Eucla Basin lying in Westem Australia covers an area of about 104,000 km^2 (Bevan and Binns, 1989) and meteorites have been recovered from this region since 1971, new material being deposited at the Western Australia Museum. Between 21/3/92 and 6/4/92 a joint expedition between the Western Australia Museum and EUROMET recovered approximately 440 specimens of meteorites (total mass 13206 g) and 297 tektites. The expedition, whose members were Claude Perron (Paris), Christian Koeberl (Vienna), Georg Delisle (BGR Hannover), Gian- Paolo Sighinolfi (Modena), and Andrew Morse (OU) for Euromet, together with Wayne Smith (Australian Army) and Tom Smith (Perth Astronomical Observatory), was led by Dr Alex Bevan of the Western Australia Museum. Searching was carried out on foot with the participants spread out in a line with a 10-m spacing, walking along a compass bearing for approximately 10 km and back each day. Eight collecting regions were used, with a stop of about 2 days at each camp. Half of the searching was done near known strewn fields in order that the team become practised. Thus the expedition collected material at the following known sites. Camel Donga, Eucrite: The initial recovery was made in 1984 (Cleverly et al., 1986). The strewn field is about 8 km by 2-3 km at coordinates 30 degrees 19'S, 126 degrees 37'E. This expedition recovered 65 stones weighing a total of 2456 g, plus one stone of 4.8 g that was clearly chondritic in hand specimen. Mulga (north), H6: The initial recovery was made in 1964 (McCall, 1968). The strewn field is 8 km by 2 km at coordinates 30 degrees 11'S, 126 degrees 22'E and on this expedition 5 stones were recovered with a weight of 548 g. Also 110 stones (total mass 1535 g) that are certainly not H6 were found within a 100-m radius of

  2. Australia's dengue risk driven by human adaptation to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reduced rainfall in southeast Australia has placed this region's urban and rural communities on escalating water restrictions, with anthropogenic climate change forecasts suggesting that this drying trend will continue. To mitigate the stress this may place on domestic water supply, governments have encouraged the installation of large domestic water tanks in towns and cities throughout this region. These prospective stable mosquito larval sites create the possibility of the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti from Queensland, where it remains endemic, back into New South Wales and other populated centres in Australia, along with the associated emerging and re-emerging dengue risk if the virus was to be introduced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Having collated the known distribution of Ae. aegypti in Australia, we built distributional models using a genetic algorithm to project Ae. aegypti's distribution under today's climate and under climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2050 and compared the outputs to published theoretical temperature limits. Incongruence identified between the models and theoretical temperature limits highlighted the difficulty of using point occurrence data to study a species whose distribution is mediated more by human activity than by climate. Synthesis of this data with dengue transmission climate limits in Australia derived from historical dengue epidemics suggested that a proliferation of domestic water storage tanks in Australia could result in another range expansion of Ae. aegypti which would present a risk of dengue transmission in most major cities during their warm summer months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the debate of the role climate change will play in the future range of dengue in Australia, we conclude that the increased risk of an Ae. aegypti range expansion in Australia would be due not directly to climate change but rather to human adaptation to the current and forecasted regional drying

  3. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia. (United States)

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A


    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia.

  4. Responses of Quaternary rainforest vertebrates to climate change in Australia (United States)

    Hocknull, Scott A.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Webb, Gregory E.


    A new middle Pleistocene vertebrate fossil record from eastern Australia, dated by U disequilibrium series, records the first Quaternary record of an Australian tropical rainforest fauna. This exceptionally rich fauna underwent extinction after a long period of relative faunal stability, spanning several glacial cycles, and persisted probably until 280 000 years ago. Some time between 280 000 and 205 000 years ago the rainforest fauna was replaced by a xeric-adapted fauna. Since that time, the xeric-adapted fauna was replaced by a mesic-adapted fauna which was established by the Holocene. This is the first vertebrate faunal evidence in Australia of the middle Pleistocene Mid-Brunhes Climatic Event (MBE), a major climatic reorganisation that led to increased aridity in northern Australia from around 300 000 years ago. Several independent palaeoclimate proxies suggest that the climatic shift to aridity was due to increased climatic variability and weakened northern monsoons, which may be manifested in the extinction of the aseasonal rainforest fauna and its replacement by an arid-adapted fauna. We extend the temporal ranges of several taxa from the Pliocene into the middle Pleistocene. We also reveal a longer palaeobiogeographic connection of rainforest taxa and lineages shared between New Guinea and Australia than was previously thought and show that their extinction on mainland Australia occurred sometime after 280 000 years ago.

  5. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia (United States)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.


    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  6. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards. (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip


    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  7. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia. (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn


    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris).

  8. Energy Balance of Irrigated Intercropping Field in the Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinkui; DING Yongjian; WANG Genxu; SHEN Yongping; Yusuke YAMAZAKI; Jumpei KUBOTA


    Based on the experiments conducted in an irrigated intercropping field in Zhangye Oasis in the middle reaches of Heihe River basin in 2004, the characteristics of radiation budget are analyzed. Furthermore, energy balance is calculated by using Bowen-Ratio Energy Balance (BREB) method. The results show that the ratio of the absorbed radiation to the incoming short radiation in intercropping crop canopy-soil system is increasing with growing stages, from 0.81 in the initial growing stage (IGS) to 0.86 in the late growing stage (LGS). The net radiation, which is smaller in IGS, increases rapidly in the first period of the middle growing stage (MGS) and reaches the maximum value in the second period of MGS. It then somewhat decreases in LGS. The ratio of net radiation to total radiation has a similar trend with the net radiation. In the whole growing stages, latent heat flux, which takes up 70% or so of the net radiation, is the dominant item in energy balance. Sensible heat flux shares 20% of the net radiation and soil heat flux has a percentage of 10%. The characteristics of heat balance vary distinctly in different growing stages. In IGS, the ratios of latent heat flux,sensible heat flux and soil heat flux to net radiation are 44.5%, 23.8% and 31.7% respectively. In MGS, with the increasing of latent heat flux and the decreasing of sensible heat flux and soil heat flux, the ratios turn into 84.4%, 6.3% and 9.3%. In LGS, the soil heat flux maintains 0W/m2 or so, and latent heat flux and sensible heat flux take up 61.4% and 38.6% respectively. The energy balance also shows an obvious daily variation characteristic.

  9. Mucormycosis in Australia: contemporary epidemiology and outcomes. (United States)

    Kennedy, K J; Daveson, K; Slavin, M A; van Hal, S J; Sorrell, T C; Lee, A; Marriott, D J; Chapman, B; Halliday, C L; Hajkowicz, K; Athan, E; Bak, N; Cheong, E; Heath, C H; Morrissey, C O; Kidd, S; Beresford, R; Blyth, C; Korman, T M; Robinson, J O; Meyer, W; Chen, S C-A


    Mucormycosis is the second most common cause of invasive mould infection and causes disease in diverse hosts, including those who are immuno-competent. We conducted a multicentre retrospective study of proven and probable cases of mucormycosis diagnosed between 2004-2012 to determine the epidemiology and outcome determinants in Australia. Seventy-four cases were identified (63 proven, 11 probable). The majority (54.1%) were caused by Rhizopus spp. Patients who sustained trauma were more likely to have non-Rhizopus infections relative to patients without trauma (OR 9.0, p 0.001, 95% CI 2.1-42.8). Haematological malignancy (48.6%), chemotherapy (42.9%), corticosteroids (52.7%), diabetes mellitus (27%) and trauma (22.9%) were the most common co-morbidities or risk factors. Rheumatological/autoimmune disorders occurred in nine (12.1%) instances. Eight (10.8%) cases had no underlying co-morbidity and were more likely to have associated trauma (7/8; 87.5% versus 10/66; 15.2%; p <0.001). Disseminated infection was common (39.2%). Apophysomyces spp. and Saksenaea spp. caused infection in immuno-competent hosts, most frequently associated with trauma and affected sites other than lung and sinuses. The 180-day mortality was 56.7%. The strongest predictors of mortality were rheumatological/autoimmune disorder (OR = 24.0, p 0.038 95% CI 1.2-481.4), haematological malignancy (OR = 7.7, p 0.001, 95% CI 2.3-25.2) and admission to intensive care unit (OR = 4.2, p 0.02, 95% CI 1.3-13.8). Most deaths occurred within one month. Thereafter we observed divergence in survival between the haematological and non-haematological populations (p 0.006). The mortality of mucormycosis remains particularly high in the immuno-compromised host. Underlying rheumatological/autoimmune disorders are a previously under-appreciated risk for infection and poor outcome.

