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Sample records for bowel obstruction secondary

  1. Small bowel obstruction and perforation secondary to primary enterolithiasis in a patient with jejunal diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhery, Baber; Newman, Peter Alexander; Kelly, Michael Denis

    2014-03-13

    We describe a rare case of small bowel obstruction and perforation secondary to a primary enterolith in an 84-year-old female patient with jejunal diverticulosis. She underwent an emergency laparotomy, small bowel resection and primary anastomosis. Multiple jejunal diverticula and a large stone were identified at the time of operation. Analysis of the stone demonstrated mainly faecal material consistent with a true primary enterolith. A literature search of Medline and PubMed revealed three cases similar to the one described. The pathogenesis and management of enterolithiasis in jejunal diverticular disease is considered.

  2. Small bowel obstruction secondary to migration of a fragment of lithobezoar: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Medani, Mekki

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction is a common world-wide condition that has a range of etiological factors. The management is largely dependent on the cause of the obstruction. Small bowel obstruction caused by foreign body ingestion is rare; many items have been reported as responsible, but there are no reports implicating polyurethane foam. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 44-year-old Irish male who presented following ingestion of polyurethane foam. He was asymptomatic on presentation but developed a small bowel obstruction shortly thereafter. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting following ingestion of polyurethane foam should be scheduled for elective laparotomy, gastrotomy, and retrieval of the cast on the next available theatre list - given that they are suitable for surgery.

  3. Small Bowel Obstruction Secondary to a Metamucil Bezoar: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abou Azar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bezoar-induced small bowel obstruction is a rare entity. It should be highly suspected in patients with gastric hypomotility disorders, psychiatric conditions, prior abdominal or bariatric surgery, or improper intake of medication. Their diagnosis is quite challenging and surgical exploration remains the best treatment of choice to ensure the viability of the small bowel tissue and relieve the obstruction. This is a case of a 48-year-old female with no previous abdominal surgery who presented with acute abdominal pain. The patient’s history was remarkable for the daily ingestion of 1.5 teaspoons of Metamucil with minimal amount of water. Computed tomography scan demonstrated dilated small bowel loops and a transition zone at the level of the mid jejunum. On laparoscopy, the patient was found to have a hard mass in the mid jejunum amenable to gentle fragmentation and breakdown. Metamucil bezoars are due to the solidification of psyllium-based substances in the gastrointestinal tract. The usual management of small bowel obstruction induced by a bezoar is exploratory laparotomy with enterotomy and primary anastomosis. Laparoscopic intervention has gained popularity among surgeons with good outcome and lower morbidity. In this unusual case, the small bowel obstruction induced by the Metamucil bezoar was safely treated with laparoscopic fragmentation alone.

  4. Small-Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Adhesions After Open or Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Sebastian; Shalaby, Mostafa; Paolo Angelucci, Giulio; Missori, Giulia; Capuano, Ilaria; Franceschilli, Luana; Quaresima, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    Small-bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common surgical emergency that occurs in 9% of patients after abdominal surgery. Up to 73% are caused by peritoneal adhesions. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the rate of SBOs between patients who underwent laparoscopic (LPS) and those who had open (OPS) colorectal surgery. The secondary reasons were to evaluate the rate of adhesive SBO in a cohort of patients who underwent a range of colorectal resections and to assess risk factors for the development of SBO. This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Data were analyzed from a prospectively collected database and cross checked with operating theater records and hospital patient management systems. During the study period, 707 patients underwent colorectal resection, 350 of whom (49.5%) were male. Median follow-up was 48.3 months. Of the patients included, 178 (25.2%) underwent LPS, whereas 529 (74.8%) had OPS. SBO occurred in 72 patients (10.2%): 20 (11.2%) in the LPS group and 52 (9.8%) in the OPS group [P = .16; hazards ratio (HR) 1.4 95% CI 0.82-2.48] within the study period. Conversion to an open procedure was associated with increased risk of SBO (P = .039; HR 2.82; 95% CI 0.78-8.51). Stoma formation was an independent risk factor for development of SBO (P = .049; HR, 0.63; 95% CI 0.39-1.03). The presence of an incisional hernia in the OPS group was associated with SBO (P = .0003; HR, 2.85; 95% CI 1.44-5.283). There was no difference in SBO between different types of procedures: right colon, left colon, and rectal surgery. Patients who developed early small-bowel obstruction (ESBO) were more often treated surgically compared to late SBO (P = .0001). The use of laparoscopy does not influence the rate of SBO, but conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery is associated with an increased risk of SBO. Stoma formation is associated with a 2-fold increase in SBO. Development of ESBO is highly associated with a need for further surgical intervention.

