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Sample records for bowen basin australia

  1. Evaluation of rock mass classification schemes: a case study from the Bowen Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Hebblewhite, Bruce; Mitra, Rudrajit

    2016-04-01

    The development of an accurate engineering geological model and adequate knowledge of spatial variation in rock mass conditions are important prerequisites for slope stability analyses, tunnel design, mine planning and risk management. Rock mass classification schemes such as Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR), Q-system and Roof Strength Index (RSI) have been used for a range of engineering geological applications, including transport tunnels, "hard rock" mining and underground and open-cut coal mines. Often, rock mass classification schemes have been evaluated on subaerial exposures, where weathering has affected joint characteristics and intact strength. In contrast, the focus of this evaluation of the above classification schemes is an underground coal mine in the Bowen Basin, central Queensland, Australia, 15 km east of the town of Moranbah. Rock mass classification was undertaken at 68 sites across the mine. Both the target coal seam and overlying rock show marked spatial variability in terms of RMR, CMRR and Q, but RSI showed limited sensitivity to changes in rock mass condition. Relationships were developed between different parameters with varying degrees of success. A mine-wide analysis of faulting was undertaken, and compared with in situ stress field and local-scale measurements of joint and cleat. While there are no unequivocal relationships between rock mass classification parameters and faulting, a central graben zone shows heterogeneous rock mass properties. The corollary is that if geological features can be accurately defined by remote sensing technologies, then this can assist in predicting rock mass conditions and risk management ahead of development and construction.

  2. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep K. Permana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite, are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quartz, and carbonates can be seen under the optical microscope. The mineral matter occurs in association with vitrinite and inertinite macerals as syngenetic and epigenetic mineral phases. The irregular pattern of the vitrinite reflectance profile from the top to the bottom of the seam may represent a response in the organic matter to an uneven heat distribution from such hydrothermal influence. Examination of the maceral and vitrinite reflectance characteristics suggest that the mineralogical variation within the coal seam at South Walker Creek may have been controlled by various geological processes, including sediment input into the peat swamp during deposition, mineralogical changes associated with the rank advance process or metamorphism, and/or hydrothermal effects due to post depositional fluid migration through the coal seam.

  3. Report on information collection and analysis for fundamental survey on coal resource development in fiscal 1998. Survey on coal supply potentiality in Bowen Basin in Australia; 1998 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa joho shushu kaiseki hokokusho. Goshu Bowen bonchi sekitan kyokyu potentiality chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was made on coal supply potentiality in Bowen Basin in Australia. The main coal beds exist in the order of four beds in the Permian period. The oldest bed is the Reids Dome bed in the Lower Permian period, deposited in the south-west part of the basin. The later wide-area transgression has caused the Back Creek bed groups to deposit, whereas three coal measures have deposited in a concave on the raised basic bed. Later, the ocean has invaded into the entire basin. After having turned into the Upper Permian period, regression had occurred from north to south, where major coal measures such as the Moranbah and German Creek beds had deposited over the entire basin. Further regression has taken place to south, causing three uppermost coal measures to have deposited over the entire basin. In major part of the areas identified currently with existence of coal measures, and even in areas without mines, the mining right or the exploration right has been established, limiting the areas having development potentiality. Five abandoned mining areas exist in the Rangal coal measure, two in the Moranbah coal measure, two in the Reids Dome coal measure, and one in the Baralaba coal measure. There is a possibility of discovering areas developable for a scale of several ten million tons. (NEDO)

  4. Bowen, Prof. Ira Sprague

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1956 Honorary. Bowen, Prof. Ira Sprague. Date of birth: 21 December 1898. Date of death: 6 February 1973. YouTube ... Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach. Math and Finance ...

  5. Upper Devonian microvertebrates from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Brett; Playton, Ted; Barham, Milo; Trinajstic, Kate

    2015-03-01

    A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.

  6. Investigating Uncertainties in a Geothermal Basin Simulation: Case Study of the Perth Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishar, Guilherme; Wellmann, Florian; Niederau, Jan; Cacace, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Hydrothermal convection can strongly influence the spatial and temporal distribution of temperatures. This is particularly relevant when large-scale geothermal simulations are calibrated with temperature measurements which provide punctual or one-dimensional information of temperature in space and time. We present here an approach based on the analysis of entropy production to quantify expected nonlinearities due to convection, as a first step to adjust subsequent calibration procedures. We then apply this approach to investigate the effect of hydrothermal convection, specifically with respect to applied boundary conditions, in a large-scale simulation of the Perth Basin, Australia. Previous work on the Geothermal System of the Perth Basin, Australia, showed significant lateral changes of temperatures measured in boreholes. Those differences in measured temperatures can hardly be explained with a purely conductive heat transport model and suggest existence of advective heat transport by convection. In addition, a detailed calibration suggested a general North-South trend of basal heat flux in the basin, a phenomenon that is not explained to date. We present here a novel approach to investigate these aspects in more detail. Specifically, we show first results to address the question of uncertainties due to the potential effect of hydrothermal convection in this basin, especially in relation to the possibility for model calibration. First results suggest that the method provides a step forward to investigate uncertainties in basin-scale geothermal simulations. Further work will comprise the application of the approach to also analyze the effect of forced convection on model certainty.

  7. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.

  8. Inter-basin water transfer: case studies from Australia, United States, Canada, China, and India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghassemi, F; White, I

    2007-01-01

    ... operating in these countries. It examines the water resources of Australia, the driest inhabited continent, and explores inter-basin water transfer projects in the United States, Canada, China and India, examining their benefits...

  9. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2014-01-01

    Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow-water palaeoenvironm......Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow...

  10. Model decay in the Australia-Antarctic basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijer, Wilbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gille, Sarah T [UCSD; Vivier, Frederic [LOCEAN-IPSL

    2008-01-01

    The barotropic intraseasonal variability in the Australia-Antarctic Basin (AAB) is studied in terms of the excitation and decay of topographically-trapped barotropic modes. The main objective is to reconcile two widely differing estimates of the decay rate of SSH anomalies in the AAB that are assumed to be related to barotropic modes. First, an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to almost 15 years of altimeter data. The analysis suggests that several modes are involved in the variability of the AAB, each related to distinct areas with (almost) closed contours of potential vorticity. Second, the dominant normal modes of the AAB are determined in a barotropic shallow-water (SW) model. These stationary modes are confined by the closed contours of potential vorticity that surround the eastern AAB, and the crest of the Southeast Indian Ridge. For reasonable values of horizontal eddy viscosity and bottom friction, their decay time scale is of the order of several weeks. Third, the SW model is forced with realistic winds and integrated for several years. Projection of the modal velocity patterns onto the output fields shows that the barotropic modes are indeed excited in the model, and that they decay slowly on the frictional O(3 weeks) time scale. However, the SSH anomalies in the modal areas display rapid O(4 days) decay. Additional analysis shows that this rapid decay reflects the adjustment of unbalanced flow components through the emission of Rossby waves. Resonant excitation of the dominant free modes accounts for about 20% of the SSH variability in the forced model run. Other mechanisms are suggested to explain the region of high SSH variability in the AAB.

  11. Bowen Journal of Agriculture: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The following guidelines should be followed by Authors submitting papers to Bowen Journal of Agriculture. Titles: Should be specific, capitalized, bold, centralized and brief. All other headings e.g ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS and REFERENCES are also to be capitalized ...

  12. Mesozoic lithofacies palaeogeography and petroleum prospectivity in North Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chongzhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Carnarvon Basin, which lies in the North West Shelf of Australia, is highly rich in gas resources. As a typical passive marginal basin, it experienced the pre-rifting, early rifting, main rifting, late rifting, post-rifting sagging and passive margin stages. The basin was mainly filled with thick Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments, of which the Mesozoic hosts the principal source, reservoir and seal intervals. Mesozoic palaeogeography has an important control on the oil and gas distribution. Triassic gas-prone source rocks of deltaic origin determine the high endowment of natural gases in the North Carnarvon Basin. The more restricted distribution of oil accumulations is controlled by oil source rocks in the Upper Jurassic Dingo Claystone. The Muderong Shale deposited in the Early Cretaceous marine transgression provides the effective regional seal for the underlying oil and gas reservoirs.

  13. Reviewing the adoption and impact of water markets in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, S.; Loch, A.; Zuo, A.; Bjornlund, H.

    2014-10-01

    Water markets have increasingly been adopted as a reallocation tool around the world as water scarcity intensifies. Water markets were first introduced in Australia in the 1980s, and water entitlement and allocation trade have been increasingly adopted by both private individuals and governments. As well as providing an overview of water policy in Australia since the 1900s, this paper examines the adoption of water trading in the southern Murray-Darling Basin of Australia (the largest hydrologically connected water market in Australia), and investigates the associated social, economic and environmental impacts that have arisen from the implementation of water markets. This study found that up to 86% of irrigators in one state in the southern Murray-Darling Basin had undertaken at least one water market trade by 2010-2011, hence, water market strategies are now a common tool employed by irrigators to assist their farm management. A variety of institutional, policy and informational changes are identified to increase the benefits from water markets in the future. There is no doubt that managing the impact of climate change and water scarcity are intertwined, suggesting that policy, institutional and governance responses should be similarly structured and coordinated.

  14. Integrated Library System Implementation: The Bowen University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the paper is to share the Bowen University Library experiences running and administering Koha Integrated Library System (ILS) for about nine years. The paper describes the application of the software by the staff of Bowen University Library. The authors perused the library annual reports and the quarterly ...

  15. Integrative Governance of Environmental Water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin: Evolving Challenges and Emerging Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Mattson, Zachary; Lynch, Amanda H

    2017-07-01

    Integration, a widely promoted response to the multi-scale complexities of social-environmental sustainability, is diversely and sometimes poorly conceptualized. In this paper we explore integrative governance, which we define as an iterative and contextual process for negotiating and advancing the common interest. We ground this definition in a discussion of institutional factors conditioning integrative governance of environmental water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. The Murray-Darling Basin is an iconic system of social-ecological complexity, evocative of large-scale conservation challenges in other developed arid river basins. Our critical assessment of integrative governance practices in that context emerges through analysis of interviews with policy participants and documents pertaining to environmental water management in the tri-state area of southwestern New South Wales, northwestern Victoria, and the South Australian Riverland. We identify four linked challenges: (i) decision support for developing socially robust environmental water management goals, (ii) resource constraints on adaptive practice, (iii) inter-state differences in participatory decision-making and devolution of authority, and (iv) representative inclusion in decision-making. Our appraisal demonstrates these as pivotal challenges for integrative governance in the common interest. We conclude by offering a perspective on the potential for supporting integrative governance through the bridging capacity of Australia's Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder.

  16. 2-D Petroleum System Modelling of the Browse Basin, Offshore Northwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byeong-Kook

    2017-04-01

    Petroleum system modelling was performed for the Browse Basin, which is a hydrocarbon-bearing basin in the offshore area of northwestern Australia. The Browse Basin was formed by two cycles of tectonically controlled extension, thermal subsidence, and inversion. The first rifting had occurred by the extension in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian, and the second was in the Early to Middle Jurassic. Thick sediments were deposited during subsequent subsidence and inversion in the basin. The Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous succession is considered to have the high quality source potential. Major reservoirs are fluvio-deltaic and nearshore marine sandstone units in the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Late Cretaceous to Tertiary sequences are dominated by thick carbonate rocks. Maturity model and paleo-heat flow history were made in 1-D petroleum system modelling by comparing with vitrinite values and temperature measured from the drill wells. Based on the geologic setting and the 1-D model, 2-D Petroleum system modelling was conducted on an E-W cross section crossing three wells to understand hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation in the basin. Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous formations, including Aptian, Vlanginian, and Callovian rocks, were assigned as source rocks in the 2-D modelling. The 2-D model shows that hydrocarbons were generated during Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. A thick succession of overburden rocks provided the source rocks with heat and pressure to generate a significant amount of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons expelled from the source rocks were migrated dominantly downward to Late Jurassic sandy reservoir rocks. Upward migration is restricted by dense shale and carbonate successions. Large accumulations of gas have been found in the basin, rather than oil. It seems that the amount of gases was significantly increased by secondary cracking of the oil in reservoir formations in deep and hot conditions.

  17. Minimal groundwater leakage restricts salinity in a hydrologically terminal basin of northwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Rouillard, Alexandra; Grierson, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    The Fortescue Marsh (FM) is one of the largest wetlands of arid northwest Australia (~1200 km2) and is thought to act as a terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue River catchment. Unlike the playa lake systems that predominate in most arid regions, where salinity is driven by inflow and evaporation of groundwater, the hydrological regime of the FM is driven by inundation from irregular cyclonic events [1]. Surface water of the FM is fresh to brackish and the salinity of the deepest groundwater (80 m b.g.l.) does not exceed 160 g/L; salt efflorescences are rarely present on the surface [2]. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that persistent but low rates of groundwater outflow have restricted the accumulation of salt in the FM over time. Using hydrological, hydrochemical data and dimensionless time evaporation modelling along with the water and salt budget, we calculated the time and the annual groundwater discharge volume that would be required to achieve and maintain the range of salinity levels observed in the Marsh. Groundwater outflow from alluvial and colluvial aquifers to the Lower Fortescue catchment is limited by an extremely low hydraulic gradient of 0.001 and is restricted to a relatively small 'alluvial window' of 0.35 km2 because of the elevation of the basement bedrock at the Marsh outflow. We show that if the Marsh was 100% "leakage free" i.e., a true terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue Catchment, the basin water would have achieved salt saturation after ~45 ka. This is not the case and only a very small outflow of saline groundwater of hydrological budget of such a large-scale basin. The dimensionless time versus inflow over outflow ratio model is also more accurate than the classical water budget calculations. [1] Rouillard A., Skrzypek G, Dogramaci S, Turney C, Grierson PF, 2015. Impacts of high inter-annual variability of rainfall on a century of extreme hydrological regime of northwest Australia. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 19

  18. First Results from Sentinel-1A InSAR over Australia: Application to the Perth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Parker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Past ground-based geodetic measurements in the Perth Basin, Australia, record small-magnitude subsidence (up to 7 mm/y, but are limited to discrete points or traverses across parts of the metropolitan area. Here, we investigate deformation over a much larger region by performing the first application of Sentinel-1A InSAR data to Australia. The duration of the study is short (0.7 y, as dictated by the availability of Sentinel-1A data. Despite this limited observation period, verification of Sentinel-1A with continuous GPS and independent TerraSAR-X provides new insights into the deformation field of the Perth Basin. The displacements recorded by each satellite are in agreement, identifying broad (>5 km wide areas of subsidence at rates up to 15 mm/y. Subsidence at rates greater than 20 mm/y over smaller regions (∼2 km wide is coincident with wetland areas, where displacements are temporally correlated with changes in groundwater levels in the unconfined aquifer. Longer InSAR time series are required to determine whether these measured displacements are representative of long-term deformation or (more likely seasonal variations. However, the agreement between datasets demonstrates the ability of Sentinel-1A to detect small-magnitude deformation over different spatial scales (from 2 km–10 s of km in the Perth Basin. We suggest that, even over short time periods, these data are useful as a reconnaissance tool to identify regions for subsequent targeted studies, particularly given the large swath size of radar acquisitions, which facilitates analysis of a broader portion of the deformation field than ground-based methods or single scenes of TerraSAR-X.

  19. Groundwater flow and solute transport at the Mourquong saline-water disposal basin, Murray Basin, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Craig; Narayan, Kumar; Woods, Juliette; Herczeg, Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Saline groundwater and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in some 200 natural and artificial saline-water disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their impact on underlying aquifers and the River Murray, one of Australia's major water supplies, is of serious concern. In one such scheme, saline groundwater is pumped into Lake Mourquong, a natural groundwater discharge complex. The disposal basin is hydrodynamically restricted by low-permeability lacustrine clays, but there are vulnerable areas in the southeast where the clay is apparently missing. The extent of vertical and lateral leakage of basin brines and the processes controlling their migration are examined using (1) analyses of chloride and stable isotopes of water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) to infer mixing between regional groundwater and lake water, and (2) the variable-density groundwater flow and solute-transport code SUTRA. Hydrochemical results indicate that evaporated disposal water has moved at least 100 m in an easterly direction and that there is negligible movement of brines in a southerly direction towards the River Murray. The model is used to consider various management scenarios. Salt-load movement to the River Murray was highest in a "worst-case" scenario with irrigation employed between the basin and the River Murray. Present-day operating conditions lead to little, if any, direct movement of brine from the basin into the river. Résumé. Les eaux souterraines salées et les effluents de drainage de l'irrigation sont stockés dans environ 200 bassins naturels ou artificiels destinés à retenir les eaux salines dans tout le bassin de Murray-Darling, en Australie. Leur impact sur les aquifères sous-jacents et sur la rivière Murray, l'une des principales ressources en eau d'Australie, constitue un problème grave. Dans une telle situation, les eaux souterraines salines sont pompées dans le lac Mourquong, complexe dans lequel les nappes se d

  20. Lithofacies and biofacies of mid-paleozoic thermal spring deposits in the Drummond Basin, Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, M.R. [Macquarie Univ. (Australia); Desmarais, D.; Farmer, J.C. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Hinman, N.W. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The Devonian to Carboniferous sinters of the Drummond Basin, Australia, are among the oldest well established examples of fossil subaerial hot springs. Numerous subaerial and subaqueous spring deposits are known from the geological record as a result of the occurrence of economic mineral deposits in many of them. Some are reported to contain fossils, but very few have been studied by paleobiologists; they represent an untapped source of paleobiological information on the history of hydrothermal ecosystems. Such systems are of special interest, given the molecular biological evidence that thermophilic bacteria lie near the root of the tree of extant life. The Drummond Basin sinters are very closely comparable with modern examples in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere. Thirteen microfacies are recognisable in the field, ranging from high temperature apparently abiotic geyserite through various forms of stromatolitic sinter probably of cyanobacterial origin to ambient temperature marsh deposits. Microfossils in the stromatolites are interpreted as cyanobacterial sheaths. Herbaceous lycopsids occur in the lower temperature deposits. 56 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Examines educational provisions for ethnic and racial groups in Australia, comprised primarily of the aborigines and the migrants or non-English speaking immigrants. Discussion of the official policies of "self determination" and "multiculturalism" emphasizes the important differences between the two and the considerations…

  2. Bowen disease – clinic, dermoscopy, patology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poklękowska Katarzyna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bowen Disease is squamous cell carcinoma in situ in which the basement membrane is intact on histopathology. Lesions are usually solitary but may be multiple in 10-20 percent of cases. It typically presents as an erythematous enlarging plaque having irregular borders with scaling and crusting. The lesions may be fissured or verrucous or, rarely, pigmented. Ulceration may occur and is often a sign that invasive disease is developing. The risk of progression of Bowen disease to invasive carcinoma is about 3%. Bowen disease is most commonly found in patients over 60 years old. Oher risk factors: include chronic sun exposure, immunosuppression, arsenic exposure and cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV- 16, 18, 34 i 48 infection.The majority of cases of Bowen disease revealed a peculiar dermoscopic pattern characterized by glomerular vesselsProliferation of numerous atypical keratinocytes throughout the entire thickness of the epidermis with hyperkeratosis, mitotic figures, multinucleated cells and dyskeratotic cells, full thickness dysplasia of the squamous epithelum, disorderly maturation of the epidermis, parakeratosis and loss of granular layer.

  3. Geochemistry and travertine dating provide new insights into the hydrogeology of the Great Artesian Basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, A.J.; Rousseau-Gueutin, P.; Priestley, S.; Keppel, M. [School of Environment, Flinders University, and NCGRT Adelaide, Australia bCSIRO Land and Water, PMB2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Shand, P. [School of Environment, Flinders University, and NCGRT Adelaide, Australia bCSIRO Land and Water, PMB2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Adelaide Acid Sulfate Soils Centre, Adelaide University, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Wholing, D. [DEWNR, South Australia Government (Australia); Fulton, S. [NRETAS, Northern Territory Government (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    While of great national and societal significance, and importance in its own right, the Great Artesian Basin of Australia is an iconic example of a continental scale artesian groundwater system. New geochemical, hydrological, and neo-tectonic data suggests that existing models that involve recharge in eastern Australia, relatively simple flow paths and discharge in springs in the western margin require modification. New geochemical data indicate a small volume flux of deeply derived (endogenic) fluids mixing into the aquifer system at a continental scale. Neotectonic data indicates active tectonism today that provides a fluid pathway through faults for the deeply sourced endogenic fluids to discharge in GAB travertine depositing springs. (authors)

  4. Classification scheme for acid rock drainage detection - the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; McLean, Laura

    2017-04-01

    In arid environment where precipitation and surface water are very limited, groundwater is the most important freshwater resource. For this reasons it is intensively exploited and needs to be managed wisely and protected from pollutants. Acid rock drainage often constitutes a serious risk to groundwater quality, particularly in catchments that are subject to mining, large scale groundwater injection or abstraction. However, assessment of the potential acid rock drainage risk can be challenging, especially in carbonate rich environment, where the decreasing pH that usually accompanies pyrite oxidation, can be masked by the high pH-neutralisation capacity of carbonate minerals. In this study, we analysed 73 surface and groundwater samples from different water bodies and aquifers located in the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. Although the majority of samples had a neutral pH, there was a large spatial variability in the dissolved sulphate concentrations that ranged from 1 mg/L to 15,000 mg/L. Waters with high dissolved sulphate concentration were found in areas with a high percentage of sulphide minerals (e.g. pyrite) located within the aquifer matrix and were characterised by low δ34SSO4 values (+1.2‰ to +4.6) consistent with signatures of aquifer matrix pyritic rock samples (+1.9‰ to +4.4). It was also found that the SO4 concentrations and acidity levels were not only dependent on δ34SSO4 values and existence of pyrite but also on the presence of carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix. Based on the results from this study, a classification scheme has been developed for identification of waters impacted by acid rock drainage that also encompasses numerous concomitant geochemical processes that often occur in aqueous systems. The classification uses five proxies: SO4, SO4/Cl, SI of calcite, δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 to improve assessment of the contribution that oxidation of sulphide minerals has to overall sulphate ion concentrations, regardless of acidity

  5. Quantitative modeling and three-dimensional visualization of the petroleum hydrogeology of the Cooper & Eromanga Basins, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, M.; Morin, P. [Univ. of Minnestoa, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Toupin, D. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Eadington, P. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Mathematical modeling and three-dimensional scientific visualization techniques are used in this study to reconstruct the petroleum hydrogeology of the well-studied Cooper and Eromanga Basins: Australia`s most productive on shore petroleum provinces. Our analysis focuses on the development of topography- and compaction-driven groundwater flow systems and their role on petroleum generation and migration within these basins. Finite-element models which represent groundwater flow, heat transfer, oil generation and migration were constructed along NW-SE and NE-SW cross-sectional transacts which more or less follow the present-day groundwater flow patterns through these basins. The analysis provides a quantitative reconstruction of transient fluid migration in response to tectonic processes during the past 276 million years of basin evolution. In order to compress numerical output from both cross-sectional models into a single image, quantitative results are presented in the form of evolving, three- dimensional geologic fence diagrams. Computer animation of numerical model results permit analysis of transient hydrodynamic behavior within the basin that would have been difficult or impossible to detect otherwise. Analysis of video output indicates that two episodes of regional, topography-driven groundwater flow had a pronounced effect on the thermal history of the sediments and may have important implications for petroleum generation and migration.

  6. Impact of multi-purpose aquifer utilisation on a variable-density groundwater flow system in the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sunil; Michael, Karsten

    2012-02-01

    The Latrobe aquifer in the Gippsland Basin in southeastern Australia is a prime example for emerging resource conflicts in Australian sedimentary basins. The Latrobe Group forms a major freshwater aquifer in the onshore Gippsland Basin, and is an important reservoir for oil and gas in both onshore and offshore parts of the basin. The Latrobe Group and overlying formations contain substantial coal resources that are being mined in the onshore part of the basin. These may have coal-seam-gas potential and, in addition, the basin is considered prospective for its geothermal energy and CO2 storage potential. The impacts of groundwater extraction related to coal-mine dewatering, public water supply, and petroleum production on the flow of variable-density formation water has been assessed using freshwater hydraulic heads and impelling force vectors. Groundwater flows from the northern and western edges towards the central part of the basin. Groundwater discharge occurs mainly offshore along the southern margin. Post-stress hydraulic heads show significant declines near the petroleum fields and in the coal mining areas. A hydrodynamic model of the Latrobe aquifer was used to simulate groundwater recovery in the Latrobe aquifer from different scenarios of cessation of groundwater and other fluid extractions.

  7. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp.) in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Wellard, Rebecca; Lightbody, Keith; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle; Riggs, David; Erbe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.

  8. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp.) in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Rebecca; Lightbody, Keith; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle; Riggs, David; Erbe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.

  9. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp. in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Wellard

    Full Text Available Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp. on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.

  10. Episodic recharge and climate change in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Russell S.; McCallum, James L.; Walker, Glen R.; Chiew, Francis H. S.

    2012-03-01

    In semi-arid areas, episodic recharge can form a significant part of overall recharge, dependant upon infrequent rainfall events. With climate change projections suggesting changes in future rainfall magnitude and intensity, groundwater recharge in semi-arid areas is likely to be affected disproportionately by climate change. This study sought to investigate projected changes in episodic recharge in arid areas of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, using three global warming scenarios from 15 different global climate models (GCMs) for a 2030 climate. Two metrics were used to investigate episodic recharge: at the annual scale the coefficient of variation was used, and at the daily scale the proportion of recharge in the highest 1% of daily recharge. The metrics were proportional to each other but were inconclusive as to whether episodic recharge was to increase or decrease in this environment; this is not a surprising result considering the spread in recharge projections from the 45 scenarios. The results showed that the change in the low probability of exceedance rainfall events was a better predictor of the change in total recharge than the change in total rainfall, which has implications for the selection of GCMs used in impact studies and the way GCM results are downscaled.

  11. Assessment of Wetland Hydrological Dynamics in a Modified Catchment Basin: Case of Lake Buninjon, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John A

    2017-02-01

      The common method to estimate lake levels is the water balance equation, where water input and output result in lake storage and water level changes. However, all water balance components cannot always be quickly assessed, such as due to significant modification of the catchment area. A method that assesses general changes in lake level can be a useful tool in examining why lakes have different lake level variation patterns. Assessment of wetlands using the dynamics of the historical hydrological and hydrogeological data set can provide important insights into variations in wetland levels in different parts of the world. A case study from a saline landscape, Lake Buninjon, Australia, is presented. The aim of the present study was to determine how climate, river regime, and lake hydrological properties independently influence lake water levels and salinity, leaving the discrepancy, for the effect of the non-climatic/catchment modification in the past and the model shows that surface inflow is most sensitive variable. The method, together with the analysis and interpretation, might be of interest to wider community to assess its response to natural/anthropogenic stress and decision choices for its ecological, social, scientific value, and mitigation measures to safe guard the wetland biodiversity in a catchment basin.

  12. Firewood harvest from forests of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Part 2: Plantation resource required to supply present demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, P.W. [School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); SciWest Consulting, 16 Windsor Court, Goonellabah, NSW 2480 (Australia); Cawsey, E.M.; Stol, J. [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, GPO Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Freudenberger, D. [Greening Australia, PO Box 74, Yarralumla, ACT 2600 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    The Murray-Darling Basin covers 1 M km{sup 2} and occupies most of inland, south-eastern, mainland Australia. Large areas have been cleared and are now used for agriculture. In this paper, estimates are made of the minimum area of Eucalyptus globulus plantation forests needed to be established in the Basin to supply 2.25 M oven-dry t yr{sup -1} of firewood annually, the amount of firewood harvested presently from the native forests which remain in the Basin. If plantations were established in higher rainfall areas along the eastern and southern boundaries of the Basin, it was estimated that a minimum of just over 200,000 ha of plantations would be required, grown on a 10-yr rotation. If plantations were restricted to less productive areas of lower rainfall (<900 mm yr{sup -1}), or to areas where land clearing for agriculture has been particularly intensive, a minimum of just under 350,000 ha would be required, grown on an 11-yr rotation. If planting was restricted to soils in the Basin at high risk of salinisation from agriculture, which are generally in areas of lower rainfall, a minimum of about 600,000 ha would be required, grown on a 20-yr rotation. It is considered that the practicalities of plantation establishment in the Basin would require appreciably larger areas of plantations than these minima. (author)

  13. Geochemical indicators of the origins and evolution of methane in groundwater: Gippsland Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currell, Matthew; Banfield, Dominic; Cartwright, Ian; Cendón, Dioni I

    2017-05-01

    Recent expansion of shale and coal seam gas production worldwide has increased the need for geochemical studies in aquifers near gas deposits, to determine processes impacting groundwater quality and better understand the origins and behavior of dissolved hydrocarbons. We determined dissolved methane concentrations (n = 36) and δ13C and δ2H values (n = 31) in methane and groundwater from the 46,000-km2 Gippsland Basin in southeast Australia. The basin contains important water supply aquifers and is a potential target for future unconventional gas development. Dissolved methane concentrations ranged from 0.0035 to 30 mg/L (median = 8.3 mg/L) and were significantly higher in the deep Lower Tertiary Aquifer (median = 19 mg/L) than the shallower Upper Tertiary Aquifer (median = 3.45 mg/L). Groundwater δ13CDIC values ranged from -26.4 to -0.4 ‰ and were generally higher in groundwater with high methane concentrations (mean δ13CDIC = -9.5 ‰ for samples with >3 mg/L CH4 vs. -16.2 ‰ in all others), which is consistent with bacterial methanogenesis. Methane had δ13CCH4 values of -97.5 to -31.8 ‰ and δ2HCH4 values of -391 to -204 ‰ that were also consistent with bacterial methane, excluding one site with δ13CCH4 values of -31.8 to -37.9 ‰, where methane may have been thermogenic. Methane from different regions and aquifers had distinctive stable isotope values, indicating differences in the substrate and/or methanogenesis mechanism. Methane in the Upper Tertiary Aquifer in Central Gippsland had lower δ13CCH4 (-83.7 to -97.5 ‰) and δ2HCH4 (-236 to -391 ‰) values than in the deeper Lower Tertiary Aquifer (δ13CCH4 = -45.8 to -66.2 ‰ and δ2HCH4 = -204 to -311 ‰). The particularly low δ13CCH4 values in the former group may indicate methanogenesis at least partly through carbonate reduction. In deeper groundwater, isotopic values were more consistent with acetate fermentation. Not all methane at a given depth and

  14. Delivery of marine chloride in precipitation and removal by rivers in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H. James; Herczeg, Andrew L.

    1994-02-01

    Rising groundwater tables and increasing river salinities are major problems in the semi-arid Murray-Darling (M-D) Drainage Basin of SE Australia. Chemical data from precipitation, rivers and groundwaters are integrated here to estimate chloride fluxes in the context of dramatic alteration of the hydrologic balance in the basin initiated during European settlement approximately 150 years ago. Our analysis indicates that about half of Cl deposition from the atmosphere in the western Murray Basin is derived from resuspended regional continental dust, resulting in high Ca/Na ratios in bulk precipitation samples. Estimates of recent marine deposition of Cl to the M-D Basin were made by excluding rainfall data from sites having high Ca/Na ratios. Basin-wide budgets for Cl delivery from the atmosphere and removal by rivers indicate that the Darling Basin retains about 90% of current annual input of marine Cl whereas the River Murray exports two to three times current annual input to the Murray Basin (exclusive of the Darling). Some implications from this study are as follows: (1) Re-evaluation of net marine Cl input by rain implies that recent model calculations of {36Cl}/{Cl} inputs from the atmosphere to the Murray Basin may differ significantly from actual values. In particular, net {36Cl}/{Cl} input ratios from the atmosphere to the western Murray Basin may be a factor of two higher than those derived assuming all Cl in rain is of recent marine origin. (2) The very large inventories of salt within the two catchments, especially the saline groundwaters of the Murray Basin, accumulated over very long periods, probably of the order of a few million years. The current rearrangements of stored salinity as a result, at least in part, of human perturbations of the hydrologic balance are likely to continue for an extended period because of the massive quantities of salts involved, and thus present major limitations on options for long-term management of the M-D Basin.

  15. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  16. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-23

    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  17. Distribution of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, G.R.L.; Rao, M.V.; Prasad, P.H.; Reddy, K.G.

    The monthly averages of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean have been computed Three typical situations in the months of January May and September are taken for the present study Month to month differences in the Bowen ratio over the study...

  18. Bowen's disease: Report of a case in a Nigerian man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    words: Bowen 's disease, Skin cancer blacks, Cutane- ous malignancy, Arsenical cancers. Résumé. La maladie de Bowen (carcinome cellulaire cutané squa— meux in situ), comme d'autres cancers de la peau, est rare parmi les noirs - 'a notre ...

  19. A theoretically based determination of bowen-ratio fetch requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, D.I.

    1997-01-01

    Determination of fetch requirements for accurate Bowen-ratio measurements of latent- and sensible-heat fluxes is more involved than for eddy-correlation measurements because Bowen-ratio sensors are located at two heights, rather than just one. A simple solution to the diffusion equation is used to derive an expression for Bowen-ratio fetch requirements, downwind of a step change in surface fluxes. These requirements are then compared to eddy-correlation fetch requirements based on the same diffusion equation solution. When the eddy-correlation and upper Bowen-ratio sensor heights are equal, and the available energy upwind and downwind of the step change is constant, the Bowen-ratio method requires less fetch than does eddy correlation. Differences in fetch requirements between the two methods are greatest over relatively smooth surfaces. Bowen-ratio fetch can be reduced significantly by lowering the lower sensor, as well as the upper sensor. The Bowen-ratio fetch model was tested using data from a field experiment where multiple Bowen-ratio systems were deployed simultaneously at various fetches and heights above a field of bermudagrass. Initial comparisons were poor, but improved greatly when the model was modified (and operated numerically) to account for the large roughness of the upwind cotton field.

  20. Determination of Surface Fluxes Using a Bowen Ratio System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Components of the surface fluxes of the energy balance equation were determined using a Campbell Bowen ratio system. The fluxes are obtained by the energy balance Bowen ratio technique, a gradient method that uses vertical gradients of temperature and vapour pressure in combination with point ...

  1. Response of Riparian Vegetation in AUSTRALIA"S Largest River Basin to Inter and Intra-Annual Climate Variability and Flooding as Quantified with Landsat and Modis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Tulbure, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    Australia is a continent subject to high rainfall variability, which has major influences on runoff and vegetation dynamics. However, the resulting spatial-temporal pattern of flooding and its influence on riparian vegetation has not been quantified in a spatially explicit way. Here we focused on the floodplains of the entire Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), an area that covers over 1M km2, as a case study. The MDB is the country's primary agricultural area with scarce water resources subject to competing demands and impacted by climate change and more recently by the Millennium Drought (1999-2009). Riparian vegetation in the MDB floodplain suffered extensive decline providing a dramatic degradation of riparian vegetation. We quantified the spatial-temporal impact of rainfall, temperature and flooding patters on vegetation dynamics at the subcontinental to local scales and across inter to intra-annual time scales based on three decades of Landsat (25k images), Bureau of Meteorology data and one decade of MODIS data. Vegetation response varied in space and time and with vegetation types, densities and location relative to areas frequently flooded. Vegetation degradation trends were observed over riparian forests and woodlands in areas where flooding regimes have changed to less frequent and smaller inundation extents. Conversely, herbaceous vegetation phenology followed primarily a `boom' and `bust' cycle, related to inter-annual rainfall variability. Spatial patters of vegetation degradation changed along the N-S rainfall gradient but flooding regimes and vegetation degradation patterns also varied at finer scale, highlighting the importance of a spatially explicit, internally consistent analysis and setting the stage for investigating further cross-scale relationships. Results are of interest for land and water management decisions. The approach developed here can be applied to other areas globally such as the Nile river basin and Okavango River delta in Africa or the

  2. RESPONSE OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN AUSTRALIA"S LARGEST RIVER BASIN TO INTER AND INTRA-ANNUAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND FLOODING AS QUANTIFIED WITH LANDSAT AND MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Broich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a continent subject to high rainfall variability, which has major influences on runoff and vegetation dynamics. However, the resulting spatial-temporal pattern of flooding and its influence on riparian vegetation has not been quantified in a spatially explicit way. Here we focused on the floodplains of the entire Murray-Darling Basin (MDB, an area that covers over 1M km2, as a case study. The MDB is the country’s primary agricultural area with scarce water resources subject to competing demands and impacted by climate change and more recently by the Millennium Drought (1999–2009. Riparian vegetation in the MDB floodplain suffered extensive decline providing a dramatic degradation of riparian vegetation. We quantified the spatial-temporal impact of rainfall, temperature and flooding patters on vegetation dynamics at the subcontinental to local scales and across inter to intra-annual time scales based on three decades of Landsat (25k images, Bureau of Meteorology data and one decade of MODIS data. Vegetation response varied in space and time and with vegetation types, densities and location relative to areas frequently flooded. Vegetation degradation trends were observed over riparian forests and woodlands in areas where flooding regimes have changed to less frequent and smaller inundation extents. Conversely, herbaceous vegetation phenology followed primarily a ‘boom’ and ‘bust’ cycle, related to inter-annual rainfall variability. Spatial patters of vegetation degradation changed along the N-S rainfall gradient but flooding regimes and vegetation degradation patterns also varied at finer scale, highlighting the importance of a spatially explicit, internally consistent analysis and setting the stage for investigating further cross-scale relationships. Results are of interest for land and water management decisions. The approach developed here can be applied to other areas globally such as the Nile river basin and

  3. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2014-01-01

    During the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) sandstones and siltstones were deposited in the epicontinental Larapintine Sea, which covered large parts of central Australia. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone has, for the first time, been sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils to track marine...

  4. Re-evaluation of the Mentelle Basin, a polyphase rifted margin basin, offshore southwest Australia: new insights from integrated regional seismic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maloney

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vintage 2-D (two-dimensional seismic reflection surveys from the sparsely explored Mentelle Basin (western Australian margin have been reprocessed and integrated with a recent high-quality 2-D seismic survey and stratigraphic borehole data. Interpretation of these data sets allows the internal geometry of the Mentelle Basin fill and depositional history to be reanalysed and new insights into its formation revealed. Basin stratigraphy can be subdivided into several seismically defined megasequences separated by major unconformities related to both breakup between India-Madagascar and Australia-Antarctica in the Valanginian-Late Hauterivian and tectonically-driven switches in deposition through the Albian.

    Resting on the Valanginian-Late Hauterivian breakup unconformity are several kilometre-scale mounded structures that formed during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous extension. These have previously been interpreted as volcanic edifices although direct evidence of volcanic feeder systems is lacking. An alternative interpretation is that these features may be carbonate build-ups. The latter interpretation carries significant climatic ramifications since carbonate build-ups would have formed at high palaeolatitude, ~60° S.

    Soon after breakup, initial subsidence resulted in a shallow marine environment and deposition of Barremian-Aptian silty-sandy mudstones. As subsidence continued, thick successions of Albian ferruginous black clays were deposited. Internally, seismic megasequences composed of successions of black clays show previously unresolved unconformities, onlapping and downlapping packages, which reflect a complex depositional, rifting and subsidence history at odds with their previous interpretation as open marine sediments.

    Southwestwards migration of the Kerguelen hotspot led to thermal contraction and subsidence to the present day water depth (~3000 m. This was accompanied by Turonian-Santonian deposition of

  5. Response of groundwater level and surface-water/groundwater interaction to climate variability: Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Raiber, Matthias; Pagendam, Dan; Gilfedder, Mat; Rassam, David

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the response of groundwater levels in alluvial and sedimentary basin aquifers to climatic variability and human water-resource developments is a key step in many hydrogeological investigations. This study presents an analysis of groundwater response to climate variability from 2000 to 2012 in the Queensland part of the sedimentary Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia. It contributes to the baseline hydrogeological understanding by identifying the primary groundwater flow pattern, water-level response to climate extremes, and the resulting dynamics of surface-water/groundwater interaction. Groundwater-level measurements from thousands of bores over several decades were analysed using Kriging and nonparametric trend analysis, together with a newly developed three-dimensional geological model. Groundwater-level contours suggest that groundwater flow in the shallow aquifers shows local variations in the close vicinity of streams, notwithstanding general conformance with topographic relief. The trend analysis reveals that climate variability can be quickly reflected in the shallow aquifers of the Clarence-Moreton Basin although the alluvial aquifers have a quicker rainfall response than the sedimentary bedrock formations. The Lockyer Valley alluvium represents the most sensitively responding alluvium in the area, with the highest declining (-0.7 m/year) and ascending (2.1 m/year) Sen's slope rates during and after the drought period, respectively. Different surface-water/groundwater interaction characteristics were observed in different catchments by studying groundwater-level fluctuations along hydrogeologic cross-sections. The findings of this study lay a foundation for future water-resource management in the study area.

  6. Dermoscopy Clues in Pigmented Bowen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gutiérrez-Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented tumors have similar clinical features that overlap and hamper diagnosis. Dermoscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy of doubtful melanocytic lesions and has been used as a noninvasive tool in the detection of pigmented lesions (PLs like melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD. Our objective was to show the dermoscopic features of 2 cases of pBD and compare with the findings reported in the literature. Two dermoscopic images of biopsy proven pBD were retrospectively analyzed for dermoscopic patterns. Both cases showed brown regular globules, structureless brown and blue pigmentation, glomerular vessels, hypopigmented regression-like areas, and keratosis. These findings were similar to the cases reported previously. The dermoscopic diagnosis of pBD is based on the absence of criteria for a melanocytic lesion in the presence of glomerular vessels, regular brown globules and keratosis. Although pBD is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of PLs, especially melanoma.

  7. Famennian microbial reef facies, Napier and Oscar Ranges, Canning Basin, western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, N P; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2003-01-01

    Following the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, which eliminated most skeletal reef-building fauna, the early Famennian reefs of the Canning Basin were constructed primarily by reef-framework microbial communities. In the Napier and Oscar Ranges, the Famennian reef complexes had high-energy, reef-flat depositional environments on a reef-rimmed platform that transitioned into low-energy, deep-water reefs growing in excess of 50 m below sea level. High-energy, reef-flat depositional environme...

  8. The Murrumbidgee Monitoring Network: Supporting CEOP, GEWEX and Hydrological Research in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, K. M.; Western, A. W.; Walker, J. P.; Sirawardena, L.; Young, R. I.; Smith, A. B.; Flint, A. L.; Summerell, G.

    2006-12-01

    In 2001 a network of 18 soil moisture monitoring sites were installed across the 80,000 square km Murrumbidgee River catchment in Australia with the aim of evaluating the land surface component of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's operational weather forecasting model. Since that time the Murrumbidgee Monitoring Network (MMN) has evolved to include 46 sites for continuous measurement of root-zone soil moisture, soil temperature and precipitation, as well as observations of deep soil moisture and ground water variability. Much of these data will soon be incorporated into the World Climate Research Programme's Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) database (www.ceop.net) marking a substantial new contribution from the Australian continent. This paper provides an overview of the MMN and presents current results from applications in a number of regional-scale research projects including the Murray-Darling Basin GEWEX study and the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06) aimed at improving the retrieval of soil moisture and vegetation parameters from airborne and satellite platforms. The MMN also plays an integral role in the HYDROGRACE project with the objectives of (1) providing the first in-situ based validation of terrestrial water storage observations from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission and (2) improving regional-scale model simulations through data assimilation of GRACE observations. The MMN is part of the broader OzNet hydrological monitoring network throughout eastern Australia. Details on OzNet and the projects mentioned above are provided at www.oznet.unimelb.edu.au.