  10. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2005. (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Krause, Vicki; Cook, Heather; Bartlett, Mark; Coleman, David; Davis, Craig; Fielding, James; Giele, Carolien; Gilmour, Robin; Holland, Ros; Kampen, Riemke


    Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was carried out in all Australian states and territories in 2005 with comparative data available since 2001. There were 1,680 cases of IPD notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia in 2005; a notification rate of 8.3 cases per 100,000 population. The rates varied between states and territories and by geographical region with the highest rates in the Northern Territory, the jurisdiction with the largest proportion of Indigenous people. Invasive pneumococcal disease was reported most frequently in those aged 85 years or over (41 cases per 100,000 population) and in 1-year-old children (36.5 cases per 100,000 population). Enhanced data provided additional information on 1,015 (60%) of all notified cases. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was 8.6 times the rate in non-Indigenous Australians. There were 126 deaths attributed to IPD resulting in an overall case fatality rate of 7.5%. While the rate of IPD in the Indigenous under 2-year-old population decreased from 219 cases per 100,000 population since targeted introduction of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (7vPCV) in 2001, the rate in 2005 (94 cases per 100,000 population) was significantly greater than in non-Indigenous children (20.4 cases per 100,000 population). Rates of disease in all children aged less than 2 years, caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV decreased by 75% between 2004 and 2005 as a result of the introduction of a universal childhood 7vPCV immunisation program. Significant decreases in IPD caused by 7vPCV serotypes also occurred in the 2-14 years and 65 years or over age groups. There is no evidence of replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. Serotypes were identified in 90% of all notified cases, with 61% of disease caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV and 88% caused by serotypes in the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV). Reduced penicillin susceptibility

  11. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2006. (United States)

    Roche, Paul W; Krause, Vicki; Cook, Heather; Barralet, Jenny; Coleman, David; Sweeny, Amy; Fielding, James; Giele, Carolien; Gilmour, Robin; Holland, Ros; Kampen, Riemke; Brown, Mitchell; Gilbert, Lyn; Hogg, Geoff; Murphy, Denise


    Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was carried out in all Australian states and territories in 2006 with comprehensive comparative data available since 2002. There were 1,445 cases of IPD notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia in 2006; a notification rate of 7 cases per 100,000 population. The rates varied between states and territories and by geographical region with the highest rates in the Northern Territory, the jurisdiction with the largest proportion of Indigenous people. Invasive pneumococcal disease was reported most frequently in those aged 85 years or over (30.8 cases per 100,000 population) and in children aged one year (26.5 cases per 100,000 population). There were 130 deaths attributed to IPD resulting in an overall case fatality rate of 9%. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was 4.3 times the rate in non-indigenous Australians. The rate of IPD in the under two years population continued to fall in 2006, but the rate in Indigenous children (73 cases per 100,000 population) was significantly greater than in non-Indigenous children (21 cases per 100,000 population). The rates of disease caused by serotypes in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) decreased between 2002 and 2006 by 78% in children aged under two years as a result of the introduction of a universal childhood 7vPCV immunisation program. Significant decreases in IPD caused by 7vPCV serotypes also occurred in the 2-14 years and 65 years or over age groups. Rates of disease caused by non-7vPCV in the same periods were little changed. Serotypes were identified in 94% of all notified cases, with 43% of disease caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV and 85% caused by serotypes in the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV). The number of invasive pneumococcal isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility remains low and reduced susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins is rare.

  12. Debris flow hazard mapping, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia (United States)

    Mazengarb, Colin; Rigby, Ted; Stevenson, Michael


    constrained by aerial photographs to decade precision and many predate regional photography (pre 1940's). We have performed runout modelling, using 2D hydraulic modelling software (RiverFlow2D with Mud and Debris module), in order to calibrate our model against real events and gain confidence in the choice of parameters. Runout modelling was undertaken in valley systems with volumes calibrated to existing flood model likelihoods for each catchment. The hazard outputs from our models require developing a translation to hazard models used in Australia. By linking to flood mapping we aim to demonstrate to emergency managers where existing mitigation measures may be inadequate and how they can be adapted to address multiple hazards.

  13. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.


    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  14. Do suspended sediment and bedload move progressively from the summit to the sea along Magela Creek, northern Australia? (United States)

    Erskine, W. D.; Saynor, M. J.; Turner, K.; Whiteside, T.; Boyden, J.; Evans, K. G.


    Soil erosion rates on plots of waste rock at Ranger uranium mine and basin sediment yields have been measured for over 30 years in Magela Creek in northern Australia. Soil erosion rates on chlorite schist waste rock are higher than for mica schist and weathering is also much faster. Sediment yields are low but are further reduced by sediment trapping effects of flood plains, floodouts, billabongs and extensive wetlands. Suspended sediment yields exceed bedload yields in this deeply weathered, tropical landscape, but the amount of sand transported greatly exceeds that of silt and clay. Nevertheless, sand is totally stored above the topographic base level. Longitudinal continuity of sediment transport is not maintained. As a result, suspended sediment and bedload do not move progressively from the summit to the sea along Magela Creek and lower Magela Creek wetlands trap about 90.5% of the total sediment load input.

  15. Applicability of 239Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia (United States)

    Lal, R.; Tims, S. G.; Fifield, L. K.; Wasson, R. J.; Howe, D.


    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of 239Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (soil loss rates over the past ∼50 years were 7.5-19.5 t ha-1 a-1. The measured rates are up to 5 times higher compared to agricultural and uncultivated areas within soil conservation banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  16. Applicability of {sup 239}Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, R., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Tims, S.G.; Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wasson, R.J.; Howe, D. [Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia)


    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of {sup 239}Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (<25a) and which had a history of grazing and cultivation the measured soil loss rates over the past {approx}50 years were 7.5-19.5 t ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}. The measured rates are up to 5 times higher compared to agricultural and uncultivated areas within soil conservation banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  17. Vegemite and chocolate sprinkles: Dutch medical students in rural Australia. (United States)

    Cals, Jochen; Joyner, Peter; Tuffley, Robert J; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) working group of the Department of General Practice of Maastricht University in the Netherlands was founded in 1998 specifically to introduce students to patient care, research and education in primary health care settings outside the Netherlands. Rural health care in Australia is appealing to international medical students because of its unique setting. In the past 5 years, 42 medical students from Maastricht University have pursued a medical elective in rural Australia, supervised by the PHC working group. Doctors and coordinators in primary care clinics across Australia have welcomed and supervised students from Maastricht and exposed them to the reality of rural health care. Future collaboration with other Australian primary care clinics is welcomed.

  18. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience. (United States)

    McNamara, Patricia M


    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century.

  19. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.


    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  20. Total Petroleum Systems of the Northwest Shelf, Australia: The Dingo-Mungaroo/Barrow and the Locker-Mungaroo/Barrow (United States)

    Bishop, Michele G.


    The Northwest Shelf Province (U.S.G.S. #3948) of Australia contains two important hydrocarbon source-rock intervals and numerous high quality reservoir intervals. These are grouped into two petroleum systems, Dingo-Mungaroo/Barrow and Locker-Mungaroo/Barrow, where the Triassic Mungaroo Formation and the Early Cretaceous Barrow Group serve as the major reservoir rocks for the Jurassic Dingo Claystone and Triassic Locker Shale source rocks. The primary source rock, Dingo Claystone, was deposited in restricted marine conditions during the Jurassic subsidence of a regional sub-basin trend. The secondary source rock, Locker Shale, was deposited in terrestrially-influenced, continental seaway conditions during the Early Triassic at the beginning of the breakup of Pangea. These systems share potential reservoir rocks of deep-water, proximal and distal deltaic, marginal marine, and alluvial origins, ranging in age from Late Triassic through Cretaceous. Interformational seals and the regional seal, Muderong Shale, along with structural and stratigraphic traps account for the many types of hydrocarbon accumulations in this province. In 1995, the Northwest Shelf produced 42% of the hydrocarbon liquids in Australia, and in 1996 surpassed the Australian Bass Straits production, with 275,000 barrels per day (bpd) average. This region is the major producing province of Australia. Known reserves as of 1995 are estimated at 11.6 billion of barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE)(Klett and others, 1997) . Although exploration has been conducted since 1955, many types of prospects have not been targeted and major reserves continue to be discovered.