  5. Large Bowel Obstruction Caused by Adhesions without Previous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Large bowel obstruction is rarely caused by adhesions. To our knowledge, the few cases reported in literature are secondary to previous abdomino-pelvic surgery, and are in female patients. Case Reports: We report two cases of large bowel obstruction due to adhesions in males with no previous abdominal ...

  6. Accuracy of abdominal auscultation for bowel obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Birger Michael; Rud, Bo; Kirkegaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy and inter-observer variation of bowel sound assessment in patients with clinically suspected bowel obstruction. METHODS: Bowel sounds were recorded in patients with suspected bowel obstruction using a Littmann(®) Electronic Stethoscope. The recordings were processed...

  7. Large Bowel Obstruction, a Delayed Complication of Severe Gallstone Pancreatitis

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    Neeraj Lal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonic complications are rare after acute pancreatitis but are associated with a high mortality. Possible complications include mechanical obstruction, ischaemic necrosis, haemorrhage, and fistula. We report a case of large bowel obstruction in a 31-year-old postpartum female, secondary to severe gallstone pancreatitis. The patient required emergency laparotomy and segmental bowel resection, as well as cholecystectomy. Presentation of obstruction occurs during the acute episode or can be delayed for several weeks. The most common site is the splenic flexure owing to its proximity to the pancreas. Initial management may be conservative, stenting, or surgical. CT is an acceptable baseline investigation in all cases of new onset bowel obstruction. Although bowel obstruction is a rare complication of pancreatitis, clinicians should be aware of it due to its high mortality. Obstruction can occur after a significant delay following the resolution of pancreatitis. Those patients with evidence of colonic involvement on pancreatic imaging warrant further large bowel evaluation. Bowel resection may be required electively or acutely. Colonic stenting has an increasing role in the management of large bowel obstruction but is a modality of treatment that needs further evaluation in this setting.

  8. Lumbar hernia: a rare cause of large bowel obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Hide, I; Pike, E.; Uberoi, R.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a 70-year-old woman presenting with large bowel obstruction secondary to incarceration of the mid descending colon within a lumbar hernia. This was diagnosed on barium enema and successfully treated surgically.


Keywords: hernia; intestinal obstruction; colon

  9. Lumbar hernia: a rare cause of large bowel obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, I; Pike, E; Uberoi, R

    1999-01-01

    We describe a 70-year-old woman presenting with large bowel obstruction secondary to incarceration of the mid descending colon within a lumbar hernia. This was diagnosed on barium enema and successfully treated surgically.


Keywords: hernia; intestinal obstruction; colon PMID:10715766

  10. Multidetector row computed tomography in bowel obstruction. Part 2. Large bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R. [Department of Radiology, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rakesh.sinha@uhl-tr.nhs.uk; Verma, R. [Department of Radiology, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    Large bowel obstruction may present as an emergency as high-grade colonic obstruction and can result in perforation. Perforated large bowel obstruction causes faecal peritonitis, which can result in high morbidity and mortality. Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has the potential of providing an accurate diagnosis of large bowel obstruction. The rapid acquisition of images within one breath-hold reduces misregistration artefacts than can occur in critically ill or uncooperative patients. The following is a review of the various causes of large bowel obstruction with emphasis on important pathogenic factors, CT appearances and the use of multiplanar reformatted images in the diagnostic workup.