  9. A high resolution magnetostratigraphic profile across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Southern Sydney Basin, eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belica, M. E.; Tohver, E.; Nicoll, R.; Denyszyn, S. W.; Pisarevsky, S.; George, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) is associated with the largest mass extinction in Phanerozoic geologic history. Despite several decades of intense study, there is ongoing debate regarding the exact timing of extinction and the global correlation of marine and terrestrial P-T sections. The terrestrial record is hampered by a lack of index fossils; however, magnetostratigraphy offers an opportunity for correlation because it relies on the global synchronicity of magnetic reversals. A magnetostratigraphic profile across the Permian-Triassic boundary has been obtained from a stratigraphically continuous terrestrial section in the Southern Sydney Basin of eastern Australia. The 60 m section is located within the Narrabeen Group, which consists of fluvial to lacustrine sandstones and mudstones. Paleomagnetic samples were collected at one meter intervals to determine a detailed reversal record. Samples were stepwise thermally demagnetized to isolate a primary remanence, and magnetic susceptibility was measured in the field at 30 cm intervals with values ranging from -0.047-2.50 (10-3 SI units). Three normal and three reverse magnetozones were detected after removal of a low temperature overprint, and the results show good agreement with the Global Magnetic Polarity Timescale as well as marine Permian-Triassic sections where the PTB is well constrained. Furthermore, a reverse polarity subchron has been identified within the normal magnetozone spanning the PTB similar to results published from the Netherlands and China. The magnetic stratigraphy suggests that the Narrabeen Group was deposited during the late Changhsingian to early Induan, and provides a revised placement of the PTB in the lower Wombarra Claystone. Integration of the magnetostratigraphy with existing isotopic datasets suggests that the terrestrial extinction in eastern Australia occurred 7.5 m below the PTB in the Changhsingian Coalcliff Sandstone. A tuff within a coal seam underlying the Coalcliff

  10. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ali, E-mail: ali.wahid@live.com; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail: mohamed.salim@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan, E-mail: wanismail-wanyusoff@petronas.com.my [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Gaafar, Gamal Ragab, E-mail: gaafargr@gmail.com [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  11. Eocene-Miocene carbon-isotope and floral record from brown coal seams in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Guy R.; McGowran, Brian; Fromhold, Tom; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Sluiter, Ian R. K.; Whitelaw, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The carbon-isotope and palynological record through 580 m thick almost continuous brown coal in southeast Australia's Gippsland Basin is a relatively comprehensive southern hemisphere Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene record for terrestrial change. The carbon isotope δ 13C coal values of these coals range from - 27.7‰ to - 23.2. This isotopic variability follows gymnosperm/angiosperm fluctuations, where higher ratios coincide with heavier δ13C values. There is also long-term variability in carbon isotopes through time. From the Eocene greenhouse world of high gymnosperm-heavier δ13C coal values, there is a progressive shift to lighter δ13C coal values that follows the earliest (Oi1?) glacial events around 33 Ma (Early Oligocene). The overlying Oligocene-Early Miocene brown coals have lower gymnosperm abundance, associated with increased % Nothofagus (angiosperm), and lightening of isotopes during Oligocene cooler conditions. The Miocene palynological and carbon-isotope record supports a continuation to the Oligocene trends until around the late Early Miocene (circa 19 Ma) when a warming commenced, followed by an even stronger isotope shift around 16 Ma that peaked in the Middle Miocene when higher gymnosperm abundance and heavier isotopes prevailed. The cycle between the two major warm peaks of Middle Eocene and Middle Miocene was circa 30 Ma long. This change corresponds to a fall in inferred pCO 2 levels for the same period. The Gippsland data suggest a link between gymnosperm abundance, long-term plant δ13C composition, climatic change, and atmospheric pCO 2. Climatic deterioration in the Late Miocene terminated peat accumulation in the Gippsland Basin and no further significant coals formed in southeast Australia. The poor correspondence between this terrestrial isotope data and the marine isotope record is explained by the dominant control on δ13C by the gymnosperm/angiosperm abundance, although in turn this poor correspondence may reflect palaeoclimate

  12. A Farm-level Decision Support Tool for Irrigation Infrastructure Investment Decisions: Application in Murray Darling Basin of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Hafeez, M.; Mushtaq, S.

    2008-12-01

    Increasing water scarcity, climate change and pressure to provide water for environmental flows urge irrigators to be more efficient in water scarce Murray Darling Basin catchment. In Australia, ongoing water reforms and most recent National Water Security Plan offer incentives to irrigators to adjust their farming practices by adopting water saving irrigation infrastructures to match with soils, crop and climatic conditions. WaterWorks is a decision support tool to facilitate irrigators to make long and short term irrigation infrastructure investment decision at the farm level. It assists irrigators to improve the economic efficiency, water use efficiency and environmental performance of their farm businesses. WaterWorks has been tested, validated and accepted by the irrigation community and researchers in Southern Part of Murray Darling Basin. The interface of WaterWorks is user-friendly and flexible. The simulation and optimisation module in WaterWorks provides an opportunity to evaluate infrastructure investment decisions to suit their seasonal or long-term water availability. The sensitivity analysis allows substantiating the impact of major variables. Net present value, internal rate of return, benefit cost ratio and payback period are used to analyse the costs and benefits of modern irrigation technology. Application of WaterWorks using a whole farm-level case study indicates its effectiveness in making long term and short term investment decisions. WaterWorks can be easily integrated into commercial software such as spreadsheets, GIS, real time data acquisition and control systems to further enhance its usability. WaterWorks can also be used in regional development planning.

  13. Karst Aquifer Recharge: A Case History of over Simplification from the Uley South Basin, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article “Karst aquifer recharge: Comments on ‘Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers’, by Adrian D. Werner, 2014, Water 6, doi:10.3390/w6123727” provides misrepresentation in some parts of Somaratne [1]. The description of Uley South Quaternary Limestone (QL as unconsolidated or poorly consolidated aeolianite sediments with the presence of well-mixed groundwater in Uley South [2] appears unsubstantiated. Examination of 98 lithological descriptions with corresponding drillers’ logs show only two wells containing bands of unconsolidated sediments. In Uley South basin, about 70% of salinity profiles obtained by electrical conductivity (EC logging from monitoring wells show stratification. The central and north central areas of the basin receive leakage from the Tertiary Sand (TS aquifer thereby influencing QL groundwater characteristics, such as chemistry, age and isotope composition. The presence of conduit pathways is evident in salinity profiles taken away from TS water affected areas. Pumping tests derived aquifer parameters show strong heterogeneity, a typical characteristic of karst aquifers. Uley South QL aquifer recharge is derived from three sources; diffuse recharge, point recharge from sinkholes and continuous leakage of TS water. This limits application of recharge estimation methods, such as the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB as the basic premise of the CMB is violated. The conventional CMB is not suitable for accounting chloride mass balance in groundwater systems displaying extreme range of chloride concentrations and complex mixing [3]. Over simplification of karst aquifer systems to suit application of the conventional CMB or 1-D unsaturated modelling as described in Werner [2], is not suitable use of these recharge estimation methods.

  14. Geochemical and stable isotope indicators of paleoenvironmental and climatic conditions from Cenozoic dolocretes in the Hamersley Basin of northwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Caroline; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Grierson, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    Extensive shallow groundwater carbonate deposits composed of dolomite (dolocretes) are ubiquitous within the semi-arid Hamersley Basin of NW Australia. However, dolomite is relatively rare within surficial terrestrial carbonate deposits as precipitation is strongly controlled by reaction kinetics and is inhibited at surface temperatures and pressures. The presence of dolomite within the Hamersley Basin carbonate deposits indicates that specific hydrochemical conditions occurred to overcome kinetic barriers to precipitation, namely elevated Mg/Ca and high salinity and alkalinity. We investigated the sedimentology, geochemistry and stable isotope compositions of dolocrete and groundwater chemistry from several locations in the Hamersley Basin to better understand dolocrete formation processes and produce a multi-proxy archive of the paleoenvironmental conditions. Petrographic and mineralogical analysis is consistent with channel dolocrete formation where dolomite has largely replaced host channel sediments. Authigenic palygorskite was also present in all samples, indicative of the Mg-rich environment. Modelling of the δ18O of paleogroundwater from oxygen isotope compositions of carbonates revealed dolomite precipitated from groundwater with considerably higher δ18O (median = -2.0‰) values compared to modern alluvial groundwater (-8.02 ± 0.83‰). As groundwater δ18O values are strongly correlated (R2=0.93) with salinity, this finding suggests that dolocrete formed from highly saline groundwaters and in an arid climate that prevailed for sufficient time to form dolocrete bodies of tens of metres thick. This ancient dolocrete formation can be constrained by host sediments ages to forming since the mid-late Miocene. In contrast, modern alluvial groundwater is relatively fresh and unlikely to precipitate dolomite. A further indication of a more recent (likely Holocene) shift to fresher waters is the dedolomitization and precipitation of calcite within shallow

  15. Building resilient pathways to transformation when "no one is in charge": insights from Australia's Murray-Darling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Abel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its interactions with complex socioeconomic dynamics dictate the need for decision makers to move from incremental adaptation toward transformation as societies try to cope with unprecedented and uncertain change. Developing pathways toward transformation is especially difficult in regions with multiple contested resource uses and rights, with diverse decision makers and rules, and where high uncertainty is generated by differences in stakeholders' values, understanding of climate change, and ways of adapting. Such a region is the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, from which we provide insights for developing a process to address these constraints. We present criteria for sequencing actions along adaptation pathways: feasibility of the action within the current decision context, its facilitation of other actions, its role in averting exceedance of a critical threshold, its robustness and resilience under diverse and unexpected shocks, its effect on future options, its lead time, and its effects on equity and social cohesion. These criteria could potentially enable development of multiple stakeholder-specific adaptation pathways through a regional collective action process. The actual implementation of these multiple adaptation pathways will be highly uncertain and politically difficult because of fixity of resource-use rights, unequal distribution of power, value conflicts, and the likely redistribution of benefits and costs. We propose that the approach we outline for building resilient pathways to transformation is a flexible and credible way of negotiating these challenges.

  16. A future geodetic monitoring system for vertical land motion in the Perth basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Mick; Featherstone, Will; Morgan, Linda; Schenk, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    SAR imagery. The InSAR component is necessary to avoid reliance on discrete monitoring stations and to provide larger scale mapping of the subsidence. As the framework for an ongoing monitoring programme, images are being acquired from the German Aerospace Centre's (DLR's) TerraSAR-X satellite mission under a collaborative science project among Geoscience Australia, Curtin University of Technology, Landgate and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This programme initially covers ~13 months (up to 30 images) and will provide sufficient data to lay the foundation for ongoing monitoring. This monitoring programme will be used to determine linear and non-linear VLM in Perth at time scales ranging from seasonal to long term over multiple years.

  17. Determination of surface fluxes using a Bowen ratio system | Kakane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Components of the surface fluxes of the energy balance equation were determined using a Campbell Bowen ratio system. ... Soil heat flux (Qg) was measured with ground heat flux plates and the change in energy storage of the layer of soil above the heat flux plates was computed using direct measurements of soil ...

  18. Library Automation in Nigeria: The Bowen University Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An automated library environment is quite different from that of a library whose operations and services are still done manually. The paper shares Bowen University Library, Iwo, Nigeria automation experiences using Open Source Library Management Software, Koha. The paper explains the automation process such as ...

  19. Periungual Bowen's disease successfully treated with photodynamic therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zink, B.S.; Valente, L.; Ortiz, B.; Caldas, A.; Jeunon, T.; Marques-da-Costa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in situ is a malignancy of the skin confined to the epidermis that unusually involves the nail apparatus. The ideal treatment should complete clear the tumor, with preservation of the cosmetics and the function of the finger, which can be very difficult to

  20. Bowen's disease: Report of a case in a Nigerian man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bowen's disease (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ), like other cancers of the skin, is rare in black ... although he might have had brief occupational exposu re to arsenic, it is unlikely that this was the cause ... condition from common skin problems seen in the tropics such as fungal and bacterial skin infections but.

  1. Eccrine porocarcinoma arising within an area of Bowen disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowney, A C

    2012-03-01

    Summary Very little is known about the aetiology of eccrine porocarcinoma (EP), a rare malignant sweat-gland tumour. Most reported cases have arisen de novo, or from a benign eccrine poroma. We report an unusual case, in which eccrine porocarcinoma arose at the exact site of pre-existing Bowen disease (BD).

  2. Late Devonian carbonate magnetostratigraphy from the Oscar and Horse Spring Ranges, Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, Jeroen; Tohver, Eric; Yan, Maodu; Trinajstic, Kate; Roelofs, Brett; Peek, Sarah; Slotznick, Sarah P.; Kirschvink, Joseph; Playton, Ted; Haines, Peter; Hocking, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The Late Devonian was a time of major evolutionary change encompassing the fifth largest mass extinction, the Frasnian-Famennian event. In order to establish a chronological framework for global correlation before, during, and following the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, we carried out a coupled magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of two stratigraphic sections in the Upper Devonian carbonate reef complexes of the Lennard Shelf, in the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Magnetostratigraphy from these rocks provides the first high-resolution definition of the Late Devonian magnetic polarity timescale. A 581-m-reference section and an 82-m overlapping section through the marginal slope facies (Napier Formation) of the Oscar Range as well as a 117-m section at Horse Spring (Virgin Hills Formation) were sampled at decimeter to meter scale for magnetostratigraphy. Conodont biostratigraphy was used to correlate both sections, and link magnetostratigraphic polarity zones to a globally established biostratigraphy. A stable, Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) with dual polarities (NE, shallowly upward and SW, shallowly downward) is recovered from ∼ 60% of all samples, with magnetite inferred to be the chief magnetic carrier from thermal demagnetization characteristics. These directions define a geomagnetic pole at 49.5°S/285.8°E and α95 = 2.4 (n = 501), placing the Canning Basin at 9.9°S during the Late Devonian, consistent with carbonate reef development at this time. A conservative interpretation of the magnetostratigraphy shows the recovery of multiple reversals from both sections, not including possible cryptochrons and short duration magnetozones. Field tests for primary remanence include positive reversal tests and matching magnetozones from an overlapping section in the Oscar Range. A strong correlation was found between magnetic polarity stratigraphies of the Oscar Range and Horse Spring sections, and we correlate 12

  3. COMPOSITION AND OCCURRENCE OF THE GRANDISPORA MACULOSA ZONAL ASSEMBLAGE (MISSISSIPPIAN IN THE SUBSURFACE OF THE CARNARVON BASIN AND THE COOLCALALAYA SUB-BASIN OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA, AND ITS GONDWANAN DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEOFFREY PLAYFORD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Grandispora maculosa miospore assemblage – initially described in 1968 from Middle-Late Mississippian strata of New South Wales (eastern Australia – is well represented in samples examined herein from 10 Western Australian subsurface sections located in the northern Perth Basin (Coolcalalaya Sub-basin and, to its immediate north, in several sub-basins of the southern and northern sectors of the Carnarvon Basin. Of particular stratigraphic-correlative importance is the presence of the eponymous G. maculosa together with, inter alia, Reticulatisporites magnidictyus, Verrucosisporites quasigobbettii, V. gregatus, Apiculiretusispora tersa, Raistrickia accinta, R. radiosa, Foveosporites pellucidus, and Cordylosporites asperidictyus. Four species are newly described herein: Apiculatasporites spiculatus, Dibolisporites sejunctus, Raistrickia corymbiata, and Vallatisporites valentulus. Published accounts from elsewhere in Gondwana collectively signify the widespread dissemination of the G. maculosa palynoflora, particularly through northern and western regions of the supercontinent, thus affording an effective means of intra-Gondwanan stratal correlation. Limited absolute dating and stratigraphic-successional considerations across Gondwana indicate that the age of the G. maculosa Assemblage can be bracketed within the middle Visean-early Serpukhovian of the Middle-Late Mississippian. This age is supported by the complete absence of bilaterally symmetrical, non-striate, saccate pollen grains, produced by walchian conifers, which were introduced globally (including in Australia and near-synchronously late in the Serpukhovian. Cryptogamic land plants (ferns, articulates, lycophytes are the inferred source of the palynoflora.

  4. A comparative study of historical droughts over Texas, USA and Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Factors influencing initialization and cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Ren, Tong; Fernando, D. Nelun

    2017-02-01

    Water availability and food security are tightly coupled on a global scale. The occurrence of drought puts this balance at risk due to reductions in dryland farming production and water allocations to irrigated agriculture. Improved understanding of drought initiation and cessation would therefore be beneficial for drought planning and management. The study objective was to determine factors affecting drought initiation and cessation over the past century in two climatologically similar regions that represent net agricultural exporters; south central U.S. (Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin, MDB). Drought indices included the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, 1900-2014) for meteorological drought, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1981-2014) for agricultural drought, and the Streamflow Drought Index (SDI, 1930-2014) for hydrological drought. Results show that meteorological drought tends to develop gradually over a period of up to six months, with agricultural drought developing shortly thereafter (within one month) in both regions. Evidence of hydrological drought was observed within one month (Texas) and within four months (MDB) on average after meteorological drought was established. Further, droughts appear to cease more quickly than they initiate over Texas, whereas rates of drought initiation and cessation are similar over the MDB. Drought breaking rainfall in Texas is generally a result of a southward shift in the Polar Jet Stream or a low-pressure trough over central North America, whereas drought cessation in the MDB is typically associated with a monsoon trough or low-pressure system in the Tasman Sea/Great Australian Bight. Improved knowledge of the climate mechanisms controlling the onset and termination of drought periods should enhance drought forecasts and improve drought management practices, particularly in regions where water security is a primary objective.

  5. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  6. Socio-hydrologic Modeling to Understand and Mediate the Competition for Water between Humans and Ecosystems: Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Li, Zheng; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    Around the world the demand for water resources is growing in order to satisfy rapidly increasing human populations, leading to competition for water between humans and ecosystems. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling development and evaluation of effective mediation strategies. We present a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. Interactions between patterns of water resources management and climate driven hydrological variability within the prevailing socio-economic environment have contributed to the emergence of new whole system dynamics over the last 100 years. In particular, data analysis reveals a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages of water resources development and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. A quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that explicitly includes the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment, is able to mimic broad features of this pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear differential equations that include four state variables describing the co-evolution of storage capacity, irrigated area, human population, and ecosystem health, which are all connected by feedback mechanisms. The model is used to generate insights into the dominant controls of the trajectory of

  7. The Cadmium Isotope Record of the Great Oxidation Event from the Turee Creek Group, Hamersley Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchami, W.; Busigny, V.; Philippot, P.; Galer, S. J. G.; Cheng, C.; Pecoits, E.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of the ocean, atmosphere and biosphere throughout Earth's history has impacted on the biogeochemistry of some key trace metals that are of particular importance in regulating the exchange between Earth's reservoirs. Several geochemical proxies exhibit isotopic shifts that have been linked to major changes in the oxygenation levels of the ancient oceans during the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE) between 2.45 and 2.2 Ga and the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event at ca. 0.6 Ga. Studies of the modern marine biogeochemical cycle of the transition metal Cadmium have shown that stable Cd isotope fractionation is mainly driven by biological uptake of light Cd into marine phytoplankton in surface waters leaving behind the seawater enriched in the heavy Cd isotopes. Here we use of the potential of this novel proxy to trace ancient biological productivity which remains an enigma, particularly during the early stages of Earth history. The Turee Creek Group in the Hamersley Basin, Australia, provides a continuous stratigraphic sedimentary section covering the GOE and at least two glacial events, offering a unique opportunity to examine the changes that took place during these periods and possibly constrain the evolution, timing and onset of oxygenic photosynthesis. Stable Cd isotope data were obtained on samples from the Boolgeeda Iron Fm. (BIFs), the siliciclastic and carbonate successions of Kungara (including the Meteorite Bore Member) and the Kazputt Fm., using a double spike technique by TIMS (ThermoFisher Triton) and Cd concentrations were determined by isotope dilution. The Boolgeeda BIFs have generally low Cd concentrations varying between 8 and 50ppb, with two major excursions marked by an increase in Cd content, reaching similar levels to those in the overlying Kungarra Fm. (≥150 ppb). These variations are associated with a large range in ɛ112/110Cd values (-2 to +2), with the most negative values typically found in the organic and Cd-rich shales and

  8. Hydrochemical and stable isotope indicators of pyrite oxidation in carbonate-rich environment; the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; McLean, Laura; Skrzypek, Grzegorz

    2017-02-01

    Sulphur (S) is a commonly occurring element in most aquifers, primarily in oxidised (sulphates) and reduced (sulphides) forms. Sulphides often constitute a risk to groundwater quality due to acid rock drainage, especially in catchments that are subject to mining excavations or groundwater injection. However, in semi-arid regions detection of the acid rock drainage risk can be challenging and traditional methods based on observations of increasing SO4 concentrations or SO4/Cl ratios in surface and groundwater, are not necessarily applicable. In addition, decreasing pH, usually accompanying pyrite oxidation, can be masked by the high pH-neutralisation capacity of carbonate and silicate minerals. Analysis of 73 surface and groundwater samples from different water bodies and aquifers located in the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia found that most of the samples are characterised by neutral pH but there was also a large spatial variability in the dissolved sulphate (SO4) concentrations that ranged from 1 mg/L to 15,000 mg/L. Not surprisingly, groundwater in aquifers that contained pyrite had high sulphate concentrations (>1000 mg/L). This was associated with low δ34SSO4 values (+1.2‰ to +4.6‰) and was consistent with the values obtained from aquifer matrix pyritic rock samples (-1.9‰ to +4.4‰). It was also found that the SO4 concentrations and acidity levels were not only dependent on δ34SSO4 values and existence of pyrite but also on the presence of carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix. The groundwater in aquifers containing both pyrite and carbonate minerals had a neutral pH and was also saturated with respect to gypsum and had high magnesium concentrations of up to 2200 mg/L suggesting de-dolomitisation as the process buffering the acidity generated by pyrite oxidation. Based on the findings from this study, a classification scheme has been developed for identification of the acid rock drainage contribution to groundwater that encompasses a myriad of

  9. 3D depositional architecture of a non-tropical carbonate shelf, Eocene-Oligocene, Browse Basin (NW Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuning, L.; Back, S.; Schulz, H.; Hirsch, M.; Kukla, P. A.; Grötsch, J.

    2009-04-01

    Calciclastic gravity-flow deposits accumulated on continental margins can form potentially very important and attractive targets for hydrocarbon exploration. A correct reservoir characterization of calciclastic slope deposits needs a robust understanding of their sedimentary facies and three-dimensional depositional architecture. Conventional 2D grids often lead to a spatial aliasing whenever the size of submarine gullies and canyons is less than the spacing of the grid. In contrast, high-resolution 3D seismic data are ultimately comparable in resolution to those achieved by multi-beam bathymetry of the present seafloor. Seismic data from the western part of the Browse Basin, North West Shelf, Australia, reveal the internal geometry and depositional history of a progradational Eocene-Oligocene non-tropical carbonate shelf. The prograding slope system is superbly imaged by two adjacent, three-dimensional multichannel seismic volumes embedded in a two-dimensional multichannel seismic grid. Based on this data, the three-dimensional stratal architecture of prograding clinoforms can be mapped throughout an area of ~ 1000 km2. During progradation the carbonate slope system develops from a distally steepend carbonate ramp with a linear to sigmoidal slope curvature to a carbonate platform with a concave-upward slope morphology. This change in slope morphology is accompanied by a change in the erosion pattern on the clinoform fronts. The submarine canyons of the linear to sigmoidal slope reach a total length between 7 and 15 km, and their width, measured perpendicular to the flow direction, varies between 1.2 km and 0.6 km. In contrast, the concave-upward slope is characterized by relatively smooth foresets, which are dissected by relatively small gullies. The numerous submarine channels on both slope types define a line-sourced system which develops a sedimentary apron along the carbonate ramp. The relatively high sinuosity of some of the channels is not known from

  10. Spectrophotometry of Bowen resonance fluorescence lines in three planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Miller, Christopher O.

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of a uniquely complete, carefully reduced set of observations of the O III Bowen fluorescence lines in the planetary nebulae NGC 6210, NGC 7027, and NGC 7662. A detailed comparison with the predictions of radiative excitation verify that some secondary lines are enhanced by selective population by the charge exchange mechanism involving O IV. Charge exchange is most important in NGC 6210, which is of significantly lower ionization than the other nebulae. In addition to the principal Bowen lines arising from Ly-alpha pumping of the O III O1 line, lines arising from pumping of the O3 line are also observed. Comparison of lines produced by O1 and O3 with the theoretical predictions of Neufeld indicate poor agreement; comparison with the theoretical predictions of Harrington show agreement with NGC 7027 and NGC 7662.

  11. Multifocal intraepidermal carcinoma in a dog histologically resembling Bowen's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T L; Brimacomb, B H

    1986-12-01

    A middle-aged, spayed female dog developed multiple cutaneous neoplasms that had clinical and histologic features of Bowen's disease in humans. Although lesions began in sun-exposed, glabrous skin, they progressed to hairy skin and to mucous membranes. Metastasis did not occur, although one lesion eventuated in local invasion of bone. The dog subsequently developed metastatic cutaneous myxosarcoma and euthanasia was requested by the owners.

  12. The Geometric Approach for Constructing Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climenhaga, Vaughn; Luzzatto, Stefano; Pesin, Yakov

    2017-02-01

    An important class of `physically relevant' measures for dynamical systems with hyperbolic behavior is given by Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen (SRB) measures. We survey various techniques for constructing SRB measures and studying their properties, paying special attention to the geometric `push-forward' approach. After describing this approach in the uniformly hyperbolic setting, we review recent work that extends it to non-uniformly hyperbolic systems.

  13. EVALUATION OF CATROSAT 1PAN STEREO AND RESOURCESAT LISS 4 MSS MERGED DATA FOR MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS, DELINEATION OF DRAINAGE BASINS AND CODIFICATION IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA AND AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    as well as visual interpretation in conjunction with village cadastral maps has been studied. This research will be useful to consider creation of digital micro watershed atlas for management and protecting area affected by floods as well as for water and land resource management of the River basins in Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria states of Australia. The research explains the need of using stream orders, delineation and codification micro watersheds based the principles of Dr.A.N.Khosla. This methodology was used in creation of web site of Districts soil water sheds atlas of Tamil Nadu state. With this principal of codification and delineation of watersheds based on stream order using stereo data of Cartosat 1 PAN 2.5 m data merged with Resourcesat LISS 4 data of 5.5m resolution and updating latest changes as on 2011 with non stereo Geo eye data of 0.5m resolution it is possible to create Australian micro water sheds GIS with deatils of streams with various stream orders, drainage pattern, slope, micro water sheds boundary in 1:5000 scale to manage the flood prone drainage basin in Australia. The High resolution data of satellites data apart from creation Micro watersheds GIS can be used for creation of Urban and Argicultural land parcel owenership details in Micro watershed GIS.

  14. Response of riparian vegetation across Australia's largest river basin to inter and intra-annual flooding: dynamics quantified from time series of Landsat and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Tulbure, M. G.; Keith, D.; Kingsford, R.; Lucas, R.; Lippmann, T.

    2014-12-01

    Australia is a continent subject to high rainfall variability. The resulting spatial-temporal pattern of flooding and its influence on riparian vegetation has not been quantified. Here we focused on the floodplains of the entire Murray-Darling Basin (MDB; 72 Landsat path-rows) of Australia as a case study. The MDB is the country's primary agricultural area with scarce water resources impacted by climate change and extensive zones with degrading riparian vegetation. We advance our understanding of the relationship between climate-driven flooding dynamics and vegetation response at the sub-continental to local and inter to intra-annual scale based on two decades of Landsat and one decade of MODIS imagery. We Landsat TM and ETM+ data to synoptically map spatially detailed dynamics of flooding with an internally consistent machine learning algorithm. We derived riparian phenology (Fig 1) from MODIS data and attributed differences in vegetation response to flooding dynamics, vegetation types and sub-basin land use. Vegetation community response to flooding varied in space and time and with vegetation types, densities and location relative to areas frequently flooded. Phenological degradation trends were observed over riparian forests and woodlands in the middle and lower parts of the basin that are primarily farmed and were we identified flooding regimes to have changed the most to less frequent and smaller inundation extents. Conversely, herbaceous vegetation phenology followed primarily a boom and bust cycle related to less extensive flooding dynamics. This pattern was found across different areas of the basin. As expected, flooding regimes and vegetation response patterns were fine grained confirming the choice of a spatially explicit, internally consistent analysis leading the path for ongoing monitoring. Remote sensing-based monitoring of the response of riparian vegetation to flooding can be used to quantify spatially explicit changes in vegetation community

  15. Trace-element systematics of sediments in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Sediment provenance and palaeoclimate implications of fine scale chemical heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Samuel K., E-mail: s.marx@uq.edu.au [Climate Research Group, School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Kamber, Balz S. [Department of Earth Sciences, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E2C6 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    A high-resolution dataset of trace element concentrations is presented for the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, Australia's most important river system. The data were obtained by solution quadrupole ICP-MS resulting in concentrations for 44 elements. Of these, 21 were determined with a long-term external precision of better than 1% and a further 13 at a precision better than 2%. Trace element maps for the surface sediments constructed from such high precision data reveal small but coherent variations in the four major sub-catchments of the basin, even in ratios of elements with very similar geochemical behaviour, such as Y/Ho, Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf. The origin of these chemical fingerprints of drainage systems are discussed in terms of the geochemical character of the upper continental crust. The potential of trace element maps for palaeo-environmental and climatic reconstruction is then illustrated. First, a sample of dust collected in a trap located in the far southeastern corner of the study area is used to pinpoint the location of the dust source. Next the fine-scale change in down-stream alluvial sediment chemistry is analysed to estimate the importance of sediment contribution from tributaries with a view to reconstructing river flow dynamics. Finally, the chemistry of dune sediments is compared with surrounding floodplain alluvium to estimate relative age of deposition. These examples demonstrate that in low-elevation river systems, such as the Murray-Darling Basin, extended trace element maps of sediment offer substantially more applications than radiogenic isotope data alone.

  16. Petroleum hydrogeology of the Cooper and Eromanga basins, Australia: Some insights from mathematical modeling and fluid inclusion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toupin, D.; Morin, P.; Eadington, P.J. [CSIRO, North Ryde (Australia)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Mathematical modeling and fluid inclusion data analysis are used to reconstruct the petroleum hydrogeology of the Australian Cooper and Eromanga basins. Our analysis focuses on the development of topography- and compaction-driven groundwater flow systems and their role in heat redistribution, petroleum generation, and oil and brine migration during basin evolution. Finite-element models of basin transport processes are constructed along northeast-southwest (AA{prime}) and northwest-southeast (BB{prime}) cross sections that generally follow the present-day groundwater flow patterns through these basins. Numerical results are presented in the form of three-dimensional evolving geologic fence diagrams. The most significant feature of basin paleohydrology was the development of topography-driven flow systems associated with two separate mountain-building events during the Tertiary and Pliocene-Holocene. Computed convective heat transfer effects resulting from these paleogroundwater flow systems produced thermal anomalies as high as 40{degrees}C in recharge and discharge areas, causing source beds to attain peak oil generation in some areas. Computed oil heads also suggest that the Tertiary flow system may have focused oil migration in Eromanga carrier beds for hundreds of kilometers toward structural traps overlying the southern end of the Cooper basin. Computed saltwater heads indicate that the Tertiary and, to a lesser extent, the Pliocene-Holocene topography-driven flow systems probably also were responsible for flushing basinal brines out of the Copper basin. Quantitative results are consistent with {sup 36}Cl groundwater age measurements, vitrinite reflectance data, present-day geothermal gradient and groundwater salinity data, fluid inclusion paleosalinity data, and the location of proven oil reserves in the southern Cooper basin.

  17. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is

  18. Pockmark development in the Petrel Sub-basin, Timor Sea, Northern Australia: Seabed habitat mapping in support of CO2 storage assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, W. A.; Nichol, S. L.; Howard, F. J. F.; Picard, K.; Dulfer, H.; Radke, L. C.; Carroll, A. G.; Tran, M.; Siwabessy, P. J. W.

    2014-07-01

    The extent to which fluids may leak from sedimentary basins to the seabed is a critical issue for assessing the potential of a basin for carbon capture and storage. The Petrel Sub-basin, located beneath central and eastern Joseph Bonaparte Gulf in tropical northern Australia, was identified as potentially suitable for the geological storage of CO2 because of its geological characteristics and proximity to offshore gas and petroleum resources. In May 2012, a multidisciplinary marine survey (SOL5463) was undertaken to collect data in two targeted areas of the Petrel Sub-basin to facilitate an assessment of its CO2 storage potential. This paper focuses on Area 1 of that survey, a 471 km2 area of sediment-starved shelf (water depths of 78 to 102 m), characterised by low-gradient plains, low-lying ridges, palaeo-channels and shallow pockmarks. Three pockmark types are recognised: small shallow unit pockmarks 10-20 m in diameter (generally <1 m, rarely to 2 m deep), composite pockmarks of 150-300 m diameter formed from the co-location of several cross-cutting pockmarks forming a broad shallow depression (<1 m deep), and pockmark clusters comprised of shallow unit pockmarks co-located side by side (150-300 m width overall, <1 m deep). Pockmark distribution is non-random, focused within and adjacent to palaeo-channels, with pockmark clusters also located adjacent to ridges. Pockmark formation is constrained by AMS 14C dating of in situ mangrove deposits and shells to have begun after 15.5 cal ka BP when a rapid marine transgression of Bonaparte Shelf associated with meltwater pulse 1A drowned coastal mangrove environments. Pockmark development is likely an ongoing process driven by fluid seepage at the seabed, and sourced from CO2 produced in the shallow sub-surface (<2 m) sediment. No evidence for direct connection to deeper features was observed.

  19. Dermoscopy of Bowen's disease: pigmented variant on the penis Dermatoscopia da doença de Bowen: variante pigmentada no pênis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ishioka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented Bowen's disease (PBD is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma in situ and represents less than 2% of cases of Bowen's disease. It is characterized by a sharply demarcated, pigmented plaque with a scaly or crusted surface on intertriginous and genital areas. The authors describe a case of PBD on the penis and analyze the dermoscopic aspects of this type of lesion.A doença de Bowen Pigmentada (DBP é uma variante do carcinoma espinocelular in situ e compreende menos de 2% dos casos da Doença de Bowen. Apresenta-se como placa pigmentada, hiperqueratósica, delimitada, localizada em áreas intertriginosas e anogenital. Os autores descrevem um caso de DBP no pênis e abordam os aspectos dermatoscópicos dessa lesão.

  20. The Reverend Thomas Jefferson Bowen: An Introductory Background to His Linguistic Works, 1850-1856

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoniyi, Timothy A.

    1974-01-01

    A historical narrative background for the linguistic works of Thomas Jefferson Bowen, an American missionary who was the first non-Nigerian to publish a grammar of Yoruba (1858). The author points up a need for further scholarly review of Bowen's pioneering work and contribution to Yoruba studies. (JT)

  1. Investigating the effect of plate-mantle interaction in basin creation and associated drainage systems: insights from the North West Shelf of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, S.; Gallagher, S. J.; Moresi, L. N.; Salles, T.; Rey, P. F.; Payenberg, T.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of plate-mantle dynamics on surface topography has increasingly being recognized. This concept is particularly useful for the understanding of the links between plate-mantle dynamics, continental break up and the creation of sedimentary basins and their associated drainage systems. To unravel these links back in time we present an approach that uses numerical models and the geological record. The sedimentary basins of the North West Shelf (NWS) of Australia contain an exceptional record of the Permian to early Cretaceous polyphased rifting of Australia from Greater India, which is in turn associated with the breakup of Gondwana. This record and the relative tectonic quiescence of the Australian Continent since the Late Cretaceous make the NWS a great natural laboratory for investigating the interaction between mantle dynamics, plate tectonics and drainage patterns. Furthermore, as a result of the extensive petroleum exploration and production in the area a uniquely large dataset containing seismic, lithologic, biostratigraphic and detrital zircon information is already available. This study will first focus on augmenting zircon datasets to refine the current conceptual models of paleodrainage systems associated with the NWS. Current conceptual models of drainage patterns suggest the previous existance of large transcontinental rivers that transported sediments from Antarctica and India, rather than from more proximal Australian sources. From a mass-balance point of view this model seems reasonable, as large transcontinental rivers would be required to transport the significant volume of sediments that are deposited in the thick (15km) sedimentary sequences of the NWS. Coupling of geodynamic (Underworld) and landscape-dynamics (Badlands) models will allow us to numerically test the likelihood of this conceptual model and also to present and integrated approach to investigate the link between deep Earth processes and surficial processes.

  2. Application of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, in the Murray-Darling Basin (southeastern Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    The Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) is currently one of the most popular pre-screening tools for freshwater fishes. A recent upgrade has ensured its wider climatic relevance to countries with subtropical regions. This enhancement is of particular importance to Australia, which encompasses tropical, arid, and temperate zones, and where the introduction of non-native fish species poses a significant risk to biodiversity. In this study, 55 fish species previously evaluated in a U.K.-based calibration of FISK are reassessed for their potential invasiveness in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB; southeastern Australia), the continent's largest catchment encompassing arid and temperate climates. Approximately half of the species were classed as "medium risk" and the other half as "high risk," and the ≥19 threshold previously identified from the calibration study was confirmed. The three highest scoring species (common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio, goldfish Carassius auratus, and eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki) were those already present and invasive in the area, whereas nearly half of the tropical and subtropical species had lower scores compared to U.K. assessments, possibly because of climate change predictions of drier conditions across the MDB. There were some discordances between FISK and two Australian-based assessment protocols, one of which is qualitative and the other represents a simplified version of FISK. Notably, the Australian origins of FISK should provide for an additional reason for further applications of the tool in other RA areas (i.e., drainage basins) of the continent, ultimately encouraging adoption as the country's reference screening tool for management and conservation purposes. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Geochemical reconstruction of the provenance, weathering and deposition of detrital-dominated sediments in the Perth Basin: The Cretaceous Leederville Formation, south-west Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descourvieres, Carlos; Douglas, Grant; Leyland, Lucy; Hartog, Niels; Prommer, Henning

    2011-05-01

    The deep (> 10 km) Permian to present day Perth Basin in southwest Western Australia is composed of sedimentary successions of continental to shallow marine origin. This study examines the compositional variation, weathering and provenance of the early Cretaceous Leederville Formation within the Perth Basin. Over 200 sediment samples were retrieved from two deep boreholes of ~ 350 to 530 m in depth encompassing the Leederville Formation, and analysed for major and trace element geochemistry and mineralogy. The Leederville Formation is composed of subarkosic sands, predominantly composed of quartz (64%) and K-feldspars (27%); silts and clays composed of kaolinite (24-54%), K-feldspars (20-29%) and quartz (18-40%), with their compositional variation reflecting weathering, hydraulic sorting during transport, mostly subaqueous deposition and subsequent diagenesis. Most trace elements are associated with fine grained lithologies due to their occurrence within clays, sulphide or zircon. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests a typical passive margin origin with minimal intrabasinal sediment recycling. The regionally extensive Yilgarn Craton, appears to be the main sediment source for the Leederville Formation within the study area.

  4. Response of Riparian Vegetation in Australia's Largest River Basin to Inter and Intra-Annual Climate Variability and Flooding as Quantified with Landsat and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Tulbure, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Australia is a continent subject to high rainfall variability, which has major influences on runoff and vegetation dynamics. However, the resulting spatial-temporal pattern of flooding and its influence on riparian vegetation has not been quantified in a spatially explicit way. Here we focused on the floodplains of the entire Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), an area that covers over 1M km^2, as a case study. The MDB is the country's primary agricultural area with scarce water resources subject to competing demands and impacted by climate change and more recently by the Millennium Drought (1999-2009). Riparian vegetation in the MDB floodplain suffered extensive decline providing a dramatic degradation of riparian vegetation. We quantified the spatial-temporal impact of rainfall, temperature and flooding patters on vegetation dynamics at the sub- continental to local scales and across inter to intra-annual time scales based on three decades of Landsat (25k images), Bureau of Meteorology data and one decade of MODIS data. Vegetation response varied in space and time and with vegetation types, densities and location relative to areas frequently flooded. Vegetation degradation trends were observed over riparian forests and woodlands in areas where flooding regimes have changed to less frequent and smaller inundation extents. Conversely, herbaceous vegetation phenology followed primarily a 'boom' and 'bust' cycle, related to inter-annual rainfall variability. Spatial patters of vegetation degradation changed along the N-S rainfall gradient but flooding regimes and vegetation degradation patterns also varied at finer scale, highlighting the importance of a spatially explicit, internally consistent analysis and setting the stage for investigating further cross-scale relationships. Results are of interest for land and water management decisions. The approach developed here can be applied to other areas globally such as the Nile river basin and Okavango River delta in Africa or

  5. Using remote sensing time series to model the impact of changing flooding regimes on riparian vegetation in Australia's most important river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Tulbure, M. G.; Verbesselt, J.; Xin, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Australia is a continent subject to high rainfall variability, which has major influences on runoff and vegetation dynamics. However, the resulting spatial-temporal pattern of flooding and its influence on riparian vegetation has not been quantified in a spatially explicit way. Here we focused on the floodplains of the entire Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), an area that covers over 1M km2, as a case study. The MDB is the country's primary agricultural area with scarce water resources subject to competing demands and impacted by climate change and more recently by the Millennium Drought (1999-2009). Riparian vegetation in the MDB floodplain suffered extensive decline providing a dramatic degradation of riparian vegetation. We quantified the spatial-temporal impact of rainfall, temperature and flooding patters on vegetation dynamics at the subcontinental to local scales and across inter to intra-annual time scales based on three decades of Landsat (25k images), Bureau of Meteorology data and one decade of MODIS data. Vegetation response varied in space and time and with vegetation types, densities and location relative to areas frequently flooded. Vegetation degradation trends were observed over riparian forests and woodlands in areas where flooding regimes have changed to less frequent and smaller inundation extents. Conversely, herbaceous vegetation phenology followed primarily a `boom' and `bust' cycle, related to inter-annual rainfall variability. Spatial patters of vegetation degradation changed along the N-S rainfall gradient but flooding regimes and vegetation degradation patterns also varied at finer scale, highlighting the importance of a spatially explicit, internally consistent analysis and setting the stage for investigating further cross-scale relationships. Results are of interest for land and water management decisions. The approach developed here can be applied to other areas globally such as the Nile river basin and Okavango River delta in Africa or the

  6. Deep structure offshore Eastern Australia from wide-angle seismic data: what controls crustal segmentation along the rifted oceanic basins and the Lord Howe Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, Flora; Fujie, Gou; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Boston, Brian; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Hackney, Ron; Saito, Saneatsu; Shiraishi, Kazuya; Kaiho, Yuka; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Nichol, Scott; Bernardel, George; Mitchell, Cameron

    2017-04-01

    The eastern Australian margin was shaped during the fragmentation of eastern Gondwana in the Late Cretaceous. This led to the opening of the Tasman Basin and to the formation of sub-parallel ridges and basins, including the Lord Howe Rise. The driving forces controlling the rifting are not fully understood and two processes can be invoked: slab rollback associated with upper-plate extension or a plume impinging on the lithosphere. However, the deep structure of the area is still unknown. In March-April 2016 using the R/V Kairei, the first large-scale crustal experiment of this region was conducted by JAMSTEC and Geoscience Australia with the deployment of 100 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) along a 680km profile at 27.2°S. The OBSs register clear refracted arrivals from the crust and the mantle that are recorded at very large offsets (up to 300km). The important variation in the offset of the triplication point between these two refracted arrivals suggests strong crustal thickness variation along the profile. We performed first-arrival tomographic inversion using two initial models with almost uniform lateral layering: (a) a four-layer model using the two-way reflection travel times from the basement interpreted from the multi-channel seismic data and (b) a five-layer model including a Moho interface, thereby allowing inversion of Moho reflections interpreted from the OBS data. The final tomographic Vp model confirms the strong variations in crustal thickness and allows the identification of distinct crustal domains along the profile: the Tasman Basin is an oceanic domain with 6 to 8km thick crust; further east a thicker crust is present below the Dampier Ridge (18-21km) where granitic rocks have been dredged; directly east of the Dampier Ridge the crust thins to 8km below the Middleton Basin, and the northern Lord Howe Rise is floored by a 24km thick crust. Below the northern Lord Howe Rise, lateral variations in upper-crustal velocities are observed with some

  7. Basin-wide sediment interactions between channels, floodplains and dunes in a large, dryland river system, central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccleshall, Sarah; Jansen, John; Fujioka, Toshiyuki; Codilean, Alexandru; Mifsud, Charles

    2015-04-01

    Low, flat terrain (slope 400 kyr) implied in the 'storage' hypothesis. The 26Al/10Be ratio has been used to identify a complex exposure history, such as one including burial, where a lower offset in 26Al/10Be ratio from the expected production-rate ratio of 6.8 can be converted to a burial age. Eleven detrital samples were collected along the full length of the Cooper, plus three surface samples from source-bordering dunes in the lowermost reach. We discuss our preliminary findings with regard to sediment burial and long-term interactions in the river-dune systems of central Australia. References: 1Willenbring, J. K., Codilean, A. T., Ferrier, K. L., McElroy, B., & Kirchner, J. W. (2014). Short Communication: Earth is (mostly) flat, but mountains dominate global denudation: apportionment of the continental mass flux over millennial time scales, revisited. Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions, 2(1), 1-17. 2Magee, J. W., Miller, G. H., Spooner, N. A., & Questiaux, D. (2004). Continuous 150 ky monsoon record from Lake Eyre, Australia: insolation-forcing implications and unexpected Holocene failure. Geology, 32(10), 885-888. 3Jansen, J. D., Nanson, G. C., Cohen, T. J., Fujioka, T., Fabel, D., Larsen, J. R., Codilean, A. T., Price, D.M, Bowman, H. H., May, J-H. & Gliganic, L. A. (2013). Lowland river responses to intraplate tectonism and climate forcing quantified with luminescence and cosmogenic 10Be. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 366, 49-58.