  1. Fish Distribution in Far Western Queensland, Australia: The Importance of Habitat, Connectivity and Natural Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kerezsy


    Full Text Available The endorheic Lake Eyre Basin drains 1.2 million square kilometres of arid central Australia, yet provides habitat for only 30 species of freshwater fish due to the scarcity of water and extreme climate. The majority are hardy riverine species that are adapted to the unpredictable flow regimes, and capable of massive population booms following heavy rainfall and the restoration of connectivity between isolated waterholes. The remainder are endemic specialists from isolated springs with very restricted ranges, and many are listed under relevant state and national endangered species legislation and also by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. For these spring communities, which are sustained by water from the Great Artesian Basin, survival is contingent on suitable habitat persisting alongside extractive mining, agriculture and the imposition of alien species. For the riverine species, which frequently undertake long migrations into ephemeral systems, preservation of the natural flow regime is paramount, as this reinstates riverine connectivity. In this study, fish were sampled from the Bulloo River in the east to the Mulligan River in the west, along a temporal timeframe and using a standard set of sampling gears. Fish presence was influenced by factors such as natural catchment divides, sampling time, ephemerality and the occurrence of connection flows and flooding. Despite the comparatively low diversity of species, the aquatic systems of this isolated region remain in good ecological condition, and as such they offer excellent opportunities to investigate the ecology of arid water systems. However, the presence of both endangered species (in the springs and invasive and translocated species more widely indicates that active protection and management of this unique area is essential to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.

  2. Acupuncture in Australia: regulation, education, practice, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zheng


    Full Text Available Acupuncture was introduced to Australia as early as in the 1880s, and is a form of complementary and alternative medicine in this country. In the past 2 decades since the 1990s, acupuncture has experienced a rapid growth. Today, nearly 4000 acupuncturists are registered with the Chinese Medicine Board of Australia. “Acupuncturist,” “Oriental medicine practitioner,” and “Chinese medicine practitioners” are protected titles for registered acupuncturists. A bachelor's degree of 4 years in related fields is the minimal requirement for registration in Australia. Three public universities and three major private colleges offer nine undergraduate and three postgraduate programs that are approved by the Chinese Medicine Board of Australia. Those three universities also offer Master-degree and Doctor of Philosophy programs. Acupuncture is well accepted by the Australians, with 10% having received this treatment and 80% general medical practitioners referring their patients to acupuncture service. All private health insurance schemes provide rebates to patients receiving acupuncture treatment, and third-party payment is also available in six of eight Australian states and territories. Research output in acupuncture has increased greatly since 2000. A majority of research focuses on acupuncture and Tai Chi as treatment modalities, and mainly investigates their mechanism of action, associated pain, and gynecological and respiratory conditions. The future direction of acupuncture in Australia is to introduce this medicine in hospitals and gain access to the medical benefit scheme so that acupuncture can be accessed by a wider community, in particular those who come from a disadvantaged background. In conclusion, improved education, regulation, and research of acupuncture in Australia put this country in a leading position among Western countries with respect to acupuncture services.

  3. A history of adolescent school based vaccination in Australia. (United States)

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter


    As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents.

  4. Maverick Firms: An Exploratory Analysis of Mortgage Providers in Australia


    Robert Breunig; Flavio Menezes


    This paper develops an empirical strategy to measure maverick-like behaviour. It applies the strategy to a dataset that contains interest rates charged by mortgage providers in Australia from January 2003 to October 2006. The Reserve Bank of Australia raised its cash rate five times in this period, which provides a natural setting to observe suppliers� responses. We examine suppliers� behaviour both in terms of the rates they charge and the time it takes them to change their rates as a re...

  5. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia. (United States)

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una


    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity.

  6. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.


    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  7. Media awards for responsible reporting of suicide: Experiences from Australia, Belgium and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Andrew J; Andriessen, Karl Am; Nordentoft, Merete;


    Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark.......Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark....

  8. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.


    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  9. Surface energy balance and actual evapotranspiration of the transboundary Indus Basin estimated from satellite measurements and the ETLook model (United States)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Cheema, M. J. M.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Miltenburg, I. J.; Pelgrum, H.


    The surface energy fluxes and related evapotranspiration processes across the Indus Basin were estimated for the hydrological year 2007 using satellite measurements. The new ETLook remote sensing model (version 1) infers information on actual Evaporation (E) and actual Transpiration (T) from combined optical and passive microwave sensors, which can observe the land-surface even under persistent overcast conditions. A two-layer Penman-Monteith equation was applied for quantifying soil and canopy evaporation. The novelty of the paper is the computation of E and T across a vast area (116.2 million ha) by using public domain microwave data that can be applied under all weather conditions, and for which no advanced input data are required. The average net radiation for the basin was estimated as being 112 Wm-2. The basin average sensible, latent and soil heat fluxes were estimated to be 80, 32, and 0 Wm-2, respectively. The average evapotranspiration (ET) and evaporative fraction were 1.2 mm d-1 and 0.28, respectively. The basin wide ET was 496 ± 16.8 km3 yr-1. Monte Carlo analysis have indicated 3.4% error at 95% confidence interval for a dominant land use class. Results compared well with previously conducted soil moisture, lysimeter and Bowen ratio measurements at field scale (R2 = 0.70; RMSE = 0.45 mm d-1; RE = -11.5% for annual ET). ET results were also compared against earlier remote sensing and modeling studies for various regions and provinces in Pakistan (R2 = 0.76; RMSE = 0.29 mmd-1; RE = 6.5% for annual ET). The water balance for all irrigated areas together as one total system in Pakistan and India (26.02 million ha) show a total ET value that is congruent with the ET value from the ETLook surface energy balance computations. An unpublished validation of the same ETLook model for 23 jurisdictional areas covering the entire Australian continent showed satisfactory results given the quality of the watershed data and the diverging physiographic and climatic

  10. Geology and Mineralogy of Uranium Deposits from Mount Isa, Australia: Implications for Albitite Uranium Deposit Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson


    Full Text Available New geological, bulk chemical and mineralogical (QEMSCAN and FEG-EPMA data are presented for albitite-type uranium deposits of the Mount Isa region of Queensland, Australia. Early albitisation of interbedded metabasalt and metasiltstone predated intense deformation along D2 high strain (mylonite zones. The early sodic alteration paragenetic stage includes albite, riebeckite, aegirine, apatite, zircon and magnetite. This paragenetic stage was overprinted by potassic microveins, containing K-feldspar, biotite, coffinite, brannerite, rare uraninite, ilmenite and rutile. An unusual U-Zr phase has also been identified which exhibits continuous solid solution with a uranium silicate possibly coffinite or nenadkevite. Calcite, epidote and sulphide veinlets represent the latest stage of mineralisation. This transition from ductile deformation and sodic alteration to vein-controlled uranium is mirrored in other examples of the deposit type. The association of uranium with F-rich minerals and a suite of high field strength elements; phosphorous and zirconium is interpreted to be indicative of a magmatic rather than metamorphic or basinal fluid source. No large intrusions of appropriate age outcrop near the deposits; but we suggest a relationship with B- and Be-rich pegmatites and quartz-tourmaline veins.