  11. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

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    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  12. Managing neonatal bowel obstruction: clinical perspectives

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    Desoky SM

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah M Desoky,1 Ranjit I Kylat,2 Unni Udayasankar,1 Dorothy Gilbertson-Dahdal1 1Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Neonatal intestinal obstruction is a common surgical emergency and occurs in approximately 1 in 2,000 live births. The causes of obstruction are diverse with varied embryological origins, and some underlying etiologies are not yet well described. Some findings of neonatal bowel obstruction can be detected prenatally on ultrasound imaging. The obstruction is classified as “high” when the level of obstruction is proximal to the ileum, and “low” when the level of obstruction is at the ileum or colon. Early diagnosis of the type of intestinal obstruction and localization of the obstructive bowel segment guides timely and appropriate management of the underlying pathologic entity. Neonatal bowel obstructions are ideally managed at specialized centers with a large volume of neonatal surgery and dedicated pediatric surgical and anesthesia expertise. Although surgical intervention is necessary in most cases, initial management strategies often target underlying metabolic, cardiac, or respiratory abnormalities. Imaging plays a key role in early and accurate diagnosis of the abnormalities. When bowel obstruction is suspected clinically, initial imaging workup usually involves abdominal radiography, which may direct further evaluation with fluoroscopic examination such as upper gastrointestinal (UGI contrast study or contrast enema. This article provides a comprehensive review of clinical and radiological features of common and less common causes of intestinal obstruction in the neonatal age group, including esophageal atresia, enteric duplication cysts, gastric volvulus, congenital microgastria, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, duodenal atresia

  13. Feasibility of laparoscopy for small bowel obstruction

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    De Sol Angelo A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherential pathology is the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. Laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction does not have a clear role yet; surely it doesn't always represent only a therapeutic act, but it is always a diagnostic act, which doesn't interfere with abdominal wall integrity. Methods We performed a review without any language restrictions considering international literature indexed from 1980 to 2007 in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. We analyzed the reference lists of the key manuscripts. We also added a review based on international non-indexed sources. Results The feasibility of diagnostic laparoscopy is high (60–100%, while that of therapeutic laparoscopy is low (40–88%. The frequency of laparotomic conversions is variable ranging from 0 to 52%, depending on patient selection and surgical skill. The first cause of laparotomic conversion is a difficult exposition and treatment of band adhesions. The incidence of laparotomic conversions is major in patients with anterior peritoneal band adhesions. Other main causes for laparotomic conversion are the presence of bowel necrosis and accidental enterotomies. The predictive factors for successful laparoscopic adhesiolysis are: number of previous laparotomies ≤ 2, non-median previous laparotomy, appendectomy as previous surgical treatment causing adherences, unique band adhesion as phatogenetic mechanism of small bowel obstruction, early laparoscopic management within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms, no signs of peritonitis on physical examination, experience of the surgeon. Conclusion Laparoscopic adhesiolysis in small bowel obstruction is feasible but can be convenient only if performed by skilled surgeons in selected patients. The laparoscopic adhesiolysis for small bowel obstruction is satisfactorily carried out when early indicated in patients with a low number of laparotomies resulting in a short hospital stay and a lower postoperative

  14. Dynamic bowel obstruction: aetiology, clinical presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analyzed using SPSS software system. A total of .... This was a descriptive prospective study of patients operated for dynamic bowel obstruction at Bugando ... The modal age group was 31-40 years accounting for 32.2% of cases (Table 1). Two hundred and six (60.2%) patients were aged 40 years and below.

  15. Dynamic bowel obstruction: aetiology, clinical presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to describe in our region, the aetiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome of dynamic bowel obstruction. Data were analyzed using SPSS software system. A total of 342 patients were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.1: 1. The median age of patients at presentation ...

