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Sample records for bowen basin australia

  1. Information from geology: Implications for soil formation and rehabilitation in the post coal mining environment, Bowen Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, A.V.; Esterle, J.; McLennan, T.P.T.

    1995-01-01

    The coal mining industry is likely to disturb as much as 60,000 ha of the Bowen Basin up to the year 2000. While comprising only a small proportion of the approximately 32,000 km 2 of the Bowen Basin, this considerable area will eventually need to be rehabilitated by creating appropriate land forms with a stabilizing and self-sustaining cover of vegetation. The job of restoring the disturbed area will fall to the practitioners of rehabilitation science. This paper briefly outlines the actual and potential significance of geological information to rehabilitation practice in the open-cut coal mining industry of the Bowen Basin. It focuses particularly on the problems of soil formation and the consequent limitations to ecosystem development due to the nature of the overburden materials and the environment. Lastly, it describes some of the distinctive features of the mine-soils of the area. Geological information can assist in the identification, classification, description and behaviour of post-mining materials. Potential inputs are not restricted to these and there is scope for wider inputs to management of the mining environment although the interface with biology requires further development. (author). 4 figs., 31 refs

  2. Report on information collection and analysis for fundamental survey on coal resource development in fiscal 1998. Survey on coal supply potentiality in Bowen Basin in Australia; 1998 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa joho shushu kaiseki hokokusho. Goshu Bowen bonchi sekitan kyokyu potentiality chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was made on coal supply potentiality in Bowen Basin in Australia. The main coal beds exist in the order of four beds in the Permian period. The oldest bed is the Reids Dome bed in the Lower Permian period, deposited in the south-west part of the basin. The later wide-area transgression has caused the Back Creek bed groups to deposit, whereas three coal measures have deposited in a concave on the raised basic bed. Later, the ocean has invaded into the entire basin. After having turned into the Upper Permian period, regression had occurred from north to south, where major coal measures such as the Moranbah and German Creek beds had deposited over the entire basin. Further regression has taken place to south, causing three uppermost coal measures to have deposited over the entire basin. In major part of the areas identified currently with existence of coal measures, and even in areas without mines, the mining right or the exploration right has been established, limiting the areas having development potentiality. Five abandoned mining areas exist in the Rangal coal measure, two in the Moranbah coal measure, two in the Reids Dome coal measure, and one in the Baralaba coal measure. There is a possibility of discovering areas developable for a scale of several ten million tons. (NEDO)

  3. Combustion behaviour of Sydney and Bowen Basin coals determined by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfell, K.E.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A.; Crosdale, P.J. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Department of Geology

    1996-08-01

    Assesses the suitability of thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis techniques to characterise the combustion behaviour of Sydney and Bowen basin coals. Results indicate that the thermogravimetric technique is suitable for characterising the effects of rank, maceral, sub-maceral and seam variations on the combustion behaviour of these coals. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Report for fiscal 1993 on feasibility study for development of overseas coal. Bowen coal field, Australia; 1993 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Australia koku Bowen tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    Discussions were given on the possibility of development as a coal supply source for Japan on the area centering around the Bowen coal field, whose coal exploration right was made open by the state government of Queensland, Australia in March 1993. Surveys were performed on information about the release of restrictions and the bid on the coal exploration right area RA55, the current status of the coal industry in Queensland, infrastructures, and the coal related government organizations. The following conclusions were arrived as a result of the surveys: the RA55 area to which the coal exploration right was made open has mining areas remaining, which are possible of supplying coals for an extended period of time from both of quantity and quality aspects; particularly in the 12 mining areas under the open bid, high-quality ordinary coal and raw material coal are in existence, whose potential is high; the state government and the related organizations are enthusiastic in promoting the development because the coal industry is the largest industry in the state; for new coal development, such assistance is expected as improvement in the infrastructures, deregulation, and favorable taxation system; and implementations are desired on acquisition of the exploration right, and exploration activities for new coal development. (NEDO)

  5. The thermal history of the Bowen Basin: a comparison of apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshallsea, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) are two techiques widely used to assess paleotemperatures of the order of 20-120 deg.C. in sedimentary basins. Whereas vitrinite reflectance is essentially a qualitative technique that gives an integrated measure of the entire thermal history, AFTA can reveal information on the variation of paleotemperatures through time because fission-tracks in apatite are continually produced throughout geological time. An apatite fission track study of the Upper Permian units of the Bowen Basin has offered the opportunity to compare the two paleotemperature indicators and place constraints on the timing of maximum paleotemperatures. The regional pattern of apatite fission-track ages closely coincides with the vitrinite reflectance indicating that maximum paleotemperatures have varied across the Basin with the central region of the Bowen Basin experiencing highest paleotemperatures. The reduction in apatite reflectance fission-track age with increasing reflectance represents the progressive annealing at temperatures around 60-120 deg. C. of those fission-tracks formed prior to the time of maximum temperatures. In those samples giving the youngest apatite fission-track ages all tacks were totally annealed at this time, and the fission-track age in these samples, in the range 90-120 Myr, indicate the time of cooling from the thermal maximum in the Early Cretaceous. 1 ref

  6. Rehabilitation with pasture after open-cut coal mining at three sites in the Bowen Coal Basin of Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coaldrake, J E

    1978-03-01

    Open-cut coal mining in the Bowen Coal Basin leaves piled heaps of overburden, chiefly of a clayey nature, that have high pH, high salinity, and low contents of phosphorus and nitrogen. It is likely that pastures of introduced sub- tropical species can be used as a first stage in rehabilitating these areas, and possibly to convert them into permanent grazing lands. In field experiments the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela (Buffel grass), Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (Rhodes grass) and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie (green panic) all showed satisfactory establishment and growth at two sites out of three tested. There was a clear response to superphosphate, with 400 kg/ha proving better over a two-year period than 100 kg/ha. Responses to nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate and as ammonium nitrate) were variable, and there was no response to gypsum and manganese at the one site tested for them. Of three tropical legumes subjected to limited testing only leucaena leucocephala gave encouraging results.

  7. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture. The discrepancy between estimates of lithospheric thickness derived from subsidence data for the western Canning Basin and those derived from shear wave tomography suggests that the latter technique currently is limited in its ability to resolve lithospheric thickness variations at horizontal half-wavelength scales of <300 km.

  8. Bowen-York tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, Robert; Krammer, Werner

    2004-01-01

    For a conformally flat 3-space, we derive a family of linear second-order partial differential operators which sends vectors into trace-free, symmetric 2-tensors. These maps, which are parametrized by conformal Killing vectors on the 3-space, are such that the divergence of the resulting tensor field depends only on the divergence of the original vector field. In particular, these maps send source-free electric fields into TT tensors. Moreover, if the original vector field is the Coulomb field on R 3 {0}, the resulting tensor fields on R 3 {0} are nothing but the family of TT tensors originally written by Bowen and York

  9. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  11. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2016-07-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  12. Bowen Journal of Agriculture: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The following guidelines should be followed by Authors submitting papers to Bowen Journal of Agriculture. Titles: Should be specific, capitalized, bold, centralized and brief. All other headings e.g ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS and REFERENCES are also to be capitalized ...

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Canning Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-05-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 1.3 billion barrels of oil and 34.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Canning Basin Province of Australia.

  14. Seismic Structure of Perth Basin (Australia) and surroundings from Passive Seismic Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, N.; Saygin, E.; Lumley, D. E.; Hoskin, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    We image the subsurface structure of Perth Basin, Western Australia and surroundings by using ambient seismic noise data from 14 seismic stations recently deployed by University of Western Australia (UWA) and other available permanent stations from Geoscience Australia seismic network and the Australian Seismometers in Schools program. Each of these 14 UWA seismic stations comprises a broadband sensor and a high fidelity 3-component 10 Hz geophone, recording in tandem at 250 Hz and 1000 Hz. The other stations used in this study are equipped with short period and broadband sensors. In addition, one shallow borehole station is operated with eight 3 component geophones at depths of between 2 and 44 m. The network is deployed to characterize natural seismicity in the basin and to try and identify any microseismic activity across Darling Fault Zone (DFZ), bounding the basin to the east. The DFZ stretches to approximately 1000 km north-south in Western Australia, and is one of the longest fault zones on the earth with a limited number of detected earthquakes. We use seismic noise cross- and auto-correlation methods to map seismic velocity perturbations across the basin and the transition from DFZ to the basin. Retrieved Green's functions are stable and show clear dispersed waveforms. Travel times of the surface wave Green's functions from noise cross-correlations are inverted with a two-step probabilistic framework to map the absolute shear wave velocities as a function of depth. The single station auto-correlations from the seismic noise yields P wave reflectivity under each station, marking the major discontinuities. Resulting images show the shear velocity perturbations across the region. We also quantify the variation of ambient seismic noise at different depths in the near surface using the geophones in the shallow borehole array.

  15. Mesozoic lithofacies palaeogeography and petroleum prospectivity in North Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chongzhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Carnarvon Basin, which lies in the North West Shelf of Australia, is highly rich in gas resources. As a typical passive marginal basin, it experienced the pre-rifting, early rifting, main rifting, late rifting, post-rifting sagging and passive margin stages. The basin was mainly filled with thick Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments, of which the Mesozoic hosts the principal source, reservoir and seal intervals. Mesozoic palaeogeography has an important control on the oil and gas distribution. Triassic gas-prone source rocks of deltaic origin determine the high endowment of natural gases in the North Carnarvon Basin. The more restricted distribution of oil accumulations is controlled by oil source rocks in the Upper Jurassic Dingo Claystone. The Muderong Shale deposited in the Early Cretaceous marine transgression provides the effective regional seal for the underlying oil and gas reservoirs.

  16. Integrative Governance of Environmental Water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin: Evolving Challenges and Emerging Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Mattson, Zachary; Lynch, Amanda H

    2017-07-01

    Integration, a widely promoted response to the multi-scale complexities of social-environmental sustainability, is diversely and sometimes poorly conceptualized. In this paper we explore integrative governance, which we define as an iterative and contextual process for negotiating and advancing the common interest. We ground this definition in a discussion of institutional factors conditioning integrative governance of environmental water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. The Murray-Darling Basin is an iconic system of social-ecological complexity, evocative of large-scale conservation challenges in other developed arid river basins. Our critical assessment of integrative governance practices in that context emerges through analysis of interviews with policy participants and documents pertaining to environmental water management in the tri-state area of southwestern New South Wales, northwestern Victoria, and the South Australian Riverland. We identify four linked challenges: (i) decision support for developing socially robust environmental water management goals, (ii) resource constraints on adaptive practice, (iii) inter-state differences in participatory decision-making and devolution of authority, and (iv) representative inclusion in decision-making. Our appraisal demonstrates these as pivotal challenges for integrative governance in the common interest. We conclude by offering a perspective on the potential for supporting integrative governance through the bridging capacity of Australia's Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder.

  17. Uranium supply and demand projections in the pacific basin Australia's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    By the year 2000 O.E.C.D. estimates indicate that somewhere between 22% to 33% of the world's base load electrical energy will originate from nuclear power plants. In all major pacific basin countries, Australia has the world's largest known uranium reserves and is currently supplying around 12% of world uranium production. She should be preparing to compete on the world markets for uranium sales and should anticipate increased uranium fuel demands despite the possibility the Canada and China might further penerate this market. (Liu Wencai)

  18. Minimal groundwater leakage restricts salinity in a hydrologically terminal basin of northwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Rouillard, Alexandra; Grierson, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    The Fortescue Marsh (FM) is one of the largest wetlands of arid northwest Australia (~1200 km2) and is thought to act as a terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue River catchment. Unlike the playa lake systems that predominate in most arid regions, where salinity is driven by inflow and evaporation of groundwater, the hydrological regime of the FM is driven by inundation from irregular cyclonic events [1]. Surface water of the FM is fresh to brackish and the salinity of the deepest groundwater (80 m b.g.l.) does not exceed 160 g/L; salt efflorescences are rarely present on the surface [2]. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that persistent but low rates of groundwater outflow have restricted the accumulation of salt in the FM over time. Using hydrological, hydrochemical data and dimensionless time evaporation modelling along with the water and salt budget, we calculated the time and the annual groundwater discharge volume that would be required to achieve and maintain the range of salinity levels observed in the Marsh. Groundwater outflow from alluvial and colluvial aquifers to the Lower Fortescue catchment is limited by an extremely low hydraulic gradient of 0.001 and is restricted to a relatively small 'alluvial window' of 0.35 km2 because of the elevation of the basement bedrock at the Marsh outflow. We show that if the Marsh was 100% "leakage free" i.e., a true terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue Catchment, the basin water would have achieved salt saturation after ~45 ka. This is not the case and only a very small outflow of saline groundwater of water volume) is needed to maintain the current salinity conditions. The minimum time required to develop the current hydrochemical composition of the water in the Marsh and the steady-state conditions for salt concentration is between 58 and 164 ka. This is a minimum age of the Marsh but it can be much older as nearly steady-state conditions could be maintained infinitely. Our approach using a combined water

  19. Bowen ratio over the Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taufarová, Klára; Dvořáková, Marcela; Czerný, Radek; Pokorný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), s. 131-136 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŽP SM/640/18/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Bowen ratio * evapotranspiration * transpiration * eddy covariance technique Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  20. Groundwater flow and solute transport at the Mourquong saline-water disposal basin, Murray Basin, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Craig; Narayan, Kumar; Woods, Juliette; Herczeg, Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Saline groundwater and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in some 200 natural and artificial saline-water disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their impact on underlying aquifers and the River Murray, one of Australia's major water supplies, is of serious concern. In one such scheme, saline groundwater is pumped into Lake Mourquong, a natural groundwater discharge complex. The disposal basin is hydrodynamically restricted by low-permeability lacustrine clays, but there are vulnerable areas in the southeast where the clay is apparently missing. The extent of vertical and lateral leakage of basin brines and the processes controlling their migration are examined using (1) analyses of chloride and stable isotopes of water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) to infer mixing between regional groundwater and lake water, and (2) the variable-density groundwater flow and solute-transport code SUTRA. Hydrochemical results indicate that evaporated disposal water has moved at least 100 m in an easterly direction and that there is negligible movement of brines in a southerly direction towards the River Murray. The model is used to consider various management scenarios. Salt-load movement to the River Murray was highest in a "worst-case" scenario with irrigation employed between the basin and the River Murray. Present-day operating conditions lead to little, if any, direct movement of brine from the basin into the river. Résumé. Les eaux souterraines salées et les effluents de drainage de l'irrigation sont stockés dans environ 200 bassins naturels ou artificiels destinés à retenir les eaux salines dans tout le bassin de Murray-Darling, en Australie. Leur impact sur les aquifères sous-jacents et sur la rivière Murray, l'une des principales ressources en eau d'Australie, constitue un problème grave. Dans une telle situation, les eaux souterraines salines sont pompées dans le lac Mourquong, complexe dans lequel les nappes se d

  1. The evolution of a Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic intraplate basin (Duaringa Basin), eastern Australia: evidence for the negative inversion of a pre-existing fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Sliwa, Renate; Esterle, Joan; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2017-12-01

    The Duaringa Basin in eastern Australia is a Late Cretaceous?-early Cenozoic sedimentary basin that developed simultaneously with the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas. The basin occurs on the top of an earlier (Permian-Triassic) fold-thrust belt, but the negative inversion of this fold-thrust belt, and its contribution to the development of the Duaringa Basin, are not well understood. Here, we present geophysical datasets, including recently surveyed 2D seismic reflection lines, aeromagnetic and Bouguer gravity data. These data provide new insights into the structural style in the Duaringa Basin, showing that the NNW-striking, NE-dipping, deep-seated Duaringa Fault is the main boundary fault that controlled sedimentation in the Duaringa Basin. The major activity of the Duaringa Fault is observed in the southern part of the basin, where it has undergone the highest amount of displacement, resulting in the deepest and oldest depocentre. The results reveal that the Duaringa Basin developed in response to the partial negative inversion of the pre-existing Permian-Triassic fold-thrust belt, which has similar orientation to the extensional faults. The Duaringa Fault is the negative inverted part of a single Triassic thrust, known as the Banana Thrust. Furthermore, small syn-depositional normal faults at the base of the basin likely developed due to the reactivation of pre-existing foliations, accommodation faults, and joints associated with Permian-Triassic folds. In contrast to equivalent offshore basins, the Duaringa Basin lacks a complex structural style and thick syn-rift sediments, possibly because of the weakening of extensional stresses away from the developing Tasman Sea.

  2. Geochemistry and travertine dating provide new insights into the hydrogeology of the Great Artesian Basin, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, A.J.; Rousseau-Gueutin, P.; Priestley, S.; Keppel, M.; Shand, P.; Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L.; Wholing, D.; Fulton, S.

    2013-01-01

    While of great national and societal significance, and importance in its own right, the Great Artesian Basin of Australia is an iconic example of a continental scale artesian groundwater system. New geochemical, hydrological, and neo-tectonic data suggests that existing models that involve recharge in eastern Australia, relatively simple flow paths and discharge in springs in the western margin require modification. New geochemical data indicate a small volume flux of deeply derived (endogenic) fluids mixing into the aquifer system at a continental scale. Neotectonic data indicates active tectonism today that provides a fluid pathway through faults for the deeply sourced endogenic fluids to discharge in GAB travertine depositing springs. (authors)

  3. Probabilistic assessment of the impact of coal seam gas development on groundwater: Surat Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Moore, Catherine; Raiber, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Modelling cumulative impacts of basin-scale coal seam gas (CSG) extraction is challenging due to the long time frames and spatial extent over which impacts occur combined with the need to consider local-scale processes. The computational burden of such models limits the ability to undertake calibration and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. A framework is presented that integrates recently developed methods and tools to address the computational burdens of an assessment of drawdown impacts associated with rapid CSG development in the Surat Basin, Australia. The null space Monte Carlo method combined with singular value decomposition (SVD)-assisted regularisation was used to analyse the uncertainty of simulated drawdown impacts. The study also describes how the computational burden of assessing local-scale impacts was mitigated by adopting a novel combination of a nested modelling framework which incorporated a model emulator of drawdown in dual-phase flow conditions, and a methodology for representing local faulting. This combination provides a mechanism to support more reliable estimates of regional CSG-related drawdown predictions. The study indicates that uncertainties associated with boundary conditions are reduced significantly when expressing differences between scenarios. The results are analysed and distilled to enable the easy identification of areas where the simulated maximum drawdown impacts could exceed trigger points associated with legislative `make good' requirements; trigger points require that either an adjustment in the development scheme or other measures are implemented to remediate the impact. This report contributes to the currently small body of work that describes modelling and uncertainty analyses of CSG extraction impacts on groundwater.

  4. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp.) in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Rebecca; Lightbody, Keith; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle; Riggs, David; Erbe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.

  5. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  6. Chlorine stable isotope studies of old groundwater, southwestern Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Frape, Shaun K.; Love, Andrew J.; Herczeg, Andrew L.; Lehmann, B.E.; Beyerle, U.; Purtschert, R.

    2007-01-01

    Stable Cl isotope ratios ( 37 Cl/ 35 Cl) were measured in groundwater samples from the southwestern flow system of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia to gain a better understanding of the Cl - sources and transport mechanisms. δ 37 Cl values range from 0 per mille to -2.5 per mille (SMOC), and are inversely correlated with Cl - concentration along the inferred flow direction. The Cl isotopic compositions, in conjunction with other geochemical parameters, suggest that Cl - in groundwaters is not derived from salt dissolution. Mixing of the recharge water with saline groundwater cannot explain the relationship between δ 37 Cl and Cl - concentration measured. Marine aerosols deposited via rainfall and subsequent evapotranspiration appear to be responsible for the Cl - concentrations observed in wells that are close to the recharge area, and in groundwaters sampled along the southern transect. δ 37 Cl values measured in the leachate of the Bulldog shale suggest that the aquitard is the subsurface source of Cl - for the majority of groundwater samples studied. Diffusion is likely the mechanism through which Cl - is transported from the pore water of the Bulldog shale to the aquifer. However, a more detailed study of the aquitard rocks is required to verify this hypothesis

  7. The potential for convection and implications for geothermal energy in the Perth Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Heather A.; Florio, Brendan; Trefry, Michael G.; Reid, Lynn B.; Ricard, Ludovic P.; Ghori, K. Ameed R.

    2012-11-01

    Convection of groundwater in aquifers can create areas of anomalously high temperature at shallow depths which could be exploited for geothermal energy. Temperature measurements in the Perth Basin (Western Australia) reveal thermal patterns that are consistent with convection in the Yarragadee Aquifer. This observation is supported by Rayleigh number calculations, which show that convection is possible within the range of aquifer thickness, geothermal gradient, salinity gradient and permeability encountered in the Yarragadee Aquifer, assuming that the aquifer can be treated as a homogeneous anisotropic layer. Numerical simulations of convection in a simplified model of the Yarragadee Aquifer show that: (1) the spacing of convective upwellings can be predicted from aquifer thickness and permeability anisotropy; (2) convective upwellings may be circular or elongate in plan view; (3) convective upwellings create significant temperature enhancements relative to the conductive profile; (4) convective flow rates are similar to regional groundwater flow rates; and (5) convection homogenises salinity within the aquifer. Further work is required to constrain the average horizontal and vertical permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer, to assess the validity of treating the aquifer as a homogeneous anisotropic layer, and to determine the impact of realistic aquifer geometry and advection on convection.

  8. Assessment of Wetland Hydrological Dynamics in a Modified Catchment Basin: Case of Lake Buninjon, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John A

    2017-02-01

      The common method to estimate lake levels is the water balance equation, where water input and output result in lake storage and water level changes. However, all water balance components cannot always be quickly assessed, such as due to significant modification of the catchment area. A method that assesses general changes in lake level can be a useful tool in examining why lakes have different lake level variation patterns. Assessment of wetlands using the dynamics of the historical hydrological and hydrogeological data set can provide important insights into variations in wetland levels in different parts of the world. A case study from a saline landscape, Lake Buninjon, Australia, is presented. The aim of the present study was to determine how climate, river regime, and lake hydrological properties independently influence lake water levels and salinity, leaving the discrepancy, for the effect of the non-climatic/catchment modification in the past and the model shows that surface inflow is most sensitive variable. The method, together with the analysis and interpretation, might be of interest to wider community to assess its response to natural/anthropogenic stress and decision choices for its ecological, social, scientific value, and mitigation measures to safe guard the wetland biodiversity in a catchment basin.

  9. A Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician bivalve-dominated molluscan fauna from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian G. Jakobsen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A bivalve-dominated molluscan fauna is described from the Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia. The fauna comprises 16 species of bivalves and rostroconchs plus six gastropod species which are treated under open nomenclature. Two new bivalves, Sthenodonta paenesymmetrica sp. nov. and Modiolopsis pojetai sp. nov., are described. The relatively low-diverse molluscan fauna constitutes around 62% of the total benthic macrofauna. Approximately 75% of the molluscs comprise bivalves, especially nuculoids, which were biogeographically restricted to low latitudes during the Ordovician. The molluscan assemblage displays a very high degree of endemism at species level, though the bivalve Sthenodonta eastii also occurs in the Georgina Basin farther to the northeast. This indicates a possible marine connective seaway between the Georgina and Amadeus basins during the Darriwilian. Nuculites, Cyrtodonta, and Modiolopsis are cosmopolitan and previously reported from North China, Avalonia, and Southern Gondwana.

  10. Distribution of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, G.R.L.; Rao, M.V.; Prasad, P.H.; Reddy, K.G.

    The monthly averages of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean have been computed Three typical situations in the months of January May and September are taken for the present study Month to month differences in the Bowen ratio over the study...

  11. The Female Voice: Applications to Bowen's Family Systems Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    1994-01-01

    Responds to calls from feminist scholars to address potential biases against women in theories of family therapy. Summarizes findings from studies of female development and integrates findings into expanded model of Bowen's family systems theory. Includes case example comparing expanded model with traditional application of Bowen's theory.…

  12. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Huurdeman, Emiel P.; Rem, Charlotte C. M.; Donders, Timme H.; Pross, Jörg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy R.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, Peter K.

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the Australo-Antarctic Gulf (AAG). These reconstructions have revealed a large discrepancy between temperature proxy data and climate models in this region, suggesting a crucial error in model, proxy data or both. To resolve the origin of this discrepancy, detailed reconstructions are needed from both sides of the Tasmanian Gateway. Paleocene-Eocene sedimentary archives from the west of the Tasmanian Gateway have unfortunately remained scarce (only IODP Site U1356), and no well-dated successions are available for the northern sector of the AAG. Here we present new stratigraphic data for upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata from the Otway Basin, southeast Australia, on the (north)west side of the Tasmanian Gateway. We analyzed sediments recovered from exploration drilling (Latrobe-1 drill core) and outcrop sampling (Point Margaret) and performed high-resolution carbon isotope geochemistry of bulk organic matter and dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and pollen biostratigraphy on sediments from the regional lithostratigraphic units, including the Pebble Point Formation, Pember Mudstone and Dilwyn Formation. Pollen and dinocyst assemblages are assigned to previously established Australian pollen and dinocyst zonations and tied to available zonations for the SW Pacific. Based on our dinocyst stratigraphy and previously published planktic foraminifer biostratigraphy, the Pebble Point Formation at Point Margaret is dated to the latest Paleocene. The globally synchronous negative carbon isotope excursion that marks the Paleocene-Eocene boundary is identified within the top part of the Pember Mudstone in the Latrobe-1 borehole and at Point Margaret. However, the high abundances of the

  13. Lava and Life: New investigations into the Carson Volcanics, lower Kimberley Basin, north Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Karin; Phillips, Chris; Hollis, Julie

    2014-05-01

    The Carson Volcanics are the only volcanic unit in the Paleoproterozoic Kimberley Basin and are part of a poorly studied Large Igneous Province (LIP) that was active at 1790 Ma. New work focussing on this LIP in 2012 and 2013 involved helicopter-supported traverses and sampling of the Carson Volcanics in remote areas near Kalumburu in far north Western Australia's Kimberley region. The succession is widespread and flat lying to gently dipping. It consists of three to six basalt units with intercalated sandstone and siltstone. The basalts are 20-40 m thick, but can be traced up to 60 km along strike. The basalt can be massive or amygdaloidal and commonly display polygonal to subhorizontal and rare vertical columnar jointing. Features of the basalt include ropy lava tops and basal pipe vesicles consistent with pahoehoe lavas. The intercalated cross-bedded quartzofeldspathic sandstone and siltstone vary in thickness up to 40 m and can be traced up to 40 km along strike. Peperite is common and indicates interaction between wet, unconsolidated sediment and hot lava. Stromatolitic chert at the top of the formation represents the oldest life found within the Kimberley region. Mud cracks evident in the sedimentary rocks, and stromatolites suggest an emergent broad tidal flat environment. The volcanics were extruded onto a wide marginal margin setting subject to frequent flooding events. Thickening of the volcanic succession south and the palaeocurrents in the underlying King Leopold Sandstone and the overlying Warton Sandstone suggest that this shelf sloped to the south. The type of basalt and the basalt morphology indicate a low slope gradient of about 1°.

  14. Bowen's Disease Associated With Two Human Papilloma Virus Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Hojat; Gharaei Nejad, Kaveh; Azimi, Seyyede Zeinab; Rafiei, Rana; Mesbah, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Bowen's disease (BD) is an epidermal in-situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Most Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV)-positive lesions in Bowen's disease are localized to the genital region or distal extremities (periungual sites) in which HPV type-16 is frequently detected. Patient was a 64-year-old construction worker for whom we detected 2 erythematous psoriasiform reticular scaly plaques on peri-umbilical and medial knee. Biopsy established the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and polymerase chain reaction assay showed HPV-6, -18 co-infection. Patient was referred for surgical excision.

  15. Elizabeth Bowen, Modernism, and the Spectre of Anglo-Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Wurtz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent scholarly focus on Elizabeth Bowen’s modernism tends to reinforce a false dichotomy between Bowen as an Ascendancy Big House novelist and Bowen as a literary modernist. In keeping with Jameson’s argument that the colonial experience is at the root of Western modernism, I propose that her representations of Anglo-Irish Big House culture, in The Last September in particular, are in fact focal points for understanding Bowen as a modernist, and I argue that the Gothic, with its unavoidable political and colonial resonances, is fundamental to Bowen’s Irish modernism.

  16. Hydrochemical evolution and groundwater flow processes in the Galilee and Eromanga basins, Great Artesian Basin, Australia: a multivariate statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Claudio E; Raiber, Matthias; Taulis, Mauricio; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-03-01

    The Galilee and Eromanga basins are sub-basins of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). In this study, a multivariate statistical approach (hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis) is carried out to identify hydrochemical patterns and assess the processes that control hydrochemical evolution within key aquifers of the GAB in these basins. The results of the hydrochemical assessment are integrated into a 3D geological model (previously developed) to support the analysis of spatial patterns of hydrochemistry, and to identify the hydrochemical and hydrological processes that control hydrochemical variability. In this area of the GAB, the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater is dominated by evapotranspiration near the recharge area resulting in a dominance of the Na-Cl water types. This is shown conceptually using two selected cross-sections which represent discrete groundwater flow paths from the recharge areas to the deeper parts of the basins. With increasing distance from the recharge area, a shift towards a dominance of carbonate (e.g. Na-HCO3 water type) has been observed. The assessment of hydrochemical changes along groundwater flow paths highlights how aquifers are separated in some areas, and how mixing between groundwater from different aquifers occurs elsewhere controlled by geological structures, including between GAB aquifers and coal bearing strata of the Galilee Basin. The results of this study suggest that distinct hydrochemical differences can be observed within the previously defined Early Cretaceous-Jurassic aquifer sequence of the GAB. A revision of the two previously recognised hydrochemical sequences is being proposed, resulting in three hydrochemical sequences based on systematic differences in hydrochemistry, salinity and dominant hydrochemical processes. The integrated approach presented in this study which combines different complementary multivariate statistical techniques with a detailed assessment of the

  17. RESPONSE OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN AUSTRALIA"S LARGEST RIVER BASIN TO INTER AND INTRA-ANNUAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND FLOODING AS QUANTIFIED WITH LANDSAT AND MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Broich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a continent subject to high rainfall variability, which has major influences on runoff and vegetation dynamics. However, the resulting spatial-temporal pattern of flooding and its influence on riparian vegetation has not been quantified in a spatially explicit way. Here we focused on the floodplains of the entire Murray-Darling Basin (MDB, an area that covers over 1M km2, as a case study. The MDB is the country’s primary agricultural area with scarce water resources subject to competing demands and impacted by climate change and more recently by the Millennium Drought (1999–2009. Riparian vegetation in the MDB floodplain suffered extensive decline providing a dramatic degradation of riparian vegetation. We quantified the spatial-temporal impact of rainfall, temperature and flooding patters on vegetation dynamics at the subcontinental to local scales and across inter to intra-annual time scales based on three decades of Landsat (25k images, Bureau of Meteorology data and one decade of MODIS data. Vegetation response varied in space and time and with vegetation types, densities and location relative to areas frequently flooded. Vegetation degradation trends were observed over riparian forests and woodlands in areas where flooding regimes have changed to less frequent and smaller inundation extents. Conversely, herbaceous vegetation phenology followed primarily a ‘boom’ and ‘bust’ cycle, related to inter-annual rainfall variability. Spatial patters of vegetation degradation changed along the N-S rainfall gradient but flooding regimes and vegetation degradation patterns also varied at finer scale, highlighting the importance of a spatially explicit, internally consistent analysis and setting the stage for investigating further cross-scale relationships. Results are of interest for land and water management decisions. The approach developed here can be applied to other areas globally such as the Nile river basin and

  18. Independent colonization and extensive cryptic speciation of freshwater amphipods in the isolated groundwater springs of Australia's Great Artesian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nicholas P; Adams, Mark; Austin, Andrew D

    2009-01-01

    The groundwater-dependent springs of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in arid inland Australia represent a unique and threatened ecosystem. These incredibly isolated springs support a diverse array of endemic flora and fauna. One of the common faunal groups in the GAB springs is the freshwater amphipods of the family Chiltoniidae. The morphological conservatism and taxonomic uncertainty associated with these amphipods has ensured their true biodiversity, phylogeographical history and evolutionary affinities have remained unknown. We have used mitochondrial DNA and allozyme data to unravel a complicated history of isolation, extinction and dispersal among spring amphipod populations across the GAB. The results provide evidence for multiple independent colonizations in the GAB springs, particularly within the Lake Eyre group of springs. The inclusion of a group of Western Australian (WA) stygobitic amphipods from populations up to 1500 km away found surprising evidence for a shared evolutionary history between stygobitic and GAB spring amphipods. Approximate dating of the diversity found between major clades suggests the majority of lineages originated in the late Miocene, around the time of the aridification of inland Australia. The large number of independent lineages and the close connection between GAB spring and WA stygobitic amphipods suggest that a significantly rich amphipod fauna existed in the much wetter environment that once existed in inland Australia. The results also provide evidence for a gross underestimation of the species diversity within the springs, with 12 putative species identified, a conclusion with significant implications for the ongoing conservation of the GAB springs.

  19. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve bores were sunk adjacent to three stormwater infiltration basins in the Perth metropolitan area to examine the impact of runoff from a light industrial area, a medium-density residential area, and a major arterial road on groundwater quality, and to examine the hydrological response of the aquifer to runoff recharge. Automatic and manual water level monitoring between April and November 1990 indicated that groundwater levels responded within minutes to recharge from the infiltration basins. Peak water levels of up to 2.5 m above rest levels occurred 6 24 h after the commencement of ponding in the infiltration basins. There was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins. Concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were low and generally well within Australian drinking water guidelines. However, sediment in the base of an infiltration basin draining a major road contained in excess of 3500 ppm of lead. Phthalates, which are US EPA priority pollutants, were detected in all but one bore near the infiltration basins. Their detection may be a sampling artifact, but they may also be derived from the plastic litter that accumulates in the infiltration basins. The concentration of iron in groundwater near the infiltration basins appears to be controlled by dissolved oxygen concentrations, with high iron concentrations occurring where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. Pumping bores located near infiltration basins may suffer from iron encrustation problems caused by the mixing of shallow, oxygenated groundwater with water containing higher concentrations of iron from deeper in the aquifer.

  20. New K-Ar constraints on the onset of subsidence in the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.D.; Tyler, I.M.; Griffin, T.J.; Webb, A.

    1992-01-01

    Structural mapping and reconnaissance K-Ar studies have helped to delineate and date the latest deformational stages (D4 and D5) in the King Leopold Orogen, to the north of the Canning Basin. The dates have been determined for schists selected from both contractional shear zones and from rocks metamorphosed to the lower greenschist facies during the final phase of basement deformation. These dates imply that the basement-deforming event started in the latest Precambrian to earliest Cambrian (ca 560 Ma), and that tectonism recurred in the latest Cambrian to earliest Ordovician (ca 500 Ma). The final contractional deformation is slightly older than the oldest-known sedimentary rocks in the basin (latest Tremadoc), and helps to define the time that basin subsidence started. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2014-01-01

    -water palaeoenvironment along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone are of low diversity and represent ca 9% of the entire shelly fauna. Five brachiopod taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; all are endemic to the Amadeus Basin at species level. Two new species...

  2. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  3. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  4. Forage Options for Dairy Farms with Reduced Water Availability in the Southern Murray Darling Basin of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Jane Rogers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry in the southern Murray Darling Basin region of Australia is a major consumer of irrigation water because rainfall is low relative to evapotranspiration and the industrys relies heavily on irrigated temperate pastures and fodder crops. Water reforms, and potential climate change scenarios for this region suggest that there will be an overall decline in rainfall and water available for irrigation in the future. For the irrigated dairy industry to remain economically viable, there is a need for dairy farmers to improve the water productivity (WP of their forage systems and to be able to respond to year-to-year, and within year, variation in water availability. Researchers and dairy farmers are evaluating strategies to increase WP. These include: (i selecting better-adapted species for current and predicted climatic conditions; (ii using species that can survive and still be productive under reduced irrigation and then recover when full irrigation is restored; (iii modifying irrigation strategies to reduce water use whilst maintaining WP; and (iv grazing management strategies that facilitate the survival during, and recovery after, periods of moisture stress. This review will examine these strategies and discusses their potential to optimise forage production from irrigation water inputs so that the dairy industry in the southern Murray Darling Basin remains viable in the future.

  5. Reference material for trace analysis by radioanalytical methods: Bowen's Kale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainerdi, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    A fairly large volume of published data on 'Bowen's Kale' has been examined critically in order to develop recommendations for the use of this preparation as a 'reference material' in the standardisation and evaluation of the reliability of analytical procedures. Values are now recommended for the contents of twelve elements present in major to trace concentrations in 'Bowen's Kale'. 'Indicated values' for another 16 elements are provided. Values for 15 more elements are listed with no recommendation. The criteria adopted in categorising elements into these groups are discussed. (author)

  6. A case of Bowen's disease on chronic radiodermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Masaki; Suenaga, Yoshinori; Fuchi, Kougi.

    1992-01-01

    A 62-year-old female radiologist with chronic radiodermatitis on the dorsal side of her left fingers is reported. She had an occupational history of practicing fluoroscopy for about thirty years. Histopathologically Bowen's disease on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers and squamous cell carcinoma on the 5th finger were found in the radiodermatitis lesion. All the lesions were surgically removed and repaired with a full thickness skin graft. The literature on Bowen's disease caused by radiotherapy and occupational irradiation was also reviewed. (author)

  7. Response of groundwater level and surface-water/groundwater interaction to climate variability: Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Raiber, Matthias; Pagendam, Dan; Gilfedder, Mat; Rassam, David

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the response of groundwater levels in alluvial and sedimentary basin aquifers to climatic variability and human water-resource developments is a key step in many hydrogeological investigations. This study presents an analysis of groundwater response to climate variability from 2000 to 2012 in the Queensland part of the sedimentary Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia. It contributes to the baseline hydrogeological understanding by identifying the primary groundwater flow pattern, water-level response to climate extremes, and the resulting dynamics of surface-water/groundwater interaction. Groundwater-level measurements from thousands of bores over several decades were analysed using Kriging and nonparametric trend analysis, together with a newly developed three-dimensional geological model. Groundwater-level contours suggest that groundwater flow in the shallow aquifers shows local variations in the close vicinity of streams, notwithstanding general conformance with topographic relief. The trend analysis reveals that climate variability can be quickly reflected in the shallow aquifers of the Clarence-Moreton Basin although the alluvial aquifers have a quicker rainfall response than the sedimentary bedrock formations. The Lockyer Valley alluvium represents the most sensitively responding alluvium in the area, with the highest declining (-0.7 m/year) and ascending (2.1 m/year) Sen's slope rates during and after the drought period, respectively. Different surface-water/groundwater interaction characteristics were observed in different catchments by studying groundwater-level fluctuations along hydrogeologic cross-sections. The findings of this study lay a foundation for future water-resource management in the study area.

  8. Flow velocities estimated from chlorine-36 in the South-West Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, A.L.; Love, A.J.; Sampson, L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is the largest groundwater basin in the world and is the lifeline for water resources in a large proportion of the arid interior of the Australian continent. Despite its obvious importance, there is a great deal of uncertainty in the estimates of horizontal groundwater flow velocities and recharge rates. We report the first reliable estimates of these sustainability indicators in the south west segment of the GAB. Groundwater was sampled from 23 wells along two transects parallel to the W-E hydraulic gradient for 36 Cl, 14 C, stable isotopes (δ 13 C, δ 18 O, δ 2 H) and major ion chemistry. The groundwater collected was from the undifferentiated Jurassic and Cretaceous (J and K) aquifer. These new data potentially contribute to the resolution of the interpretation of 36 Cl derived ages in a very large slow moving groundwater system and to the overall conceptual understanding of flow systems of the GAB

  9. Carbonate Channel-Levee Systems Influenced by Mass-Transport Deposition, Browse Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, D.; Janson, X.; Sanchez-Phelps, C.; Covault, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine channels are primary conduits for clastic sediment transport to deep-water basins, thereby controlling the location of marine depocenters and sediment bypass. The evolution and depositional character of submarine channels have broad implications to sediment dispersal, sediment quality, and hydrocarbon exploration potential. Siliciclastic channel systems have been extensively studied in modern environments, seismic and outcrop; however, carbonate channel-levee deposits have only recently been explored. Here we utilize newly released high-resolution (90 Hz) seismic-reflection data from the Australian Browse Basin to document the influence of mass-transport complex (MTC) deposition on the stratigraphic architecture of carbonate channel-levee systems. The 2014 vintage seismic survey is 2500 km2 and hosts numerous large Miocene-age carbonate channel-levee complexes basinward of the shelf edge. Regional horizons and individual channel forms were mapped. Channels range from 200-300 m wide and are bounded by high-relief levee-overbank wedges (>100 ms TWTT). These channels extend across the survey area >70 km. The leveed-channels were sourced from middle and late Miocene slope gullies linked to platform carbonates. Slope-attached and locally derived MTC's are evident throughout the Miocene section likely related to periods of basin inversion and shelf-edge gully incision. We interpret that regionally extensive (>1000 km2) slope-attached MTC's can shut down a channel-levee system and trigger the initiation of a new system, whereas more locally derived (wasting and turbidity currents, which informs depositional models of carbonate slope systems and calls for re-evaluation of the controls on stratigraphic patterns in mixed siliciclastic-carbonate deep-water basins.