  11. First record of contourites from Lower Devonian Lip-trap Formation in southeast Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Typical contourite deposits associated with submarine turbidite fan deposits are recognized for the first time from the Lower Devonian Liptrap Formation at Cape Liatrap, Victoria in southeast Australia. The contourites are well integrated within the turbidite fan deposits and are characterized by thin (5-8 cm), lenticular, well-sorted coarse-grained siltstones to fine-grained sandstones with current-ripples and cross beddings. The palaeocurrent directions of the turbidite fan and contourites are perpendicular to each other, with the former directed generally westward while the latter varying from 165° to 190° southward. In view of the facies types and architecture, we suggest that the turbidite fan was developed at the base of a westward inclined palaeo-slope, at the front of which the contourites were deposited as a result of southward flowing deep-sea contour (geostrophic) currents. The depositional setting inter- preted for the Liptrap Formation thus may provide a provisional model for the Lower Devonian conti- nental slope and abyssal basin environment in the southeastern part of the Melbourne Trough.

  12. Crustal architecture of the oblique-slip conjugate margins of George V Land and southeast Australia (United States)

    Stagg, H.M.J.; Reading, A.M.


    A conceptual, lithospheric-scale cross-section of the conjugate, oblique-slip margins of George V Land, East Antarctica, and southeast Australia (Otway Basin) has been constructed based on the integration of seismic and sample data. This cross-section is characterised by asymmetry in width and thickness, and depth-dependent crustal extension at breakup in the latest Maastrichtian. The broad Antarctic margin (~360 km apparent rift width) developed on thick crust (~42 km) of the Antarctic craton, whereas the narrow Otway margin (~220 km) developed on the thinner crust (~31 km) of the Ross–Delamerian Orogen. The shallow basement (velocities ~5.5 km.s-1) and the deep continental crust (velocities >6.4 km.s-1) appear to be largely absent across the central rift, while the mid-crustal, probably granitic layer (velocities ~6 km.s-1) is preserved. Comparison with published numerical models suggests that the shallow basement and deep crust may have been removed by simple shear, whereas the mid-crust has been ductilely deformed.

  13. A Holocene pollen and diatom record from Vanderlin Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, lowland tropical Australia (United States)

    Prebble, Matiu; Sim, Robin; Finn, Jan; Fink, David


    Sedimentary, palynological and diatom data from a dunefield lake deposit in the interior of Vanderlin Island in the Gulf of Carpentaria are presented. Prior to the formation of present perennial lake conditions, the intensified Australian monsoon associated with the early Holocene marine transgression allowed Cyperaceae sedges to colonise the alluvial margins of an expansive salt flat surrounded by an open Eucalyptus woodland. As sea level stabilised between 7500 and 4500 cal yr B.P. coastal dunes ceased to develop allowing dense Melaleuca forest to establish in a Restionaceae swamp. Dune-sand input into the swamp was diminished further as the increasingly dense vegetation prevented fluvial and aeolian transported sand arriving from coastal sources. This same process impounded the drainage basin allowing a perennial lake to form between 5500 and 4000 cal yr B.P. Myriophyllum and other aquatic taxa colonised the lake periphery under the most extensive woodland recorded for the Holocene. The palynological data support an effective precipitation model proposed for northern Australia that suggests more variable conditions in the late Holocene. A more precise measure of effective precipitation change is provided by diatom-based inferences that indicate few changes in lake hydrology. Such interpretations are explained in terms of palynological sensitivity to adjustments in local fire regimes where regional precipitation change may only be recorded indirectly through fire promoting mechanisms, including intensified ENSO periodicity and human impact.

  14. Styles of neotectonic fault reactivation within a formerly extended continental margin, North West Shelf, Australia (United States)

    Whitney, Beau B.; Hengesh, James V.; Gillam, Dan


    We have investigated the locations and patterns of neotectonic deformation in the Carnarvon basin along the Mesozoic rifted margin of Western Australia to evaluate the characteristics of post-Neogene tectonic reactivation. Geological, geophysical, geotechnical, and bathymetric data demonstrate that preferentially oriented rift-era structures have been reactivated under the current neotectonic stress regime. The most recent pulse of neotectonic reactivation initiated during the Plio-Pleistocene (4.0 to 1.8 million years ago) and is ongoing. Reactivated structures in the region demonstrate a variety of styles of deformation consistent with dextral-transpression. Structural styles include both positive and negative flower structures, restraining and releasing bends, and hourglass structures. Barrow Island lies within a broad kinematic restraining bend that appears to warp the MIS 5e marine terrace on the island. Fold reconstructions of Neogene strata on the Cape Range and Barrow anticlines yield uplift rates consistent with uplift rates determined from folded late Pleistocene units in the Cape region. Although tectonic rates are low compared to interplate settings, evidence for active tectonic deformation precludes this part of the Australian plate from being classified as a Stable Continental Region.

  15. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia. (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A


    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  16. Nutrient concentrations and fluxes in tributaries to the Swan-Canning estuary, Western Australia (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Donohue, R.


    In Western Australia, catchment nutrient availability on an areal basis is primarily controlled by the disposal of animal waste and the type and rate of fertilizer application, particularly in coastal areas. The coastal areas receive notably higher rainfall and have more intense horticulture and animal production than inland areas, and are undergoing rapid urbanization, particularly adjacent to the estuary. Also, the surficial aquifers on the coastal plain are generally sandy having a low nutrient retention capacity and rapidly transmit soluble and colloidal material through the subsurface. In the Swan-Canning basin, high air and soil temperatures and seasonally arid conditions cause rapid mineralization of nitrogen and phosphorus. The nutrients are subsequently available for transport during the onset of seasonal wet weather, which typically begins during the period from late April to June. In addition to the rapid mobility of nutrients in streamwater from agricultural areas during the wet season, drains in urban areas, which typically have high nutrient concentrations, also are an important source of nutrients as the drains flow directly to the estuary throughout the year.

  17. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  18. The Amazon basin in transition. (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C


    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  19. Do Accredited Undergraduate Accounting Programmes in Australia Meet the Needs and Expectations of the Accounting Profession? (United States)

    Bayerlein, Leopold; Timpson, Mel


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the overall alignment of undergraduate accounting degree programmes from all Certified Practicing Accountants Australia and Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand accredited higher education providers in Australia with the profession's minimum educational expectations (MEEs).…

  20. Senate Inquiry into the Role of Libraries in the Online Environment: Submission from Public Libraries Australia (United States)

    Australian Library Journal, 2006


    This submission represents the views of a newly formed organisation known as Public Libraries Australia. Formed to aggregate the political, service and infrastructure capacity of Australia's 1510 (ABS June 2000) public libraries, Public Libraries Australia will support and represent public libraries on a national basis. Networked across Australia…

  1. The Crisis Discourse of a Wicked Policy Problem: Vocational Skills Training in Australia (United States)

    Garrick, Barbara


    In 2007 the Rudd Labor government in Australia introduced significant changes to education policy for the nation. The "Skilling Australia's Future" (Rudd et al. "Skilling Australia for the future. Election 2007 policy document," 2007) policy was meant to redress a perceived failure by the previous Howard federal Liberal-National Coalition…

  2. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (United States)


    ... NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members... authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense...

  3. Dengue Fever-Associated Maculopathy and Panuveitis in Australia. (United States)

    Ooi, K G-J; Inglis, H; Paramanathan, N; Downie, J A; Hennessy, M P


    Purpose. To describe a case of dengue fever-associated maculopathy and panuveitis to raise awareness of these ophthalmic complications of dengue in Australia in the light of recent increasing numbers of outbreaks from equatorial through to tropical Australia. Case Report. A 37-year-old Caucasian Australian male returning from Cambodia presented with a bilateral dengue fever-associated maculopathy with left panuveitis diagnosed clinically and haematologically. Automated perimetry revealed bilateral paracentral scotomas while optical coherence tomography demonstrated the maculopathies to be of the diffuse retinal thickening type in the right eye and acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) type in the left eye. He was treated conservatively with only topical steroids and cycloplegia and made a full clinical visual recovery. Conclusion. Our case study underscores the importance of the awareness of the ophthalmic complications of dengue fever as despite their rarity they can be potentially sight threatening. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise in Australia with increased global warming and the distribution of Aedes aegypti into subtropical Australia.