  8. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  9. Environmental conditions and microbial community structure during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event; a multi-disciplinary study from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaak, Gemma; Edwards, Dianne S.; Foster, Clinton B.; Pagès, Anais; Summons, Roger E.; Sherwood, Neil; Grice, Kliti

    2017-12-01

    The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) is regarded as one of the most significant evolutionary events in the history of Phanerozoic life. The present study integrates palynological, petrographic, molecular and stable isotopic (δ13C of biomarkers) analyses of cores from four boreholes that intersected the Goldwyer Formation, Canning Basin, Western Australia, to determine depositional environments and microbial diversity within a Middle Ordovician epicontinental, tropical sea. Data from this study indicate lateral and temporal variations in lipid biomarker assemblages extracted from Goldwyer Formation rock samples. These variations likely reflect changing redox conditions between the upper (Unit 4) and lower (Units 1 + 2) Goldwyer, which is largely consistent with existing depositional models for the Goldwyer Formation. Cryptospores were identified in Unit 4 in the Theia-1 well and are most likely derived from bryophyte-like plants, making this is the oldest record of land plants in Australian Middle Ordovician strata. Biomarkers in several samples from Unit 4 that also support derivation from terrestrial organic matter include benzonaphthofurans and δ13C-depleted mid-chain n-alkanes. Typical Ordovician marine organisms including acritarchs, chitinozoans, conodonts and graptolites were present in the lower and upper Goldwyer Formation, whereas the enigmatic organism Gloeocapsomorpha prisca (G. prisca) was only detected in Unit 4. The correlation of a strong G. prisca biosignature with high 3-methylhopane indices and 13C depleted G. prisca-derived chemical fossils (biomarkers) is interpreted to suggest an ecological relationship between methanotrophs and G. prisca. This research contributes to a greater understanding of Ordovician marine environments from a molecular perspective since few biomarker studies have been undertaken on age-equivalent sections. Furthermore, the identification of the oldest cryptospores in Australia and their corresponding

  10. The use of environmental tracers to determine focused recharge from a saline disposal basin and irrigation channels in a semiarid environment in Southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, T. C.; Webb, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    Lake Tutchewop in southeastern Australia is a former ephemeral wetland that has been used as a saline disposal basin since 1968, forming part of the salinity management of the Murray River. The extent of saline focused recharge from Lake Tutchewop and fresh recharge from nearby unlined irrigation channels was determined using pore water and groundwater stable isotope and major ion chemistry, which were able to separate the influence of lake water, irrigation water and regional groundwater. In ∼45 years, saline water from Lake Tutchewop has infiltrated only up to 165 m from the lake edge in most directions, due to the underlying relatively impermeable clay-rich sediments, and a maximum of 700 m due to preferential groundwater flow along a sandy palaeochannel. The saline leakage has had limited, if any, impact on surrounding agricultural land use. Fresh water leakage from unlined irrigation channels extends up to 10 m deep, validating the current program to replace these channels with pipelines. This study demonstrates that focused recharge from different sources can be positively identified where the recharge waters have distinctive compositions, and that underlying clay-rich sediments restrict the extent of seepage. Therefore, management of focused recharge sources, particularly those that could decrease groundwater quality, requires a detailed knowledge of both the groundwater composition around the site and the underlying geology.

  11. Using 14C and 3H to delineate a recharge 'window' into the Perth Basin aquifers, North Gnangara groundwater system, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Karina; Cendón, Dioni I; Pigois, Jon-Philippe; Hollins, Suzanne; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The Gnangara Mound and the underlying Perth Basin aquifers are the largest source of groundwater for the southwest of Australia, supplying between 35 and 50% of Perth's potable water (2009-2010). However, declining health of wetlands on the Mound coupled with the reduction in groundwater levels from increased irrigation demands and drier climatic conditions means this resource is experiencing increased pressures. The northern Gnangara is an area where the Yarragadee aquifer occurs at shallow depths (~50 m) and is in direct contact with the superficial aquifer, suggesting the possibility of direct recharge into a generally confined aquifer. Environmental isotopes ((14)C and (3)H) and hydrochemical modelling were used to assess the presence of a recharge 'window' as well as understand the groundwater residence time within different aquifers. Forty-nine groundwater samples were collected from depths ranging from 11 to 311 m below ground surface. The isotopic variation observed in the superficial aquifer was found to be controlled by the different lithologies present, i.e. quartz-rich Bassendean Sand and carbonate-rich sediments of the Ascot Formation. Rainfall recharge into the Bassendean Sand inherits its dissolved inorganic carbon from the soil CO(2). Organic matter throughout the soil profile is degraded by oxidation leading to anoxic/acidic groundwater, which if in contact with the Ascot Formation leads to enhanced dissolution of carbonates. Hydrochemical mass balance modelling showed that carbonate dissolution could contribute 1-2 mmol kg(-1) of carbon to groundwaters recharged through the Ascot Formation. The corrected groundwater residence times of the Yarragadee aquifer in the northern part of the study area ranged from 23 to 35 ka, while waters in the southeastern corner ranged from sub-modern to 2 ka. Groundwater ages increase with distance radiating from the recharge 'window'. This study delineates a recharge 'window' into the commonly presumed confined

  12. Socio-hydrologic drivers of the pendulum swing between agricultural development and environmental health: a case study from Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, J.; Sounthararajah, D.; Sivabalan, P.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a case study centred on the Murrumbidgee River basin in eastern Australia. It illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production, and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. In particular, the paper traces the history of a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, subsequent efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. The 100-year history of development within the Murrumbidgee is divided into four eras, each underpinned by the dominance of different values and norms and turning points characterized by their changes. The various stages of development can be characterized by the dominance, in turn, of infrastructure systems, policy frameworks, economic instruments, and technological solutions. The paper argues that, to avoid these costly pendulum swings, management needs to be underpinned by long-term coupled socio-hydrologic system models that explicitly include the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including the slow evolution of human values and norms relating to water and the environment. Such coupled human-water system models can provide insights into dominant controls of the trajectory of their co-evolution in a given system, and can also be used to interpret patterns of co-evolution of such coupled systems in different places across gradients of climatic, socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions, and in this way to help develop generalizable understanding.

  13. Socio-hydrologic Modeling to Understand and Mediate the Competition for Water between Humans and Ecosystems: Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in coming decades in all parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. Interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability within the prevailing socio-economic environment have contributed to the emergence of new whole system dynamics over the last 100 years. In particular, data analysis reveals a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages of water resource development and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. A quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that explicitly includes the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment, is able to mimic broad features of this pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear differential equations that include four state variables describing the co-evolution of storage capacity, irrigated area, human population, and ecosystem health. The model is used to generate insights into the dominant controls of the trajectory of co-evolution of the coupled human-water system, to serve as the theoretical framework for more detailed analysis of

  14. Socio-hydrologic drivers of the Pendulum Swing between agriculture development and environmental health: a case study from Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, J.; Sounthararajah, D.; Sivabalan, P.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. In particular the paper traces the history of a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. The 100 yr history of development within Murrumbidgee is divided into four eras, each underpinned by the dominance of different norms/goals and turning points characterized by their changes. The various stages of development can be characterized by the dominance, in turn, of infrastructure systems, policy frameworks, economic instruments, and technological solutions. The paper argues that, to avoid these costly pendulum swings, management needs to be underpinned by long-term coupled socio-hydrologic system models that explicitly include the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment. Such coupled human-water system models can provide insights into dominant controls of the trajectory of their co-evolution in a given system, and can also be used to interpret patterns of co-evolution of such coupled systems in different places across gradients of climatic, socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions, and in this way to help develop generalizable understanding.

  15. Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Implications for the management of environmental flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

  16. Limitations of Ber-EP4 for distinction of Bowen disease from basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Marta; Toberer, Ferdinand; Enk, Alexander H; Hassel, Jessica C

    2016-04-01

    Diagnostic differentiation between Bowen disease a variant of squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCIS) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) can be difficult on the basis of hematoxylin and eosin (routine) staining in small or fragmented biopsy samples. Ber-EP4 staining is diagnostically reliable for differentiation between BCC and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma [Dasgeb et al. Biomark Cancer, 5: 7, (2013); Tellechea et al. Am J Dermatopathol, 15: 452 (1993)]. The objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of Ber-EP4 staining for differentiation of SCCIS from BCC. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry with a Ber-EP4 antibody in 76 cases of Bowen type of SCCIS. As positive controls we selected 16 cases of BCC. A positive reaction was obtained for Ber-EP4 in the secretory portion of eccrine and apocrine glands and in follicular germinative cells at the lower end of catagen hairs of normal skin tissue. All BCC samples tested were positive. Of the Bowen type SCCIS samples, 26.3% reacted positively (at least 5% positive staining of neoplastic cells). In 3/76 cases (3.9%) more than 50% of the tumor cells expressed Ber-EP4. We conclude that Ber-EP4 expression is not always helpful to distinguish between Bowen type of SCCIS and BCC, as Ber-EP4 expression in Bowen type SCCIS is not infrequent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Spatial and temporal dynamic of flooding and vegetation response to flooding using remotely sensed data in the Murray -Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Mirela; Kingsford, Richard; Broich, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Australia is the driest inhabited continent and river systems have highly variable flows in space and time. The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), a catchment covering 14% of the continent contains the nation's largest rivers and important groundwater systems. The basin has highly variable rainfall patterns in space and time and is home to several wetlands of high hydrological and ecological value. However, variation in surface and ground water availability exacerbated by a long period of drought, combined with high water demands for irrigation, human use, and ecosystem health led to the need of managing water resources in an integrated fashion. Flushes of water, stored in dams, are being released during dry periods as environmental flows. Assessment of water resources and understanding of the effectiveness of environmental flows requires knowledge of long term trends in occurrence and extent of surface water and vegetation response to flooding and environmental flows. Satellite remote sensing is the only viable way for synoptically mapping and monitoring the extent and dynamic of flooding and vegetation response to flooding. Recent La Nina -induced extreme flooding broke a decade long of drought and made 2010 the wettest calendar year on record in the MDB. This represents a unique opportunity to develop predictive models relating flow regime to vegetation response and identify trends over long term and across a large space in a drying yet highly variable climate. Using an internally consistent method, Landsat TM and ETM+ data were used to synoptically map the extent and dynamic of surface water bodies and track the response of vegetation communities to flooding in space and time at Barmah-Millewa, the largest river red gum forest in the world and one of the icon sites in the MDB. Per pixel trajectory of surface water and vegetation index time series were used. Results show high interannual variability in number and size of flooded areas and a strong relationship with

  18. A new method to measure Bowen ratios using high-resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, T.; Luxemburg, W.M.J.; Everson, C.S.; Mengistu, M.G.; Clulow, A.D.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Bowen ratio surface energy balance method is a relatively simple method to determine the latent heat flux and the actual land surface evaporation. The Bowen ratio method is based on the measurement of air temperature and vapour pressure gradients. If these measurements are performed at only two

  19. A new method to measure bowen ratios using high resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, T.; Luxemburg, W.; Everson, C.; Mengistu, M.; Clulow, A.; Bastiaanssen, W.

    2013-01-01

    The Bowen ratio surface energy balance method is a relatively simple method to determine the latent heat flux and the actual land surface evaporation. Despite its simplicity, the Bowen ratio method is generally considered to be unreliable due to the use of two-level sensors that are installed by

  20. Towards area wide management of insect vectored viruses of tomatoes in the Bowen district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P R; Cremer, J E; Roach, R L; Steele, V; Subramaniam, S; Sivasubramaniam, V; Monsour, C; Mullins, T; Persley, D M; Gambley, C F

    2017-09-15

    The Bowen region of Northern Queensland is an important winter production area for tomatoes in Australia. There are three economically important viruses in the region that affect tomato, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), which are vectored by whiteflies, thrips and aphids, respectively. An area wide management approach is required to lower the primary inoculum throughout the district. To this end, we undertook investigations into the virus incidence and alternative hosts for the virus and vectors in different cropping regions throughout the district, as well as local management options such as insecticide application and possible non-host cover crops for the wet-season break in production. The initial incidence of Potato leafroll virus was very high, most probably due to abnormal weather patterns for the district, and has ceased to be a problem. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus is a continual problem even at the beginning of the season, indicating large reservoir host(s) in the environment. Only four alternative hosts have been identified: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (TSWV), Solanum americanum (PLRV and TYLCV) Trianthema portulacastrum (TYLCV), and Amaranthus viridis(TLYCV). Different insecticide and application options were trialled for protection against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, with the best possible option yielding marketable fruit more than ninety percent of a resistant hybrid. A trial of yield vs time of infection of TYLCV found that whitefly exclusion for 6 weeks post-transplant yielded an average increase of nearly three kilograms of marketable fruit per plant. A number of pulse crops have been confirmed as non-hosts of tomato yellow leaf curl for use as cover crops in the wet-season break. Most of the production has moved to dual resistant TYLCV/TSWV hybrids, though an area wide management program still needs to be established to reduce the primary inoculum throughout the district

  1. Bowen's disease: report of a case in a Nigerian man | Yahya | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bowen's disease (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ), like other cancers of the skin, is rare in black people – to our knowledge, only about 43 cases have been published in the medical literature. We report a 59-year old Nigerian man who presented with a five-year history of a mildly pruritic, slowly enlarging ...

  2. Life Review in the Novels of Molly Keane, Elizabeth Bowen, and Peter Taylor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt-Brown, A. M.

    Gerontologists have studied the role of memory and reminiscence in later life to see if life review leads to increased satisfaction in old age. Novelists offer some concrete examples of the varying ways that this review can affect the self-esteem of aging persons. Molly Keane, Elizabeth Bowen, and Peter Taylor all agree that late middle age…

  3. A case of Bowen’s disease responding well to radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur Kalkan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bowen’s disease is a form of intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma which is known as carsinoma in situ. The head, neck, and extremities are the most commonly affected anatomic locations. Treatment options for Bowen’s disease include observation, surgery, cryotherapy, electrodesiccation and curettage, topical application of 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod, Moh’s micrographic surgery, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy. Radiation therapy is advantageous in patients who refuse surgery, for large or multiple lesions, for lesions in cosmetically sensitive areas, and in patients who are predisposed to formation of keloids, with a high cure rate cited in the literature. Here we report a 70-year-old man who was diagnosed as Bowen’s disease and completely healed with the treatment of radiotherapy. By means of this case report, we will review the current literature and empasize that radiotherapy is an effective treatment alternative for Bowen's disease in the suitable lesions. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 813-817

  4. Ingenol Mebutate 150 mg as Physician-Directed Treatment of Bowen's Disease Under Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhalaf, Ahmed; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2016-01-01

    Ingenol mebutate (IM) is a topical pharmacotherapy approved in Switzerland since 2012 for treating non-hypertrophic, non-hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis. We report a case with off-label use of IM where Bowen's disease has been successfully treated with physician-directed IM 0.015% gel under occlusion over the chest area. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A comparison of groundwater dating with 81Kr, 36Cl and 4He in four wells of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, B. E.; Love, A.; Purtschert, R.; Collon, P.; Loosli, H. H.; Kutschera, W.; Beyerle, U.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.; Kipfer, R.; Frape, S. K.; Herczeg, A.; Moran, J.; Tolstikhin, I. N.; Gröning, M.

    2003-06-01

    The isotopic ratios 81Kr/Kr and 36Cl/Cl and the 4He concentrations measured in groundwater from four artesian wells in the western part of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in Australia are discussed. Based on radioactive decay along a water flow path the 81Kr/Kr ratios are directly converted to groundwater residence times. Results are in a range of 225-400 kyr with error bars in the order of 15% primarily due to counting statistics in the cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer measurement. Additional uncertainties from subsurface production and/or exchange with stagnant porewaters in the confining shales appear to be of the same order of magnitude. These 81Kr ages are then used to calibrate the 36Cl and the 4He dating methods. Based on elemental analyses of rock samples from the sandstone aquifer as well as from the confining Bulldog shale the in situ flux of thermal neutrons and the corresponding 3He/ 4He and 36Cl/Cl ratios are calculated. From a comparison of: (i) the 3He/ 4He ratios measured in the groundwater samples with the calculated in situ ratios in rocks and (ii) the measured δ 37Cl ratios with the 4He concentrations measured in groundwater it is concluded that both helium and chloride are most likely added to the aquifer from sources in the stagnant porewaters of the confining shale by diffusion and/or mixing. Based on this 'working hypothesis' the 36Cl transport equation in groundwater is solved taking into account: (i) radioactive decay, (ii) subsurface production in the sandstone aquifer (with an in situ 36Cl/Cl ratio of 6×10 -15) and (iii) addition of chloride from a source in the confining shale (with a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 13×10 -15). Lacking better information it is assumed that the chloride concentration increased linearly with time from an (unknown) initial value Ci to its measured present value C= Ci+ Ca, where Ca represents the (unknown) amount of chloride added from subsurface sources. Using the 81Kr ages of the four groundwater samples and a

  6. Metamorphic grade and gradient from white K-mica bearing sedimentary rocks in the Mosquito Creek Basin, east Pilbara Craton, western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kisch, H.J.; Nijman, W.

    2010-01-01

    Shales and phyllites from the turbidite sequences of the 2.9 Ga Mosquito Creek Formation of the East Pilbara, Western Australia contain varying amounts of paragonite and mixed Na–K micas (MNKMs), the 0 0 l X-ray diffraction reflections of which are unresolved from the 10-Å reflections, and only

  7. Health Information Management Leaders and the Practice of Leadership through the Lens of Bowen Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Patty Thierry; Watzlaf, Valerie; Fox, Leslie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Even though leadership is one of the most examined topics in the organizational literature, its application in the field of health information management (HIM) has not been studied extensively. This descriptive, mixed-methodology study examined HIM leadership through the lens of Bowen theory. The researchers conducted surveys of HIM directors and managers, administrators and colleagues of HIM leaders, and HIM staff using focus groups, observations of meetings, and face-to-face interviews. Res...

  8. System mass constraints for the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338 using Bowen fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Steeghs, D.; Casares, J.; Charles, P. A.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Marsh, T. R.; Hynes, R. I.; O'Brien, K.

    2017-04-01

    We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of the millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1814-338 obtained during its 2003 outburst. The spectra are dominated by high-excitation emission lines of He II λ4686, Hβ, and the Bowen blend C III/N III 4630-50 Å. We exploit the proven Bowen fluorescence technique to establish a complete set of dynamical system parameter constraints using bootstrap Doppler tomography, a first for an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar binary. The reconstructed Doppler map of the N III λ4640 Bowen transition exhibits a statistically significant (>4σ) spot feature at the expected position of the companion star. If this feature is driven by irradiation of the surface of the Roche lobe filling companion, we derive a strict lower limit to the true radial velocity semi-amplitude K2. Combining our donor constraint with the well-constrained orbit of the neutron star leads to a determination of the binary mass ratio: q = 0.123^{+0.012}_{-0.010}. The component masses are not tightly constrained given our lack of knowledge of the binary inclination. We cannot rule out a canonical neutron star mass of 1.4 M⊙ (1.1 M⊙ millisecond pulsar in XTE J1814-338 during an X-ray quiescent state. The companion mass is typical of the so-called redback pulsar binary systems (M2 ˜ 0.2 M⊙).

  9. EVALUATION OF CATROSAT 1PAN STEREO AND RESOURCESAT LISS 4 MSS MERGED DATA FOR MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS, DELINEATION OF DRAINAGE BASINS AND CODIFICATION IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA AND AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Mohamed; S. Srinivasan; R. Pandian; R. J. Gummidipoondi; R. V. Venkatchalam; S. Swaminathan .S

    2012-01-01

    The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used w...

  10. Doença de bowen perianal - diagnóstico e tratamento: relato de caso Perianal bowen's disease - diagnosis and treatment: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Paes Peixoto Netto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso e objetivam a discussão sobre a Doença de Bowen. Patologia de ocorrência rara, principalmente na região perianal. Trata-se de um carcinoma escamoso in situ com potencial invasor. Apresenta como característica marcante alterações histopatológicas da epiderme que não ultrapassam a membrana basal. É doença de evolução lenta, oligo ou assintomática e de aspecto macroscópico variável. Assim sendo, muitas vezes o diagnóstico é retardado. A confirmação diagnóstica se dá por biópsia e estudo histopatológico. O tratamento de escolha, por seus menores índices de recidiva, é a ressecção cirúrgica com margens amplas. A utilização de enxertos ou retalhos é frequentemente necessária para corrigir o defeito cutâneo deixado e permitir a cicatrização satisfatória.The authors report a case and aimed at discussing about Bowen's disease, an unusual pathology, especially in perianal area. It is an in situ carcinoma with invasive potential. Epidermal's histological abnormalities with basal membrane preservation is its main characteristic. This disease presents a slow progression, few or no specific symptoms and variable macroscopic aspect. These facts lead in several times to a late diagnosis. Biopsies and histopathological study confirm the diagnosis. The treatment of choice is wide surgical resection. Often it is necessary to utilize grafts or flaps to correct the cutaneous defects and allows a satisfactory cicatrization.

  11. New evidence of the reproductive organs of Glossopteris based on permineralized fossils from Queensland, Australia. II: pollen-bearing organ Ediea gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Harufumi; Pigg, Kathleen B; Kudo, Kensuke; Rigby, John F

    2014-03-01

    Ediea homevalensis H. Nishida, Kudo, Pigg & Rigby gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for permineralized pollen-bearing structures from the Late Permian Homevale Station locality of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia. The taxon represents unisexual fertile shoots bearing helically arranged leaves on a central axis. The more apical leaves are fertile microsporophylls bearing a pair of multi-branched stalks on their adaxial surfaces that each supports a cluster of terminally borne pollen sacs. Proximal to the fertile leaves there are several rows of sterile scale-like leaves. The pollen sacs (microsporangia) have thickened and dark, striate walls that are typical of the Arberiella type found in most pollen organs presumed to be of glossopterid affinity. An examination of pollen organs at several developmental stages, including those containing in situ pollen of the Protohaploxypinus type, provides the basis for a detailed analysis of these types of structures, which bear similarities to both compression/impression Eretmonia-type glossopterid microsporangiate organs and permineralized Eretmonia macloughlinii from Antarctica. These fossils demonstrate that at least some Late Permian pollen organs were simple microsporophyll-bearing shoot systems and not borne directly on Glossopteris leaves.

  12. John Bowen : The economic geography of air transportation. Space, time, and the freeedom of the sky

    OpenAIRE

    Boquet, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Le transport aérien a pris une importance capitale dans les processus de mondialisation. Notre collègue américain John Bowen, dont la passion pour l’aviation est évidente, et qui travailla jadis pour les services cargo de Singapore Airlines, nous offre un brillant panorama, clair, illustré de nombreuses cartes originales, riche en faits et réflexions qui reflète autant l’évolution historique du transport aérien que ses mutations contemporaines. Le plan de l’ouvrage est limpide. Après une brèv...

  13. Fusion or internalized homophobia? A pilot study of Bowen's differentiation of self hypothesis with lesbian couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bernadette; Brown, Jac

    2007-06-01

    Bowen, using the concept of differentiation, hypothesized that the way individuals learn to deal with their relationships with families of origin will influence the way they manage their relationships with their partners. This study surveyed a group of 53 lesbian couples on differentiation of self, internalized homophobia, and relationship satisfaction. We found that lesbian couples were not significantly different in their level of differentiation than random pairs. We also found that there was a positive relationship between differentiation of self and relationship satisfaction and that when considered together, internalized homophobia had the more significant connection to relationship satisfaction than did differentiation of self Implications for therapy are drawn from these findings.

  14. Bowenoid Actinic Keratosis and Bowen's Disease Treated Successfully with Ingenol Mebutate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanna, Mosab T; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2016-01-01

    Ingenol mebutate (IM) is a topical pharmacotherapy approved in Switzerland since 2012 for treating non-hypertrophic, non-hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis (AK). We report 2 cases with off-label use of IM. The first case of bowenoid AK was treated with 150 μg IM for 3 consecutive days with an almost complete clinical remission of the lesion. The second case of Bowen's disease was treated with 500 μg IM for 2 consecutive days leading to complete clinical remission. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measure for normal form map of grazing bifurcations of impact oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Denghui; Chen, Hebai; Xie, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiye

    2017-09-01

    Grazing bifurcations are typical non-smooth bifurcations that occur in impact oscillators. They are described by a discrete map with square-root singularities. In this paper we study the structure of a strange attractor which is the closure of the unstable manifold at hyperbolic fixed point of the normal form map for grazing bifurcations of one-degree-of-freedom impact oscillators from the ergodic theoretic point of view. We prove that for some set of values of the parameters this map has an Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measure which is supported on the strange attractor and is ergodic.

  16. Use of Hydrochemistry, Stable Isotope, Radiocarbon, 222Rn and Terrigenic 4He to Study the Geochemical Processes and the Mode of Vertical Leakage to the Gambier Basin Tertiary Confined Sand Aquifer, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mode of vertical recharge to aquifers is important to the application of appropriate recharge estimation methods. This study identifies the origin, geochemical evolution and mode of vertical leakage to the Gambier Basin confined aquifer, south east of South Australia. The recharge zone spans areas of the Glencoe-Nangwarry-Nagwarry (GNN. The Hundreds of Glencoe and Nangwarry are in South Australia, and the Parish of Nagwarry adjoins Nangwarry in western Victoria. The plot of stable isotopes of water molecules, δ2H versus δ18O, indicates that local rainfall with minor surface evaporation is the source of recharge. The results of hydrochemical analysis indicate that the sources of ions in the recharge zone groundwater are derived from carbonate and silicate weathering with cation exchange. The majority of water types (66% of samples within the South Australian part of the recharge zone show Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl due to carbonate dissolution processes, and about 83% of samples within the Victorian part of the recharge zone show Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl water types, indicating cation exchange or mixing with other waters. The influence of faults on vertical leakage was studied at eight sites located in the Nangwarry and Nagwarry area using electrical conductivity logging, measuring the concentration of radiocarbon activity, δ18O, 222Rn and terrigenic 4He in the vertical profiles. Results show that regardless of land use in the study area, the interconnection of the unconfined Tertiary limestone aquifer with the Tertiary confined sand aquifer occurs, via both diffuse and preferential flows. Thus, the application of conventional vertical leakage estimation methods using Darcy’s equation or the application of tracer techniques may be inappropriate unless the duality of the flow system is considered.

  17. FUSE - Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  18. A Bowen Family Systems Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Romantic Relationship Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Jacob B

    2015-07-01

    Many individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) do not respond well to currently available treatments. Moreover, treatments are less effective when GAD is accompanied by romantic relationship distress. In order to develop effective treatments for GAD and relationship distress, it is necessary to conduct theory-based research to identify links common to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, the roles of family abuse/violence and differentiation in GAD and romantic relationship distress were examined using existing data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 2,312; 2005). As predicted, family abuse/violence was directly linked to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Differentiation mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and GAD, and partially mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and romantic relationship distress. Findings suggest that current and past relationship processes may help maintain chronic anxiety and that Bowen's theory may be a useful framework for developing couple therapy treatment of GAD and romantic relationship distress. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  19. An Integrated Rock Typing Approach for Unraveling the Reservoir Heterogeneity of Tight Sands in the Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkhchi, Rahim Kadkhodaie; Rezaee, Reza; Harami, Reza Moussavi

    2014-01-01

    between pore system properties and depositional and diagenetic characteristics in each sand type, reservoir rock types were extracted. The identified reservoir rock types are in fact a reflection of internal reservoir heterogeneity related to pore system properties. All reservoir rock types......Tight gas sands in Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin show large heterogeneity in reservoir characteristics and production behavior related to depositional and diagenetic features. Diagenetic events (compaction and cementation) have severely affected the pore system. In order to investigate...... the petrophysical characteristics, reservoir sandstone facies were correlated with core porosity and permeability and their equivalent well log responses to describe hydraulic flow units and electrofacies, respectively. Thus, very tight, tight, and sub-tight sands were differentiated. To reveal the relationship...

  20. Besshi-type mineral systems in the Palaeoproterozoic Bryah Rift-Basin, Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia: Implications for tectonic setting and geodynamic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirajno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we use VMS mineral systems in the Bryah rift-basin to constrain the tectonic setting of the widespread mafic and ultramafic magmatism that characterises the rift-basin in question. Two distinct, but temporally closely associated, lithostratigraphic sequences, Narracoota and Karalundi Formations, are discussed. The Karalundi Formation is the main host of VMS mineral systems in the region. The Karalundi Formation consists of turbiditic and immature clastic sediments, which are locally intercalated with basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and banded jaspilites. We propose that the basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and clastics and jaspilites rocks, form a distinct unit of the Karalundi Formation, named Noonyereena Member. The VMS mineral systems occur near the north-east trending Jenkin Fault and comprise the giant and world-class DeGrussa and the Red Bore deposits. The nature of these deposits and their intimate association with terrigenous clastic rocks and dominantly marine mafic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, as well as the common development of peperitic margins, are considered indicative of a Besshi-type environment, similar to that of present-day Gulf of California. Our Re-Os age data from a primary pyrite yielded a mean model age of 2012 ± 48 Ma, which coincides (within error with recent published Re-Os data (Hawke et al., 2015 and confirms the timing of the proposed geodynamic evolution. We propose a geodynamic model that attempts to explain the presence of the Narracoota and Karalundi Formations as the result of mantle plume activity, which began with early uplift of continental crust with intraplate volcanism, followed by early stages of rifting with the deposition of the Karalundi Formation (and Noonyereena Member, which led to the formation of Besshi-type VMS deposits. With on-going mantle plume activity and early stages of continental separation, an oceanic plateau was formed and is now represented by mafic

  1. Socio-hydrologic modeling to understand and mediate the competition for water between agriculture development and environmental health: Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Li, Z.; Sivapalan, M.; Pande, S.; Kandasamy, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.

    2014-10-01

    Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in the coming decades in many parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling the development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a modeling study centered on the Murrumbidgee River basin (MRB). The MRB has witnessed a unique system dynamics over the last 100 years as a result of interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability. Data analysis has revealed a pendulum swing between agricultural development and restoration of environmental health and ecosystem services over different stages of basin-scale water resource development. A parsimonious, stylized, quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that simulates the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems of the MRB is used to mimic and explain dominant features of the pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the interaction between five state variables that govern the co-evolution: reservoir storage, irrigated area, human population, ecosystem health, and environmental awareness. The model simulations track the propagation of the external climatic and socio-economic drivers through this coupled, complex system to the emergence of the pendulum swing. The model results point to a competition between human "productive" and environmental "restorative" forces that underpin the pendulum swing. Both the forces are endogenous, i.e., generated by the system dynamics in response to external drivers and mediated by humans through technology change and environmental awareness, respectively. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model further reveals that socio-hydrologic modeling can be used as a tool to explain or gain insight into observed co-evolutionary dynamics of diverse

  2. Effects of different eddy covariance correction schemes on energy balance closure and comparisons with the modified Bowen ratio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Wolf; Nick Saliendra; Kanat Akshalov; Douglas A. Johnson; Emilio Laca

    2008-01-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) and modified Bowen ratio (MBR) systems have been shown to yield subtly different estimates of sensible heat (H), latent heat (LE), and CO2 fluxes (Fc). Our study analyzed the discrepancies between these two systems by first considering the role of the data processing algorithm used to estimate fluxes using EC and later...

  3. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  4. Dingwell, Head Receive 2013 N. L. Bowen Award: Citation for Donald B. Dingwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kelly

    2014-09-01

    It is my privilege and honor to deliver the citation for Don Dingwell to receive AGU's N. L. Bowen Award. Don's research has profoundly influenced our understanding of the properties of silicate melts, glasses, and magmas and the fundamental control they exert on magmatic, volcanic, and, recently, even on earthquake processes. Don's approach is experimental, and his studies have interrogated melts, glasses, and magmas for their transport, calorimetric, geophysical, and rheological properties, as well as the solubilities of volatile species. These experiments have been elegantly designed to elucidate properties that provide quantitative explanations for volcanic processes. He has a prodigious publication record, including many seminal "must-read papers," as evidenced by any bibliometrics you choose. Indeed, his research has changed the very way we communicate about volcanic processes by expanding our vocabulary to include "glass transition" or "melt relaxation." In many ways, his research career has established what is a new, unique, and expanding line of science—"experimental volcanology."

  5. Testing a model of codependency for college students in Taiwan based on Bowen's concept of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of codependency based on Bowen's concept of differentiation for college students in Taiwan. The relations between family-of-origin dysfunction, differentiation of self, codependency traits and related symptoms including low self-esteem, relationship distress and psychological adjustment problems were examined. Data were collected from 567 college students from 2 large, urban universities in northern Taiwan. Results indicated a significantly negative relationship between levels of codependency and self-differentiation and that self-differentiation partially mediated the relationship between family-of-origin dysfunction and codependency. The implications of these findings for counselling Taiwanese college students who experience codependency traits and related symptoms as well as suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Spectrophotometry near the atmospheric cutoff of the strongest Bowen resonance fluorescence lines of O III in two planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Opal, Chet B.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometric results are presented for the stronger, well-resolved Bowen O III resonance fluorescence emission lines in the planetary nebulae 7027 and NGC 7662 down to and including the intrinsically strong line at 3133 A. These data are combined with results from the IUE atlas of spectra and similar results for the longer wavelength lines by Likkel and Aller (1986) to give the first full coverage of the Bowen lines. Good agreement is found with fluorescence theory for the primary cascade lines, except for the Likkel and Aller results. The efficiency of conversion of the exciting He II Ly-alpha into O III lines is determined, and values comparable to other planetary nebulae are found.

  7. SCC, Bowen's disease and BCC arising on chronic radiation dermatitis due to radiation therapy for tinea pedis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Eri; Aoki, Mikako; Ikemura, Akiko; Igarashi, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Kayano; Kawana, Seiji [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital

    2000-05-01

    We reported a case who developed three different types of skin cancers: SCC, BCC, and Bowen's disease, on the chronic radiation dermatitis. He had been treated for his tinea pedis et palmaris with radiotherapy in 1940's. It is very ratre that three different types of skin cancers arise in the same patient. This is a second case reported in Japan. (author)

  8. Taste and odor occurrence in Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1, Spartanburg County, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste; Arrington, Jane M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Spartanburg Water are working cooperatively on an ongoing study of Lake Bowen and Reservoir #1 to identify environmental factors that enhance or influence the production of geosmin in the source-water reservoirs. Spartanburg Water is using information from this study to develop management strategies to reduce (short-term solution) and prevent (long-term solution) geosmin occurrence. Spartanburg Water utility treats and distributes drinking water to the Spartanburg area of South Carolina. The drinking water sources for the area are Lake William C. Bowen (Lake Bowen) and Municipal Reservoir #1 (Reservoir #1), located north of Spartanburg. These reservoirs, which were formed by the impoundment of the South Pacolet River, were assessed in 2006 by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) as being fully supportive of all uses based on established criteria. Nonetheless, Spartanburg Water had noted periodic taste and odor problems due to the presence of geosmin, a naturally occurring compound in the source water. Geosmin is not harmful, but its presence in drinking water is aesthetically unpleasant.

  9. A 30 m Resolution Surface Water Mask Including Estimation of Positional and Thematic Differences Using Landsat 8, SRTM and OpenStreetMap: A Case Study in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Donchyts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate maps of surface water are essential for many environmental applications. Surface water maps can be generated by combining measurements from multiple sources. Precise estimation of surface water using satellite imagery remains a challenging task due to the sensor limitations, complex land cover, topography, and atmospheric conditions. As a complementary dataset, in the case of hilly landscapes, a drainage network can be extracted from high-resolution digital elevation models. Additionally, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI initiatives, such as OpenStreetMap, can also be used to produce high-resolution surface water masks. In this study, we derive a high-resolution water mask using Landsat 8 imagery and OpenStreetMap as well as (potential a drainage network using 30 m SRTM. Our approach to derive a surface water mask from Landsat 8 imagery comprises the use of a lower 15% percentile of Landsat 8 Top of Atmosphere (TOA reflectance from 2013 to 2015. We introduce a new non-parametric unsupervised method based on the Canny edge filter and Otsu thresholding to detect water in flat areas. For hilly areas, the method is extended with an additional supervised classification step used to refine the water mask. We applied the method across the Murray-Darling basin, Australia. Differences between our new Landsat-based water mask and the OpenStreetMap water mask regarding positional differences along the rivers and overall coverage were analyzed. Our results show that about 50% of the OpenStreetMap linear water features can be confirmed using the water mask extracted from Landsat 8 imagery and the drainage network derived from SRTM. We also show that the observed distances between river features derived from OpenStreetMap and Landsat 8 are mostly smaller than 60 m. The differences between the new water mask and SRTM-based linear features and hilly areas are slightly larger (110 m. The overall agreement between OpenStreetMap and Landsat 8 water

  10. Health Information Management Leaders and the Practice of Leadership through the Lens of Bowen Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Patty Thierry; Watzlaf, Valerie; Fox, Leslie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Even though leadership is one of the most examined topics in the organizational literature, its application in the field of health information management (HIM) has not been studied extensively. This descriptive, mixed-methodology study examined HIM leadership through the lens of Bowen theory. The researchers conducted surveys of HIM directors and managers, administrators and colleagues of HIM leaders, and HIM staff using focus groups, observations of meetings, and face-to-face interviews. Results showed that HIM leaders are valued for HIM expertise in electronic health records, privacy, security, and coding; for being the center or heart of the organization; and for commonly valued leadership behaviors and skills including dependability, strategic planning, project management, listening ability, and fairness. Leadership was seen as a reciprocal process, and a team approach was preferred. Good communication, education, and training on HIM topics were also valued. However, HIM leaders believed that they spend more time on management activities than on leadership activities, although they would prefer the reverse. Future research is needed to examine how HIM leadership can be practiced more consistently in the workplace across different HIM functions.

  11. p16 immunostaining in keratinocytic neoplasia in organ transplant recipients: Bowen's disease shows a characteristic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genders, Roel E; Beck, Samuel; Bouwes Bavinck, Jan Nico; van den Munckhof, Henk A M; Kouwenhoven, Stijn T P; de Koning, Maurits N C; de Gruijl, Frank R; Jenkins, David; Willemze, Rein; Quint, Koen D

    2017-01-01

    For selecting therapy, it is important to distinguish different types of keratinocytic neoplasia. It is sometimes difficult to make histopathologic diagnosis, especially in organ transplant recipients (OTR) who develop numerous lesions. To investigate p16 immunostaining in different types of keratinocytic neoplasia in OTR, we studied 59 actinic keratoses (AK), 51 Bowen' s disease (BD), 63 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 16 benign keratotic lesions (BKL) from 31 OTR patients and 25 controls (eczema and psoriasis). Tissue sections were stained for H&E and p16. We scored intensity, proportion and distribution of p16 positive lesional cells. In 19% of AK, 92% of BD, 35% of SCC and 12% of BKL more than 15% of lesional cells were p16-positive. In 16% of AK, 80% of BD, 18% of SCC and 13% of BKL strong p16 staining was observed. BKL, AK and SCC showed focal and patchy staining, BD showed diffuse pattern with strong staining of all atypical cells. Sparing of the basal layer was predominantly seen in BD. No control specimen showed p16-overexpression. p16 immunostaining shows a characteristic pattern in BD, but not in AK, SCC and BKL. It appears useful in recognizing BD, but not in differentiating between other keratinocytic neoplasia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Estimating evapotranspiration from a reed bed using the Bowen ratio energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, C. E.; Hess, T. M.

    2004-02-01

    An increase in demand for water for agricultural and domestic use, combined with new legislation regarding the water needs of natural habitats, has led to an increased requirement for accurate calculations of hydrological fluxes through wetlands. Evapotranspiration is one of the most important but least well understood fluxes in wetland hydrology. Research has been carried out on Stodmarsh National Nature Reserve in Kent, UK, a Ramsar site containing the largest reed beds in southern England. The objective was to quantify water loss through evapotranspiration on the site to allow more effective management of water levels and maintenance of maximum conservation potential for bird life. The Bowen ratio energy balance approach was employed, which is one of the most accurate ways of measuring evapotranspiration but has been rarely used on reed beds. These measurements were used with Penman-Monteith reference evapotranspiration in order to create crop coefficients. It was found that crop coefficients were inconsistent from day to day but were generally less than unity. The inconsistency was thought to be caused by variations in meteorological conditions: e.g. significant differences in crop coefficients were found between days with high radiation and a dry canopy, compared with days with low radiation and a wet canopy. Canopy interception of precipitation was particularly important, with crop coefficients being significantly higher on wet days, possibly due to the higher rates of evaporation of intercepted water due to the lack of stomatal resistance.

  13. Health Information Management Leaders and the Practice of Leadership through the Lens of Bowen Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Patty Thierry; Watzlaf, Valerie; Fox, Leslie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Even though leadership is one of the most examined topics in the organizational literature, its application in the field of health information management (HIM) has not been studied extensively. This descriptive, mixed-methodology study examined HIM leadership through the lens of Bowen theory. The researchers conducted surveys of HIM directors and managers, administrators and colleagues of HIM leaders, and HIM staff using focus groups, observations of meetings, and face-to-face interviews. Results showed that HIM leaders are valued for HIM expertise in electronic health records, privacy, security, and coding; for being the center or heart of the organization; and for commonly valued leadership behaviors and skills including dependability, strategic planning, project management, listening ability, and fairness. Leadership was seen as a reciprocal process, and a team approach was preferred. Good communication, education, and training on HIM topics were also valued. However, HIM leaders believed that they spend more time on management activities than on leadership activities, although they would prefer the reverse. Future research is needed to examine how HIM leadership can be practiced more consistently in the workplace across different HIM functions. PMID:27134609

  14. A new method for quantifying and modeling large scale surface water inundation dynamics and key drivers using multiple time series of Earth observation and river flow data. A case study for Australia's Murray-Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimhuber, Valentin; Tulbure, Mirela G.; Broich, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Periodically inundated surface water (SW) areas such as floodplains are hotspots of biodiversity and provide a broad range of ecosystem services but have suffered alarming declines in recent history. Large scale flooding events govern the dynamics of these areas and are a critical component of the terrestrial water cycle, but their propagation through river systems and the corresponding long term SW dynamics remain poorly quantified on continental or global scales. In this research, we used an unprecedented Landsat-based time series of SW maps (1986-2011), to develop statistical inundation models and quantify the role of driver variables across the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) (1 million square-km), which is Australia's bread basket and subject to competing demands over limited water resources. We fitted generalized additive models (GAM) between SW extent as the dependent variable and river flow data from 68 gauges, spatial time series of rainfall (P; interpolated gauge data), evapotranspiration (ET; AWRA-L land surface model) and soil moisture (SM; active passive microwave satellite remote sensing) as predictor variables. We used a fully directed and connected river network (Australian Geofabric) in combination with ancillary data, to develop a spatial modeling framework consisting of 18,521 individual modeling units. We then fitted individual models for all modeling units, which were made up of 10x10 km grid cells split into floodplain, floodplain-lake and non-floodplain areas, depending on the type of water body and its hydrologic connectivity to a gauged river. We applied the framework to quantify flood propagation times for all major river and floodplain systems across the MDB, which were in good accordance with observed travel times. After incorporating these flow lag times into the models, average goodness of fit was high across floodplains and floodplain-lake modeling units (r-squared > 0.65), which were primarily driven by river flow, and lower for non

  15. Low Rate of Detection of Mucosal High-Risk-Type Human Papillomavirus in Korean Patients with Extragenital Bowen's Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Especially in Digital Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rim Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (, squamous cell carcinoma (, bowenoid papulosis (, verrucous carcinoma (, actinic keratosis (, and basal cell carcinoma (. We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease ( nor those with squamous cell carcinoma ( showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6% of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (, while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7% of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers.