  16. Adult large bowel obstruction: A review of clinical experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adult large bowel obstruction is an infrequent cause of acute obstruction in Africa and India. The cause of obstruction varies between regions of the world. Current controversy concerns the surgical management of the acutely obstructed left colon. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of adult ...

  17. Adult large bowel obstruction: A review of clinical experience | Sule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adult large bowel obstruction is an infrequent cause of acute obstruction in Africa and India. The cause of obstruction varies between regions of the world. Current controversy concerns the surgical management of the acutely obstructed left colon. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of adult ...

  18. AN ANALYTICAL STUDY IN ADHESIVE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION

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    Gerald Anand Raja

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Peritoneal adhesions can be defined as abnormal fibrous bands between organs or tissues or both in the abdominal cavity that are normally separated. Adhesions may be acquired or congenital; however, most are acquired as a result of peritoneal injury, the most common cause of which is abdominopelvic surgery. Less commonly, adhesions may form as the result of inflammatory conditions, intraperitoneal infection or abdominal trauma. The extent of adhesion formation varies from one patient to another and is most dependent on the type and magnitude of surgery performed as well as whether any postoperative complications develop. Fortunately, most patients with adhesions do not experience any overt clinical symptoms. For others, adhesions may lead to any one of a host of problems and can be the cause of significant morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study of 50 patients admitted in Government Royapettah Hospital with adhesive bowel obstruction between September 2008 to September 2010. All patients were admitted and managed either conservatively or surgically. RESULTS 1. Adhesive bowel disease is the most common cause for bowel obstruction followed by hernias. 2. Increased incidence is noted in females. 3. Increased incidence of adhesions was documented in gynaecological and colorectal surgeries. 4. Below umbilical incisions have higher propensity for adhesion formation. 5. Laparotomies done for infective aetiology have higher adhesion risks. 6. Most of adhesive obstructions can be managed conservatively. 7. Adhesiolysis preferably laparoscopic can be done. For gangrenous bowel resection and anastomosis or ostomy done. 8. Given the above risk factors, adhesive bowel disease can be prevented to a certain extent. CONCLUSION The formation of peritoneal adhesions continues to plague patients, surgeons and society. Although, research in this area is ongoing, there is currently no method that is 100% effective in

  19. EXPERIENCE IN MANAGEMENT OF ADHESIVE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION

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    E. Yu. D'yakonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the most common causes and strategies for treatment of adhesive bowel obstruction and its timely diagnostics (which consists in the need for X-ray, ultrasound and endoscopy. It is shown that laparoscopic adhesiolysis in conjunction with anti-adhesion therapy not only minimizes complications in the postoperative period, reduces the time of hospital stay and ensures a good cosmetic result, but also helps verify the nature and extent of adhesions, as well as exclude the presence of other abdominal cavity diseases. 

  20. Indicators for surgery in adhesive bowel obstruction.

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    Rajanikmanth, P V; Kate, V; Ananthakrishnan, N

    2001-01-01

    There is lack of data on risk factors, which, if present, would indicate the need for surgery in patients with adhesive bowel obstruction. A Cohort of 100 consecutive patients with adhesive obstruction was studied prospectively to compare clinical and investigative parameters between the operative and conservative group. It was found that female gender, previous obstetric or gynaecological procedures, pulse and BP on admission, nature of nasogastric aspirate, single distended loop on abdominal x-ray as also predominant ileal distension were independent factors indicating a high probability of surgical intervention. Patients with 2 or more risk factors had 12 times higher probability of surgery and in those with 3 or more the relative risk was 30 times. Patients with such risk factors should be monitored closely after admission and should be taken for surgery after an initial short trial of conservative measures.

  1. Small Bowel Obstruction caused by a Carcinoid Tumour | Shallaly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a rare case of carcinoid tumour presenting as a small bowel obstruction in a young male patient. Pitfalls of diagnosis, including confusion with irritable bowel syndrome are high-lighted. The current management strategies of this tumour are reviewed. Keywords: irritable bowel, appendicitis, choleystitis.