  10. A case of squamous cell carchinoma, basal cell epithelioma and Bowen`s disease arising from chronic radiodermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Hironori; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Shinkai, Hiroshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-10-01

    We report a case of multiple cancers developing in chronic radiodermatitis. A 43-year-old Japanese male presented with chronic radiodermatitis on both dorsal surfaces of his fingers, following a long-term irradiation by Grenz rays for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. At the same site, he developed squamous cell carcinoma and Bowen`s disease 7 years after the last irradiation. Three years later, he noticed a black papule on the dorsal surface of his right middle finger. After a histological examination, this papule diagnosed to be basal cell epithelioma. (author)

  11. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2014-01-01

    During the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) sandstones and siltstones were deposited in the epicontinental Larapintine Sea, which covered large parts of central Australia. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone has, for the first time, been sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils to track marine...... benthic biodiversity in this clastic-dominated shallow-water palaeoenvironment situated along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The faunas from the Stairway Sandstone are generally of low diversity and dominated by bivalves but include several animal groups, with trilobites representing 25......% of the entire shelly fauna. Thirteen trilobite taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; the fauna displays a high degree of endemism. One new species, Basilicus (Parabasilicus) brumbyensis sp. nov. is described....

  12. Eccrine porocarcinoma arising within an area of Bowen disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowney, A C

    2012-03-01

    Summary Very little is known about the aetiology of eccrine porocarcinoma (EP), a rare malignant sweat-gland tumour. Most reported cases have arisen de novo, or from a benign eccrine poroma. We report an unusual case, in which eccrine porocarcinoma arose at the exact site of pre-existing Bowen disease (BD).

  13. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan; Gaafar, Gamal Ragab

    2016-01-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin

  14. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ali, E-mail: ali.wahid@live.com; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail: mohamed.salim@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan, E-mail: wanismail-wanyusoff@petronas.com.my [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Gaafar, Gamal Ragab, E-mail: gaafargr@gmail.com [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  15. A high resolution magnetostratigraphic profile across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Southern Sydney Basin, eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belica, M. E.; Tohver, E.; Nicoll, R.; Denyszyn, S. W.; Pisarevsky, S.; George, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) is associated with the largest mass extinction in Phanerozoic geologic history. Despite several decades of intense study, there is ongoing debate regarding the exact timing of extinction and the global correlation of marine and terrestrial P-T sections. The terrestrial record is hampered by a lack of index fossils; however, magnetostratigraphy offers an opportunity for correlation because it relies on the global synchronicity of magnetic reversals. A magnetostratigraphic profile across the Permian-Triassic boundary has been obtained from a stratigraphically continuous terrestrial section in the Southern Sydney Basin of eastern Australia. The 60 m section is located within the Narrabeen Group, which consists of fluvial to lacustrine sandstones and mudstones. Paleomagnetic samples were collected at one meter intervals to determine a detailed reversal record. Samples were stepwise thermally demagnetized to isolate a primary remanence, and magnetic susceptibility was measured in the field at 30 cm intervals with values ranging from -0.047-2.50 (10-3 SI units). Three normal and three reverse magnetozones were detected after removal of a low temperature overprint, and the results show good agreement with the Global Magnetic Polarity Timescale as well as marine Permian-Triassic sections where the PTB is well constrained. Furthermore, a reverse polarity subchron has been identified within the normal magnetozone spanning the PTB similar to results published from the Netherlands and China. The magnetic stratigraphy suggests that the Narrabeen Group was deposited during the late Changhsingian to early Induan, and provides a revised placement of the PTB in the lower Wombarra Claystone. Integration of the magnetostratigraphy with existing isotopic datasets suggests that the terrestrial extinction in eastern Australia occurred 7.5 m below the PTB in the Changhsingian Coalcliff Sandstone. A tuff within a coal seam underlying the Coalcliff

  16. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  17. Firewood harvest from forests of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Part 1: Long-term, sustainable supply available from native forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.W.; Cawsey, E.M.; Stol, J.; Freudenberger, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin is a 1 million km 2 agricultural region of south-eastern Australia, although 29% of it retains native forests. Some are mallee eucalypt types, whilst the 'principal' types are dominated mainly by other eucalypt species. One-third of the 6-7 million oven-dry tonne of firewood burnt annually in Australia is obtained from these forests, principally through collection of coarse woody debris. There are fears that removal of this debris may prejudice the floral and faunal biodiversity of the Basin. The present work considers what silvicultural management practices will allow the long-term maintenance of the native forests of the Basin and their continued contribution to its biodiversity. It then estimates that the maximum, long-term, annual, sustainable yield of firewood which could be harvested, by collection of coarse woody debris, from principal forest types of the Basin would be 10 million oven-dry tonne yr -1 . An alternative, harvest of firewood from live trees by thinning the principal forests and clear-felling mallee forests, would be able to supply 2.3 million tonne yr -1 sustainably. Whilst coarse woody debris harvests could supply far more than the present demand for firewood from the Basin, they would lead to substantial reductions of the debris remaining in the forests; this may be detrimental to biodiversity maintenance. Live tree harvest does not lead to this problem, but would barely be able to supply existing firewood demand

  18. Estimating groundwater 14C ages in the arid Ti-Tree Basin, Central Australia: Use of 87Sr/86Sr to constrain sources of inorganic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, G.A.; Herczeg, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Ti-Tree Basin in the Northern Territory of and Central Australia contains several Tertiary and Quaternary aquifers which yield high-quality groundwater (TDS generally < 1500 mg/l). This resource is vital to the existence of major horticultural developments in the Basin, and provides a reliable supply of water to the township of Ti-Tree (population ∼ 100) and numerous remote Aboriginal communities. To meet increasing demands for water to expand the horticulture industry, it has become necessary to gain a proper understanding of the processes which govern the lifetime of this groundwater resource

  19. All in the family: a belated response to Knudson-Martin's feminist revision of Bowen theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, K Blake; Hicks, Mary W

    2002-01-01

    The first formal attempt at revising Bowen theory within the marriage and family therapy literature is represented in the work of Knudson-Martin (1994). Claiming that several of the theory's concepts are defined at odds with female development, Knudson-Martin (1994) reconceptualizes and expands Bowen theory to rectify these perceived shortcomings. In turn, we address several fundamental concerns with Knudson-Martin's critique and revision of Bowen theory. An alternative representation of Bowen Theory, as well as its relationship to feminist thought, is put forth. Suggestions for the field's future relationship to Bowen theory are also discussed.

  20. Karst Aquifer Recharge: A Case History of over Simplification from the Uley South Basin, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article “Karst aquifer recharge: Comments on ‘Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers’, by Adrian D. Werner, 2014, Water 6, doi:10.3390/w6123727” provides misrepresentation in some parts of Somaratne [1]. The description of Uley South Quaternary Limestone (QL as unconsolidated or poorly consolidated aeolianite sediments with the presence of well-mixed groundwater in Uley South [2] appears unsubstantiated. Examination of 98 lithological descriptions with corresponding drillers’ logs show only two wells containing bands of unconsolidated sediments. In Uley South basin, about 70% of salinity profiles obtained by electrical conductivity (EC logging from monitoring wells show stratification. The central and north central areas of the basin receive leakage from the Tertiary Sand (TS aquifer thereby influencing QL groundwater characteristics, such as chemistry, age and isotope composition. The presence of conduit pathways is evident in salinity profiles taken away from TS water affected areas. Pumping tests derived aquifer parameters show strong heterogeneity, a typical characteristic of karst aquifers. Uley South QL aquifer recharge is derived from three sources; diffuse recharge, point recharge from sinkholes and continuous leakage of TS water. This limits application of recharge estimation methods, such as the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB as the basic premise of the CMB is violated. The conventional CMB is not suitable for accounting chloride mass balance in groundwater systems displaying extreme range of chloride concentrations and complex mixing [3]. Over simplification of karst aquifer systems to suit application of the conventional CMB or 1-D unsaturated modelling as described in Werner [2], is not suitable use of these recharge estimation methods.

  1. Considering the potential effect of faulting on regional-scale groundwater flow: an illustrative example from Australia's Great Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.; Turnadge, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Hydraulic head measurements in the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia, began in the early 20th century, and despite subsequent decades of data collection, a well-accepted smoothed potentiometric surface has continually assumed a contiguous aquifer system. Numerical modeling was used to produce alternative potentiometric surfaces for the Cadna-owie-Hooray aquifers with and without the effect of major faults. Where a fault created a vertical offset between the aquifers and was juxtaposed with an aquitard, it was assumed to act as a lateral barrier to flow. Results demonstrate notable differences in the central portion of the study area between potentiometric surfaces including faults and those without faults. Explicitly considering faults results in a 25-50 m difference where faults are perpendicular to the regional flow path, compared to disregarding faults. These potential barriers create semi-isolated compartments where lateral groundwater flow may be diminished or absent. Groundwater management in the GAB relies on maintaining certain hydraulic head conditions and, hence, a potentiometric surface. The presence of faulting has two implications for management: (1) a change in the inferred hydraulic heads (and associated fluxes) at the boundaries of regulatory jurisdictions; and (2) assessment of large-scale extractions occurring at different locations within the GAB.

  2. Aspects of the isotope hydrology of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Calf, G.E.; Campbell, B.L.; Hartley, P.E.; Roman, D.

    1978-01-01

    A study has been made of the isotope hydrology of the principal Jurassic aquifer of the Queensland portion of the Great Artesian Basin down-gradient of the recharge area. Much of the data have been interpreted in terms of the residence times of the groundwater samples which were up to 350,000 years. It is postulated that the observed systematic variations in the chloride levels reflect variations in the rate of infiltration of recycled salt throughout the late Quaternary. The minimum and maximum in the chloride curve correlate with the last glacial and interglacial period respectively. The bicarbonate ion levels are perturbed by the dissolution of carbonate minerals. About 0.1 per cent of the aquifer materia would have been dissolved since the mid-tertiary when the present hydrodynamic conditions were established if dissolution rates calculated from the geochemical model are representative. The D/H ratios were found to be extremely constant. The 46 wells sited away from the recharge area have a mean of delta D of -41.8 per mille and a standard deviation of 1.1. There was no isotopic evidence for exchange of oxygen between water and the host rock despite the long contact periods, sometimes at elevated temperatures. A 226 Ra, 238 U survey showed that radium is frequently in excess despite extensive leaching since the Tertiary times and the fact that the time scales associated with the transport of water are large compared with the half life of 226 Ra. (orig.) [de

  3. Aspects of the isotope hydrology of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Calf, G.E.; Campbell, B.L.; Hartley, P.E.; Roman, D.

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made of the isotope hydrology of the principal Jurassic aquifer of the Queensland portion of the Great Artesian Basin down-gradient of the recharge area. Much of the data have been interpreted in terms of the residence times of the groundwater samples which were up to 350,000 years. It is postulated that the observed systematic variations in the chloride levels reflect variations in the rate of infiltration of recycled salt throughout the late Quaternary. The minimum and maximum in the chloride curve correlate with the last glacial and interglacial period respectively. The bicarbonate ion levels are perturbed by the dissolution of carbonate minerals. About 0.1% of the aquifer material would have been dissolved since the mid-Tertiary when the present hydrodynamic conditions were established if dissolution rates calculated from the geochemical model are representative. The D/H ratios were found to be extremely constant. The 46 wells sited away from the recharge area have a mean deltaD of -41.8 per mille and a standard deviation of 1.1. There was no isotopic evidence for exchange of oxygen between water and the host rock despite the long contact periods, sometimes at elevated temperatures. A 226 Ra, 238 U survey showed that radium is frequently in excess despite extensive leaching since the Tertiary times and the fact that the time scales associated with the transport of water are large compared with the half life of 226 Ra. (author)

  4. Spectrophotometry of Bowen resonance fluorescence lines in three planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Miller, Christopher O.

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of a uniquely complete, carefully reduced set of observations of the O III Bowen fluorescence lines in the planetary nebulae NGC 6210, NGC 7027, and NGC 7662. A detailed comparison with the predictions of radiative excitation verify that some secondary lines are enhanced by selective population by the charge exchange mechanism involving O IV. Charge exchange is most important in NGC 6210, which is of significantly lower ionization than the other nebulae. In addition to the principal Bowen lines arising from Ly-alpha pumping of the O III O1 line, lines arising from pumping of the O3 line are also observed. Comparison of lines produced by O1 and O3 with the theoretical predictions of Neufeld indicate poor agreement; comparison with the theoretical predictions of Harrington show agreement with NGC 7027 and NGC 7662.

  5. Sequence stratigraphic analysis and the origins of Tertiary brown coal lithotypes, Latrobe Valley, Gippsland Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G R; Kershaw, A P; Sluiter, I R.K. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1995-11-01

    Sequence analysis methods have been applied to the onshore Gippsland Basin and to the Latrobe Valley Group coal measures. In the east of the Latrobe Valley evidence for marine transgressions into the coal measures are recorded in most of the interseam sediment splits by the presence of contained foraminifer and dinoflagellates. To the west these splits pinch out into continuous coal. However, they can be followed westwards as enhanced organic sulphur levels along sharply defined boundaries between light coal lithotypes below and dark coal lithotypes above. The dark lithotype immediately overlying each of these boundaries contains the highest sulphur value and warmer climate pollen assemblages. Colorimeter and lithotype logging supports an upwards lightening cyclicity to coal colour at 12-20 m intervals through the approx. 100 m thick seams, with cycle boundaries defined at sharp planar to undulating surfaces. The lightening upward lithotype cycles together with their unique boundary conditions are interpreted as parasequences and parasequence boundaries respectively. Each major coal seam can comprise up to five parasequences and is interpreted to represent deposition during an outbuilding high stand systems tract at one of several maximum periods of Tertiary coastal onlap. Stratigraphic correlation of the sequence boundaries identified in the coal measures to the internationally dated marine Seaspray Group, provides a basis for chronostratigraphic correlation of the coal successions to the coastal onlap charts of Haq et al (1989). It appears that each major seam is confined to high standards of third order eustatic cycles. It follows that the lithotype cycles that comprise each seam are related to fourth order eustatic cycles. 49 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Bottom currents and sediment waves on a shallow carbonate shelf, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belde, Johannes; Reuning, Lars; Back, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The modern seafloor of the Australian Northwest Shelf between Exmouth and Dampier was analyzed for large scale sedimentary bedforms on 3D seismic reflection data. The Carnarvon MegaSurvey of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS), a merged dataset of multiple industrial 3D seismic reflection surveys with a total size of 49,717 km2, offers an extensive view of the continental shelf, slope and rise of the Northern Carnarvon Basin. Over the shelf two fields of large scale sediment waves were observed in water depths between 55-130 m, where the seafloor may be influenced by different processes including internal waves, tides and storms. Based on the dimensions and orientations of the sediment waves the dominant direction and approximate strength of local bottom currents could be estimated. Information on local sediment grain-size distribution was provided by the auSEABED database allowing a classification of the observed sediment waves into sand- or mudwaves. The first sediment wave field is positioned northwest of the Montebello Islands where the shelf is comparatively narrow and local sediment is mainly sand-sized. It most likely formed by increased bottom currents induced by the diversion of tidal flows around the islands. The second sediment wave field is located north of the Serrurier and Bessieres Islands within a local seafloor depression. Local sediments are poorly sorted, containing significant amounts of mud and gravel in addition to the mainly sand-sized grains. The coarser sediment fraction could have been reworked to sandwaves by cyclone-induced bottom currents. Alternatively, the finer sediment fraction could form mudwaves shaped by less energetic along-slope oriented currents in the topographic depression. The sediment waves consist partially of carbonate grains such as ooids and peloids that formed in shallow water during initial stages of the post glacial sea-level rise. These stranded carbonate grains thus formed in a different environment than the sediment

  7. COMPOSITION AND OCCURRENCE OF THE GRANDISPORA MACULOSA ZONAL ASSEMBLAGE (MISSISSIPPIAN IN THE SUBSURFACE OF THE CARNARVON BASIN AND THE COOLCALALAYA SUB-BASIN OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA, AND ITS GONDWANAN DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEOFFREY PLAYFORD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Grandispora maculosa miospore assemblage – initially described in 1968 from Middle-Late Mississippian strata of New South Wales (eastern Australia – is well represented in samples examined herein from 10 Western Australian subsurface sections located in the northern Perth Basin (Coolcalalaya Sub-basin and, to its immediate north, in several sub-basins of the southern and northern sectors of the Carnarvon Basin. Of particular stratigraphic-correlative importance is the presence of the eponymous G. maculosa together with, inter alia, Reticulatisporites magnidictyus, Verrucosisporites quasigobbettii, V. gregatus, Apiculiretusispora tersa, Raistrickia accinta, R. radiosa, Foveosporites pellucidus, and Cordylosporites asperidictyus. Four species are newly described herein: Apiculatasporites spiculatus, Dibolisporites sejunctus, Raistrickia corymbiata, and Vallatisporites valentulus. Published accounts from elsewhere in Gondwana collectively signify the widespread dissemination of the G. maculosa palynoflora, particularly through northern and western regions of the supercontinent, thus affording an effective means of intra-Gondwanan stratal correlation. Limited absolute dating and stratigraphic-successional considerations across Gondwana indicate that the age of the G. maculosa Assemblage can be bracketed within the middle Visean-early Serpukhovian of the Middle-Late Mississippian. This age is supported by the complete absence of bilaterally symmetrical, non-striate, saccate pollen grains, produced by walchian conifers, which were introduced globally (including in Australia and near-synchronously late in the Serpukhovian. Cryptogamic land plants (ferns, articulates, lycophytes are the inferred source of the palynoflora.

  8. A combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural study of pyrite from roll-front uranium deposits, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Edwina S.; Cook, Nigel J.; Cliff, John; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Huddleston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The common sulfide mineral pyrite is abundant throughout sedimentary uranium systems at Pepegoona, Pepegoona West and Pannikan, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. Combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural analysis of pyrite indicates variation in fluid composition, sulfur source and precipitation conditions during a protracted mineralization event. The results show the significant role played by pyrite as a metal scavenger and monitor of fluid changes in low-temperature hydrothermal systems. In-situ micrometer-scale sulfur isotope analyses of pyrite demonstrated broad-scale isotopic heterogeneity (δ34S = -43.9 to +32.4‰VCDT), indicative of complex, multi-faceted pyrite evolution, and sulfur derived from more than a single source. Preserved textures support this assertion and indicate a genetic model involving more than one phase of pyrite formation. Authigenic pyrite underwent prolonged evolution and recrystallization, evidenced by a genetic relationship between archetypal framboidal aggregates and pyrite euhedra. Secondary hydrothermal pyrite commonly displays hyper-enrichment of several trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Sb, W and Tl) in ore-bearing horizons. Hydrothermal fluids of magmatic and meteoric origins supplied metals to the system but the geochemical signature of pyrite suggests a dominantly granitic source and also the influence of mafic rock types. Irregular variation in δ34S, coupled with oscillatory trace element zonation in secondary pyrite, is interpreted in terms of continuous variations in fluid composition and cycles of diagenetic recrystallization. A late-stage oxidizing fluid may have mobilized selenium from pre-existing pyrite. Subsequent restoration of reduced conditions within the aquifer caused ongoing pyrite re-crystallization and precipitation of selenium as native selenium. These results provide the first qualitative constraints on the formation mechanisms of the uranium deposits at Beverley North. Insights into

  9. Socio-hydrologic Modeling to Understand and Mediate the Competition for Water between Humans and Ecosystems: Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Li, Zheng; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    Around the world the demand for water resources is growing in order to satisfy rapidly increasing human populations, leading to competition for water between humans and ecosystems. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling development and evaluation of effective mediation strategies. We present a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. Interactions between patterns of water resources management and climate driven hydrological variability within the prevailing socio-economic environment have contributed to the emergence of new whole system dynamics over the last 100 years. In particular, data analysis reveals a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages of water resources development and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. A quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that explicitly includes the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment, is able to mimic broad features of this pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear differential equations that include four state variables describing the co-evolution of storage capacity, irrigated area, human population, and ecosystem health, which are all connected by feedback mechanisms. The model is used to generate insights into the dominant controls of the trajectory of

  10. The Cadmium Isotope Record of the Great Oxidation Event from the Turee Creek Group, Hamersley Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchami, W.; Busigny, V.; Philippot, P.; Galer, S. J. G.; Cheng, C.; Pecoits, E.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of the ocean, atmosphere and biosphere throughout Earth's history has impacted on the biogeochemistry of some key trace metals that are of particular importance in regulating the exchange between Earth's reservoirs. Several geochemical proxies exhibit isotopic shifts that have been linked to major changes in the oxygenation levels of the ancient oceans during the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE) between 2.45 and 2.2 Ga and the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event at ca. 0.6 Ga. Studies of the modern marine biogeochemical cycle of the transition metal Cadmium have shown that stable Cd isotope fractionation is mainly driven by biological uptake of light Cd into marine phytoplankton in surface waters leaving behind the seawater enriched in the heavy Cd isotopes. Here we use of the potential of this novel proxy to trace ancient biological productivity which remains an enigma, particularly during the early stages of Earth history. The Turee Creek Group in the Hamersley Basin, Australia, provides a continuous stratigraphic sedimentary section covering the GOE and at least two glacial events, offering a unique opportunity to examine the changes that took place during these periods and possibly constrain the evolution, timing and onset of oxygenic photosynthesis. Stable Cd isotope data were obtained on samples from the Boolgeeda Iron Fm. (BIFs), the siliciclastic and carbonate successions of Kungara (including the Meteorite Bore Member) and the Kazputt Fm., using a double spike technique by TIMS (ThermoFisher Triton) and Cd concentrations were determined by isotope dilution. The Boolgeeda BIFs have generally low Cd concentrations varying between 8 and 50ppb, with two major excursions marked by an increase in Cd content, reaching similar levels to those in the overlying Kungarra Fm. (≥150 ppb). These variations are associated with a large range in ɛ112/110Cd values (-2 to +2), with the most negative values typically found in the organic and Cd-rich shales and

  11. EVALUATION OF CATROSAT 1PAN STEREO AND RESOURCESAT LISS 4 MSS MERGED DATA FOR MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS, DELINEATION OF DRAINAGE BASINS AND CODIFICATION IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA AND AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    as well as visual interpretation in conjunction with village cadastral maps has been studied. This research will be useful to consider creation of digital micro watershed atlas for management and protecting area affected by floods as well as for water and land resource management of the River basins in Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria states of Australia. The research explains the need of using stream orders, delineation and codification micro watersheds based the principles of Dr.A.N.Khosla. This methodology was used in creation of web site of Districts soil water sheds atlas of Tamil Nadu state. With this principal of codification and delineation of watersheds based on stream order using stereo data of Cartosat 1 PAN 2.5 m data merged with Resourcesat LISS 4 data of 5.5m resolution and updating latest changes as on 2011 with non stereo Geo eye data of 0.5m resolution it is possible to create Australian micro water sheds GIS with deatils of streams with various stream orders, drainage pattern, slope, micro water sheds boundary in 1:5000 scale to manage the flood prone drainage basin in Australia. The High resolution data of satellites data apart from creation Micro watersheds GIS can be used for creation of Urban and Argicultural land parcel owenership details in Micro watershed GIS.

  12. The Reverend Thomas Jefferson Bowen: An Introductory Background to His Linguistic Works, 1850-1856

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoniyi, Timothy A.

    1974-01-01

    A historical narrative background for the linguistic works of Thomas Jefferson Bowen, an American missionary who was the first non-Nigerian to publish a grammar of Yoruba (1858). The author points up a need for further scholarly review of Bowen's pioneering work and contribution to Yoruba studies. (JT)

  13. All in the Family: A Belated Response to Knudson-Martin's Feminist Revision of Bowen Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, K. Blake; Hicks, Mary W.

    2002-01-01

    The first formal attempt at revising Bowen theory within the marriage and family therapy literature is represented in the work of Knudson-Martin (1994). Claiming that several of the theory's concepts are defined at odds with female development, Knudson-Martin (1994) reconceptualizes and expands Bowen theory to rectify these perceived shortcomings.…

  14. The effects of the Bowen technique on hamstring flexibility over time: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Michelle; Baker, Julian; Lambon, Nicky; Perry, Jo

    2011-07-01

    The hamstring muscles are regularly implicated in recurrent injuries, movement dysfunction and low back pain. Links between limited flexibility and development of neuromusculoskeletal symptoms are frequently reported. The Bowen Technique is used to treat many conditions including lack of flexibility. The study set out to investigate the effect of the Bowen Technique on hamstring flexibility over time. An assessor-blind, prospective, randomised controlled trial was performed on 120 asymptomatic volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into a control group or Bowen group. Three flexibility measurements occurred over one week, using an active knee extension test. The intervention group received a single Bowen treatment. A repeated measures univariate analysis of variance, across both groups for the three time periods, revealed significant within-subject and between-subject differences for the Bowen group. Continuing increases in flexibility levels were observed over one week. No significant change over time was noted for the control group. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermodynamic and multifractal formalism and the Bowen-series map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1994-07-01

    In the theory of quantum chaos one studies the semiclassical behaviour of quantum mechanical systems whose corresponding classical counterparts exhibit chaos. These systems are sometimes considered as model systems in the theory of quantum chaos since they are well understood from a mathematical point of view. In this work we study the multifractal formalism for the geodesic flow on surfaces with constant negative curvature. The multifractal analysis of measures has been developed in order to characterize the scaling behaviour of measures on attractors of classical chaotic dynamical systems globally. In order to relate the multifractal formalism with quantities usually considered in the study of the geodesic flow on Riemann surfaces with constant negative curvature, it is necessary to establish the assertions of the multifractal formalism in a mathematically rigorous way. This is achieved with the help of the thermodynamic formalism for hyperbolic dynamical systems developed by Ruelle, Bowen and others. (orig.)

  16. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is

  17. Formation and inversion of transtensional basins in the western part of the Lachlan Fold Belt, Australia, with emphasis on the Cobar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, R. A.

    The Palaeozoic history of the western part of the Lachlan Fold Belt in New South Wales was dominated by strike-slip tectonics. In the latest Silurian to late Early Devonian, an area of crust >25,000 km 2 lying west of the Gilmore Suture underwent regional sinistral transtension, leading to the development of intracratonic successor basins, troughs and flanking shelves. The volcaniclastic deep-water Mount Hope Trough and Rast Trough, the siliciclastic Cobar Basin and the volcanic-rich Canbelego-Mineral Hill Belt of the Kopyje Shelf all were initiated around the Siluro-Devonian boundary. They all show clear evidence of having evolved by both active syn-rift processes and passive later post-rift (sag-phase) processes. Active syn-rift faulting is best documented for the Cobar Basin and Mount Hope Trough. In the former case, the synchronous activity on several fault sets suggests that the basin formed by sinistral transtension in response to a direction of maximum extension oriented NE-SW. Structures formed during inversion of the Cobar Basin and Canbelego-Mineral Hill Belt indicate closure under a dextral transpressive strain regime, with a far-field direction of maximum shortening oriented NE-SW. In the Cobar Basin, shortening was partitioned into two structural zones. A high-strain zone in the east was developed into a positive half-flower structure by re-activation of early faults and by formation of short-cut thrusts, some with strike-slip movement, above an inferred steep strike-slip fault. Intense subvertical cleavage, a steep extension lineation and variably plunging folds are also present. A lower-strain zone to the west developed by syn-depositional faults being activated as thrusts soling into a gently dipping detachment. A subvertical cleavage and steep extension lineation are locally present, and variably plunging folds are common. Whereas Siluro-Devonian basin-opening appeared to be synchronous in the western part of the fold belt, the different period of

  18. An interpretation of the tectonostratigraphic framework of the Murray Basin region of southeastern Australia, based on an examination of airborne magnetic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. M.; Tucker, D. H.; Anfiloff, V.

    1988-11-01

    New pixel map representations of regional total magnetic intensity data reveal previously unknown characteristics of the basement concealed beneath thin Cainozoic sediments of the Murray Basin in southeastern Australia. Interpretations of magnetic patterns in terms of structural features allow a revised interpretation of the nature of the tectonostratigraphic framework underlying and flanking the basin. The magnetic data indicate that arcuate or curvilinear structural trends under the Murray Basin do not conform with those of the exposed Lachlan Fold Belt to the east and suggest that the basement concealed beneath the basin, together with that exposed in the Victorian Highlands to the south, forms a distinct composite tectonostratigraphic terrane. Beneath the southwestern Murray Basin ?Proterozoic-Lower Cambrian metasediments of the Padthaway Ridge of the Kanmantoo Fold Belt display a northwesterly trending structural grain and a previously unsuspected continuity of structural trend with Adelaidean-Cambrian rocks of the Mount Lofty Ranges to the west. In the south, Cambrian volcanics of the Black Range and Stavely greenstone belts have similar magnetic response and appear to be components of a single elongate and strongly magnetic domain which extends to the northwest for at least 400 km (Stavely Belt). To the north a similar but entirely concealed northeasterly trending magnetic domain can also be interpreted as volcanics (Lake Wintlow Belt). Together these two magnetic domains appear to form an arcuate zone of volcanics, with a concave-to-the-east configuration, located at a possible suture between the Lachlan and Kanmantoo Fold Belts beneath the western Murray Basin. In the south the magnetic imagery indicates that metasediments of the ?Cambro-Ordovician Stawell Belt produce magnetic patterns distinct from those produced by the metasediments of the adjacent Ordovician Bendigo Belt, which can itself be subdivided into a number of areas of distinct magnetic

  19. Muddied Waters: the case for mitigating sediment and nutrient flux to optimise restoration response in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Gell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The waters of the Murray Darling Basin, Australia, have endured multiple stressors for more than a century. Detectable salinisation impacts are evident from 1880 CE and elevated fluxes of sediments and nutrients are now widespread. Most wetlands examined paleolimnologically have shown increased sedimentation rates or have lost aquatic plant communities due to the shading effect of increased turbidity, prompting the observation that the waterways of the Murray Darling Basin are among ten Australian ecosystems most at risk from tipping points. This post-European heightened sediment flux threatens the potential ecological recovery from the application of scarce and expensive environmental water. Nutrients and fine sediments are implicated as drivers of regime shifts that advantage phytoplankton and inhibit the growth of productive macrophyte beds. However, with the river channels identified as likely sources of sediments and sediment-bound phosphorous, it remains possible that the documented ecological changes represent an ongoing response from continued doses from the River. Syntheses of multiple paleolimnological records provide evidence for the management focus to be on sediment supply to maximise the ecological benefit from environmental flow allocations. Here we use paleolimnology to examine in detail the nature and magnitude of the response in a subset of 17 wetlands, to propose means of optimising the ecological bounce from the release of river waters, encumbered with high doses of sediments and nutrients, to wetlands and floodplains.

  20. Using environmental tracer data to identify deep-aquifer, long-term flow patterns and recharge distributions in the Surat Basin, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, A. J.; Suckow, A. O.; Morris, R.; Raiber, M.; Prommer, H.

    2017-12-01

    The calibration of regional groundwater flow models, including those investigating coal-seam gas (CSG) impacts in the Surat Basin, Australia, are not typically constrained using environmental tracers, although the use of such data can potentially provide significant reductions in predictive uncertainties. These additional sources of information can also improve the conceptualisation of flow systems and the quantification of groundwater fluxes. In this study, new multi-tracer data (14C, 39Ar, 81Kr, and 36Cl) were collected for the eastern recharge areas of the basin and within the deeper Hutton and Precipice Sandstone formations to complement existing environmental tracer data. These data were used to better understand the recharge mechanisms, recharge rates and the hydraulic properties associated with deep aquifer systems in the Surat Basin. Together with newly acquired pressure data documenting the response to the large-scale reinjection of highly treated CSG co-produced water, the environmental tracer data helped to improve the conceptualisation of the aquifer system, forming the basis for a more robust quantification of the long-term impacts of CSG-related activities. An existing regional scale MODFLOW-USG groundwater flow model of the area was used as the basis for our analysis of existing and new observation data. A variety of surrogate modelling approaches were used to develop simplified models that focussed on the flow and transport behaviour of the deep aquifer systems. These surrogate models were able to represent sub-system behaviour in terms of flow, multi-environmental tracer transport and the observed large-scale hydrogeochemical patterns. The incorporation of the environmental tracer data into the modelling framework provide an improved understanding of the flow regimes of the deeper aquifer systems as well as valuable information on how to reduce uncertainties in hydraulic properties where there is little or no historical observations of hydraulic

  1. Thermodynamic and multifractal formalism and the Bowen-series map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1995-01-01

    In the theory of quantum chaos one studies the semiclassical behaviour of quantum mechanical systems whose corresponding classical counterparts exhibit chaos. The geodesic motion of a free classical particle on closed Riemann surfaces with constant negative curvature is strongly chaotic. Selberg's theory relates the classical and the quantum mechanical systems. These systems are sometimes considered as model systems in the theory of quantum chaos since they are well understood from a mathematical point of view. In this work we study the multifractal formalism for the geodesic flow on surfaces with constant negative curvature. The multifractal analysis of measures has been developed in order to characterize the scaling behaviour of measures on attractors of classical chaotic dynamical systems globally. In order to relate the multifractal formalism with quantities usually considered in the study of the geodesic flow on Riemann surfaces with constant negative curvature, it is necessary to establish the assertions of the multifractal formalism in a mathematically rigorous way. This is achieved with the help of the thermodynamic formalism for hyperbolic dynamical systems developed by Ruelle, Bowen and others. (orig.)

  2. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  3. Environmental conditions and microbial community structure during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event; a multi-disciplinary study from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaak, Gemma; Edwards, Dianne S.; Foster, Clinton B.; Pagès, Anais; Summons, Roger E.; Sherwood, Neil; Grice, Kliti

    2017-12-01

    The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) is regarded as one of the most significant evolutionary events in the history of Phanerozoic life. The present study integrates palynological, petrographic, molecular and stable isotopic (δ13C of biomarkers) analyses of cores from four boreholes that intersected the Goldwyer Formation, Canning Basin, Western Australia, to determine depositional environments and microbial diversity within a Middle Ordovician epicontinental, tropical sea. Data from this study indicate lateral and temporal variations in lipid biomarker assemblages extracted from Goldwyer Formation rock samples. These variations likely reflect changing redox conditions between the upper (Unit 4) and lower (Units 1 + 2) Goldwyer, which is largely consistent with existing depositional models for the Goldwyer Formation. Cryptospores were identified in Unit 4 in the Theia-1 well and are most likely derived from bryophyte-like plants, making this is the oldest record of land plants in Australian Middle Ordovician strata. Biomarkers in several samples from Unit 4 that also support derivation from terrestrial organic matter include benzonaphthofurans and δ13C-depleted mid-chain n-alkanes. Typical Ordovician marine organisms including acritarchs, chitinozoans, conodonts and graptolites were present in the lower and upper Goldwyer Formation, whereas the enigmatic organism Gloeocapsomorpha prisca (G. prisca) was only detected in Unit 4. The correlation of a strong G. prisca biosignature with high 3-methylhopane indices and 13C depleted G. prisca-derived chemical fossils (biomarkers) is interpreted to suggest an ecological relationship between methanotrophs and G. prisca. This research contributes to a greater understanding of Ordovician marine environments from a molecular perspective since few biomarker studies have been undertaken on age-equivalent sections. Furthermore, the identification of the oldest cryptospores in Australia and their corresponding

  4. N III Bowen Lines and Fluorescence Mechanism in the Symbiotic Star AG Peg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Siek; Lee, Seong-Jae; Lee, Kang Hwan

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the intensities and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the high dispersion spectroscopic N III emission lines of AG Peg, observed with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph (HES) in three different epochs at Mt. Hamilton's Lick Observatory. The earlier theoretical Bowen line study assumed the continuum fluorescence effect, presenting a large discrepancy with the present data. Hence, we analyzed the observed N III lines assuming line fluorescence as the only suitable source: (1) The O III and N III resonance line profiles near λ 374 were decomposed, using the Gaussian function, and the contributions from various O III line components were determined. (2) Based on the theoretical resonant N III intensities, the expected N III Bowen intensities were obtained to fit the observed values. Our study shows that the incoming line photon number ratio must be considered to balance at each N III Bowen line level in the ultraviolet radiation according to the observed lines in the optical zone. We also found that the average FWHM of the N III Bowen lines was about 5 km·s-1 greater than that of the O III Bowen lines, perhaps due to the inherently different kinematic characteristics of their emission zones.

  5. 81Br, 37Cl, and 87Sr studies to assess groundwater flow and solute sources in the southwestern Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwynne, Rhys; Frape, Shaun; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Love, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is a water source for more than 200,000 residents in central Australia. This study investigates the relationship of bromine and chlorine stable isotopes to groundwater chemistry in a confined aquifer in the southwestern GAB to better understand its flow regime and solute sources. δ 81 Br values range from +0.660/00 near the recharge area to +1.04 0/00, 150 km down gradient, while δ 37 Cl ranges from 00/00 to -2.50/00. While δ 37 Cl decreases with distance from the recharge area, δ 81 Br increases slightly. Bromide in the recharge area is possibly enriched from selective atmospheric processes causing fractionation in marine aerosols during transport. When confined and isolated from the atmosphere, increases in bromide and to a lesser extent strontium concentrations may contribute through water-rock interaction to changes in isotopic signatures along the flow system. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values range from ∼0.717 near the recharge zone to a depleted 0.708 160 km down gradient. (authors)

  6. {sup 81}Br, {sup 37}Cl, and {sup 87}Sr studies to assess groundwater flow and solute sources in the southwestern Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynne, Rhys; Frape, Shaun; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo N2L 3G1 (Canada); Love, Andy [Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park 5042 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is a water source for more than 200,000 residents in central Australia. This study investigates the relationship of bromine and chlorine stable isotopes to groundwater chemistry in a confined aquifer in the southwestern GAB to better understand its flow regime and solute sources. δ{sup 81}Br values range from +0.660/00 near the recharge area to +1.04 0/00, 150 km down gradient, while δ{sup 37}Cl ranges from 00/00 to -2.50/00. While δ{sup 37}Cl decreases with distance from the recharge area, δ{sup 81}Br increases slightly. Bromide in the recharge area is possibly enriched from selective atmospheric processes causing fractionation in marine aerosols during transport. When confined and isolated from the atmosphere, increases in bromide and to a lesser extent strontium concentrations may contribute through water-rock interaction to changes in isotopic signatures along the flow system. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values range from ∼0.717 near the recharge zone to a depleted 0.708 160 km down gradient. (authors)

  7. A case of Bowen's disease on chronic radiodermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmori, Masaki; Suenaga, Yoshinori (University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)); Fuchi, Kougi

    1992-04-01

    A 62-year-old female radiologist with chronic radiodermatitis on the dorsal side of her left fingers is reported. She had an occupational history of practicing fluoroscopy for about thirty years. Histopathologically Bowen's disease on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers and squamous cell carcinoma on the 5th finger were found in the radiodermatitis lesion. All the lesions were surgically removed and repaired with a full thickness skin graft. The literature on Bowen's disease caused by radiotherapy and occupational irradiation was also reviewed. (author).