  4. Teacher Workforce Data and Planning Processes in Australia (United States)

    Owen, Susanne; Kos, Julie; McKenzie, Phillip


    Workforce planning is essential to ensure sufficient numbers of well-qualified teachers and leaders to meet the emerging needs of schools in the 21st century. Given the current ageing workforce profile in Australia, there are concerns about teacher shortage, especially in some specialist subject areas, in rural and remote locations and in…

  5. Senior Secondary Workplace Learning and Transition Success in Australia (United States)

    Gemici, Sinan; Curtis, David D.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of participation in workplace learning among senior secondary students in Australia. Work placements are deemed to be effective if they meet policy objectives of improving student transitions by (a) enhancing Year 12 completion rates and (b) increasing the engagement of…

  6. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue


    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  7. Advertising Education in Australia: Looking Back to the Future (United States)

    Kerr, Gayle F.; Waller, David; Patti, Charles


    In Australia, advertising is a $13 billion industry that needs a supply of suitably skilled employees. Over the years, advertising education has developed from vocational-based courses to degree courses across the country. This study uses diffusion theory and various secondary sources and interviews to observe the development of advertising…

  8. Integrating Farm Production and Natural Resource Management in Tasmania, Australia (United States)

    Cotching, W. E.; Sherriff, L.; Kilpatrick, S.


    This paper reports on the social learning from a project aimed to increase the knowledge and capacity of a group of farmers in Tasmania, Australia, to reduce the impacts of intensive agriculture on soil health and waterways, and to optimise the efficient use of on-farm inputs. The plan-do-check-review cycle adopted in this project required the…

  9. Bibliography of Education Theses in Australia. Number 20. (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Melbourne.

    This document is a collection of 483 abstracts of theses in the field of education from institutions of higher education in Australia. Introductory information includes explanatory material, a sample abstract, and listings of subject coverage for the included theses, Australian universities and the higher degrees they offer, and thesis authors by…

  10. Multi-triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus infections in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidd, S.E.; Goeman, E.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Slavin, M.A.; Verweij, P.E.


    The emergence of triazole resistance, including multi-triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is being reported around the world, but there has been little evidence of this problem to date in Australia. Here we describe a retrospective search of antifungal susceptibility results of all Australian c

  11. A new species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding


    Euonymus globularis, a new species from Queensland, is here described. It is the second species of Euonymus for Australia. It shows reticulate affinities with species belonging to different sections or series of this genus as well as with species of Brassiantha and Hedraianthera in the same family.

  12. Impact of School Autonomy on Student Achievement: Cases from Australia (United States)

    Caldwell, Brian John


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report four case studies in Australia that respond to the question: "How have schools with a relatively high degree of autonomy used their increased authority and responsibility to make decisions that have led in explicit cause-and-effect fashion to higher levels of student achievement"?…

  13. Education Research Australia: A Changing Ecology of Knowledge and Practice (United States)

    Seddon, Terri; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Harrison, Neil; Shore, Sue


    Processes of national research assessment, such as Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) are a type of audit technology that confronts and steers established institutional identities and traditions. This nexus between policy and practice drives boundary work that diffracts prevailing policy logics, organisational practices, and habits of…

  14. School Health Programs in Australia - A Special Insert. (United States)

    Nader, Philip R.; Rissel, Chris; Rowling, Louise; Marshall, Bernard J.; Sheehan, Margaret M.; Northfield, Jeff R.; Maher, Shelley; Carlisle, Rachel; St. Leger, Lawrence H.; Stewart, Donald E.; Parker, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Amaya; Stokes, Helen; Mukherjee, Dev; Nutbeam, Don; Mitchell, Anne; Ollis, Debbie; Watson, Jan


    Eight papers on Australia's school health programs discuss: creating health promoting schools in the United States; intersectoral collaboration for developing a national framework for health promoting schools; school-based health promotion nationwide; auditing health promoting schools policy documentation; the nature of health service/school…

  15. A brief history of solar-terrestrial physics in Australia (United States)

    Fraser, B. J.


    Solar-terrestrial physics research in Australia began in 1792 when de Rossel measured the southern hemisphere geomagnetic field at Recherche Bay on the southern tip of Tasmania, proving the field magnitude and direction varied with latitude. This was the time when the French and British were competing to chart and explore the new world. From the early twentieth century Australian solar-terrestrial physics research concentrated on radio wave propagation and communication, which by the 1950s fed into the International Geophysical Year in the areas of atmosphere and ionosphere physics, and geomagnetism, with some concentration on Antarctic research. This was also the era of increased studies of solar activity and the discovery of the magnetosphere and the beginning of the space age. In the 1960s, Australia became a world leader in solar physics which led to radio astronomy discoveries. This paper outlines the historical development of solar-terrestrial physics in Australia and its international connections over the years and concludes with examples of specific research areas where Australia has excelled.

  16. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools (United States)

    Hamann, Berta


    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia…

  17. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia (United States)

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy


    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  18. The Art of Being an English Teacher in Australia (United States)

    Loyden, Grace


    The role of the English teacher in Australia is constantly being negotiated and with every ideological development teachers are positioned to question their professional values and practices. Much attention has been afforded to this discussion. The purpose of this paper is to (a) provide an analysis of the evolution of the art of being an English…

  19. Anti-Nuclear Attitudes in New Zealand and Australia, (United States)


    the English language shall be depos- ited in the Archives of the Government of Australia. Duly certified copies thereof will be transmitted by that Gov...OYRESOLUT oN TESI HR Lw ANTI-NUIFAR AITIIuIIms IN Niw ZIAtANI AN[) AUsIRAIIA Composed with text and display lines in Optima Cover art by Laszlo [. Bodrogi

  20. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.


    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  1. Dengue Fever-Associated Maculopathy and Panuveitis in Australia (United States)

    Inglis, H.; Paramanathan, N.; Downie, J. A.; Hennessy, M. P.


    Purpose. To describe a case of dengue fever-associated maculopathy and panuveitis to raise awareness of these ophthalmic complications of dengue in Australia in the light of recent increasing numbers of outbreaks from equatorial through to tropical Australia. Case Report. A 37-year-old Caucasian Australian male returning from Cambodia presented with a bilateral dengue fever-associated maculopathy with left panuveitis diagnosed clinically and haematologically. Automated perimetry revealed bilateral paracentral scotomas while optical coherence tomography demonstrated the maculopathies to be of the diffuse retinal thickening type in the right eye and acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) type in the left eye. He was treated conservatively with only topical steroids and cycloplegia and made a full clinical visual recovery. Conclusion. Our case study underscores the importance of the awareness of the ophthalmic complications of dengue fever as despite their rarity they can be potentially sight threatening. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise in Australia with increased global warming and the distribution of Aedes aegypti into subtropical Australia. PMID:28078150

  2. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers (United States)

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea


    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  3. Framing the Framework: Discourses in Australia's National Values Education Policy (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany Mary


    In the past, many Australian state schools avoided teaching about values explicitly. However, the Australian government released Australia's first official values education policy in 2005: the "National Framework for Values Education in Australian Schools" (NFVEAS). This framework represents a local manifestation of the recent…

  4. Net settler migration to Australia by birthplace: 1947-98. (United States)

    Price, C A


    "Between 1947 and 1998 there was a net inflow of 4.8 million migrants to Australia. Only 29.6 per cent were born in Britain and Ireland. Other surprising findings are that more were born in Indo China than Greece and Cyprus and that more were born in New Zealand than Italy."

  5. Mating strategy of Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in northern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang; Offenberg, Hans Joachim;


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mating strategy of Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius, 1775) and to clarify the factors that related to the nuptial flight. The nuptial flight was investigated over three seasons in the Darwin area, Australia, in which a total of 19 swarmings were observed...

  6. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 4. Mosquitoborne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Hurk, A F; Craig, S B; Tulsiani, Suhella


    , chikungunya and Rift Valley fever viruses, the introduction of exotic vectors, and the potential range expansion of key Australian vectors. Environmental and anthropogenic influences provide additional uncertainty regarding the future impact of mosquito-borne pathogens in Australia. This review discusses...

  7. The Economics Degree in Australia: Down but Not out? (United States)

    Round, David K.; Shanahan, Martin P.