  16. A century scale human-induced hydrological and ecological changes of wetlands of two large river basins in Australia (Murray) and China (Yangtze): development of an adaptive water resource management framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kattel, G. R.; X Dong; X. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the provision of food and water resources of two of the world's large river basins, the Murray and the Yangtze, has been significantly altered through widespread landscape modification. Long-term sedimentary archives, dating back to past centuries, from wetlands of these river basins reveal that rapid, basin-wide development has reduced resilience of biological communities, resulting in considerable decline in ecosystem services, including water quality. In particu...

  17. The Gunnedah Basin - memoir of a last frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadros, N.Z. [NSW Department of Mineral Resources, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The Gunnedah Basin was one of a few sedimentary basins in New South Wales, Australia, which remained unexplored until recently. Results from recent explorations are discussed under the following headings: tectonics and structure; sedimentology and basin analysis; stratigraphy; resources (coal, and petroleum and gas); and documentation. 6 figs.

  18. Site-specific climate analysis elucidates revegetation challenges for post-mining landscapes in eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Audet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In eastern Australia, the availability of water is critical for the successful rehabilitation of post-mining landscapes and climatic characteristics of this diverse geographical region are closely defined by factors such as erratic rainfall and periods of drought and flooding. Despite this, specific metrics of climate patterning are seldom incorporated into the initial design of current post-mining land rehabilitation strategies. Our study proposes that a few common rainfall parameters can be combined and rated using arbitrary rainfall thresholds to characterise bioregional climate sensitivity relevant to the rehabilitation these landscapes. This approach included assessments of annual rainfall depth, average recurrence interval of prolonged low intensity rainfall, average recurrence intervals of short or prolonged high intensity events, median period without rain (or water-deficit and standard deviation for this period in order to address climatic factors such as total water availability, seasonality and intensity – which were selected as potential proxies of both short- and long-term biological sensitivity to climate within the context of post-disturbance ecological development and recovery. Following our survey of available climate data, we derived site "climate sensitivity" indexes and compared the performance of 9 ongoing mine sites: Weipa, Mt. Isa and Cloncurry, Eromanga, Kidston, the Bowen Basin (Curragh, Tarong, North Stradbroke Island, and the Newnes Plateau. The sites were then ranked from most-to-least sensitive and compared with natural bioregional patterns of vegetation density using mean NDVI. It was determined that regular rainfall and relatively short periods of water-deficit were key characteristics of sites having less sensitivity to climate – as found among the relatively more temperate inland mining locations. Whereas, high rainfall variability, frequently occurring high intensity events, and (or prolonged seasonal

  19. The Rising Cost of Higher Education: Charles Eliot's "Free Money" Strategy and the Beginning of Howard Bowen's "Revenue Theory of Cost," 1869-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to explain the rising cost of higher education, economist Howard Bowen in 1980 proposed his "famous law" of institutional finance. Bowen based his "revenue theory of cost" on a study of aggregate quantitative data extending from 1929 to 1979. Neither he nor subsequent economists asked whether or how that…

  20. Diagnóstico de fluorescencia e inmunohistoquímico en la enfermedad de Bowen tratada con terapia fotodinámica

    OpenAIRE

    Truchuelo Díez, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La enfermedad de Bowen (EB), también conocida como carcinoma de Bowen o carcinoma escamoso in situ, es un tipo de cáncer cutáneo no melanoma (CCNM) que afecta tanto a piel como mucosas y presenta potencial de progresión a carcinoma escamoso invasivo. Por tanto un diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz de esta entidad supone un gran beneficio para el paciente. Varios estudios han demostrado la eficacia y buena respuesta cosmética de la terapia fotodinámica (TFD) en el tratamiento de e...

  1. O efeito agudo da terapia Bowen no limiar de dor e controlo postural em indivíduos saudáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Félix, Gonçalo José Silva

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A fáscia é tecido conjuntivo inervado por terminações nervosas livres e por mecanoretores, tendo um papel importante na dor e na proprioceção. Acredita-se que a Terapia Bowen estimule os mecanorecetores e as terminações nervosas livres presentes na fáscia. Objetivos: Determinar o efeito imediato da Terapia Bowen no limiar de dor à pressão mecânica e no controlo postural em indivíduos saudáveis. Métodos: Este foi um estudo cruzado de amostras emparelhadas, duplamente cego, constitu...

  2. [Bowen disease treated with scanned pulsed high energy CO2 laser. Follow-up of 6 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaïsse, V; Clerici, T; Fusade, T

    2001-11-01

    Cutaneous Bowen's disease is an intra-epidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Ten cases of cutaneous Bowen's disease diagnosed among 8 patients were treated by scanned high energy carbon dioxide laser between November 1996, and March 1998. A biopsy was performed in all patients before treatment. The post-treatment follow-up extended from 1 to 4 years with an average follow-up of 2 years and 11 months. Only one patient, whose lesion was located on the auricle, presented a recurrence after one year. The remaining patients did not present any recurrence during their last control: six patients were followed for two years or more and one patient for one year. We demonstrate a histological and clinical correlation between the number of carbon dioxide laser passes before a clinical endpoint and the thickness of the epidermal carcinoma treated. This new treatment has comparable efficacy to other treatments. It can be applied to extensive lesions without sequelae except for the risk of residual hypopigmentation.

  3. Living on the Hyphen: How Elizabeth Bowen Portrays the Predicament of the Anglo-Irish in The Last September

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the portrayal of the Anglo-Irish in Elizabeth Bowen’s The Last September. Bowen writes from personal experience with a strong sense of irony to explore the relationships of this declining class and their relationship with their adopted homeland. As an inhabitant of an Anglo-Irish Big House, Bowen writes from the perspective of the Anglo–Irish but views their deteriorating existence with the clarity of one far more removed. Bowen’s life mirrors that of the protagonist Lois, struggling with issues of identity and escape from an antiquated society. The essay notes the effects this lack of identity has on the characters in the novel and the Anglo–Irish class as a whole at the time it is set. Issues of detachment from land and heritage, lack of communication and relationships between characters, and the ignorance of a middle and upper social class, the Anglo-Irish, to understand their deterioration during the years of the Irish War of Independence are also explored.

  4. Flinders Mountain Range, South Australia Province, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.

  5. Field evaluation of polymer capacitive humidity sensors for Bowen ratio energy balance flux measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of reliable, reasonably accurate and relatively inexpensive estimates of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes was investigated using a commercial combination thin-film polymer capacitive relative humidity and adjacent temperature sensor instrument. Long-term and unattended water vapour pressure profile difference measurements using low-power combination instruments were compared with those from a cooled dewpoint mirror hygrometer, the latter often used with Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) systems. An error analysis, based on instrument relative humidity and temperature errors, was applied for various capacitive humidity instrument models. The main disadvantage of a combination capacitive humidity instrument is that two measurements, relative humidity and temperature, are required for estimation of water vapour pressure as opposed to one for a dewpoint hygrometer. In a laboratory experiment using an automated procedure, water vapour pressure differences generated using a reference dewpoint generator were measured using a commercial model (Dew-10) dewpoint hygrometer and a combination capacitive humidity instrument. The laboratory measurement comparisons showed that, potentially, an inexpensive model combination capacitive humidity instrument (CS500 or HMP50), or for improved results a slightly more expensive model (HMP35C or HMP45C), could substitute for the more expensive dewpoint hygrometer. In a field study, in a mesic grassland, the water vapour pressure measurement noise for the combination capacitive humidity instruments was greater than that for the dewpoint hygrometer. The average water vapour pressure profile difference measured using a HMP45C was highly correlated with that from a dewpoint hygrometer with a slope less than unity. Water vapour pressure measurements using the capacitive humidity instruments were not as accurate, compared to those obtained using a dewpoint hygrometer, but the resolution magnitudes for the profile

  6. Evolution and origin of brines in proterozoic basins in the vicinity of the basement / cover unconformity. Application to uranium deposits in the Kombolgie (Australia) and Athabasca (Canada) basins; Evolution et origine des saumures dans les bassins proterozoiques au voisinage de la discordance socle/couverture. L'exemple de l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes aux bassins Kombolgie (Australie) et Athabasca (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derome, D

    2002-11-01

    The nature, evolution and origin of the fluids circulating at the basis of two Proterozoic sandstone basins (Kombolgie, Australia and Athabasca, Canada), associated with unconformity type uranium mineralization have been characterised. The coupling of several techniques (micro-thermometry, Raman, LIBS) for analysing individual fluid inclusions trapped in different quartz generations, sampled in the vicinity of Australian and Canadian uranium deposits, has led to the quantitative determination of the composition of the paleo-fluids which may have had a role in the genesis of these deposits. The P-T,x evolution of these fluids, in the vicinity of the interface between the basement and the sedimentary cover, has been reconstructed. The proposed fluid circulation model for the two basins is the following: - A sodium dominated chloride-rich brine (15-20 wt% NaCl + 4-12 wt% CaCl{sub 2}), highly oxidising (equilibrated with hematite) is responsible for the early diagenetic silicification. - The circulation of a calcium chloride-rich brine (25-30 wt.% CaCl{sub 2}+0-10 wt.% NaCl) was responsible for the deposition of a second quartz generation and dravite (magnesium-rich tourmaline) in the sandstone at the nose of the reverse basement-rooted faults. The highly calcic nature of this brine probably results from the evolution of the sodic brine through Na{r_reversible}Ca exchange in the basement. A low salinity fluid with traces of methane was heated heated in the basement rocks. It was mixed with the brines at the basis of the Kombolgie basin, during tectonic movements and hydraulic brecciation. This fluid has been rarely observed in the Canadian deposits. This study has shown many similarities between the fluid regimes of the Kombolgie and Athabasca basins. In both districts, a mixing between two Na-Ca-(Mg) chloride brines has been evidenced. Estimated temperatures and depths (about 5 km) are similar for both basins. However the brines observed at the basis of the Athabasca

  7. Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Multiple Bowen's Disease in a Patient with a History of Consumption of Traditional Chinese Herbal Balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Seok

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been classified as a class I human carcinogen, meaning that there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity to humans. Arsenic, however, remains a common contaminant in a number of traditional Chinese herbal balls. A 64-year-old man presented with an erythematous erosive patch on the left palm, multiple yellowish scaly patches on the right palm and an erythematous hyperkeratotic patch with bleeding on the left foot dorsum. He also had similar skin lesions on the back and buttock. He had a past medical history of chronic exposure to arsenic through consumption of traditional Chinese herbal balls. Skin biopsy revealed Bowen's disease on the left palm and squamous cell carcinoma on left foot dorsum. We report this case to emphasize that we should investigate patient's history thoroughly, including the use of Chinese herbal balls to find out arsenicism.

  8. A century scale human-induced hydrological and ecological changes of wetlands of two large river basins in Australia (Murray) and China (Yangtze): development of an adaptive water resource management framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattel, G. R.; Dong, X.; Yang, X.

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the provision of food and water resources of two of the world's large river basins, the Murray and the Yangtze, has been significantly altered through widespread landscape modification. Long-term sedimentary archives, dating back to past centuries, from wetlands of these river basins reveal that rapid, basin-wide development has reduced resilience of biological communities, resulting in considerable decline in ecosystem services, including water quality. In particular, large-scale human disturbance to river systems, due to river regulation during the mid-20th century, has transformed the hydrology of rivers and wetlands, causing widespread disturbance to aquatic biological communities. Historical changes of cladoceran zooplankton (water fleas) were used to assess the hydrology and ecology of three Murray and Yangtze River wetlands over the past century. Subfossil assemblages of cladocerans retrieved from sediment cores (94, 45 and 65 cm) of three wetlands: Kings Billabong (Murray), Zhangdu and Liangzi Lakes (Yangtze) strongly responded to hydrological changes of the river after the mid-20th century. River regulation caused by construction of dams and weirs, and river channel modifications has led to hydrological alterations. The hydrological disturbances were either: (1) a prolonged inundation of wetlands, or (2) reduced river flow, which caused variability in wetland depth. These phenomena subsequently transformed the natural wetland habitats, leading to a switch in cladoceran assemblages preferring poor water quality and eutrophication. An adaptive water resource management framework for both of these river basins has been proposed to restore or optimize the conditions of wetland ecosystems impacted by 20th century human disturbance and climate change.

  9. Papulose bowenóide: um aspecto clínico da infecção pelo HPV Bowenoid papulosis: a clinical feature of the HPV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Roberto Nadal; Fernanda Bellotti Formiga; Carmen Ruth Manzione

    2009-01-01

    Papulose bowenóide é uma doença que acomete a pele da região anogenital e que se caracteriza pelas múltiplas pequenas pápulas planas ou aveludadas e de coloração que varia do róseo ao castanho-escuro. É provocada pelo HPV e a transmissão sexual é a forma mais freqüente de contaminação. As queixas mais comuns são prurido e dor. O aspecto é característico e o exame histopatológico confirma o diagnóstico. Junto com a doença de Bowen e a eritroplasia de Queyrat, é considerada como carcinoma in si...

  10. ORCID, Australia, and the World

    OpenAIRE

    Laurel, Haak

    2017-01-01

    Slides presented by Laurel Haak, ORCID Executive Director, at the Australia ORCID consortium Governance Group meeting, 5 October 2017, hosted by the Australian Research Council, in Canberra, Australia.

  11. Phasor-FLIM as a Screening Tool for the Differential Diagnosis of Actinic Keratosis, Bowen's Disease, and Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Teng; Lu, Yuan; Liu, Shaoxiong; Lin, Danying; Qu, Junle

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to distinguish basal cell carcinoma (BCC) from actinic keratosis (AK) and Bowen's disease (BD) by fluorescence lifetimes of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and phasor analysis. Pseudocolor images of average fluorescence lifetime (τm) exhibited more contrast than conventional bright field and/or fluorescence images of H&E-stained sections. The mean values (μ) of τm distribution (τmμ) in three layers of skin were first explored for comparison with the corresponding layers of AK, BD, and BCC. Moreover, analysis of the H&E fluorescence lifetimes in the phasor space was performed by observing clusters in specific regions of the phasor plot. Various structures in the skin were distinguished. Comparisons of phase distributions from the corresponding layers of skin resulted in quantitative separation and calculation of distinctive parameters including coordinate values, diagonal slopes, and phasor areas. The combination of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and phasor approach (phasor-FLIM) provides a simple method for histopathology analysis and can significantly improve the accuracy of bright field H&E diagnosis. We therefore believe that phasor-FLIM is an aided tool with the potential to provide rapid confirmation of diagnostic criteria and classification of histological types of skin neoplasms.

  12. The oldest brachiopods from the lower cambrian of South Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Holmer, Lars E.; Skovsted, Christian B.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported...... from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense...... and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part...

  13. Multiculturalism In Australia

    OpenAIRE

    BABACAN, Alper; BABACAN, Hürriyet

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the policy of multiculturalism in Australia. In its early phase, Multiculturalism was a tool for Australia’s post-war construction needs as it allowed for governments to manage ethnic diversity. During the 1980s and 1990s, multicultural policies incorporated elements of the economic rationalist agenda and failed to tackle deep seated racism in Australia. Throughout the late 1990s and into the post 2000 period, neo- liberal agendas have dominated the Common...

  14. Exploring the Tropical Land-Ocean Convective Intensity Difference through Surface Bowen Ratio and Island Size Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Z.; Back, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    A better understanding of the mean distribution and variability in convective patterns is important for improving our understanding of the climate system. General circulation models (GCMs) still have trouble simulating climate variability in the tropics, where deep convection plays an important role in determining the mean climate and its variability. It has been observed that lightning flash rates over land in the tropics are orders of magnitude higher than those over the ocean. Because higher lightning flash rates tend to be associated with higher updraft velocities, deep convective updrafts over land are expected to be stronger than those over the tropical oceans. We hope to elucidate the physical mechanisms that influence updraft intensity using a cloud resolving model (CRM), which, unlike a GCM, is able to explicitly simulate individual convective updrafts. There are numerous hypotheses regarding what causes the discrepancy between land and ocean convection in the tropics. The hypotheses that we explore are variations in the Surface Bowen Ratio (SBR), as well as the existence of horizontal heterogeneities interacting with an ocean. We test these hypotheses in two different contexts: initial condition simulations, and radiative convective equilibrium (RCE) simulations. We modified the SBR of a region in RCE which by extension changes its boundary layer depth. The expectation in this case was that higher SBRs would lead to more enhanced convection. However, we find that higher SBRs have no effect or a slightly negative effect on updraft statistics in RCE simulations. We also looked at how the inclusion of differently sized islands affected convection in initial condition simulations. Previously, there had been discussion of a resonant island size that may produce more intense convection (Robinson, Sherwood, and Li 2008; Robinson et al. 2011,). We were able to reproduce predicted variations in convective intensity using differently sized islands. It remains to be

  15. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  16. Energy budget measurements using eddy correlation and Bowen ratio techniques at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, G.; Neumann, H. H.; King, K. M.; Chipanshi, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    Fluxes of heat and water vapor were measured on a 20-m tower at Kinosheo Lake in the Hudson Bay lowlands using eddy correlation and Bowen ratio energy balance techniques. The study period was June 25 to July 28, 1990. Measurements were made over a peat bog consisting of a mixture of sphagnum moss and lichen hummocks and black pools. About 200 m west of the tower were several shallow ponds. The hummocks had a dry, insulating surface and were underlain by an ice layer near 50 cm depth until mid-July. At the beginning of the period the black pools were covered with water, and although the free water gradually disappeared over the study period, they remained saturated to the end of July. The depth of peat near the tower was about 3 m. Despite the ice layer under the hummocks, their daytime surface temperatures were high, near 35 C, and after the middle of July, above 40 C. Inspection of temperature, precipitation, and radiation data showed that the midsummer period of 1990 was warmer, drier, and sunnier than usual at Moosonee and so by influence at Lake Kinosheo. When all the data were combined to yield average diurnal energy balance components, the eddy correlation fluxes accounted for 90% of the available energy. Latent heat flux averaged 46% of the total available energy and the sensible heat flux averaged 34%. Daytime Bowen ratios were near 1 for the experimental period, suggesting that the bog behaved more like a dryland than a wetland. Eddy correlation measurements of sensible heat and latent heat flux were less than those measured using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique, the average ratios being 0.81 and 0.86 respectively. These differences were possibly due to the difficulty in measuring energy balance components of net radiation and ground heat flux over the mosaic surface.

  17. Eastern Australian coalbed methane supply rivals western offshore conventional resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, R.

    2011-05-02

    The estimated potential in situ of coal seam gas contained in eastern Australia is around 410,000 PJ. This resource lie primarily in the Surat, Bowen and Galilee basins of Queensland and the Sydney, Gunnedah and Clarence-Moreton basins of northern New South Wales.

  18. Família e o processo de diferenciação na perspectiva de Murray Bowen: um estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Medeiros de Almeida Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a aplicabilidade do conceito de diferenciação do self elaborado por Murray Bowen na terapia da família. Focalizou a história de uma família mostrando como as histórias de vida do casal, a partir das primeiras triangulações, tanto na família nuclear quanto na extensa, foram transmitidas entre gerações até gerar uma história renovada do casal e de sua própria família.

  19. Carbon uptake and water use in woodlands and forests in southern Australia during an extreme heat wave event in the "Angry Summer" of 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorsel, Eva; Wolf, Sebastian; Cleverly, James; Isaac, Peter; Haverd, Vanessa; Ewenz, Cäcilia; Arndt, Stefan; Beringer, Jason; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Evans, Bradley J.; Griebel, Anne; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Keenan, Trevor; Kljun, Natascha; Macfarlane, Craig; Meyer, Wayne S.; McHugh, Ian; Pendall, Elise; Prober, Suzanne M.; Silberstein, Richard

    2016-11-01

    As a result of climate change warmer temperatures are projected through the 21st century and are already increasing above modelled predictions. Apart from increases in the mean, warm/hot temperature extremes are expected to become more prevalent in the future, along with an increase in the frequency of droughts. It is crucial to better understand the response of terrestrial ecosystems to such temperature extremes for predicting land-surface feedbacks in a changing climate. While land-surface feedbacks in drought conditions and during heat waves have been reported from Europe and the US, direct observations of the impact of such extremes on the carbon and water cycles in Australia have been lacking. During the 2012/2013 summer, Australia experienced a record-breaking heat wave with an exceptional spatial extent that lasted for several weeks. In this study we synthesised eddy-covariance measurements from seven woodlands and one forest site across three biogeographic regions in southern Australia. These observations were combined with model results from BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2013a, b) to investigate the effect of the summer heat wave on the carbon and water exchange of terrestrial ecosystems which are known for their resilience toward hot and dry conditions. We found that water-limited woodland and energy-limited forest ecosystems responded differently to the heat wave. During the most intense part of the heat wave, the woodlands experienced decreased latent heat flux (23 % of background value), increased Bowen ratio (154 %) and reduced carbon uptake (60 %). At the same time the forest ecosystem showed increased latent heat flux (151 %), reduced Bowen ratio (19 %) and increased carbon uptake (112 %). Higher temperatures caused increased ecosystem respiration at all sites (up to 139 %). During daytime all ecosystems remained carbon sinks, but carbon uptake was reduced in magnitude. The number of hours during which the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink was also reduced

  20. Psychiatry in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    measles and smallpox decimated their numbers. In Tasmania the Aboriginal people were wiped out (although their genes live on in many locals, and in recent years there has been a resurgence of cultural pride in Tasmanian Aboriginal descen- dants). The 20th century. By the start of the 20th century, psychiatry in Australia ...

  1. Library Automation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of Australia's move toward library automation highlights development of a national bibliographic network, local and regional cooperation, integrated library systems, telecommunications, and online systems, as well as microcomputer usage, ergonomics, copyright issues, and national information policy. Information technology plans of the…

  2. Psychiatry in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    resurgence of cultural pride in Tasmanian Aboriginal descen- dants). The 20th century. By the start of the 20th ... administered by the Royal Australian and New Zealand. College of Psychiatrists. There are over 2 000 ... psychiatry in Australia followed suit, picking up new ideas and trends. After World War I this included fever ...

  3. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  4. Classification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  5. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  6. Algal stromatolites: deepwater forms in the devonian of Western australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playford, P E; Cockbain, A E

    1969-09-05

    A diverse assemblage of algal stromatolites occurs in Devonian reef complexes of the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Some forms grew on fore-reef depositional slopes down to at least 45 meters below sea level and are believed to be products of deepwater nonskeletal algae. It is concluded that algal stromatolites in the stratigraphic record are not to be regarded as diagnostic evidence for deposition in very shallow water.

  7. Revisiting the structure, age, and evolution of the Wharton Basin to better understand subduction under Indonesia.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, J.; Dyment, J.; Yatheesh, V.

    analyze the past plate kinematic evolution of the Wharton Basin by two-plate (India-Australia) and three-plate (India-Australia-Antarctica) reconstructions. Despite the diffuse plate boundaries within the Indo-Australian plate for the last 20 Ma, we obtain...

  8. Bowen, Prof. Norman Levi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SPEAKER: Prof. Krishnaswamy Ravi-Chandar. VENUE: Faculty Hall, Indian Institute of Science. 23 February 2018 ǀ 1500. Event poster · Introducing: Summer Schools. Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and ...

  9. Australia's uncertain demographic future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of probabilistic population forecasting are increasingly being recognised as a profitable means of overcoming many of the limitations of conventional deterministic variant population forecasts. This paper applies these techniques to present the first comprehensive set of probabilistic population forecasts for Australia. We stress the disadvantages of directly inputting net migration into the cohort component model in probabilistic forecasting, and propose a gross migration flows model which distinguishes between permanent and non-permanent immigration and emigration. Our forecasts suggest that there is a two thirds probability of Australia’s population being between 23.0 and 25.8 million by 2026 and between 24.4 and 31.8 million by 2051. Comparisons with the latest official population projections of the Australian Bureau of Statistics are made.

  10. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  11. American Outlaws in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Tranter; Jed Donoghue

    2013-01-01

    An aspect of the diffusion of American popular culture is examined in this research drawing upon national survey data. Measuring Australians¡¯ knowledge of American and Australian outlaws, we found that Jesse James and Billy the Kid are better known in Australia than any of the local outlaws, or bushrangers, with the exception of Ned Kelly. While a relatively large proportion of Australians identified Ned Kelly, Ben Hall, Jesse James and Billy the Kid as outlaws, few identified other Australi...

  12. Mapping Homophobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael Gaston; Flood, Michael; Flood, C.; Hamilton, Clive

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the Australian population believe that 'homosexuality is immoral', and this belief is spread in distinct ways across the nation. Using data from a survey of nearly 25,000 Australians, we can 'map' homophobia in Australia. Homophobic attitudes are worst in country areas of Queensland and Tasmania. Men are far more likely than women to feel that homosexuality does not have moral legitimacy, and this gender gap in attitudes persists across age, socioeconomic, educational, and region...

  13. Household Saving in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Finlay; Fiona Price

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates household saving behaviour in Australia, as well as the drivers behind the recent rise in the aggregate household saving ratio. Our results explaining differences in saving behaviour across households are consistent with theory and previous findings. As might be expected, households' saving ratios tend to increase with income, but decrease with wealth and gearing. Financially constrained and migrant households tend to save more than other households, all else equal. Wh...

  14. Psychiatry in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kaplan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry has been practised in Australia in one form or another since the peopling of the continent, originally with the practices of the Aboriginal shamans, and later with the psychiatric treatment necessitated by convict transportation. Over most of the last half-century psychiatry has been administered by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. There are over 2 000 psychiatrists in Australia, and num- bers are expected to increase in future. As in many other countries, there is ongoing pressure between the private and public sectors, with endemic under- funding of public and community services. Despite its small number of practitioners and relative isola- tion from major centres, Australian psychiatry has a distin- guished record in the field of research. The most famous dis- covery, by John Cade, was the use of lithium for treatment of mania. Recently governments at state and federal level have acknowledged the effect of psychiatric illness on patients and their families. This has led to the development of pro- grammes to improve public information and eliminate preju- dice. It is anticipated that the practice of psychiatry will flourish in Australia and that the country will remain a leading centre of excellence in psychiatric research and training.

  15. Effect of fetch length on latent heat flux data accuracy calculated by Bowen ratio energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Trnka, Miroslav; Orság, Matěj; Kučera, Jiří; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-04-01

    Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) is one of the most widely used indirect methods for deriving latent heat (LE) and sensible heat fluxes. The BREB technique relies on net radiation, ground heat flux, and air temperature and humidity gradients measurements. Whilst the first two mentioned can be practically considered as point measurements, the source area of temperature and humidity gradients is at least one order of magnitudes larger. Therefore, the horizontal, homogeneous and extensive area is necessary prerequisite for correct flux determination by BREB method. An ideal fetch for BREB has been reported to be within 10 to 200 times the height of upper measuring level above zero plane displacement. This broad range is a result of different atmospheric stratifications and surface roughness, but the fetch to height ratio 100:1 has become generally acknowledged as a rule of thumb. In this study, data from four different BREB systems above various covers (two poplar plantations, grassland and turf grass field) will be used to calculate and analyse LE for different fetches. Data were recorded in Domanínek near Bystřice nad Pernštejnem in Czech-Moravian highlands where two BREB systems have measured above poplar plantation and turf grass since summer 2008 until present and two more systems have been placed above grassland and another poplar plantation at the beginning of 2011 and have measured until present time. During the measurements changing wind direction limited the fetch of particular BREB systems on the sites. That is why LE calculated for particular fetch lengths will be split into three categories - fetch classes ("good", "medium", and "bad") according to prevailing wind direction and corresponding fetch. These categories will be delimited using the simple footprint model. Fetches with more than 75% of the measured entities coming from the area of interest will be considered as the "good" ones. The "medium" class will contain fetches with 50-75% of the flux

  16. Papulose bowenóide: um aspecto clínico da infecção pelo HPV Bowenoid papulosis: a clinical feature of the HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Papulose bowenóide é uma doença que acomete a pele da região anogenital e que se caracteriza pelas múltiplas pequenas pápulas planas ou aveludadas e de coloração que varia do róseo ao castanho-escuro. É provocada pelo HPV e a transmissão sexual é a forma mais freqüente de contaminação. As queixas mais comuns são prurido e dor. O aspecto é característico e o exame histopatológico confirma o diagnóstico. Junto com a doença de Bowen e a eritroplasia de Queyrat, é considerada como carcinoma in situ, ou neoplasia intra-epitelial de alto grau (NIAA, a lesão precursora do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anal. Sem tratamento, a maioria das lesões permanece benigna e estável. Várias modalidades terapêuticas estão disponíveis, incluindo as medicações tópicas para citodestruição e as técnicas ablativas. Os esquemas tópicos são efetivos. Cabe ao profissional médico escolher a terapia adequada, tendo em mente que a doença é benigna e raramente evolui para carcinoma. Como as recidivas são freqüentes e ainda persistem dúvidas quanto ao potencial de malignização, os doentes devem ser examinados periodicamente para diagnosticar as lesões iniciais.Bowenoid papulosis is an anogenital skin disease characterized by multiple little papules, flat or velvet, which color varies from pink to dark brown. It is provoked by HPV and its transmission is sexual. Most common symptoms are anal pain and itching. Its appearance is characteristic and hystopathological examination confirms diagnosis. Together with Bowen´s disease and Queyrat erythroplasia, is considered as an in situ carcinoma, or high grade intra-epithelial neoplasia (HAIN, a precursor of the squamous-cell carcinoma. Most of lesions remain benign and stable without treatment. There are several kinds of treatment including topical drugs for cytodestruction and ablative techniques. Topic schemes are effectives. The consultant doctor may choose the most adequate therapy

  17. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  18. Análise das necessidades hídricas da vegetação Tamarisk através da razão de Bowen e do modelo SEBAL Water demand analysis of the Tamarisk vegetation through of the Bowen ratio and SEBAL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar a evapotranspiração real diária (ETr da vegetação tamarisk utilizando dados micrometeorológicos e o modelo SEBAL. Foram utilizados dados provenientes do método da razão de Bowen, além do modelo SEBAL aplicado a imagens do Landsat 5 - TM, na obtenção da ETr diária da vegetação tamarisk do Baixo Rio Colorado, CA/EUA. Na obtenção da evapotranspiração de referência (ET0 foi utilizado o método da FAO/Penman-Monteith. Os resultados mostram características de forte advecção de ar, e que a radiação solar é o componente de maior influência na obtenção da ET0. Verifica-se também, que a vegetação tamarisk tem alto consumo hídrico e a sua rápida expansão poderá trazer impactos negativos para os rios da região. As estimativas da ETr pelo modelo SEBAL são similares aos valores medidos na torre micrometeorológica pelo método da razão de Bowen, demonstrando a aplicabilidade do modelo SEBAL na obtenção da distribuição espacial da evapotranspiração real diária.The objective of this study was to determine the daily actual evapotranspiration (ETr of the tamarisk vegetation using micrometeorological data and SEBAL model. Data originating from the Bowen ratio method were used, besides the SEBAL model applied to TM Landsat 5 image for obtaining the daily ETr of the tamarisk vegetation of Lower Colorado River, CA/USA. For obtaining the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 the FAO/Penman-Monteith method was used. The results show characteristics of strong air advection and that the solar radiation has the largest influence in obtaining ET0, as well as, that the tamarisk vegetation has high water demand and its fast expansion can bring negative impacts for the rivers of the area. The estimates of ETr through the SEBAL model are similar to the measured values on the micrometeorological tower by the Bowen ratio method, demonstrating the applicability of the SEBAL model to obtain the spatial

  19. ENFERMEDAD DE BOWEN TRATADA CON CRIOTERAPIA COMBINADA CON IMIQUIMOD TOPICO AL 5%. TRATAMIENTO ALTERNATIVO A LA CIRUGÍA EN PACIENTES MAYORES CON CO-MORBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezcano Liz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bowen's disease (BD is an in situ squamous cell carcinoma in which dysplastic changes occur throughout the full thickness of the epidermis. It usually affects fair-skinned people over 60 years. It is characterized by erythematous papules and plaques solitary or multiple, with a slow centrifugal growth. The differential diagnosis of BD should be established with chronic dermatoses such as psoriasis, chronic eczema, superficial basal cell carcinoma and Paget's disease of the skin. Only 5% of cases progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report the case of a woman of 63 years of age with BD treated with cryotherapy combined with topical 5% imiquimod who responded adequately to this combination therapy.

  20. Magnetic anomalies of offshore Krishna–Godavari basin, eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peninsular India from the Combined Antarctica and Australia and subsequent down-warping of the eastern part of the Indian shield (Sahni 1982), and hence studies on the continental margins help in understanding the events that occurred during the break-up. Of these, the Krishna–Godavari. (K–G) basin with its high ...

  1. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI) has been a seat of vigorous geophysical exploration for the last four decades. Its three major river basins, viz., the Cauvery, the Krishna–Godavari and the Mahanadi, are believed to be the result of the break-up of peninsular India from the com- bined Antarctica and Australia, ...

  2. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  3. Dublin Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, I.D.; C. N. Waters

    2011-01-01

    The Carboniferous rocks of the Dublin Basin extend from the east coast of north Co. Dublin westwards to the River Shannon at Athlone and northwards to the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of the Longford-Down Massif (see Strogen et al. 1996, fig. 5; Sevastopulo & Wyse Jackson 2001, fig. 10.12; Fig. 21.1). They occur in counties Longford, Westmeath, Meath, north Co. Dublin, north Co. Offaly, north Co. Kildare and south Co. Dublin. Most of the rocks in the region belong to the Mississippia...

  4. The Continuing Evolution of Water Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, B.

    2011-12-01

    Since the early 1990s Australia has pursued a broad national agenda of water reform which includes full cost pricing, sufficient water for the environment, water conservation, irrigation infrastructure improvements, and clear delineation of roles and responsibilities of different water institutions among other reforms. A series of substantial changes to commonwealth and state law has resulted from these major initiatives. This reform effort was capped by groundbreaking commonwealth legislation in 2007 and 2008 that to large extent federalized the operation of the nation's largest river system, the Murray-Darling. A new basin wide authority, the MDBA, was created to manage the river via the concept of sustainable diversion limits (SDLs) to be promulgated through additional federal legislation. The October 2010 initial plan for these SDLs suggested cuts in use of up to 40% in the basin and was met with widespread opposition by irrigators. Subsequently, top leadership in the MDBA resigned, a number of parliamentary inquiries were begun, and the entire process has been delayed. How did Australia get to its current position with respect to water reform, and what is the likely outcome of the current delay? How has water management evolved in Australia over the last 20 years? What lessons exist for the Western United States?

  5. Australia: The Dictation Test Redux?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In its late colonial history and early years as an independent nation, Australia practised a policy of ruthless exclusion of immigrants on the basis of race by means of a language test: the notorious Dictation Test. In the 50 years following World War II, Australia adopted policies encouraging immigration with bipartisan political support.…

  6. Australia's contribution to global immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Tilman A; Taylor, Kate; Nolan, Terry

    2012-12-01

    To review Australian contributions to global immunisation. We summarise Australian scientific and program contributions to vaccines and global immunisation, describe key developments and strengths in Australia's national immunisation program, and outline how both of these can link with Australia's increasing international development budget to build Australia's future contribution to global immunisation. Australian contributions to vaccines and immunisation have been substantial, and Australia offers a range of good practices in its domestic and development approaches. There are major opportunities to build on this strong track record. These include committing to help roll out important new life-saving vaccines against pneumococcal disease, rotavirus and human papilloma virus (HPV) to the children who need them most, but whose communities can least afford them. Australia is one of a few countries expanding their aid budgets towards 0.7% development assistance and other development commitments. Given the importance of immunisation to health gains, Australia is well placed to expand its investment in immunisation within its development portfolio. The GAVI Alliance is the best-established global mechanism to do this. Additionally, however, Australia could harness other national and regional mechanisms to support low and middle-income countries, thereby complementing GAVI's focus and global needs. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Evapotranspiração do capim Tanzânia obtida pelo método de razão de Bowen e lisímetro de pesagem Evapotranspiration of Guinea grass using automated Bowen ratio system and lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo D. B. da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A irrigação de pastagens no Brasil apresentou crescimento acentuado nos últimos anos. No entanto, em função da ausência de pesquisas sobre a aplicação de água em pastagens, o manejo da irrigação não vem sendo realizado de maneira racional. Com o objetivo de contribuir para suprir a carência de informações, neste trabalho, comparou-se a evapotranspiração do capim Tanzânia estimada pelo método de razão de Bowen com a medida por lisímetro de pesagem. O experimento foi conduzido em Piracicaba - SP, entre os dias 21 de julho de 2000 e 15 de julho de 2001. Por meio de um lisímetro de pesagem e um sistema automático de razão de Bowen, foram obtidos valores de evapotranspiração do capim Tanzânia (ETc. A evapotranspiração média do capim Tanzânia foi de 4,13 mm d-1, segundo o balanço de energia, e 4,34 mm d-1, obtida pelo lisímetro de pesagem. Concluiu-se que a estimativa da evapotranspiração, obtida pelo sistema automático de razão de Bowen, pode ser influenciada pela contribuição advectiva e, também, pela ocorrência de chuvas de longa duração. Apesar disso, houve razoável correlação com as medidas feitas em lisímetro de pesagem.Pasture irrigation in Brazil presented a large increasing in the recent years; however irrigation management practices have been done irrationally due to a lack of research on water use by pastures. The objectives of this research were to determine evapotranspiration of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. by measurements of a weighing lysimeter; to apply the energy balance method to estimate evapotranspiration of Guinea grass by means of an automated Bowen ratio system; and to compare the measured and the estimated values of evapotranspiration. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba - SP, Brazil, between July 21, 2000 and July 15, 2001. The average evapotranspiration of Guinea grass was 4.13 mm day-1 by the energy balance method and 4.34 mm day-1 by the weighing lysimeter. It

  8. Warragamba. Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri, B.

    1959-02-01

    Full Text Available El pantano de Warragamba, cuyo objeto es el de producir energía hidroeléctrica en su primera fase de explotación y solamente agua potable cuando las necesidades de ésta así lo requieran, se haya situado en las proximidades de Sydney (Australia. Su extensa cuenca está constituida por una serie de ríos en cuyas cabeceras se han construido diques de retención, que no solamente almacenan grandes cantidades de agua, sino que sirven parcialmente para la regularización de caudales, función de gran interés en esta zona donde las avenidas, seguidas de extensas inundaciones, se hacen sentir con relativa frecuencia.

  9. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions.

  11. Mid-Cryogenian Stromatolite Reefs of Central and South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, C.; Campbell, M.

    2016-12-01

    Neoproterozoic strata are largely correlative between the Adelaide Rift Complex (ARC) of South Australia and the Amadeus Basin of central Australia. In both regions, basal- and terminal-Cryogenian glacigenic rocks are separated by intervening shallow-marine and carbonate-rich strata. In the northern part of the ARC, these stratigraphic records of the Cryogenian "non-glacial interlude" include a stromatolite reef complex in the Balcanoona Fm. that is disconformably overlain by the Amberoona and Yankaninna Fms. The stratigraphic equivalent of the Balcanoona Fm. in the Amadeus Basin is within the Ringwood Mbr. of the Aralka Fm., which also contains abundant stromatolites. Based largely on stromatolite occurrence, we informally divide the Ringwood Mbr. into four sub-members (from oldest to youngest, sub-members A through D), and we present new carbon isotope data from carbonate (δ13Ccarb) illustrating a negative excursion in sub-member C, which is bracketed above and below by stromatolitic intervals. Comparison with previous δ13Ccarb results from the northern ARC suggests that the excursion is omitted there along the unconformity at the top of the Balcanoona Fm. This unconformity is widespread in the ARC and, in fact, is the boundary between the "Sturtian" and "Marinoan" stratigraphic series. We suggest that the same unconformity separates the Ringwood Mbr. from the overlying Limbla Mbr. in the Amadeus Basin. These observations and correlations suggest widespread stromatolite reef development in both central Australia and the ARC during a portion of the Cryogenian non-glacial interlude. This phase of stromatolite reef expansion includes a negative δ13Ccarb excursion that may be correlative with Cryogenian stratigraphic successions in other parts of the world, and it seems to have been terminated, in both regions, by a fall in sea-level.

  12. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  13. On the Equality Assumption of Latent and Sensible Heat Energy Transfer Coefficients of the Bowen Ratio Theory for Evapotranspiration Estimations: Another Look at the Potential Causes of Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Irmak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET and sensible heat (H flux play a critical role in climate change; micrometeorology; atmospheric investigations; and related studies. They are two of the driving variables in climate impact(s and hydrologic balance dynamics. Therefore, their accurate estimate is important for more robust modeling of the aforementioned relationships. The Bowen ratio energy balance method of estimating ET and H diffusions depends on the assumption that the diffusivities of latent heat (KV and sensible heat (KH are always equal. This assumption is re-visited and analyzed for a subsurface drip-irrigated field in south central Nebraska. The inequality dynamics for subsurface drip-irrigated conditions have not been studied. Potential causes that lead KV to differ from KH and a rectification procedure for the errors introduced by the inequalities were investigated. Actual ET; H; and other surface energy flux parameters using an eddy covariance system and a Bowen Ratio Energy Balance System (located side by side on an hourly basis were measured continuously for two consecutive years for a non-stressed and subsurface drip-irrigated maize canopy. Most of the differences between KV and KH appeared towards the higher values of KV and KH. Although it was observed that KV was predominantly higher than KH; there were considerable data points showing the opposite. In general; daily KV ranges from about 0.1 m2∙s−1 to 1.6 m2∙s−1; and KH ranges from about 0.05 m2∙s−1 to 1.1 m2∙s−1. The higher values for KV and KH appear around March and April; and around September and October. The lower values appear around mid to late December and around late June to early July. Hourly estimates of KV range between approximately 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.8 m2∙s−1 and that of KH ranges approximately between 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.7 m2∙s−1. The inequalities between KV and KH varied diurnally as well as seasonally. The inequalities were greater during the non

  14. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  15. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  16. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  17. Hydrogeology of sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Charles W.

    1989-03-01

    Hydrogeologic environments in sedimentary basins are as variable as are the different types of basins. Important hydrologic characteristics can be used to distinguish the different types of basin: (1) the topographic setting as determined by the geologic and structural history of the basin; (2) permeability distribution within the basin; and (3) potential energy distributions and flow mechanisms. These parameters control residence times of waters, rates and directions of saline groundwater flow and the origin and chemical composition of the saline waters. The Gulf Coast and Palo Duro Basins, Texas, exemplify two end member types of sedimentary basins. The Gulf Coast Basin is a relatively young, Tertiary-age basin which is presently compacting; fluid movement is from the overpressured, undercompacted sediments up the structural dip or up fault zones into the hydrostatic section, natural fluid pressures are either hydrostatic or overpressured. The Palo Duro is an older, Paleozoic-age basin that has been tectonically uplifted. Fluid flow is gravity driven from topographically high recharge areas to discharge in topographically low areas. Fluid pressures are subhydrostatic. Fluids discharge more easily than they are recharged. Not all flow is derived by a simple recharge discharge model. Brines may flow from other basins into the Palo Duro Basin and waters may discharge from the Palo Duro Basin into other basins. Areal differences in the chemical composition of the basin brines may be the result of different origins.