  8. Socio-hydrologic Modeling to Understand and Mediate the Competition for Water between Humans and Ecosystems: Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in coming decades in all parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. Interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability within the prevailing socio-economic environment have contributed to the emergence of new whole system dynamics over the last 100 years. In particular, data analysis reveals a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages of water resource development and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. A quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that explicitly includes the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment, is able to mimic broad features of this pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear differential equations that include four state variables describing the co-evolution of storage capacity, irrigated area, human population, and ecosystem health. The model is used to generate insights into the dominant controls of the trajectory of co-evolution of the coupled human-water system, to serve as the theoretical framework for more detailed analysis of

  9. Adaptive Management of Environmental Flows: Using Irrigation Infrastructure to Deliver Environmental Benefits During a Large Hypoxic Blackwater Event in the Southern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Robyn J.; Kopf, R. Keller; McCasker, Nicole; Howitt, Julia A.; Conallin, John; Wooden, Ian; Baumgartner, Lee

    2018-03-01

    Widespread flooding in south-eastern Australia in 2010 resulted in a hypoxic (low dissolved oxygen, DO) blackwater (high dissolved carbon) event affecting 1800 kilometres of the Murray-Darling Basin. There was concern that prolonged low DO would result in death of aquatic biota. Australian federal and state governments and local stakeholders collaborated to create refuge areas by releasing water with higher DO from irrigation canals via regulating structures (known as `irrigation canal escapes') into rivers in the Edward-Wakool system. To determine if these environmental flows resulted in good environmental outcomes in rivers affected by hypoxic blackwater, we evaluated (1) water chemistry data collected before, during and after the intervention, from river reaches upstream and downstream of the three irrigation canal escapes used to deliver the environmental flows, (2) fish assemblage surveys undertaken before and after the blackwater event, and (3) reports of fish kills from fisheries officers and local citizens. The environmental flows had positive outcomes; mean DO increased by 1-2 mg L-1 for at least 40 km downstream of two escapes, and there were fewer days when DO was below the sub-lethal threshold of 4 mg L-1 and the lethal threshold of 2 mg L-1 at which fish are known to become stressed or die, respectively. There were no fish deaths in reaches receiving environmental flows, whereas fish deaths were reported elsewhere throughout the system. This study demonstrates that adaptive management of environmental flows can occur through collaboration and the timely provision of monitoring results and local knowledge.

  10. Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Implications for the management of environmental flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

  11. Bowen's disease: report of a case in a Nigerian man | Yahya | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bowen's disease (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ), like other cancers of the skin, is rare in black people – to our knowledge, only about 43 cases have been published in the medical literature. We report a 59-year old Nigerian man who presented with a five-year history of a mildly pruritic, slowly enlarging ...

  12. The quantitative analysis of Bowen's kale by PIXE using the internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, V.R.; Izawa, G.; Shiokawa, T.; Kamiya, M.; Morita, S.

    1978-01-01

    The internal standard method was used for non-destructive quantitative determination of trace elements by PIXE. The uniform distribution of the internal standard element in the Bowen's kale powder sample was obtained by using homogenization technique. Eleven elements are determined quantitatively for the sample prepared into self-supporting targets having lower relative standard deviations than non-self-supporting targets. (author)

  13. Technical note: using Distributed Temperature Sensing for Bowen ratio evaporation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilperoort, B.; Coenders, Miriam; Luxemburg, W.M.J.; Jimenez Rodriguez, C.D.; Cisneros Vaca2, C.; Savenije, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Rapid improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology now allows its use in hydrological and atmospheric sciences. Introduced by Euser [Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2021–2032 (2014)] is the use of DTS for measuring the Bowen ratio (BR-DTS),

  14. A case of Bowen’s disease responding well to radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur Kalkan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bowen’s disease is a form of intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma which is known as carsinoma in situ. The head, neck, and extremities are the most commonly affected anatomic locations. Treatment options for Bowen’s disease include observation, surgery, cryotherapy, electrodesiccation and curettage, topical application of 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod, Moh’s micrographic surgery, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy. Radiation therapy is advantageous in patients who refuse surgery, for large or multiple lesions, for lesions in cosmetically sensitive areas, and in patients who are predisposed to formation of keloids, with a high cure rate cited in the literature. Here we report a 70-year-old man who was diagnosed as Bowen’s disease and completely healed with the treatment of radiotherapy. By means of this case report, we will review the current literature and empasize that radiotherapy is an effective treatment alternative for Bowen's disease in the suitable lesions. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 813-817

  15. Interannual variation of the Bowen ratio in a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeast China, 2003-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakun Tang

    Full Text Available The interannual variation of the Bowen ratio, through its effect on the warming extent of available energy to the ecosystem land surface air, heavily influences the ecosystem microclimate and affects the hydrological cycle at both regional and global scales. Although the precipitation amount in southeast China is not expected to change greatly as a result of climate change, the precipitation frequency may be altered in the future. We explored the interannual variation of the Bowen ratio and its affecting mechanisms based on eddy covariance measurements in a subtropical plantation in southeast China during 2003-2012. The results indicated that the annual mean Bowen ratio was 0.35 ± 0.06, with a range of 0.29-0.45. The Bowen ratio during the dry season (July-October positively correlated with the annual Bowen ratio (R(2 = 0.85, p<0.001. The effective precipitation frequency during the dry season, through its positive effect on shallow soil water content, indirectly and negatively affected the annual Bowen ratio. Between 2003 and 2012, the annual Bowen ratio exhibited a marginally significant decreasing trend (p = 0.061, meanwhile the effective precipitation frequency and shallow soil water content during the dry season increased significantly (p<0.001. The annual Bowen ratio may decrease further if the effective precipitation frequency and shallow soil water content during the dry season follow similar trends in the future. The warming effect of available energy to the surface air of our studied plantation may decline with the decreasing annual Bowen ratio.

  16. On the possibility of multiple utilization of Bowen's Kale for neutron activation analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, V.M.; Lazarova, M.S.; Mihajlov, M.I.; Apostolov, D.

    1977-01-01

    The results of investigations related to the multiple utilization of Bowen's Kale in developing neutron-activation methods for determining microelements in biological materials carried out in recent years are presented. Bowen's Kale might be used as: (1) experimental material in the development of a method and its verification, i.e. as a test for biological materials; (2) a material where experimental conditions might be optimized; (3) a material for investigating the accuracy, reproducibility and the limit of proof at experimental conditions already defined; (4) a monitor; (5) a multielement volume reference standard for a number of microelements during their simultaneous determination and (6) a standard for verifying the authenticity of the results obtained. In this manner, a reliable criterion for comparison of the potentialities, the accuracy, reproducibility, the limits of proof and the authenticity of the neutron-activation methods of determining microelements in biological materials is introduced. (author)

  17. Observation of Bowen fluorescence and other phenomena in five symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallerstein, G.; Garnavich, P.M.; Schachter, J.; Oke, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Wavelength measurements and line identifications in the 3200-3600 A regions are presented for the symbiotic stars AG Dra, HM Sge, V1016 Cyg, V1329 Cyg, Z And, and R Aqr. The O III lines excited via Bowen's mechanism are analyzed in detail, and a shell model yielding reasonable shell thicknesses and electron densities is described. The Ne/Fe ratio is derived for five of the systems, and spectra in the blue region are briefly described. 42 refs

  18. Genital Bowenʼs Disease in a Bulgarian Patient: Complete Remission after Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male patient presented with complaints of persistent red to a brown-colored plaque on his scrotum, with duration of approximately three years. The patient had been treated with oral and topical antifungals for inguinal tinea for several months and after that with topical corticosteroids for eczema for several more months. None of the regimens achieved any therapeutic effect. The histopathological evaluation revealed the presence of atypical keratinocytes in all layers of the epidermis with the altered epidermal pattern, spread parabasal mitotic activity, without secondary satellites, multiple dyskeratotic cells and multinucleated cells. The diagnosis of an intraepithelial non-invasive squamous cell carcinoma, associated with koilocytic dysplasia and hyperplasia was made, meeting the criteria for Bowen disease. An elliptic surgical excision of the lesion was made, while the defect was closed with single stitches, with excellent therapeutic and aesthetic result. First described by John T. Bowen in 1912, Bowen disease (BD represents a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in situ with the potential for significant lateral spread. Treatment options include the application of topical 5-flurorouracil cream – useful in non-hairy areas, imiquimod cream or destructive methods such as radiation, curettage, cryotherapy, laser ablation and photodynamic therapy, especially useful in nail bed involvement. Despite the early lesions, surgical excision is the preferred treatment option, regarding the potential malignant transformation risk.

  19. Uranium exploration in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Hawkins, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of exploration which recommenced in 1966 Australia's uranium reserves increased from 6,200 tonnes in 1967 to 227,000 tonnes uranium by June 1976. Most discoveries in the early 1950's were made by prospectors. The increase in reserves during the past decade is the result of exploration by companies utilising improved technology in areas selected as geologically favourable. These reserves were established at relatively low cost. In the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province the ''vein'' type deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek contain 17% of the world's reserves. Most of these discoveries resulted from the investigation of airborne radiometric anomalies but cover over the prospective host rocks will necessitate the future use of costlier and more indirect exploration techniques. There was exploration for sandstone type uranium deposits in most of Australia's sedimentary basins. The greatest success was achieved in the Lake Frome Basin in South Australia. Other deposits were found in the Ngalia and Amadeus Basins in Central Australia and in the Westmoreland area, N.W. Queensland. A major uranium deposit was found in an unusual environment at Yeelirrie, Western Australia where carnotite occurs in a caliche and clay host which fills a shallow, ancient drainage channel. Although caliche occurrences are relatively widespread on the Precambrian shield no other economic deposit has been found. Recent discoveries in the Georgetown area of Queensland indicate the presence of another uranium province but it is too early to assess its potential. The ore occurs in clastic sediments at the base of a volcanic sequence overlying a Precambrian basement. Several companies which have established large uranium reserves have a number of additional attractive prospects. Exploration activity in Australia in 1975 was at a lower level than in previous years, but the potential for discovering further deposits is considered to be high

  20. Permian U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages from Australia and China: Constraining the time scale of environmental and biotic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denyszyn, S. W.; Mundil, R.; Metcalfe, I.; He, B.

    2010-12-01

    In eastern Australia, the interconnected Bowen and Sydney Basins are filled with terrestrial sediments of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. These sedimentary units record significant evolutionary events of eastern Gondwana during the time interval between two major mass extinctions (end Middle Permian and Permian-Triassic), and also provide lithological evidence for the Carboniferous-Permian Late Paleozoic Ice Age of southern Pangea, considered to be divisible into up to seven discrete glaciation events in Australia [e.g., 1]. These glaciations are currently assigned ages that indicate that the last of the glaciations predate the end Middle Permian mass extinction at ca. 260 Ma. However, the estimates for the time and durations are largely based on biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy that, in the absence of robust and precise radioisotopic ages, are unacceptably fragile for providing an accurate high-resolution framework. Interbedded with the sediments are numerous tuff layers that contain zircon, many of which are associated with extensive coal measures in the Sydney and Bowen Basins. Published SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages [2, 3] have been shown to be less precise and inaccurate when compared to ages applying the CA-TIMS method to the same horizons. Also within the late Middle Permian, the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts in SW China has been proposed to have caused the end Middle Permian mass extinction [e.g., 4], though a causal link between these events demands a rigorous test that can only be provided by high-resolution geochronology. We present new U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages on tuff layers from the Sydney and Bowen Basins, with the purpose of generating a timescale for the Upper Permian of Australia to allow correlation with different parts of the world. Initial results, with permil precision, date a tuff layer within the uppermost Bandanna Fm. to ca. 252 Ma, a tuff within the Moranbah Coal Measures to ca. 256 Ma, and a tuff within the Ingelara Fm. to

  1. A case of squamous cell carchinoma, basal cell epithelioma and Bowen's disease arising from chronic radiodermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Hironori; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Shinkai, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of multiple cancers developing in chronic radiodermatitis. A 43-year-old Japanese male presented with chronic radiodermatitis on both dorsal surfaces of his fingers, following a long-term irradiation by Grenz rays for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. At the same site, he developed squamous cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease 7 years after the last irradiation. Three years later, he noticed a black papule on the dorsal surface of his right middle finger. After a histological examination, this papule diagnosed to be basal cell epithelioma. (author)

  2. A Bowen Family Systems Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Romantic Relationship Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Jacob B

    2015-07-01

    Many individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) do not respond well to currently available treatments. Moreover, treatments are less effective when GAD is accompanied by romantic relationship distress. In order to develop effective treatments for GAD and relationship distress, it is necessary to conduct theory-based research to identify links common to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, the roles of family abuse/violence and differentiation in GAD and romantic relationship distress were examined using existing data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 2,312; 2005). As predicted, family abuse/violence was directly linked to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Differentiation mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and GAD, and partially mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and romantic relationship distress. Findings suggest that current and past relationship processes may help maintain chronic anxiety and that Bowen's theory may be a useful framework for developing couple therapy treatment of GAD and romantic relationship distress. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  3. In vivo microvascular imaging of cutaneous actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma using dynamic optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, L; Pellacani, G; Welzel, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A clear distinction between actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cannot reliably be made by clinical and dermoscopic evaluation alone. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is a novel angiographic variant of OCT that allows for non...

  4. SCC, Bowen's disease and BCC arising on chronic radiation dermatitis due to radiation therapy for tinea pedis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Eri; Aoki, Mikako; Ikemura, Akiko; Igarashi, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Kayano; Kawana, Seiji

    2000-01-01

    We reported a case who developed three different types of skin cancers: SCC, BCC, and Bowen's disease, on the chronic radiation dermatitis. He had been treated for his tinea pedis et palmaris with radiotherapy in 1940's. It is very ratre that three different types of skin cancers arise in the same patient. This is a second case reported in Japan. (author)

  5. Technical note: Using distributed temperature sensing for Bowen ratio evaporation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilperoort, Bart; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Luxemburg, Willem; Jiménez Rodríguez, César; Cisneros Vaca, César; Savenije, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    Rapid improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology now allow its use in hydrological and atmospheric sciences. Introduced by ) is the use of DTS for measuring the Bowen ratio (BR-DTS), to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Bowen ratio is derived from DTS-measured vertical profiles of the air temperature and wet-bulb temperature. However, in previous research the measured temperatures were not validated, and the cables were not shielded from solar radiation. Additionally, the BR-DTS method has not been tested above a forest before, where temperature gradients are small and energy storage in the air column becomes important. In this paper the accuracy of the wet-bulb and air temperature measurements of the DTS are verified, and the resulting Bowen ratio and heat fluxes are compared to eddy covariance data. The performance of BR-DTS was tested on a 46 m high tower in a mixed forest in the centre of the Netherlands in August 2016. The average tree height is 26 to 30 m, and the temperatures are measured below, in, and above the canopy. Using the vertical temperature profiles the storage of latent and sensible heat in the air column was calculated. We found a significant effect of solar radiation on the temperature measurements, leading to a deviation of up to 3 K. By installing screens, the error caused by sunlight is reduced to under 1 K. Wind speed seems to have a minimal effect on the measured wet-bulb temperature, both below and above the canopy. After a simple quality control, the Bowen ratio measured by DTS correlates well with eddy covariance (EC) estimates (r2 = 0.59). The average energy balance closure between BR-DTS and EC is good, with a mean underestimation of 3.4 W m-2 by the BR-DTS method. However, during daytime the BR-DTS method overestimates the available energy, and during night-time the BR-DTS method estimates the available energy to be more negative. This difference could be

  6. Testing a model of codependency for college students in Taiwan based on Bowen's concept of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Hua

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of codependency based on Bowen's concept of differentiation for college students in Taiwan. The relations between family-of-origin dysfunction, differentiation of self, codependency traits and related symptoms including low self-esteem, relationship distress and psychological adjustment problems were examined. Data were collected from 567 college students from 2 large, urban universities in northern Taiwan. Results indicated a significantly negative relationship between levels of codependency and self-differentiation and that self-differentiation partially mediated the relationship between family-of-origin dysfunction and codependency. The implications of these findings for counselling Taiwanese college students who experience codependency traits and related symptoms as well as suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Divided Spirits. Tequila, Mezcal, and The Politics of Production, de Sarah Bowen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Mancha Caceres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Bowen, profesora asociada del Departamento de Sociologia y Antropologia de la Universidad Estatal de Carolina del Norte, presenta en Divided Spirits. Tequila, Mezcal, and The Politics of Production, el resultado de algo mas de una década de trabajo sobre las denominaciones de origen (DO en México, Francia y Estados Unidos, en el que nos presenta un profundo analisis del complejo mundo de la producción y comercialización del tequila y el mezcal ¿dos productos identitarios de México?, las dinamicas sociales, económicas y politicas que promueven y el papel de sus multiples y desiguales actores involucrados.

  8. Anomalously high intercombination line ratios in symbiotic stars; extreme Bowen pumping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, S.O.; Bhatia, A.K.; Feibelman, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    We assemble International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of the ratio of the O III intercombination lines near 1660 A, showing that the observed ratios in symbiotic stars are significantly higher than the theoretically predicted optically thin limit of 2.5. The presence of an enhancing physical process is thereby indicated. It is suggested that Bowen pumping of the lower level of the 1666.2 A line in an 'external saturation' limit, coupled with appreciable optical depth, could logically explain the high ratios. Some tentative evidence for this is presented and the relevance of far-infrared observations of the O III 51.8 and 88.3 μm lines in symbiotic sources is emphasized. (author)

  9. An Integrated Rock Typing Approach for Unraveling the Reservoir Heterogeneity of Tight Sands in the Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkhchi, Rahim Kadkhodaie; Rezaee, Reza; Harami, Reza Moussavi

    2014-01-01

    Tight gas sands in Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin show large heterogeneity in reservoir characteristics and production behavior related to depositional and diagenetic features. Diagenetic events (compaction and cementation) have severely affected the pore system. In order to investigate...... the petrophysical characteristics, reservoir sandstone facies were correlated with core porosity and permeability and their equivalent well log responses to describe hydraulic flow units and electrofacies, respectively. Thus, very tight, tight, and sub-tight sands were differentiated. To reveal the relationship...... between pore system properties and depositional and diagenetic characteristics in each sand type, reservoir rock types were extracted. The identified reservoir rock types are in fact a reflection of internal reservoir heterogeneity related to pore system properties. All reservoir rock types...

  10. Besshi-type mineral systems in the Palaeoproterozoic Bryah Rift-Basin, Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia: Implications for tectonic setting and geodynamic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirajno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we use VMS mineral systems in the Bryah rift-basin to constrain the tectonic setting of the widespread mafic and ultramafic magmatism that characterises the rift-basin in question. Two distinct, but temporally closely associated, lithostratigraphic sequences, Narracoota and Karalundi Formations, are discussed. The Karalundi Formation is the main host of VMS mineral systems in the region. The Karalundi Formation consists of turbiditic and immature clastic sediments, which are locally intercalated with basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and banded jaspilites. We propose that the basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and clastics and jaspilites rocks, form a distinct unit of the Karalundi Formation, named Noonyereena Member. The VMS mineral systems occur near the north-east trending Jenkin Fault and comprise the giant and world-class DeGrussa and the Red Bore deposits. The nature of these deposits and their intimate association with terrigenous clastic rocks and dominantly marine mafic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, as well as the common development of peperitic margins, are considered indicative of a Besshi-type environment, similar to that of present-day Gulf of California. Our Re-Os age data from a primary pyrite yielded a mean model age of 2012 ± 48 Ma, which coincides (within error with recent published Re-Os data (Hawke et al., 2015 and confirms the timing of the proposed geodynamic evolution. We propose a geodynamic model that attempts to explain the presence of the Narracoota and Karalundi Formations as the result of mantle plume activity, which began with early uplift of continental crust with intraplate volcanism, followed by early stages of rifting with the deposition of the Karalundi Formation (and Noonyereena Member, which led to the formation of Besshi-type VMS deposits. With on-going mantle plume activity and early stages of continental separation, an oceanic plateau was formed and is now represented by mafic

  11. Socio-hydrologic modeling to understand and mediate the competition for water between agriculture development and environmental health: Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Li, Z.; Sivapalan, M.; Pande, S.; Kandasamy, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.

    2014-10-01

    Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in the coming decades in many parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling the development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a modeling study centered on the Murrumbidgee River basin (MRB). The MRB has witnessed a unique system dynamics over the last 100 years as a result of interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability. Data analysis has revealed a pendulum swing between agricultural development and restoration of environmental health and ecosystem services over different stages of basin-scale water resource development. A parsimonious, stylized, quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that simulates the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems of the MRB is used to mimic and explain dominant features of the pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the interaction between five state variables that govern the co-evolution: reservoir storage, irrigated area, human population, ecosystem health, and environmental awareness. The model simulations track the propagation of the external climatic and socio-economic drivers through this coupled, complex system to the emergence of the pendulum swing. The model results point to a competition between human "productive" and environmental "restorative" forces that underpin the pendulum swing. Both the forces are endogenous, i.e., generated by the system dynamics in response to external drivers and mediated by humans through technology change and environmental awareness, respectively. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model further reveals that socio-hydrologic modeling can be used as a tool to explain or gain insight into observed co-evolutionary dynamics of diverse

  12. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 3. Fern-like foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, W.B.K. [Noonee Nyrang, Wellington, NSW (Australia)

    2003-01-31

    Two quarries in the Basin Creek Formation of the Middle Triassic Nymboida Coal Measures have yielded numerous examples of fern-like foliage. No affiliated fertile material is available to place the fronds in a natural classification. Twenty three species in twelve genera are described as morpho-taxa in Order and Family Incertae Sedis. Plants described in this paper are: Cladophlebis conferta sp. nov., C octonerva sp. nov., C. paucinerva sp. nov., C. relallachfisp. nov., C. sinuala sp. nov., C. lenuoinnula sp. nov., Diconymba sparnosa gen. et sp. nov., Gouldianum alelhopleroides gen. et sp. nov., Leconama stachyophylla gen. et sp. nov., Micronymbopteris repens gen. et sp. nov., Nymbiella lacerata gen. et sp. nov., Nymboidiantum glossophyllum (Tenison-Woods) gen. et comb. nov., N. multilobatum gen. et sp. nov., N. elegans gen. et sp. nov., N. fractiflexum gen. et sp. nov., N. robustum gen. et sp. nov., Nymbophlebis polymorpha gen. et sp. nov., Nymbopteron dejerseyi (Retallack) gen. et comb. nov.,N. foleyi gen. et sp. nov., N. uncinatum gen. et sp. nov., Nymborhipteris radiata gen. et sp. nov., Ptilotonymba curvinervia gen. et sp. nov. and Sphenopteris speciosa sp. nov. The diversity of this new material demonstrates the remarkable recovery of Gondwana vegetation following the end-Permian extinction event.

  13. Crop water parameters of irrigated wine and table grapes to support water productivity analysis in the Sao Francisco river basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bassoi, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy and water balance parameters were measured in two commercial vineyards in the semiarid region of the São Francisco river basin, Brazil. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was acquired with the Bowen ratio surface energy balance method. The ratio of the latent heat flux to the available energy, or

  14. Physical hydrogeology and environmental isotopes to constrain the age, origins, and stability of a low-salinity groundwater lens formed by periodic river recharge: Murray Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Ian; Weaver, Tamie R.; Simmons, Craig T.; Fifield, L. Keith; Lawrence, Charles R.; Chisari, Robert; Varley, Simon

    2010-01-01

    SummaryA low-salinity (total dissolved solids, TDS, Australia. Hydraulic heads, surface water elevations, δ 18O values, major ion geochemistry, 14C activities, and 3H concentrations show that the lens is recharged from the Murray River largely through the riverbank with limited recharge through the floodplain. Recharge of the lens occurs mainly at high river levels and the low-salinity groundwater forms baseflow to some river reaches during times of low river levels. Within the lens, flow through the shallow Channel Sands and deeper Parilla Sands aquifers is sub-horizontal. While the Blanchetown Clay locally separates the Channel Sands and the Parilla Sands, the occurrence of recently recharged low-salinity groundwater below the Blanchetown Clay suggests that there is considerable leakage through this unit, implying that it is not an efficient aquitard. The lateral margin of the lens with the regional groundwater (TDS >25,000 mg/L) is marked by a hectometer to kilometer scale transition in TDS concentrations that is not stratigraphically controlled. Rather this boundary represents a mixing zone with the regional groundwater, the position of which is controlled by the rate of recharge from the river. The lens is part of an active and dynamic hydrogeological system that responds over years to decades to changes in river levels. The lens has shrunk during the drought of the late 1990s to the mid 2000s, and it will continue to shrink unless regular high flows in the Murray River are re-established. Over longer timescales, the rise of the regional water table due to land clearing will increase the hydraulic gradient between the regional groundwater and the groundwater in the lens, which will also cause it to degrade. Replacement of low-salinity groundwater in the lens with saline groundwater will ultimately increase the salinity of the Murray River reducing its utility for water supply and impacting riverine ecosystems.

  15. Wide-area estimates of evapotranspiration by red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and associated vegetation in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Doody, Tanya M.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jarchow, Christopher J.; Barreto-Munoz, Armando; Didan, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain red gum forests (Eucalyptus camaldulensis plus associated grasses, reeds and sedges) are sites of high biodiversity in otherwise arid regions of southeastern Australia. They depend on periodic floods from rivers, but dams and diversions have reduced flood frequencies and volumes, leading to deterioration of trees and associated biota. There is a need to determine their water requirements so environmental flows can be administered to maintain or restore the forests. Their water requirements include the frequency and extent of overbank flooding, which recharges the floodplain soils with water, as well as the actual amount of water consumed in evapotranspiration (ET). We estimated the flooding requirements and ET for a 38 134 ha area of red gum forest fed by the Murrumbidgee River in Yanga National Park, New South Wales. ET was estimated by three methods: sap flux sensors placed in individual trees; a remote sensing method based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS satellite imagery and a water balance method based on differences between river flows into and out of the forest. The methods gave comparable estimates yet covered different spatial and temporal scales. We estimated flood frequency and volume requirements by comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from Landsat images with flood history from 1995 to 2014, which included both wet periods and dry periods. ET during wet years is about 50% of potential ET but is much less in dry years because of the trees' ability to control stomatal conductance. Based on our analyses plus other studies, red gum trees at this location require environmental flows of 2000 GL yr−1 every other year, with peak flows of 20 000 ML d−1, to produce flooding sufficient to keep them in good condition. However, only about 120–200 GL yr−1 of river water is consumed in ET, with the remainder flowing out of the forest where it enters the Murray River system.

  16. Spectrophotometry near the atmospheric cutoff of the strongest Bowen resonance fluorescence lines of O III in two planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Opal, Chet B.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometric results are presented for the stronger, well-resolved Bowen O III resonance fluorescence emission lines in the planetary nebulae 7027 and NGC 7662 down to and including the intrinsically strong line at 3133 A. These data are combined with results from the IUE atlas of spectra and similar results for the longer wavelength lines by Likkel and Aller (1986) to give the first full coverage of the Bowen lines. Good agreement is found with fluorescence theory for the primary cascade lines, except for the Likkel and Aller results. The efficiency of conversion of the exciting He II Ly-alpha into O III lines is determined, and values comparable to other planetary nebulae are found.

  17. Bowen emission from Aquila X-1: evidence for multiple components and constraint on the accretion disc vertical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ibarra, F.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Wang, L.; Casares, J.; Mata Sánchez, D.; Steeghs, D.; Armas Padilla, M.; Charles, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed spectroscopic study of the optical counterpart of the neutron star X-ray transient Aquila X-1 during its 2011, 2013 and 2016 outbursts. We use 65 intermediate resolution GTC-10.4 m spectra with the aim of detecting irradiation-induced Bowen blend emission from the donor star. While Gaussian fitting does not yield conclusive results, our full phase coverage allows us to exploit Doppler mapping techniques to independently constrain the donor star radial velocity. By using the component N III 4640.64/4641.84 Å, we measure Kem = 102 ± 6 km s-1. This highly significant detection (≳13σ) is fully compatible with the true companion star radial velocity obtained from near-infrared spectroscopy during quiescence. Combining these two velocities we determine, for the first time, the accretion disc opening angle and its associated error from direct spectroscopic measurements and detailed modelling, obtaining α = 15.5 ^{+ 2.5}_{-5} deg. This value is consistent with theoretical work if significant X-ray irradiation is taken into account and is important in the light of recent observations of GX339-4, where discrepant results were obtained between the donor's intrinsic radial velocity and the Bowen-inferred value. We also discuss the limitations of the Bowen technique when complete phase coverage is not available.

  18. Health Information Management Leaders and the Practice of Leadership through the Lens of Bowen Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Patty Thierry; Watzlaf, Valerie; Fox, Leslie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Even though leadership is one of the most examined topics in the organizational literature, its application in the field of health information management (HIM) has not been studied extensively. This descriptive, mixed-methodology study examined HIM leadership through the lens of Bowen theory. The researchers conducted surveys of HIM directors and managers, administrators and colleagues of HIM leaders, and HIM staff using focus groups, observations of meetings, and face-to-face interviews. Results showed that HIM leaders are valued for HIM expertise in electronic health records, privacy, security, and coding; for being the center or heart of the organization; and for commonly valued leadership behaviors and skills including dependability, strategic planning, project management, listening ability, and fairness. Leadership was seen as a reciprocal process, and a team approach was preferred. Good communication, education, and training on HIM topics were also valued. However, HIM leaders believed that they spend more time on management activities than on leadership activities, although they would prefer the reverse. Future research is needed to examine how HIM leadership can be practiced more consistently in the workplace across different HIM functions. PMID:27134609

  19. Health Information Management Leaders and the Practice of Leadership through the Lens of Bowen Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Patty Thierry; Watzlaf, Valerie; Fox, Leslie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Even though leadership is one of the most examined topics in the organizational literature, its application in the field of health information management (HIM) has not been studied extensively. This descriptive, mixed-methodology study examined HIM leadership through the lens of Bowen theory. The researchers conducted surveys of HIM directors and managers, administrators and colleagues of HIM leaders, and HIM staff using focus groups, observations of meetings, and face-to-face interviews. Results showed that HIM leaders are valued for HIM expertise in electronic health records, privacy, security, and coding; for being the center or heart of the organization; and for commonly valued leadership behaviors and skills including dependability, strategic planning, project management, listening ability, and fairness. Leadership was seen as a reciprocal process, and a team approach was preferred. Good communication, education, and training on HIM topics were also valued. However, HIM leaders believed that they spend more time on management activities than on leadership activities, although they would prefer the reverse. Future research is needed to examine how HIM leadership can be practiced more consistently in the workplace across different HIM functions.

  20. The use of multi temporal LiDAR to assess basin-scale erosion and deposition following the catastrophic January 2011 Lockyer flood, SE Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Jacky; Todd, Peter; Thompson, Chris; Watson, Fiona; Denham, Robert; Khanal, Giri

    2013-02-01

    Advances in remote sensing and digital terrain processing now allow for a sophisticated analysis of spatial and temporal changes in erosion and deposition. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can now be constructed and differenced to produce DEMs of Difference (DoD), which are used to assess net landscape change for morphological budgeting. To date this has been most effectively achieved in gravel-bed rivers over relatively small spatial scales. If the full potential of the technology is to be realised, additional studies are required at larger scales and across a wider range of geomorphic features. This study presents an assessment of the basin-scale spatial patterns of erosion, deposition, and net morphological change that resulted from a catastrophic flood event in the Lockyer Creek catchment of SE Queensland (SEQ) in January 2011. Multitemporal Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) DEMs were used to construct a DoD that was then combined with a one-dimensional flow hydraulic model HEC-RAS to delineate five major geomorphic landforms, including inner-channel area, within-channel benches, macrochannel banks, and floodplain. The LiDAR uncertainties were quantified and applied together with a probabilistic representation of uncertainty thresholded at a conservative 95% confidence interval. The elevation change distribution (ECD) for the 100-km2 study area indicates a magnitude of elevation change spanning almost 10 m but the mean elevation change of 0.04 m confirms that a large part of the landscape was characterised by relatively low magnitude changes over a large spatial area. Mean elevation changes varied by geomorphic feature and only two, the within-channel benches and macrochannel banks, were net erosional with an estimated combined loss of 1,815,149 m3 of sediment. The floodplain was the zone of major net deposition but mean elevation changes approached the defined critical limit of uncertainty. Areal and volumetric ECDs for this extreme event provide a

  1. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  2. Low Rate of Detection of Mucosal High-Risk-Type Human Papillomavirus in Korean Patients with Extragenital Bowen's Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Especially in Digital Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rim Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (, squamous cell carcinoma (, bowenoid papulosis (, verrucous carcinoma (, actinic keratosis (, and basal cell carcinoma (. We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease ( nor those with squamous cell carcinoma ( showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6% of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (, while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7% of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers.

  3. Australia: Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian Bureau of Census and Statistics reported on 27 August 1979 that Australia's total population was 14,376,400 at the end of the first quarter of 1979. Net immigration gain during the same period was 12,700. Natural increase was 32,100--births were 57,100 and deaths were 25,000. In January 1979, Australia introduced a new immigration scheme to improve methods of selecting immigrants. Points are awarded on the basis of personal qualities and employability; an applicant must score 60 out of 100. This scheme supersedes the earlier system under which immigrants were selected on the family reunion criterion and employability. Migrants from Britain and Ireland made up the bulk of the new comers, but their proportion has dropped from 50% in the mid-1960s to 30% in early 1979. In contrast, Asian immigrants have risen from 2% to 22% over the same period. Asian immigration began in the mid-1960s with the relaxation of the "White Australia" policy which barred non-European migrants, and increased when the ban was abolished by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in 1973.

  4. Australia`s uranium opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, K.

    1996-12-31

    The book is a personal account by an insider who was deeply involved in the rise and fall of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC), and in particular in its efforts to bring Australia into the nuclear age. It reveals the thinking behind the Commission`s research programmes and major projects, such as the centrifuge enrichment program and Jervis Bay Nuclear Power project. It shows how politics, politicians and sensational journalism had disastrous effects on the AAEC, its programmes and aspirations. ills.

  5. Australia needs nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    A matter of increasing concern in Australian society is the absence of a Commonwealth Government policy on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The lack of University level teaching facilities in nuclear energy engineering is also perceived to be an issue of national importance which must be addressed. More and more Australians deeply regret the lack of informed realism and scientific integrity which goes into endless debates on the technical, environmental and societal aspects of nuclear energy. Within the Australian community such important issues as uranium mining in Kakadu National Park, research reactor operation at Lucas Heights, the establishment of an international nuclear waste repository in Western Australia or the domestic use of nuclear electricity generation to minimise Australia's greenhouse emissions are still being debated at the intellectual level of radio talkback programs. Decision making in such areas deserves the disciplines of appropriate tertiary education. The Australian community has a right to know the relative risks and the environmental impacts of various fuel cycles as well as the technical limitations, true costs and energy audits of the 'alternative' energy technologies. Presently the Commonwealth of Australia is without a single School of Nuclear Engineering operating at a University level. Such a situation is believed to be unprecedented amongst the developed countries of the world. It is viewed with a measure of incredulity by the academic, diplomatic and political communities of the 'developing' countries of East Asia and the Pacific Basin. Many of these have a massive investment in the growth of peaceful nuclear energy and nuclear science and technology within their borders. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Energy News

  6. Determination of chromium in Bowen's kale, NBS bovine liver, and brewers yeast, before and after dry ashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versieck, J.; Hoste, J.; De Rudder, J.; Barbier, F.; Vanballenberghe, L.

    1979-01-01

    In view of the persistent controversy about the volatility of chromium in biologic materials, the element was determined by neutron activation analysis in three reference materials before and after dry ashing up to 450 0 C. The following mean values were obtained: 0.364 μg/g and 0.362 μg/g (Bowen's kale), 0.0806 μg/g and 0.0789 μg/g (NBS bovine liver), 2.043 μg/g and 2.094 μg/g (NBS brewers yeast). It was concluded that chromium does not volatilize significantly in experimental conditions of drying and ashing

  7. A 30 m Resolution Surface Water Mask Including Estimation of Positional and Thematic Differences Using Landsat 8, SRTM and OpenStreetMap: A Case Study in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Donchyts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate maps of surface water are essential for many environmental applications. Surface water maps can be generated by combining measurements from multiple sources. Precise estimation of surface water using satellite imagery remains a challenging task due to the sensor limitations, complex land cover, topography, and atmospheric conditions. As a complementary dataset, in the case of hilly landscapes, a drainage network can be extracted from high-resolution digital elevation models. Additionally, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI initiatives, such as OpenStreetMap, can also be used to produce high-resolution surface water masks. In this study, we derive a high-resolution water mask using Landsat 8 imagery and OpenStreetMap as well as (potential a drainage network using 30 m SRTM. Our approach to derive a surface water mask from Landsat 8 imagery comprises the use of a lower 15% percentile of Landsat 8 Top of Atmosphere (TOA reflectance from 2013 to 2015. We introduce a new non-parametric unsupervised method based on the Canny edge filter and Otsu thresholding to detect water in flat areas. For hilly areas, the method is extended with an additional supervised classification step used to refine the water mask. We applied the method across the Murray-Darling basin, Australia. Differences between our new Landsat-based water mask and the OpenStreetMap water mask regarding positional differences along the rivers and overall coverage were analyzed. Our results show that about 50% of the OpenStreetMap linear water features can be confirmed using the water mask extracted from Landsat 8 imagery and the drainage network derived from SRTM. We also show that the observed distances between river features derived from OpenStreetMap and Landsat 8 are mostly smaller than 60 m. The differences between the new water mask and SRTM-based linear features and hilly areas are slightly larger (110 m. The overall agreement between OpenStreetMap and Landsat 8 water

  8. Harvesting Australia's mineral wealth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Anderson Strathclyde plc is becoming increasingly involved in supplying equipment for the coal industry in Australia. It now has 2 subsidiary companies based in Australia: Anderson Strathclyde Australia and A B Rea.

  9. Reconstruction of sustainable ecosystems on mined lands in the subtropics and tropics of Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, D.; Grigg, A.; Harwood, M. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1999-07-01

    An overview is presented of results from trial sites of ecosystems that have been established across a range of climatic regimes and a wide variety of soils, tailings, and waste rock materials. The project sites described are four types of open-cut mining operations: the Kidson gold mine, bauxite mines at Weipa, coal mines in the Bowen Basin, and heavy mineral sand mining at North Stradbroke Island. Case studies are presented covering several biological processes, including nutrient cycling, vegetation succession, and seedling recruitment. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Multiple Bowen's Disease in a Patient with a History of Consumption of Traditional Chinese Herbal Balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Seok

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been classified as a class I human carcinogen, meaning that there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity to humans. Arsenic, however, remains a common contaminant in a number of traditional Chinese herbal balls. A 64-year-old man presented with an erythematous erosive patch on the left palm, multiple yellowish scaly patches on the right palm and an erythematous hyperkeratotic patch with bleeding on the left foot dorsum. He also had similar skin lesions on the back and buttock. He had a past medical history of chronic exposure to arsenic through consumption of traditional Chinese herbal balls. Skin biopsy revealed Bowen's disease on the left palm and squamous cell carcinoma on left foot dorsum. We report this case to emphasize that we should investigate patient's history thoroughly, including the use of Chinese herbal balls to find out arsenicism.

  11. Site-specific climate analysis elucidates revegetation challenges for post-mining landscapes in eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Audet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In eastern Australia, the availability of water is critical for the successful rehabilitation of post-mining landscapes and climatic characteristics of this diverse geographical region are closely defined by factors such as erratic rainfall and periods of drought and flooding. Despite this, specific metrics of climate patterning are seldom incorporated into the initial design of current post-mining land rehabilitation strategies. Our study proposes that a few common rainfall parameters can be combined and rated using arbitrary rainfall thresholds to characterise bioregional climate sensitivity relevant to the rehabilitation these landscapes. This approach included assessments of annual rainfall depth, average recurrence interval of prolonged low intensity rainfall, average recurrence intervals of short or prolonged high intensity events, median period without rain (or water-deficit and standard deviation for this period in order to address climatic factors such as total water availability, seasonality and intensity – which were selected as potential proxies of both short- and long-term biological sensitivity to climate within the context of post-disturbance ecological development and recovery. Following our survey of available climate data, we derived site "climate sensitivity" indexes and compared the performance of 9 ongoing mine sites: Weipa, Mt. Isa and Cloncurry, Eromanga, Kidston, the Bowen Basin (Curragh, Tarong, North Stradbroke Island, and the Newnes Plateau. The sites were then ranked from most-to-least sensitive and compared with natural bioregional patterns of vegetation density using mean NDVI. It was determined that regular rainfall and relatively short periods of water-deficit were key characteristics of sites having less sensitivity to climate – as found among the relatively more temperate inland mining locations. Whereas, high rainfall variability, frequently occurring high intensity events, and (or prolonged seasonal

  12. Site-specific climate analysis elucidates revegetation challenges for post-mining landscapes in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, P.; Arnold, S.; Lechner, A. M.; Baumgartl, T.