    Before 1980, strong demand existed in Australia for the economics degree. Since then, competition from programs in business and management has increased. Student preferences have shifted from university and secondary economics. Economics enrollments have declined in both sectors. The authors analyze these trends and assess economic education…

  8. Language Attrition, Language Shift, and Ethnolinguistic Vitality in Australia. (United States)

    Yagmur, Kutlay; de Bot, Kees; Korzilius, Hubert


    Presents findings of research investigating first-language attrition of Turkish speakers in Australia and the role of subjunctive ethnolinguistic vitality perceptions in that process. Examines the relationship between societal factors and individuals' perceptions of the language contact situation as reflected in their speech behavior. (Author/VWL)

  9. Revision of Alyxia (Apocynaceae). Part 2: Pacific Islands and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, David J.


    The genus Alyxia is revised for Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean as the second and final part of a complete revision of the genus. 39 species are recognised for this area of which three are new to science, two are new combinations and one is a new name. 14 species are found in Australi

  10. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies (United States)

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.


    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  11. Individualism-Collectivism and Job Satisfaction between Malaysia and Australia (United States)

    Noordin, Fauziah; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman


    Purpose: One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of individualism and collectivism of managers in two different cultural environments, that is, Malaysia and Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data…

  12. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John


    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  13. A new species of Austrothaumalea Tonnoir from Australia (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). (United States)

    Pivar, Robert J; Moulton, John K; Sinclair, Bradley J


    Austrothaumalea spiculata sp. nov. is described from Grampians National Park, in southwest Victoria (Australia). It is known only from the type series and is the second species of Thaumaleidae recorded from the Park. Illustrations of the male terminalia, as well as a distribution map, are provided. Phylogenetic affinities are hypothesized and an updated species identification key is offered.

  14. Australia looks to small hydro for greenhouse gas reductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Apress release, issued by the government of the state of New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, says water releases from the state's dams could be used to provide renewable, pollution-free electricity,as well as eliminate the production of more than 260,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide each year.

  15. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy


    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  16. Volatility Spillovers from Australia's Major Trading Partners across the GFC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper features an analysis of volatility spillover effects from Australia's major trading partners, namely, China, Japan, Korea and the United States, for a period running from 12th September 2002 to 9th September 2012. This captures the impact of the Global Financ

  17. Australia Won First Contract to Supply LPG to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ming


    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corp.(CNOOC)declared on August 8, 2002 that Australia Liquefied Natural Gas Company (ALNG) affiliated to Woodside Petroleum Corporation has been accepted as the supplier of LNG (liquefied natural gas) for its LNG distribution station in Guangdong Province.

  18. Delegation of Local Government Officials Visits Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Australian Sister Cities Association (ASCA), the CPAFFC sent a delegation of local government officials to Australia to attend its national conference and visited New Zealand on its way from July 31 to August 14.

  19. Leaning Too Far? PISA, Policy and Australia's "Top Five" Ambitions (United States)

    Gorur, Radhika; Wu, Margaret


    Australia has declared its ambition to be within the "top five" in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) by 2025. So serious is it about this ambition, that the Australian Government has incorporated it into the "Australian Education Act, 2013". Given this focus on PISA results and rankings, we go beyond…

  20. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally


    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  1. Livistona palms in Australia: ancient relics or opportunistic immigrants? (United States)

    Crisp, Michael D; Isagi, Yuji; Kato, Yohei; Cook, Lyn G; Bowman, David M J S


    Eighteen of the 34 species of the fan palm genus Livistona (Arecaceae) are restricted to Australia and southern New Guinea, east of Wallace's Line, an ancient biogeographic boundary between the former supercontinents Laurasia and Gondwana. The remaining species extend from SE Asia to Africa, west of Wallace's Line. Competing hypotheses contend that Livistona is (a) ancient, its current distribution a relict of the supercontinents, or (b) a Miocene immigrant from the north into Australia as it drifted towards Asia. We have tested these hypotheses using Bayesian and penalized likelihood molecular dating based on 4Kb of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences with multiple fossil calibration points. Ancestral areas and biomes were reconstructed using parsimony and maximum likelihood. We found strong support for the second hypothesis, that a single Livistona ancestor colonized Australia from the north about 10-17Ma. Spread and diversification of the genus within Australia was likely favoured by a transition from the aseasonal wet to monsoonal biome, to which it could have been preadapted by fire-tolerance.

  2. Research funding systems in Australia, New Zealand and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Ross, S


    . This article reports on a study involving interviews with 274 academics at universities in Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand (Auckland) and the UK (Birmingham). Perceptions of the three research funding systems demonstrated significant differences across universities, and some interesting gender and seniority...

  3. Universal Service in a Participatory Democracy: A Perspective from Australia. (United States)

    de Reuck, John; Joseph, Richard


    Discusses universal service policy in telecommunications in Australia in an historical context. Maintains that given the dynamic growth in information technologies, universal service should be reconceptualized within a knowledge-based discourse critically linked to considerations for deepening participatory democracy and that funding should be…

  4. Completing School in Australia: Trends in the 1990s. (United States)

    Lamb, Stephen


    After a period of dramatic growth in secondary school completion in Australia, school retention rates are declining. Analysis of state, system, geographic, social, and gender patterns suggests that during the 1990s the downturn in completion rate has been uneven; some groups who had come to rely on schooling during the 1980s for future economic…

  5. The Economics of a Multicultural Australia: A Literature Review. (United States)

    Stanton, P. J.; And Others


    The growth of a multicultural Australia is generating debate on the economic effects of multiculturalism. This paper examines the extent to which competing claims can draw support from the literature and the extent to which economic issues arising from the growth of a multicultural Australian society have been identified and assessed.(30…

  6. Towards 2000: Directions for Australia’s Military Strategy (United States)


    citing Australia’s low population density as evidence of the attractiveness of the continent to the overpopulated * nations to her the United States test the MX missile. Yesterday the Victorian labour Unity faction, the support base for Mr Bob Hawke, the Prime Minister

  7. Community Psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand (United States)

    Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian


    Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…

  8. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia (United States)


    ... litchi fruit with up to 5 millimeters of stem into the continental United States from Australia. The threshold allowing for a maximum of 5 millimeters of stem on the imported litchi fruit was included in... punctiferalis). Litchi fruit moth (Cryptophlebia ombrodelta). Orange fruit borer (Isotenes miserana). The...

  9. Mitigating the Risk of Transfusion-Transmitted Dengue in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rooks


    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV 1–4 are a risk to transfusion safety, with several transfusion-transmitted (TT cases reported globally. DENV 1–4 are endemic in over 100 countries, with seasonal outbreaks occurring in northeastern Australia. To mitigate TT-DENV risk in Australia, fresh blood components are not manufactured from donors returning from any area (domestic/overseas with known dengue transmission. Alternatively, TT-DENV risk may be mitigated using an appropriate blood donor screening assay. We aimed to determine the rate of dengue infection in donors during dengue outbreaks in Australia. Plasma samples were collected from blood donors during local dengue outbreaks. All samples were tested for the presence of DENV RNA and selected samples were tested for DENV antigen (nonstructural protein 1, NS1 with two assays. No donors residing in high risk areas had detectable levels of DENV RNA or NS1 and no cases of DENV viremia were detected in blood donors residing in areas of Australia experiencing DENV outbreaks. Definitive conclusions could not be drawn from this study; however, the lack of detection of DENV RNA or antigen in donations suggests that the current risk of TT-DENV is low and maintaining the fresh component restriction for “at-risk” donors is appropriate.

  10. Education, Markets and the Contradictions of Asia-Australia Relations. (United States)

    Alexander, Don; Rizvi, Fazal


    The cultural politics of the export of educational services by Australia to Asia are examined, focusing on tension between the persistent economic development perspective and an emerging market ideology that sees education as a commodity. Issues of postcolonialism, globalization, educational traditions vs. market orientation, educational aid and…

  11. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009


    Staff, Michael; Musto, Jennie; Hogg, Geoff; Janssen, Monika; Rose, Karrie


    A community outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007–2009 was caused by ingestion of playground sand contaminated with Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, variant Java. The bacterium was also isolated from local wildlife. Findings support consideration of nonfood sources during salmonellosis outbreak investigations and indicate transmission through the animal–human interface.