  18. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  19. Monitoring fossil fuel sources of methane in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Zoe; Etheridge, David; Luhar, Ashok; Hibberd, Mark; Thatcher, Marcus; Noonan, Julie; Thornton, David; Spencer, Darren; Gregory, Rebecca; Jenkins, Charles; Zegelin, Steve; Leuning, Ray; Day, Stuart; Barrett, Damian

    2017-04-01

    CSIRO has been active in identifying and quantifying methane emissions from a range of fossil fuel sources in Australia over the past decade. We present here a history of the development of our work in this domain. While we have principally focused on optimising the use of long term, fixed location, high precision monitoring, paired with both forward and inverse modelling techniques suitable either local or regional scales, we have also incorporated mobile ground surveys and flux calculations from plumes in some contexts. We initially developed leak detection methodologies for geological carbon storage at a local scale using a Bayesian probabilistic approach coupled to a backward Lagrangian particle dispersion model (Luhar et al. JGR, 2014), and single point monitoring with sector analysis (Etheridge et al. In prep.) We have since expanded our modelling techniques to regional scales using both forward and inverse approaches to constrain methane emissions from coal mining and coal seam gas (CSG) production. The Surat Basin (Queensland, Australia) is a region of rapidly expanding CSG production, in which we have established a pair of carefully located, well-intercalibrated monitoring stations. These data sets provide an almost continuous record of (i) background air arriving at the Surat Basin, and (ii) the signal resulting from methane emissions within the Basin, i.e. total downwind methane concentration (comprising emissions including natural geological seeps, agricultural and biogenic sources and fugitive emissions from CSG production) minus background or upwind concentration. We will present our latest results on monitoring from the Surat Basin and their application to estimating methane emissions.

  20. Water reform in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Daniel; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2011-12-01

    In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin the Australian and state governments are attempting to introduce a system of water management that will halt ongoing decline in environmental conditions and resource security and provide a robust foundation for managing climate change. This parallels similar efforts being undertaken in regions such as southern Africa, the southern United States, and Spain. Central to the project is the Australian government's Water Act 2007, which requires the preparation of a comprehensive basin plan expected to be finalized in 2011. This paper places recent and expected developments occurring as part of this process in their historical context and examines factors that could affect implementation. Significant challenges to the success of the basin plan include human resource constraints, legislative tensions within the Australian federal system, difficulties in coordinating the network of water-related agencies in the six jurisdictions with responsibilities in the Murray-Darling Basin, and social, economic, and environmental limitations that restrict policy implementation.

  1. Remembering the Battle for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rechniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For the last two years, Australia has commemorated, on the first Wednesday in September, the ‘Battle for Australia Day’, to mark the role of Australian forces fighting the Japanese in the Pacific in WWII. The aim of this article is to identify the agents involved in the campaign for the gazetting of this day and the justifications advanced; to trace the conflicting narratives and political and historical controversies surrounding the notion of a ‘Battle for Australia’; and to outline the shifts in domestic and international politics and generational change that provide the context for the inauguration of this day.

  2. POSMODERN DAN SASTRA INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Furqan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Karya sastra Indigenous Australia adalah karya masyarakat native yang tinggal di negara bentukan penjajah (settler state. Setelah opresi yang dialami selama beberapa dekade, perkembangan sastra mereka baru saja menapaki puncak di awal abad ke-21 bersama dengan adanya perubahan kebijakan politis serta didukung oleh perkembangan teknologi, serta bersamaan dengan kondisi posmodern atau logika kapitalisme lanjut. Tulisan ini hendak mengelaborasi perjalanan singkat dan resistensi yang muncul dalam sastra Indigenous Australia hingga kini menghadapi kapitalisme yang canggih. Di era global sekaramg ini, banyak sekali permasalahan yang muncul bahkan ketika karya sastra tersebut mulai merekah, mulai dari persoalan tentang identitas, sejarah, otentisitas, persaingan global, dan logika masyarakat posmodern.

  3. Tracking the Cretaceous transcontinental Ceduna River through Australia: The hafnium isotope record of detrital zircons from offshore southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarred Lloyd

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The middle–upper Cretaceous Ceduna River system traversed continental Australia from the NE coast to the centre of the southern coast. At its mouth, it formed a vast delta system that is similar in scale to the Niger delta of West Africa. The delta system is composed of two main lobes that represent different phases of delta construction. A recent hypothesis has challenged the traditional idea that both lobes of the delta were derived from a transcontinental river system by suggesting that the upper lobe (Santonian–Maastrichtian is instead derived from a restricted catchment within southern Australia. Hf isotopic data presented here fingerprint the original source of the upper delta lobe zircons to NE Australia, with data comparing well with similar U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data from the Lachlan Orogen, the New England Orogen, the eastern Musgraves Province and the northern Flinders Ranges. These data do not preclude a model where the lobe is derived from recycled Eromanga Basin sediments during a phase of late Cretaceous inland Australian uplift, but when coupled with reconnaissance low-temperature thermochronometry from the region of the Ceduna River course indicating widespread Triassic–Jurassic exhumation, and comparisons with detrital zircon data from the Winton Formation upstream of any proposed uplift, we suggest that both lobes of the Ceduna Delta are likely to be derived from a transcontinental Ceduna River.

  4. Prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody among pregnant women and blood donors at Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilda, Awoyelu E; Kola, Oloke Julius; Kolawole, Oladipo E

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is one of the emerging infectious diseases that can be transmitted through blood-to-blood contact. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among potential blood donors and pregnant women attending Bowen University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ogbomoso, Oyo State. This hospital-based study was conducted from December 2014 to September 2015. The study group (N = 279) included potential blood donors and pregnant women. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. The presence of anti-HCV antibodies in serum samples of the studied subjects were detected using third-generation Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) (WKEA Med Supplies Corp, China). Chisquare test was utilized to assess the association between the socio-demographic variables and HCV status. Logistic regression was done to determine the strength of association between risk factors and HCV status. Statistical significance was set at P ˂ 0.05. Overall seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection was found to be 1.79% consisting 0.36% of pregnant women and 1.43% of blood donors. None of the socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors among the study groups were significantly associated with hepatitis C virus infection. This study found a seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody to be 1.79%, thus, screening of pregnant women and blood donors for HCV infections with the use of ELISA is recommended because of its important role in detecting the presence of anti-HCV antibody with utmost specificity and sensitivity.

  5. Temperature Humidity Dissimilarity and Heat-to-water-vapour Transport Efficiency Above and Within a Pine Forest Canopy: the Role of the Bowen Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaud, E.; Irvine, M.

    2006-07-01

    Over the past 15 years atmospheric surface-layer experiments over heterogeneous canopies have shown that the vertical transfer of sensible heat and water vapour exhibit a strong dissimilarity. In particular, the sensible-heat-to-water-vapour transport efficiencies generally exceed unity. One of the main consequences is that evaporation (latent heat flux) computed by the flux-variance method is overestimated, as persistently demonstrated by comparisons with evaporation obtained with the eddy-correlation method. Various authors proposed to take into account the temperature humidity dissimilarity to extend the applicability of the flux-variance method in order to compute evaporation from non-uniform surfaces. They attempted to connect the sensible-heat-to-water-vapour transport efficiency (λ) to the correlation coefficient between temperature and humidity turbulent fluctuations ( R Tq ). This approach was found to be successful over ‘wet’ surfaces for which λ can be approximated by R Tq and ‘dry’ surfaces for which λ can be approximated by 1/ R Tq . However, no solution has been proposed until now for intermediate hydrological conditions. We investigated this question using eddy-correlation measurements above and inside a pine forest canopy. For both levels, our data present a strong likeness with previously published results over heterogeneous surfaces. In particular, they confirm that λ is R Tq in wet conditions and 1/ R Tq in dry conditions. Moreover, we defined the range of the Bowen ratio ( Bo) values for which those two approximations are valid (below 0.1 and greater than 1, respectively) and established a relationship between λ, R Tq and Bo for the intermediate range of Bo. We are confident that this new parameterization will enlarge the applicability of the flux-variance method to all kinds of heterogeneous surfaces in various hydrological conditions

  6. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Australia is the world's smallest, flattest, and (after Antarctica) driest continent, but at 7.7 million square kilometers (3.0 million square miles) it is also the sixth largest country. Its low average elevation (300 meters, or less than 1000 feet) is caused by its position near the center of a tectonic plate, where there are no volcanic or other geologic forces of the type that raise the topography of other continents. In fact Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity at all - the last eruption took place 1400 years ago at Mt. Gambier. The Australian continent is also one of the oldest land masses, with some of its erosion-exposed bedrock age dated at more than 3 billion years. More than one-fifth of the land area is desert, with more than two-thirds being classified as arid or semi-arid and unsuitable for settlement. The coldest regions are in the highlands and tablelands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps at the southeastern corner of the continent, location of Australia's highest point, Mt. Kosciusko (2228 meters, or 7310 feet.) Prominent features of Australia include the Lake Eyre basin, the darker green region visible in the center-right. At 16 meters (52 feet) below sea level this depression is one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world, covering more than 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles). The mountain range near the east coast is called the Great Dividing Range, forming a watershed between east and west flowing rivers. Erosion has created deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls in this range where rivers tumble over escarpments on their way to the sea. The crescent shaped uniform green region in the south, just left of center, is the Nullarbor Plain, a low-lying limestone plateau which is so flat that the Trans-Australian Railway runs through it in a straight line for more than 483 kilometers (300 miles). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of

  7. The evolution and performance of river basin management in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore bioregional management in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB in Australia through the institutional design characteristics of the MDB River Basin Organization (RBO, the actors and organizations who supported and resisted the establishment of the RBO, and the effectiveness of the RBO. During the last 25 years, there has been a major structural reform in the MDB RBO, which has changed from an interstate coordinating body to an Australian government agency. Responsibility for basin management has been centralized under the leadership of the Australian government, and a comprehensive integrated Basin plan has been adopted. The driving forces for this centralization include national policy to restore river basins to sustainable levels of extraction, state government difficulties in reversing overallocation of water entitlements, the millennium drought and its effects, political expediency on the part of the Australian government and state governments, and a major injection of Australian government funding. The increasing hierarchy and centralization of the MDB RBO does not follow a general trend toward multilevel participative governance of RBOs, but decentralization should not be overstated because of the special circumstances at the time of the centralization and the continuing existence of some decentralized elements, such as catchment water plans, land use planning, and water quality. Further swings in the centralization-decentralization pendulum could occur. The MDB reform has succeeded in rebalancing Basin water allocations, including an allocation for the environment and reduced diversion limits. There are some longer term risks to the implementation of reform, including lack of cooperation by state governments, vertical coordination difficulties, and perceived reductions in the accountability and legitimacy of reform at the local level. If implementation of the Basin plan is diverted or delayed, a new institution, the Commonwealth

  8. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  9. Biofuels for Transport in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Kes

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, policy at the National and State levels induces and blocks the development of biofuels. There is no strong, integrated and consistent policy framework. The market for biofuels lacks momentum and confidence of investors is weak. Current capacity is not utilised. Expansion is not expected before 2015.

  10. Sharks and Rays of Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    38 descrtbed members of the family Rajidae (skates) f>till await spe- cific names. The seas off Australia extend from a tropical J(ts to cold temper- ate waters (lYer 40'S, providing a wide diversity of habitats. The authors stress the extreme richness of the Australian !-.hark and ray fauna. By comparison III southern Africa there ...

  11. Lexicography in Australia | Delbridge | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the current setting for lexicography in Australia by reviewing the place of English since the first British settlement began, in 1788. The emergence of Australian English as the national language is traced, and its relations with the Australian Aboriginal languages touched on. The greatest change in the ...

  12. Measuring Research Impact in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of the national Research Engagement and Impact Assessment in Australia provides a timely opportunity to review attempts to improve the non-academic impact of academic research. The impact agenda represents a new phase in academic research evaluation and funding, characterised by a heightened need to demonstrate a return on…

  13. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  14. Education, Place and Sustainability: A Literature Review and Overview of Curriculum and Policy in the States and the Territory of the Murray-Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philip; Downes, Natalie; Cook, Louise; Heiner, Irmgard; Caffery, Jo

    2014-01-01

    This report has been developed as part of the MDBfutures Collaborative Research Network project "Towards Place Based Education in the Murray-Darling Basin." The project explores the ways in which sustainability is understood in Murray Darling Basin (MDB) communities of Australia (including Indigenous, rural, small towns and regional…

  15. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Lynette M; Bagga, Hanish

    2004-03-01

    Arthritis affects around 3 million people in Australia, representing about 15% of the population. Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of pain and disability among the elderly. Osteoarthritis is the third leading cause of life-years lost due to disability. Obesity and joint injury are important potentially modifiable risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Obesity is also an important predictor of progression of osteoarthritis. Currently, about 19000 hip and 20000 knee replacements are performed for osteoarthritis in Australia each year. Prevalence of osteoarthritis and the need for total joint replacement surgery are likely to increase because of a combination of increasing risk factors (age, obesity, injury), increasing expectations for improved quality of life, and improved surgical and anaesthetic techniques making surgery possible for more people. Services to provide these cost-effective procedures need to be increased. Primary and secondary prevention programs aimed at reducing obesity, preventing injury and improving rehabilitation and physical activity are urgently required.

  16. Slovene migrant literature in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article on the literary creativity of Slovene rnigrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished auth­ ors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those who are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentary, histori­ cal,or ethnological points of view. However, the genresfeatured here include the explicitly literary, the semi-literary fictionalized biography, the memoir and documentary fiction, and the literary journalistic text - all those fields and genres that nowadays straddle the division line between 'high' literature and so-called 'creative fiction'.

  17. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  18. Observing urban forests in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2009-01-01

    From February 13 to 28, 2009 I had the good fortune of visiting Australia, and touring urban forests in Sydney, Canberra, Brisbane, and Melbourne. My visits were only a day or two in each city, so in no case did I get an in-depth view of the urban forest resource or its management. The following observations are based on rather superficial field assessments and brief...

  19. Characterizing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions over a Wheat-based Cropping System in the Northwest United States Using the Modified Bowen Ratio Technique and Static Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Sarah; Kostyanovsky, Kirill; O'Keeffe, Patrick; Pressley, Shelley; Huggins, Dave; Stockle, Claudio; Lamb, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Agricultural soils are the primary source of N2O, which is created as a by-product of soil microbial processes. The production and emission of N2O is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability, or "hot spots" and "hot moments". These behaviors, along with limitations in instrument sensitivity to N2O, are challenges in characterizing emissions. Many studies have monitored N2O emissions using either static chambers or micrometeorological measurements or the two methods together. The two techniques are complementary: chamber methods have a lower detection limit and are more reliable as their operation does not depend on atmospheric conditions, but may not capture spatial variability even with multiple chambers. Tower-based methods are subject to relatively high data loss due to non-ideal conditions and to less sensitive detection limits, but have a larger measurement footprint and can characterize field-scale emissions. This study aims to characterize a long-term, field-scale N2O budget over two winter wheat fields located in the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States, both in terms of an annual emission budget and in terms of understanding what causes hot moments. We combined continuous measurements of N2O emissions from a system of sixteen automated, static chambers with tower-based measurements of N2O fluxes. We used the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) technique with temperature as a tracer. Preliminary results indicate that freeze-thaw cycles in the winter make up a higher percentage of annual emissions than previously thought. Furthermore, comparison of the chamber results to the tower-based measurements imply that the chambers may be underestimating field-scale N2O fluxes because they are not adequately capturing hot spots of emissions. We are conducting ongoing work on how to integrate the two measurement techniques, as well as how the empirical measurements compare with

  20. Bower ratio-energy balance associated errors in vineyards under dripping irrigation Erros associados pela razão de bowen ao balanço de energia em parreirais sob irrigação por gotejamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Monteiro Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Bebedouro Experimental Station in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, to evaluate the errors associated to the application of the Bowen ratio-energy balance in a 3-years old vineyard (Vitis vinifera, L, grown in a trellis system, irrigated by dripping. The field measurements were taken during fruiting cycle (July to November, 2001, which was divided into eigth phenological stages. A micrometeorological tower was mounted in a grape-plants row in which sensors of net radiation, global solar radiation and wind speed were installed at about 1.0 m above the canopy. Also in the tower, two psicometers were installed at two levels (0.5 and 1.8 m above the vineyard canopy. Two soil heat flux plates were buried at 0.02 m beneath the soil surface. All these sensors were connected to a Data logger 21 X of Campbell Scientific Inc., programmed for collecting data once every 5 seconds and storage averages for every 15 minutes. A comparative analysis were made among four Bowen ratio accepting/rejecting rules, according to the methodology proposed by Spano et al. (2000: betar1 - values of beta calculated by Bowen (1926 equation; betar2 - values of beta as proposed by Verma et al. (1978 equation; betar3 - exclusion of the beta values obtained as recommended by Unland et al. (1996 and betar4 - exclusion of the beta values calculated as proposed by Bowen (1926, out of the interval (-0.7 Este estudo foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Bebedouro, Petrolina-PE, Brasil, para avaliar os erros associados com a aplicação do balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen em um parreiral (Vitis vinifera, L com três anos de idade, conduzido em latada, sob irrigação por gotejamento. As medições foram feitas durante o ciclo produtivo de julho a novembro de 2001, que foi dividido em oito estádios fenológicos. Numa torre micrometeorológica localizada no centro do parreiral, foram instalados a 1,00 m acima do dossel da videira, os seguintes

  1. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  2. Roebuck Bay and the Town of Broome, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Roebuck Bay (18.0S, 122.0E) is a prominent bay on the arid northwest coast of Western Australia and the town of Broome is one of the few prominent towns along this very sparsley settled coast. The large gray area extending back from the shoreline of the bay is the Roebuck Plains slowly being filled with sediment by local streams draining the Great Sandy Desert. The irregular bare patches on the desert to the south are burn scars from brush fires.

  3. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  4. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  5. Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Ray

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 25 items published by the Australian Government Publications Service in 1992-93 that deal with a wide variety of issues, including trade performance, indigenous Australians, multiculturalism, the environment, aging, privacy versus law enforcement, urban life, health, violence against women, cultural tourism,…

  6. Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happel, Sue

    Designed for intermediate grade students, this 4-week unit contains 11 lessons on Australian culture and geography. Topics covered are: the map, history, geography, climate, economy, people, education, religion, recreation, government, cities, transportation, communication, wildlife, and plantlife. Each lesson includes text and questions on the…

  7. Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article adopts a human rights lens to consider Australian law and practice regarding elective abortion. As such, it considers Australian laws within the context of the right to equality, right to privacy, right to health, and right to life. After setting out the human rights framework and noting the connected nature of many of the rights (and their corresponding violations), the article shifts its focus to analyzing Australian law and practice within the framework of these rights. It considers the importance of decriminalizing abortion and regulating it as a standard medical procedure. It discusses the need to remove legal and practical restrictions on access to abortion, including financial obstacles and anti-abortion protestors. Further, it comments on the importance of facilitating access; for example, by keeping accurate health data, securing continuity of health care, increasing the availability of medical abortion, and ensuring appropriate care is provided to the most marginalized and vulnerable women. PMID:28630553

  8. Was there a Skills Shortage in Australia?

    OpenAIRE

    Junankar, P.N. (Raja)

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the problem of a "skills shortage" in Australia. It begins with an analysis of the operation of a labour market in terms of stocks and flows of labour services and human capital acquisition. It discusses the definition of a skills shortage, why it persists, and then looks at evidence from Australia, in particular, the resource rich states of Queensland and Western Australia over the past decade. It discusses possible employer responses to a skills shortage. Finally, it disc...

  9. Water: Drought, Crisis and Governance in Australia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sousa Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite huge differences in population, household income and development levels, Australia and Brazil have some temporal convergences in their water governance systems. Over the last 20 years, both countries have significantly reformed their water policies and practices by introducing a legal foundation for more integrated and participatory catchment/basin management based on the best information available. A critical test of any water reform is how effective it is in meeting the challenges of extreme and unpredictable conditions of drought and floods, which are expected to increase under climate changes scenarios. This paper compared the contemporary water governance frameworks of Australia and Brazil in relation to three elements of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM: integration, participation, and information/knowledge. We focused on insights from Brazil’s recent drought and Australia’s fluctuating water crises to derive lessons and recommendations for future changes. Among the main recommendations, we stress the need for both systems to improve effective participation and to embrace a more comprehensive approach to cope with water scarcity in future scenarios. Furthermore, water related decisions should be based on a transparent and well informed process, and take into account the lessons from similar situations worldwide in order to avoid unnecessary or ineffective measures. As demonstrated in the Australian case during the Millennium Drought, the most effective initiatives were those involving government, the private sector and society to achieve a more sustainable consumption pattern in all sectors. There is much to learn from the Brazilian and Australia experiences in water reforms and crises, but it is imperative to understand the social, economic and environmental context within which these took place. Continuing to develop the capacity and willingness of researchers and policy makers to work together can make an

  10. Estimativa do balanço de energia em cambarazal e pastagem no norte do Pantanal pelo método da razão de Bowen Estimate of energy balance in cambarazaland pasture in the north of Pantanal by Bowen ratio method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do balanço de energia de uma superfície vegetada e a atmosfera é importante para caracterizar o microclima local, identificar interações entre variáveis ambientais e a vegetação, e identificar efeitos das atividades antropogênicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a variação sazonal do balanço de energia pelo método da razão de Bowen em uma área de vegetação monodominante de Cambará na RPPN SESC-Pantanal e uma área de pastagem na Fazenda Experimental da UFMT. Os componentes do balanço de energia apresentaram sazonalidade, com maiores médias na estação chuvosa nas duas áreas de estudo. No cambarazal houve maior variação do fluxo de calor latente da estação seca para a chuvosa que na pastagem. Entretanto, a variação sazonal do fluxo de calor sensível foi menor no cambarazal que na pastagem, devido ao efeito termo-regulador do cambarazal, em função da maior biomassa. A energia disponível aos dois sítios foi destinada prioritariamente em fluxo de calor latente, 80,0% no cambarazal e 56,6% na pastagem, seguido pelo fluxo de calor sensível, 19,1 e 42,9%, e pelo fluxo de calor no solo, 0,3 e 7,2%.The energy balance study of a vegetated surface and atmosphere is important to characterize the local microclimate, identify interactions among environmental variables and the vegetation and to identify anthropogenic activities effects. The objective of this work was estimate the seasonality of energy balance by Bowen ratio method in a monodominant vegetation of Cambará area in the RPPN SESC-Pantanal and a pasture area in UFMT's Experimental Farm. The energy balance components presented seasonality, with larger averages at the rainy station in two areas of study. In the cambarazal was a higher variation of the latent heat flux of the dry season for the rainy season that in the pasture. However, the seasonal variation of the sensible heat flux in the cambarazal was lower than in the pasture, due to the thermo

  11. Editorial: Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris McPhee

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: innovation, entrepreneurship, Australia, National Innovation and Science Agenda, regional innovation management, policy, regions, ecosystem, high-growth startups, strategic management, job creation...

  12. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  13. South American sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urien, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  14. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November 2, 2012. The mission to Australia is... of the trade mission to Australia are to (1) increase U.S. exports to Australia, (2) introduce U.S...

  15. Measuring Evapotranspiration of five Alley Cropping systems in Germany using the Eddy-Covariance- and Bowen-Ratio Energy-Balance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Christian; Knohl, Alexander; Siebicke, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    The inclusion of trees into the agricultural landscape of Europe is gaining popularity as a source for energy production. Fast growing tree species such as poplar or willow are included as short rotation coppice or alley cropping systems, which consist of tree alleys interleaved by annual rotating crops or perennial grasslands. Estimating turbulent fluxes of those systems using the eddy-covariance- (ECEB) and bowen-ratio energy-balance (BREB) method is challenging due to the methods limitation to horizontally homogeneous terrain and steady state conditions. As the conditions are not fulfilled for those systems the energy-balance is commonly not fully closed, with the non-closure being site specific. An underestimation of measured heat fluxes leads to an overestimation of the latent heat fluxes inferred from the ECEB method. The aim of our study is to 1) quantify the site specific non-closure of the energy-balance and 2) characterize the performance of both methods, compared to direct eddy-covariance measurements using a high frequency infra-red gas analyzer (LI-7200, Licor Inc.). To assess continuous evapotranspiration (ET) rates on a 30-minute time scale we installed a combined ECEB and BREB system at five alley cropping and five agricultural reference sites across Germany. For time periods of four weeks we performed direct eddy covariance flux measurements for H2O and CO2 over one crop- and one grassland alley cropping- and their respective reference systems during the growing season of 2016. We found a non-closure between 21 and 26 % for all sites, considering all day- and night-time data. The residual energy was highest during the morning and lowest in the afternoon. Related to that the energy-balance ratio (EBR), i.e. the ratio between the turbulent heat fluxes and available energy, was below one in the morning hours and increased slightly during the day up to 1.8, until the EBR decreased sharply after sunset. The EBR correlated to the daily cycle of solar

  16. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  17. Examination of water budget using satellite products over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Guan, Huade; Gutiérrez-Jurado, Hugo A.; Simmons, Craig T.

    2014-04-01

    Large-scale water balance in the Australian continent is examined over an 8-year period (2003-2010) with three commonly used satellite based water cycle components: precipitation (P) from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), evapotranspiration (ET) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and terrestrial water storage change (ΔS) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). First we evaluate the water balance using the three products over areas with limited annual streamflow to eliminate the influence of runoff in the analysis. We observe more frequent and better closure and consistency in the water balance from the three components over the central part of Western Australia, where low precipitation, high elevation and low relief exist. The data are more coherent at seasonal and annual scales compared to the monthly scale. Application of the three products in Lake Eyre Basin (an internal drainage system) suggests a maximum 6.2 mm/year groundwater inflow to the basin, which is consistent with the regional groundwater flow direction in the area. This result also indicates that the absolute integrated error of the combination of three products should be smaller than 6.2 mm/year, which is about 2.1% of annual precipitation in the basin. If this relative error is assumed for the whole continent, water balance calculation using the three products over the whole Australian continent results in 144.7 ± 11.3 mm/year estimated total runoff to the surrounding oceans during the study period. We found that this estimate is comparable to the estimates of 50-150 mm/year from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and National Water Commission.

  18. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  19. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  20. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  1. Focus on: Hendra virus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kristopher

    2014-11-29

    Cases of Hendra virus infection in horses in Australia have been seen regularly since the virus was first isolated in 1994. Kristopher Hughes, associate professor of equine medicine at Charles Sturt University in Australia, gives an overview of how knowledge of the virus has developed in the past 20 years. British Veterinary Association.

  2. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia's South African war 1899-19021. DR CRAIG WILCOX. Australian WarMemorial historian o/the Anglo-Boer War, Sydney, Australia. Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the. British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those. Australians constituted ...

  3. Space weather activities in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, D.

    Space Weather Plan Australia has a draft space weather plan to drive and focus appropriate research into services that meet future industry and social needs. The Plan has three main platforms, space weather monitoring and service delivery, support for priority research, and outreach to the community. The details of monitoring, service, research and outreach activities are summarised. A ground-based network of 14 monitoring stations from Antarctica to Papua New Guinea is operated by IPS, a government agency. These sites monitor ionospheric and geomagnetic characteristics, while two of them also monitor the sun at radio and optical wavelengths. Services provided through the Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) include real-time information on the solar, space, ionospheric and geomagnetic environments. Data are gathered automatically from monitoring sites and integrated with data exchanged internationally to create snapshots of current space weather conditions and forecasts of conditions up to several days ahead. IPS also hosts the WDC for Solar-Terrestrial Science and specialises in ground-based solar, ionospheric, and geomagnetic data sets, although recent in-situ magnetospheric measurements are also included. Space weather activities A research consortium operates the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER), an HF southward pointing auroral radar operating from Hobart (Tasmania). A second cooperative radar (Unwin radar) is being constructed in the South Island of New Zealand. This will intersect with TIGER over the auroral zone and enhance the ability of the radar to image the surge of currents that herald space environment changes entering the Polar Regions. Launched in November 2002, the micro satellite FEDSAT, operated by the Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite Systems, has led to successful space science programs and data streams. FEDSAT is making measurements of the magnetic field over Australia and higher latitudes. It also carries a

  4. Providing and financing aged care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergas H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry Ergas1,2, Francesco Paolucci31University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 2Deloitte Australia, Brindabella Business Park, Canberra Airport, ACT, Australia; 3Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health, The Australian National University, Acton, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: This article focuses on the provision and financing of aged care in Australia. Demand for aged care will increase substantially as a result of population aging, with the number of Australians aged 85 and over projected to increase from 400,000 in 2010 to over 1.8 million in 2051. Meeting this demand will greatly strain the current system, and makes it important to exploit opportunities for increased efficiency. A move to greater beneficiary co-payments is also likely, though its extent may depend on whether aged care insurance and other forms of pre-payment can develop.Keywords: aged care, long-term care, sustainability, residential care, community care

  5. Australia Remote Monitoring Project (ARMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, Carmella; Busse, James; Carlson, John; Dickerson, Dawn; Ffrost, Brian; Gaillour, Marsha; Glidewell, Don; Hill, John; Martinez, Robert; Monds, Patrick; Schoeneman, Barry; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Sorokowski, Donald

    1999-07-14

    As a result of the Safeguards Arrangement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office (ASNO) concerning international safeguards R and D, ASNO and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have agreed to jointly develop a remote monitoring system at the HIFAR reactor, Lucas Heights, Australia. The HIFAR reactor is a high flux research reactor operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The objective of the system is to remotely monitor the entire Material Balance Area (MBA) AS-A to include: fresh fuel the reactor core; spent fuel in the cropping/irradiation pond, international pond, dry spent fuel storage facility, and Dounreay flasks; and spent fuel during designated transport. The purpose is to reduce on-site inspection effort at the HIFAR reactor.

  6. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  7. Pliocene-Pleistocene coastal events and history along the western margin of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, G.W.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.; Szabo, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Coastal deposits along the western coastal margin of Australia, a region of relative tectonic stability, record Plio-Pleistocene events and processes affecting the inner shelf and adjacent hinterland. Tectonic deformation of these deposits is more apparent in the Carnarvon Basin, and rather less so in the Perth Basin. The most complete record comes from the Perth Basin, where units of Pliocene and Pleistocene ages are well represented. In the Perth Basin, the predominantly siliciclastic Yoganup Formation, Ascot Formation and Bassendean Sand represent a complex of shoreline, inner shelf and regressive-dune facies equivalents, the deposition of which began at an undetermined stage of the Pliocene, through to the Early Pleistocene. The deposition of this sequence closed with a major regression and significant faunal extinction. Bioclastic carbonates characterize the Middle and Late Pleistocene of the Perth and Carnarvon basins. Fossil assemblages include a distinct subtropical element, unknown from the Ascot Formation and suggesting a strengthening of the Leeuwin Current. The estuarine arcoid bivalve Anadara trapezia characterizes assemblages of Oxygen Isotope Stages 5 and 7 in the Perth and Carnarvon basins, where it is now extinct. Deposits of Substage 5e (Perth Basin) also record a southerly expansion of warm-water corals and other fauna consistent with shelf temperatures warmer than present. New uranium-series ages on corals from marine sequences of the Tantabiddi Member, of the Bundera Calcarenite of the western Cape Range are consistent with the 'double peak' hypothesis for levels of Substage 5e but the evidence remains less than conclusive. Initial uranium-series dates from the Bibra and Dampier formations of Shark Bay indicate that both derive from the Late Pleistocene. These numerical ages contradict previous interpretations of relative ages obtained from field studies. The age relationship of the units requires further investigation. ?? 1991.

  8. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  9. Australia Telescope National Facility Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollow, Robert; Sim, H.

    2008-05-01

    As Australia's largest astronomical institution and a national facility the CSIRO Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) plays an important role in supporting effective astronomy education and outreach around Australia. The dedicated Australia Telescope Outreach and Education website has a range of materials, some directly targeted to school syllabus requirements and receives over 330,000 visits annually. ATNF runs a series of astronomy education workshops for schoolteachers and also runs sessions at other teacher conferences and professional development events around Australia. Linkages with regional and state-based institutions such as planetaria and science centres ensure the dissemination of current research to outreach personnel and educators in an effective manner and provide them with astronomy education expertise. With the development of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) and potentially the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) in Australia there is increased focus for and support of astronomy education nationally. ATNF has been active in designing and implementing education projects that specifically link to ASKAP and SKA themes. These include the Wildflowers in the Sky: Astronomy for Mid West WA Schools and PULSE@Parkes. The first takes astronomers and educators to remote outback schools that have high Indigenous student populations; the second gives high school students the chance to control the Parkes radio telescope remotely to observe pulsars. ATNF staff also provide a key role in organizing and coordinating IYA2009 in Australia.

  10. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig

    2016-01-01

    diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population...... expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya...

  11. Talipes equinovarus in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Mary; Bower, Caroline; Mylvaganam, Arul; Rouse, Ian

    2003-04-01

    In Western Australia (WA), talipes equinovarus is a notifiable birth defect and, since 1980, has been ascertained by the population-based Birth Defects Registry (BDR). Talipes equinovarus deformities were classified as two distinct and distinguishable types, viz. isolated talipes equinovarus (no other birth defects present) and associated talipes equinovarus (other birth defects present). The birth prevalence of associated talipes in WA between 1980 and 1994 was 0.90 per 1000 births, and of isolated talipes was 1.25 per 1000 births. The rate of the isolated deformity was higher in Aboriginal infants (3.49 per 1000 births) than in Caucasian infants (1.11 per 1000 births) and non-Aboriginal non-Caucasian infants (0.73 per 1000 births). The sex differential in the rate of the isolated deformity was greatest among Aboriginal infants, with the rate in males being almost four times that in females. The birth prevalence of both types of the deformity remained stable over the 15-year study period. The rate of caesarean and breech deliveries and the proportion of bilaterally affected feet was greater among infants with associated talipes equinovarus deformity. An accurate and complete identification of cases of isolated talipes equinovarus in the 1980-94 WA birth cohort provides a basis for furthering the understanding of the epidemiology and hence the aetiology of the deformity.

  12. Mesothelioma in Australia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, Arthur Bill W; de Klerk, Nicholas; Brims, Fraser J

    2017-11-20

    The incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Australia is among the highest in the world as a result of widespread use of asbestos by industry and in construction throughout the 20th century. The risk of developing malignant mesothelioma after asbestos exposure is dose-related; a transient, low dose exposure confers a correspondingly very low risk of disease. Malignant mesothelioma is a heterogeneous disease, partly explaining the limited role of biomarkers in screening and diagnosis. The prognosis remains poor, and early advice on medico-legal compensation and a collaborative team approach to managing malignant mesothelioma are both essential. Chemotherapy can have a modest treatment effect in some people. New therapies, such as immunotherapy, do not yet have a defined role in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. As treatment options for malignant mesothelioma are limited and no cure is available, there is no established role for early detection or screening of at risk populations. A multidisciplinary approach to caring for patients with malignant mesothelioma and their carers is vital.

  13. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  14. Climate change and wind power in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millais, C. [Greenpeace Australia Pacific, Sydney (Australia)

    2001-12-01

    The article represents a stern criticism of Australia's attitude to climate change. Its climate change policy is described as 'Neanderthal'. The Australian government is said to be strongly opposed to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The Government's policy appears to be driven by vested interests in fossil fuels. A list of eight flaws in Australia's 2% renewables target is given; the target is said to be far too small for a country with so much renewables potential. However, investment in the country's enormous wind power potential is increasing and targets are given; six reasons why Australia needs to invest in wind power are given. It is suggested that by the end of this decade, 10% of Australia's electricity could come from wind power - a web site address giving further details is given.

  15. Refugee women as entrepreneurs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John van Kooy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that ‘entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.

  16. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Natalie

    1976-01-01

    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  17. Australia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-20

    the United Nation’s oil-for-food CRS-4 10 “Wheat Scandal ,” The Economist, January 28, 2006. 11 “Wheat Scandal Worsens,” Radio Australia, Australian...wheat. The Australian economy and balance of trade are strongly influenced by world prices for primary products . Some estimates projected that the...American sugar, dairy and beef industries. Australian Trade Minister Vaile stated the agreement “moves Australia into a much closer level of

  18. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Shilu; Qi Xin; Hu Wenbiao

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA) level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. Meth...

  19. Pacific basin energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testimony is presented concerning pending legislation which provides for the assessment and development of the potential for renewable energy sources in the U.S. insular areas, including the trust territories. Options for self-sufficiency throughout the Pacific basin are considered in light of rapidly escalating fuel costs.

  20. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In

  1. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    basins when the direct transitions between them are “energetically favorable”. Edge weights endcode the corresponding saddle heights and thus measure the difficulties of these favorable transitions. BHGs can be approximated accurately and efficiently for RNA molecules well beyond the length range...

  2. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  3. Examining supply changes in Australia's cocaine market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Chalmers, Jenny; Bright, David A; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Sindicich, Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Media attention to cocaine use and supply has increased following some of the largest cocaine seizures in Australia's history. Whether there has been an expansion in supply remains unclear. This paper examines the evidence behind assertions of increased supply in Australia and the scale and nature of any apparent increase, using proxy indicators of cocaine importation, distribution and use. Eight proxies of cocaine importation, distribution and use were adopted, including amount of importation, mode of importation and supply flows to Australia. Each proxy indicator was sourced using publicly available and Australia-wide data, including information on the total weight of border seizures, mode of detection and country of embarkation of individual seizures. Data permitting, trends were examined for up to a 12 year period (1997-1998 to 2009-2010). Since 2006-2007 there was evidence of increased cocaine importation, albeit less than between 1998-1999 and 2001-2002. There were further signs that the 2006-2007 expansion coincided with a diversification of trafficking routes to and through Australia (beyond the traditional site of entry-Sydney) and shifts in the geographic distribution of use. The congruity between indicators suggests that there has been a recent expansion in cocaine supply to and distribution within Australia, but that the more notable shift has concerned the nature of supply, with an apparent growth in importation and distribution beyond New South Wales. The diversification of cocaine supply routes may increase risks of market entrenchment and organised crime throughout Australia. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.

    1989-03-01

    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  5. Assessment of Geogenic Contaminants in Water Co-Produced with Coal Seam Gas Extraction in Queensland, Australia: Implications for Human Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stearman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic compounds in Australian coal seam gas produced water (CSG water are poorly understood despite their environmental contamination potential. In this study, the presence of some organic substances is identified from government-held CSG water-quality data from the Bowen and Surat Basins, Queensland. These records revealed the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in 27% of samples of CSG water from the Walloon Coal Measures at concentrations <1 µg/L, and it is likely these compounds leached from in situ coals. PAHs identified from wells include naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. In addition, the likelihood of coal-derived organic compounds leaching to groundwater is assessed by undertaking toxicity leaching experiments using coal rank and water chemistry as variables. These tests suggest higher molecular weight PAHs (including benzo[a]pyrene leach from higher rank coals, whereas lower molecular weight PAHs leach at greater concentrations from lower rank coal. Some of the identified organic compounds have carcinogenic or health risk potential, but they are unlikely to be acutely toxic at the observed concentrations which are almost negligible (largely due to the hydrophobicity of such compounds. Hence, this study will be useful to practitioners assessing CSG water related environmental and health risk.

  6. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John

    2017-04-17

    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  7. Does Lyme disease exist in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter J; Lum, Gary D; Robson, Jennifer Mb

    2016-11-07

    There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought. Antibiotic therapy for chronic "Lyme disease-like illness" can cause harm to both the individual (eg, cannula-related intravenous sepsis) and the broader community (increased antimicrobial resistance rates). Until there is strong evidence from well performed clinical studies that bacteria present in Australia cause a chronic debilitating illness that responds to prolonged antibiotics, treating patients with "Lyme disease-like illness" with prolonged antibiotic therapy is unjustified, and is likely to do much more harm than good.

  8. The Fluctuating Political Appeal of Water Engineering in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin R. Crase

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Like many nations, Australia has a mixed history with water engineering. For over a century the engineer was 'king' and water was harnessed as a vehicle for settling the harsh inland, creating wealth and building prosperity. By the 1960s it was becoming increasingly clear that this approach was not without its flaws. Mounting evidence of environmental degradation emerged in the 1970s and the trend towards fiscal responsibility in the 1980s subjected the engineering approach to even greater scrutiny. These events set the context for a series of water policy reforms that commenced in earnest in the early 1990s. Initially, the reforms favoured greater use of economic incentives and focussed attention on the ecological impacts of water management. In this environment, the status of the engineer was transformed from 'king' to 'servant'. However, the engineering profession was not to hold this status for long and the political difficulties of simultaneously dealing with the economics and ecology of water quickly became the rationale for reverting to engineering solutions. This paper traces these historical events and focusses specifically on the politically vexing issues that arise when water reallocation is attempted in a fully allocated basin.

  9. Australia and Galicia in Transnational Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Lorenzo Modia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the transnational features of narratives between Galicia and Australia from the year 1519 to the Present-day. Sailors like Pedro Fernandez de Quiros and Luis Váez de Torres, who reached Australia in the sixteenth century, will be considered as the starting point of a cultural dialogue still going on in today’s literature not only as regards the geography of the continent but also in the collective imagination of the country. Other connections between these countries are also established by contemporary novelists such as Peter Carey, Sally Morgan and Murray Bail, who use Galician history and places, filtered through British sources, to address Australia and its present-day characters and decolonizing conflicts. Finally, the works of other authors such as Robert Graves and Félix Calvino, who also deal with this literary dialogue in their fiction, are explored.

  10. Dermatology training and practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaratnam, Deshan F; Murrell, Dédée F

    2014-10-01

    Dermatology is a relatively young discipline in Australia compared to other specialities within the medical fraternity. From its humble beginnings, the profession has evolved significantly over the decades and is now represented by the Australasian College of Dermatologists which is charged with training the next generation of dermatologists and advocating for and advancing the profession. The authors reviewed and describe the history of dermatology training and practice in Australia. Despite the progress in education, there are only 415 dermatologists serving a population of 23.3 million (1 per 58 000) and yet it has the highest incidence and prevalence of skin cancer in the world. The scope of clinical practice is wide in Australia, with clinicians well versed in medical and procedural dermatology. It is hoped that Australian dermatology will continue to bolster the dermatology profession globally. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case – Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  12. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gilmour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west. Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending

  13. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  14. Hydrocarbons from Calotropis procera in northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, I.B.; Griffiths, D.J.; Home, V.; Williams, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey has been undertaken of the yield of cyclohexane-extractable compounds (biocrude') from natural stands of Calotropis procera from 39 sampling sites in northern Australia. A mean yield of 4.82% 'biocrude' (on a dry weight basis) was obtained from sites in the Northern Territory and north West Australia, against 4.13% from sites in north Queensland. There was no evidence of marked seasonal variations in yield of 'biocrude' and no variations related to soil type. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  15. Hydrocarbons from Calotropis procera in northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, I.B.; Griffiths, D.J.; Home, V.; Williams, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey has been undertaken of the yield of cyclohexane-extractable compounds ('biocrude') from natural stands of Calotropis procera from 39 sampling sites in northern Australia. A mean yield of 4.82% 'biocrude' (on a dry weight basis) was obtained from sites in the Northern Territory and north west Australia, against 4.13% from sites in north Queensland. There was no evidence of marked seasonal variations in yield of 'biocrude' and no variations related to soil type.

  16. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Briskman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. Vitriol is also directed at asylum seekers and refugees. Media, government and community discourses converge to promote Islam as dangerous and deviant.