    2013-10-01

    In eastern Australia, the availability of water is critical for the successful rehabilitation of post-mining landscapes and climatic characteristics of this diverse geographical region are closely defined by factors such as erratic rainfall and periods of drought and flooding. Despite this, specific metrics of climate patterning are seldom incorporated into the initial design of current post-mining land rehabilitation strategies. Our study proposes that a few common rainfall parameters can be combined and rated using arbitrary rainfall thresholds to characterise bioregional climate sensitivity relevant to the rehabilitation these landscapes. This approach included assessments of annual rainfall depth, average recurrence interval of prolonged low intensity rainfall, average recurrence intervals of short or prolonged high intensity events, median period without rain (or water-deficit) and standard deviation for this period in order to address climatic factors such as total water availability, seasonality and intensity - which were selected as potential proxies of both short- and long-term biological sensitivity to climate within the context of post-disturbance ecological development and recovery. Following our survey of available climate data, we derived site "climate sensitivity" indexes and compared the performance of 9 ongoing mine sites: Weipa, Mt. Isa and Cloncurry, Eromanga, Kidston, the Bowen Basin (Curragh), Tarong, North Stradbroke Island, and the Newnes Plateau. The sites were then ranked from most-to-least sensitive and compared with natural bioregional patterns of vegetation density using mean NDVI. It was determined that regular rainfall and relatively short periods of water-deficit were key characteristics of sites having less sensitivity to climate - as found among the relatively more temperate inland mining locations. Whereas, high rainfall variability, frequently occurring high intensity events, and (or) prolonged seasonal drought were primary

  13. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  14. Multiple Bowen's disease and epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a patient who experienced chronic arsenic poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-En Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southwest coastal plain of Taiwan is an endemic area of arsenic contamination. Residents who lived there before the 1970s and who used raw groundwater for drinking have a higher risk of arsenic poisoning. In 1968, Tseng et al. described Blackfoot disease as a peripheral vascular disease caused by chronic exposure to arsenic, thereby introducing the concept of arsenic-induced systemic illness in Taiwan. Multiple Bowen's disease (BD is one of the characteristic consequences of chronic arsenic poisoning and it usually presents as cutaneous carcinoma in situ. Multiple BD can also be associated with squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin, as well as lung, liver, gastrointestinal, and bladder cancers. We encountered a 79-year-old male from Yun-Lin, a county in Southwest Taiwan, who presented with a progressing tumor in his right anterior chest wall. In addition, numerous keratoses and scaly skin lesions were noted on his trunk and extremities, some of which were combined with erosions. The patient was diagnosed with chronic arsenic poisoning with multiple BD and the huge tumor was confirmed as an epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

  15. Energy in Australia 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas-Cubria, C.; Schultz, A.; Petchey, R.; Beaini, F.; New, R.

    2011-04-01

    Securing access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is one of the great challenges facing governments around the world. The Australian Government is committed to ensuring the security of Australia's domestic energy systems as a fundamental part of Australia's social and economic prosperity. Energy in Australia 2011 is a key reference for anyone with an interest in Australian energy issues. It provides a detailed overview of energy in Australia from production to consumption, and serves as a useful resource to inform industry, government and the community.

  16. Intra-seasonal and Inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio over rain-shadow region of North peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2017-05-01

    Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio (BR) have been studied over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during summer monsoon season. Daily grid point data of latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the period 1970-2014 have been used to compute daily area-mean BR. Daily grid point rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° from APHRODITE's Water Resources for the available period 1970-2007 have been used to study the association between rainfall and BR. The study revealed that BR rapidly decreases from 4.1 to 0.29 in the month of June and then remains nearly constant at the same value (≤0.1) in the rest of the season. High values of BR in the first half of June are indicative of intense thermals and convective clouds with higher bases. Low values of BR from July to September period are indicative of weak thermals and convective clouds with lower bases. Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of BR is found to be inversely related to precipitation over the region. BR analysis indicates that the land surface characteristics of the study region during July-September are similar to that over oceanic regions as far as intensity of thermals and associated cloud microphysical properties are concerned. Similar variation of BR is found in El Nino and La Nina years. During June, an increasing trend is observed in SHF and BR and decreasing trend in LHF from 1976 to 2014. Increasing trend in the SHF is statistically significant.

  17. Community Music in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  18. Família e o processo de diferenciação na perspectiva de Murray Bowen: um estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Medeiros de Almeida Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a aplicabilidade do conceito de diferenciação do self elaborado por Murray Bowen na terapia da família. Focalizou a história de uma família mostrando como as histórias de vida do casal, a partir das primeiras triangulações, tanto na família nuclear quanto na extensa, foram transmitidas entre gerações até gerar uma história renovada do casal e de sua própria família.

  19. Application of the 210Pb-dating technique to establish a chronological framework of trace element and heavy metal contamination resulting from the impact of European settlement in estuarine systems of the Sydney Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, A.V.; Chisari, R.; Farrar, Y.J.; Heijnis, H.; McOrist, G.D.; Tinker, R.A.; Smith, J.D.; Napoli, M.; Hughes, M.; James, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The estuaries of Georges River and Hacking River, partly located in suburban Sydney, are at significant risk of contamination by heavy metal and trace element pollutants associated with urban/industrial development. The object of the current work is to correlate changes in land use resulting from European settlement with chemical changes observed in soil sediments. At each location core samples were taken and selected slices analysed for 226 Ra and 210 Po using alpha spectrometry. The 226 Ra activity equates to the supported 210 Pb activity and the 210 Po activity equates to the total 210 Pb activity. The difference between the total and the supported 210 Pb is the excess 210 Pb activity. Once the excess 210 Pb has been layed down in the sediment its activity at depth (assuming the core to be undisturbed) is solely a function of its half-life and the initial amount present; a circumstance which readily affords the calculation of a sedimentation rate. Owing to its relatively short half-life (22.26 year) the 20P b dating technique can be used to date sediments as far back as about 120 years. In Australia this time frame would cover most of the period of European settlement

  20. Application of the {sup 210}Pb-dating technique to establish a chronological framework of trace element and heavy metal contamination resulting from the impact of European settlement in estuarine systems of the Sydney Basin, Australia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkinson, A.V.; Chisari, R.; Farrar, Y.J.; Heijnis, H.; McOrist, G.D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Tinker, R.A.; Smith, J.D. [Melbourne University Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Chemistry; Napoli, M.; Hughes, M. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; James, J.M. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The estuaries of Georges River and Hacking River, partly located in suburban Sydney, are at significant risk of contamination by heavy metal and trace element pollutants associated with urban/industrial development. The object of the current work is to correlate changes in land use resulting from European settlement with chemical changes observed in soil sediments. At each location core samples were taken and selected slices analysed for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Po using alpha spectrometry. The {sup 226}Ra activity equates to the supported {sup 210}Pb activity and the {sup 210}Po activity equates to the total {sup 210}Pb activity. The difference between the total and the supported {sup 210}Pb is the excess {sup 210}Pb activity. Once the excess {sup 210}Pb has been layed down in the sediment its activity at depth (assuming the core to be undisturbed) is solely a function of its half-life and the initial amount present; a circumstance which readily affords the calculation of a sedimentation rate. Owing to its relatively short half-life (22.26 year) the {sup 20P}b dating technique can be used to date sediments as far back as about 120 years. In Australia this time frame would cover most of the period of European settlement. Paper no. 42; Extended abstract. 1 fig.

  1. Bowen ratio/energy balance technique for estimating crop net CO2 assimilation, and comparison with a canopy chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, A. A.; Steduto, P.; Orgaz, F.; Matista, A.; Hsiao, T. C.

    1990-12-01

    This paper describes a Bowen ratio/energy balance (BREB) system which, in conjunction with an infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA), is referred to as BREB+ and is used to estimate evapotranspiration ( ET) and net CO2 flux ( NCF) over crop canopies. The system is composed of a net radiometer, soil heat flux plates, two psychrometers based on platinum resistance thermometers (PRT), bridge circuits to measure resistances, an IRGA, air pumps and switching valves, and a data logger. The psychrometers are triple shielded and aspirated, and with aspiration also between the two inner shields. High resistance (1 000 ohm) PRT's are used for dry and wet bulbs to minimize errors due to wiring and connector resistances. A high (55 K ohm) fixed resistance serves as one arm of the resistance bridge to ensure linearity in output signals. To minimize gaps in data, to allow measurements at short (e.g., 5 min) intervals, and to simplify operation, the psychrometers were fixed at their upper and lower position over the crop and not alternated. Instead, the PRT's, connected to the bridge circuit and the data logger, were carefully calibrated together. Field tests using a common air source showed appartent effects of the local environment around each psychrometer on the temperatures measured. ET rates estimated with the BREB system were compared to those measured with large lysimeters. Daily totals agreed within 5%. There was a tendency, however, for the lysimeter measurements to lag behind the BREB measurements. Daily patterns of NCF estimated with the BREB+ system are consistent with expectations from theories and data in the literature. Side-by-side comparisons with a stirred Mylar canopy chamber showed similar NCF patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies between the results of the two methods were quite marked in the morning or afternoon on certain dates. Part of the discrepancies may be attributed to inaccuracies in the psychrometric temperature measurements. Other possible causes

  2. The oldest brachiopods from the lower cambrian of South Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Holmer, Lars E.; Skovsted, Christian B.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported...... from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense...... and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part...

  3. Bowen Journal of Agriculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of maize–'OGI' enriched with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Omolara Bolanle Otegbayo, Deborah Owolabi, Oluyinka Oroniran, Olufemi Oludemi, 32-40 ...

  4. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Known uranium deposits and the companies involved in uranium mining and exploration in Australia are listed. The status of the development of the deposits is outlined and reasons for delays to mining are given

  5. Uranium production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    The history of uranium mining and milling in Australia is briefly outlined, particular attention being given to the development of Australia's only two operating mills, Nabarlek and Ranger, and its only operating mine, Ranger. The latter project is used to illustrate the prerequisites for development of the industry and the complex roles of the various parties involved in establishing a new mine: equity holders, customers, financiers, the securities industry, trade unions, and the public. The moves currently being taken to resolve the future of the industry in Australia, particularly the examination of issues relating to Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle being conducted by the Australian Science and Technology Council, preclude any firm conclusions being drawn, but the various options open to the government are reviewed and the record of Australian governments and unions and the attitude of the Australian public are described. (Author) (3 tabs., fig.)

  6. Radionuclide therapy of skin cancers and Bowen's disease using specially designed skin patch: A pilot study in an animal model and clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. D.; Park, K. K.; Lee, M. G.; Lee, J. T.; Yoo, H. S.; Kim, E. H.; Rhim, K. J.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignant tumors in human. Therapeutic modalities of the skin cancers are local destruction, radiotherapy and surgery. External radiation therapy leads to good results, however, overall 5-6 weeks of treatment period is needed to deliver optimal radiation dose to tumors. In this study, β-emitting radionuclide, Ho-166, impregnated in a specially designed patch was utilized to superficial skin cancers and Bowen's disease for local irradiation. Methods; Animal study was employed in 10 mice with chemically induced skin tumors. Five- mm size patches containing 22.2 -72.15 MBq(0.6 - 1.95 mCi) of Ho-166 were applied to the tumor surface for 1 -2 hr. In clinical trial, patients with squamous carcinoma(n=3), basal cell carcinoma(n=1), and Bowen's disease(n=1) were treated with patches containing 273.8 - 999 MBq (7.4 - 27 mCi) of Ho-166 for 30 minutes to 1 hour. Pathologic examination was performed 4 - 7 weeks after the treatment in animal model. Skin biopsy was performed 8 weeks post-treatment in four patients. Results; Tumor destruction was seen 1 week post the treatment, however, radiation dermatitis or ulceration developed at the site of radionuclide application. Those reactions healed gradually with fibrosis or epithelialization, which was confirmed pathologically. No significant adverse reaction to radiation except subcutaneous fibrosis was found. Conclusion; Superficial skin tumors could be successfully treated by topical application of β-emitting radionuclides. (author)

  7. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Western world requirements for uranium based on increasing energy consumption and a changing energy mix, will warrant the development of Australia's resources. By 1985 Australian mines could be producing 9500 tonnes of uranium oxide yearly and by 1995 the export value from uranium could reach that from wool. In terms of benefit to the community the economic rewards are considerable but, in terms of providing energy to the world, Australias uranium is vital

  8. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  9. Limnological Conditions and Occurrence of Taste-and-Odor Compounds in Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Arrington, Jane M.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Limnological conditions and the occurrence of taste-and-odor compounds were studied in two reservoirs in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, from May 2006 to June 2009. Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1 are relatively shallow, meso-eutrophic, warm monomictic, cascading impoundments on the South Pacolet River. Overall, water-quality conditions and phytoplankton community assemblages were similar between the two reservoirs but differed seasonally. Median dissolved geosmin concentrations in the reservoirs ranged from 0.004 to 0.006 microgram per liter. Annual maximum dissolved geosmin concentrations tended to occur between March and May. In this study, peak dissolved geosmin production occurred in April and May 2008, ranging from 0.050 to 0.100 microgram per liter at the deeper reservoir sites. Peak dissolved geosmin production was not concurrent with maximum cyanobacterial biovolumes, which tended to occur in the summer (July to August), but was concurrent with a peak in the fraction of genera with known geosmin-producing strains in the cyanobacteria group. Nonetheless, annual maximum cyanobacterial biovolumes rarely resulted in cyanobacteria dominance of the phytoplankton community. In both reservoirs, elevated dissolved geosmin concentrations were correlated to environmental factors indicative of unstratified conditions and reduced algal productivity, but not to nutrient concentrations or ratios. With respect to potential geosmin sources, elevated geosmin concentrations were correlated to greater fractions of genera with known geosmin-producing strains in the cyanobacteria group and to biovolumes of a specific geosmin-producing cyanobacteria genus (Oscillatoria), but not to actinomycetes concentrations. Conversely, environmental factors that correlated with elevated cyanobacterial biovolumes were indicative of stable water columns (stratified conditions), warm water temperatures, reduced nitrogen concentrations, longer residence times, and high

  10. Papulose bowenóide: um aspecto clínico da infecção pelo HPV Bowenoid papulosis: a clinical feature of the HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Papulose bowenóide é uma doença que acomete a pele da região anogenital e que se caracteriza pelas múltiplas pequenas pápulas planas ou aveludadas e de coloração que varia do róseo ao castanho-escuro. É provocada pelo HPV e a transmissão sexual é a forma mais freqüente de contaminação. As queixas mais comuns são prurido e dor. O aspecto é característico e o exame histopatológico confirma o diagnóstico. Junto com a doença de Bowen e a eritroplasia de Queyrat, é considerada como carcinoma in situ, ou neoplasia intra-epitelial de alto grau (NIAA, a lesão precursora do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anal. Sem tratamento, a maioria das lesões permanece benigna e estável. Várias modalidades terapêuticas estão disponíveis, incluindo as medicações tópicas para citodestruição e as técnicas ablativas. Os esquemas tópicos são efetivos. Cabe ao profissional médico escolher a terapia adequada, tendo em mente que a doença é benigna e raramente evolui para carcinoma. Como as recidivas são freqüentes e ainda persistem dúvidas quanto ao potencial de malignização, os doentes devem ser examinados periodicamente para diagnosticar as lesões iniciais.Bowenoid papulosis is an anogenital skin disease characterized by multiple little papules, flat or velvet, which color varies from pink to dark brown. It is provoked by HPV and its transmission is sexual. Most common symptoms are anal pain and itching. Its appearance is characteristic and hystopathological examination confirms diagnosis. Together with Bowen´s disease and Queyrat erythroplasia, is considered as an in situ carcinoma, or high grade intra-epithelial neoplasia (HAIN, a precursor of the squamous-cell carcinoma. Most of lesions remain benign and stable without treatment. There are several kinds of treatment including topical drugs for cytodestruction and ablative techniques. Topic schemes are effectives. The consultant doctor may choose the most adequate therapy

  11. Nuclear issues in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switkowski, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: After a twenty year pause in discussion of nuclear power in Australia, the public debate has resumed in this past year - partly in search for clean, non fossil fuel energy alternatives, and partly from the different political strategies in the lead up to this year's federal election. Although there is evidence of a revival of interest in the nuclear power globally, countries considering installing their first nuclear reactor confront formidable obstacles including community concerns and long lead times. This presentation will describe the Climate Change context which shapes political and corporate strategies, possible nuclear scenarios for Australia, solutions to the still long list of reservations, and likely milestones ahead. It concludes that if we are to decarbonise our economy, and continue on a path of improving standards of living and prosperity, then any strategy for adding the required base-load electricity generation capacity must consider nuclear power for Australia

  12. Análise das necessidades hídricas da vegetação Tamarisk através da razão de Bowen e do modelo SEBAL Water demand analysis of the Tamarisk vegetation through of the Bowen ratio and SEBAL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar a evapotranspiração real diária (ETr da vegetação tamarisk utilizando dados micrometeorológicos e o modelo SEBAL. Foram utilizados dados provenientes do método da razão de Bowen, além do modelo SEBAL aplicado a imagens do Landsat 5 - TM, na obtenção da ETr diária da vegetação tamarisk do Baixo Rio Colorado, CA/EUA. Na obtenção da evapotranspiração de referência (ET0 foi utilizado o método da FAO/Penman-Monteith. Os resultados mostram características de forte advecção de ar, e que a radiação solar é o componente de maior influência na obtenção da ET0. Verifica-se também, que a vegetação tamarisk tem alto consumo hídrico e a sua rápida expansão poderá trazer impactos negativos para os rios da região. As estimativas da ETr pelo modelo SEBAL são similares aos valores medidos na torre micrometeorológica pelo método da razão de Bowen, demonstrando a aplicabilidade do modelo SEBAL na obtenção da distribuição espacial da evapotranspiração real diária.The objective of this study was to determine the daily actual evapotranspiration (ETr of the tamarisk vegetation using micrometeorological data and SEBAL model. Data originating from the Bowen ratio method were used, besides the SEBAL model applied to TM Landsat 5 image for obtaining the daily ETr of the tamarisk vegetation of Lower Colorado River, CA/USA. For obtaining the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 the FAO/Penman-Monteith method was used. The results show characteristics of strong air advection and that the solar radiation has the largest influence in obtaining ET0, as well as, that the tamarisk vegetation has high water demand and its fast expansion can bring negative impacts for the rivers of the area. The estimates of ETr through the SEBAL model are similar to the measured values on the micrometeorological tower by the Bowen ratio method, demonstrating the applicability of the SEBAL model to obtain the spatial

  13. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  14. Australia's nuclear graveyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliken, R.

    1987-01-01

    Britain and Australia have become locked in a battle of wills and wits over a nuclear legacy that is now more than 30 years old. At stake is the issue of who will pay to clean up a stretch of the central Australian outback where at least 23 kilograms of plutonium are buried in nuclear graveyards or scattered in fine particles on the ground. The plutonium was left there after a series of British nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. The cost of cleaning it up today, and rendering the ground safe the the Aborigines who claim it as their tribal homeland, has been estimated at up to $158 million. Australia's minister for resources, Senator Gareth Evans, went to London in October 1986 to try to involve the British in the cleanup. But Britain is still taking the stand that it had discharged any obligations on this score long ago. This question is at the heart of controversy that began mounting in the late 1970s over the British nuclear tests. It was then that Aborigines and test veterans from Britain and Australia started alleging that they had been exposed to unduly high doses of radiation. Clearly, the nuclear tests, which began as a political exercise between Britain and Australia more than 30 years ago, seem destined to remain the source of much legal, diplomatic, and financial fallout between the two countries for a long time to come

  15. Mathematical Sciences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jan; Muchatuta, Michelle; Wood, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates enrolment trends in mathematical sciences in Australian universities. Data has been difficult to extract and the coding for mathematical disciplines has made investigation challenging. We show that the number of mathematics major undergraduates in Australia is steadily declining though the number studying…

  16. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  17. Banknote Quality in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Arianna Cowling; Monica Howlett

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank aims to keep the quality of banknotes in circulation high to ensure that they meet the needs of the public and to make it more difficult for counterfeits to be passed or remain in circulation. This article discusses the quality of banknotes in Australia and Reserve Bank initiatives that have improved the quality of banknotes in recent years.

  18. Australia's nuclear headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, D.

    1997-01-01

    With the temporary storage of nuclear waste, constituted by HIFAR spent fuel, at Lucas Heights reaching full capacity by 1998, there is an urgent need for a technical, social and political solution. Some of the fundamental uncertainties in relation to nuclear waste disposal and hence the operation of a nuclear research reactor in Australia are presented

  19. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  20. Climate Change. Solutions for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, T.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Karoly, D.; Lowe, I.; McMichael, T.; Mitchell, C.; Pearman, G.; Scaife, P.; Reynolds, A. (eds.)

    2004-06-01

    The Australian Climate Group was convened in late 2003 by WWF Australia and the Insurance Australia Group (IAG) in response to the increasing need for action on climate change in Australia. This group proposes a set of solutions to lower the risk that climate change will reach a dangerous level.

  1. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  2. WAVFH delegates' reports: Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation measuring and control before Chernobyl: Continuous measurements of fallout in different parts of Australia, including the food producing areas, have been made since the mid 1950s. Levels have decreased rapidly since the cessation of atmospheric nuclear tests in the Southern Hemisphere in 1974 and in the Northern Hemisphere in 1980. Measurements of concentrations of radionuclides arising from fallout were made for the major groups of foods affected by the radioactive contaminants, starting in the 1950s and continuing until concentrations were so low that further effort in measurement was not warranted, i.e., less than 0.1 Bq/kg or 0.1 Bq/l. Changes in the concentrations of radionuclides in foods follow the same trends as the fallout levels. Based on the low levels of fallout measured in Australia since the 1950s, and taking into account the extremely low levels during the past decade, the concentrations of radionuclides arising from fallout in foods grown and processed in Australia are extremely small. Results from the fall-out from Chernobyl. Since the Chernobyl accident, measurements of the concentrations of 137 Cs in a variety of foodstuffs grown in Australia have been made, mainly for export purposes. A summary of the results of these measurements is given in Table 111 of Attachment 2. No 134 Cs has been detected, nor is it likely to be. By taking into account these measurements, the earlier measurements of foodstuffs, predictive modelling values and the very low levels of fall-out in deposit and in air, it is concluded that the concentrations of 137 Cs in all foodstuffs grown in Australia are extremely small. Accordingly, their consumption would result in no significant risk to the health of a population. With world atmospheric conditions being as they are, it will probably be 12 to 18 months before any fallout reaches Australia. Even if some fall-out does occur, it will be minimal and should not significantly increase our very low natural levels

  3. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  4. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  5. Synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Synchrotron radiation research in Australia is entering a new era with the commencement of the Australian synchrotron project, which will construct a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron facility at Monash University in Victoria. To date Australian scientists have used overseas facilities, primarily those managed by the Australian Synchrotron Research Program in Japan and the USA. A fast developing and maturing Australian synchrotron user program has developed around these overseas facilities. The field of synchrotron radiation and its importance to a wide range of research will be introduced and Australia's current involvement and facilities will be described. The current status and technical specifications of the Australian synchrotron will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  6. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  7. Casemix funding in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, J; Hindle, D; Phelan, P D; Hanson, R

    1998-06-01

    Casemix funding for hospitals with the use of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), which organise patients' conditions into similar clinical categories with similar costs, was introduced in Australia five years ago. It has been applied in different ways and to a greater or lesser extent in different Australian States. Only Victoria and South Australia have implemented casemix funding across all healthcare services. Attempts have been made to formally evaluate its impact, but they have not met the required scientific standards in controlling for confounding factors. Casemix funding remains a much-discussed issue. In this Debate, Braithwaite and Hindle take a contrary position, largely to stimulate policy debate; Phelan defends the casemix concept and advocates retaining its best features; and Hanson adds a plea for consumer input.

  8. Mapping Homophobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael Gaston; Flood, Michael; Flood, C.; Hamilton, Clive

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the Australian population believe that 'homosexuality is immoral', and this belief is spread in distinct ways across the nation. Using data from a survey of nearly 25,000 Australians, we can 'map' homophobia in Australia. Homophobic attitudes are worst in country areas of Queensland and Tasmania. Men are far more likely than women to feel that homosexuality does not have moral legitimacy, and this gender gap in attitudes persists across age, socioeconomic, educational, and region...

  9. Australia's atomic conspiracy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnie, A.

    2001-01-01

    The author questions claims by the Newcastle University historian Wayne Reynolds in his book 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb', that the impetus behind the Snowy Mountains Scheme was to provide a secure source of power for the enrichment of uranium and production of heavy water so that Australia could produce its own atomic bombs. Reynolds also argued that the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) was set up so that Australia had a trained scientific workforce to produce plutonium for the bomb. While the book is well researched, Reynolds does not seem to understand the principles of basic science and engineering. After the Second World War, a manufacturing and industrial base with a skilled and trained workforce was needed so it could be converted to war or defence manufacturing when the need arose. This new manufacturing community would require electrical power to sustain it. Hydroelectricity and atomic energy could help provide these needs. Even though war was still raging, Prime Minister John Curtin looked ahead and set up a Department of Post-War Reconstruction. It was through this department that the Snowy Mountains Scheme would be established. Curtin did not live to see this. He died in 1945 but his successor, Ben Chifley, continued the vision. The author believes, an understanding of the science behind these developments and an appreciation of how how humans interact with each others when it comes to getting something they want is likely to give a more balanced view of the past

  10. Australia's energy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE)'s biennial fuel and electricity survey provides a comprehensive database with which is possible to examine recent trends and developments in Australia's energy market. Some key development are outlined in this article. While energy consumption in Australia has been increasing steadily since 1973-74, substantial changes have occurred 'behind the scenes' in terms of the states and sectors in which energy is consumed and the overall fuel mix. Historically, the south-eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria have accounted for the largest shares of total energy consumption In recent years, however, the dominance of New South Wales and Victoria (and particularly New South Wales) has come under pressure from the states of Queensland. Western Australia, and to a lesser extent, the Northern Territory. Each of these states has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption, due mainly to a number of strongly growing energy intensive industries, particularly in the mining and minerals processing sectors. High economic and population growth over this period were also important factors. An increase in the share of natural gas- and a corresponding decline in the share of crude oil - is the most evident change to have occurred in the fuel mix since 1973-1974. However, since 1993, the trend has changed, the share of coal (and particularly brown coal) increased strongly, making it the primary fuel source for thermal electricity generation. This recent shift has been driven by developments in Queensland and Victoria

  11. On the Equality Assumption of Latent and Sensible Heat Energy Transfer Coefficients of the Bowen Ratio Theory for Evapotranspiration Estimations: Another Look at the Potential Causes of Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Irmak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET and sensible heat (H flux play a critical role in climate change; micrometeorology; atmospheric investigations; and related studies. They are two of the driving variables in climate impact(s and hydrologic balance dynamics. Therefore, their accurate estimate is important for more robust modeling of the aforementioned relationships. The Bowen ratio energy balance method of estimating ET and H diffusions depends on the assumption that the diffusivities of latent heat (KV and sensible heat (KH are always equal. This assumption is re-visited and analyzed for a subsurface drip-irrigated field in south central Nebraska. The inequality dynamics for subsurface drip-irrigated conditions have not been studied. Potential causes that lead KV to differ from KH and a rectification procedure for the errors introduced by the inequalities were investigated. Actual ET; H; and other surface energy flux parameters using an eddy covariance system and a Bowen Ratio Energy Balance System (located side by side on an hourly basis were measured continuously for two consecutive years for a non-stressed and subsurface drip-irrigated maize canopy. Most of the differences between KV and KH appeared towards the higher values of KV and KH. Although it was observed that KV was predominantly higher than KH; there were considerable data points showing the opposite. In general; daily KV ranges from about 0.1 m2∙s−1 to 1.6 m2∙s−1; and KH ranges from about 0.05 m2∙s−1 to 1.1 m2∙s−1. The higher values for KV and KH appear around March and April; and around September and October. The lower values appear around mid to late December and around late June to early July. Hourly estimates of KV range between approximately 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.8 m2∙s−1 and that of KH ranges approximately between 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.7 m2∙s−1. The inequalities between KV and KH varied diurnally as well as seasonally. The inequalities were greater during the non

  12. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USS BOWEN and other Platforms from the Gulf of Alaska in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1983-09-06 to 1983-10-11 (NODC Accession 8300182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USS BOWEN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA; National Ocean...

  13. Developments in uranium solution mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.

    2001-01-01

    The last five years have seen rapid developments in uranium solution mining in Australia, with one deposit brought into production (Beverley, 1,000 tpa U 3 O 8 ) and another close to receiving development approval (Honeymoon, 500 expanding to 1,000 tpa U 3 O 8 proposed). The deposits were discovered during extensive exploration of the Frome Basin in South Australia in the early 1970s and were mothballed from 1983 to 1996 due to Government policies. Uranium mineralisation at Beverley, Honeymoon and other related prospects is hosted in unconsolidated coarse grained quartz sands which are sealed in buried palaeovalleys. Both projects have successfully trialled acid leaching methods and have confirmed high permeability and confinement of the target sands. At Beverley an ion exchange process has been adopted, whereas at Honeymoon solvent extraction has been trialled and is proposed for future production Australian production economics compare favourably with US counterparts and are likely to be within the lower quartile of world costs

  14. Australia's approach to monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Sneddon Little

    2002-01-01

    According to Australia's Reserve Bank Act, the central bank's broad policy objectives include maintaining the stability of the currency, full employment, and the economic prosperity and welfare of the people of Australia. In 1993 the Reserve Bank of Australia adopted a specific, and thus transparent, inflation target as its operating objective; it aims to keep overall inflation between 2 percent and 3 percent on average over the business cycle.

  15. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  16. Australia's radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In Australia, public exposure to ionizing radiation above background is considered to be negligible. Average occupational exposures are about 0.5 millisievert per year, although there are some specialized industries and professions where they are much higher. The National Health and Medical Research Council has therefore adopted a position similar to that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. For the moment, no revision of exposure limits is recommended, but users are remined of their responsibility to ensure that exposures are kept low, particularly in those workplaces where significant exposures take place

  17. Integrating deep Earth dynamics in paleogeographic reconstructions of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Christian; Müller, R. Dietmar; Steinberger, Bernhard; DiCaprio, Lydia

    2010-03-01

    It is well documented that the Cenozoic progressive flooding of Australia, contemporaneous with a eustatic sea level fall, requires a downward tilting of the Australian Plate towards the SE Asian subduction system. Previously, this large-scale, mantle-convection driven dynamic topography effect has been approximated by computing the time-dependent vertical shifts and tilts of a plane, but the observed subsidence and uplift anomalies indicate a more complex interplay between time-dependent mantle convection and plate motion. We combine plate kinematics with a global mantle backward-advection model based on shear-wave mantle tomography, paleogeographic data, eustatic sea level estimates and basin stratigraphy to reconstruct the Australian flooding history for the last 70 Myrs on a continental scale. We compute time-dependent dynamic surface topography and continental inundation of a digital elevation model adjusted for sediment accumulation. Our model reveals two evolving dynamic topography lows, over which the Australian plate has progressively moved. We interpret the southern low to be caused by sinking slab material with an origin along the eastern Gondwana subduction zone in the Cretaceous, whereas the northern low, which first straddles northern Australia in the Oligocene, is mainly attributable to material subducted north and northeast of Australia. Our model accounts for the Paleogene exposure of the Gulf of Carpentaria region at a time when sea level was much higher than today, and explains anomalous Late Tertiary subsidence on Australia's northern, western and southern margins. The resolution of our model, which excludes short-wavelength mantle density anomalies and is restricted to depths larger than 220 km, is not sufficient to model the two well recorded episodes of major transgressions in South Australia in the Eocene and Miocene. However, the overall, long-wavelength spatio-temporal pattern of Australia's inundation record is well captured by combining

  18. Balanço de energia e estimativa da evapotranspiração em culturas irrigadas de maracujazeiro pelo método da razão de Bowen Energy balance and estimative of the evapotranspiration of irrigated passionfruit crops by the Bowen ratio method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny J. A. Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do maracujazeiro-amarelo tem tido grande expansão da área cultivada no Estado de São Paulo e, apesar da importância da irrigação para a cultura, há poucos estudos sobre sua utilização. Este trabalho foi realizado na área experimental de irrigação, na Fazenda Areão, do Departamento de Engenharia Rural, da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP (Piracicaba - SP. Foram coletados dados de saldo de radiação, fluxo de calor no solo, gradientes de temperatura e pressão de vapor do ar com o objetivo de avaliar a partição da energia disponível e a evapotranspiração em cultivo de maracujazeiros em dois sistemas de plantio (linhas de cultivo norte-sul e leste-oeste. O método da razão de Bowen foi utilizado na determinação dos fluxos de calor sensível e latente. O saldo de radiação não foi influenciado pelo sistema de plantio, sendo equivalente a 60% da radiação global. O componente de maior contribuição no balanço de energia foi o calor latente de evaporação ocorrendo imediatamente após a chuva ou irrigação. A utilização do modelo de análise e exclusão de intervalos em que o método da Razão de Bowen falha, melhora a estimativa da evapotranspiração.Passionfruit crop has been having great expansion in the cultivated area of São Paulo State and beside the irrigation importance for crop; there are few studies about its utilization. This work was carried out at the experimental irrigation farm of the Engineering Department - College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Were collected micrometeorological data from net radiation, soil flux heat, temperature and vapor pressure gradient with the aim to evaluate the partition of available energy and evapotranspiration of passionfruit crop planted under two row directions (North-South and East-West. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine both sensible and latent fluxes. The net

  19. Comparison of eddy covariance and modified Bowen ratio methods for measuring gas fluxes and implications for measuring fluxes of persistent organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Bolinius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs cycle between the atmosphere and terrestrial surfaces; however measuring fluxes of POPs between the atmosphere and other media is challenging. Sampling times of hours to days are required to accurately measure trace concentrations of POPs in the atmosphere, which rules out the use of eddy covariance techniques that are used to measure gas fluxes of major air pollutants. An alternative, the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method, has been used instead. In this study we used data from FLUXNET for CO2 and water vapor (H2O to compare fluxes measured by eddy covariance to fluxes measured with the MBR method using vertical concentration gradients in air derived from averaged data that simulate the long sampling times typically required to measure POPs. When concentration gradients are strong and fluxes are unidirectional, the MBR method and the eddy covariance method agree within a factor of 3 for CO2, and within a factor of 10 for H2O. To remain within the range of applicability of the MBR method, field studies should be carried out under conditions such that the direction of net flux does not change during the sampling period. If that condition is met, then the performance of the MBR method is neither strongly affected by the length of sample duration nor the use of a fixed value for the transfer coefficient.

  20. Coal mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, L J

    1981-12-01

    In 1959 black coal production in Australia totalled some 21.9 million tonnes per annum, 70% of this being produced from underground mines in the coalfields of New South Wales. By 1980 output levels had increased by nearly 350% to 75.4 million tonnes per annum (54% of which was exported) compared with 5% some 20 years earlier. Because it is blessed with large reserves of coal and other forms of energy, it is inevitable that the Australian coal mining industry will be required to play a major role in the development of the international coal market through to the end of the present century. Experts now predict a need for the black coal output in Australia to be developed from its present level to a minimum of 293 million tonnes per annum by the year 2000. This paper examines the present circumstances in the Australian coal industry and attempts to outline the development which has to be undertaken in order to meet the needs of an energy hungry world.

  1. Year book Australia 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R J

    1985-01-01

    The Year Book is the principal reference work produced by the Central Office of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It provides a comprehensive and detailed statistical review of all aspects of the economy and social conditions of Australia. In addition, it contains descriptive matter dealing with Australia's history, geography, physiography, climate and meteorology, government, defence and repatriation services and international relations. The first Official Year Book was published in 1908. This is the sixty-ninth Year Book issued under the authority of the Commonwealth Government and follows a similar pattern to previous editions. However, chapters have been revised and new material has been added. Most of the statistics contained in this volume relate to the years ended June or December 1983 or 1984. More detailed, and in many cases more recent, statistics are available in other ABS publications. The more significant of these publications are listed at the end of the relevant chapters of the Year book; the ABS Catalogue of Publications (1101.0) lists all current publications of the ABS.

  2. Ground for concern. Australia's uranium and human survival. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, M

    1977-01-01

    The book contains a number of articles which propose that Australia should not mine and export its uranium in order to influence the nuclear establishment against uncontrollable proliferation. Topics covered include: uranium mining in Australia, reactor safety, nuclear wastes, nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear theft and the politics of the nuclear industry.

  3. The long term sustainability of Mound Springs in South Australia : implications for olympic dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudd, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Mound Springs of South Australia are unique groundwater discharge features of the Great Artesian Basin, a deep regigonal groundwater system that covers over one-fifth of the Australia continent. They are the principal sources of water in the arid and semi-arid inland heart of Australia, and have great ecological, scientific, anthropological and economic significance. Excessive development of the Great Artesian Basin over the past century by European activity has seen an overall decline in the flows from the mound springs, and recent development of the water supply borefields for the WMC Olympic Dam Operations copper-uranium mine in the midst of the most important spring groups has exacerbated this problem. A review of the history of the borefields, an analysis of the impacts on the mound springs, and future recommendations for protection of the springs is presented. (orig.)

  4. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  5. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with ...

  6. Building nuclear skills in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    2007-01-01

    Demand for nuclear skills in Australia has traditionally been met by recruitment but as the nuclear industry grows worldwide, such skills are in demand. This paper discusses he likely numbers of skilled people needed for a nuclear industry in Australia and what initiatives have been, or could be in, taken to address the needs

  7. Lexicography in Australia | Delbridge | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of Australian English as the national language is traced, and its relations with the Australian Aboriginal languages touched on. The greatest change in the language setting came with Australia's immigration policy in its post-World War II form. This resulted in the government's eventual recognition of Australia ...

  8. Recent developments: Japan and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the nuclear industry in Japan and Australia are briefly reviewed. Topics discussed include: the world energy situation; and nuclear power generation trends and completion the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Recent events that suggest possible policy changes in Australia are briefly discussed

  9. Warragamba. Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri, B.

    1959-02-01

    Full Text Available El pantano de Warragamba, cuyo objeto es el de producir energía hidroeléctrica en su primera fase de explotación y solamente agua potable cuando las necesidades de ésta así lo requieran, se haya situado en las proximidades de Sydney (Australia. Su extensa cuenca está constituida por una serie de ríos en cuyas cabeceras se han construido diques de retención, que no solamente almacenan grandes cantidades de agua, sino que sirven parcialmente para la regularización de caudales, función de gran interés en esta zona donde las avenidas, seguidas de extensas inundaciones, se hacen sentir con relativa frecuencia.

  10. South Australia, uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)

  11. Astronomy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, F.; Couch, W.

    2017-12-01

    Australians have watched the sky for tens of thousands of years. The nineteenth century saw the foundation of government observatories in capital cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. While early twentieth-century astronomy focused largely on solar physics, the advent of radio astronomy at the end of the Second World War enabled Australia to take a leading role in the new science, with particular emphasis on low-frequency studies. Today, the radio quietness of its outback interior provides an excellent location for the Australian core of the Square Kilometre Array. Australian optical astronomy has flourished since the 1960s, with the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope becoming the principal national facility in 1974. Access to ESO’s facilities at the La Silla Paranal Observatory is warmly welcomed by all Australian astronomers.

  12. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions.

  13. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  14. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  15. Groundwater sustainability in Central Australia studied using chlorine-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.; Jacobson, G.