  12. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009 (United States)

    Musto, Jennie; Hogg, Geoff; Janssen, Monika; Rose, Karrie


    A community outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007–2009 was caused by ingestion of playground sand contaminated with Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, variant Java. The bacterium was also isolated from local wildlife. Findings support consideration of nonfood sources during salmonellosis outbreak investigations and indicate transmission through the animal–human interface. PMID:22709539

  13. Patterns of Cultural Adjustment among Young Migrants to Australia (United States)

    Sonderegger, Robi; Barrett, Paula M.


    In response to appeals for empirical data on culture-specific differences and developmental pathways of acculturative stress among young migrants and refugees, the present study examines the cultural adjustment patterns of ethnically diverse migrants to Australia. Two hundred and seventy three primary and high school students (comprised of…

  14. Soils Governance in Australia: challenges of cooperative federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Williams


    Full Text Available This paper analyses soil governance in Australia and the challenges facing sustainable natural resource management within the context of a cooperative system of federation and a globalised market economy. With only 6 per cent of the Australian landmass considered arable, one would assume that protecting Australia’s valuable soil resource would be of national significance. However, Australia currently lacks nationally consistent policies and legal instruments to ensure that its soil is protected, maintained and enhanced for future generations. While recognising that soil governance is a broad discipline encompassing many areas of soil science and management, this discussion will only focus on the soil conservation aspects of sustainable ecosystems and sustainable food and fibre in Australia; it will not explore in depth issues of soil contamination and other pollution related areas. The paper discusses: the state of Australian soils and the managers of these resources; current soil governance in Australia (based on the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations definition; and a case study example of an Australian state approach to landuse conflict and the protection of agricultural lands. The paper highlights policies and institutional arrangements required for the protection of Australian soil and the very communities that are attempting to steward these resources for future generations.

  15. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia (United States)


    ... Mango seed weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae) Fungi Cytosphaera mangiferae Fusarium spp. complex... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD52 Importation of Mangoes From... importation of fresh mangoes from Australia into the continental United States. As a condition of entry,...

  16. Modelling the Balassa-Samuelson Effect in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshed Chowdhury


    Full Text Available This paper examines the Balassa-Samuelson hypothesis in Australia using the ARDL cointegrationframework. Evidence was found of a significant long-run relationship between real exchange rate andAustralia-US productivity differential during the period of 1950-2003. The results indicate that a one per centincrease in labour productivity in Australia relative to the US will lead to 5.6 per cent appreciation in the realexchange rate of Australia. The estimated coefficient for the error correction term is -0.1983 and is highlysignificant, indicating that the deviation from the long term real exchange rate equilibrium path is correctedby nearly 20 per cent over the following year. The Author suspects that the elasticity coefficient is “overestimated”due to the exclusion of relevant explanatory variables in the analytical model. The real exchangerate movements are affected by real fundamentals and policy-induced shifts in its real fundamentals. Thefundamentals include the terms of trade, government expenditure, real interest rate differentials, net foreignliabilities among others along with labour productivity differential.

  17. Enterprise Networking Web Sites and Organizational Communication in Australia (United States)

    Zhang, Allee M.; Zhu, Yunxia; Hildebrandt, Herbert


    This article aims to report initial findings about networking in organizational settings in Australia through the use of enterprise social software. According to Gray and Honick (2008), enterprise social software (also known as Enterprise 2.0) is a term describing social software used in businesses and enterprises. It includes such tools as…

  18. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia (United States)

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine


    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  19. Spatiotemporal modelling of groundwater extraction in semi-arid central Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Keir, Greg; Bulovic, Nevenka; McIntyre, Neil


    The semi-arid Surat Basin in central Queensland, Australia, forms part of the Great Artesian Basin, a groundwater resource of national significance. While this area relies heavily on groundwater supply bores to sustain agricultural industries and rural life in general, measurement of groundwater extraction rates is very limited. Consequently, regional groundwater extraction rates are not well known, which may have implications for regional numerical groundwater modelling. However, flows from a small number of bores are metered, and less precise anecdotal estimates of extraction are increasingly available. There is also an increasing number of other spatiotemporal datasets which may help predict extraction rates (e.g. rainfall, temperature, soils, stocking rates etc.). These can be used to construct spatial multivariate regression models to estimate extraction. The data exhibit complicated statistical features, such as zero-valued observations, non-Gaussianity, and non-stationarity, which limit the use of many classical estimation techniques, such as kriging. As well, water extraction histories may exhibit temporal autocorrelation. To account for these features, we employ a separable space-time model to predict bore extraction rates using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference. A joint approach is used to model both the probability (using a binomial likelihood) and magnitude (using a gamma likelihood) of extraction. The correlation between extraction rates in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model. To reduce computational burden, we allow the GMRF to be evaluated at a relatively coarse temporal resolution, while still allowing predictions to be made at arbitrarily small time scales. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, and present some

  20. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  1. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  2. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective. (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam


    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  3. Private protected areas in Australia: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fitzsimons


    Full Text Available Despite the recognised importance of private land for biodiversity conservation, there has been little research into systems of private protected areas at a country-wide level. Here I look at definitions, legislation, ownership, management approaches and effectiveness, distribution and incentives provided to private protected areas in Australia. The term ‘private protected areas’, although increasingly used, still suffers from a lack of a clear and concise definition in Australia. Australian states and territories have legislation enabling the application of conservation covenants over private land; covenants being the primary mechanism to secure conservation intent on the title of the land in perpetuity. If considering all ‘in perpetuity’ conservation covenants under a dedicated program to be private protected areas and land owned by non-government organisations and managed for the purpose of biodiversity conservation, there were approximately 5,000 terrestrial properties that could be considered private protected areas in Australia covering 8,913,000 ha as at September 2013. This comprises almost 4,900 conservation covenants covering over 4,450,000 ha and approximately 140 properties owned by private land trusts covering approximately 4,594,120 ha. Most conservation covenanting programs now seek to complement the comprehensiveness, adequacy and representativeness of the public reserve system, either stating so explicitly or by aiming to protect the highest priority ecosystems on private land. There are a range of incentives offered for private land conservation and requirements of owners of private protected areas to report on their activities vary in Australia. However, there are a number of key policy challenges that need to be addressed if private protected areas are to achieve their full potential in Australia, including managing broad-scale ecosystem processes, protection and tenure reform, improved financial incentives, and

  4. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willow Hallgren

    Full Text Available Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  5. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  6. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kabir


    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different surface grids and river nodes are modeled using one-dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R-squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the

  7. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kabir


    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the

  8. Intensity of Price and Volatility Spillover Effects in Asia-Pacific Basin Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazali Abidin


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the intensity of price and volatility spillover effects in five major stock markets within the Asia Pacific basin region with a particular emphasis in the spillover effects between Australia and China. VAR(5 model is used for measuring the return spillover while AR/VAR model with exogenous variables is employed for measuring the effects of same day returns on return spillover. .In modelling the volatility spillover, we employ AR/GARCH model which also incorporates the same day effects. Results of both return and volatility spillover provide evidence that there are significant spillover effects across different markets in the Asia-Pacific region and as well as between Australia and China. This study also provides support to the view that a market is most affected by other markets that opens/closes just before it. The main contribution of this paper is the confirmation of spillover effects between markets in the region, in particular, the interdependence between Australia and China which may have evolved only recently and thus have received relatively little research attention to date.