  17. [Immigration and labor: Australia and Canada compared].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovetta, F; Quinlan, M

    1995-08-01

    "Australia and Canada share...a common colonial history and many similarities in geography, economy, demography, etc., as well as a substantial anti-non anglo-celtic immigrant tradition, in spite of their being immigration countries. Those similarities and differences are analyzed here, as far as labor migration and relationships between immigrant and local labor are concerned. The arrival of European labor first, Asian later, was perceived similarly by both Australia and Canada, combining racial prejudice and unions' hostility towards contract labor migration as well as towards assisted migration. The evolution of those difficult relations through the 19th and 20th centuries is analyzed here." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  18. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  19. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism

  20. Australia's Universities--Through the Looking Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penington, David

    1991-01-01

    Upheaval in Australia's university system in recent years can be attributed in large part to two influences dating to 1987: accession of John Dawkins to the Ministry of Employment, Education, and Training and the advent of federal regulation of industrial relations in education, which has undermined the collegial decision-making tradition. (MSE)

  1. Terence Tao: Radical Acceleration in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Miraca

    1986-01-01

    A case study of a profoundly gifted 11-year old in Australia recounts his early reading, his interest in mathematics, and his failure at early schooling because of inadequate school readiness. His parents are now considering when he should begin college. Comments of three gifted educators are included. (CL)

  2. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  3. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  4. Australia: US Redoubt in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    aircraft) and a compliment of Gannet and Venom fighters are carried on H.M.A.S. MELBOURNE Official Handbook, op. cit., p. 324. 35 for anti-submarine...security pact were brought about by the signing of the North Atlantic Mohn B. Condliffe, The Development of Australia, p. 5. ^Gordon Greenwood, ed

  5. The History of Distance Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Australia's large distances and widely distributed population has meant that distance education has been an important part of its history. From the earliest provision of schooling by mail through a series of correspondence schools, both state and federal governments have provided a sound infrastructure to support distance education. Innovative…

  6. The Sandalwood industry in Australia: a history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela Statham

    1990-01-01

    From its inception in 1805, when it contributed to Sydney merchant incomes from whaling ventures, until today, when it earns several million dollars in export revenue, the sandalwood industry has played a small but significant part in Australia's economic development. The history of the industry falls into three major stages: first is the off-shore exploitation of...

  7. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  8. Eritrea: Lessons for Australia's Language Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Discusses language policy matters and the management of cultural and linguistic diversity in the area of education, with particular reference to Eritrea in East Africa and its application to Australia's language situation. The article presents examples of the impact of the tyrannical imposition of language usage, including the long-term…

  9. The geography of melanoma in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Adrian R; Coventry, Brendon J; Milanowski, Bridget; Taylor, Danielle

    2009-04-01

    We sought to determine the distribution of melanoma in South Australia with respect to the relative incidence and mortality in coastal/river versus inland areas and metropolitan versus regional/remote areas, and to outline the public health implications of this distribution. All melanoma cases and deaths for the period 1985-2004 for Adelaide and 11 regional centres were geo-coded and then allocated to ABS collection districts. Collection districts with a centroid within 2 km of the coast or River Murray were determined using mapping software. Melanoma incidence is higher in coastal South Australia (OR=1.19) and near the River Murray (OR=1.25) than in inland South Australia. This geographical effect remains after adjustment for age and socio-economic status. Incidence is also higher in metropolitan Adelaide than in regional areas (OR=1.10). For melanoma mortality there is no significant effect of living near the coast or river, and no effect of living in regional areas. Living near the coast or River Murray in South Australia is associated with an increased risk of being diagnosed with melanoma. Melanoma prevention and acute care programs can be usefully targeted at persons living in coastal and riverine areas, where there is a significant excess of melanoma incidence. This target population is older than inland populations and will require interventions appropriate for aged communities.

  10. Impact of Modern Communication Technology. I. Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Chris

    This UNESCO analysis of the development of national communication systems focused on the introduction and impact of mass media technology in Indonesia--a largely traditional society--and Australia--an industrialized society. Both countries are using largely imported modern communication media. The studies analyze the role of mass media in cultural…

  11. Decreasing prevalence of social drinkers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callinan, Sarah; Pennay, Amy; Livingston, Michael

    2017-04-01

    There has been a recent decrease in population level alcohol consumption in Australia, particularly in young people. Whether this is due to increasing abstinence or a shift in the way people think about alcohol is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate trends in self-identification of drinker types in Australia from 2001 to 2013 in light of shifting patterns of alcohol consumption in Australia. Five waves of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey from 2001 to 2013 (N=118,416) were used to assess trends in self-identification as a drinker type (non-, ex-, occasional, light, social, heavy and binge drinker). Consumption patterns and demographics of the self-identified groups were also examined. The pattern of self-identification has mostly remained steady over time. The two exceptions to this are a decrease in identification as a social drinker (28% to 22%) and a corresponding increase in identification as a non-drinker (from 19% to 27%). There are few changes over time in the demographic make-up of, or consumption patterns in, the social drinker category with the exception of those over 50, who continue to identify as social drinkers at the same rate. The recent increase in abstinence in Australia seems to be matched by a corresponding decrease in self-identified social drinkers, particularly among those under 50. This indicates that the decrease in consumption is not occurring in those most likely to experience harms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immigration, Adult Education and Multiculturalism in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Christopher; And Others

    The study described in this report reviews adult education relevant to immigration and multiculturalism in Australia. The report is presented in three parts. The first part examines the background and context of adult education programs intended for immigrants and for a multicultural society. The first of two chapters presents the historical and…

  13. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…

  14. Psychiatric epidemiology and disaster exposure in Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reifels, L.; Mills, K.; Dückers, M.L.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To examine the lifetime prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. Methods. We utilised data from a nationally representative population survey (N = 8841) which were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic

  15. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  16. Divorce in Australia. Working Paper No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald E.; Harrison, Margaret

    This working paper discusses the effects of recent legislative changes regarding divorce in Australia. The introduction describes the 1975 Family Law Act and gives a summary of its principles. The second section presents background information to the Act and lists the philosophical principles behind its formation. The third section describes…

  17. Australia's international health relations in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-02-21

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  18. Physiotherapy in Critical Care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Susan; Haines, Kimberley; Denehy, Linda

    2012-01-01

    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the l...

  19. "Modelling International Travel Demand from Singapore to Australia"

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the recent Asian currency and economic crises, tourism from Asia had rapidly become Australia's major tourism export industry. Tourists from Singapore, which is Australia's fifth major market, represented 6% of international tourist arrivals to Australia in 1996. The average annual growth rate of tourist arrivals from Singapore of around 20% over 1990-96 far exceeded the 10.5% average annual percentage growth rate of all tourist arrivals to Australia over the same period (Australian ...

  20. Modelling the determinants of international tourism demand to Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Christine; MacAleer, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the recent Asian currency and economic crises, tourism from Asia had rapidly become Australia's major tourism export industry. Tourists from Singapore, which is Australia's fifth major market, represented 6% of international tourist arrivals to Australia in 1996. The average annual growth rate of tourist arrivals from Singapore of around 20% over 1990-96 far exceeded the 10.5% average annual percentage growth rate of all tourist arrivals to Australia over the same period (Australian ...

  1. Women and alcohol--trends in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, B; Ibrahim, J

    1990-06-18

    Analysis of significant trends in self-reported alcohol consumption by women is presented, using data from surveys carried out by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in three Australian States: Western Australia, South Australia and New South Wales. Three indices of alcohol consumption were used to characterize consumption in 1977 and subsequently in 1983 or 1985. Little change was observed in the proportion of women who consumed alcohol in the previous week, although significant increases were recorded in the average daily consumption of female drinkers in all three States. These overall increases reflect increased levels of consumption by younger women. Women aged 18-24 years in all three States, as well as those aged 25-44 years in South Australia, consumed more alcohol in the later survey than did women of the same ages in 1977. The proportion of younger female drinkers whose average daily consumption reached hazardous levels showed marked increases in all three States. Analysis of beverage choices in Western Australia and South Australia indicated that older women in both States were consuming significantly less beer, and that South Australian women aged 25-64 years were consuming less fortified wine than were women of the same ages in 1977. These decreases were overshadowed by significant increases in wine consumption in both States for all age groups, and by increasing spirits' consumption in the 18-24 year olds. Several sources of underestimation of consumption are cited. Observed trends are discussed in the light of changing social values, alcohol marketing strategies and the employment status of women. Likely short- and long-term consequences of the observed consumption patterns are predicted and the challenge to prevention strategies is highlighted.

  2. Basin architecture revealed by depositional modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwood, D.

    1996-06-01

    Using computer modelling techniques, the Australian Petroleum Cooperative Research Centre (APCRC) is able to trace the depositional history of a sedimentary basin and so provide more accurate information for reservoir engineers. This paper describes how these improved approaches can uncover structures that are poorly resolved by other methods. Two models being applied are SEDPAK, from the University of North Carolina, and SEDSIM, from Stanford University. Current research is aimed at blending the best aspects of geostatistics with SEDSIM. The output from SEDSIM consists of a 3D grid of grain size distribution, porosity, and permeability data with a vertical resolution of millimetres, but a horizontal resolution of tens of metres. This discrepancy limits the immediate use of SEDSIM for reservoir description. Nevertheless, the technique is promising. APCRC scientists are working to improve SEDSIM for application to important Australian reservoirs such as the Marion Plateau off-shore from northeastern Australia, which has allowed more precise fixing of past sea levels in the Australian region. (author). 2 figs., 2 photos.

  3. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  4. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  5. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We are... importation of fresh mangoes from Australia into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the... from Australia and found free of this disease. The mangoes would have to be imported in commercial...

  6. Intergenerational Differences in Acculturation Orientations of Turkish Speakers in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagmur, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, acculturation and language orientations among Turkish speakers in Australia (n = 283) are discussed. Compared to West European countries, the Turkish community in Australia is much smaller. Given the prevalent pluralism ideology in Australia, a high level of sociocultural adjustment

  7. Reconstruction of the pre-breakup crustal thickness in Australia/Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A.

    2003-04-01

    Some 140 million years ago, Australia and Antarctica were parts of a single continent Gondwana. Before it broke into parts there was a process of extensive crustal extension. Thinning of the crust during this process was accompanied by deposition of vast amounts of sedimentary rocks along Australia’s Southern Margin, where the total sediment thickness locally (e.g., Ceduna Sub-basin) reaches 15 km. These sedimentary rocks may have been involved in oil and gas formation. Knowledge of the pre-breakup crustal thickness in Australia/Antarctica is important because it provides additional constraints for plate tectonic reconstructions of the two continents and ultimately leads to a more accurate assessment of the petroleum potential of Australia’s Southern Margin. Most reliable estimates of crustal thickness come from refraction seismic measurements which define the depth to the Moho boundary, where seismic velocity increases to 8 km/s or more. Such measurements were used in this research for Australia. Unlike Australia, Antarctica has poor coverage of seismic measurements of crustal thickness. For Antarctica, seismic measurements were supplemented by values predicted by the regression between seismically defined crustal thickness and upwardly continued gravity. Upward continuation emphasizes the effects of variations in crustal thickness in the total gravity signal. After compilation and computation of crustal thickness was completed, data points located on Australian continent were reconstructed to their pre-breakup position. The most up-to-date finite rotation parameters defining the movement of Australia relative to Antarctica were used in this process. To ensure that pre-breakup extension and thinning of the crust (during the 140 to 95 Ma time interval) were accounted for, points with crustal thickness values less than 30 km on both Australian and Antarctic margins were excluded from subsequent gridding. Crust thinner than 30 km was taken to have been affected

  8. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Actiniidae from eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crowther

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone, Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., from sites 680-960 m deep in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. An anemone of this genus settles on a gastropod shell inhabited by a hermit crab, then covers and extends the shell to produce a chitinous structure termed a carcinoecium. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. is symbiotic with the hermit crab Sympagurus trispinosus (Balss, 1911. The nature of marginal sphincter muscle and nematocyst size and distribution distinguish Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. from other species in the genus. The four known species are allopatric, each inhabiting a separate ocean basin of the Indo-west Pacific. We also extend the known range of Stylobates loisetteae in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Western Australia.

  9. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, T. (Shell Research B. V., Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Lawrence, D.T. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  10. Acidification and buffering mechanisms in acid sulfate soil wetlands of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Fiona; Whitworth, Kerry L; Kappen, Peter; Baldwin, Darren S; Rees, Gavin N; Webb, John A; Silvester, Ewen

    2011-04-01

    The acid generation mechanisms and neutralizing capacities of sulfidic sediments from two inland wetlands have been studied in order to understand the response of these types of systems to drying events. The two systems show vastly different responses to oxidation, with one (Bottle Bend (BB) lagoon) having virtually no acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and the other (Psyche Bend (PB) lagoon) an ANC that is an order of magnitude greater than the acid generation potential. While BB strongly acidifies during oxidation the free acid generation is less than that expected from the measured proton production and consumption processes, with additional proton consumption attributed to the formation of an acid-anion (chloride) FeIII (oxyhydr)oxide product, similar to akaganéite (Fe(OH)2.7Cl0.3). While such products can partially attenuate the acidification of these systems, resilience to acidification is primarily imparted by sediment ANC.

  11. Quantification of deep percolation from two flood-irrigated alfalfa field, Roswell Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, D. Michael; Healy, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    For many years water management in the Roswell ground-water basin (Roswell Basin) and other declared basins in New Mexico has been the responsibility of the State of New Mexico. One of the water management issues requiring better quantification is the amount of deep percolation from applied irrigation water. Two adjacent fields, planted in alfalfa, were studied to determine deep percolation by the water-budget, volumetric-moisture, and chloride mass-balance methods. Components of the water-budget method were measured, in study plots called borders, for both fields during the 1996 irrigation season. The amount of irrigation water applied in the west border was 95.8 centimeters and in the east border was 169.8 centimeters. The total amount of precipitation that fell during the irrigation season was 21.9 centimeters. The increase in soil-moisture storage from the beginning to the end of the irrigation season was 3.2 centimeters in the west border and 8.8 centimeters in the east border. Evapotranspiration, as estimated by the Bowen ratio energy balance technique, in the west border was 97.8 centimeters and in the east border was 101.0 centimeters. Deep percolation determined using the water-budget method was 16.4 centimeters in the west border and 81.6 centimeters in the east border. An average deep percolation of 22.3 centimeters in the west border and 31.6 centimeters in the east border was determined using the volumetric-moisture method. The chloride mass-balance method determined the multiyear deep percolation to be 15.0 centimeters in the west border and 38.0 centimeters in the east border. Large differences in the amount of deep percolation between the two borders calculated by the water-budget method are due to differences in the amount of water that was applied to each border. More water was required to flood the east border because of the greater permeability of the soils in that field and the smaller rate at which water could be applied.

  12. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  13. Dimension of Fractal Basin Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bae-Sig

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show "final state sensitivity" of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent alpha) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - alpha , where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map. We look for universal scalings of the dimension of fractal basin boundaries near type I and type III intermittency transitions to chaos. Type I intermittency can occur as the system experiences a saddle-node (tangent) bifurcation and type III intermittency can occur as the system experiences an inverted period doubling bifurcation. At these bifurcations, multiple attractors with fractal basin boundaries can be created. It is found the dimension scales, with the parameter, according to the power law d = d_{o } - k| p - p_{c}| ^{beta} with beta = 1/2, where p is the system parameter, p _{c} is the bifurcation value, k is a scaling constant, and d_{o} is

  14. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  15. Stellarator fusion neutronics research in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimin, S.; Cross, R.C. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Dewar, R.L.; Gardner, H.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The new status of the H-INF Heliac Stellaralor as a National Facility and the signed international Implementing Agreement on `Collaboration in the Development of the Stellarator Concept` represents a significant encouragement for further fusion research in Australia. In this report the future of fusion research in Australia is discussed with special attention being paid to the importance of Stellarator power plant studies and in particular stellarator fusion neutronics. The main differences between tokamak and stellarator neutronics analyses are identified, namely the neutron wall loading, geometrical modelling and total heating in in-vessel reactor components including toroidal field (TF) coils. Due to the more complicated nature of stellarator neutronics analyses, simplified approaches to fusion neutronics already developed for tokamaks are expected to be even more important and widely used for designing a Conceptual Stellarator Power Plant. 15 refs.

  16. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.

  17. History of corneal transplantation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Douglas J

    2015-04-01

    Corneal transplantation is a triumph of modern ophthalmology. The possibility of corneal transplantation was first raised in 1797 but a century passed before Zirm achieved the first successful penetrating graft in 1905. Gibson reported the first corneal graft in Australia from Brisbane in 1940 and English established the first eye bank there a few years later. Corneal transplantation evolved steadily over the twentieth century. In the second half of the century, developments in microsurgery, including surgical materials such as monofilament nylon and strong topical steroid drops, accounted for improvements in outcomes. In 2013, approximately 1500 corneal transplants were done in Australia. Eye banking has evolved to cope with the rising demands for donor corneas. Australian corneal surgeons collaborated to establish and support the Australian Corneal Graft Registry in 1985. It follows the outcomes of their surgery and has become an important international resource for surgeons seeking further improvement with the procedure. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. A “Funa” in Australia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A Funa in Chile is a public denunciation of a person identified as associated with crimes against humanity during the Pinochet regime. It begins as a web site notice of a planned procession, to be followed by a peaceful rally and demonstration, Some involve no more than thirty people, others, particularly those directed at notorious figures, have attracted thousands. My questions are: What is the effect of Funas in Chile?Could a Funa occur in Australia? Against whom? Who would organise it? For what reason? What would be the consequences? In discussing the question I will draw upon my recent work in reconciliation studies both in Chile and Aboriginal Australia

  19. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina Province, Northern Territory, Australia: Implications for the Neoproterozoic to Devonian evolution of central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Madeline L.; Jowitt, Simon M.; Saleem, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Petrological and geochemical data for magmatic mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina and Aileron provinces of the Eastern Arunta region, Northern Territory, Australia constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of magmatic events covering ~ 500 million years. Six geochemically distinct magmatic suites, here named A-F, have been identified and provide evidence of the tectonic history of this region and also are linked to two mineralisation-related magmatic events: the Lloyd Gabbro (Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation) and the Riddoch Amphibolite (Cyprus-style Cu-Co volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralisation). The whole-rock geochemistry of Suites A and F is indicative of melts derived from a range of mantle depths (garnet to spinel lherzolite) and source enrichment. Suite D is likely related to the ~ 1070 Ma Warakurna/Giles event of central Australia, including the Alcurra (Musgrave) and Stuart (Arunta) dyke swarms, and likely formed through either: a) melting of subduction modified, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by an upwelling mantle plume; or b) a combination of intra-plate tectonic processes involving a long-lived thermal anomaly, lithospheric-scale architecture that focussed magmatism, and large-scale tectonism. Suite F represents more alkaline magmas, derived from a deeper source, but most likely formed during the same Warakurna LIP event (possibly contemporaneously) as Suite D. Suite E (the Riddoch Amphibolite) was most likely emplaced in a back-arc basin (BAB) setting at ~ 600 Ma, coincident with Delamerian subduction and BAB formation along the eastern Proterozoic margin of Australia from Queensland to the eastern Arunta and possibly further south. Subsequent destabilisation of the SCLM underneath the North Australian Craton generated the ~ 510 Ma Kalkarindji LIP in the form of Suite B intrusions that assimilated some of the older Suite E (Riddoch) material. This event is locally known as the ~ 506 Ma Stanovos Igneous Suite and represents the most

  20. Middle to Late Ordovician faunal studies from central Australia and Tasmania during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube

    A profound transformation of the marine biosphere took place during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), recognized as the longest interval of sustained biodiversification in the history of life. Successions through the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin in...... environments are rather dissimilar the study indicates that GOBE is not particularly well-expressed in the Middle Ordovician in Australia - at least not at a local scale.......A profound transformation of the marine biosphere took place during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), recognized as the longest interval of sustained biodiversification in the history of life. Successions through the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin......, but the preservation and low number of specimens prevent formal definition of additional new taxa. Although highly endemic at species level, the investigated brachiopod, trilobite and mollusc faunas display a high degree of overall similarity at generic level with Middle Ordovician faunas from North China. Other...

  1. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downard, Kevin M; de Laeter, John R

    2005-09-01

    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. Peter Jeffery's establishment of geochronological dating techniques in Western Australia in the early 1950s led to the establishment of geochronology research both at the Australian National University and at what is now the Curtin Institute of Technology in the 1960s. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. An article such as this can never be complete. It instead focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important

  2. A Role for Australia: Contributions and Benefit

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, R. J.; Biddle, R.R.; Murray, James Gardner

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises Australia’s contributions to the global animal disease control effort, from the perspective of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry – Australia (AFFA). AFFA’s objectives in the context of animal health and welfare, and veterinary public health, include minimising the impact of pests, diseases and contaminants, managing emergencies, facilitating the development of national policies and strategies, and advancing Australia’s trade interests. A result of suc...

  3. Multiculturalism and legal plurality in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dabner, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary ...

  4. BURN SEVERITY MAPPING IN AUSTRALIA 2009

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, R; Clark, J.; J. Lecker

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-der...

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Enterococcal Bacteremia in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Julie C.; Daley, Denise A.; Le, Tam; Robinson, Owen J.; Gottlieb, Thomas; Howden, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Bennett, Catherine M.; Stinear, Timothy P.; Turnidge, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are a major cause of health care-associated infections and account for approximately 10% of all bacteremias globally. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteremia isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to ampicillin and the glycopeptides, and to characterize the molecular epidemiology of the Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. From 1 January to 31 December 2011, 1,079 unique episodes of bacteremia were investigated, of which 95.8% were caused by either E. faecalis (61.0%) or E. faecium (34.8%). The majority of bacteremias were health care associated, and approximately one-third were polymicrobial. Ampicillin resistance was detected in 90.4% of E. faecium isolates but was not detected in E. faecalis isolates. Vancomycin nonsusceptibility was reported in 0.6% and 36.5% of E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, respectively. Unlike Europe and the United States, where vancomycin resistance in E. faecium is predominately due to the acquisition of the vanA operon, 98.4% of E. faecium isolates harboring van genes carried the vanB operon, and 16.1% of the vanB E. faecium isolates had vancomycin MICs at or below the susceptible breakpoint of the CLSI. Although molecular typing identified 126 E. faecalis pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, >50% belonged to two pulsotypes that were isolated across Australia. E. faecium consisted of 73 pulsotypes from which 43 multilocus sequence types were identified. Almost 90% of the E. faecium isolates were identified as CC17 clones, of which approximately half were characterized as ST203, which was isolated Australia-wide. In conclusion, the Australian Enterococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (AESOP) study has shown that although they are polyclonal, enterococcal bacteremias in Australia are frequently caused by ampicillin-resistant vanB E. faecium. PMID:24391201

  6. Planning Australia’s Defense Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    methods of grazing and agriculture, however, Australia’s agricultural sector consistently produces quantities of meat, wool and cereal grains large enough...over his annexation of the former Dutch colony in Western New Guinea and his threats against formation of the new nation of Malaysia . Many in PNG... Malaysia , Singapore, The Philippines and Brunei. Papua-New Guinea holds non-voting "observer" status in the organization. 100 emphasize that external avents

  7. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Sarre

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  8. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  9. New Communities on Eucalypts Grown Outside Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of eucalypt forestry worldwide has been accompanied by accidental and deliberate introductions of Australian insects associated with eucalypts. Local insect species have also colonized introduced eucalypts in many regions. This situation provides a unique opportunity to observe the development of new insect communities across trophic levels. Here the history of Australian invaders and native colonizers on eucalypts outside Australia is reviewed from the perspective of herbivore ...

  10. New communities on eucalypts grown outside Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Mansfield

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of eucalypt forestry worldwide has been accompanied by accidental and deliberate introductions of Australian insects associated with eucalypts. Local insect species have also colonised introduced eucalypts in many regions. This situation provides a unique opportunity to observe the development of new insect communities across trophic levels. Here the history of Australian invaders and native colonisers on eucalypts outside Australia is reviewed from the perspective of herbivore ...

  11. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Malaspinas, A-S; Westaway, M. C.; Muller, C.; Sousa, V. C.; Lao, O; Alves, I.; Bergstrom, A.; Athanasiadis, G.; Cheng, J Y; Crawford, J.E.; Heupink, T. H.; Macholdt, E.; Peischl, S; S. Rasmussen; Schiffels, S

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama–Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25–40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Austral...

  12. Ant allergy in Asia and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Ngiam, Nicola Siew Pei; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2004-08-01

    Anaphylaxis due to ant sting is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem. Severe allergic reactions to ants are well described in the south-eastern United States, but have only been recognized in recent years as being important in other parts of the world. There are many different ant species and their distribution around the world varies. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of ant allergy in Asia and Australia. In Korea, allergy to Pachycondyla chinensis (subfamily Ponerinae) has been well described. In an ant-endemic area, sensitization was 23%, with about 1% having anaphylactic reactions. There were at least eight IgE-binding proteins in P. chinensis venom, with 1 major allergen binding 85% of patient sera. P. chinensis venom was also found to be possibly crossreactive with bee venom, but not with imported-fire-ant venom. In Australia, anaphylactic reactions to ant stings are usually caused by the 'jack jumper' ant (Myrmecia pilosula) or the bull ant (Myrmecia pyriformis). A recent study showed promising results for immunotherapy with M. pilosula venom. There have been reports of stings by other ant species in Asia and Australia, but these reports are few and sporadic. The study of ant allergy in Asia is in its infancy. Clinicians in Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions. Certain species that cause allergic reactions are unique to Asia and Australia and deserve further research. The allergens in the venom of the different ant species need to be identified. We should aim for improved understanding of the epidemiology of ant-sting anaphylaxis, formulation of better diagnostic tests and possibly the introduction of immunotherapeutic strategies.

  13. Mineralogical maturity in dunefields of North America, Africa and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of dunefields in central and western North America show that mineralogical maturity can provide new insights into the origin and evolution of aeolian sand bodies. Many of the world's great sand seas in Africa, Asia and Australia are quartz-dominated and thus can be considered to be mineralogically mature. The Algodones (California) and Parker (Arizona) dunes in the southwestern United States are also mature, but have inherited a high degree of mineralogical maturity from quartz-rich sedimentary rocks drained by the Colorado River. In Libya, sediments of the Zallaf sand sea, which are almost pure quartz, may have originated in a similar fashion. The Fort Morgan (Colorado) and Casper (Wyoming) dunefields in the central Great Plains of North America, and the Namib sand sea of southern Africa have an intermediate degree of mineralogical maturity because their sources are large rivers that drained both unweathered plutonic and metamorphic rocks and mature sedimentary rocks. Mojave Desert dunefields in the southwestern United States are quite immature because they are in basins adjacent to plutonic rocks that were their sources. Other dunefields in the Great Plains of North America (those in Nebraska and Texas) are more mature than any possible source sediments and therefore reflect mineralogical evolution over time. Such changes in composition can occur because of either of two opposing long-term states of the dunefield. In one state, dunes are stable for long periods of time and chemical weathering depletes feldspars and other weatherable minerals in the sediment body. In the other state, which is most likely for the Great Plains, abrasion and ballistic impacts deplete the carbonate minerals and feldspars because the dunes are active for longer periods than they are stable. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  15. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-10-13

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.

  16. Hendra virus: an emerging paramyxovirus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Suresh; Herrero, Lara J; Playford, E Geoffrey; Spann, Kirsten; Herring, Belinda; Rolph, Michael S; Middleton, Deborah; McCall, Bradley; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-10-01

    Hendra virus, first identified in 1994 in Queensland, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen gaining importance in Australia because a growing number of infections are reported in horses and people. The virus, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae (genus Henipavirus), is transmitted to horses by pteropid bats (fruit bats or flying foxes), with human infection a result of direct contact with infected horses. Case-fatality rate is high in both horses and people, and so far, more than 60 horses and four people have died from Hendra virus infection in Australia. Human infection is characterised by an acute encephalitic syndrome or relapsing encephalitis, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Recent identification of Hendra virus infection in a domestic animal outside the laboratory setting, and the large range of pteropid bats in Australia, underpins the potential of this virus to cause greater morbidity and mortality in both rural and urban populations and its importance to both veterinary and human health. Attempts at treatment with ribavirin and chloroquine have been unsuccessful. Education, hygiene, and infection control measures have hitherto been the mainstay of prevention, while access to monoclonal antibody treatment and development of an animal vaccine offer further opportunities for disease prevention and control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2016-09-20

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  18. The practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the development and practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. Clinical Neuropsychology has shown rapid growth in Australia over the past three decades. Comprehensive and specialized training programs are producing high quality graduates who are employed in a broad range of settings or private practice. Australia now has a substantial number of clinical neuropsychologists with specialist training. Whilst the majority of Australian clinical neuropsychologists still undertake assessment predominantly, there are growing opportunities for clinical neuropsychologists in rehabilitation and in a broad range of research contexts. Cultural issues relating to the assessment of Indigenous Australians and immigrants from many countries present significant challenges. Some major contributions have been made in the realms of test development and validation across various age groups. Australian clinical neuropsychologists are also contributing significantly to research in the fields of traumatic brain injury, aging and dementias, epilepsy, memory assessment, rehabilitation, substance abuse, and other psychiatric disorders. Expansion of roles of clinical neuropsychologists, in domains such as rehabilitation and research is seen as essential to underpin continuing growth of employment opportunities for the profession.

  19. Multiculturalism and legal plurality in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Dabner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.

  20. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, L.

    1986-01-01

    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  1. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  2. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  3. Fernenes and other triterpenoid hydrocarbons in Dicroidium-bearing Triassic mudstones and coals from South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paull, R.; Michaelsen, B.H.; McKirdy, D.M. [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-12-31

    The paper describes how tandem sector mass spectrometry of the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction of selected Late Triassic subbituminous coals, mudstones and plant fossils from the Leigh Creek coalfield, Telford Basin, South Australia, has revealed three pseudohomologous series of triterpenoid hydrocarbons. Two of these series have been identified as fern-8-enes (C{sub 29}-C{sub 31}) and fern-9(11)-enes (C{sub 29}-C{sub 30}). The third series (C{sub 29}-C{sub 31}) comprises saturated hydrocarbons tentatively identified as fernanes. These hydrocarbons appear to be related to pteridosperms (seed ferns) of the genus Dicroidium, fronds of which are preserved throughout the sedimentary sequence.

  4. Return to Black Mountain palaeomagnetic reassessment of the Chatsworth and Ninmaroo formations, western Queensland, Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K L; Lackie, M A; Schmidt, P W; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2003.02164.x

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic results from late Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician carbonate sequences sampled at Black Mountain (Mt Unbunmaroo), Mt Datson and near Chatsworth Station (southeastern Georgina Basin) are presented. A palaeomagnetic reassessment of these carbonates was designed in an effort to constrain regional magnetization ages as results from an earlier study, conducted at Mt Unbunmaroo, play a pivotal role in a proposed Cambrian inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW) event. Remanent magnetizations within these carbonates were found to be variably developed with most specimens displaying two of the five isolated components. Component PF, for which goethite is the identified remanence carrier, is thought to reflect a chemical remanent magnetization of recent origin. Component TR, held by haematite, has a palaeomagnetic pole consistent with the Tertiary segment of Australia's apparent polar wander path (APWP) and most probably was acquired as a consequence of prolonged weathering during this period. The...

  5. Plutonium as a tracer of soil and sediment movement in the Herbert River, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S. G.; Everett, S. E.; Fifield, L. K.; Hancock, G. J.; Bartley, R.

    2010-04-01

    Plutonium fallout from atmospheric nuclear-weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s constitutes an artificial tracer suitable for the study of recent soil erosion and sediment accumulation rates. Traditionally 137Cs has been the fallout isotope of choice for such studies, but the plutonium isotopes confer a number of advantages, which can be realised using the ultra-sensitive detection technique of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). As a first application of plutonium to a whole-of-basin study, Pu has been measured in both soil and sediment across the catchment of the Herbert River, which is one of the major rivers draining into Australia's Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Its catchment includes undisturbed areas as well as regions of pasture and sugar cultivation. The Pu measurements allow the relative contributions of surface and gully erosion from the different land use areas to be determined, and permit the discharged material to be apportioned between the relevant sources.

  6. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  7. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  8. Continental impacts of water development on waterbirds, contrasting two Australian river basins: Global implications for sustainable water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsford, Richard T; Bino, Gilad; Porter, John L

    2017-11-01

    The world's freshwater biotas are declining in diversity, range and abundance, more than in other realms, with human appropriation of water. Despite considerable data on the distribution of dams and their hydrological effects on river systems, there are few expansive and long analyses of impacts on freshwater biota. We investigated trends in waterbird communities over 32 years, (1983-2014), at three spatial scales in two similarly sized large river basins, with contrasting levels of water resource development, representing almost a third (29%) of Australia: the Murray-Darling Basin and the Lake Eyre Basin. The Murray-Darling Basin is Australia's most developed river basin (240 dams storing 29,893 GL) while the Lake Eyre Basin is one of the less developed basins (1 dam storing 14 GL). We compared the long-term responses of waterbird communities in the two river basins at river basin, catchment and major wetland scales. Waterbird abundances were strongly related to river flows and rainfall. For the developed Murray-Darling Basin, we identified significant long-term declines in total abundances, functional response groups (e.g., piscivores) and individual species of waterbird (n = 50), associated with reductions in cumulative annual flow. These trends indicated ecosystem level changes. Contrastingly, we found no evidence of waterbird declines in the undeveloped Lake Eyre Basin. We also modelled the effects of the Australian Government buying up water rights and returning these to the riverine environment, at a substantial cost (>3.1 AUD billion) which were projected to partly (18% improvement) restore waterbird abundances, but projected climate change effects could reduce these benefits considerably to only a 1% or 4% improvement, with respective annual recovery of environmental flows of 2,800 GL or 3,200 GL. Our unique large temporal and spatial scale analyses demonstrated severe long-term ecological impact of water resource development on prominent

  9. The oxygen isotopic composition of phytolith assemblages from tropical rainforest soil tops (Queensland, Australia: validation of a new paleoenvironmental tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytoliths are micrometric particles of amorphous silica that form inside or between the cells of higher plant tissues throughout the life of a plant. With plant decay, phytoliths are either incorporated into soils or exported to sediments via regional watersheds. Phytolith morphological assemblages are increasingly used as proxy of grassland diversity and tree cover density in inter-tropical areas. Here, we investigate whether, along altitudinal gradients in northeast Queensland (Australia, changes in the δ18O signature of soil top phytolith assemblages reflect changes in mean annual temperature (MAT and in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecipitation, as predicted by equilibrium temperature coefficients previously published for silica. Oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on 16 phytolith samples, after controlled isotopic exchange (CIE, using the IR Laser-Heating Fluorination Technique. Long-term mean annual precipitation (MAP and MAT values at the sampled sites were calculated by the ANUCLIM software. δ18Oprecipitation estimates were calculated using the Bowen and Wilkinson (2002 model, slightly modified. An empirical temperature-dependant relationship was obtained: δ18Owood phytolith-precipitation (‰ vs. VSMOW = −0.4 (±0.2 t (°C + 46 (±3 (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.05; n = 12. Despite the various unknowns introduced when estimating δ18Oprecipitation values and the large uncertainties on δ18Owood phytolith values, the temperature coefficient (−0.4 ± 0.2‰ °C−1 is in the range of values previously obtained for natural quartz, fresh and sedimentary diatoms and harvested grass phytoliths (from −0.2 to −0.5‰ °C−1. The consistency supports the reliability of δ18Owood phytolith signatures for recording

  10. Optimal dynamic water allocation: Irrigation extractions and environmental tradeoffs in the Murray River, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom

    2011-12-01

    A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to optimally and dynamically allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, dynamic programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to optimally allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an optimal way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase optimal environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.

  11. Supporting peritoneal dialysis in remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Dale; Warr, Kevin

    2004-12-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is usually considered a first-choice treatment for end-stage renal disease for patients living in remote areas. The advantages of peritoneal dialysis over haemodialysis are that peritoneal dialysis preserves the residual renal function for longer, provides patients with more independence and gives patients a greater opportunity to return home quickly. In Australia, Aboriginal people suffer end-stage renal failure at disproportionately higher rates than the general population. Given that many Aboriginal people live in remote communities a task of peritoneal dialysis units is to ensure the successful setting up and maintenance of peritoneal dialysis programmes in the outback. This paper examines how peritoneal dialysis units located in the city are able to deliver peritoneal dialysis to patients located often hundreds of kilometres and at times thousands of kilometres away in very remote communities. In preparing this paper interviews were conducted with renal and remote community-based health professionals in Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and with peritoneal dialysis patients in Western Australia. The success of remote peritoneal dialysis programmes relies on many elements, most importantly an integrated approach to care by all members of the peritoneal dialysis team. The peritoneal dialysis team included not just health professionals but also patients, their families, their communities and other support people such as those involved in the transport of peritoneal dialysis supplies to the outback. Careful communication, a willingness to participate, friendliness and delivering care and supplies with a smile are essential ingredients to a winning program. Without all of these ingredients dialysis in the bush may fail.

  12. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downard, K.M.; de Laeter, J.R. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. It focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important contributions to the field.

  13. Taxes to influence energy use in road transportation in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce Prafula

    2017-01-01

    The desire to achieve a shift towards renewable energy will be difficult to achieve without a change in the energy use in road transportation in Australia. The transport sector in Australia is heavily reliant on oil and is responsible for contributing 18.1%, of Australia's annual greenhouse gas emissions. This paper examines the current Australian tax policy and its inability to make an impact on transport choices that would reduce energy use and emissions and promote alternative energy use. ...

  14. Climate Change Policies in Australia: Gender Equality, Power and Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas K. Wanner

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the link between gender equality and climate change policies in Australia. It critically analyses the extent to which gender mainstreaming and gender dimensions have been taken into account in the national policy processes for climate change in Australia. The paper argues that climate change adaptation and mitigation policies in Australia neglect gender dimensions. This endangers the advances made in gender equality and works against socially equitable...

  15. The Deep Ocean Sound Channel in Areas Around Australia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Kinne) Oceanography Division, St. Louis, USA (Attention: Mr A. Pressman, Code 330) Laboratorio de Ensayo de Materiales e Investigaciones Tecnologicas...AD-AlSO 715 MATERIALS RESEARCH LABS ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA) F/B 20/1 THE DEEP OCEAN SOUND CHANNEL IN AREAS AROUND AUSTRALIA,CU) OCT 80 D J WHELAN... MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORIES MELBOURNE, VICTORIA ~REPORT MRL-R-788 THE DEEP OCEAN SOUND CHANNEL IN AREAS AROUND AUSTRALIA Daniel J. Whelan Approved

  16. Advice to speak English in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Mario Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article addresses the issue of advice given to immigrant parents to speak English only with their children in Australia, as reflected in the Spanish-speaking community. The article shows that something that appears to be down to chance, i.e. whether this advice is given or not, has a social explanation. This social explanation is based on understanding several social variables such as the ethnic identity of the adviser and the year in which the advice was given, as we...

  17. The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.

  18. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors...... diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population...

  19. Health, human rights and Australia's foreign policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Elizabeth A

    2004-02-16

    International human rights law affirms that everyone has a right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. States that are parties to human rights treaties are obliged under international law to observe these rights. Australia has ratified all international human rights law instruments in which the right to health is enshrined, and so is obliged to ensure that its foreign policy, including its development assistance program, contributes towards the progressive realisation of the right to health. International trade regulation should be consonant with the progressive realisation of the right to health globally.

  20. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 6: Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biase, Bruno; And Others

    The status of the Italian language in Australia, particularly in the educational system at all levels, in Australian society in general, and in trade, technology, and tourism is discussed in this report. It begins with a description of the teaching of Italian in elementary, secondary, higher, adult/continuing, and teacher education. Trends are…

  1. Two new species of Celtis (Celtidaceae) from Australia and Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattarian, A.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Celtis australiensis Sattarian is described from Australia and Celtis madagascariensis Sattarian is new for Madagascar. Both new Celtidaceae (formerly Ulmaceae–Celtidoideae) are illustrated with a photograph.

  2. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  3. Análise de sensibilidade dos métodos de estimativa da evapotranspiração de referência e razão de Bowen em cultura da cana-de-açúcar Sensitivity analysis of methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration and sugarcane evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce K. N Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de análise de sensibilidade de modelos foi aplicada nos dados obtidos em experimento de campo conduzido no ano de 2009, na Destilaria Miriri, localizada no município de Capim, PB, e aos dados de evapotranspiração de referência (ETo, obtidos pela equação de Penman-Monteith (FAO/56, e da evapotranspiração da cultura da cana-de-açúcar (ETc, obtidos pelo balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen. As análises de sensibilidade e de erros foram aplicadas ao método da razão de Bowen para os intervalos de medição de 15, 30, 60 e 120 minutos enquanto o método de Penman-Monteith foi aplicado para a escala diária durante o ano de 2009. Os resultados evidenciam que o saldo de radiação é a variável mais sensitiva no cálculo do balanço de energia, enquanto o fluxo de calor no solo oferece a menor contribuição; já os erros relativos de todas as variáveis envolvidas do cálculo balanço de energia baseado na razão de Bowen aumentaram significativamente com o aumento do intervalo de amostragem. A variável mais sensível na determinação da ETo pelo método de Penman-Monteith é o saldo de radiação seguida da umidade relativa, velocidade do vento a 2m de altura e a temperatura média do ar.The sensitivity analysis technique of models was applied to the data obtained from field experiment carried out during 2009 at Distillery Miriri, Capim, PB. This technique was applied to the reference evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith (FAO/56 and the sugarcane evapotranspiration (ETc by energy balance equation based on Bowen ratio. The sensitivity analysis and errors were applied to the Bowen ratio method in measurement intervals of 15, 30, 60 and 120 min; however Penman-Monteith approach was applied on daily basis throughout the 2009 year. Results showed that the net radiation is the most sensitive variable in the energy equation balance and soil heat flux offers the lowest contribution. On the other hand, the relative

  4. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  5. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metadata Laws, Journalism and Resistance in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Brevini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The intelligence leaks from Edward Snowden in 2013 unveiled the sophistication and extent of data collection by the United States’ National Security Agency and major global digital firms prompting domestic and international debates about the balance between security and privacy, openness and enclosure, accountability and secrecy. It is difficult not to see a clear connection with the Snowden leaks in the sharp acceleration of new national security legislations in Australia, a long term member of the Five Eyes Alliance. In October 2015, the Australian federal government passed controversial laws that require telecommunications companies to retain the metadata of their customers for a period of two years. The new acts pose serious threats for the profession of journalism as they enable government agencies to easily identify and pursue journalists’ sources. Bulk data collections of this type of information deter future whistleblowers from approaching journalists, making the performance of the latter’s democratic role a challenge. After situating this debate within the scholarly literature at the intersection between surveillance studies and communication studies, this article discusses the political context in which journalists are operating and working in Australia; assesses how metadata laws have affected journalism practices and addresses the possibility for resistance.

  7. D Digital Cadastre Journey in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, D.; Olfat, H.; Briffa, M.; Rajabifard, A.

    2017-10-01

    Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D) spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM), as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV), has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  8. Temporal Aspects of Child Homicide in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber C McKinley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using National Homicide Monitoring Program data from 1989 to 2012, this study examined the temporal aspects of child homicide in Australia. It was hypothesised that there would be daily and weekly variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with peaks in the late afternoon, evening, and early hours of the morning and on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. It was also hypothesised that the number of child homicides would be evenly distributed across seasons. The sample consisted of 916 children (aged 0– 17 killed in 802 homicide incidents in Australia between 1989 to 2012. Data relating to time of day, and day of the week, were analysed using a chi-square test, followed with calculations of incidence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Data relating to season of the year were examined descriptively, due to uncontrollable factors preventing significance testing. Results partially supported the hypotheses. There was daily and weekly variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with peaks in the evening hours and on Saturdays; however, no peaks were observed on Fridays and Sundays. Additionally, the hypothesis that child homicides peak in the late afternoon and early hours of the morning was unable to be accepted or rejected due to grouping issues. The study also found slight seasonal variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with a slight peak in spring; however, whether this peak is significant is unknown.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Bowen-Conradi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Feeding Tube--Infants General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and Rehabilitation Related Information How are genetic ...

  10. Gynaegological consultations at Bowen University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Infertility was the commonest reason for gynaecological consultations in this newly established teaching hospital, hence, establishment of assisted reproductive technology unit will be highly valuable to these patients who come to the hospital from different parts of southwestern Nigeria, where all assisted ...