    1998-01-01

    The sustainability of Aboriginal community water supplies in arid Central Australia has been evaluated using the radioisotope chlorine-36 as a tracer within groundwaters to indicate the age of waters being tapped by local bores. Shallow regional groundwaters from fractured sandstones of the Ngalia Basin, fractured metamorphic rocks and Cainozoic sands and gravels show a bimodal distribution of 36 Cl ratios. The higher ratio probably represents modern (Holocene) recharge diluted with windblown salts from local playa lakes and is seen in bores around the margin. The lower ratio corresponds to a 36 Cl age of 80-100ka, implying that the last major recharge occurred during the last interglacial. These values are mainly observed in the interior of the basin, and are believed to be minimum ages for most of the shallow groundwaters in this region. Substantial recharge only appears to occur during favourable interglacial climatic regimes. Most community water supplies depend on these waters. (authors)

  16. Neutron scattering in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains

  17. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  18. Australia's unresolved nuclear problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines three acts of monumental incompetence which have all but destroyed Australia's once great potential to play a leading role in nuclear technology in South East Asia. Political chicanery and monumental technological and economic foresight, professional weakness and vacillation in the engineering community and the vicious pseudo scientific propaganda of most branches of the media, the teaching profession and sadly, even the politicisation of our churches, has all but destroyed a potential Australian ''sunrise industry''. Over the next forty years the population of planet Earth will approximately double. Unless Australians realise that their children and grand-children, and future generations of our neighbouring third world countries will require nuclear technology for an equitable and acceptable shared life-style, they will continue to allow taxpayers' money to be wasted on costly, technically unacceptable and environmentally undesirable attempts to develop ''alternative'' or ''renewable'' energy sources. These are neither alternative nor renewable but politically trendy. The tragedy of such projects is that their limited applicability and suitability for small scale energy production by wealthy users in limited geographical locations will only increase the need for base load energy supplies of the conventional type. Unless this is nuclear, planet Earth faces environmental despolation of monumental proportions. (J.P.N.)

  19. Environmental radioactivity in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, John [Environmental Science Division, ANSTO, Menai (Australia)

    2002-06-01

    Environmental research mainly carried out at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) related to nuclear activities in Australia such as uranium mining, transfer factor studies related to U- and Th-series radionuclides, dose assessment modelling, radiation monitoring, and nuclear waste repository, is outlined. Many aspects of radioecology, marine and freshwater geochemistry and radiochemical dating techniques; bioaccumulation including archival monitoring and kinetics, ground water studies, atmospheric issues including climate change and geomorphology are being studied with the help of a high neutron flux reactor, a cyclotron and a tandem accelerator as well as modern analytical equipment. Only a very small number of examples of radioactivity applications are presented: Microbiotic crusts covering up to 50% of the soil surface at Maralinga nuclear test site where more than 80% of the residual Am-241 was found to retain within the top 5 mm after 30 years. SIMS analysis of crocodile bones indicating that the only metal affected by U mining in Kakadu region was lead (Pb). In mineral sands such as zircon, U(VI) is more stable than U(IV) as evidenced by ion beam and SEM imaging and XANES analysis. Use of radioisotopes in atmospheric and climate studies, terrestrial studies particularly in dating techniques, and aquatic-continental and aquatic-ocean waters, and in biological studies such as biokinetics of copper metabolism in rainbow fishes living downstream of a mine are presented. (S. Ohno)

  20. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  1. Expectations of vulnerability in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Neikirk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability of refugees to gain admission to Australia is increasingly based on perceptions of helplessness, suffering and ‘deservingness’. One consequence is that men in particular are marginalised following resettlement.

  2. Migration from India to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, S P; Chandra, A

    1994-01-01

    "The article examines the contemporary trends and future prospects of migration from India to Australia. The focus is on Indian Settlers and Temporary Entrants admitted to Australia for employment and Indian students admitted to Australia for higher studies. The volume of emigration for permanent residence during the early 1990s has made India one of the leading source countries of migration to Australia. A majority of Indians admitted as Settlers every year join the labor force. Recent data indicate that, among Indian Settlers, there is a preponderance of unsponsored Independent Skilled Migrants. Given the anticipated growth in the number of Indian students, the coming years are likely to witness a spurt in Skilled Temporary Workers from India." excerpt

  3. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  4. Water reform in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Daniel; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2011-12-01

    In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin the Australian and state governments are attempting to introduce a system of water management that will halt ongoing decline in environmental conditions and resource security and provide a robust foundation for managing climate change. This parallels similar efforts being undertaken in regions such as southern Africa, the southern United States, and Spain. Central to the project is the Australian government's Water Act 2007, which requires the preparation of a comprehensive basin plan expected to be finalized in 2011. This paper places recent and expected developments occurring as part of this process in their historical context and examines factors that could affect implementation. Significant challenges to the success of the basin plan include human resource constraints, legislative tensions within the Australian federal system, difficulties in coordinating the network of water-related agencies in the six jurisdictions with responsibilities in the Murray-Darling Basin, and social, economic, and environmental limitations that restrict policy implementation.

  5. Australia: uranium and nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, R.

    1991-01-01

    Australia's uranium and nuclear policies have gone through several stages of development since the commercialisation of the industry. The early stages laid the foundations and built the superstructure of Australia's uranium development, export and safeguards policies. The uranium industry and other governments have understood the nature and operation of these policies. An important aim of this paper will be to explain the design and current construction stage of policies. This needs to be done against the background of broader industry developments. Within the past twelve months (1989/90) there have been dramatic changes, both within Australia and internationally, which have affected the uranium market. Internationally, we have seen the spot price indicators for uranium fall to an all time low. Within Australia, we have seen the removal of the fixed floor price requirement for the sale of Australia uranium. This was replaced by a requirement that contract prices reflect the market. This change in policy allowed the outcome of several major long-term contract renegotiations to be approved. It also allowed Australian producers to secure several new long-term contracts, despite the overall depressed state of the market. The 'three mines' policy remains in place although only two, Ranger in Northern Territory and Olympic Dare in Southern Australia are currently operating. The biggest unknown is the extent of future uranium demand. (author)

  6. The evolution and performance of river basin management in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore bioregional management in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB in Australia through the institutional design characteristics of the MDB River Basin Organization (RBO, the actors and organizations who supported and resisted the establishment of the RBO, and the effectiveness of the RBO. During the last 25 years, there has been a major structural reform in the MDB RBO, which has changed from an interstate coordinating body to an Australian government agency. Responsibility for basin management has been centralized under the leadership of the Australian government, and a comprehensive integrated Basin plan has been adopted. The driving forces for this centralization include national policy to restore river basins to sustainable levels of extraction, state government difficulties in reversing overallocation of water entitlements, the millennium drought and its effects, political expediency on the part of the Australian government and state governments, and a major injection of Australian government funding. The increasing hierarchy and centralization of the MDB RBO does not follow a general trend toward multilevel participative governance of RBOs, but decentralization should not be overstated because of the special circumstances at the time of the centralization and the continuing existence of some decentralized elements, such as catchment water plans, land use planning, and water quality. Further swings in the centralization-decentralization pendulum could occur. The MDB reform has succeeded in rebalancing Basin water allocations, including an allocation for the environment and reduced diversion limits. There are some longer term risks to the implementation of reform, including lack of cooperation by state governments, vertical coordination difficulties, and perceived reductions in the accountability and legitimacy of reform at the local level. If implementation of the Basin plan is diverted or delayed, a new institution, the Commonwealth

  7. Economic impacts of climate change in Australia: framework and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    Full text: There is growing interest in understanding the potential impacts of climate change in Australia, and especially the economic impacts of 'inaction'. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the possible economic impacts of future climate change in Australia is undertaken using ABARE's general equilibrium model of the global economy, GTEM. In order to understand the potential economy-wide economic impacts, the broad climatic trends that Australia is likely to experience over the next several decades are canvassed and the potential economic and non-economic impacts on key risk areas, such as water resources, agriculture and forests, health, industry and human settlements and the ecosystems, are identified. A more detailed analysis of the economic impacts of climate change are undertaken by developing two case studies. In the first case study, the economic impact of climate change and reduced water availability on the agricultural sector is assessed in the Murray-Darling Basin. In the second case study, the sectoral economic impacts on the Australian resources sector of a projected decline in global economic activity due to climate change is analysed. The key areas of required development to more fully understand the economy-wide and sectoral impacts of climate change are also discussed including issues associated with estimating both non-market and market impacts. Finally, an analytical framework for undertaking integrated assessment of climate change impacts domestically and globally is developed

  8. Bower ratio-energy balance associated errors in vineyards under dripping irrigation Erros associados pela razão de bowen ao balanço de energia em parreirais sob irrigação por gotejamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Monteiro Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Bebedouro Experimental Station in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, to evaluate the errors associated to the application of the Bowen ratio-energy balance in a 3-years old vineyard (Vitis vinifera, L, grown in a trellis system, irrigated by dripping. The field measurements were taken during fruiting cycle (July to November, 2001, which was divided into eigth phenological stages. A micrometeorological tower was mounted in a grape-plants row in which sensors of net radiation, global solar radiation and wind speed were installed at about 1.0 m above the canopy. Also in the tower, two psicometers were installed at two levels (0.5 and 1.8 m above the vineyard canopy. Two soil heat flux plates were buried at 0.02 m beneath the soil surface. All these sensors were connected to a Data logger 21 X of Campbell Scientific Inc., programmed for collecting data once every 5 seconds and storage averages for every 15 minutes. A comparative analysis were made among four Bowen ratio accepting/rejecting rules, according to the methodology proposed by Spano et al. (2000: betar1 - values of beta calculated by Bowen (1926 equation; betar2 - values of beta as proposed by Verma et al. (1978 equation; betar3 - exclusion of the beta values obtained as recommended by Unland et al. (1996 and betar4 - exclusion of the beta values calculated as proposed by Bowen (1926, out of the interval (-0.7 Este estudo foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Bebedouro, Petrolina-PE, Brasil, para avaliar os erros associados com a aplicação do balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen em um parreiral (Vitis vinifera, L com três anos de idade, conduzido em latada, sob irrigação por gotejamento. As medições foram feitas durante o ciclo produtivo de julho a novembro de 2001, que foi dividido em oito estádios fenológicos. Numa torre micrometeorológica localizada no centro do parreiral, foram instalados a 1,00 m acima do dossel da videira, os seguintes

  9. Australia's uranium policy: an examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.A.W.; Derborough, M.A.; Diesendorf, M.; Inall, E.K.; Peaslee, D.C.; Taylor, S.R.

    1974-12-01

    The mining and export of Australian Uranium poses problems for the safety of the world that any responsible government is bound to consider. The following note lists the major problems, attempts to assess their importance, and to suggest what lines may be relevant to Australia for their solution. These problems were examined because of the concern about the appropriateness of attempting to fulfill projected world energy needs by any means; and their fulfillment, by using nuclear fuels carries special problems of biological, social and political hazards. Any development of Australia's uranium resources should be considered in this light. (author)

  10. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Australia is the world's smallest, flattest, and (after Antarctica) driest continent, but at 7.7 million square kilometers (3.0 million square miles) it is also the sixth largest country. Its low average elevation (300 meters, or less than 1000 feet) is caused by its position near the center of a tectonic plate, where there are no volcanic or other geologic forces of the type that raise the topography of other continents. In fact Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity at all - the last eruption took place 1400 years ago at Mt. Gambier. The Australian continent is also one of the oldest land masses, with some of its erosion-exposed bedrock age dated at more than 3 billion years. More than one-fifth of the land area is desert, with more than two-thirds being classified as arid or semi-arid and unsuitable for settlement. The coldest regions are in the highlands and tablelands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps at the southeastern corner of the continent, location of Australia's highest point, Mt. Kosciusko (2228 meters, or 7310 feet.) Prominent features of Australia include the Lake Eyre basin, the darker green region visible in the center-right. At 16 meters (52 feet) below sea level this depression is one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world, covering more than 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles). The mountain range near the east coast is called the Great Dividing Range, forming a watershed between east and west flowing rivers. Erosion has created deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls in this range where rivers tumble over escarpments on their way to the sea. The crescent shaped uniform green region in the south, just left of center, is the Nullarbor Plain, a low-lying limestone plateau which is so flat that the Trans-Australian Railway runs through it in a straight line for more than 483 kilometers (300 miles). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of

  11. Education, Place and Sustainability: A Literature Review and Overview of Curriculum and Policy in the States and the Territory of the Murray-Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philip; Downes, Natalie; Cook, Louise; Heiner, Irmgard; Caffery, Jo

    2014-01-01

    This report has been developed as part of the MDBfutures Collaborative Research Network project "Towards Place Based Education in the Murray-Darling Basin." The project explores the ways in which sustainability is understood in Murray Darling Basin (MDB) communities of Australia (including Indigenous, rural, small towns and regional…

  12. Estimativa do balanço de energia em cambarazal e pastagem no norte do Pantanal pelo método da razão de Bowen Estimate of energy balance in cambarazaland pasture in the north of Pantanal by Bowen ratio method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do balanço de energia de uma superfície vegetada e a atmosfera é importante para caracterizar o microclima local, identificar interações entre variáveis ambientais e a vegetação, e identificar efeitos das atividades antropogênicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a variação sazonal do balanço de energia pelo método da razão de Bowen em uma área de vegetação monodominante de Cambará na RPPN SESC-Pantanal e uma área de pastagem na Fazenda Experimental da UFMT. Os componentes do balanço de energia apresentaram sazonalidade, com maiores médias na estação chuvosa nas duas áreas de estudo. No cambarazal houve maior variação do fluxo de calor latente da estação seca para a chuvosa que na pastagem. Entretanto, a variação sazonal do fluxo de calor sensível foi menor no cambarazal que na pastagem, devido ao efeito termo-regulador do cambarazal, em função da maior biomassa. A energia disponível aos dois sítios foi destinada prioritariamente em fluxo de calor latente, 80,0% no cambarazal e 56,6% na pastagem, seguido pelo fluxo de calor sensível, 19,1 e 42,9%, e pelo fluxo de calor no solo, 0,3 e 7,2%.The energy balance study of a vegetated surface and atmosphere is important to characterize the local microclimate, identify interactions among environmental variables and the vegetation and to identify anthropogenic activities effects. The objective of this work was estimate the seasonality of energy balance by Bowen ratio method in a monodominant vegetation of Cambará area in the RPPN SESC-Pantanal and a pasture area in UFMT's Experimental Farm. The energy balance components presented seasonality, with larger averages at the rainy station in two areas of study. In the cambarazal was a higher variation of the latent heat flux of the dry season for the rainy season that in the pasture. However, the seasonal variation of the sensible heat flux in the cambarazal was lower than in the pasture, due to the thermo

  13. Australia's role in Pacific energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses Australia's resources and the expansion of its steaming coal exports. The author reviews Australia's development of its natural gas resources and future prospects for exporting to the Pacific region

  14. Progress on RERTR issues in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripley, M.I.; Horlock, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    Australia has long been involved with and sympathetic to the goals of the RERTR program. This overview paper gives a brief introduction to RERTR-related activities in Australia since RERTR-2000. (author)

  15. Measuring Research Impact in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of the national Research Engagement and Impact Assessment in Australia provides a timely opportunity to review attempts to improve the non-academic impact of academic research. The impact agenda represents a new phase in academic research evaluation and funding, characterised by a heightened need to demonstrate a return on…

  16. Outbreak of Sporotrichosis, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Kynan T.; Whittle, Amanda J.; Altman, Shelley A.; Speers, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A cluster of sporotrichosis cases occurred in the Busselton-Margaret River region of Western Australia from 2000 to 2003. Epidemiologic investigation and mycologic culture for Sporothrix schenckii implicated hay initially distributed through a commercial hay supplier as the source of the outbreak. Declining infection rates have occurred after various community measures were instigated. PMID:17953099

  17. Measuring Evapotranspiration of five Alley Cropping systems in Germany using the Eddy-Covariance- and Bowen-Ratio Energy-Balance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Christian; Knohl, Alexander; Siebicke, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    The inclusion of trees into the agricultural landscape of Europe is gaining popularity as a source for energy production. Fast growing tree species such as poplar or willow are included as short rotation coppice or alley cropping systems, which consist of tree alleys interleaved by annual rotating crops or perennial grasslands. Estimating turbulent fluxes of those systems using the eddy-covariance- (ECEB) and bowen-ratio energy-balance (BREB) method is challenging due to the methods limitation to horizontally homogeneous terrain and steady state conditions. As the conditions are not fulfilled for those systems the energy-balance is commonly not fully closed, with the non-closure being site specific. An underestimation of measured heat fluxes leads to an overestimation of the latent heat fluxes inferred from the ECEB method. The aim of our study is to 1) quantify the site specific non-closure of the energy-balance and 2) characterize the performance of both methods, compared to direct eddy-covariance measurements using a high frequency infra-red gas analyzer (LI-7200, Licor Inc.). To assess continuous evapotranspiration (ET) rates on a 30-minute time scale we installed a combined ECEB and BREB system at five alley cropping and five agricultural reference sites across Germany. For time periods of four weeks we performed direct eddy covariance flux measurements for H2O and CO2 over one crop- and one grassland alley cropping- and their respective reference systems during the growing season of 2016. We found a non-closure between 21 and 26 % for all sites, considering all day- and night-time data. The residual energy was highest during the morning and lowest in the afternoon. Related to that the energy-balance ratio (EBR), i.e. the ratio between the turbulent heat fluxes and available energy, was below one in the morning hours and increased slightly during the day up to 1.8, until the EBR decreased sharply after sunset. The EBR correlated to the daily cycle of solar

  18. The crustal thickness of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Structural Framework and Architecture of the Paleoproterozoic Bryah and Padbury Basins from Integrated Potential Field and Geological Datasets: Towards an Understanding of the Basin Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro R A Ramos, L.; Aitken, A.; Occhipinti, S.; Lindsay, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Bryah and Padbury Basins were developed along the northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton, in the southern portion of the Capricorn Orogen, which represents a Proterozoic tectonic zone that bounds the Yilgarn and Pilbara Cratons in Western Australia. These basins have been previously interpreted as developing in a rift, back-arc, and retro-arc foreland basins. Recent studies suggest that the Bryah Basin was deposited in a rift setting, while the overlying Padbury Basin evolved in a pro-foreland basin during the collision of the Yilgarn Craton and the Pilboyne block (formed by the Pilbara Craton and the Glenburgh Terrane), occurring in the Glenburgh Orogeny (2005-1960 Ma). This study focuses on characterizing the architecture and structural framework of the Bryah and Padbury Basins through analysis of geophysical and geological datasets, in order to better understand the different stages of the basins evolution. Gravity and magnetic data were used to define the main tectonic units and lithological boundaries, and to delineate major discontinuities in the upper and lower crust, as well as anomalies through a combination of map view interpretation and forward modelling. Geological mapping and drill core observations were linked with the geophysical interpretations. Fourteen magnetic domains are distinguished within the basins, while four main domains based on the Bouguer Anomaly are recognized. The highest gravity amplitude is related with an anomaly trending EW/NE-SW, which is coincident with the voluminous mafic rocks of the Bryah Basin, and may indicate the presence of an approximately 5km thick package of higher density mafic rocks. Magnetic depth estimations also indicate deep magnetic sources up to approximately 4,45km. These results can help to elucidate processes that occurred during the precursor rift of the early stages of the Bryah Basin, add information in relation to the basement control on sedimentation, allow the characterization of the varying

  20. Australia - a nuclear weapons testing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs, Michael.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1958 Britain conducted five separate nuclear weapons trials in Australia. Australia had the uninhabited wide open spaces and the facilities which such tests need and Britain was able to use its special relationship with Australia to get agreement to conduct atomic tests in Australia and establish a permanent test site at Maralinga. Other non-nuclear tests were conducted between 1953-1963. The story of Britain's involvement in atomic weapons testing in Australia is told through its postal history. Both official and private covers are used to show how the postal communications were established and maintained throughout the test years. (UK)

  1. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1979-10-01

    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  2. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  3. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  4. Big gas project for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2005-01-01

    Australia is re-launching its ambitions in liquefied natural gas (LNG) with the Greater Gorgon project of offshore exploitation of the natural gas reserves of the continental shelf of NW Australia. These reserves would represent 200 million tons of LNG which will be exported towards China and USA. The project will cost 11 billion dollars and will yield 2 billion dollars per year. It is managed by a consortium which groups together Chevron Corp. (50%), Shell (25%) and ExxonMobil (25%). Technip company is partner of the project. The China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC) has announced its intention to become also partner of the project, and maybe Japan, South Korea and Taiwan will wish too. Short paper. (J.S.)

  5. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  6. Observing urban forests in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2009-01-01

    From February 13 to 28, 2009 I had the good fortune of visiting Australia, and touring urban forests in Sydney, Canberra, Brisbane, and Melbourne. My visits were only a day or two in each city, so in no case did I get an in-depth view of the urban forest resource or its management. The following observations are based on rather superficial field assessments and brief...

  7. Radiological terrorism and Australia's response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, D.

    2003-01-01

    A terrorist attack in Australia involving dispersal of radioactive material is different from conventional terrorist attacks involving explosives. The trauma experienced by victims during an explosive incident includes cuts, broken limbs, burns and shock. When an explosive device involving radioactive materials is involved, there are a number of additional characteristics including the contamination of victims and the surrounding area and the potential requirement for ongoing monitoring and decontamination. Response actions may require additional complex emergency response measures including immediate protective actions to protect those potentially exposed to contamination, mass casualty care, and public and mental health. There are concerns that terrorist organizations are showing increasing interest in acquiring radiological material that could be used with explosive. A dirty bomb or technically known as a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a device designed to spread radioactive contamination over a wide area and pose a health and safety threat to those within the contaminated area. The radioactive material could be in the form of a large chunk of material, fine powder, a liquid mist, or a gas. The material may also be spread in other ways, such as by simply emptying a container over the desired area. As RDD's do not require large amounts of explosives, there is unlikely to be a large numbers of casualties, however the areas contaminated by the radiological material may cause immediate and long term health risks to those exposed. An RDD is a weapon of Mass Disruption rather than destruction. While the likelihood of RDD's being employed by terrorist in Australia is still considered remote, Australia's emergency response organizations are developing plans to ensure a rapid and comprehensive response occurs should such an event occur in this country, The presentation will outline Australia's response arrangements at the local/state level and the type of federal

  8. Progress in food irradiation: Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, P A

    1982-11-01

    Progress in food irradiation treatment of Australian commodities, such as meat, pepper, honey, fruit is described. Irradiation took place with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation while testing for radiation sensitivity of Staphyllococcus in meat, of Bacillus aureus in pepper, of Streptococcus plutin and Bacillus larvae in honey, and of the fruitfly Dacus tryoni infesting fruit. So far, two State Health Commissions in Australia have authorised irradiation of shrimps with their sale being restricted to the State authorising treatment.

  9. Atomic Australia: 1944-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, Alice.

    1992-01-01

    This book tells how successive Australian governments pursued the elusive uranium dream. With Australian uranium committed to the West's atomic arsenals, Australia seemed set to become a nation powered by the atom. But by the mid-1950 the Australian government learnt that their expectations were premature, if not unrealistic. The background of the creation of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is also given along with the examination of the uranium controversies of the 1970s and 1980s. 150 refs

  10. Progress in food irradiation: Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in food irradiation treatment of Australian commodities, such as meat, pepper, honey, fruit is described. Irradiation took place with 60 Co gamma radiation while testing for radiation sensitivity of Staphyllococcus in meat, of Bacillus aureus in pepper, of Streptococcus plutin and Bacillus larvae in honey, and of the fruitfly Dacus tryoni infesting fruit. Sofar, two State Health Commissions in Australia have authorised irradiation of shrimps with their sale being restricted to the State authorising treatment. (AJ) [de

  11. Decoding Gene Patents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2015-01-01

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents—the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government—have dealt with the issue of whether genetic m...

  12. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture content.Data from

  13. Australia: Approaching an energy crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Jim; Settle, Domenica

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers energy policy in Australia in the context of its considerable energy resources, climate change and a recent change in government. It examines the possible paths that future energy use and policy in Australia could take, including published projections based largely on a 'business as usual' approach and projections based on a dramatic shift towards more efficient use of energy and renewable energy technologies. It also considers the various factors affecting future policy direction, including energy security, the advocacy in Australia for establishing nuclear electricity generation and other parts of the nuclear fuel-cycle, responses to climate change, and carbon sequestration. It concludes that while the Australian Government is currently reluctant to move away from a dependence on coal, and unlikely to adopt nuclear energy generation, a low-emissions future without waiting for the deployment of carbon capture and storage and without resorting to nuclear power is within reach. However, in the face of strong pressure from interest groups associated with energy intensive industry, making the necessary innovations will require further growth of community concern about climate change, and the development of greater understanding of the feasibility of employing low carbon-emissions options.

  14. The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitz, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

  15. Mapping the spatial distribution of chloride deposition across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. J.; Crosbie, R. S.

    2018-06-01

    The high solubility and conservative behaviour of chloride make it ideal for use as an environmental tracer of water and salt movement through the hydrologic cycle. For such use the spatial distribution of chloride deposition in rainfall at a suitable scale must be known. A number of authors have used point data acquired from field studies of chloride deposition around Australia to construct relationships to characterise chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast; these relationships have allowed chloride deposition to be interpolated in different regions around Australia. In this paper we took this a step further and developed a chloride deposition map for all of Australia which includes a quantification of uncertainty. A previously developed four parameter model of chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast for Australia was used as the basis for producing a continental scale chloride deposition map. Each of the four model parameters were made spatially variable by creating parameter surfaces that were interpolated using a pilot point regularisation approach within a parameter estimation software. The observations of chloride deposition were drawn from a literature review that identified 291 point measurements of chloride deposition over a period of 80 years spread unevenly across all Australian States and Territories. A best estimate chloride deposition map was developed from the resulting surfaces on a 0.05 degree grid. The uncertainty in the chloride deposition map was quantified as the 5th and 95th percentile of 1000 calibrated models produced via Null Space Monte Carlo analysis and the spatial variability of chloride deposition across the continent was consistent with landscape morphology. The temporal variability in chloride deposition on a decadal scale was investigated in the Murray-Darling Basin, this highlighted the need for long-term monitoring of chloride deposition if the uncertainty of the continental scale map is

  16. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  17. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  18. Water: Drought, Crisis and Governance in Australia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sousa Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite huge differences in population, household income and development levels, Australia and Brazil have some temporal convergences in their water governance systems. Over the last 20 years, both countries have significantly reformed their water policies and practices by introducing a legal foundation for more integrated and participatory catchment/basin management based on the best information available. A critical test of any water reform is how effective it is in meeting the challenges of extreme and unpredictable conditions of drought and floods, which are expected to increase under climate changes scenarios. This paper compared the contemporary water governance frameworks of Australia and Brazil in relation to three elements of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM: integration, participation, and information/knowledge. We focused on insights from Brazil’s recent drought and Australia’s fluctuating water crises to derive lessons and recommendations for future changes. Among the main recommendations, we stress the need for both systems to improve effective participation and to embrace a more comprehensive approach to cope with water scarcity in future scenarios. Furthermore, water related decisions should be based on a transparent and well informed process, and take into account the lessons from similar situations worldwide in order to avoid unnecessary or ineffective measures. As demonstrated in the Australian case during the Millennium Drought, the most effective initiatives were those involving government, the private sector and society to achieve a more sustainable consumption pattern in all sectors. There is much to learn from the Brazilian and Australia experiences in water reforms and crises, but it is imperative to understand the social, economic and environmental context within which these took place. Continuing to develop the capacity and willingness of researchers and policy makers to work together can make an

  19. Baseline atmospheric program Australia 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francey, R.J.; Dick, A.L.; Derek, N.

    1996-01-01

    This publication reports activities, program summaries and data from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania, during the calendar year 1993. These activities represent Australia's main contribution to the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN), part of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The report includes 5 research reports covering trace gas sampling, ozone and radon interdependence, analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide and carbon-disulfide, sampling of trace gas composition of the troposphere, and sulfur aerosol/CCN relationship in marine air. Summaries of program reports for the calendar year 1993 are also included. Tabs., figs., refs

  20. Decoding gene patents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2014-10-03

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents-the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government-have dealt with the issue of whether genetic material is proper subject matter for a patent. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  2. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  3. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  4. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  5. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  6. The new energy technologies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gleuher, M.; Farhi, R.

    2005-06-01

    The large dependence of Australia on the fossil fuels leads to an great emission of carbon dioxide. The Australia is thus the first greenhouse gases emitter per habitant, in the world. In spite of its sufficient fossil fuels reserves, the Australia increases its production of clean energies and the research programs in the domain of the new energies technology. After a presentation of the australia situation, the authors detail the government measures in favor of the new energy technologies and the situation of the hydroelectricity, the wind energy, the wave and tidal energy, the biomass, the biofuels, the solar energy, the ''clean'' coal, the hydrogen and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  7. Industrial application of nuclear techniques in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The applications of nuclear techniques in Australia was reviewed - the work has been to aid: mining and mineral sector, the manufacturing, chemical and petroleum industries, hydrology and sedimentology

  8. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    Australia's economic, demonstrated resources of uranium (U) at the end of 1996 amounted to 622,000 tonnes U, the largest of any country. Uranium is currently produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. Improved market conditions and recent changes to Government policies have encouraged Australian companies to commit to the expansion of existing operations and the development of new uranium mines. Australia's annual production is likely to increase from its present level of 6000 tonncs (t) U 3 O 8 to approximately 12 000 t U 3 O 8 by the year 2000. (author)

  9. Metallogenic relationships to tectonic evolution - the Lachlan Orogen, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierlein, Frank P.; Gray, David R.; Foster, David A.

    2002-08-01

    Placing ore formation within the overall tectonic framework of an evolving orogenic system provides important constraints for the development of plate tectonic models. Distinct metallogenic associations across the Palaeozoic Lachlan Orogen in SE Australia are interpreted to be the manifestation of interactions between several microplates and three accretionary complexes in an oceanic back-arc setting. In the Ordovician, significant orogenic gold deposits formed within a developing accretionary wedge along the Pacific margin of Gondwana. At the same time, major porphyry Cu-Au systems formed in an oceanic island arc outboard of an evolved magmatic arc that, in turn, gave rise to granite-related Sn-W deposits in the Early Silurian. During the ongoing evolution of the orogen in the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, sediment-hosted Cu-Au and Pb-Zn deposits formed in short-lived intra-arc basins, whereas a developing fore-arc system provided the conditions for the formation of several volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. Inversion of these basins and accretion to the Australian continental margin triggered another pulse of orogenic gold mineralisation during the final consolidation of the orogenic belt in the Middle to Late Devonian.

  10. Rural male suicide in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  12. Uranium production economics in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorentino, C.M.R.; Butler, R.D.; Thomas, C.M.; McIlveen, G.R.; Huxlin, M.E.

    1990-02-01

    This review of the economics of production of uranium in Australia provides a detailed description of eleven important uranium deposits including capital and production costs estimates and supply curves. For each mine a detailed assessment has been made of its potential production capacity to the year 2000. Socio-economic factors that play an all-too-important role in the Australian uranium industry are extensively reviewed to provide an insight into the factors affecting Australia's ability to supply. The study is based on a detailed computer-based economic engineering model where all major costs such as labor, consumables and capital recovery charges are analyzed for each mine, and levellised break-even prices determined. It is argued that at the present low market prices, the three on-going operations are profitable, and at least three other deposits could be brought to viable production, given the necessary Government approval. Several other deposits appear to be marginal at the set Australian export floor price of US$26 per pound. Annual production could be raised from about 6,000 tonnes of U 3 O 8 to 16,000 tonnes by the turn of century, with the development of three additional deposits. It is concluded that, if Australian producers were allowed to compete freely on the international market, annual production would pass the 10,000 tonne/annum mark between 1995 and 2000. 35 figs., 38 tabs., 81 refs

  13. Occupational lung diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Ryan F; Brims, Fraser

    2017-11-20

    Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products. Identification of an occupational cause of a lung disease can be difficult and requires maintaining a high index of suspicion. When an occupational lung disease is identified, this may facilitate a cure and help to protect coworkers. Currently, very little information is collected regarding actual cases of occupational lung diseases in Australia. Most assumptions about many occupational lung diseases are based on extrapolation from overseas data. This lack of information is a major impediment to development of targeted interventions and timely identification of new hazardous exposures. All employers, governments and health care providers in Australia have a responsibility to ensure that the highest possible standards are in place to protect workers' respiratory health.

  14. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  15. Variation in forearc basin development along the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, W.

    The present forearc basin configuration along the Sunda Arc initially appears to have been controlled by extension and differential subsidence of basement blocks in response to the late Eocene collision of India with Asia. The late Oligocene increase in convergence between the South-east Asian and Indian Plates associated with a new pulse of subduction, resulted in basement uplift and the formation of a regional unconformity that can be recognized along the entire Sunda Arc. From the early to late Miocene, the Sumba and Savu forearc sectors along the eastern Sunda Arc may have been characterized by forearc extension. Submarine fan deposition on the arcward side of the evolving accretionary prism represents the first phase in forearc basin deposition. These fans were subsequently covered by basin and slope sediments derived from the evolving magmatic arc. Structural response to increased late Miocene compression varied along strike of the Sunda Arc. North of Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa, the incipient collision between Australia and the western Banda Arc caused back-arc thrusting and basin inversion. Towards the south of Java, an increase in both the size of the accretionary prism and convergence rates resulted in uplift and large scale folding of the outer forearc basin strata. Along the west coast of Sumatra, increased compression resulted in uplift along the inner side of the forearc along older transcurrent faults. Uplift of West Sumatra was followed by the deposition of a westward prograding sequence of terrigenous sediments that resulted in the development of a broad shelf. Initial forearc basin subsidence relates to the age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, on top of which the basin is situated. Along the western Sunda Arc, both fexural loading of the evolving accretionary prism, and across arc strike-slip faulting represent additional factors that result in forearc subsidence.

  16. Climate change and runoff in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Aryal, S. K.; Durrant, J.; Pearcey, M.; Braccia, M.; Charles, S. P.; Boniecka, L.; Hodgson, G. A.; Bari, M. A.; Viney, N. R.; McFarlane, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThis paper presents the results of computer simulations of runoff from 13 major fresh and brackish river basins in south-western Australia (SWA) under climate projections obtained from 15 GCMs with three future global warming scenarios equivalent to global temperature rises of 0.7 °C, 1.0 °C and 1.3 °C by 2030. The objective was to apply an efficient methodology, consistent across a large region, to examine the implications of the best available projections in climate trends for future surface water resources. An ensemble of rainfall-runoff models was calibrated on stream flow data from 1975 to 2007 from 106 gauged catchments distributed throughout the basins of the study area. The sensitivity of runoff to projected changes in mean annual rainfall is examined using the climate 'elasticity' concept. Averaged across the study area, all 15 GCMs project declines in rainfall under all global warming scenarios with a median decline of 8% resulting in a median decline in runoff of 25%. Such uniformity in projections from GCMs is unusual. Over SWA the average annual runoff under the 5th wettest and 5th driest of the 45 projections of the 2030 climate declines by 10 and 42%, respectively. Under the 5th driest projection the runoff decline ranges from 53% in the northern region to 40% in the southern region. Strong regional variations in climate sensitivity are found with the proportional decline in runoff greatest in the northern region and the greatest volumetric declines in the wetter basins in the south. Since the mid 1970s stream flows into the major water supply reservoirs in SWA have declined by more than 50% following a 16% rainfall reduction. This has already had major implications for water resources planning and for the preservation of aquatic and riparian ecosystems in the region. Our results indicate that this reduction in runoff is likely to continue if future climate projections eventuate.

  17. Feasibility of uranium enrichment in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The Council considered that provided the balance between costs and markets was found to be acceptable, there was no valid reason against the Government proceeding with a study on the feasibility of, and perhaps participating in the establishment of a commercial uranium enrichment industry in Australia. Areas covered include technical expertise and industrial structure in Australia, environmental aspects and safeguards

  18. A comparison of integrated river basin management strategies: A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhong; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Guanghong

    In order to achieve the integrated river basin management in the arid and rapid developing region, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwestern China, one of critical river basins were selected as a representative example, while the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the USA were selected for comparative analysis in this paper. Firstly, the comparable characters and hydrological contexts of these three watersheds were introduced in this paper. Then, based on comparative studies on the river basin challenges in terms of the drought, intensive irrigation, and rapid industrialization, the hydrological background of the MDB, the CRB and the HRB was presented. Subsequently, the river management strategies were compared in three aspects: water allocation, water organizations, and water act and scientific projects. Finally, we proposed recommendations for integrated river basin management for the HRB: (1) Water allocation strategies should be based on laws and markets on the whole basin; (2) Public participation should be stressed by the channels between governance organizations and local communities; (3) Scientific research should be integrated into river management to understand the interactions between the human and nature.

  19. Uranium exploration and mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wutzler, B.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium minerals were discovered in Australia in the years 1850 to 1900 already, but most of them were not recognised as such. It was not until 1894 that the first significant uranium find was made in Carcoar, west of Sydney. At that time, the uranium output of the world, which only amounted to a few hundred cwts, was for the most part obtained from mining areas close to the border between Saxony and Bohemia. In South Australia, uranium ore was mined experimentally for the production of radium at Radium Hill from 1906 onwards and at Mt. Painter from 1910 onwards. It was not until World War II, however, that uranium gained importance as a valuable raw material that could also be used for military purposes. The second phase of uranium mining in Australia commenced in 1944. Within ten years Australia's presumed uranium potential was confirmed by extensive exploration. The development of uranium mining in Australia is described in the present paper. (orig.)

  20. Replacement research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ross

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the Australian Government commissioned a review into the need for a replacement research reactor. That review concluded that in about years, if certain conditions were met, the Government could make a decision in favour of a replacement reactor. A major milestone was achieved when, on 3 September 1997, the Australian Government announced the construction of a replacement research reactor at the site of Australia's existing research reactor HIFAR, subject to the satisfactory outcome of an environmental assessment process. The reactor will be have the dual purpose of providing a first class facility for neutron beam research as well as providing irradiation facilities for both medical isotope production and commercial irradiations. The project is scheduled for completion before the end of 2005. (author)

  1. Atomic test site (south Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godman, N.A.; Cousins, Jim; Hamilton, Archie.

    1993-01-01

    The debate, which lasted about half an hour, is reported verbatin. It was prompted by the campaign by the Maralinga people of South Australia to have their traditional lands restored to them. Between 1953 and 1957 the United Kingdom government carried out of atomic tests and several hundred minor trials on the lands. A clean-up programme had taken place in 1967 but further decontamination was needed before the area is safe for traditional aboriginal life and culture. A small area will remain contaminated with plutonium for thousands of years. The cost and who would pay, the Australian or UK government was being negotiated. The UK government's position was that the site is remote, the health risk is slight and the clean-up operation of 1967 was acknowledged as satisfactory by the Australian government. (UK)

  2. Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Trawley, Steven; Hendrieckx, Christel

    2016-01-01

    and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Youth-Australia Study is the first large-scale, national survey of the impact of diabetes on the psychosocial outcomes of Australian adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. METHODS/DESIGN: The survey was web-based to enable a large-scale, national...... from a relatively advantaged socioeconomic background. DISCUSSION: The online survey format was a successful and economical approach for engaging young people with type 1 diabetes and their parents. This rich quantitative and qualitative dataset focuses not only on diabetes management and healthcare...... and their parents. These will inform future research and support services to meet the needs of young Australians with type 1 diabetes and their families....

  3. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  4. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  5. Conference handbook. Seventh Conference on Nuclear Science and Engineering in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Association (ANA) inaugurated a series of biennial national conferences in 1995 to be held in alternate years to the series of international Pacific Basin Nuclear Conferences, of which the ANA hosted the Ninth in the series in Sydney in May 1994 and the Fifteenth in Sydney in 2006. The main objective of these national conferences is to present information on important aspects of the peaceful uses of nuclear science and engineering in Australia and to place this information in a world context and in a readily understood form. These conferences have the general title of Nuclear Science and Engineering in Australia and have consisted mainly of papers invited from leading experts in areas of topical interest in nuclear science and technology supported by contributed poster papers. This seventh conference in 2007 has the special theme A Nuclear Future and also includes papers by invited speakers and contributed posters

  6. Women and Ultramodern Buddhism in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Halafoff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Buddhists started arriving in Australia in large numbers during the mid-1800s, and the first Buddhist societies and centres began to be formed in the mid-late 1900s. This paper examines the role of women in bringing Buddhism to and establishing it in Australia. Women have featured prominently in a small amount of scholarship, including Paul Croucher’s (1989 Buddhism in Australia: 1848–1988 and Cristina Rocha and Michelle Barker’s (eds. 2011 edited volume on Buddhism in Australia: Traditions in Change. This paper draws on these sources, but primarily on more recent digital oral histories of prominent Buddhist women and men in Australia, recorded as part of the first stage of the Buddhist Life Stories of Australia project in 2014–2015. These first-hand accounts bring the early female pioneers of Buddhism in Australia to life and provide a rich re-telling of this history with emphasis on women’s contributions to it. We also argue that these women’s experiences can best be understood through a framework of ‘ultramodern Buddhism,’ built upon theories of modern and post-modern Buddhism, as many of these women were trailblazers bridging dualisms of tradition and modernity, Asia and the West, and adhering to both feminist and Buddhist principles.