  9. Shale gas characteristics of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in Germany: from basin to nanometre scale (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian; Krüger, Martin; Littke, Ralf; di primio, Rolando


    thermal maturities beyond the oil window, intra-mineral and intra-organic pores develop. In such overmature samples, nanopores occur within pyrobitumen masses. Important for gas storage and transport, they likely result from exsolution of gaseous hydrocarbon. References Bernard S., Wirth R., Schreiber A., Bowen L., Aplin A.C., Mathia E.J., Schulz H-M., & Horsfield B.: FIB-SEM and TEM investigations of an organic-rich shale maturation series (Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale): Nanoscale pore system and fluid-rock interactions. AAPG Bulletin Special Issue "Electron Microscopy of Shale Hydrocarbon Reservoirs" (in press). Bernard, S., Horsfield, B., Schulz, H-M., Wirth, R., Schreiber, A., & Sherwood, N., 2012, Geochemical evolution of organic-rich shales with increasing maturity: A STXM and TEM study of the Posidonia Shale (Lower Toarcian, northern Germany): Marine and Petroleum Geology 31 (1) 70-89. Lott, G.K., Wong, T.E., Dusar, M., Andsbjerg, J., Mönnig, E., Feldman-Olszewska, A. & Verreussel, R.M.C.H., 2010. Jurassic. In: Doornenbal, J.C. and Stevenson, A.G. (editors): Petroleum Geological Atlas of the Southern Permian Basin Area. EAGE Publications b.v. (Houten): 175-193.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell


    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  11. Volcanic margin formation and Mesozoic rift propagators in the Cuvier Abyssal Plain off Western Australia (United States)

    Mihut, Dona; Müller, R. Dietmar


    The western margin of Australia is characterized by synrift and postrift magmatism which is not well understood. A joint interpretation of magnetic anomaly, satellite gravity anomaly and seismic data from the Cuvier Abyssal Plain and margin shows that the breakup between India and Australia started circa 136 Ma (M14) and was followed by two rift propagation events which transferred portions of the Indian Plate to the Australian Plate. Post breakup magmatism continued with the emplacement of the Wallaby and Zenith plateaus (˜17-18 km thick at their centers) along a transform margin. Two narrow magmatic edifices adjacent to the Wallaby Plateau (Sonne and Sonja ridges) represent an extinct ridge and a pseudofault, respectively. They formed by excess volcanism, probably by lateral migration of buoyant melt along upside-down crustal drainage channels from the melt source underneath the Wallaby Plateau. In a mantle plume scenario a small plume (˜400 km diameter) located underneath the rift could have locally uplifted the Bernier Platform and Exmouth Sub-basin in the Early Cretaceous and left a track consistent with the azimuth of the Wallaby and Zenith plateaus. In this case, ridge-plume interaction would have caused two consecutive ridge propagation events towards the plume while the ridge moved away from the hotspot. The abrupt end of the hotspot track west of the Zenith Plateau would be a consequence of the accelerating south-eastward motion of the spreading ridge relative to the mantle after 120 Ma, leaving the mantle plume underneath the Indian Plate. An alternative nonmantle-plume scenario is based on the observation that between breakup and chron M0 (˜120 Ma) the ocean crust in the southern Cuvier Abyssal Plain was formed while the spreading ridge abutted Indian continental crust. Small-scale convection may have been initiated during rifting in the Early Cretaceous and maintained until the Wallaby-Zenith ridge-transform intersection passed by the eastern edge

  12. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins (United States)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.


    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting ( While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  13. A discussion of multiculturalism in Australia from educators' perspective. (United States)

    Arasaratnam, Lily A


    This study is an exploration of the views of non-indigenous Australian tertiary educators (N = 22) on multiculturalism and its effects on Australian society. Thematic analysis was used to identify four dominant themes in interviews conducted with the participants. The results are discussed within the themes of Australian identity, attitudes toward multiculturalism, the role of education/educators in multiculturalism, and the future of multicultural Australia. The results reveal that, while there are strong concerns about current policies, tertiary educators have favourable views toward multiculturalism and believe that multicultural views should be integrated into the curriculum from primary education onwards. Despite growing cultural diversity, results further indicate that there is a gap between the ideology and the practice of multiculturalism in Australia.

  14. A Pilot Tsunami Inundation Forecast System for Australia (United States)

    Allen, Stewart C. R.; Greenslade, Diana J. M.


    The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre (JATWC) provides a tsunami warning service for Australia. Warnings are currently issued according to a technique that does not include explicit modelling at the coastline, including any potential coastal inundation. This paper investigates the feasibility of developing and implementing tsunami inundation modelling as part of the JATWC warning system. An inundation model was developed for a site in Southeast Australia, on the basis of the availability of bathymetric and topographic data and observations of past tsunamis. The model was forced using data from T2, the operational deep-water tsunami scenario database currently used for generating warnings. The model was evaluated not only for its accuracy but also for its computational speed, particularly with respect to operational applications. Limitations of the proposed forecast processes in the Australian context and areas requiring future improvement are discussed.

  15. An Impact Crater in Palm Valley, Central Australia?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W; O'Neill, Craig; Britton, Tui R


    We explore the origin of a ~280 m wide, heavily eroded circular depression in Palm Valley, Northern Territory, Australia using gravity, morphological, and mineralogical data collected from a field survey in September 2009. From the analysis of the survey, we debate probable formation processes, namely erosion and impact, as no evidence of volcanism is found in the region or reported in the literature. We argue that the depression was not formed by erosion and consider an impact origin, although we acknowledge that diagnostics required to identify it as such (e.g. meteorite fragments, shatter cones, shocked quartz) are lacking, leaving the formation process uncertain. We encourage further discussion of the depression's origin and stress a need to develop recognition criteria that can help identify small, ancient impact craters. We also encourage systematic searches for impact craters in Central Australia as it is probable that many more remain to be discovered.

  16. Rapid increase in pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates, Australia. (United States)

    Lam, Connie; Octavia, Sophie; Ricafort, Lawrence; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Wood, Nicholas; McIntyre, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Guiso, Nicole; Keil, Anthony D; Lawrence, Andrew; Robson, Jenny; Hogg, Geoff; Lan, Ruiting


    Acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis were introduced in Australia in 1997. By 2000, these vaccines had replaced whole-cell vaccines. During 2008-2012, a large outbreak of pertussis occurred. During this period, 30% (96/320) of B. pertussis isolates did not express the vaccine antigen pertactin (Prn). Multiple mechanisms of Prn inactivation were documented, including IS481 and IS1002 disruptions, a variation within a homopolymeric tract, and deletion of the prn gene. The mechanism of lack of expression of Prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined at the sequence level. These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing Prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single Prn-negative clone. All but 1 isolate had ptxA1, prn2, and ptxP3, the alleles representative of currently circulating strains in Australia. This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution of B. pertussis in response to vaccine selection pressure.

  17. Foodborne illness, Australia, circa 2000 and circa 2010. (United States)

    Kirk, Martyn; Ford, Laura; Glass, Kathryn; Hall, Gillian


    Foodborne disease is a major public health problem worldwide. To examine changes in foodborne illness in Australia, we estimated the incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths attributed to contaminated food circa 2010 and recalculated estimates from circa 2000. Approximately 25% of gastroenteritis cases were caused by contaminated food; to account for uncertainty we used simulation techniques to estimate 90% credible intervals. We estimate that circa 2010, 4.1 million foodborne gastroenteritis cases occurred, and circa 2000, 4.3 million cases occurred. Circa 2010, contaminated food was estimated to be responsible for 30,840 gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations, 76 associated deaths, and 5,140 nongastrointestinal illnesses. Cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis increased from 2000 to 2010 and were the leading causes of gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations; Listeria monocytogenes and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. infections were the leading causes of death. Although the overall incidence of foodborne illnesses declined over time in Australia, cases of foodborne gastroenteritis are still common.

  18. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R


    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human...... cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein...... gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have...

  19. On the "hidden" phytoplankton blooms on Australia's southern shelves (United States)

    Kämpf, Jochen; Kavi, Ankit


    Phytoplankton blooms on Australia's southern shelves are revisited using satellite-derived monthly data of chlorophyll a concentrations for the period 2003-2015. It is known that the region hosts a seasonal coastal upwelling system that develops in austral summer (January-March) with chlorophyll a concentrations of >2 mg/m3. While this summer upwelling is spatially limited to a few hot spots, here we show that widespread phytoplankton blooms of moderate ( 1 mg/m3) chlorophyll a concentrations develop during autumn and early winter on most of Australia's extensive southern shelves—from the vast shelves of the Great Australian Bight (GAB) in the west to Bass Strait in the east. This surprising finding disproves the widespread belief that shelf waters of the GAB are generally oligotrophic and may explain the relatively high abundance of both forage fish (sardines) and upper trophic-level predators (e.g., tuna and whales) in the region.

  20. Regionalizing Immigration, Health and Inequality: Iraqi Refugees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Manderson


    Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.