  11. Cradle to grave GHG emissions analysis of shale gas hydraulic fracking in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Western Australia has globally significant onshore gas resources, with over 280 trillion cubic feet of economically recoverable gas located in five shale basins. The Western Australian Government and gas industry have promoted the development of these resources as a “clean energy source” that would “help to reduce global carbon emissions” and provide a “transition fuel” to a low carbon economy. This research examines those claims by reviewing existing literature and published data to estimate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG pollution that would result from the development of Western Australia’s onshore gas basins using hydraulic fracking. Estimates of carbon pollution from each stage in gas development, processing, transport and end-use are considered in order to establish total life-cycle emissions in tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e. The emissions estimates draw from published research on emissions from shale gas development in other jurisdictions as well as industry or government reported emissions from current technology for gas processing and end-use as applicable. The current policy and regulatory environment for carbon pollution and likely resulting GHG mitigation measures has also been considered, as well as the potential for the gas to displace or substitute for other energy sources. In areas where there is uncertainty, conservative emissions estimates have been used. Modelling of GHG emissions has been undertaken for two comparison resource development and utilisation scenarios; Australian domestic and 100% export i.e. no domestic use. Each scenario corresponds to a different proportionate allocation of emissions accounted for domestic emissions in Australia and emissions accounted for in other jurisdictions. Emissions estimates for the two scenarios are 245–502 MTCO2e/year respectively over a resource development timeframe of 20 years. This is roughly the same as Australia’s total GHG emissions in 2014

  12. Dynamic reorganization of river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-03-07

    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

  13. Project Skippy explores the lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der; Kennett, Brian; Christie, Doug; Grant, John

    1994-01-01

    A new project is probing the seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia. The Skippy Project, named after the bush kangaroo, exploits Australia's regional seismicity and makes use of recent advances in digital recording technology to collect three-component broadband

  14. Big News: The Indian Media and Student Attacks in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Wade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By any measure, 2009 was a big year for news in India. And yet the safety of Indian students in Australia ranked among the major news events in India that year. The India-Australia Poll 2013 found 65 per cent of respondents believed the Indian media had accurately reported the problems faced by Indian students in Australia in 2009-10. That implies two-thirds of Indians accepted the Indian media’s mostly negative depictions of Australia. Those who believed the media reporting about Australia had been accurate were more likely to be from large cities, be tertiary educated and have relatively high-incomes. The poll found 62 per cent of respondents thought Australia was a dangerous place for Indian students and that 61 per cent believed attacks on Indian students were motivated by racism. The results suggest negative perceptions about Australia created by the media’s portrayal of the student attacks linger in the Indian community. The timing of the initial attacks, and the imagery associated with them, helped attract and sustain media attention on the issue. The diplomatic tensions created by the crisis highlighted the growing influence of the broadcast media on India’s foreign relations. But the episode also exposed a deep lack of understanding about India in Australia. Governments were slow to comprehend how much damage media coverage of student attacks could do to Australia’s reputation in India.

  15. 78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Australia's market access request, it had been intended only as part of a general description of Australia's... phytosanitary treatments regulations, stipulates that the U.S. and the exporting country's NPPO must establish... already subject to standard commercial cultural and post-harvest practices that reduce the risk associated...

  16. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  17. A New Era for Research Education in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Helene; Smith, Bradley; King, Max; Evans, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) to influence the policy and practice of research education in Australia will undoubtedly have many consequences, some of them unintended and potentially deleterious. ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality; research education is prospective.…

  18. How Accessible Is IB Schooling? Evidence from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Anisah; Perry, Laura B.; Ledger, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines access to International Baccalaureate schools in Australia. It is important to examine whether, as a highly regarded form of rigorous academic education, IB programmes are available to a wide range of students. We examine the location of schools in Australia that offer one or more of the IB Primary Years Programme, Middle Years…

  19. Wilderness in Australia: what's happening in a world context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralf Buckley

    2000-01-01

    Wilderness in Australia has no formal legal designation at a national level as it does in the United States. In addition, new federal environmental legislation abdicates responsibility almost entirely to the States. A national wilderness inventory has recently been completed, but abandoned by the current federal government. Almost all wilderness recreation in Australia...

  20. History and management of sirex wood wasp in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and management of Sirex noctilio in Australia, including information from previous reviews as well as more recent data. The sirex wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, is one of the most important insect pests of Pinus radiata in Australia. Native to Europe, North Africa and Turkey, S...

  1. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  2. Money for Language: Indigenous Language Funding in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboob, Ahmar; Jacobsen, Britt; Kemble, Melissa; Xu, Zichen Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how language development aid is managed and distributed via grant programs administered by federal and state Aboriginal affairs departments across Australia. While these departments are not the only organisations offering grants for development and language-related projects in Australia, they are in a good position to…

  3. The Many Turnings of Agricultural Extension in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Warren; Birch, Colin; Coutts, Jeff; Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the development of extension as a discipline in Australia, its organization, and the ideological changes that have occurred from the second half of the nineteenth century through to the present. Design/Methodology/Approach: It considers the evolution of extension across the different states of Australia from a…

  4. A revision of Oryza (Gramineae) in Malesia and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duistermaat, Helena

    1987-01-01

    In Malesia and Australia there are nine species of Oryza L. (Gramineae). Oryza meyeriana (Zoll. & Mor.) Baillon has two varieties. Oryza schlechteri Pilg. is only known from Irian Jaya (Indonesian New Guinea). Oryza australiensis Dom. and O. meridionalis Ng are endemic to Australia. The numerous

  5. The Evolution of Distance Education in Australia: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiach, Stephen; Averbeck, Clemens; Cassidy, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Australia's large size and scattered population made it a prime location for the development of correspondence education in the 1920s, and the country is still in the forefront of distance education. This article is based on an extensive interview with Terry Evans, professor at Deakin University in Australia, who reflects on the history of…

  6. Oil in the Malvinas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, J.S. [Astra, Anzoategui (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01

    The Malvinas Basin is petroliferous. The main source rocks are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous outer shelf to basinal shales known as the Pampa Rincon and Lower Inoceramus formations. Main reservoirs are fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones of the coeval Springhill Formation. On the western flank of the basin, 17 wells drilled the Cenozoic and Mesozoic column. Three of these wells discovered hydrocarbons within the Springhill Formation, and one discovered oil in Early Paleogene sandstones. Additionally, some wells recorded shows at different levels within the stratigraphic succession. A detailed overview of the drilled portion of the basin permitted the construction of a sequence stratigraphic framework, and yielded clues on a complex history of deformation. Interpretation of facies and stratal stacking and termination patterns determined that the main reservoir and source rocks were deposited in a ramp-style depositional setting. They represent the lower transgressive phase of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous megasequence deposited during the early sag stage of the basin. Alternative reservoirs to the Springhill sandstones include early Paleogene glauconitic sandstones and carbonates, and Miocene deep-water turbidites. Structural trap styles include normal fault features of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age, and compressional and inverted positive structures due to Neogene compression. Possible combination and stratigraphic traps include: little tested onlap pinchout of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and Paleogene sandstones and untested erosionally truncated Paleogene sandstones; Early Paleogene carbonate buildups and Miocene deep-water turbidite mounds. The understanding of the geology of the western Malvinas Basin is the key to success of exploration in the huge frontier surrounding areas.

  7. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  8. The Role of Groundwater Flow and Faulting on Hydrothermal Ore Formation in Sedimentary Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garven, G.

    2006-05-01

    Sediment-hosted ore formation is thought to occur as a normal outcome of basin evolution, due to deep groundwater flow, heat transport, and reactive mass transport ---all of which are intimately coupled. This paper reviews recent attempts to understand the hydrologic and geochemical processes forming some of the world's largest sediment-hosted ores. Several questions still dominate the literature (driving forces for flows, source and controls on metal acquisition, concentrations of ore-forming components, timing and duration, role of faults, effects of transient flows). This paper touches upon all of these questions. Coupled reactive transport models have been applied for understanding the genesis of sandstone-hosted uranium ores of North America and Australia, red-bed copper ores of North America and northern Europe, carbonate-hosted MVT lead-zinc ores of the U.S. Midcontinent and northwestern Canada, and the carbonate- hosted lead-zinc ores of Ireland and southeast France. Good progress has been made in using these computational methods for comparing and contrasting both carbonate hosted (MVT and Irish types) and shale- hosted (SEDEX type) Pb-Zn deposits. The former are mostly associated with undeformed carbonate platforms associated with distal orogenic belts and the later are mostly associated with extensional basins and failed rifts that are heavily faulted. Two giant ore provinces in extensional basins provide good examples of structural control on reactive mass transport: shale-hosted Pb-Zn ores of the Proterozoic McArthur basin, Australia, and shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ba ores of the Paleozoic Kuna basin, Alaska. For the McArthur basin, hydrogeologic simulations of thermally-driven free convection suggest a strong structural control on fluid flow created by the north-trending fault systems that dominate this Proterozoic extensional basin. Brines appear to have descended to depths of a few kilometers along the western side of the basin, migrated laterally to the

  9. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  10. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options.

  11. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  12. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012...

  13. Cultural Resources Investigations, Cross Basin Channel Realignments, Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    segment of the Case account as a " fairy tale " (King 1977:19). During the Civil War the Atchafalaya Basin was the site of a brief, Union military campaign...who farms; it does not imply a plantation owner. The value of planters’ properties ranged from $100.00 to $40,000.00. Persons employed in the lumber

  14. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  15. BURN SEVERITY MAPPING IN AUSTRALIA 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  16. Prison privatization and HIV prevention in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cregan, J

    Prison privatization is being increasingly discussed as an alternative that might help drive down the cost of corrections in Canada. An Australian conference recently addressed prison privatization. Australia has a long history with privatizing corrections and historically being the site of private penal colonies. Private and State-owned corporations own and manage Australian prisons and the balance of private and public sector activity within the prisons is discussed. HIV/AIDS care and prevention programs provide bleach distribution, education programs for staff and inmates, and safety training. Moral issues debating how much time and money is allocated to HIV/AIDS are addressed. Private operators of prisons have no financial incentive to educate, rehabilitate, or release prisoners.

  17. Art Museums in Australia: A Personal Retrospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of, and reflections on, the growth of art museums in Australia based on personal experience and involvement. It starts with the early art collections and state galleries and their organisation. It looks at changing patterns of leadership and governance. It considers the roles of inter-state competition, the varying patters of organisation and support and the impact of federal institutions. It reflects on factors of race, gender and ethnicity and also the situation of Australian exhibitions and collections in the Global Village. It considers the effects of popularisation, commercialisation and celebrity culture on exhibition practices. It concludes that Australia’s art museums, more perhaps than any others, have become unusually well-suited to a post-European or post-North Atlantic age.

  18. Burn severity mapping in Australia 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Randy; Clark, J.; Lecker, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  19. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  20. Growth dynamics of Australia's polar dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.

  1. Shared decision making in Australia in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Lyndal; Shepherd, Heather L; Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; Cust, Anne E; Leask, Julie; Shadbolt, Narelle; Del Mar, Chris; McCaffery, Kirsten; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2017-06-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) is now firmly established within national clinical standards for accrediting hospitals, day procedure services, public dental services and medical education in Australia, with plans to align general practice, aged care and disability service. Implementation of these standards and training of health professionals is a key challenge for the Australian health sector at this time. Consumer involvement in health research, policy and clinical service governance has also increased, with a major focus on encouraging patients to ask questions during their clinical care. Tools to support shared decision making are increasingly used but there is a need for more systemic approaches to their development, cultural adaptation and implementation. Sustainable solutions to ensure tools are kept up-to-date with the best available evidence will be important for the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  3. Post combustion capture program in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Brockway; Louis Wibberley [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    A National Post Combustion Capture (NPCC) Program is being progressed in Australia, with a demonstration sub-program ($64 M) led by industry, and a research sub-program ($20 M) led by CSIRO. The main activity of the demonstration component is to operate a PCC plant at a semicommercial scale of 50,000 tpy at a host power station site, to demonstrate capture, and provide CO{sub 2} for sequestration projects of others. The research component provides a focus for applied research, laboratory and pilot testing of sorbents and technologies, for Australian specific PCC requirements. Testing will include use of a 1000 tpy transportable pilot plant operating on slip streams from operating power plants. For PCC to be implemented in Australia now, plants will require retrofit of deNOx and deSOx equipment, which will reduce the advantages of PCC. This situation requires that new sorbents and new process designs be developed to minimise the effect of NOx and SOx. Without cost effective PCC, in a carbon constrained future, many of the current 40 GW of pf plant could become stranded assets. Many Australian plants are located in areas of high solar insolation, and these could utilise some lower grade heat. PCC is particularly suitable for using solar thermal energy, and new sorbents with lower regeneration temperature (as distinct from regeneration energy) could further improve the cost benefits of this integration. PCC can also provide a means for offsetting peak load, and can therefore assist in the integration of intermittent renewables into the grid. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shilu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years, ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research.

  5. New Communities on Eucalypts Grown Outside Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of eucalypt forestry worldwide has been accompanied by accidental and deliberate introductions of Australian insects associated with eucalypts. Local insect species have also colonized introduced eucalypts in many regions. This situation provides a unique opportunity to observe the development of new insect communities across trophic levels. Here the history of Australian invaders and native colonizers on eucalypts outside Australia is reviewed from the perspective of herbivore guilds: leaf chewers, sap suckers, wood borers, gall formers, termites. Historical patterns of invasion are identified across these guilds. Very few species of Australian leaf chewers, wood borers or termites have become widespread but these guilds are proportionately high in native colonizers. In contrast, sap suckers have multiple invasive species globally with relatively fewer native colonizers. The gall former guild also has several invasive species but so far includes no native colonizers, perhaps due to their tendency to have highly specific host plant associations. Natural enemies of Australian invaders are also members of new eucalypt insect communities, partly through planned biological control programs, but the rate of accidental introductions at higher trophic levels is increasing steadily. At the same time, local natural enemies enter eucalypt communities either to form new associations with Australian invaders or to follow native colonizers into this new habitat. Australian sap suckers have attracted far more new associations than other guilds so far. Native leaf chewers have often been followed by their local natural enemies into eucalypt communities, particularly in Brazil. Generally there are fewer records relating to local natural enemies and their role in new eucalypt communities. The complexity of new eucalypt communities outside Australia is expected to increase in future.

  6. New communities on eucalypts grown outside Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mansfield

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of eucalypt forestry worldwide has been accompanied by accidental and deliberate introductions of Australian insects associated with eucalypts. Local insect species have also colonised introduced eucalypts in many regions. This situation provides a unique opportunity to observe the development of new insect communities across trophic levels. Here the history of Australian invaders and native colonisers on eucalypts outside Australia is reviewed from the perspective of herbivore guilds: leaf chewers, sap suckers, wood borers, gall formers, termites. Historical patterns of invasion are identified across these guilds. Very few species of Australian leaf chewers, wood borers or termites have become widespread but these guilds are proportionately high in native colonisers. In contrast, sap suckers have multiple invasive species globally with relatively fewer native colonisers. The gall former guild also has several invasive species but so far includes no native colonisers, perhaps due to their tendency to have highly specific host plant associations. Natural enemies of Australian invaders are also members of new eucalypt insect communities, partly through planned biological control programs, but the rate of accidental introductions at higher trophic levels is increasing steadily. At the same time, local natural enemies enter eucalypt communities either to form new associations with Australian invaders or to follow native colonisers into this new habitat. Australian sap suckers have attracted far more new associations than other guilds so far. Native leaf chewers have often been followed by their local natural enemies into eucalypt communities, particularly in Brazil. Generally there are fewer records relating to local natural enemies and their role in new eucalypt communities. The complexity of new eucalypt communities outside Australia is expected to increase in future.

  7. Rising cost of anticancer drugs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikios, D J; Schofield, D; Salkeld, G; Mann, K P; Trotman, J; Stockler, M R

    2014-05-01

    Anticancer drugs are often expensive and are contributing to the growing cost of cancer care. Concerns have been raised about the effect rising costs may have on availability of new anticancer drugs. This study aims to determine the recent changes in the costs of anticancer drugs in Australia. Publicly available expenditure and prices paid by the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) for anticancer drugs from 2000 to 2012 were reviewed. The measures used to determine changes in cost were total PBS expenditure and average price paid by the PBS per prescription for anticancer drugs and for all PBS listed drugs. An estimated monthly price paid for newly listed anticancer drugs was also calculated. Annual PBS expenditure on anticancer drugs rose from A$65 million in 1999-2000 to A$466 million in 2011-2012; an average increase of 19% per annum. The average price paid by the PBS per anticancer drug prescription, adjusted for inflation, increased 133% from A$337 to A$786. The real average annual increase in the price per anticancer drug prescription was more than double that for all other PBS drugs combined (7.6% vs 2.8%, difference 4.8%, 95% confidence interval -0.4% to 10.1%, P = 0.07). The median price for a month's treatment of the new anticancer drugs listed was A$4919 (range A$1003 to A$12 578, 2012 prices). PBS expenditure and the price of anticancer drugs in Australia rose substantially from 2000 to 2012. Dealing with these burgeoning costs will be a major challenge for our health system and for those affected by cancer. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. Combining a Climatic Niche Model of an Invasive Fungus with Its Host Species Distributions to Identify Risks to Natural Assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C.; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets. PMID:23704988

  9. Combining a climatic niche model of an invasive fungus with its host species distributions to identify risks to natural assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l. is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets.

  10. Combining a climatic niche model of an invasive fungus with its host species distributions to identify risks to natural assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets.

  11. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kabir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the

  12. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan basin is a classic example of Proterozoic intracontinental basin that developed in the central part of the Indian shield along with several other basins such as Cuddapah,Chattisgarh,etc.The strata are exposed in three major sectors:Son valley,Bundelkhand and Rajasthan. Substantially thick Vindhyan rocks ...

  13. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  14. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  15. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  16. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew RM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 6Bruce Lefroy Centre for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. Keywords: Tay-Sachs disease, genetic screening, Australia

  17. Spatio-temporal evolution of the Satpura Mountain Belt of India: A comparison with the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia and implication for evolution of the supercontinent Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohanty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia shows near neighbour positions of the South Indian Cratons and Western Australian Cratons. These cratonic areas are characterized by extensive Paleoproterozoic tectonism. Detailed analysis of the spatio-temporal data of the Satpura Mountains of India indicates presence of at least three episodes of Proterozoic orogeny at ∼2100–1900 Ma, ∼1850 Ma and ∼1650 Ma, and associated basin development and closing. A subdued imprint of the Grenville orogeny (∼950 Ma is also found in rock records of this Mountain Belt. The Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia also shows three episodes of orogeny: Opthalmian–Glenburgh Orogeny (2100–1950 Ma, Capricorn Orogeny (∼1800 Ma and Mangaroon Orogeny (∼1650 Ma, and basin opening and closing related to these tectonic movements. These broad similarities suggest their joint evolution possibly in a near neighbour position during Paleoproterozoic Era. In view of juxtaposition of the Western Australia along the east coast of India, at the position of the Eastern Ghats, during Archean, it is suggested that the breaking of this Archean megacraton at ∼2400 Ma led to northward movement of the broken components and formation of the Satpura–Capricorn Orogen (at ∼2100 and ∼1800 Ma due to the collision of cratonic blocks with the pre-existing northern cratonic nuclei of India and Western Australia. This is also the time of formation of the supercontinent Columbia. A phase of basin opening followed the ∼1800 Ma event, followed by another phase of collisional event at ∼1600 Ma at the site of the Satpura–Capricorn Orogen. Subsequent evolutions of the Satpura and the Capricorn Orogens differ slightly, indicating separate evolutional history.

  18. Non-stationary relationships between decadal water storage changes over Australia and climate variability of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; van Dijk, Albert; Awange, Joseph; Schumacher, Maike; Longuevergne, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions are hypothesized as the main drivers of water variations over the Australian continent. This study examines the relative contributions of the large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes in different time-scale variations of terrestrial water storage (TWS) over Australia. The aim is to determine whether the role of main climatic phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on water resources as appears to be a stationary relationship. The main analyses were performed on three decades (1982-2012) of: (i) TWS changes over Australia from the World Wide Water Resources Assessment (W3RA) hydrological model, and (ii) statistically reconstructed TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) products. Reconstructions were derived by applying low-degree autoregressive models to relate basin averaged TWS changes, over the nine major river drainage basins of Australia, to input values of precipitation minus evaporation as well as the ENSO and IOD indices. Our results indicate that both intra-annual and seasonal simulation and forecast of TWS water storage changes associated with ENSO cycles have increased during the last two decades of 1990 to 2010. The contribution of IOD to seasonal simulation and forecasts of TWS appears to have increased over the last decade. The long-term influence of IOD in TWS changes, however, appears to have decreased slightly. Our results demonstrate non-stationary behaviour of TWS in terms of variability and predictability due to the ENSO and IOD phenomena. Keywords: Australia; ENSO and IOD in Water Storage; Reconstruction; Non-stationary Impact

  19. Solar-powered railway signals in Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-03-01

    Few places in the world record more days of sunlight than the Pilbara Region of Western Australia, where temperatures range from 15{sup o}C to more than 40{sup o}C nearly all year with only intermittent interruption from winter rains and summer hurricanes. Now one of Australia`s largest companies has replaced diesel generation with solar power in a railway signalling and communications system on a 426km railway in the region. The single-track railway in the iron ore rich Pilbara belongs to BHP Iron Ore. (Author)

  20. Space Power: Military Imperatives in Australia’s Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Australia’s closest ally and the Soviet Union has nothing to gain by invading Australia. On the other hand, the same features can work against Australia...missiles to be launched in a1 iorth westerly direction and tracked over 2,000 kilometer of virtually uninhabited land. During the 1960s, the Europea ...troubfe." 3’ Mr Beazley named China, Japan, India and the Soviet Union as being the major powers with the 50 potential to interfere in regional affairs

  1. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  2. The Physical Oceanography of Australia's Sunshine Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Australia's Sunshine coast is located to the south of the Great Barrier Reef and Fraser Island between about 25 oS to 28 oS. With a width of nearly 70-80 km, the eastern Australian continental shelf is at its widest here. The shelf region is referred to as the Southeast Queensland Marine Coastal Zone due to its unique physical oceanographic characteristics. The most prominent large-scale oceanic feature is the southward flowing East Australian Current (EAC). It forms to the north of Fraser Island from Coral Sea outflows, intensifies, and follows the continental shelf as a swift continental shelf hugging current but variable in strength; stronger in the southern hemisphere summer and weaker in winter. Little attention has been paid to the physical oceanography of this region, although important physical processes take place that drive regional marine environmental conditions, drive cross-shelf exchanges and interactions with the EAC, and that represent marine connectivity processes significant to the larger scale eastern Australian fisheries. This presentation reviews recent discoveries that include the Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System, the Fraser Island Gyre, and document the role of cyclonic mesoscale eddies in driving cross-shelf exchanges and contribute to the formation of the Fraser Island Gyre. The Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System appears to be predominately driven by the interaction of the EAC with the continental shelf leading to the establishment of one of eight important marine ecological hotspots along the east Australian coast. The Fraser Island Gyre is most prominent during the southern hemisphere autumn and winter months. It is characterised by on-shelf northerly flow, turning eastward south of Fraser Island before joining the EAC. It emerges that cyclonic eddy formation as well as the south-easterly trade winds drive the gyre's establishment and strength. A census of short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic eddies, the first for any western

  3. Spatiotemporal fuzzy based climate forecasting for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, M.; Vervoort, R. W.; Minasny, B.; McBratney, A.

    2012-12-01

    Variation in weather and climate events impacts agriculture production processes, and profits across years. Therefore, seasonal rainfall prediction is an important factor for strategic and tactical decision making in agricultural, land and water resource management. This study aims to apply optimal data-driven techniques for fine resolution climate classification and forecasting over South-eastern Australia. Data were used in this study were included daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature data collected over 40 years from 107 weather stations in Southeast Australia acquired from the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). Fuzzy-k means clustering techniques (FKM) were applied on one year weekly time series. Cluster centroids and memberships of rainfall and temperature weekly time series for one year period provide meaningful and insight into weather variability in time and space over the study. Stations are grouped based on their memberships in rainfall and temperature classes. The result showed that FKM is a useful method for trend analysis and pattern discovery in space and time. Outcomes indicate improvement in the climate classification of the area at the station level. An associate project is gathering higher spatial density on-farm data. This high-resolution climate data collected at the farm scale will be analyzed similarly in the future to improve spatial resolution of our classification. The second stage of this study consists of development of a fine-resolution forecasting model for predicting rainfall. FKM was applied on a metrics which included input and output time series to extract rules and relationships between them. After classification, rules were extracted within each class based on forecasting time, space and extreme climate events followed by effective sea surface temperature anomalies. These rules and a lookup table of input and output centroids were used for rainfall prediction in the form of weekly time series for the next six months. One

  4. Hydrocarbon accumulations in the Tarim basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Desheng [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China); Liang Digang; Jia Chengzao; Wang Gang [Tarim Petroleum Exploration and Development Bureau, Korle (China)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The Tarim basin is the largest and least explored inland basin in China. The areal extent of the basin reaches 560,000 km{sup 2}. The interior of the basin is mostly covered by the Takla Mekan Desert, which is about 330,000 km{sup 2} in areal extent. The basin has become the object of special attention since China set aside first- and third-round onshore bidding blocks in the Tarim basin for foreign oil firms to explore. The Tarim basin is a polyhistory superimposed basin that has experienced seven evolutionary stages: (1) Sinian-Cambrian-Ordovician aulacogen stage, (2) Silurian-Devonian intracratonic depression stage, (3) Carboniferous marginal sea stage, (4) Permian rift basin stage, (5) Triassic-Jurassic foreland basin stage, (6) Cretaceous-Paleogene NeoTethys bay stage, and (7) Neogene-Pleistocene foreland and inland basin stage. Both the basin`s Paleozoic marine platform sequences and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial fills are believed to contain substantial volumes of hydrocarbons. After recent years of exploration, nine oil and gas fields have been proven and 23 discoveries have been made in the Tabei, Tazhong, and Southwest areas. Kekeya, Lunnan, Sangtamu, Jiefangqudong, Donghetang, and Tazhong 4 oil fields have been put into production. Output of crude oil was 2.6 million t (metric tons) (52,000 BOPD) in 1995. The production will increase to 5 million t (100,000 BOPD) in 1997. Giant oil and gas traps probably will be discovered in the Tarim basin. The prospect is promising.

  5. Modelling Forearc Basin Formation and Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, Utsav; Ueda, Kosuke; Willett, Sean; Gerya, Taras; Strasser, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Comparison of synthetic stratigraphy of forearc basins as generated in coupled plate subduction and accretionary wedge models to the stratal patterns observed for forearc basins in nature, could be used to ascertain the dynamic consistency of the interpreted deformational history of the wedge. Additionally, it could help us understand the emergence of stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins as an interplay between sedimentary flux and wedge dynamics. Here we present a simple methodology to generate synthetic stratigraphy by emplacing isochronal surfaces during the evolution of the wedge. We use a dynamic 2D, high-resolution, thermo-mechanical, subduction model coupled to an adaptive irregular surface grid to model the free surface. In this model, we track basin stratigraphy developing in the wedge top basins atop the accretionary prism by emplacing lines of Lagrangian markers at discrete times along the upper surface of the model, which subsequently are buried, transported, and deformed according to the velocity field generated in the model. We conduct numerical experiments to identify the stratigraphic signatures of different forearc basin formation mechanisms. We also study the impact of hinterland and trench sedimentation on the wedge evolution and its impact on forearc basin formation. Forearc basins that form on top of the overriding plate remain passive to the deformation history of the wedge. Forearc basins formed as negative alpha basins remain mostly undeformed. Forearc basins that form due to wedge stabilization exhibit landward tilting of strata with time. We also find that trench sedimentation enhances the landward tilting of the basin by shifting deformation landwards and potentially triggering out-of-sequence-thrust emergence/reactivation. Predicted stratigraphic features in our numerical models agree well with stratigraphic patterns observed in different types of forearc basins in the Nankai Trough, Sunda Strait and Lombok Basin offshore Japan, Java

  6. Rapid diversification in Australia and two dispersals out of Australia in the globally distributed bee genus, Hylaeus (Colletidae: Hylaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Pelin; Schwarz, Michael P; Stevens, Mark I

    2013-03-01

    Hylaeus is the only globally distributed colletid bee genus, with subgeneric and species-level diversity highest in Australia. We used one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes to reconstruct a phylogeny using Bayesian analyses of this genus based on species from Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, Hawai'i, the New World and New Zealand. Our results concord with a ca. 30Mya Hylaeus crown age inferred by earlier studies, and we show that Hylaeus originated in Australia. Our phylogeny indicates only two dispersal events out of Australia, both shortly after the initial diversification of extant taxa. One of these dispersals was into New Zealand with only a minor subsequent radiation, but the second dispersal out of Australia resulted in a world-wide distribution. This second dispersal and radiation event, combined with very extensive early radiation of Hyleaus in Australia, poses a conundrum: what kinds of biogeographical and ecological factors could simultaneously drive global dispersal, yet strongly constrain further successful migrations out of Australia when geographical barriers appear to be weak? We argue that for hylaeine bees movement into new niches and enemy-free spaces may have favoured initial dispersal events, but that subsequent dispersals would not have entailed the original benefits of new niche space. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  8. Perioperative Mortality Following Bariatric Surgery in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sean; Babidge, Wendy; Kiermeier, Andreas; Aitken, Robert; Maddern, Guy

    2017-11-06

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective method of sustainable weight loss for the treatment of morbid obesity. Low mortality associated with these procedures has been reported internationally; however, Australian outcomes are yet to be published. Despite its efficacy, limited access to bariatric surgery exists in Australian public hospitals. This retrospective data analysis was conducted for two reasons. Firstly, to determine the perioperative mortality rate (POMR) associated with bariatric procedures in Australia, and secondly, to compare public and private hospital bariatric surgery admission demographics and outcomes. A retrospective review of de-identified patient data from the National Hospital Morbidity Database, held by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), was conducted using codes relating to bariatric procedures. POMR calculations were established using AIHW admission data from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2013. From 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2013, 113,929 patient admissions occurred for patients undergoing a bariatric procedure. Thirty-nine deaths occurred nationally, with an overall average POMR of 0.03%. A higher POMR was associated with public admissions and secondary procedures. A higher proportion of secondary procedures were performed in public hospitals. Primary bariatric procedure incidence increased throughout the study period while secondary bariatric procedure incidence decreased. This study demonstrates the Australian bariatric procedure POMR to be substantially lower than internationally reported figures. Public hospitals were shown to perform far fewer bariatric procedures at a higher POMR than private hospitals. Public hospitals performed a higher proportion of secondary revision procedures.

  9. Integrated primary health care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawaine Powell Davies

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.

  10. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.

  11. Health inequity in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Understanding health inequity is necessary for addressing the disparities in health outcomes in many populations, including the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. This report investigates the links between Indigenous health outcomes and socioeconomic disadvantage in the Northern Territory of Australia (NT). Methods Data sources include deaths, public hospital admissions between 2005 and 2007, and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas from the 2006 Census. Age-sex standardisation, standardised rate ratio, concentration index and Poisson regression model are used for statistical analysis. Results There was a strong inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and both mortality and morbidity rates. Mortality and morbidity rates in the low SES group were approximately twice those in the medium SES group, which were, in turn, 50% higher than those in the high SES group. The gradient was present for most disease categories for both deaths and hospital admissions. Residents in remote and very remote areas experienced higher mortality and hospital morbidity than non-remote areas. Approximately 25-30% of the NT Indigenous health disparity may be explained by socioeconomic disadvantage. Conclusions Socioeconomic disadvantage is a shared common denominator for the main causes of deaths and principal diagnoses of hospitalisations for the NT population. Closing the gap in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations will require improving the socioeconomic conditions of Indigenous Australians. PMID:24034417

  12. Traumatic facet joint dislocation in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eranki, Vivek; Koul, Kongposh; Mendz, George; Dillon, David

    2016-04-01

    Facet joint dislocation is a traumatic injury, which frequently results in devastating clinical outcomes. In Western Australia (WA), Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) provides a statewide Spinal Trauma Service and accepts all referrals from the entirety of the state. The economies of distance in WA mean that there is often a considerable delay between initial presentation at the peripheral hospital and enlocation of the dislocation in Perth. This study aims to identify any prejudicial clinical outcomes as a consequence of this delay. This study retrospectively examines all facet joint dislocations that presented to RPH between in a 46-month period. Data were collected on the demographics of patients, mechanism of injury, neurological assessment at presentation of injury based on the American spinal injury association (ASIA), initial presentation to RPH, post-surgical reduction and post rehabilitation. Over this time there were 23 urban patients and 28 rural patients. In the urban group, 18 patients had a final ASIA score of D or E while 5 patients had a final ASIA score of A, B or C. In the rural group, 17 patients had a final ASIA score of A, B or C while 11 patients had a final ASIA score of D or E. This study confirms the challenges of management of these injuries in a large geographical area, with a centralised spinal trauma service. Generally, facet joint dislocations that had delayed reductions had a poorer outcome. We hope that the proposed protocol would deliver better management of these injuries.

  13. Humans, water, and the colonization of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Damien

    2016-01-01

    The Pleistocene global dispersal of modern humans required the transit of arid and semiarid regions where the distribution of potable water provided a primary constraint on dispersal pathways. Here, we provide a spatially explicit continental-scale assessment of the opportunities for Pleistocene human occupation of Australia, the driest inhabited continent on Earth. We establish the location and connectedness of persistent water in the landscape using the Australian Water Observations from Space dataset combined with the distribution of small permanent water bodies (springs, gnammas, native wells, waterholes, and rockholes). Results demonstrate a high degree of directed landscape connectivity during wet periods and a high density of permanent water points widely but unevenly distributed across the continental interior. A connected network representing the least-cost distance between water bodies and graded according to terrain cost shows that 84% of archaeological sites >30,000 y old are within 20 km of modern permanent water. We further show that multiple, well-watered routes into the semiarid and arid continental interior were available throughout the period of early human occupation. Depletion of high-ranked resources over time in these paleohydrological corridors potentially drove a wave of dispersal farther along well-watered routes to patches with higher foraging returns. PMID:27671630

  14. Contemporary issues in dental education in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, T J

    2010-03-01

    Australia has witnessed a proliferation of dental workforce training opportunities over the last 15 years, including dentists, dental therapists, dental hygienists and prosthetists. The reasons for this have not been examined critically. Universities have welcomed the opportunities to increase the student base but do not seem to have examined the advisability of continued expansion or its impact on the delivery and costs of health services. Nor have they enquired expressly whether they have any responsibility in these matters. Public health benefits should constitute a significant element of curriculum design. There seems to have been a general acceptance of the premise that more is necessarily better. Ironically, these developments have occurred in the face of significant recurrent cost increments and serious academic staff shortages. The schools have responded with alterations to curriculum content. Student cohort composition, course structures, educational focus, postgraduate training and research have been affected. The primary purpose of this review is to highlight the issues which currently drive workforce training and curriculum content and to suggest that some current practices should be re-examined as a starting point for setting defined common objectives within the Australian dental educational spectrum. Salient issues which require examination include course standards and accreditation, workforce mix, dental health demands, public service obligations and staffing profiles.

  15. Newborn bloodspot screening policy framework for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'Leary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of newborn bloodspot screening (NBS is to identify rare genetic and non-genetic conditions in children soon after birth in order to commence therapies that prevent the development of progressive, serious, and irreversible disabilities. Universal NBS programmes have been implemented in most countries, with minor adaptations to target conditions most relevant to the local healthcare environment. Aims In this article, we describe the initiatives of international and Australian governments to develop policies to address the expansion of NBS in their healthcare systems. Methods We have reviewed published public policies and literature to formulate recommendations based on clinical, social, legal, and ethical principles to inform a national governance and policy framework for Australia. Results Australian policy makers have been slow to develop a coordinated plan. While the experience from other governments can guide our national policy, there are specific areas that require further consideration by Australian health experts. Key reforms involve the separation of policy and operational activities, multidisciplinary decision-making and oversight by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council for policy direction. Conclusion A formal national policy framework will guide the coordination of NBS services that can adapt to the needs of Australian children and families.

  16. Physiotherapy in Critical Care in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Kimberley; Denehy, Linda

    2012-01-01

    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the longstanding physical impairment suffered by survivors of intensive care has resulted in physiotherapists re-evaluating treatment priorities to include exercise rehabilitation as a part of standard clinical practice. The goals of respiratory physiotherapy management are to promote secretion clearance, maintain or recruit lung volume, optimize oxygenation, and prevent respiratory complications in both the intubated and spontaneously breathing patient. In the intubated patient, physiotherapists commonly employ manual and ventilator hyperinflation and positioning as treatment techniques whilst in the spontaneously breathing patients there is an emphasis on mobilization. Physiotherapists predominantly use functional activities for the rehabilitation of the critically ill patient in intensive care. While variability exists between states and centers, Australian physiotherapists actively treat critically ill patients targeting interventions based upon research evidence and individualized assessment. A trend toward more emphasis on exercise rehabilitation over respiratory management is evident. PMID:22807651

  17. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  18. Physiotherapy in critical care in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Susan; Haines, Kimberley; Denehy, Linda

    2012-03-01

    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the longstanding physical impairment suffered by survivors of intensive care has resulted in physiotherapists re-evaluating treatment priorities to include exercise rehabilitation as a part of standard clinical practice. The goals of respiratory physiotherapy management are to promote secretion clearance, maintain or recruit lung volume, optimize oxygenation, and prevent respiratory complications in both the intubated and spontaneously breathing patient. In the intubated patient, physiotherapists commonly employ manual and ventilator hyperinflation and positioning as treatment techniques whilst in the spontaneously breathing patients there is an emphasis on mobilization. Physiotherapists predominantly use functional activities for the rehabilitation of the critically ill patient in intensive care. While variability exists between states and centers, Australian physiotherapists actively treat critically ill patients targeting interventions based upon research evidence and individualized assessment. A trend toward more emphasis on exercise rehabilitation over respiratory management is evident.

  19. Geotechnical considerations in mine backfilling in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Sivakugan; R.M. Rankine; K.J. Rankine; K.S. Rankine [James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Mine backfilling can play a significant role in the overall operation of a mine operation. In the Australian mining industry, where safety is a prime consideration, hydraulic systems are the most common backfills deployed. Many accidents reported at hydraulic fill mines worldwide have mainly been attributed to a lack of understanding of their behaviour and barricade bricks. There are two basic types of backfilling strategies. The first, uncemented backfilling, does not make use of binding agents such as cement, and their characteristics can be studied using soil mechanics theories. A typical example of uncemented backfilling is the use of hydraulic fills that are placed in the form of slurry into the underground voids. The second category, cemented backfilling, makes use of a small percentage of binder such as Portland cement or a blend of Portland cement with another pozzolan such as fly ash, gypsum or blast furnace slag. This paper describes the findings from an extensive laboratory test programme carried out in Australia on more than 20 different hydraulic fills and several barricade bricks. A limited description of paste backfills is also provided, and the usefulness of numerical modelling as an investigative tool is highlighted. 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Oral health status and tradition in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C H

    1984-12-01

    In the past 30 years, dental health in Australia has undergone a marked improvement. This improvement has been paralleled by a significant change in attitudes to many aspects of dental health and in consequent behaviour. The caries experience of the younger Australian is now about one-third of that of his older counterpart. Two-thirds of the Australian population drink fluoridated water and there is widespread use of fluoridated dentifrices. Hence, the DMFT of 12 year olds is already approaching the target level of 3 for the year 2000, compared with a level of over 10 just 30 years ago. Edentulousness is still a problem, as evidenced by a rate of 68 per cent in those aged 45-64. With the increased retention of teeth in the young there is every expectation that this rate will be reduced significantly with time. Among the problem groups the aboriginal population, particularly those described as 'transitional', show all the ravages created by very high sucrose intake. To formulate plans to combat this a study of aboriginal dental health has been proposed.

  1. Genetic variation among populations of Pythium irregulare in southern Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, P. R; Butterworth, P. J; Hawke, B. G; Pankhurst, C. E

    2000-01-01

    Isolates of Pythium irregulare were sampled from seven cereal crops throughout South Australia to determine the extent of genetic diversity within this pathogen and the scale of genetic differentiation among populations...

  2. A new species of Stenobiella Tillyard (Neuroptera, Berothidae from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Winterton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Stenobiella variola sp. n., a new species of beaded lacewing (Neuroptera: Berothidae, is described and figured from south-eastern Australia. A preliminary key to Stenobiella species is presented.

  3. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 1. Leptospirosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Lau, C L; Graham, G C

    2010-01-01

    Human leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance that causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing nations. In this review, the history, epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation and treatment of this disease, and its impact in Australia, are discus...

  4. Pioneering developments of marine renewable energy in Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manasseh, Richard; McInnes, Kathleen L; Hemer, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The history of ocean renewable energy developments in Australia is reviewed. A layperson’s description of the physical operating principle is given for the main classes of technology that have been tested in Australian waters...

  5. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Tropical Australia and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gordon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infect 2 billion people worldwide including significant numbers in South-East Asia (SEA. In Australia, STH are of less concern; however, indigenous communities are endemic for STH, including Strongyloides stercoralis, as well as for serious clinical infections due to other helminths such as Toxocara spp. The zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum is also present in Australia and SEA, and may contribute to human infections particularly among pet owners. High human immigration rates to Australia from SEA, which is highly endemic for STH Strongyloides and Toxocara, has resulted in a high prevalence of these helminthic infections in immigrant communities, particularly since such individuals are not screened for worm infections upon entry. In this review, we consider the current state of STH infections in Australia and SEA.

  6. Chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma in Australia's refugee population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, Jill; Mwanri, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of this research was to ascertain whether refugees newly arrived in Australia have a higher prevalence of CSOM and cholesteatoma than the majority of the Australian population. Methods...

  7. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, James W; Akeroyd, Michele; P. Oliver, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    .... WaterResourcesAssessmentandSeasonalPrediction Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia James W. Cox1,3, Michele Akeroyd2, and Danielle P. Oliver2,4 1South Australian...

  8. Youth Joblessness in Australia: The Problem Behind the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzburg, Gregory

    1985-01-01

    Examines how serious youth employment is in Australia as well as factors responsible for unemployment among these and other individuals (such as girls and young women). Also examines youth policies, focusing on educational and training concerns and issues. (JN)

  9. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  10. Generalized Geology of Australia and New Zealand (geo3cl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age and rock type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Australia...

  11. The worldwide market for skilled migrants: can Australia compete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb-clark, D A; Connolly, M D

    1997-01-01

    "The purpose of this article is to...[analyze] the relative importance of internal and external factors on the demand for skilled immigration visas to Australia. Our objectives are to determine how the size of the pool of potential migrants is influenced by factors such as relative economic conditions and U.S. and Canadian immigration policies and to determine what implications these factors have on the relative quality (skill level) of potential migrants to Australia. Our results indicate that the demand for skilled immigration visas to Australia is related to the number of immigrants accepted by the United States and Canada as well as employment possibilities in Australia. We do not find a relationship between U.S. and Canadian policy and the relative quality of the applicant pool." excerpt

  12. Structural arrangements in Australia for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernoth, Eva-Maria

    2007-01-01

    A major pilchard mortality event in Australia in 1995 highlighted the need for a transborder approach to aquatic animal health, particularly with respect to disease response. Cooperation between industry and government led to the development of AQUAPLAN--Australia's National Strategic Plan for Aquatic Animal Health. Under AQUAPLAN, the coordination of the national technical response to aquatic animal health emergencies was incorporated into the scope of Australia's Consultative Committee on Emergency Animal Disease, a committee chaired by the Australian Chief Veterinary Officer. The operations of this committee are underpinned by AQUAVETPLAN, a series of manuals that outline Australia's approach to national disease preparedness and propose the technical response and control strategies to be activated in a national aquatic animal disease emergency. Simulation exercises provide training to respond to aquatic emergency animal disease events. Some of the lessons learned and challenges ahead are discussed below.

  13. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  14. Intensity of Price and Volatility Spillover Effects in Asia-Pacific Basin Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazali Abidin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the intensity of price and volatility spillover effects in five major stock markets within the Asia Pacific basin region with a particular emphasis in the spillover effects between Australia and China. VAR(5 model is used for measuring the return spillover while AR/VAR model with exogenous variables is employed for measuring the effects of same day returns on return spillover. .In modelling the volatility spillover, we employ AR/GARCH model which also incorporates the same day effects. Results of both return and volatility spillover provide evidence that there are significant spillover effects across different markets in the Asia-Pacific region and as well as between Australia and China. This study also provides support to the view that a market is most affected by other markets that opens/closes just before it. The main contribution of this paper is the confirmation of spillover effects between markets in the region, in particular, the interdependence between Australia and China which may have evolved only recently and thus have received relatively little research attention to date.