  7. New research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.

    1992-01-01

    HIFAR, Australia's major research reactor was commissioned in 1958 to test materials for an envisaged indigenous nuclear power industry. HIFAR is a Dido type reactor which is operated at 10 MW. With the decision in the early 1970's not to proceed to nuclear power, HIFAR was adapted to other uses and has served Australia well as a base for national nuclear competence; as a national facility for neutron scattering/beam research; as a source of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and treatment; and as a source of export revenue from the neutron transmutation doping of silicon for the semiconductor industry. However, all of HIFAR's capabilities are becoming less than optimum by world and regional standards. Neutron beam facilities have been overtaken on the world scene by research reactors with increased neutron fluxes, cold sources, and improved beams and neutron guides. Radioisotope production capabilities, while adequate to meet Australia's needs, cannot be easily expanded to tap the growing world market in radiopharmaceuticals. Similarly, neutron transmutation doped silicon production, and export income from it, is limited at a time when the world market for this material is expanding. ANSTO has therefore embarked on a program to replace HIFAR with a new multi-purpose national facility for nuclear research and technology in the form of a reactor: a) for neutron beam research, - with a peak thermal flux of the order of three times higher than that from HIFAR, - with a cold neutron source, guides and beam hall, b) that has radioisotope production facilities that are as good as, or better than, those in HIFAR, c) that maximizes the potential for commercial irradiations to offset facility operating costs, d) that maximizes flexibility to accommodate variations in user requirements during the life of the facility. ANSTO's case for the new research reactor received significant support earlier this month with the tabling in Parliament of a report by the Australian Science

  8. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockings, Colin

    2006-01-01

    cumbersome and often exceeds the prescribed OH and S single person lifting limits. The role of industrial radiography has expanded to inspect not only welds and castings, so that it now includes inspection of assembled and processed goods ranging from automotive air-bags to canned food. It is also used in security systems at airports and other facilities. Almost all these applications use cabinet systems which are rarely the subject of serious radiation incidents or accidents. Gamma ray inspection no longer uses radium. The most common radio-isotopes in use now are Cobalt 60 and Iridium 192. Their freedom from the need for an electrical power supply; their high radiation energy and the ability to place a source in positions of limited physical access, ensures the ongoing attraction of the method. The useful activity ranges of typical sources vary according to their application and the effect on total inspection costs. Common source activities in Australia range between 185 and 370 GBq for Cobalt 60; and between 1500 and 3700 GBq for Iridium 192. Outside Australia however there are recent reports of routine industrial radiography using more than 5500 GBq of Iridium 192. Thus it can be appreciated that any radiation accidents involving these high activity sources have the potential for significant radiation doses. Personal Dose Data: ARPANSA and its predecessor, the Australian Radiation Laboratory, has been providing a personal radiation monitoring service for some time, and releases a summary report every few years (ARPANSA/TR 139, ARL/TR 121, ARL/TR 107). The selected data shown in Table 2 indicate a downward trend in occupational doses received by industrial radiographers working in open site situations, which are potentially the most hazardous. This trend is encouraging, especially when the number of industrial radiographers is increasing. A comparison of the ARPANSA data indicate that whilst the average Australian industrial radiographer's annual dose is higher than the

  9. Palaeozoic synorogenic sedimentation in central and northern Australia: a review of distribution and timing with implications for the evolution of intracontinental orogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, P.W.; Hand, M.; Sandiford, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Palaeozoic Alice Springs Orogeny was a major intraplate tectonic event in central and northern Australia. The sedimentological, structural and isotopic effects of the Alice Springs Orogeny have been well documented in the northern Amadeus Basin and adjacent exhumed Arunta lnlier, although the full regional extent of the event, as well as lateral variations in timing and intensity are less well known. Because of the lack of regional isotopic data, we take a sedimentological approach towards constraining these parameters, compiling the location and age constraints of inferred synorogenic sedimentation across a number of central and northern Australian basins. Such deposits are recorded from the Amadeus, Ngalia, Georgina, Wiso, Eastern Officer and, possibly, Warburton Basins. Deposits are commonly located adjacent to areas of significant basement uplift related to north-south shortening. In addition, similar aged orogenic deposits occur in association with strike-slip tectonism in the Ord and southern Bonaparte Basins of northwest Australia. From a combination of sedimentological and isotopic evidence it appears that localised convergent deformation started in the Late Ordovician in the eastern Arunta lnlier and adjacent Amadeus Basin. Synorogenic style sedimentation becomes synchronously widespread in the late Early Devonian and in most areas the record terminates abruptly close to the end of the Devonian. A notable exception is the Ngalia Basin in which such sedimentation continued until the mid-Carboniferous. In the Ord and Bonaparte Basins there is evidence of two discrete pulses of transcurrent activity in the Late Devonian and Carboniferous. The sedimentological story contrasts with the isotopic record from the southern Arunta lnlier, which has generally been interpreted in terms of continuous convergent orogenic activity spanning most of the Devonian and Carboniferous, with a suggestion that rates of deformation increased in the mid-Carboniferous. Either

  10. PET joint SPECT in Australia nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the scientific merit, clinical use and some historical aspects of the introduction and development of the positron emission tomography as a diagnostic technique in Australia. 4 refs

  11. Refugee women as entrepreneurs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John van Kooy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that ‘entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.

  12. Cogeneration in Australia. Situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Research Paper is mainly concerned with the status and prospects for cogeneration in Australia. An introductory chapter reviews the fundamentals of cogeneration, covering both technical and institutional aspects. A range of technologies are employed in cogeneration: these technologies and their efficiency and environmental impact effects are discussed in Chapter 2. The economics of cogeneration are a major factor in the profitability of current and potential plants. Potential factors affecting cogeneration economics are discussed .The status of cogeneration in Australia is reviewed for each State and Territory, and includes a number of case studies of existing plants. Government (federal, state, territory) policies that have a significant impact on the attractiveness of cogeneration are reviewed. Finally, the future prospects for cogeneration in Australia, drawing on the preceding chapters and a review of estimated potentials for cogeneration in Australia are presented

  13. Renewable energy development and prospects in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zahedi

    2000-01-01

    Development of renewable energies in Australia is still in its infancy and will require active support by government, utilities and financing institutions to ensure a steady growth. Much has been done to increase the utilisation of renewable energies in the energy supply, but much still remains to be done, especially in the areas of promotion, demonstration, training and technology transfer. This process will lead to meeting the energy needs of the population in rural areas and to contributing to a suitable development of the region during the next century. Australia is endowed with a wealth of renewable energy resources that hold great promise for addressing a host of important environmental, employment and socioeconomic issues. Australia has a set of climate, geographic and other factors that provide favourable conditions for many specific renewable energy applications. The objectives of this paper is to look at the current situation of renewable energies in Australia, opportunities, constraints, current projects, available potential and future prospects. (Author)

  14. Climate change and wind power in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millais, C.

    2001-01-01

    The article represents a stern criticism of Australia's attitude to climate change. Its climate change policy is described as 'Neanderthal'. The Australian government is said to be strongly opposed to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The Government's policy appears to be driven by vested interests in fossil fuels. A list of eight flaws in Australia's 2% renewables target is given; the target is said to be far too small for a country with so much renewables potential. However, investment in the country's enormous wind power potential is increasing and targets are given; six reasons why Australia needs to invest in wind power are given. It is suggested that by the end of this decade, 10% of Australia's electricity could come from wind power - a web site address giving further details is given

  15. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  16. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Natalie

    1976-01-01

    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  17. Age and paragenesis of mineralisation at Coronation Hill uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Karin; Meffre, Sebastien; Davidson, Garry

    2014-06-01

    Coronation Hill is a U + Au + platinum group elements deposit in the South Alligator Valley (SAV) field in northern Australia, south of the better known unconformity-style U East Alligator Rivers (EAR) field. The SAV field differs from the EAR by having a more complex basin-basement architecture. A volcanically active fault trough (Jawoyn Sub-basin) developed on older basement and then was disrupted by renewed faulting, before being buried beneath regional McArthur Basin sandstones that are also the main hanging wall to the EAR deposits. Primary mineralisation at Coronation Hill formed at 1607 ± 26 Ma (rather than 600-900 Ma as previously thought), and so it is likely that the SAV was part of a single west McArthur Basin dilational event. Most ore is hosted in sub-vertical faults and breccias in the competent volcanic cover sequence. This favoured fluid mixing, acid buffering (forming illite) and oxidation of Fe2+ and reduced C-rich assemblages as important uranium depositional mechanisms. However, reduction of U in fractured older pyrite (Pb model age of 1833 ± 67 Ma) is an important trap in diorite. Some primary ore was remobilised at 675 ± 21 Ma to form coarse uraninite + Ni-Co pyrite networks containing radiogenic Pb. Coronation Hill is polymetallic, and in this respect resembles the `egress'-style U deposits in the Athabascan Basin (Canada). However, these are all cover-hosted. A hypothesis for further testing is that Coronation Hill is also egress-style, with ores formed by fluids rising through basement-hosted fault networks (U reduction by diorite pyrite and carbonaceous shale), and into veins and breccias in the overlying Jawoyn Sub-basin volcano-sedimentary succession.

  18. Evolution of stone management in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Chak; Bariol, Simon Virgil

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? There is very little contemporary data regarding stone management in Australia. This study assesses the impact of technological advances on stone management practises, and raises questions as to why there is an increasing rate of intervention for stone disease in Australia. Knowledge of management trends as demonstrated in this paper give individual surgeons a guideline for contemporary practise in this country. • To examine trends in the operative management of upper urinary tract stone disease in Australia over the past 15 years. • The Medicare Australia and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare databases were used to determine the annual number of renal colic presentations and procedural interventions undertaken for stone disease. • In Australia over the past 15 years, the annual number of procedural interventions for upper urinary tract stones has increased, primarily due to the rising number of endoscopic procedures performed. • During this period, shock wave lithotripsy numbers have remained steady whilst open and percutaneous procedures have been in decline. • The introduction of and subsequent preference for less invasive techniques has changed the management pathway of patients presenting with stone disease in Australia. • Further studies are necessary to determine whether this escalation in endoscopic procedures is due to an increase in the incidence of stone disease, earlier detection, a lower intervention threshold or a higher retreatment rate. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  19. Sedimentary basins reconnaissance using the magnetic Tilt-Depth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A.; Williams, S.; Samson, E.; Fairhead, D.; Ravat, D.; Blakely, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    We compute the depth to the top of magnetic basement using the Tilt-Depth method from the best available magnetic anomaly grids covering the continental USA and Australia. For the USA, the Tilt-Depth estimates were compared with sediment thicknesses based on drilling data and show a correlation of 0.86 between the datasets. If random data were used then the correlation value goes to virtually zero. There is little to no lateral offset of the depth of basinal features although there is a tendency for the Tilt-Depth results to be slightly shallower than the drill depths. We also applied the Tilt-Depth method to a local-scale, relatively high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The Tilt-Depth method successfully identified a variety of important tectonic elements known from geological mapping. Of particular interest, the Tilt-Depth method illuminated deep (3km) contacts within the non-magnetic sedimentary core of the Olympic Mountains, where magnetic anomalies are subdued and low in amplitude. For Australia, the Tilt-Depth estimates also give a good correlation with known areas of shallow basement and sedimentary basins. Our estimates of basement depth are not restricted to regional analysis but work equally well at the micro scale (basin scale) with depth estimates agreeing well with drill hole and seismic data. We focus on the eastern Officer Basin as an example of basin scale studies and find a good level of agreement between previously-derived basin models. However, our study potentially reveals depocentres not previously mapped due to the sparse distribution of well data. This example thus shows the potential additional advantage of the method in geological interpretation. The success of this study suggests that the Tilt-Depth method is useful in estimating the depth to crystalline basement when appropriate quality aeromagnetic anomaly data are used (i.e. line spacing on the order of or less than the expected depth to

  20. Pangea: Geochronological correlation of successive environmental and strati-tectonic phases in Europe and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veevers, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    A robust geochronology based on U-Pb zircon ages in Australia (n = 158) and Europe (n = 376) provides a rigorous test of (1) the model of a climatic-tectonic cycle of a single continent (Pangea) and ocean (Panthalassa) with an icehouse climate alternating with many continents and oceans with a greenhouse climate, and (2) the idea of coeval (320 to 300 Ma) right-lateral shear events in Eastern Australia and Europe followed by earliest Permian (~ 300 Ma) extension. During Pangean assembly, stress from the oblique collision of Laurussia and Gondwanaland bent the oroclines in Iberia, drove the intense shortening in Central Australia and terminal megakinking in the Lachlan orogen, and possibly drove the bending of oroclines in Eastern Australia. Extension I (~ 300 Ma, Carboniferous/Permian) followed the first outburst of self-induced (monsoonal) heat from the newly assembled Pangea, and generated fresh accommodation space for globally synchronous sedimentary successions, including the glacial base and succeeding coals of the Gondwana facies. Extension was relieved by sags on (isotropic) cratons and rifts on (anisotropic) fold belts with voluminous volcanics. In Europe, the Variscan orogen was cut into right-lateral magmatic rifts and the craton sagged to accumulate magmatic basins; likewise, the convergent margin of Eastern Australia was cut into a long magmatic rift and the cratonic foreland covered by the Gondwana facies. The end-Permian (251 Ma) sea-level drawdown, climate warming, and severe biotic extinction, with no obvious tectonic cause, were responsible for the Early-Middle Triassic coal gap. A second outburst of heat drove Extension II (235 Ma, Carnian, Late Triassic), expressed as rifts and sags that accumulated a second set of coal-bearing strata. At this time of its largest extent, Pangea underwent incipient breakup by rifting of the Atlantic Margins of North America, Morocco, and Western Europe that developed into 190 Ma drifting.

  1. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  2. Examining supply changes in Australia's cocaine market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Chalmers, Jenny; Bright, David A; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Sindicich, Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Media attention to cocaine use and supply has increased following some of the largest cocaine seizures in Australia's history. Whether there has been an expansion in supply remains unclear. This paper examines the evidence behind assertions of increased supply in Australia and the scale and nature of any apparent increase, using proxy indicators of cocaine importation, distribution and use. Eight proxies of cocaine importation, distribution and use were adopted, including amount of importation, mode of importation and supply flows to Australia. Each proxy indicator was sourced using publicly available and Australia-wide data, including information on the total weight of border seizures, mode of detection and country of embarkation of individual seizures. Data permitting, trends were examined for up to a 12 year period (1997-1998 to 2009-2010). Since 2006-2007 there was evidence of increased cocaine importation, albeit less than between 1998-1999 and 2001-2002. There were further signs that the 2006-2007 expansion coincided with a diversification of trafficking routes to and through Australia (beyond the traditional site of entry-Sydney) and shifts in the geographic distribution of use. The congruity between indicators suggests that there has been a recent expansion in cocaine supply to and distribution within Australia, but that the more notable shift has concerned the nature of supply, with an apparent growth in importation and distribution beyond New South Wales. The diversification of cocaine supply routes may increase risks of market entrenchment and organised crime throughout Australia. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. The renewable energy market in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Sarria, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change

  5. Commercialisation of science in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.

    2003-01-01

    and the business proposition have merit - government assistance (e.g. BIF, R and D Start, STI funding) and some type of relationship with Big Pharma/Big Biotech provide assurances. In the life sciences, durable and strong IP is critical. This presentation will focus on choice of commercialisation strategy (i.e. licensing vs. start up vs. joint venture etc); the hazards of 'expropriation' for the small end of town; little c versus big C commercialisation; creating value in the biopharmaceutical sector; and persistent restraints to innovation in Australia

  6. Australia's replacement research reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify

  7. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  8. Status of radionuclide monitoring stations in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ANSTO) first became involved in the monitoring of radionuclides in the environment in 1955 when assessing the effects on the Australian population of the radioactive releases associated with the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. (At that time ARPANSA was known as the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory). The United Kingdom had tested weapons in Australia in 1952 and 1953 and in August 1954 entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to establish a test range at Maralinga in South Australia. The government established a Maralinga Safety Committee and through this Committee ARPANSA became involved in the surveillance of radioactive fallout over Australia. The primary function of this surveillance was to ensure that the nuclear trials would not adversely effect the health of the Australian population. A program was established to reliably assess the deposition of radioactive fallout over Australia so that exposure to the population could be estimated. This task was performed in conjunction with the Bureau of Meteorology and the Department of Supply. Measurements were made on daily samples of fallout dawn from 10 centres throughout Australia. A low level radiochemical facility was established in 1961 for the measurement of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in environmental samples so that the long term distribution of fallout could be tracked. In the 1960s the program was extended to measure fresh fission products reaching Australia from atmospheric testing in other countries, usually originating from test sites in the northern hemisphere. The sampling program that was established was designed so that it could be rapidly expanded when a new testing program started. At this time a permanent fallout monitoring network was established around Australia using high volume air samplers capable of sampling up to 10000 m 3 per week. Approximately six stations have been operated at any one time but the

  9. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  10. Radioactive waste management and disposal in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Early history of IVF in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Janežič

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 1970s and 1980s represent the early era of in vitro fertilization (IVF research. This article is a concise review of the early history of IVF, focusing on the contributions made by Australian pioneers.Objectives: To research the history of the early days of IVF in Australia.Search Strategy: ‘IVF history’ was used as a search criteria in PubMed.Selection criteria: We selected articles that were dealing with Australian research on IVF in 1970–1980s and were also statistically sound where applicable.Data collection and analysis: We collected, processed, and analyzed the data, and summed up two decades of IVF research in Australia.Main results: The first ideas about introducing IVF research in Australia started in 1970. Years of trials and hard work bore success and the first baby was born in 1980. IVF procedures then spread quickly across Australia.Conclusions: Australia was a leading force in the early days of IVF and with many innovative approaches contributed greatly to the development of IVF as we know it today.

  12. Does Lyme disease exist in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter J; Lum, Gary D; Robson, Jennifer Mb

    2016-11-07

    There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought. Antibiotic therapy for chronic "Lyme disease-like illness" can cause harm to both the individual (eg, cannula-related intravenous sepsis) and the broader community (increased antimicrobial resistance rates). Until there is strong evidence from well performed clinical studies that bacteria present in Australia cause a chronic debilitating illness that responds to prolonged antibiotics, treating patients with "Lyme disease-like illness" with prolonged antibiotic therapy is unjustified, and is likely to do much more harm than good.

  13. The Fluctuating Political Appeal of Water Engineering in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin R. Crase

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Like many nations, Australia has a mixed history with water engineering. For over a century the engineer was 'king' and water was harnessed as a vehicle for settling the harsh inland, creating wealth and building prosperity. By the 1960s it was becoming increasingly clear that this approach was not without its flaws. Mounting evidence of environmental degradation emerged in the 1970s and the trend towards fiscal responsibility in the 1980s subjected the engineering approach to even greater scrutiny. These events set the context for a series of water policy reforms that commenced in earnest in the early 1990s. Initially, the reforms favoured greater use of economic incentives and focussed attention on the ecological impacts of water management. In this environment, the status of the engineer was transformed from 'king' to 'servant'. However, the engineering profession was not to hold this status for long and the political difficulties of simultaneously dealing with the economics and ecology of water quickly became the rationale for reverting to engineering solutions. This paper traces these historical events and focusses specifically on the politically vexing issues that arise when water reallocation is attempted in a fully allocated basin.

  14. Insight to forcing of late Quaternary climate change from aeolian dust archives in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, H. A.; Marx, S.; Soderholm, J.; Denholm, J.; Petherick, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Australian continent is the largest source of dust in the Southern Hemisphere. Historical dust emissions records display inter-annual variability in response to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and inter-decadal variability which has been linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These reflect change in hydrometeorology of the continents two major dust source regions, the Murray-Darling Basin and the Lake Eyre Basin. The historical records do not allow longer term variability of ENSO and the PDO and their influence on Australia to be quantified. Importantly, sub-Milankovitch centennial to multi-millennial scale climate cycles and their impacts are not represented in the historical records. In this paper we present summary results from the analysis of two aeolain dust records spanning 7 ka and 45 ka. These were developed from ombrotrophic mire and lacustrine sediment cores collected from the Australian Alps and southeast Queensland. Both sites are located in the southeast Australian dust transport pathway and provide rare insight to forcings of climate variability and its impacts on eastern Australia through the late Quaternary. Age controls for the cores were established using 14C and 210Pb dating [McGowan et al. 2008, 2010]. The cores were sliced into 2 to 5 mm segments with a sub-sample of each segment combusted at 450°C for 12 hrs to destroy organic material and allow recovery of mineral dust. Geochemical fingerprinting of the global climate variability and the impact of forcings originating from the North Hemisphere. These results highlight the potential for adverse impacts on the climate of Australia by disturbance to North Atlantic Ocean circulation. References Marx, S. K., et al. 2005: Provenance of long travelled dust determined with ultra trace element composition: A pilot study with samples from New Zealand glaciers. Earth Surf. Processes Landforms, 30, 699-716. McGowan, H.A., et al. 2008: An ultra-high resolution record of

  15. Dermatology training and practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaratnam, Deshan F; Murrell, Dédée F

    2014-10-01

    Dermatology is a relatively young discipline in Australia compared to other specialities within the medical fraternity. From its humble beginnings, the profession has evolved significantly over the decades and is now represented by the Australasian College of Dermatologists which is charged with training the next generation of dermatologists and advocating for and advancing the profession. The authors reviewed and describe the history of dermatology training and practice in Australia. Despite the progress in education, there are only 415 dermatologists serving a population of 23.3 million (1 per 58 000) and yet it has the highest incidence and prevalence of skin cancer in the world. The scope of clinical practice is wide in Australia, with clinicians well versed in medical and procedural dermatology. It is hoped that Australian dermatology will continue to bolster the dermatology profession globally. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Prospects for the uranium industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia. (author)

  17. Prospects for the uranium industry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia.

  18. Studying Basin Water Balance Variations at Inter- and Intra-annual Time Scales Based On the Budyko Hypothesis and GRACE Gravimetry Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing intensity in global warming and anthropogenic activities has triggered significant changes over regional climates and landscapes, which, in turn, drive the basin water cycle and hydrological balance into a complex and unstable state. Budyko hypothesis is a powerful tool to characterize basin water balance and hydrological variations at long-term average scale. However, due to the absence of basin water storage change, applications of Budyko theory to the inter-annual and intra-annual time scales has been prohibited. The launch of GRACE gavimetry satellites provides a great opportunity to quantify terrestrial water storage change, which can be further introduced into the Budyko hypothesis to reveal the inter- and intra-annual response of basin water components under impacts of climate variability and/or human activities. This research targeted Hai River Basin (in China) and Murray-Darling Basin (in Australia), which have been identified with a continuous groundwater depletion trend as well as impacts by extreme climates in the past decade. This can help us to explore how annual or seasonal precipitation were redistributed to evapotranspiration and runoff via changing basin water storage. Moreover, the impacts of vegetation on annual basin water balance will be re-examined. Our results are expected to provide deep insights about the water cycle and hydrological behaviors for the targeted basins, as well as a proof for a consideration of basin water storage change into the Budyko model at inter- or intra-annual time steps.

  19. Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas F; Druce, Julian D; Chapman, Scott; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Wolf, Josh; Richards, Jack S; Korman, Tony; Birch, Chris; Richards, Michael J

    2008-01-07

    We report eight recent cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. Patients presented with fevers, rigors, headaches, arthralgia, and rash. The current Indian Ocean epidemic and Italian outbreak have featured prominently on Internet infectious disease bulletins, and Chikungunya virus infection had been anticipated in travellers from the outbreak areas. Diagnosis was by a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with confirmatory sequencing. Prompt diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infections is of public health significance as the mosquito vectors for transmission exist in Australia. There is potential for this infection to spread in the largely naïve Australian population.

  20. UV/EB curing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.; Garnett, J.; Loo Teck Ng

    1999-01-01

    Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied

  1. Status of Women In Physics in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics is Australia has remained mostly steady until recently, with the appointment of several eminent women in major government of public roles. Australia seems to maintain the same gender ratio for those studying and working in physics. There is no overall coordination of programs to assist women into the workplace but there is generally goodwill. Success in attracting and retaining women in the physics workforce appears to depend on the local culture, initiatives, and attitude of the most senior person in the organization.

  2. Recommendations for an energy policy for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Over the next few years, Australia must modify its dependence on natural oil and place greater reliance on other fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The recommendations contained in this report are the result of two years of study, and the long term energy prospects for Australia and energy resource policies for coal, liquid fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy and natural gas are considered in detail. Energy conservation policies and the identification of areas where energy research, development and demonstration need to be undertaken are also covered. (J.R.)

  3. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  4. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Briskman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. Vitriol is also directed at asylum seekers and refugees. Media, government and community discourses converge to promote Islam as dangerous and deviant.

  5. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  6. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  7. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  8. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism

  9. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  10. Internet advertising of artificial tanning in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica

    2006-08-01

    Artificial tanning, defined as deliberate exposure to ultraviolet rays produced by artificial tanning devices, is a new and emerging public health issue in Australia and globally. Epidemiological research suggests that artificial tanning may contribute to the incidence of melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer as well as other health problems. Given that Australia has a high incidence of skin cancer, we have undertaken a study to explore how artificial tanning has been promoted to its users. The aim was to analyze the completeness and accuracy of information about artificial tanning. A content analysis of web sites of tanning salons and distributors of tanning equipment in Australia was conducted. A total of 22 web sites were analyzed. None of the solarium operators or distributors of equipment provided full information about the risks of artificial tanning. Fifty-nine percent of web advertisements had no information and 41% provided only partial information regarding the risks of artificial tanning. Pictures with the image of bronze-tanned bodies, predominantly women, were used by all web advertisers. In light of the success of sun-safety campaigns in Australia, the findings of future epidemiological research on the prevalence of artificial tanning and sociological and anthropological research on why people utilize artificial tanning should be a basis for developing effective targeted health promotion on the elimination of artificial tanning in the country.

  11. Psychiatric epidemiology and disaster exposure in Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reifels, L.; Mills, K.; Dückers, M.L.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To examine the lifetime prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. Methods. We utilised data from a nationally representative population survey (N = 8841) which were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic

  12. Mineral exploration, Australia, March quarter 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This publication contains annual and quarterly statistics of exploration for minerals in Australia. Part 1 sets out statistics of exploration for minerals and oil shale for which data are no longer available for separate publication. Part 2 gives details of petroleum exploration.

  13. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine.

  14. Uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, B.W.; Whillans, R.T.; Williams, R.M.; Doggett, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)

  15. Australia modifies resource rent, uranium mining policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Current Australian government business and economic policies as they affect the mining industry are discussed. The distribution of constitutional and taxing powers in Australia between state and commonwealth governments and possible inappropriate taxes and other policies can have an adverse effect on resource development. The effects of these policies on both coal and uranium mining are discussed

  16. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C.

    1997-11-01

    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors)

  17. The Hibiscus panduriformis complex (Malvaceae) in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juswara, L.S.; Craven, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Hibiscus panduriformis Burm.f. species complex in Australia is revised. Six species are recognised, of which one is the widespread H. panduriformis; one, H. austrinus, is based upon H. panduriformis var. australis; and four represent new species, H. apodus, H. calcicola, H. fluvialis, and H.

  18. Perception of Innovative Crop Insurance in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so-called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low,

  19. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 thro...

  20. Doing Business Economy Profile 2017 : Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing...

  1. Loy Yang A - Australia's largest privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenckin, C.

    1997-01-01

    The recent A$4,746 million privatisation of the 2000MW Loy Yang A power station and the Loy Yang coal mine by the Victorian Government is Australia's largest privatisation and one of 1997's largest project financing deals. (author)

  2. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016 : Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Australia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  3. The future of astronomy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Elaine M.

    2017-09-01

    Australian astronomy has a bright future, thanks largely to recent government investments in major new telescopes, instruments and research centres. There are some short-term challenges as Australia's focus continues to shift from the current (mainly) national facilities for radio and optical astronomy to new multinational and global facilities.

  4. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, Peter D.; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog?s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  5. Micrometeorological and PBL experiments in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Hicks, B. B.

    1990-03-01

    A brief summary is given of five main field experiments (or sets of expeditions) carried out in Australia in the last thirty years. The main objectives and results of each are described, and an indication is given of their impact on progress in our understanding of the planetary boundary layer (PBL).

  6. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  7. Depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Alex D.H.; Mentha, Ricky; Rowley, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    groups comprising of members from primary Indigenous language groups in central Australia. First, focus group participants were asked to review and select a screening measure for adaptation. Bi-lingual experts then translated and back translated the language within the selected measure. Focus group...

  8. "Smartening Up": Ongoing Challenges for Australia's Outback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradduck, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    As the international community moves inexorably towards a "smart" future, the position of Australia's non-urban areas in that future is less certain. The (re-elected) Australian federal government made a commitment to moving Australian cities forward as part of the international "smart city" movement. However, the effectiveness…

  9. Atomic energy: agreement between Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This agreement provides for the exchange of nuclear materials and equipment between Canada and Australia and specifies the safeguards and other protective measures that shall be employed to ensure the peaceful use of the nuclear technology shared between the two countries

  10. Australia and the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Australia's support for the IAEA's safeguards program is described. Through a program of bilateral assistance to the Agency, Austrlia has developed and sponsored special programs of assistance to the IAEA's Safeguards over the period 1980 to 1986. The speech by the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade, Mr Bill Hayden, to the IAEA Thirtieth Anniversary Conference in Vienna on 21 September 1987 is included

  11. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  12. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  13. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  14. Australia's international health relations in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-02-21

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  15. Characterizing phenological vegetation dynamics amidst extreme climate variability in Australia with MODIS VI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Huete, A. R.; Xuanlon, M.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Ratana, P.

    2012-12-01

    sequences allowing identification of growth periods with different magnitudes and durations anywhere in the time series. Results show that the highest absolute variability in peak greenness occurred in cropped areas while the highest relative variability (coefficient of variation) occurred in interior Australia particularly around Lake Eyre, the center of a closed drainage basin in the dry interior of the continent. Across the desert interior, the timing of the green-up onset and the peak greenness was correlated with the landfall of cyclones and the inland penetration and strength of the north Australian summer monsoon (represented by TRMM data). The variability of Australian land surface phenology magnitude and timing was found to be strongly correlated with the swings between La Nina and El Nino events. The information on vegetation dynamics represented here is critical for land surface, fuel accumulation, agricultural production, and permanent ecosystem change modeling in relation to climate trends. A unique research opportunity is provided by recent climate variability: in 2010 a persistent El Nino has given way to a strong two-year La Nina breaking a decade long drought that was followed by record-breaking rainfall across most of the continent and extensive flooding followed by sustained greening.

  16. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.; Huurdeman, Emiel; Rem, Charlotte; Donders, T.H.; Pross, Jorg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy; Gallagher, Stephen; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the

  17. Large-scale global convection in the mantle beneath Australia from 55 Ma to now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The global-scale mantle convection cells in the asthenosphere are not geochemically homogeneous. The heterogeneity is most prominently reflected in the isotopic compositions (Pb-Sr-Nd) of the mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) that are direct partial melts from the underlying asthenosphere. Of particular relevance to Australia's geodynamic evolution from about 100 million years, are the distinctive geochemical signatures of the asthenosphere beneath the Pacific Ocean (Pacific MORB) and Indian Ocean (Indian MORB). Therefore, delineation of the boundary between the two distinct mantle reservoirs and any change in that boundary with time provide information about the patterns of global-scale asthenospheric mantle convection. This information has also allowed us to track large-scale mantle chemical reservoirs such as the distinctive Gondwana lithospheric mantle, and hence better understand the geodynamic evolution of the Australian continent from the time of Gondwana dispersal. Pb-Sr-Nd isotope data for Cenozoic basalts in eastern Australia (Zhang et al, 1999) indicate that Pacific-MORB type isotopic signatures characterise the lava-field basalts (55-14 Ma) in southeastern Australia, whereas Indian-MORB type isotopic signatures characterise younger basalts (6-0 Ma) from northeastern Australia. This discovery helps to constrain the changing locus of the major asthenospheric mantle convection cells represented by the Pacific and Indian MORB sources during and following the breakup of the eastern part of Gondwana, and locates, for the first time, the boundary of these convection cells beneath the Australian continent. This extends previous work in the SW Pacific back-arc basins (eg Hickey-Vargas et al., 1995) and the Southern Ocean (Lanyon et al., 1995) that indicates that the 1- and P-MORB mantle convection cells have been moving in opposite directions since the early Tertiary. These new data also indicate that the Indian-MORB source is a long-term asthenospheric

  18. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  19. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...), and (ii) The mangoes were inspected prior to export from Australia and found free of C. mangiferae, L.... APHIS-2011-0040] RIN 0579-AD52 Importation of Mangoes From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... concerning the importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh mangoes from Australia...

  20. Foundation on Economic Trends v. Bowen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-04

    The National Enviromental Policy Act requires that government agencies make a detailed enviromental impact statement (EIS) for all research significantly affecting the environment. These statements must be supplemented if the project substantially changes or if new information is obtained. The Foundation on Economic Trends argued that three developments in recombinant DNA research will significantly alter the enviromental impact, thereby mandating a new EIS by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). These developments are cloning oncogenic viruses, engineering the human immunodeficiency virus into cells not normally susceptible to it, and introducing AIDS genetic codes into mice. The U.S. District Court, District of Columbia, held that the first two projects do not pose a greater risk and that the enviromental assessment being prepared by NIH on the third satisfies the requirements of the National Enviromental Policy Act.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Bowen-Conradi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are assembled in a cell compartment called the nucleolus . The particular EMG1 gene mutation known to cause ... of EMG1 protein that is available in the nucleolus. A shortage of this protein in the nucleolus ...

  2. K-Basins design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines

  3. Misrepresenting the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Messerschmid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critique of the UN Economic and Social Commission for West Asia’s (ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan River Basin, as contained in its recently published Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. We argue that ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan Basin is marked by serious technical errors and a systematic bias in favour of one riparian, Israel, and against the Jordan River’s four Arab riparians. We demonstrate this in relation to ESCWA’s account of the political geography of the Jordan River Basin, which foregrounds Israel and its perspectives and narratives; in relation to hydrology, where Israel’s contribution to the basin is overstated, whilst that of Arab riparians is understated; and in relation to development and abstraction, where Israel’s transformation and use of the basin are underplayed, while Arab impacts are exaggerated. Taken together, this bundle of misrepresentations conveys the impression that it is Israel which is the main contributor to the Jordan River Basin, Arab riparians its chief exploiters. This impression is, we argue, not just false but also surprising, given that the Inventory is in the name of an organisation of Arab states. The evidence discussed here provides a striking illustration of how hegemonic hydro-political narratives are reproduced, including by actors other than basin hegemons themselves.

  4. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  5. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  6. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  7. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  8. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium is produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. In 1996, Ranger produced 4138 tonnes (t) U 3 O 8 from stockpiled ore mined from Ranger No. 1 Orebody. The capacity of the Ranger mill is being expanded to 5000 tonnes per annum (tpa) U 3 O 8 to coincide with the commencement of mining from No. 3 Orebody in mid-1997. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit is the world's largest deposit of low cost uranium. The operation currently has an annual production of 85,000 t copper, 1700 t U 3 O 8 and associated gold and silver. WMC Ltd proposes to expand annual production to 200 000 t copper and approximately 4600 t U 3 O 8 by end of 1999. The environmental impact of the expansion is being assessed jointly by both Commonwealth and South Australian Governments. A draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was released in May. Since its election in March 1996, the Liberal/National Party Coalition Government has made a number of changes to the Commonwealth Government's policies relating to uranium mining, including removal of the former Government's 'three mines' policy, and relaxation of the guidelines for foreign investment in Australian uranium mines. These changes, together with an improved outlook for the uranium market, have resulted in proposals to develop new mines at Jabiluka (Northern Territory), Kintyre (Western Australia) and Beverley (South Australia). Energy Resources of Australia Ltd proposes to develop an underground mine at Jabiluka with the ore to be processed at Ranger mill. Initial production will be 1800 tpa U 3 O 8 which will increase to 4000 tpa U 3 O 8 by the 14th year. The draft EIS was released for public comment in October 1996, and the final EIS is to be released in June 1997. Canning Resources Ltd proposes to mine the Kintyre deposit by open cut methods commencing in 1999 with an annual production of 1200 tpa U 3 O 8

  9. Applicability of 239Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, R.; Tims, S. G.; Fifield, L. K.; Wasson, R. J.; Howe, D.

    2013-01-01

    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of 239Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  10. Análise de sensibilidade dos métodos de estimativa da evapotranspiração de referência e razão de Bowen em cultura da cana-de-açúcar Sensitivity analysis of methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration and sugarcane evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce K. N Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de análise de sensibilidade de modelos foi aplicada nos dados obtidos em experimento de campo conduzido no ano de 2009, na Destilaria Miriri, localizada no município de Capim, PB, e aos dados de evapotranspiração de referência (ETo, obtidos pela equação de Penman-Monteith (FAO/56, e da evapotranspiração da cultura da cana-de-açúcar (ETc, obtidos pelo balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen. As análises de sensibilidade e de erros foram aplicadas ao método da razão de Bowen para os intervalos de medição de 15, 30, 60 e 120 minutos enquanto o método de Penman-Monteith foi aplicado para a escala diária durante o ano de 2009. Os resultados evidenciam que o saldo de radiação é a variável mais sensitiva no cálculo do balanço de energia, enquanto o fluxo de calor no solo oferece a menor contribuição; já os erros relativos de todas as variáveis envolvidas do cálculo balanço de energia baseado na razão de Bowen aumentaram significativamente com o aumento do intervalo de amostragem. A variável mais sensível na determinação da ETo pelo método de Penman-Monteith é o saldo de radiação seguida da umidade relativa, velocidade do vento a 2m de altura e a temperatura média do ar.The sensitivity analysis technique of models was applied to the data obtained from field experiment carried out during 2009 at Distillery Miriri, Capim, PB. This technique was applied to the reference evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith (FAO/56 and the sugarcane evapotranspiration (ETc by energy balance equation based on Bowen ratio. The sensitivity analysis and errors were applied to the Bowen ratio method in measurement intervals of 15, 30, 60 and 120 min; however Penman-Monteith approach was applied on daily basis throughout the 2009 year. Results showed that the net radiation is the most sensitive variable in the energy equation balance and soil heat flux offers the lowest contribution. On the other hand, the relative

  11. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  12. Australia needs to replace the HIFAR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Helen

    1993-01-01

    Central to the execution of ANSTO's objectives has been the operation since 1958 of the multipurpose HIFAR research reactor and related infrastructure. However, HIFAR's irradiation facilities, which are used for the provision of radiopharmaceuticals essential for nuclear medicine in Australia, have a limited capacity. The author stated that HIFAR's neutron beam facilities, which are needed by Australian scientists to undertake basic structural studies on a wide range of materials, are unable to provide the resolution and information required to keep Australia in the league of technologically advanced nations. The neutron flux and design limitations of older reactors such as HIFAR inhibit the upgrading of neutron beam facilities to modern standards. It is emphasised that while the cost of the new reactor is a vital issue, what is a prevailing importance is analyses of the cost-benefit and effectiveness of the new reactor, which will be undertaken by the Research Reactor Review. Some of these benefits are briefly outlined. ills

  13. Northern Australia energy arc - Timor Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, G.

    2000-01-01

    Early this year new Timor Gap Treaty arrangements were concluded between Australia and East Timor -with the blessing of Indonesia -and it was once again 'business as usual' in the Timor Sea. This was quickly confirmed in February when the US$1.4 billion (A$2.4 billion at current exchange rates) Stage 1 of the Bayu Undan Project was approved by the Timor Gap Zone of Co-operation Joint Authority. This meant the green light for the project, which involves the extraction and export of condensate (a light oil) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) from the Bayu Undan fields, 500 km north west of Darwin. The proposed development would involve a total investment of $5 billion in offshore and onshore gas production and processing facilities, pipelines, petrochemical facilities and other customer developments. Royalties from Bayu Undan will be shared equally between Australia and east Timor, thus providing significant revenue to underpin the economic development of East Timor

  14. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  15. Australia slaps duties on PVC imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.

    1992-01-01

    The Australian Anti-Dumping Authority (ADA0) has imposed dumping duties on imports of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin from seven countries and on certain expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads from Korea and Singapore. The decisions come at the end of two separate investigations begun earlier this year. In its first finding, the ADA concluded that there has been dumping of PVC resin from Canada, China, France, Japan, Norway, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand, which has caused and threatens to cause material injury to the domestic PVC industry. An eighth country, Romania, was found not to have been exporting PVC to Australia. The case is the second of its kind in Australia focusing on PVC. In December 1991 the ADA found in favor of local producer sin a dumping complaint against Argentina, Brazil, Hungary, Israel, Korea, Mexico, Poland, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US

  16. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  17. History of corneal transplantation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Douglas J

    2015-04-01

    Corneal transplantation is a triumph of modern ophthalmology. The possibility of corneal transplantation was first raised in 1797 but a century passed before Zirm achieved the first successful penetrating graft in 1905. Gibson reported the first corneal graft in Australia from Brisbane in 1940 and English established the first eye bank there a few years later. Corneal transplantation evolved steadily over the twentieth century. In the second half of the century, developments in microsurgery, including surgical materials such as monofilament nylon and strong topical steroid drops, accounted for improvements in outcomes. In 2013, approximately 1500 corneal transplants were done in Australia. Eye banking has evolved to cope with the rising demands for donor corneas. Australian corneal surgeons collaborated to establish and support the Australian Corneal Graft Registry in 1985. It follows the outcomes of their surgery and has become an important international resource for surgeons seeking further improvement with the procedure. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.

  19. Three proposals to increase Australia's organ supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isdale, William; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 the Australian Government introduced a national reform agenda to increase organ and tissue donation. Australia continues to perform poorly by international standards on measures of organ procurement, however. This paper outlines three proposals to improve donation rates and considers the empirical evidence available for each. A number of ethical objections frequently given to resist such proposals are also addressed. Firstly, it is recommended that Australia implement an 'opt-out' system of organ donation. Secondly, the existing veto rules should be changed to better protect the wishes of those who wish to donate. Finally, a numer of incentives should be offered to increase donation rates; these could include incentives of financial value, but also non-financial incentives such as prioritisation for the receipt of organs for previous donors.

  20. Stellarator fusion neutronics research in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, S.; Cross, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    The new status of the H-INF Heliac Stellaralor as a National Facility and the signed international Implementing Agreement on 'Collaboration in the Development of the Stellarator Concept' represents a significant encouragement for further fusion research in Australia. In this report the future of fusion research in Australia is discussed with special attention being paid to the importance of Stellarator power plant studies and in particular stellarator fusion neutronics. The main differences between tokamak and stellarator neutronics analyses are identified, namely the neutron wall loading, geometrical modelling and total heating in in-vessel reactor components including toroidal field (TF) coils. Due to the more complicated nature of stellarator neutronics analyses, simplified approaches to fusion neutronics already developed for tokamaks are expected to be even more important and widely used for designing a Conceptual Stellarator Power Plant

  1. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Diversity for sustainability: learning from the Murray-darling basin experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the inter-link between cultural diversity and biodiversity in the Indus basin in Pakistan with an aim to explore its impact on the environmental sustainability. I argue that culture is an important intermediary between behavior and environment, influencing social participation and environmental action and consequently sustainable development. Thus a better understanding of the interdependence between cultural and biological diversity is an essential prerequisite for the effective protection of both (people and environment). refer to and describe the Murray-Darling Basin Commission in Australia as a useful model for environmental sustainability. I argue that the Murray-Darling Basin Commission's model is useful due to: its focus on indigenous life as much as formal education, its involvement in multi-modal environmental literacies, and its emphasis on process and participation resulting in improved activity and ownership in the local communities. Within this context, I identify a number of issues as important for sustainability of the riverine environment in the Indus basin. I propose that the implementation of this model will result in increased awareness and dynamism vital for the environmental sustainability in the Indus basin. (author)

  3. Hydrology of uranium deposits in calcretes of western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskin, A.J.; Butt, C.R.M.; Deutscher, R.L.; Horwitz, R.C.; Mann, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Carnotite is the principal uranium mineral occurring in the calcreted trunk valleys of the ancient drainage system which extends over 400,000 sq km of south-western Australia. The calcretes, accumulations of calcium and magnesium carbonates up to 100 km long, 5 km wide, and 20 m thick, are discontinuous in character but act as aquifers for groundwaters of relatively low salinity that flow sluggishly to playa lakes. Catchment basins draining large areas of Precambrian granitic rocks can yield up to 200 parts per billion of uranium in the oxidizing environment of the water at shallow depth near the base of the calcretes. Where the product of the concentrations of active ion species of uranium, vanadium, and potassium exceeds the solubility product of carnotite, this mineral precipitates in fissures or between the carbonate and clay particles. Vanadium appears to be generally deficient in the upper levels of the aquifers; however, where it has been supplied at the required concentration from deeper reduced waters, forced up, for example, by a bar of resistant bedrock, carnotite mineralization has occurred. The incongruent dissolution of carnotite liberates vanadium preferentially. Some carnotite deposits currently are being leached and redeposited downstream. Where calcrete channels reach salt lakes, great increases in the activity of calcium and potassium promote further carnotite deposition by the decomplexing of uranyl carbonate complexes carried down the aquifers. Many areas of carnotite mineralization are now known. The largest, at Yeelirre, contains 46,000 MT of U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 0.15%. Extraction from the ore is hampered by the carbonate content and the presence of illite-montmorillonite clay phases, but alkaline leach techniques are practicable. An appreciable proportion of the carnotite, in an extremely fine-grained form, can be associated with the clay fraction

  4. Australia : the view from down under

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion de Crespigny, R.J. [Normandy Mining Ltd., Adelaide (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Australia has been a leader in global mineral exploration expenditure since 1993. It is a country with an outstanding exploration record, vast tracts of land, and minimal exploration with great datasets. It is also one of the world's most stable governments where projects are easily developed with world class technology and people. Although Australian exploration has been successful, trends must be carefully observed to see if the cycle may turn. The best success rate has been for gold. Between 1970 and 2000, 136 discoveries were made, including 7 significant deposits with greater than 12 m ozs reserves operating or under construction. There are 11 advanced projects with potential for more than 40 m ozs. Other successful exploration ventures in Australia have been in the mineral sands, nickel, base metals, copper and diamonds, each against difficult commodity prices. Australia is cost competitive with Africa, Asia, Latin America, Canada and the United States. It was noted that large areas of Australia still remain unexplored, with the Central Australian Proterozoic area holding more than 5,000,000 square km of prospective terrains. The paper highlighted the Lake Mackay Project, the Yilgarn Craton, exploration drilling in the Yandal region, and the mineral potential in the Westside and Barton areas. From 1995 to 2001, nine new gold mines have been successfully commissioned at a cost of half the world average. The advantages include an excellent infrastructure in camps, world class support in construction, and a favourable Australian dollar and tax regime. The paper also described major projects commissioned between 1996 and 2000 for base metals (lead, zinc, silver and copper), nickel, aluminium and magnesium. 15 figs.

  5. Optometry Australia Scope of Practice Survey 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Cappuccio, Skye; McIntyre, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents results from the inaugural Scope of Practice Survey of Optometry Australia members conducted in October 2015. The survey gathered information related to confidence in detecting and diagnosing key ocular conditions, grading diabetic retinopathy, prescribing scheduled medicines, access to equipment, confidence using equipment, incidence of patients requiring therapeutic management, referral practices and services provided. The survey was developed, piloted, modified and administered to members of Optometry Australia (excluding student and retired members), who had a current email address. Results were collated and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Of the 587 optometrists in clinical practice who responded, 254 (43 per cent) had therapeutic endorsement of registration. The majority of respondents practised in a major city or surrounding suburbs (63 per cent). Independent practice was the most frequently cited practice type (58 per cent). The estimated average number of patients seen in a week was 48; there was a steady decrease in the number of patients per week with increasing age, from 53 for optometrists in their 20s to 27 for optometrists aged over 70. There was very high confidence (over 93 per cent) in ability to grade diabetic retinopathy and diagnose a range of ocular conditions. Confidence in performance of more advanced techniques was higher for endorsed than non-endorsed optometrists. Approximately 12 per cent of patients required a Schedule 4 therapeutic prescription. The most frequently recommended over-the-counter medications were for dry eye for both endorsed and non-endorsed optometrists. The most frequently prescribed Schedule 4 medications were anti-inflammatories. The most challenging conditions to prescribe for were glaucoma, microbial keratitis and uveitis. Approximately one in six therapeutically endorsed optometrists reported unexpected side effects of medications they had prescribed. Information from the survey will guide

  6. Socioeconomic differentials in life satisfaction in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    ANDREW GREGORY RUSH

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the relationship between life satisfaction and a range of social, health, economic and demographic indicators. The data used in this study was collected from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Results showed variables such as job satisfaction, marital status, as well as indicators of health and communication participation, to be associated with higher satisfaction rates. By contrast, education, income, and number of children were unre...

  7. Improving Statistical Literacy in Schools in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Trewin, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    We live in the information age. Statistical thinking is a life skill that all Australian children should have. The Statistical Society of Australia (SSAI) and the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) have been working on a strategy to ensure Australian school children acquire a sufficient understanding and appreciation of how data can be acquired and used so they can make informed judgements in their daily lives, as children and then as adults. There is another motive for our work i...

  8. Lepromatous leprosy: A rare presentation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Sally; Modi, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity of this condition.

  9. Lepromatous leprosy: A rare presentation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Barkla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity of this condition.

  10. Lepromatous leprosy: A rare presentation in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Barkla; Sunny Modi

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity ...

  11. Artificial Intelligence Research in Australia -- A Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Elizabeth; Whitelaw, John

    1987-01-01

    Does the United States have a 51st state called Australia? A superficial look at the artificial intelligence (AI) research being done here could give that impression. A look beneath the surface, though, indicates some fundamental differences and reveals a dynamic and rapidly expanding AI community. General awareness of the Australian AI research community has been growing slowly for some time. AI was once considered a bit esoteric -- the domain of an almost lunatic fringe- but the large gover...

  12. Lease Accounting in Australia: Further Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Salleh; Christopher, Theo

    1998-01-01

    Key words: Australia; Accounting standard; Efficient contracting; Lease accounting; Signalling The objective of this study is to examine the economic factors motivating Australian listed lessee firms to adopt capitalization of finance leases policy from 1985 to 1987 as permitted by the transitional provision of AAS 17. Capitalization is considered as the preferred accounting policy for finance leases compared to footnote disclosure. Adopting a joint efficient contracting and quality signaling pers...

  13. Patch testing in Australia: Is it adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizi, Stephanie; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    Patch testing (PT) is essential for making the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). However, the extent of PT undertaken by Australian dermatologists is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate and type of PT in Australia, the perceived obstacles to PT, and to explore the exposure to PT in dermatology training. Data were collected on private PT (analysing Medicare item numbers) and public hospital-based PT (estimated via verbal reports). An online survey on PT was sent to Fellows of the Australasian College of Dermatologists. It was found that total PT numbers, combining Medicare item number and public hospital data, were below the suggested optimum in all states and in Australia overall. Of the 173 respondents to the survey, 61% reported they patch tested and 78% reported they referred for PT. TrueTest was the most commonly used PT system, although it is known to be inadequate. Dermatologists who PT as registrars were significantly more likely to PT as consultants (P value = 0.0029). Cost, expertise required and staffing were considered major obstacles to performing PT. Accessibility and cost to the patient were common obstacles to referral. The combination of suboptimal PT rates and inadequate PT means that patients are missing out on being diagnosed with ACD in Australia. Increasing the exposure of registrars to PT, supporting specialised centres, the development of the Australian Baseline Series and the Contact Allergen Bank will, it is hoped, improve the rates of comprehensive PT in Australia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  15. Children's Environmental Health Indicators in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, J Leith; Moore, Sophie E; Gore, Fiona; Brune, Marie Noel; Neira, Maria; Jagals, Paul; Sly, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Adverse environmental exposures in early life increase the risk of chronic disease but do not attract the attention nor receive the public health priority warranted. A safe and healthy environment is essential for children's health and development, yet absent in many countries. A framework that aids in understanding the link between environmental exposures and adverse health outcomes are environmental health indicators-numerical estimates of hazards and outcomes that can be applied at a population level. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a set of children's environmental health indicators (CEHI) for physical injuries, insect-borne disease, diarrheal diseases, perinatal diseases, and respiratory diseases; however, uptake of steps necessary to apply these indicators across the WHO regions has been incomplete. A first indication of such uptake is the management of data required to measure CEHI. The present study was undertaken to determine whether Australia has accurate up-to-date, publicly available, and readily accessible data on each CEHI for indigenous and nonindigenous Australian children. Data were not readily accessible for many of the exposure indicators, and much of the available data were not child specific or were only available for Australia's indigenous population. Readily accessible data were available for all but one of the outcome indicators and generally for both indigenous and nonindigenous children. Although Australia regularly collects data on key national indicators of child health, development, and well-being in several domains mostly thought to be of more relevance to Australians and Australian policy makers, these differ substantially from the WHO CEHI. The present study suggests that the majority of these WHO exposure and outcome indicators are relevant and important for monitoring Australian children's environmental health and establishing public health interventions at a local and national level and collection of appropriate

  16. Mining, regional Australia and the economic multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cleary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining in Australia has traditionally delivered a strong development multiplier for regional communities where most mines are based. This relationship has weakened in recent decades as a result of the introduction of mobile workforces - typically known as fly in, fly out. Political parties have responded with policies known as ‘royalties for regions’, though in designing them they overlooked long established Indigenous arrangements for sharing benefits with areas affected directly by mining.

  17. Development of Australia's radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.; Lokan, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Australia is revising its existing recommendations concerning radiation protection in the light of guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Publication 60 and the International Atomic Energy Agency's revision of its Basic Safety Standards. The paper discusses the major refinements of the ICRP's recommendations and the additional guidance on its practical implementation offered by the IAEA's new Basic Safety Standards. Following public comment, the revised Australian recommendations are expected to be adopted by the end of 1994. 15 refs

  18. Eocene to Miocene back-arc basin basalts and associated island arc tholeiites from northern Sulawesi (Indonesia): Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Celebes basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangin, C.; Maury, R.C.; Bellon, H.; Cotten, J.; Polve, M.; Priadi, B.; Soeria-Atmadja, R.; Joron, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Eocene BABB basalts intruded by tholeiitic and calk-alkalic island arc magmatic rocks are reported from the north arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Age and geochemical similarities between these basalts and those drilled in the Celebes Sea indicate this North Sulawesi volcanic arc was built on the same oceanic crust. The 25 deg late Neogene clockwise rotation of the north arm of Sulawesi following its collision with fragments of Australia (Sula, Buton) is not sufficient to explain the asymmetrical magnetic anomalies in the Celebes basin. The North Sulawesi island arc could be interpreted as having progressively retreated northward on its own Celebes sea back arc basin, during an episode of Palaeogene-early Neogene tectonic erosion along the trench. (authors)

  19. Australia explores apprehensively the renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colrat, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of new energy technologies worldwide is a result of the depletion of fossil fuel and non-renewable resources and of the collective awareness about the potential consequences of the greenhouse effect. The strong dependence of Australia with respect to fossil fuels is a consequence of its abundant resources (mainly coal) but leads to important CO 2 emissions. Australia is thus the first emitter of greenhouse gases per habitant in the world and its contribution to global emissions is of 1.6% for only 0.3% of the world population. Fortunately, despite fossil fuel reserves amply sufficient with respect to the needs, the production of clean energy is developing in Australia and research programs have been implemented for the exploration of new energy generation technologies: wind turbines for weak winds, hybrid wind-diesel power systems, oscillating wave column (OWC) power generation systems, bio-energetic cultivation techniques (combined production of eucalyptus oil, of activated charcoal, and of electricity with soil desalination), photovoltaic power generation, EnviroMission project of giant solar tower, research on hydrogen production techniques (solar thermal conversion of natural gas, water electrolysis with photo-electrodes), fuel cells for domestic cogeneration, hot dry rock geothermal systems. (J.S.)

  20. Asians: the New Metics of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissa Cheng

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The Asian immigration debate has become one of the most contentious topics of debate in Australia. Little about the debate is new and most of the arguments, both in favour and against, begin with demographic considerations, then move on to the economic consequences of immigration and the social and cultural ramifications. Delving deeper into the debate, one will realize that there is an underlying assumption of the economic theory of laissez-faire, which is the driving force of the debate. The new realities of global electronic commerce with laissez-faire economic theory have been transposed onto Australia's immigration policy. The government welcomes the "elite" of the knowledge workers because they are the real generators of wealth. However, the government is also aware that maximizing its benefit out of these immigrants, it must minimize the costs associated with them, such as maintenance cost of their sponsored parents. The analysis, while dispelling the myth of increasing immigration costs, confirmed the urgent need to shift the focus of societal pluralism from an economic one that is rooted in competition and self-interest individualism, to pluralism that is rooted in social organization. This is where society is seen as cooperative units rather than of competing units, that is Asians and non-Asians contributing to Australia as a cooperative group of people. The government promotion of division in society with its archaic politics to instill the 'metic' status for new immigrants may prove detrimental to its effort to attract elite wealth generator migrants.

  1. Occupational skin disease in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jennifer L; Williams, Jason D; Matheson, Melanie C; Palmer, Amanda M; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients with occupational skin disease (OSD) in a tertiary referral clinic in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective review was conducted of records from patients seen at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne, Australia between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010. Of the 2894 people assessed in the clinic during the 18-year period, 44% were women and 56% were men. In all, 2177 (75%) were diagnosed with occupational skin disease (OSD). Of the patients with a work-related skin condition, 45% (n = 979) were considered to be atopic. The most common diagnosis in those with OSD was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (44%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (33%) and endogenous eczema (11%). Women were significantly more likely to have soaps and detergents (P Occupational groups with the highest incidence of OSD were the hair and beauty professions (70 per 100 000), followed by machine and plant operators (38 per 100 000) and health-care workers (21 per 100 000). We confirm the importance of occupational contact dermatitis as the most common cause of OSD, with ICD being the most common diagnosis. There are differences in the causes of ICD between our group of male and female workers. For the first time in Australia, rates of OSD in certain industries have been calculated. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Climate change in Australia: technical report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date assessment of observed climate change over Australia, the likely causes, and projections of future changes to Australia's climate. It also provides information on how to apply the projections in impact studies and in risk assessments. The two main strategies for managing climate risk are mitigation (net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions) to slow climate change and adaptation to climate impacts that are unavoidable. A number of major advances have been made since the last report on climate change projections in Australia (CSIRO 2001) including: a much larger number of climate and ocean variables are projected (21 and 6 respectively); a much larger number (23) of climate models are used; the provision of probabilistic information on some of the projections, including the probability of exceeding the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles; greater emphasis on projections from models that are better able to simulate observed Australian climate; a detailed assessment of observed changes in Australian climate and likely causes; and information on risk assessment, to provide guidance for using climate projections in impact studies

  3. The regulation of herbal medicines in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity

  4. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-10-13

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.

  5. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2016-09-20

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  6. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C.; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergströ m, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y.; Crawford, Jacob E.; Heupink, Tim H.; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L.; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Levkivskyi, Ivan P.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Ví ctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A.; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Sø ren; Campos, Paula F.; Clark, Warren; Ellingvå g, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; McAllister, Peter J.; Mentzer, Alexander J.; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B.; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E.; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G.; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma’ run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazó n; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M.; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  7. Nuclear regulation in Australia - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.; Bardsley, J.

    1997-01-01

    Australia's current nuclear regulatory arrangements reflect two major factors: that we are a federation, with a constitutional division of powers between the Commonwealth and the States, and that we have no nuclear industry, other than uranium mining. Australia's only nuclear facilities are operated by a Commonwealth instrumentality, ANSTO. Current Commonwealth regulatory arrangements are a response to international treaty commitments -principally the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) -and to the commencement of commercial uranium mining and export in the late 1970's. Although at present no nuclear industry activities, other than mining, are in prospect, this might not always be the case, and with the establishment of ARPANSA (the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency) it is timely to give some thought to regulatory arrangements which might be appropriate to Australia's future circumstances. This paper will discuss the regulation activities relating to the nuclear fuel cycle , i e activities involved with the production and use of nuclear materials (uranium, thorium and plutonium) for the generation of energy through nuclear fission

  8. The practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the development and practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. Clinical Neuropsychology has shown rapid growth in Australia over the past three decades. Comprehensive and specialized training programs are producing high quality graduates who are employed in a broad range of settings or private practice. Australia now has a substantial number of clinical neuropsychologists with specialist training. Whilst the majority of Australian clinical neuropsychologists still undertake assessment predominantly, there are growing opportunities for clinical neuropsychologists in rehabilitation and in a broad range of research contexts. Cultural issues relating to the assessment of Indigenous Australians and immigrants from many countries present significant challenges. Some major contributions have been made in the realms of test development and validation across various age groups. Australian clinical neuropsychologists are also contributing significantly to research in the fields of traumatic brain injury, aging and dementias, epilepsy, memory assessment, rehabilitation, substance abuse, and other psychiatric disorders. Expansion of roles of clinical neuropsychologists, in domains such as rehabilitation and research is seen as essential to underpin continuing growth of employment opportunities for the profession.

  9. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Recent surveys in the UK and New Zealand have shown that although the number of CT examinations small compared to conventional Radiology, CT contributes about 20% to the overall dose from diagnostic radiology. In view of these findings and the rapid increase in the number of CT facilities in recent years, a survey of the number of facilities, frequency of examination, techniques and patient doses has been performed. Australia, with 329 units is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European Countries and New Zealand. For many examinations a wide range was found in the number of slices and slice widths used and this led to a large spread in the corresponding doses. Assuming the practices of the non-responders are statistically similar to those who responded, some preliminary estimates of population doses can be made. There could be as many as 1.1 million CT examinations each year in Australia resulting in a per capur effectie dose of 0.36 mSv. Although the results of this survey are still subject to some refinement, they indicate that CT is a major, and possibly the dominant, contributor to doses from diagnostic radiology in Australia. (author)

  10. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  11. Mesozoic tectonics of the Otway Basin region: The legacy of Gondwana and the active Pacific margin: a review and ongoing research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, K.A. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Department of Earth Sciences; Finlayson, D.M. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Hill, K.C. [La Trobe Univ., Bundoora, VIC (Australia). School of Earth Sciences; Cooper, G.T. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Department of Earth Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Recent plate tectonic models for SE Australia and the formerly contiguous parts of Gondwana are reviewed in this paper in order to assess the Mesozoic evolution of the Otway Basin. Research around the Otway Basin is summarised to demonstrate how the application of new technology can address some of the outstanding questions regarding the Basin`s evolution on local to lithospheric scales. The geometry and geology of Australia`s southern margin are compared with Atlantic rift-drift margins to provide analogues for tectonics and hydrocarbon exploration in the Otway Basin. At least two stages of rifting were found to be evident in the Cretaceous and in the deep structure of the Otway basin. These are Early Cretaceous rifting which is manifested in numerous half-graben and accommodation zones, and Late Cretaceous rifting in the deep seismic data seaward of the Tartwaup, Timboon and Sorell fault zones. Major offsets of the spreading axis during break up, at the Tasman and Spencer Fracture Zones were probably controlled by the location of Paleozoic terrace boundaries. The Tasman Fracture System was reactivated during break-up, with considerable uplift and denudation of the Bass failed rift to the east, which controlled Otway Basin facies distribution. Paleozoic structures also had a significant effect in determining the half graben orientations within a general N-S extensional regime during early Cretaceous rifting. The late Cretaceous second stage of rifting, seaward of the Tartwaup, Timboon and Sorell fault zones, left stable failed rift margin to the north, but the attenuated lithosphere of the Otway-Sorell microplate to the south records repeated extension that led to continental separation and may be part of an Antarctic upper plate. 1 table. 16 figs., 4 photos., refs.

  12. Australia/Japan thermal coal settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2000-01-01

    After prolonged negotiations, Australian suppliers and Japanese buyers have reached agreement on the benchmark thermal coal prices for the Japanese financial year 2000 (April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001). The benchmark price as negotiated with the Chubu and Tohoku power utilities is about US$1.20 down on last year's price of $29.95. The actual price change to each supplier varies slightly depending on the calorific value of each product as calculated against a benchmark value of 6700kcal/kg on a gross air-dried basis. It is strange, but the Australians and Japanese both have some reason to crow about the outcome of the negotiation. In US dollar terms, compared with April 1, 1999, the suppliers have secured a price rise from A$45.39 to A$47.97; while the Japanese can point to having achieved a price reduction from Y3551/t to Y3162/t. The joys of exchange rate fluctuations. The result can only be seen as a good one for Australia, especially as it is alleged that one of the Australian suppliers opened negotiations by putting a US$1 price reduction on the table. It is worth noting that the significance of the benchmark coal price is waning, with the annual negotiations in Japan covering only 14Mt of a total seaborne trade of some 450Mt. Consequently, few tonnes are marketed at the benchmark price and Australia finds itself in fierce competition with suppliers from Indonesia, China and Russia for huge, short-term tenders at FOB prices. Recent winning Australian bids have been barely over US$20/t FOBT ex east coast Australia-nearly 30% below the new US$28.75 benchmark price. Finally, on the negotiating table will come the settlements for the semi coking coals. This is where Australia should hold the trump card. Japan simply cannot replace, from other countries, the near 30Mt of high quality coal it purchases each year from Australia. But already the whiff of a US$1.45-US$1.50 price reduction hangs in the air. Copyright (2000) Australian Journal of Mining

  13. Women in nuclear (WiN) Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackenby, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Founded in 1992, Women in Nuclear Global (WiN Global) is a worldwide organisation that supports and encourages women working in nuclear and radiation applications. Membership of WiN is made up of chapters and individuals from over 105 countries and various international organisations. As of August 2015, WiN has approximately 25 000 members in total, some of which are men. WiN Australia Inc. (a chapter of WiN Global) was formally founded in 2005 and has grown to approximately 160 members, with two affiliate members from New Zealand. Members work in a variety of fields including research, policy, defence, meteorology, reactor engineering and maintenance, reactor operations, medical physics, law, supporting roles, nuclear medicine and medical physics, mining, academia and safeguards. The objectives of WiN Global and WiN Australia can broadly be summarised as: 1) to increase awareness and information in the public, especially amongst women and the younger generations, about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, science and technology 2) facilitate networking between individuals, chapters and with other nuclear organisations 3) to support women working in nuclear energy, science and technology 4 )to hold an annual conference and mentor the younger generations of nuclear professionals. The 2015 WiN Annual Global Conference was held in Vienna and attracted over 450 participants from 50 countries, which highlights the remarkable success of Women in Nuclear. Notable activities carried out by WiN Australia over recent years include hosting the 2014 WiN Annual Global Conference in Sydney: securing a WiN Global Executive position for Oceania: participation in workshops, panels and conferences: ongoing leadership of two important WiN Global working groups: and transition to an incorporated Association. A new WiN Australia Executive Committee was elected in September 2015. Future plans for WiN Australia focus on increased engagement and networking with think tanks, nuclear. and

  14. Media and Australia's replacement reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    In September 1997, the Commonwealth Government of Australia announced a proposal to build a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. Extensive public consultation, parliamentary debate and independent reports were prepared to ensure that the new facility would meet strict international requirements, national safety and environmental standards, and performance specifications servicing the needs of Australia - for decades to come. On 6 June 2000, Argentine company INVAP SE was announced as the preferred tenderer. In July 2000 contracts were signed between INVAP and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation for the construction the replacement reactor, due to be completed in 2005. In order to retain a strong local presence, INVAP undertook a joint venture with two of Australia's foremost heavy construction businesses. Briefly the new research reactor will be a replacement for the ageing Australian Reactor (HIFAR). Nuclear science and technology, in Australia, is no stranger to media controversy and misinformation. Understandably the announcement of a preferred tenderer followed by the signing of contracts, attracted significant national and international media attention. However in the minds of the media, the issue is far from resolved and is now a constant 'news story' in the Australian media. Baseless media stories have made claims that the project will cost double the original estimates; question the credibility of the contractors; and raise issues of international security. The project is currently linked with Australia's requirements for long term nuclear waste management and there has been an attempt to bring national Indigenous People's issues into play. Some of these issues have been profiled in the press internationally. So, just to set the record straight and give you an appropriate impression of what's 'really happening' I would like to highlight a few issues, how ANSTO dealt with these, and what was finally reported

  15. Return to Black Mountain palaeomagnetic reassessment of the Chatsworth and Ninmaroo formations, western Queensland, Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K L; Lackie, M A; Schmidt, P W; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2003.02164.x

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic results from late Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician carbonate sequences sampled at Black Mountain (Mt Unbunmaroo), Mt Datson and near Chatsworth Station (southeastern Georgina Basin) are presented. A palaeomagnetic reassessment of these carbonates was designed in an effort to constrain regional magnetization ages as results from an earlier study, conducted at Mt Unbunmaroo, play a pivotal role in a proposed Cambrian inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW) event. Remanent magnetizations within these carbonates were found to be variably developed with most specimens displaying two of the five isolated components. Component PF, for which goethite is the identified remanence carrier, is thought to reflect a chemical remanent magnetization of recent origin. Component TR, held by haematite, has a palaeomagnetic pole consistent with the Tertiary segment of Australia's apparent polar wander path (APWP) and most probably was acquired as a consequence of prolonged weathering during this period. The...

  16. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  17. Fortescue field, Gippsland basin: Flank potential realized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrich, J.H.; Schwebel, D.A.; Palmer, I.D. (Esso Asustralia Ltd., Sydney, New South Wales (Australia))

    1990-09-01

    Fortescue field was the last major oil field to be discovered in the offshore Gippsland basin, southeastern Australia. The discovery well, 1 West Halibut, was drilled in 1978 on the basis of a 1-km seismic grid as a follow up to the dry 1 Fortescue wildcat. Data from this well were interpreted to indicate that there was a high probability of a stratigraphic trap occurring on the western flank of the giant Halibut-Cobia structure. The 2, 3, and 4 Fortescue wells were drilled by early 1979 to determine the limits of the field, delineate the stratigraphy, and define the hydrocarbon contacts. Cobia A had the dual purpose of developing the Cobia field and the southern extent of the Fortescue reservoirs that were inaccessible to the Fortescue A plat-form. At the conclusion of development drilling in early 1986, eight Cobia A wells and 20 Fortescue A wells were capable of producing from Fortescue reservoirs. The Fortescue reservoirs are Eocene sandstones that were deposited in coastal plain, upper shoreface, and lower shoreface environments. Integration of well log correlations, stratigraphic interpretations, reservoir pressure data, and seismic data indicates that these Fortescue reservoirs are stratigraphically younger than, and are hydraulically separated from, the underlying Halibut-Cobia fields. Pressure data acquired during development drilling and while monitoring subsequent production performance have conclusively demonstrated that there are at least three separate hydraulic systems active within the Fortescue field. Fortescue field dimensions are approximately 11 km x 4 km with a maximum relief of 100 m above the original oil-water contact. Reserves are estimated at 280,000 STB, based on original oil in place estimates of 415,000 STB and recovery factors in the 65-70% range. Production rate peaked in 1984 at 100 K BOPD from the combined development facilities and was sustained until late 1986. More than two-thirds of the reserves have been produced to date.

  18. Spatio-temporal modelling of rainfall in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Gen; Welsh, A. H.; O'Neill, T. J.; Feng, Lingbing

    2018-02-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) is a large geographical region in southeastern Australia that contains many rivers and creeks, including Australia's three longest rivers, the Murray, the Murrumbidgee and the Darling. Understanding rainfall patterns in the MDB is very important due to the significant impact major events such as droughts and floods have on agricultural and resource productivity. We propose a model for modelling a set of monthly rainfall data obtained from stations in the MDB and for producing predictions in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. The model is a hierarchical spatio-temporal model fitted to geographical data that utilises both deterministic and data-derived components. Specifically, rainfall data at a given location are modelled as a linear combination of these deterministic and data-derived components. A key advantage of the model is that it is fitted in a step-by-step fashion, enabling appropriate empirical choices to be made at each step.

  19. Ecological Trait Composition of Freshwater Fish Across Gradients of Environmental Variability in North-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, M. J.; Pusey, B. J.; Arthington, A. H.

    2005-05-01

    North-eastern Australia encompasses 18o of latitude, monsoonal/tropical to sub-tropical/temperate climates, geomorphologically diverse rivers, and flow regimes with markedly varied seasonality, constancy and predictability. Fish assemblages in the region vary in relation to the predictability of aquatic habitat availability and other topographic, climatic and/or biogeographic factors. This paper examines how environmental, biogeographic and phylogenetic factors may constrain ecological trait composition at local and regional scales. We derived 17 categories of ecological traits to describe the morphology, behaviour, habitat, life history and trophic characteristics of 114 fish species from 64 river basins. Trait composition varied substantially across the region. The number of riffle dwelling species, maximum size and longevity of fishes was greater in the hydrologically predictable and constant rivers of the Wet Tropics region than in more unpredictable or seasonal environments. The importance of herbivory was also greater in the tropics. Historical biogeographic and phylogenetic factors may confound our ability to understand the role of environmental factors in determining spatial variation in ecological trait composition. Understanding the functional linkages between environmental drivers of fish species distributions via their ecological characteristics should provide a foundation for predicting future impacts of environmental change in a region of Australia subject to increasing human pressures.

  20. Regional GRACE-based estimates of water mass variations over Australia: validation and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, L.; Ramillien, G.; Frappart, F.; Leblanc, M.

    2013-04-01

    Time series of regional 2°-by-2° GRACE solutions have been computed from 2003 to 2011 with a 10 day resolution by using an energy integral method over Australia [112° E 156° E; 44° S 10° S]. This approach uses the dynamical orbit analysis of GRACE Level 1 measurements, and specially accurate along-track K Band Range Rate (KBRR) residuals (1 μm s-1 level of error) to estimate the total water mass over continental regions. The advantages of regional solutions are a significant reduction of GRACE aliasing errors (i.e. north-south stripes) providing a more accurate estimation of water mass balance for hydrological applications. In this paper, the validation of these regional solutions over Australia is presented as well as their ability to describe water mass change as a reponse of climate forcings such as El Niño. Principal component analysis of GRACE-derived total water storage maps show spatial and temporal patterns that are consistent with independent datasets (e.g. rainfall, climate index and in-situ observations). Regional TWS show higher spatial correlations with in-situ water table measurements over Murray-Darling drainage basin (80-90%), and they offer a better localization of hydrological structures than classical GRACE global solutions (i.e. Level 2 GRGS products and 400 km ICA solutions as a linear combination of GFZ, CSR and JPL GRACE solutions).

  1. Optimal dynamic water allocation: Irrigation extractions and environmental tradeoffs in the Murray River, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom

    2011-12-01

    A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to optimally and dynamically allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, dynamic programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to optimally allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an optimal way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase optimal environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.

  2. [Study of quality control on Cuscuta chinensis and C. australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-bin; Lin, Jian-qun; Lu, Ning; Lin, Jian-qiang

    2007-11-01

    To study the estimate method of C. chinensis and C. australia. HPLC was used to determine the contents of four kinds of flavones of C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts. C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts both had hyperoside, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The content range of hyperoside was 2.790-6.502 mg/g and was higher than other flavones. The content ranges of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were 0.025-0.176 mg/g, 0.001-0.213 mg/g and 0.001-0.077 mg/g, respectively. The contents of hyperoside and quercetin are higher in C. chineasis than in C. australia. The contents of kaempferol and isorhamnetin are lower in C. chinensis than in C. australia. The hosts influence flavones content of C. chinensis and C. australia.

  3. The oxygen isotopic composition of phytolith assemblages from tropical rainforest soil tops (Queensland, Australia: validation of a new paleoenvironmental tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytoliths are micrometric particles of amorphous silica that form inside or between the cells of higher plant tissues throughout the life of a plant. With plant decay, phytoliths are either incorporated into soils or exported to sediments via regional watersheds. Phytolith morphological assemblages are increasingly used as proxy of grassland diversity and tree cover density in inter-tropical areas. Here, we investigate whether, along altitudinal gradients in northeast Queensland (Australia, changes in the δ18O signature of soil top phytolith assemblages reflect changes in mean annual temperature (MAT and in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecipitation, as predicted by equilibrium temperature coefficients previously published for silica. Oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on 16 phytolith samples, after controlled isotopic exchange (CIE, using the IR Laser-Heating Fluorination Technique. Long-term mean annual precipitation (MAP and MAT values at the sampled sites were calculated by the ANUCLIM software. δ18Oprecipitation estimates were calculated using the Bowen and Wilkinson (2002 model, slightly modified. An empirical temperature-dependant relationship was obtained: δ18Owood phytolith-precipitation (‰ vs. VSMOW = −0.4 (±0.2 t (°C + 46 (±3 (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.05; n = 12. Despite the various unknowns introduced when estimating δ18Oprecipitation values and the large uncertainties on δ18Owood phytolith values, the temperature coefficient (−0.4 ± 0.2‰ °C−1 is in the range of values previously obtained for natural quartz, fresh and sedimentary diatoms and harvested grass phytoliths (from −0.2 to −0.5‰ °C−1. The consistency supports the reliability of δ18Owood phytolith signatures for recording

  4. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downard, K.M.; de Laeter, J.R. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. It focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important contributions to the field.

  6. Employment, energy, and economic growth in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J

    1979-09-01

    The author examines the complex relationships between energy use, employment opportunities, and economic growth as they apply to the Australian economy and concludes that state and federal governments should collaborate to analyze the employment impacts of the various energy strategies. He sees the need for changes in the political and economic environment as well as in the way energy is used before Australia can return to full employment. While low or zero energy growth policies would not, by themselves, solve the unemployment problem, most new jobs have been created in the labor-intensive service industries. 25 references. (DCK)

  7. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  8. Property rights in human gametes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vanessa

    2013-03-01

    It has long been a basic tenet of the common law that there can be no property interest in human bodies or body parts. However, exceptions to the rule have been recognised from the mid-19th century and developed over time. In the early 21st century, there have been interesting developments in the common law of Australia and England, with Australian Supreme Court judges and the English Court of Appeal casting aside existing exceptions, and finding property rights in human body parts, including gametes, by relying instead on a "rational" and "logical" basis to identify property interests in human body parts.

  9. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  10. The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.

  11. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Australian synchrotron is being built at Monash University near Melbourne. The 3 GeV machine is well-suited to the mid X-ray region and will have nine beamlines in its initial phase. The high level of biomedical research in Australia has led to the demand for a beamline capable of supporting medical research in both imaging and therapy. The design features for a versatile imaging and hard X-ray beamline capable of operating in the energy range 10-120 keV are outlined here together with a short review of some of the science that is envisaged

  12. Regional radiation protection initiatives by Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, J.

    1993-01-01

    Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography

  13. The Patentability of Stem Cells in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Jenny; Cowin, Prue

    2015-07-01

    The potential therapeutic applications of stem cells are unlimited. However, the ongoing political and social debate surrounding the intellectual property and patenting considerations of stem cell research has led to the implementation of strict legislative regulations. In Australia the patent landscape surrounding stem cells has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. The Australian Patents Act 1990 includes a specific exclusion to the patentability of human beings and of biological processes for their generation. However, this exclusion has received no judicial consideration to date, and so its scope and potential impact on stem cell patents is unclear. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  15. A comparison of vegetation development on coarse coal reject and replaced topsoil on an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, D.R.; Grigg, A.H.; Bowen, D.; Orr, M.S.; Bell, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    In 1988, the University of Queensland commenced a research program at Curragh coal mine in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland to examine factors that would encourage the growth of a cover crop sufficient t control soil erosion, but not so competitive as to hinder the establishment of native species. Weed and grass growth from the soil seed store in replaced topsoil often has a negative impact on the establishment and survival of sown native tree and shrub species. In contrast, good establishment has been achieved using a surface mulch of coarse coal reject. Longer term data confirm the beneficial effect of coarse coal reject, with approximately 4,500 trees/ha on coarse reject after 10 years compared to 300 trees/ha on replaced topsoil. The difference is attributed largely to the competitive effects of the dense ground cover on topsoil at initial establishment. However, there are two potential problems for the long-term sustainability of communities on coarse coal reject. Firstly, reject is very low in nutrients and microbial biomass, limiting the satisfactory development of nutrient cycling. Secondly, it is often saline and will be likely to continue to generate salt with weathering, raising concerns over the success of secondary recruitment. It is concluded that coarse coal reject can play a role in successful tree and shrub establishment and hence in increasing the diversity of post-mining ecosystems. However, careful management is required to avoid the use of saline materials, and strategies need to be explored to increase its biological activity

  16. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  17. Quantifying an Integral Ecology Framework: A Case Study of the Riverina, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarah A.; Haensch, Juliane; Edwards, Jane; Schirmer, Jackie; Zuo, Alec

    2018-02-01

    Communities in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin face the challenge of trying to achieve social, economic, and environmental sustainability; but experience entrenched conflict about the best way to achieve a sustainable future, especially for small rural communities. Integral ecology is a philosophical concept that seeks to address community, economic, social, and environmental sustainability simultaneously. Its inclusive processes are designed to reduce stakeholder conflict. However, to date the application of the integral ecology concept has been largely qualitative in nature. This study developed a quantitative integral ecology framework, and applied this framework to a case study of the Riverina, in the Murray-Darling Basin. Seventy-seven community-focused initiatives were assessed, ranked, and quantified. The majority of the community-focused ranked initiatives did not exhibit all aspects of integral ecology. Initiatives typically prioritized either (1) economic and community development or (2) environmental health; rarely both together. The integral ecology framework developed here enables recommendations on future community initiatives and may provide a pathway for community leaders and other policy-makers to more readily apply integral ecology objectives. Further research refining the framework's operationalization, application and implementation to a wider-scale may enhance communities' capacity to develop and grow sustainably.