  15. Impacts of the tropical trans-basin variability on Australian rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dipayan; Sen Gupta, Alexander; Sharma, Ashish; Taschetto, Andréa S.; Mehrotra, Rajeshwar; Sivakumar, Bellie

    2017-09-01

    A large-scale mode of sea level pressure variability between the Pacific and Atlantic basins—referred to as the tropical trans-basin variability (TBV)—has shown multi-year predictability beyond that normally associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here we examine the relationship between the TBV and regional rainfall, which, if significant, would imply that the TBV predictability could be used to improve rainfall forecasts. We find TBV to be significantly related to rainfall, a relationship that is strongest over Australia during spring. We find Australia to experience drier conditions during the positive phase of TBV and wetter conditions during the negative phase, a pattern similar to that of ENSO. Furthermore, TBV is associated with rainfall responses that are of similar magnitude to ENSO, but there is some degree of independence between TBV and the Pacific modes defined by sea surface temperature indices. The global teleconnections related to the different TBV phases suggest that though many TBV and ENSO events overlap, pure ENSO events are primarily driven by the Pacific whereas pure TBV events are driven by the Atlantic Ocean. An El Niño coupled with a positive TBV event leads to significant drying over the east coast of Australia while the combined negative phase leads to widespread wetting over most of the country, which can be attributed to an enhancement of the anomalous Walker Circulation and the resulting moisture convergence and wind patterns.

  16. Prostitution Legislation Reforms in Western Australia: What Indonesia Can Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Sari K.A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostitution is still a complicated problemworldwide including in Western Australia. Itis estimated that there are 1700 sex workersand 38 identified brothels in WesternAustralia1 and prostitution legislation is stillan ongoing debatable issue in the state.There has been a significant change inprostitution laws and enforcement practices,which is due to the rising worldwideproblem of sex trafficking and its relation toprostitution.

  17. Lingue e migrazione. Un caso di studio: l’Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This chapter focuses upon two contrasting features of the linguistic situation in Australia. On the one hand, together with nationhood, the past hundred or so years have seen the evolution of a distinct national variety of English in Australia recognizable also outside Australia. On the other, Australia, though a young nation, has been continuously inhabited by the various Aborigine and Torre Strait Islander communities for thousands of years. These have traditionally spoken a wide variety of different languages, some of which of great interest to linguists due to their peculiarity. Increasingly, although the use of Aborigine languages has until very recently been in steady decline, since the 1950s in particular, diverse ethnic groups speaking a variety of languages, both European and Asian, have settled in Australia. The National Policy on Languages (1987 formally directed Australia towards multilingualism and the teaching of English as a first and second language is promoted together with that of Aborigine and community languages. Consequently, Australia has been one of the first nations to try to capitalise on its own linguistic diversity, both as a means of strengthening links with the outside world and as a way of promoting a multiethnic and multicultural society at home. Australia presents then an interesting case study for those working with discourse in immigration domains who are concerned with the way that language policy (or the lack of one may effect social harmony and serve not only as an indicator of the way that migrants are received and treated, but also a catalyst in itself for greater mutual respect.

  18. Pengaruh Geostrategi Celah Timor Terhadap Hubungan Kerjasama Timor Leste- Australia???,

    OpenAIRE

    Muin, Murni

    2012-01-01

    Murni Muin, E 131 05 010, dengan skripsi berjudul, ???Pengaruh Geostrategi Celah Timor Terhadap Hubungan Kerjasama Timor Leste- Australia???, di bawah bimbingan J. Salusu, selaku pembimbing I dan S.M. Noor selaku pembimbing II. Penulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi minyak dan gas alam di Celah Timor dalam mempengaruhi hubungan kerjasama Timor Leste-Australia Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penulisan skripsi ini adalah tipe penelitian deskriptif-eksplanatif yang membe...

  19. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  20. Engaging the neighbours. Australia and ASEAN since 1974

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Frank

    2016-01-01

    From modest beginnings in 1967, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has become the premier regional institution in Southeast Asia. The 10 members are pursuing cooperation to develop the ‘ASEAN Community’ and also sponsor wider dialogues that involve the major powers. Australia has been interested in ASEAN since its inauguration and was the first country to establish a multilateral link with the Association, in 1974. Australia and ASEAN have subsequently engaged and cooperated o...

  1. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of oniscidean isopods in the groundwater calcretes of central Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidkar, Mohammad; Cooper, Steven J B; King, Rachael A; Humphreys, William F; Bertozzi, Terry; Stevens, Mark I; Austin, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater calcrete aquifers of central Western Australia have been shown to contain a high diversity of stygobiont (subterranean aquatic) invertebrates, with each species confined to an individual calcrete and the entire system resembling a 'subterranean archipelago' containing hundreds of isolated calcretes. Here, we utilised alternative sampling techniques above the water table and uncovered a significant fauna of subterranean terrestrial oniscidean isopods from the calcretes. We explored the diversity and evolution of this fauna using molecular analyses based on one mitochondrial gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI), two Ribosomal RNA genes (28S and 18S), and one protein coding nuclear gene, Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase (LysRS). The results from 12 calcretes showed the existence of 36 divergent DNA lineages belonging to four oniscidean families (Paraplatyarthridae, Armadillidae, Stenoniscidae and Philosciidae). Using a combination of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods, we hypothesized the occurrence of at least 27 putative new species of subterranean oniscideans, of which 24 taxa appeared to be restricted to an individual calcrete, lending further support to the "subterranean island hypothesis". Three paraplatyarthrid species were present on adjacent calcretes and these exceptions possessed more ommatidia and body pigments compared with the calcrete-restricted taxa, and are likely to represent troglophiles. The occurrence of stenoniscid isopods in the calcretes of central Western Australia, a group previously only known from the marine littoral zone, suggests a link to the marine inundation of the Eucla basin during the Late Eocene. The current oniscidean subterranean fauna consists of groups known to be subtropical, littoral and benthic, reflecting different historical events that have shaped the evolution of the fauna in the calcretes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Middle Miocene Yallourn coal seam - The last coal in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G.R.; Wallace, M.W.; Gallagher, S.J.; Wagstaff, B.E.; Chung, Li [School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne (Australia); Cartwright, I. [Earth Sciences Department, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Blackburn, D.T. [David Blackburn Environmental Pty. Ltd. 4 Egmont Terrace Erindale SA 5066 (Australia)

    2007-04-02

    The 100-m thick Middle Miocene Yallourn brown coal seam was the last of the major Latrobe Valley Group seams to form in the Gippsland Basin (southeastern Australia) and the final major coal to form in Australia. Coal deposition coincided with the Middle Miocene climatic optimum. During this warm period of relatively high sea-levels, high water tables and relatively high subsidence rates, a 565 km{sup 2} area of alternating eutrophic and ombrogenous peat swamp developed at the western end of the Latrobe Valley to form the Yallourn Seam. Stratigraphic units of the seam contain a high sclerophyll plant component and abundant charcoal, suggesting seasonal dry periods alternated with wet warm conditions characterised by abundant rushes and dense kauri forests. Iron content in parts of the Yallourn Seam is relatively high, and a strong correlation exists between the iron distribution and the abundance of proteoid roots (mainly Proteaceae) - an indicator of seasonal dry periods. The contemporaneous carbonates of the Wuk Wuk Marl were deposited in a high-productivity, upwelling, warmer water (subtropical) environment. A new carbon isotope profile at 1 m intervals through the Yallourn Seam shows a poor relationship between {delta}{sup 13}C isotopes and coal colour, but some correlation with Gymnosperm abundance. The {delta}{sup 13}C record also correlates well with long-term secular changes in climate, the presence of global carbon maxima CM2-CM4, and with the deep-sea {delta}{sup 13}C marine organic record. Thick coal seam development ended near the end of the Middle Miocene climatic optimum. The termination of coal seam deposition in Latrobe Valley was primarily the result of tectonic compression, uplift and development of adjacent highland relief, and erosion at the end of the Miocene. (author)

  3. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  4. IMOS, an Integrated Marine Observing System for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, L.; Leterme, S. C.

    2009-04-01

    IMOS is a distributed set of equipment and data-information services which collectively contribute to meeting the needs of marine climate research in Australia. The observing system provides data in the open oceans around Australia out to a few thousand kilometres as well as the coastal oceans through 11 facilities (Argo Australia, Ships of Opportunity, Southern Ocean Time Series, Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Facility, Australian National Mooring Network, Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network, Australian Acoustic Tagging and Monitoring System, Facility for Automated Intelligent Monitoring of Marine Systems, eMarine Information Infrastructure and Satellite Remote Sensing) and 5 nodes (Blue Water, Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System, New South Wales IMOS, Southern Australia IMOS and Western Australia IMOS).The data are made available to researchers through the electronic Marine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Specifically, IMOS also incorporates a National Reference Station infrastructure (NRS) based on 9 stations in the coastal ocean around Australia. The NRS is (i) multi-disciplinary and integrated with the collection of over 60 marine parameters, (ii) modular, which allows for deployment with or without a surface signature, and (iii) versatilely based on regionally scaled logistics. After introducing the philosophy of IMOS and its implementation, the first results obtained through a suite of facilities will be illustrated across different nodes.

  5. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Recycled Water Quality and Clogging on Infiltration Rates at A Pioneering Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT Site in Alice Springs, Northern Territory (NT, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Barry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration techniques for managed aquifer recharge (MAR, such as soil aquifer treatment (SAT can facilitate low-cost water recycling and supplement groundwater resources. However there are still challenges in sustaining adequate infiltration rates in the presence of lower permeability sediments, especially when wastewater containing suspended solids and nutrients is used to recharge the aquifer. To gain a better insight into reductions in infiltration rates during MAR, a field investigation was carried out via soil aquifer treatment (SAT using recharge basins located within a mixture of fine and coarse grained riverine deposits in Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia. A total of 2.6 Mm3 was delivered via five SAT basins over six years; this evaluation focused on three years of operation (2011–2014, recharging 1.5 Mm3 treated wastewater via an expanded recharge area of approximately 38,400 m2. Average infiltration rates per basin varied from 0.1 to 1 m/day due to heterogeneous soil characteristics and variability in recharge water quality. A treatment upgrade to include sand filtration and UV disinfection (in 2013 prior to recharge improved the average infiltration rate per basin by 40% to 100%.

  7. Characterising stormwater gross pollutants captured in catch basin inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahanggir; Anwar, A H M Faisal; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Heitz, Anna; Rothleitner, Craig

    2017-05-15

    The accumulation of wash-off solid waste, termed gross pollutants (GPs), in drainage systems has become a major constraint for best management practices (BMPs) of stormwater. GPs should be captured at source before the material clogs the drainage network, seals the infiltration capacity of side entry pits or affects the aquatic life in receiving waters. BMPs intended to reduce stormwater pollutants include oil and grit separators, grassed swales, vegetated filter strips, retention ponds, and catch basin inserts (CBIs) are used to remove GP at the source and have no extra land use requirement because they are typically mounted within a catch basin (e.g. side entry pits; grate or gully pits). In this study, a new type of CBI, recently developed by Urban Stormwater Technologies (UST) was studied for its performance at a site in Gosnells, Western Australia. This new type of CBI can capture pollutants down to particle sizes of 150μm while retaining its shape and pollutant capturing capacity for at least 1year. Data on GP and associated water samples were collected during monthly servicing of CBIs for one year. The main component of GPs was found to be vegetation (93%): its accumulation showed a strong relationship (r 2 =0.9) with rainfall especially during the wet season. The average accumulation of total GP load for each CBI was 384kg/ha/yr (dry mass) with the GP moisture content ranging from 24 to 52.5%. Analysis of grain sizes of GPs captured in each CBI showed similar distributions in the different CBIs. The loading rate coefficient (K) calculated from runoff and GP load showed higher K-values for CBI located near trees. The UST developed CBI in this study showed higher potential to capture GPs down to 150μm in diameter than similar CBI devices described in previous studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate reconstruction from Barrow Island, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Coningham, K.; Turner, L.; Veth, P.; Ditchfield, K.; Wurster, C. M.; Kendrick, P.

    2016-12-01

    Barrow Island ( 20.7°S) is ideally situated to register the first coastal occupations in Australia as well as peoples' responses to major changes in sea level, climate and eventual isolation from critical resources on the mainland. Its location in the arid region between monsoonal and extratropical rainfall belts also imply that Barrow Island may have experienced dramatic changes in precipitation over the period of human occupation. Boodie cave has been the focus of Barrow Island Archeological Project and records a rich record of human occupation. Also present at Boodie cave are significant quantities of water-lain cave carbonates (flowstones, stalactites, and stalagmites). Active (modern) deposition of such carbonates is limited to very small encrustations and consists primarily of stalactites that are less than 5 cm in diameter. This situation indicates that deposition of significant carbonates is indicative of wetter conditions at Barrow Island and dating of these carbonates using the U/Th method provides a record of wet intervals at Barrow Island over the last 120 thousand years. In addition to ages from flowstones, three complete speleothems were collected Ledge Cave for climatic reconstruction using stable isotopes. Ledge cave is large subterranean with high relative humidity (>98%) and abundant, but largely inactive speleothems. The wettest interval in our cave carbonate record predates stratigraphic units with cultural material, but indicates that wet intervals on Barrow Island were broadly coincidental with lake expansions on the Australian mainland. In particular, a very wet interval between 120 and 90 ka is recorded in two of the Ledge Cave speleothems. The Barrow Island speleothem record suggests that displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the strength of the Indo-Australian monsoon may have been the most important influence on water balance at Barrow Island. Continued development of these climate archives will offer insights

  9. Prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.

  10. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  11. Prospective study of centipede bites in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balit, Corrine R; Harvey, Mark S; Waldock, Julianne M; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2004-01-01

    There are limited reports of definite bites by centipedes with expert identification, which are required for attribution of particular clinical effects to different species. To describe the clinical effects of centipede bites in Australia. Prospective study of calls regarding centipede exposures to a state poison information center, from December 2000 to March 2002. Information collected included demographics, details of the exposure, local effects, systemic effects, and treatment. Collected centipedes were identified by an expert. All subjects were followed until clinical effects had resolved. Of 48 centipede exposures, 3 were centipede ingestions with no adverse effects and one was a contact reaction to the centipede that resulted in erythema and delayed itchiness. Of 44 definite centipede bites, the centipedes obtained and formally identified in 14 cases were from the genera Scolopendra (5), Cormocephalus (6), and Ethmostigmus (3). Of these 14 bites, 13 occurred distally (hands or feet). Pain occurred in all 14 cases and was severe in 7 patients. Redness/red mark occurred in 53%, swelling/raised area in 43%, and itchiness in 14%. No systemic effects were reported. Ethmostigmus spp. and Scolopendra spp. caused more severe effects. Of the bites, 57% occurred indoors and 50% at night. Treatment consisted of supportive measures including ice packs and simple analgesia, and 4 patients reported pain relief after immersing the bite area in hot water. Similar clinical effects were reported in the other 30 definite centipede bites. Australian centipede bites cause minor effects with moderate to severe pain, associated with localized swelling and erythema in bites by the genera Ethmostigmus and Scolopendra. Hot water immersion may potentially be beneficial for centipede bites. The genus Scolopendra occurs worldwide and the results may have international applicability.

  12. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  13. Applicability of {sup 239}Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, R., E-mail: rajeev.lal@anu.edu.au [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Tims, S.G.; Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wasson, R.J.; Howe, D. [Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of {sup 239}Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (<25a) and which had a history of grazing and cultivation the measured soil loss rates over the past {approx}50 years were 7.5-19.5 t ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}. The measured rates are up to 5 times higher compared to agricultural and uncultivated areas within soil conservation banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  14. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations,...

  15. Spatial Observation and Models for Crop Water Use in Australia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, M. M.; Chemin, Y.; Rabbani, U.

    2009-12-01

    Recent drought in Australia and concerns about climate change have highlighted the need to manage agricultural water resources more sustainably, especially in the Murray Darling Basin which accounts for more than 70% of water for crop production. For Australian continent, approximately 90% of the precipitation that falls on the land is returned back to the atmosphere through actual evapotranspiration (ET) process. However, despite its significance nationally, it is almost impossible to measure or observe it directly at a meaningful scale in space and time through traditional point-based methods. Since late 1990's, the optical-thermal remote sensing satellite data has been extensively used for mapping of actual ET from farm to catchment scales in Australia. Numerous ET algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data acquired by optical-thermal sensors mounted on airborne and satellite platforms. This article concentrates on the Murrumbidgee catchment, where ground truth data has been collected on a fortnightly basis since 2007 using two Eddy Covariance Systems (ECS) and two Large Aperture Scintillometers (LAS). Their setup absorbed variability in the landscape to measure ET-related fluxes. The ground truthing measurement data includes leaf area index (LAI) from LICOR 2000, soil heat fluxes from HuskeFlux, crop reflectance data from CROPScan and from a thermal radiometer. UAV drone equipped with multispectral scanner and thermal imager was used to get very high spatial resolution NDVI and surface temperature maps over the selected farms. This large array of high technology instruments have been used to collect specific measurements within various micro-ecosystems available in our study area. This article starts by an overview of common ET estimation algorithms based on satellite remote sensing data. The algorithms are SEBAL, METRIC, Simplified Surface Energy Balance, Two Source Energy Balance and SEBS. They are used in Australia at both regional and

  16. Low temperature Phanerozoic history of the Northern Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, U. D.; Kohn, B. P.; Gleadow, A. J. W.; Nelson, D. R.

    2005-05-01

    The Phanerozoic cooling history of the Western Australian Shield has been investigated using apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology. AFT ages from the northern part of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, primarily range between 200 and 280 Ma, with mean confined horizontal track lengths varying between 11.5 and 14.3 μm. Time-temperature modelling of the AFT data together with geological information suggest the onset of a regional cooling episode in the Late Carboniferous/Early Permian, which continued into Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous time. Present-day heat flow measurements on the Western Australian Shield fall in the range of 40-50 mW m -2. If the present day geothermal gradient of ˜ 18 ± 2 °C km -1 is representative of average Phanerozoic gradients, then this implies a minimum of ˜ 50 °C of Late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic cooling. Assuming that cooling resulted from denudation, the data suggest the removal of at least 3 km of rock section from the northern Yilgarn Craton over this interval. The Perth Basin, located west of the Yilgarn Craton, contains up to 15 km of mostly Permian to Lower Cretaceous clastic sediment. However, published U-Pb data of detrital zircons from Permian and Lower Triassic basin strata show relatively few or no grains of Archaean age. This suggests that the recorded cooling can probably be attributed to the removal of a sedimentary cover rather than by denudation of material from the underlying craton itself. The onset of cooling is linked to tectonism related to either the waning stages of the Alice Springs Orogeny or to the early stages of Gondwana breakup.

  17. Fish Distribution in Far Western Queensland, Australia: The Importance of Habitat, Connectivity and Natural Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kerezsy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The endorheic Lake Eyre Basin drains 1.2 million square kilometres of arid central Australia, yet provides habitat for only 30 species of freshwater fish due to the scarcity of water and extreme climate. The majority are hardy riverine species that are adapted to the unpredictable flow regimes, and capable of massive population booms following heavy rainfall and the restoration of connectivity between isolated waterholes. The remainder are endemic specialists from isolated springs with very restricted ranges, and many are listed under relevant state and national endangered species legislation and also by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. For these spring communities, which are sustained by water from the Great Artesian Basin, survival is contingent on suitable habitat persisting alongside extractive mining, agriculture and the imposition of alien species. For the riverine species, which frequently undertake long migrations into ephemeral systems, preservation of the natural flow regime is paramount, as this reinstates riverine connectivity. In this study, fish were sampled from the Bulloo River in the east to the Mulligan River in the west, along a temporal timeframe and using a standard set of sampling gears. Fish presence was influenced by factors such as natural catchment divides, sampling time, ephemerality and the occurrence of connection flows and flooding. Despite the comparatively low diversity of species, the aquatic systems of this isolated region remain in good ecological condition, and as such they offer excellent opportunities to investigate the ecology of arid water systems. However, the presence of both endangered species (in the springs and invasive and translocated species more widely indicates that active protection and management of this unique area is essential to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.

  18. Deformed river basins of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R.; Sinclair, H.

    2009-04-01

    Identification of the controls on basin morphology in mountain belts is needed to understand how landscapes evolve under changing conditions. Although river basins vary enormously in area, many of their morphological relationships, such as Hack's law, are scale invariant irrespective of mountain type. This suggests that, in most mountain belts, the fundamental process(es) that control basin morphology are also scale invariant and therefore largely insensitive to variations in tectonic activity. However, river basins in the Himalaya are anomalously wide when compared with basins developed on the flanks of other semi-linear ranges. We present a detailed study of Himalayan river basin morphology to determine how the evolution of this orogen may have influenced the shape of these unusual basins. We investigate, in particular, the statistical geometric properties of basins, such as the length, width and area of basins, with respect to the scale and the location of the basin within the mountain belt. Our results show that the anomalously wide basins found over much of the Himalaya have a limited scale range and distribution. These data therefore provide an indication of the significant control that the evolution of this mountain range has had on basin morphology at the local scale. The fact that these catchments have departed from what is perceived as a stable scaling relationship implies that, while their rivers can incise at a rate broadly comparable to the rate of rock uplift, their drainage divides can not migrate fast enough to reconfigure in response to tectonic shortening. As a result, long-term crustal shortening has significantly deformed the river network within the central and western Himalaya.

  19. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  20. Hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; McCabe, Gregory; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of the Missouri River for navigation, recreation, habitat, hydroelectric power, and agriculture, relatively little is known about the basic hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (MRB). This is of particular concern given the droughts and floods that have occurred over the past several decades and the potential future exacerbation of these extremes by climate change. Here, observed and modeled hydroclimatic data and estimated natural flow records in the MRB are used to 1) assess the major source regions of MRB flow, 2) describe the climatic controls on streamflow in the upper and lower basins , and 3) investigate trends over the instrumental period. Analyses indicate that 72% of MRB runoff is generated by the headwaters in the upper basin and by the lowest portion of the basin near the mouth. Spring precipitation and temperature and winter precipitation impacted by changes in zonal versus meridional flow from the Pacific Ocean play key roles in surface water supply variability in the upper basin. Lower basin flow is significantly correlated with precipitation in late spring and early summer, indicative of Atlantic-influenced circulation variability affecting the flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Although increases in precipitation in the lower basin are currently overriding the effects of warming temperatures on total MRB flow, the upper basin’s long-term trend toward decreasing flows, reduction in snow versus rain fraction, and warming spring temperatures suggest that the upper basin may less often provide important flow supplements to the lower basin in the future.

  1. Will Wallace's Line Save Australia from Avian Influenza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish I. McCallum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Australia is separated from the Asian faunal realm by Wallace's Line, across which there is relatively little avian migration. Although this does diminish the risk of high pathogenicity avian influenza of Asian origin arriving with migratory birds, the barrier is not complete. Migratory shorebirds, as well as a few landbirds, move through the region on annual migrations to and from Southeast Asia and destinations further north, although the frequency of infection of avian influenza in these groups is low. Nonetheless, high pathogenicity H5N1 has recently been recorded on the island of New Guinea in West Papua in domestic poultry. This event increases interest in the movements of birds between Wallacea in eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, and Australia, particularly by waterbirds. There are frequent but irregular movements of ducks, geese, and other waterbirds across Torres Strait between New Guinea and Australia, including movements to regions in which H5N1 has occurred in the recent past. Although the likelihood of avian influenza entering Australia via an avian vector is presumed to be low, the nature and extent of bird movements in this region is poorly known. There have been five recorded outbreaks of high pathogenicity avian influenza in Australian poultry flocks, all of the H7 subtype. To date, Australia is the only inhabited continent not to have recorded high pathogenicity avian influenza since 1997, and H5N1 has never been recorded. The ability to map risk from high pathogenicity avian influenza to Australia is hampered by the lack of quantitative data on the extent of bird movements between Australia and its northern neighbors. Recently developed techniques offer the promise to fill this knowledge gap.

  2. Three Plate Reconstruction in the Eastern Indian Ocean: New Constraints on Wharton and Australian-Antarctic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, J.; Dyment, J.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the continuous seismicity and repeated occurrence of major earthquakes in Sumatra and the neighboring area requires detailed constrains on the subducting plate. In this study we analyze the past plate kinematics evolution of the Wharton basin, eastern Indian Ocean through a three plate reconstruction involving Australia (AUS), Antarctica (ANT), and India (IND). We compile marine magnetic identifications in the Australian-Antarctic Basin [1,2], the Crozet and Central Indian basins (Yatheesh et al, in prep.) and the Wharton Basin [3]. The Wharton Basin is characterized by an extinct spreading center dated by anomaly 18 (38 Ma). The southern flank of the basin exhibits a continuous sequence of anomalies 20n (42 Ma) to 34n (84 Ma), whereas the northern flank lacks some of the older anomalies because a significant part has been subducted in the Sunda Trench. The three-plate reconstructions have provided set of rotation parameters describing the evolution of IND-AUS. Using these parameters, we have reconstructed the missing isochrons of the northern flank and the detailed geometry of the subducted part of the Wharton basin. Such an exercise provides useful constraints on the age and structure of the plate in subduction under Indonesia. As a byproduct, the three plate reconstruction provided set of rotation parameters for AUS-ANT as well, which constrains the conjugate fit between the basins. Previous studies [1,2,4,5] have achieved such a fit on the base of ill-defined fracture zones. We consider the well-defined fracture zones from the Crozet, Central Indian, and Wharton basins, but avoid using the poor fracture zone imprints from the Australian-Antarctic Basin. As a result from this approach, we conclude that the relative motion of AUS with respect to ANT initially followed a north-south direction, then changed to northwest-southeast at anomaly 32ny, and reverted to northeast southwest at anomaly 24no prior to the establishment of the Southeast Indian

  3. Holocene lake salinity changes in the Wimmera, southeastern Australia, provide evidence for millennial-scale climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Justine; Radke, Lynda C.; Olley, Jon; Juggins, Steve; De Deckker, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Palaeosalinity records for groundwater-influenced lakes in the southwest Murray Basin were constructed from an ostracod-based, weighted-averaging transfer function, supplemented with evidence from Campylodiscus clypeus (diatom), charophyte oogonia, Coxiella striata (gastropod), Elphidium sp. (foraminifera), Daphniopsis sp. ephippia (Cladocera), and brine shrimp (Parartemia zietziana) faecal pellets, the δ18O of ostracods, and > 130 μm quartz sand counts. The chronology is based on optically stimulated luminescence and calibrated radiocarbon ages. Relatively wet conditions are marked by lower salinities between 9600 yr and 5700 yr ago, but mutually exclusive high- and low-salinity ostracod communities suggest substantial variability in effective precipitation in the early Holocene. A drier climate was firmly in place by 4500 yr and is marked at the groundwater-dominated NW Jacka Lake by an increase in aeolian quartz and, at Jacka Lake, by a switch from surface-water to groundwater dominance. Short-lived, low-salinity events at 8800, 7200, 5900, 4800, 2400, 1300 and 400 yr are similar in timing and number to those recorded on Australia's southern continental shelf, and globally, and provide evidence for the existence of the ~ 1500-yr cycle in mainland southern Australia. We surmise that these are cool events associated with periodic equatorward shifts in the westerly wind circulation.

  4. Suceava Anthropic Torrential Basin - Prolegomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Emil BRICIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One problem discussed by urban hydrology today is the draining influence of the modern cities over the natural drainage systems. The increasing urban areas and of their imperviousness all over theworld is linked to floods shape modifications and unpredicted systemic implications.  Generally, the draining influence of a city over its environment begins when it has a surface great enough to create an anthropic-generated runoff during a rain with enoughprecipitations to provoke waters accumulation into street torrents. The size, imperviousness, precipitations, drainage system and water consumption of the Suceava city are analysed in order to estimate the discharge of the city into Suceava river at various rainfalls. The article is structured as follows:1. Argumentation on the class separation between natural and anthropic torrential basins.2. Placing Suceava city as one of the torrential anthropic basins in Romania using basic arguments.3. Extending one of the argument, the importance of the rainfalls, in more detailed discussions (rainfall characteristics mainly, but also its cumulative effect with the floods on the Suceava river and the consumption of water in the city, with two scenarios. 4. The city is analysed as being integrated into a metropolitan area which can exacerbate the influence of the main city over the surrounding natural drainage basins nearby that area.5. Conclusions, where measures are proposed in order to diminish the potential negative effects on environment and human society.This article is only an introduction to a more detailed analysis which will be complete with further field data.

  5. Soil organic carbon in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, E.; Baldock, J.; Hua, Q.; Wilson, B.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the drivers of SOC dynamics and depth distribution across eastern Australia using laboratory analyses (CN, fractionation, radiocarbon) coupled with modelling and machine learning. At over 1400 sites, surface SOC storage was driven by precipitation, whereas SOC depth distribution (0-30 cm) was influenced by land-use. Based upon these findings, 100 sites were selected for profile analysis (up to 1 m) of SOC and its component fractions - particulate (POC), humus (HOC) and resistant (ROC) organic carbon. Profile SOC content was modelled using an exponential model describing surface SOC content, SOC depth distribution and residual SOC at depth and the drivers of these parameters investigated via machine learning. Corroborating previous findings, surface SOC content was highly influenced by rainfall, whereas SOC depth distribution was influenced by land-use. At depth, site properties were the most important predictors of SOC. Cropped sites had significantly lower SOC content than native and grazed sites at depth, indicating that land-use influences SOC content throughout the profile. The machine learning algorithms identified depth as the key control on the proportion of all three fractions down the profile: POC decreased whereas HOC increased with increasing depth. POC was strongly linked with total SOC but HOC and ROC were driven more by climate and soil physico-chemical properties. Human influences (land-use and management) were not important to the fractions, implying that the controls humans can exert on SOC stability may be limited. A subset of 12 soil profiles was analysed for 14C. Radiocarbon content was affected strongly by land-use, with effects most pronounced at depth. Native systems had the youngest carbon down the profile, cropped systems had the oldest SOC. All fractions reacted to land-use change down the soil profile, indicating a lack of stability when the whole profile is viewed. These results indicate that natural systems act as a

  6. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.

    2016-02-01

    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  7. Free energy basin-hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Cash, K. H.; Wales, D. J.; Chakrabarti, D.

    2015-04-01

    A global optimisation scheme is presented using basin-hopping with the acceptance criterion based on approximate free energy for the corresponding local minima of the potential energy. The method is illustrated for atomic and colloidal clusters and peptides to examine how the predicted global free energy minimum changes with temperature. Using estimates for the local free energies based on harmonic vibrational densities of states provides a computationally effective framework for predicting trends in structure at finite temperature. The resulting scheme represents a powerful tool for exploration of energy landscapes throughout molecular science.

  8. Understanding trans-basin floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Zimmer, J.; Thieken, A. H.; Merz, B.

    2009-04-01

    Trans-basin floods are extreme events occurring on a regional scale and across catchment boundaries. They are the consequence of highly complex and inextricably linked processes involving atmospheric conditions, runoff generation and concentration in the catchment, and in-channel wave propagation. To understand trans-basin floods the dynamics of these processes have to be analysed over a range of temporal scales including preconditioning factors, like monthly anomalies of climatic conditions; initial factors, such as the immediate flood producing weather system or the catchment state on a daily scale and maintaining factors, such as persistent regimes determining the progression of a flood event. These mechanisms can be understood by analysing past events. Therefore a set of trans-basin events was developed for a period of 51 years (1952-2002) analysing time series of daily mean discharge at 170 gauges of rivers in the central European basins Elbe, Danube, Rhine, Weser and Ems. A novel indicator including both the spatial extent of the event as well as the magnitude of the discharges in the rivers allows comparing events with respect to their severity. Reanalysis data (i.e. ECMWF ERA-40 and NCEP Reanalysis I) were used to examine the general circulation patterns during the events. Further, a high-quality dataset of daily precipitation for over 2300 stations in Germany was used to trace the water supply of the events on all the three temporal scales. Several atmospheric parameters, such as water vapour content or temperature anomalies, were derived for the affected flooding area to serve as possible indicators common to a majority of the events. The causative general circulation patterns could be grouped into three types with 1) more or less zonally progressing baroclinic disturbances within the planetary frontal zone, 2) zonal flow retarded by a quasi-stationary air mass boundary (blocking situation to the East) and 3) slowly moving cut-off lows with abundant meso

  9. Seismic Characterization of the Jakarta Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipta, A.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Masturyono, M.; Rudyanto, A.; Irsyam, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jakarta, Indonesia, is home to more than 10 million people. Many of these people live in seismically non-resilient structures in an area that historical records suggest is prone to earthquake shaking. The city lies in a sedimentary basin composed of Quaternary alluvium that experiences rapid subsidence (26 cm/year) due to groundwater extraction. Forecasts of how much subsidence may occur in the future are dependent on the thickness of the basin. However, basin geometry and sediment thickness are poorly known. In term of seismic hazard, thick loose sediment can lead to high amplification of seismic waves, of the kind that led to widespread damage in Mexico city during the Michoacan Earthquake of 1985. In order to characterize basin structure, a temporary seismograph deployment was undertaken in Jakarta in Oct 2013- Jan 2014. A total of 96 seismic instrument were deployed throughout Jakarta were deployed throughout Jakarta at 3-5 km spacing. Ambient noise tomography was applied to obtain models of the subsurface velocity structure. Important key, low velocity anomalies at short period (<8s) correspond to the main sedimentary sub-basins thought to be present based on geological interpretations of shallow stratigraphy in the Jakarta Basin. The result shows that at a depth of 300 m, shear-wave velocity in the northern part (600 m/s) of the basin is lower than that in the southern part. The most prominent low velocity structure appears in the northwest of the basin, down to a depth of 800 m, with velocity as low as 1200 m/s. This very low velocity indicates the thickness of sediment and the variability of basin geometry. Waveform computation using SPECFEM2D shows that amplification due to basin geometry occurs at the basin edge and the thick sediment leads to amplification at the basin center. Computation also shows the longer shaking duration occurrs at the basin edge and center of the basin. The nest step will be validating the basin model using earthquake events

  10. Basin-scale relations via conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.; Guertin, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A rainfall-runoff model is used in conjunction with a probabilistic description of the input to this model to obtain simple regression-like relations for basin runoff in terms of basin and storm characteristics. These relations, similar to those sought in regionalization studies, are computed by evaluating the conditional distribution of model output given basin and storm characteristics. This method of conditioning provides a general way of examining model sensitivity to various components of model input. The resulting relations may be expected to resemble corresponding relations obtained by regionalization using actual runoff to the extent that the rainfall-runoff model and the model input specification are physically realistic. The probabilistic description of model input is an extension of so-called "random-model" of channel networks and involves postulating an ensemble of basins and associated probability distributions that mimic the variability of basin characteristics seen in nature. Application is made to small basins in the State of Wyoming. Parameters of the input variable distribution are estimated using data from Wyoming, and basin-scale relations are estimated both, parametrically and nonparametrically using model-generated runoff from simulated basins. Resulting basin-scale relations involving annual flood quantiles are in reasonable agreement with those presented in a previous regionalization study, but error estimates are smaller than those in the previous study, an artifact of the simplicity of the rainfall-runoff model used in this paper. We also obtain relations for peak of the instantaneous unit hydrograph which agree fairly well with theoretical relations given in the literature. Finally, we explore the issues of sensitivity of basin-scale, relations and error estimates to parameterization of the model input probability distribution and of how this sensitivity is related to making inferences about a particular ungaged basin. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Stratigraphic Signatures of Forearc Basin Formation Mechanisms

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    Mannu, U.; Ueda, K.; Gerya, T.; Willett, S.; Strasser, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forearc basins are loci of active sedimentation above the landward portion of accretionary prisms. Although these basins typically remain separated from the frontal prism by a forearc high, their evolution has a significant impact on the structure and deformation of the entire wedge. Formation of forearc basins has been proposed as a consequence of changes in wedge stability due to an increase of slab dip in subduction zones. Another hypothesis attributes this to higher hinterland sedimentation, which causes the rear of the wedge to stabilize and eventually develop a forearc basin. Basin stratigraphic architecture, revealed by high-resolution reflection seismic data and borehole data allows interpretation of structural development of the accretionary prism and associated basins with the goal of determining the underlying driving mechanism(s) of basin formation. In this study we supplement data interpretation with thermo-mechanical numerical models including high-resolution isochronal surface tracking to visualize the developing stratigraphy of basins that develop in subduction zone and wedge dynamic models. We use a dynamic 2D thermo mechanical model incorporating surface processes, strain weakening and sediment subduction. The model is a modification of I2VIS model, which is based on conservative, fully staggered finite differences and a non-diffusive marker- in-cell technique capable of modelling mantle convection. In the model different driving mechanisms for basin formation can be explored. Stratigraphic simulations obtained by isochronal surface tracking are compared to reflection pattern and stratigraphy of seismic and borehole data, respectively. Initial results from a model roughly representing the Nankai Trough Subduction Zone offshore Japan are compared to available seismic and Integrated Ocean Drilling (IODP) data. A calibrated model predicting forearc basin stratigraphy will be used to discern the underlying process of basins formation and wedge

  12. Australia's dengue risk driven by human adaptation to climate change.

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    Nigel W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reduced rainfall in southeast Australia has placed this region's urban and rural communities on escalating water restrictions, with anthropogenic climate change forecasts suggesting that this drying trend will continue. To mitigate the stress this may place on domestic water supply, governments have encouraged the installation of large domestic water tanks in towns and cities throughout this region. These prospective stable mosquito larval sites create the possibility of the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti from Queensland, where it remains endemic, back into New South Wales and other populated centres in Australia, along with the associated emerging and re-emerging dengue risk if the virus was to be introduced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Having collated the known distribution of Ae. aegypti in Australia, we built distributional models using a genetic algorithm to project Ae. aegypti's distribution under today's climate and under climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2050 and compared the outputs to published theoretical temperature limits. Incongruence identified between the models and theoretical temperature limits highlighted the difficulty of using point occurrence data to study a species whose distribution is mediated more by human activity than by climate. Synthesis of this data with dengue transmission climate limits in Australia derived from historical dengue epidemics suggested that a proliferation of domestic water storage tanks in Australia could result in another range expansion of Ae. aegypti which would present a risk of dengue transmission in most major cities during their warm summer months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the debate of the role climate change will play in the future range of dengue in Australia, we conclude that the increased risk of an Ae. aegypti range expansion in Australia would be due not directly to climate change but rather to human adaptation to the current and forecasted regional drying

  13. Assessment of the risk of ebola importation to australia.

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    Cope, Robert C; Cassey, Phillip; Hugo, Graeme J; Ross, Joshua V

    2014-12-10

    To assess the risk of Ebola importation to Australia during the first six months of 2015, based upon the current outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the risk under two distinct scenarios: (i) assuming that significant numbers of cases of Ebola remain confined to Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and using historic passenger arrival data into Australia; and, (ii) assuming potential secondary spread based upon international flight data. A model appropriate to each scenario is developed, and parameterised using passenger arrival card or international flight data, and World Health Organisation case data from West Africa. These models were constructed based on WHO Ebola outbreak data as at 17 October 2014 and 3 December 2014. An assessment of the risk under each scenario is reported. On 27 October 2014 the Australian Government announced a policy change, that visas from affected countries would be refused/cancelled, and the predicted effect of this policy change is reported. The current probability of at least one case entering Australia by 1 July 2015, having travelled directly from West Africa with historic passenger arrival rates into Australia, is 0.34. Under the new Australian Government policy of restricting visas from affected countries (as of 27 October 2014), the probability of at least one case entering Australia by 1 July 2015 is reduced to 0.16. The probability of at least one case entering Australia by 1 July 2015 via an outbreak from a secondary source country is approximately 0.12. Our models suggest that if the transmission of Ebola remains unchanged, it is possible that a case will enter Australia within the first six months of 2015, either directly from West Africa (even when current visa restrictions are considered), or via secondary outbreaks elsewhere. Government and medical authorities should be prepared to respond to this eventuality. Control measures within West Africa over recent months have contributed to a reduction in projected risk of a

  14. Options for postgraduate anatomy education in Australia and New Zealand.

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    Campbell, Ian S; Fox, Carly M

    2012-03-30

    Medical education in Australia has changed considerably in recent times. As a result, hours dedicated to subjects such as anatomy have been reduced. Young doctors preparing for a career in anatomy-focussed specialties such as surgery and radiology require an indepth knowledge of this subject matter. Many Australian and New Zealand universities now offer postgraduate anatomy courses to address this potential gap in a budding surgeon's education. This article summarises the current options for postgraduate surgical anatomy education in Australia and New Zealand. All universities in Australia and New Zealand were contacted between September 2010 and December 2010 regarding the nature and content of course offerings. An Internet-based search was also conducted. There are currently nine universities in Australia and New Zealand offering postgraduate anatomy courses. Courses vary in contact hours, dissection time, lecture content, and examination methods. There are currently two universities offering a Postgraduate Diploma of Surgical Anatomy - the University of Melbourne, and the University of Otago. University of Western Australia and the University of New England offer a graduate diploma and a graduate certificate, respectively. Several other universities offer courses that deliver quality anatomical education but do not award students a university-recognised qualification. The Australian Orthopaedic Association now offers courses in Perth, Sydney and Brisbane, which delivers anatomy education specific to orthopaedics. There are a number of courses available to budding surgeons and radiologists to help fill the anatomy education void. With the development of such courses questions of accessibility, affordability and equity remain.

  15. Pioneering developments of marine renewable energy in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Manasseh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of ocean renewable energy developments in Australia is reviewed. A layperson’s description of the physical operating principle is given for the main classes of technology that have been tested in Australian waters. The Australian marine domain possesses among the world’s most energetic wave-energy resources, driven by powerful mid-latitude westerly winds. The northern coast of Western Australia has tidal ranges significant on a global scale, and some geographical features around the continent have local tidal resonances. The East Australian Current, one of the world’s major western boundary currents, runs along the eastern Australian seaboard, offering potential for ocean-current energy. Sea-water temperatures in the tropical north-east of Australia may permit ocean thermal energy conversion. While this abundance of resources makes Australia an ideal location for technology development, the population is highly concentrated in a few large cities, and transmission infrastructure has developed over a century to supply cities from traditional power plants. Several wave-power developments have resulted in demonstration of deployments in Australian waters, three of which have been grid connected. Trials of tidal devices have also occurred, while other classes of ocean renewable energy have not yet been trialled. The prospects for marine renewable energy in Australia are discussed including non-traditional applications such as coastal protection and energy export.

  16. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Triptan use in Australia 1997-2015: A pharmacoepidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, B L K D; Eadie, M J; van Driel, M L; Ross-Lee, L; Hollingworth, S A

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the use of triptan derivatives in Australia between 1997 and 2015, based on a national drug reimbursement database, and compared patterns of use with available international data. We obtained publically available data on the number of prescriptions for triptans marketed in Australia (sumatriptan, eletriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan). Dispensed use was measured as defined daily dose (DDD per 1000 population per day) for Australia's concessional beneficiaries (low-income earners, people with disabilities, and seniors). Total triptan use increased at an average annual rate of 112% over the 18-year period. Sumatriptan was the preferred triptan throughout (average annual increase 45%). Zolmitriptan and naratriptan use peaked in 2004, then decreased. Rizatriptan and eletriptan became available in 2010. There were 3.2-fold and 5.9-fold annual increases in their use from 2011 to 2105. There was some evidence suggesting that pattern of triptan use in concessional beneficiaries probably reflected pattern of overall triptan use in Australia. The use of triptan derivatives in Australia per head of population for treating migraine attacks continued to increase over the 18-year period studied, with use of recently introduced derivatives more than substituting for decreased use of older triptans. This suggests that the available treatments of migraine attacks had achieved what were considered less than adequate therapeutic outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A

    2015-07-01

    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia.

  20. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.