  18. Glendonites as a paleoenvironmental tool: Implications for early Cretaceous high latitudinal climates in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lurio, Jennifer L.; Frakes, L. A.

    1999-04-01

    Glendonites, calcite pseudomorphs after the metastable mineral ikaite (CaCO 3 · 6H 2O), occur in the Late Aptian interval of the Bulldog Shale in the Eromanga Basin, Australia and in other Early Cretaceous basins at high paleolatitudes. Ikaite precipitation in the marine environment requires near-freezing temperatures (not higher than 4°C), high alkalinity, increased levels of orthophosphate, and high P CO2. The rapid and complete transformation of ikaite to calcite at temperatures between 5 and 8°C provides an upper limit on the oxygen isotopic composition of the pore waters: -2.6 ikaite precipitation. Data previously reported as 11 to 16°C (assuming δ w = 0.0‰SMOW) yield paleotemperatures ranging from -1 to 5°C, squarely in the range of ikaite stability. The low δ w indicates hyposaline conditions, most likely caused by mixing high latitude meteoric waters with seawater. The 18O depleted, low temperature waters suggest that the region was at least seasonally colder than previously accepted.

  19. Cosmetic surgery in Australia: a risky business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Rhian

    2007-08-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as it is across other Western countries. However, there is no systematic mechanism for gathering data about cosmetic surgery, nor about the outcomes of that surgery. This column argues that the business of cosmetic surgery in Australia has questionable marketing standards, is conducted with little scrutiny or accountability and offers patients imperfect knowledge about cosmetic procedures. It also argues that while medical practitioners debate among themselves over who should carry out cosmetic procedures, little attention has been paid to questionable advertising in the industry and even less to highlighting the real risks of undergoing cosmetic surgery. While consumers are led to believe that cosmetic surgery is accessible, affordable and safe, they are sheltered from the reality of invasive and risky surgery and from the ability to clearly discern that all cosmetic procedures carry risk. While doctors continue to undertake advertising and engage in a territorial war, they fail to address the really important issues in cosmetic surgery. These are: providing real evidence about what happens in the industry, developing stringent regulations under which the industry should operate and ensuring that all patients considering cosmetic surgery are fully informed as to the risks of that surgery.

  20. Sustainability in Australia, past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sligar, J.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last 50 years Australia has generally maintained adequate energy supplies to its population in an increasingly efficient and sustainable manner It has also been able to help sustain other economies in supplying energy resources of coal, gas and uranium. This provides 20% of Australia's export income, contributing to the quality of life experienced by Australians.Presently the reserve margin in the electricity power system is adequate and, with the exception of oil, ample local energy resources are available. Over the same period the doubling in energy generation efficiency has matched the population growth in NSW The same contributions by technology and population can be expected over the next 50 years. The growth in demand has however increased by a factor of about five.Sensible demand management could reduce this to a more acceptable figure over the next 50 years as shown in two possible scenarios. This, coupled with ongoing energy exports will help sustain the quality of life in this economy

  1. The Cost of Youth Suicide in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kinchin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among Australians between 15 and 24 years of age. This study seeks to estimate the economic cost of youth suicide (15–24 years old for Australia using 2014 as a reference year. The main outcome measure is monetized burden of youth suicide. Costs, in 2014 AU$, are measured and valued as direct costs, such as coronial inquiry, police, ambulance, and funeral expenses; indirect costs, such as lost economic productivity; and intangible costs, such as bereavement. In 2014, 307 young Australians lost their lives to suicide (82 females and 225 males. The average age at time of death was 20.4 years, representing an average loss of 62 years of life and close to 46 years of productive capacity. The average cost per youth suicide is valued at $2,884,426, including $9721 in direct costs, $2,788,245 as the value of lost productivity, and $86,460 as the cost of bereavement. The total economic loss of youth suicide in Australia is estimated at $22 billion a year (equivalent to US$ 17 billion, ranging from $20 to $25 billion. These findings can assist decision-makers understand the magnitude of adverse outcomes associated with youth suicide and the potential benefits to be achieved by investing in effective suicide prevention strategies.

  2. Metadata Laws, Journalism and Resistance in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Brevini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The intelligence leaks from Edward Snowden in 2013 unveiled the sophistication and extent of data collection by the United States’ National Security Agency and major global digital firms prompting domestic and international debates about the balance between security and privacy, openness and enclosure, accountability and secrecy. It is difficult not to see a clear connection with the Snowden leaks in the sharp acceleration of new national security legislations in Australia, a long term member of the Five Eyes Alliance. In October 2015, the Australian federal government passed controversial laws that require telecommunications companies to retain the metadata of their customers for a period of two years. The new acts pose serious threats for the profession of journalism as they enable government agencies to easily identify and pursue journalists’ sources. Bulk data collections of this type of information deter future whistleblowers from approaching journalists, making the performance of the latter’s democratic role a challenge. After situating this debate within the scholarly literature at the intersection between surveillance studies and communication studies, this article discusses the political context in which journalists are operating and working in Australia; assesses how metadata laws have affected journalism practices and addresses the possibility for resistance.

  3. Contamination of freezing soils: Australia's Antarctic opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.

    2002-01-01

    Last month, the Federal government announced that millions of dollars were to be spent cleaning up Antarctica, for which Australia has special responsibilities. Australia's largesse is especially interesting in a world context. Antarctica, by international agreement, is free of any industrial development - mining, storage of wastes, or any other profit-making activity that would disturb the environment (tourism is allowed under increasingly controlled conditions). The importance of the more or less pristine frigid environment lies in the wide range of scientific research that is carried out there. Sophisticated techniques to improve environmental quality are evidently in the early development stage. That cold-loving organisms can thrive in frozen ground in Antarctica and the Arctic was a discovery so unexpected that few people could grasp its importance. Only later was it found that these bugs can eat up contaminants - and the discovery assumed enormous practical significance. Little is known about how to clean up contamination in freezing soils even though there is a pressing need to solve the growing problem with military, industrial and nuclear waste in the Northern Hemisphere

  4. Moderation in Australia-Policy and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CREINA STOCKLEY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol has been consumed in Australia since European settlement in 1788. In 1998, approximately 60 % of Australians consumed an alcoholic beverage at least once per week. The effects of alcohol on the human body are dose dependent, where the harmful effects of alcohol are generally observed only when alcohol consumption exceeds moderate consumption levels of 30 to 40 g of alcohol per day. The discovery that a J-shaped curve described the relationship between level of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease was, however, only made in 1990_cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Thus prior to 1990, Australian public health policy focused primarily on the harmful effects of alcohol consumption and the health benefits of a moderate level of alcohol consumption have only recently been recognized in public policy. This paper chronicles changes in Australian Federal government policy on alcohol since the initial draft National health policy on alcohol in Australia was presented to the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy in 1987 to the National Drug Strategic plan for action 2001 to 2003-2004 which was launched in July last year

  5. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-01-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines. PMID:17543113

  6. The Cost of Youth Suicide in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Doran, Christopher M

    2018-04-04

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among Australians between 15 and 24 years of age. This study seeks to estimate the economic cost of youth suicide (15–24 years old) for Australia using 2014 as a reference year. The main outcome measure is monetized burden of youth suicide. Costs, in 2014 AU$, are measured and valued as direct costs, such as coronial inquiry, police, ambulance, and funeral expenses; indirect costs, such as lost economic productivity; and intangible costs, such as bereavement. In 2014, 307 young Australians lost their lives to suicide (82 females and 225 males). The average age at time of death was 20.4 years, representing an average loss of 62 years of life and close to 46 years of productive capacity. The average cost per youth suicide is valued at $2,884,426, including $9721 in direct costs, $2,788,245 as the value of lost productivity, and $86,460 as the cost of bereavement. The total economic loss of youth suicide in Australia is estimated at $22 billion a year (equivalent to US$ 17 billion), ranging from $20 to $25 billion. These findings can assist decision-makers understand the magnitude of adverse outcomes associated with youth suicide and the potential benefits to be achieved by investing in effective suicide prevention strategies.

  7. Temporal Aspects of Child Homicide in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber C McKinley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using National Homicide Monitoring Program data from 1989 to 2012, this study examined the temporal aspects of child homicide in Australia. It was hypothesised that there would be daily and weekly variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with peaks in the late afternoon, evening, and early hours of the morning and on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. It was also hypothesised that the number of child homicides would be evenly distributed across seasons. The sample consisted of 916 children (aged 0– 17 killed in 802 homicide incidents in Australia between 1989 to 2012. Data relating to time of day, and day of the week, were analysed using a chi-square test, followed with calculations of incidence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Data relating to season of the year were examined descriptively, due to uncontrollable factors preventing significance testing. Results partially supported the hypotheses. There was daily and weekly variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with peaks in the evening hours and on Saturdays; however, no peaks were observed on Fridays and Sundays. Additionally, the hypothesis that child homicides peak in the late afternoon and early hours of the morning was unable to be accepted or rejected due to grouping issues. The study also found slight seasonal variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with a slight peak in spring; however, whether this peak is significant is unknown.

  8. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  9. 5. Basin assessment and watershed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Basin assessment is an important component of the President's Forest Plan, yet it has received little attention. Basin assessments are intended both to guide watershed analyses by specifying types of issues and interactions that need to be understood, and, eventually, to integrate the results of watershed analyses occurring within a river basin....

  10. On the significance of ELF basins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to complement to chemical intuition (see, e.g., refs. 2, 3). In a mathematically more rigorous way, such regions, ELF basins,4 were defined following the spirit of Bader's Atoms in Molecules (AIM). All points in space which lead to the a given maximum of ELF, by following the gradient of ELF, belong to the same basin. Basins ...

  11. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  12. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  13. Cradle to grave GHG emissions analysis of shale gas hydraulic fracking in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Western Australia has globally significant onshore gas resources, with over 280 trillion cubic feet of economically recoverable gas located in five shale basins. The Western Australian Government and gas industry have promoted the development of these resources as a “clean energy source” that would “help to reduce global carbon emissions” and provide a “transition fuel” to a low carbon economy. This research examines those claims by reviewing existing literature and published data to estimate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG pollution that would result from the development of Western Australia’s onshore gas basins using hydraulic fracking. Estimates of carbon pollution from each stage in gas development, processing, transport and end-use are considered in order to establish total life-cycle emissions in tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e. The emissions estimates draw from published research on emissions from shale gas development in other jurisdictions as well as industry or government reported emissions from current technology for gas processing and end-use as applicable. The current policy and regulatory environment for carbon pollution and likely resulting GHG mitigation measures has also been considered, as well as the potential for the gas to displace or substitute for other energy sources. In areas where there is uncertainty, conservative emissions estimates have been used. Modelling of GHG emissions has been undertaken for two comparison resource development and utilisation scenarios; Australian domestic and 100% export i.e. no domestic use. Each scenario corresponds to a different proportionate allocation of emissions accounted for domestic emissions in Australia and emissions accounted for in other jurisdictions. Emissions estimates for the two scenarios are 245–502 MTCO2e/year respectively over a resource development timeframe of 20 years. This is roughly the same as Australia’s total GHG emissions in 2014

  14. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kabir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the

  15. The Mackenzie Basin impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a commitment was made to begin development of a framework for an integrated regional impact assessment of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, the most populated region of Canada's north. The project, called Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS), is led by a multidisciplinary working group from government and non-governmental organizations with interests in the Basin. Objectives of MBIS include defining the direction and magnitude of regional-scale impacts of global warming scenarios on the physical, biological, and human systems of the Basin. MBIS will also identify regional sensitivities to climate, inter-system linkages, uncertainties, policy implications, and research needs. MBIS research activities as of March 1992 are outlined and policy concerns related to global warming are listed. Two new methodologies are being developed by MBIS to address particular economic and policy concerns: a socio-economic resource accounting framework and an integrated land assessment framework. Throughout MBIS, opportunities will be presented for western science and traditional native knowledge to be integrated

  16. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  17. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  18. Coastal inlets and tidal basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.; Dronkers, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Dongeren, A.; Wang, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    lecture note: Tidal inlets and their associated basins (lagoons) are a common feature of lowland coasts all around the world. A significant part ofthe world's coastlines is formed by barrier island coasts, and most other tidal coasts are interrupted by estuaries and lagoon inlets. These tidal

  19. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  20. A New Era for Research Education in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Helene; Smith, Bradley; King, Max; Evans, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) to influence the policy and practice of research education in Australia will undoubtedly have many consequences, some of them unintended and potentially deleterious. ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality; research education is prospective.…

  1. History and management of sirex wood wasp in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and management of Sirex noctilio in Australia, including information from previous reviews as well as more recent data. The sirex wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, is one of the most important insect pests of Pinus radiata in Australia. Native to Europe, North Africa and Turkey, S...

  2. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to... Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November.... biotechnology and life science firms. The goals of the trade mission to Australia are to (1) increase U.S...

  3. Big News: The Indian Media and Student Attacks in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Wade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By any measure, 2009 was a big year for news in India. And yet the safety of Indian students in Australia ranked among the major news events in India that year. The India-Australia Poll 2013 found 65 per cent of respondents believed the Indian media had accurately reported the problems faced by Indian students in Australia in 2009-10. That implies two-thirds of Indians accepted the Indian media’s mostly negative depictions of Australia. Those who believed the media reporting about Australia had been accurate were more likely to be from large cities, be tertiary educated and have relatively high-incomes. The poll found 62 per cent of respondents thought Australia was a dangerous place for Indian students and that 61 per cent believed attacks on Indian students were motivated by racism. The results suggest negative perceptions about Australia created by the media’s portrayal of the student attacks linger in the Indian community. The timing of the initial attacks, and the imagery associated with them, helped attract and sustain media attention on the issue. The diplomatic tensions created by the crisis highlighted the growing influence of the broadcast media on India’s foreign relations. But the episode also exposed a deep lack of understanding about India in Australia. Governments were slow to comprehend how much damage media coverage of student attacks could do to Australia’s reputation in India.

  4. "Unhelpfully Complex and Exceedingly Opaque": Australia's School Funding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Australia's system of school funding is notoriously complex and difficult to understand. This article shines some light on this issue by describing clearly the processes of school funding that currently exist in Australia. It describes the steps taken by federal and state governments to provide over $30 billion each year to government and…

  5. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  6. Harmonising and Matching IPR Holders at IP Australia

    OpenAIRE

    T’Mir D. Julius; Gaétan de Rassenfosse

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the methodology developed by the Melbourne Institute to: (i) harmonise holders of intellectual property rights (IPRs) at IP Australia (applications for patent, designs, trademarks and plant breeder’s rights); (ii) match Australian IPRs holders to the Australian business register; (iii) identify the ultimate owners within Australia; and (iv) identify which holders are small and medium size enterprises.

  7. A Case Study of the MBA Market in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, James E.; Armstrong, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    The Western Australia market for master's-level business administration education (MBA) is examined, particularly relating to the University of Western Australia. An overview of current Australian MBA market conditions is given; and the history, competitive environment, structure, admission policy, tuition, and student financial aid of the…

  8. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  9. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options.

  10. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  11. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the 131 I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others

  12. Growth dynamics of Australia's polar dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly N Woodward

    Full Text Available Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.

  13. Documents and legal texts: Australia, Germany, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)

  14. Australia: a matter of Queues and As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    Australia has been very much in the news recently, with ship queues at port terminals and storms hitting the Hunter Valley, flooding coal yards and rail links. In December 2006 a 'capacity balancing system' (CBS) introduced by Port Waratah Coal Services to solve queuing problems in Newcastle ports in mid-2004 was discontinued but then the queues started to grow again. A new CBS was introduced and was beginning to take effect when storms struck New South Wales. Port Dalrymple Coal Services has a queue management system but nevertheless there were 58 ships waiting in Dalrymple Bay and Hay Point in late June. A number of coal terminals are undergoing expansion in an attempt to solve the situation. 4 photos.

  15. Management of Ciguatoxin Risk in Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Murray, Shauna A.; Zammit, Anthony; Edwards, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW) on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers. PMID:29135913

  16. Management of Ciguatoxin Risk in Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Farrell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP, involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers.

  17. Australia's national men's health policy: masculinity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Margo; Peerson, Anita

    2009-08-01

    The development of Australia's first national men's health policy provides an important opportunity for informed discussions of health and gender. It is therefore a concern that the stated policy appears to deliberately exclude hegemonic masculinity and other masculinities, despite evidence of their major influence on men's health-related values, beliefs, perspectives, attitudes, motivations and behaviour. We provide an evidence-based critique of the proposed approach to a national men's health policy which raises important questions about whether the new policy can achieve its aims if it fails to acknowledge 'masculinity' as a key factor in Australian men's health. The national men's health policy should be a means to encourage gender analysis in health. This will require recognition of the influence of hegemonic masculinity, and other masculinities, on men's health. Recognising the influence of 'masculinity' on men's health is not about 'blaming' men for 'behaving badly', but is crucial to the development of a robust, meaningful and comprehensive national men's health policy.

  18. Goodwyn project under way off NW Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the $2 billion (Australian) Goodwyn field development project on Australia's Northwest Shelf is under way with installation of a 17,500 metric ton steel platform jacket. Northwest Shelf project operator Woodside Petroleum Pty. Ltd. and partners are continuing with an extensive exploration program in the Northwest Shelf area. The group expects to begin soon a wide ranging 3-D seismic survey over the WA-28-P license area and the Northwest Shelf production permits. The goal is to identify new and appraise existing oil and gas prospects in the region for an exploratory drilling campaign to begin in first half 1993. Finding more gas reserves would bode well for extending existing LNG contracts with Japan or competing for new markets in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan

  19. Radioisotope production and distribution in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, J.

    1986-01-01

    The high quality of radioactive products and services, provided by the Commercial Products Unit of Australian Atomic Energy Agency for industrial and medical applications are discussed. The production program has changed from research driven to being market driven. The Commission in fact not only manufactures radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals but also acts as a Centralized Dispensing Service for over sea products. The advantages associated with centralize distribution are discussed. The delivery arrangements and the existed problems are explained. With the unique experience, assistance and advice are provided for many years now to Nuclear Energy Unit at PUSPATI via staff training programs and many visits by the Commission staff to assist in the commissioning of the facilities in which enables PUSPATI to provide Malaysia and surrounding neighbour countries (on a smaller scale) with the similar type of service that the Commission does within Australia. (A.J.)

  20. Radioiodine in kelp from Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia were studied. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. The principal source of the 131 I was characterized; a general temporal correlation was found between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments enabled to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and the results are consistent with laboratory measurements, elsewhere. (author) 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Management of Ciguatoxin Risk in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Murray, Shauna A; Zammit, Anthony; Edwards, Alan W

    2017-11-14

    Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel ( Scomberomorus commerson ) caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW) on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers.

  2. Growth dynamics of Australia's polar dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.

  3. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  4. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  5. Abortion in Australia: access versus protest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca Elizabeth; Allanson, Susie

    2004-05-01

    Currently in Australia anti-choice protesters' right to freedom of speech and freedom to protest is privileged over a woman's right to privacy and to access a health service safely, free from harassment, intimidation and obstruction. This article considers how this situation is played out daily at one Victorian abortion-providing clinic. The Fertility Control Clinic was thrown into the spotlight after the murder of its security guard by an anti-choice crusader in July 2001. Australian common law appears not to offer women protection from anti-choice protesters. By contrast, United States and Canadian "bubble" legislation sits comfortably with key constitutional rights. It would be a useful development if Australian governments passed legislation to ensure the rights, wellbeing and safety of Australian women accessing health services. Such legislation would be another step away from the misogynistic and androcentric values once central to our legislative framework.

  6. Northern Australia's energy arc - North West Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millhouse, R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the world's great sources of natural gas is promising immense opportunities for the development of feedstock for petrochemical industries. The lures for new players to Western Australia are world-class offshore natural gas fields that already supply major Australian and international customers, and close proximity to Asian markets. It produces a wide range of hydrocarbon products, ranging from more than 7.5 million tonnes of liquefied natural gas a year, to more than 50 million barrels of oil and condensate and 650,000 tonnes of liquefied petroleum gas a year and 4.5 bcm (500 million standard cubic feet) of piped natural gas for local markets per day. The development of this wide range of products began with establishment of the venture's first offshore gas and condensate production platform, then the biggest in the world, in the mid - 1980s

  7. Issues in nano technologies for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegart, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Government in late 2005 created a National Nano technology Taskforce that produced a paper, 'Options for a National Nano technology Strategy', in November last year. As an input to the National Nano technology Strategy Taskforce, in early 2006 the National Academies Forum was contracted by the Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources to produce a report Environmental, Social, Legal and Ethical Aspects of the Development of Nano technologies in Australia (which is available at www.naf.org.au/symposia). The report drew on the expertise of Fellows from the four academies in workshops in Melbourne and Sydney and from discussions with other experts, and expressed its outcomes as a set of opinions to assist in developing guidelines for a National Nano technology Strategy

  8. Home care in Australia: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesy, Debra; Jakimowicz, Samantha; Saunders, Carla; Lewis, Joanne

    2018-01-01

    The home care sector comprises one of Australia's fastest growing workforces, yet few papers capture the overall landscape of Australian home care. This integrative review investigates home care with the aim of better understanding care recipients and their needs, funding, and regulation; care worker skills, tasks, demographics, employment conditions, and training needs. Over 2,700 pieces of literature were analyzed to inform this review. Results suggest sector fragmentation and a home care workforce who, although well-placed to improve outcomes for care recipients, are in need of better training and employment support. Suggestions for future research regarding Australian home care include studies that combine both aged and disability aspects of care, more research around care recipients, priority needs and strategies for addressing them, and how best to prepare home care workers for their roles.

  9. Benefit sharing and biobanking in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Dianne; Critchley, Christine

    2012-07-01

    Biobanks are essential tools for facilitating biomedical research, because they provide collections of human tissue linked with personal information. There is still little understanding of the underlying reasons why people participate in biobanking in the increasingly commercialised and internationalised biomedical research environment. This paper reports the results of an Australia-wide telephone survey. The paper analyses the types of obligations that members of the public may wish to see incorporated in biobank benefit sharing arrangements and the extent to which their views might be influenced by underlying norms of sharing behaviour. Latent class analysis of the dataset reveals three distinct classes of respondents. We link one of these with the norm of reciprocity, one with the norm of social responsibility. The third is not clearly linked with any one norm of sharing behaviour. The implications of these findings on biobank benefit sharing arrangements are discussed.

  10. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shilu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years, ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research.

  11. Political and economic structure and energy industry status of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Investigating opportunities to support indigenous aquaculture in Australia : Visit to Kimberley, Western Australia, May 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Haylor, G.

    2003-01-01

    The STREAM Initiative has been working with issues relating to livelihoods, policy and institutional development and communications throughout Asia-Pacific. Recently this has included work in India with indigenous communities supporting people to have a voice in policy making processes. There appear to be some parallels between this work and the objectives of Kimberley Aquaculture Aboriginal Corporation (KAAC) and also the Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Australia (AFFA) Indigenous Aqua...

  13. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 5. Doctor-artists in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-11-17

    The contributions of Australian doctors to the visual arts are being described in a series of six articles. Work from doctors in New South Wales and Victoria has been covered previously. Now activities in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory are presented.

  14. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  15. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  16. Uranium geochemistry of Orca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.F. Jr.; Sackett, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Orca Basin, an anoxic, brine-filled depression at a depth of 2200 m in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, has been studied with respect to its uranium geochemistry. Uranium concentration profiles for four cores from within the basin were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 ppm on a salt-free and carbonate-corrected basis. The highest uranium concentrations were associated with the lowest percentage and delta 13 C organic carbon values. For comparison, cores from the brine-filled Suakin and Atlantis II Deeps, both in the Red Sea, were also analyzed. Uranium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 ppm in the Suakin Deep and from 8.0 to 11.0 ppm in the Atlantis II Deep. No significant correlation was found between uranium concentrations and organic carbon concentrations and delta 13 C values for these cores. Although anoxic conditions are necessary for significant uranium uptake by non-carbonate marine sediments, other factors such as dilution by rapidly depositing materials and uranium supply via mixing and diffusion across density gradients may be as important in determining uranium concentrations in hypersaline basin sediments. (author)

  17. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew RM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 6Bruce Lefroy Centre for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. Keywords: Tay-Sachs disease, genetic screening, Australia

  18. Paleobathymetry from 3-D flexural backstripping: Implementation and application to NW Australia and Liberia passive margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Peter; Chauvin, Benjamin; Brennan, Patrick; Laroche, Matt

    2015-04-01

    eustatic sea level, allows for emergent topography, and overcomes potential pitfalls associated with the analytical solution for a "filled" basin. We review the numerical implementation of flexural backstripping, and discuss implications, as well as limitations, of paleobathymetric maps for source rock preservation and reservoir presence in two diverse passive margin settings: offshore Liberia and the Northwest Shelf of Australia.

  19. Radioimmunoassay for the detection of Australia-SH antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, H [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zentrum fuer Innere Medizin

    1974-06-01

    Among infectious diseases, hepatitis presents a great problem in all countries with a high medical standard. The number of Australia antigen-positive cases rises from year to year, due to the increase in drug-fixer hepatitis and blood transfusions. Highly sensitive and at the same time practicable methods are therefore required for the identification of Australia antigen carriers and their elimination as blood donors. The most sensitive of all currently used tests for the detection of Australia antigen is the 'solid phase' radioimmunoassay since it permits an objective and quantitative measurement of the antigen.

  20. The increasing financial impact of chronic kidney disease in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Kingsley, Michael I; Morton, R Hugh; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine and compare current and projected expenditure associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal replacement therapy (RRT), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia. Data published by Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and World Bank were used to compare CKD-, RRT-, and CVD-related expenditure and prevalence rates. Prevalence and expenditure predictions were made using a linear regression model. Direct statistical comparisons of rates of annual increase utilised indicator variables in combined regressions. Statistical significance was set at P Australia's healthcare system, compared to CVD. Research focusing on novel preventative/therapeutic interventions is warranted.

  1. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  2. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  3. Intensity of Price and Volatility Spillover Effects in Asia-Pacific Basin Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazali Abidin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the intensity of price and volatility spillover effects in five major stock markets within the Asia Pacific basin region with a particular emphasis in the spillover effects between Australia and China. VAR(5 model is used for measuring the return spillover while AR/VAR model with exogenous variables is employed for measuring the effects of same day returns on return spillover. .In modelling the volatility spillover, we employ AR/GARCH model which also incorporates the same day effects. Results of both return and volatility spillover provide evidence that there are significant spillover effects across different markets in the Asia-Pacific region and as well as between Australia and China. This study also provides support to the view that a market is most affected by other markets that opens/closes just before it. The main contribution of this paper is the confirmation of spillover effects between markets in the region, in particular, the interdependence between Australia and China which may have evolved only recently and thus have received relatively little research attention to date.

  4. Lithospheric scale conductivity anomalies at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition of Australia- Insights from AusLAMP MT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K. E.; Thiel, S.; Heinson, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The intraplate deformation of the north-south trending Neoproterozoic Ikara-Flinders Ranges in South Australia, Australia, draws interest due to its high heat flow, elevated seismicity and the presence of diamondiferous kimberlites and mineral deposits. To the west lies the highly prospective Archean-Paleoproterozoic Gawler Craton, boasting the world's largest IOCG-U deposit, Olympic Dam. The Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Curnamona Province lies to the east, thought to have once been connected to the Gawler Craton and host to the world-class Broken Hill Ag-Pb-Zn deposit. A total of 162 long-period (10 s - 10,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) stations from the Australia-wide AusLAMP (Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project) dataset were used to image the electrical resistivity beneath the Ikara-Flinders Ranges and adjacent Curnamona Province. The most recent acquisition extends this survey region northward to an area predominantly covered with Paleo-Mesozoic sedimentary basins including the most significant on-shore oil and gas region in Australia, the Cooper Basin. The resultant model from 3D inversions using ModEM software shows a relatively resistive Ikara-Flinders Ranges, with two parallel arcuate conductors (the WNAC and ENAC) at 20 to 80 km depth in the Nackara Arc. These conductors correlate well with locations of diamondiferous kimberlites which suggests that the conductors may have derived from the ascent of carbon-rich kimberlite-hosting magma and volatiles up large lithospheric scale structures. The conductors appear to have no correlation with regions of intraplate seismicity within the Ikara-Flinders Ranges which may mean that enhanced pore fluid pressure is not the main cause for the seismicity as was recently proposed. A large conductor covering most of the Curnamona Province (the CC) extends over depths of 10-40 km. The Curnamona Province's most recent tectonothermal activity is from Delamerian reworking during the Cambrian at its margins but

  5. Rapid diversification in Australia and two dispersals out of Australia in the globally distributed bee genus, Hylaeus (Colletidae: Hylaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Pelin; Schwarz, Michael P; Stevens, Mark I

    2013-03-01

    Hylaeus is the only globally distributed colletid bee genus, with subgeneric and species-level diversity highest in Australia. We used one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes to reconstruct a phylogeny using Bayesian analyses of this genus based on species from Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, Hawai'i, the New World and New Zealand. Our results concord with a ca. 30Mya Hylaeus crown age inferred by earlier studies, and we show that Hylaeus originated in Australia. Our phylogeny indicates only two dispersal events out of Australia, both shortly after the initial diversification of extant taxa. One of these dispersals was into New Zealand with only a minor subsequent radiation, but the second dispersal out of Australia resulted in a world-wide distribution. This second dispersal and radiation event, combined with very extensive early radiation of Hyleaus in Australia, poses a conundrum: what kinds of biogeographical and ecological factors could simultaneously drive global dispersal, yet strongly constrain further successful migrations out of Australia when geographical barriers appear to be weak? We argue that for hylaeine bees movement into new niches and enemy-free spaces may have favoured initial dispersal events, but that subsequent dispersals would not have entailed the original benefits of new niche space. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  7. The Donets Basin (Ukraine/Russia): coalification and thermal history.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Privalov, V.A.; Zhykalyak, M.V.; Bueker, C.; Panova, E.A.; Rainer, T.; Shymanovskyy, V.A.; Stephenson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Donets Basin (Donbas) is one of the major late Paleozoic coal basins in the world. The Donbas Foldbelt is an inverted part of the Donets Basin characterized by WNW-ESE-trending folds and faults. The age of basin inversion is under discussion. Large parts of the Donets Basin host anthracite and

  8. Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.A. [MARA Univ. of Technology, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture; Chen, G.; Baillie, C.; Symes, T. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the energy consumption of cotton gins used in Australia. The average electricity use is 52.3 kWh per bale. In practicality, the electricity consumption for different gins is correlated linearly with the bale numbers produced. The cost of electricity is therefore important in cotton ginning operations. The power factor in all the gins monitored in this study was greater than 0.85. The study showed that the use of gas dryers was highly influenced by the cotton moisture and regulated drying temperature. In general, electricity and gas consumption comprised 61 and 39 per cent of total energy use respectively. The study showed that 60.38 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted for ginning each bale of cotton. This paper described a newly developed method for monitoring the energy performance in cotton gins. Detailed monitoring and analysis carried out at 2 gin sites revealed that electricity consumption is not influenced much by changes in trash content in the module, degree of moisture and lint quality. However, the cotton variety influences the energy consumption. Cotton handling constituted nearly 50 per cent of the power used in both gins.

  9. Integrated primary health care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawaine Powell Davies

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.

  10. Integrated primary health care in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gawaine Powell; Perkins, David; McDonald, Julie; Williams, Anna

    2009-10-14

    To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.

  11. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  12. Web Site on Marine Connecivity Around Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Scott

    2005-06-01

    The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), with support from the Western Australian Government, has developed an online tool for marine scientists and managers to investigate the largescale patterns of spatial connectivity around Australia that are associated with ocean current transport (,Figure 1). This tool, referred to as the Australian Connectivity Interface, or Aus-ConnIe, is expected to find applications in areas such as tracer dispersion studies (see example by Ridgway and Condie [2004](, larval dispersion and recruitment, and the development of scenarios and preliminary risk assessments for contaminant dispersion in the marine environment. After selecting a region of interest, users can investigate where material carried into that region comes from, or where material originating in that region goes to, over a range of timescales (weeks to months). These connectivity statistics are based on large numbers of particle trajctories (one million at any given time) estimated from satellite altimeter data, coastal tide-gauge data, and winds from meteorological models. Users can save the results in a variety of formats (CSV, Excel, or XML) and, as an option, may save their sessions by first registering.

  13. Bone allograft banking in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D G; Oakeshott, R D

    1995-12-01

    The South Australian Bone Bank had expanded to meet an increased demand for allograft bone. During a 5 year period from 1988 to 1992, 2361 allografts were harvested from 2146 living donors and 30 cadaveric donors. The allografts were screened by contemporary banking techniques which include a social history, donor serum tests for HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis B and C, syphilis serology, graft microbiology and histology. Grafts were irradiated with 25 kGy. The majority of grafts were used for arthroplasty or spinal surgery and 99 were used for tumour reconstruction. Of the donated grafts 336 were rejected by the bank. One donor was HIV-positive and two had false positive screens. There were seven donors with positive serology for hepatitis B, eight for hepatitis C and nine for syphilis. Twenty-seven grafts had positive cultures. Bone transplantation is the most frequent non-haematogenous allograft in South Australia and probably nationally. The low incidence of infectious viral disease in the donor population combined with an aggressive discard policy has ensured relative safety of the grafts. The frequency of graft rejection was similar to other bone banks but the incidence of HIV was lower.

  14. Newspaper coverage of water issues in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Anna; Dolnicar, Sara

    2012-12-01

    The media has been found to have an impact on public debate, public opinion, and public policy agendas. Public debate, and public opinion about water conservation and water supply management projects matter because they can influence specific outcomes. For example, public opinion can potentially lead to positive behaviour, like increased water conservation, or potentially negative behaviours such as public opposition to developments such as dams or water recycling plants, which may be necessary under changing climatic conditions. It is therefore critical to understand how the media reports on water-related topics. Results from a content analysis of 1253 newspaper articles published in Australia in 2008 indicate that water-related reports are characterised by lack of inclusion of views held by various stakeholders, a low level of support of statements with scientific evidence, a low level of impartiality in the sense of reporting on opposing views and a relatively high level of hedging, meaning that the author signals that there is some uncertainly about the reported information. In sum these tendencies could theoretically culminate to work against public engagement in water issues and undermine the public's understanding of and confidence in water management measures. Proactive measures of media management are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alfred Walter Campbell's return to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    Alfred Walter Campbell (1868-1937) established the basic cytoarchitectonic structure of the human brain while he was working as a pathologist at the Rainhill Lunatic Asylum near Liverpool in the United Kingdom. He returned to Australia in 1905 and continued doing research while establishing a neurological practice. His research over the next 17 years focused on four topics: (a) localisation in the cerebellum, (b) the neuroses and psychoses in war, (c) localisation in the cerebral cortex of the gorilla, and (d) the causes and pathology of the mysterious Australian "X" Disease (later known as Murray Valley encephalitis). In this article, I elaborate on his research in these areas, which provided evidence (a) against Louis Bolk's thesis that variation in the size of the cerebellar cortex reflected variation in the amount of cortex controlling various groups of muscle, (b) against the view that the neuroses and psychoses in war were different from those in civilian life, (c) for a parcelation of the cortex of the gorilla brain that supported his earlier findings in the higher apes, and (d) on the cause and pathophysiology of Australian "X" disease. Much of this research was overlooked, but it remains of considerable value and historical significance.

  16. Newborn bloodspot screening policy framework for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'Leary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of newborn bloodspot screening (NBS is to identify rare genetic and non-genetic conditions in children soon after birth in order to commence therapies that prevent the development of progressive, serious, and irreversible disabilities. Universal NBS programmes have been implemented in most countries, with minor adaptations to target conditions most relevant to the local healthcare environment. Aims In this article, we describe the initiatives of international and Australian governments to develop policies to address the expansion of NBS in their healthcare systems. Methods We have reviewed published public policies and literature to formulate recommendations based on clinical, social, legal, and ethical principles to inform a national governance and policy framework for Australia. Results Australian policy makers have been slow to develop a coordinated plan. While the experience from other governments can guide our national policy, there are specific areas that require further consideration by Australian health experts. Key reforms involve the separation of policy and operational activities, multidisciplinary decision-making and oversight by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council for policy direction. Conclusion A formal national policy framework will guide the coordination of NBS services that can adapt to the needs of Australian children and families.

  17. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.

  18. Regulatory aspects of criticality control in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    With the creation of Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) the Australian approach to criticality safety was revisited. Consistency with international best practices is required by the Act that created ARPANSA and this was applied to practices in criticality safety adopted in other countries. This required extensive regulatory efforts both in auditing the major Australian Nuclear Operator, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), and assessing the existing in Australia criticality safety practices and implementing the required changes using the new legislative power of ARPANSA. The adopted regulatory approach is formulated through both the issued by ARPANSA licenses for nuclear installations (including reactors, fuel stores and radioactive waste stores) and the string of new regulatory documents, including the Regulatory Assessment Principles and the Regulatory Assessment Guidelines for criticality safety. The main features of the adopted regulation include the requirements of independent peer-review, ongoing refresher training coupled with annual accreditation and the reliance on the safe design rather than on an administrative control. (author)

  19. Radiation doses from mammography in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Young, B.F.; Young, J.G.; Tingey, D.R.C.

    1991-05-01

    During 1989-90 the Australian Radiation Laboratory conducted a postal survey of at least 90% of the mammographic facilities in Australia. The primary aim of the survey was to measure the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the X-ray beam half value layer (HVL) for a typical mammograph. The MGD and HVL were measured with a specially designed tissue equivalent monitor. In all, 258 mammographic centres were surveyed. It was found that for centres using film-screen imaging, the average mean glandular dose was 1.83 mGy for centres using grids and 0.84 mGy for centres not using grids. In addition to the MGD and HVL, comprehensive statistical information was collected and data is presented on the types of equipment and techniques used, the number and age of patients and demographic distribution of centres. Results indicate that the use of a grid is the major factor determining dose and several other factors appear to have minor effects. In view of the distribution of MGD, it is recommended that the mean glandular dose per image, for a 5 cm compressed breast thickness, should not exceed 2.0 mGy when a grid is used and 1.0 mGy without a grid. 63 refs., 11 tabs., 15 figs

  20. Indoor radon measurements in Adelaide, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, D.

    1989-01-01

    In 1986 a study of radon levels in homes in Melbourne was made, using activated charcoal to adsorb the gas from indoor air. Cups containing 25g of activated charcoal were exposed for periods of nominally 7 days. The cups were sealed and the accumulated activity was measured by gamma counting. Cup activity was related to ambient radon concentration by calibrations done in the Australian Radiation Laboratory's radon reference chamber. This work was continued in Adelaide, South Australia (S.A.) between July and November 1986 using the same methods. Cups were exposed in their homes by 213 volunteers from the staff of the S.A. Institute of Technology and the S.A. Health Commission. The median concentration of radon in air was 10 Bq/m 3 , with 90% of values below 35 Bq/m 3 , and 100% below 75 Bq/m 3 . The lower bound of the distribution is poorly defined because of inadequate counting statistics. 4 refs., 6 figs