  2. Obturator hernia: An uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction

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    S Shreshtha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70 year old lady presented to surgery emergency with small bowel obstruction without any obvious etiology. On exploration she was found to have an obstructed obturator hernia, which is a rare pelvic hernia with an incidence of 0.07-1.4% of all intra-abdominal hernias. Diagnosis is often delayed until laparotomy for bowel obstruction. Strangulation is frequent and mortality remains high (25%. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment contributes greatly to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates. A variety of techniques have been described, however surgical repair has not been standardized. It is an important diagnosis to be considered in elderly patients with intestinal obstruction.

  3. Ileal angiodysplasia presentation as a bowel obstruction: A case report

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    Ons Ghdes

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Angiodysplasia should be kept in the back of one’s mind as one of the causes of acute abdomen and bowel obstruction, especially in elderly people suffering from occult gastrointestinal bleeding.

  4. Rapunzel Syndrome: a rare cause of acute small bowel obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rapunzel syndrome is a very rare condition where trichobezoar has extended up to the small bowel. Here we are reporting a rare case of Rapunzel syndrome in an adolescent girl with history of trichophagia who presented with small bowel obstruction. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and bezoar was ...

  5. Primary Mesenteric Lipoma Causing Closed Loop Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report

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    Heong-Ieng Wong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenteric lipoma is rare, with fewer than 50 cases described in English-language literature, and those causing bowel obstructions are even more uncommon. The long stalk of the lipoma that caused secondary volvulus and rapid ischemic change in our patient is worth reporting because of its rarity and distinctive picture in emergency abdominal computed tomography.

  6. [Cavernous haemangioma of the small bowel: an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, A M; Erce, R; Montón, S; Martínez, A; Otero, A

    2003-01-01

    Cavernous haemangioma of the small bowel is a vascular, benign and infrequent tumour, similar in both sexes and more typical from the third decade onwards. Its most common clinical manifestation is a chronic anaemia secondary to intestinal bleeding, other causes are intestinal obstruction and perforation. Preoperational diagnosis is difficult and the treatment of choice is surgical resection.

  7. Small bowel obstruction in children due to persimmon phytobezoars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Arshad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ghafoor, Aamir; Turabi, Mohsin Raza

    2003-08-01

    To present the clinical picture of small bowel obstruction caused by Persimmon phytobezoars in children of Hazara (Northern Pakistan). Descriptive case series. Three general surgical units of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from November 1998 to March 2003. Nineteen children were managed for small bowel obstruction due to persimmon phytobezoars. The age, gender, season at the time of presentation, history of persimmon ingestion, symptoms, signs, site of obstruction, operative procedure and outcome were analyzed. There were 15 males and 4 females with ages ranging from 4-11 years (mean 7 years). All presented in winter with a positive history of persimmon ingestion. All had signs and symptoms and evidence of small bowel obstruction on plain abdominal x-rays. At laparotomy, ileum was the commonest site of obstruction. Milking of bezoars into caecum was performed in 17 patients while 2 patients required enterotomy for removal of bezoars. Complications occurred in 4 patients. There was no mortality. Small bowel obstruction in children due to persimmon phytobezoars is uncommon. However, it should be considered pre-operatively as a possible cause of intestinal obstruction in winter in children who have access to the fruit. Laparotomy should be performed for persistent obstruction or signs of strangulation.

  8. Pharmacological treatment of bowel obstruction in cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Brenda

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is a common complication of advanced cancer, occurring most frequently in gynaecological and colorectal cancer. Its management remains complex and variable. This is in part due to the lack of evidence-based guidelines for the clinicians involved. Although surgery should be considered the primary treatment, this may not be feasible in patients with a poor performance status or advanced disease. Advances have been made in the medical management of MBO which can lead to a considerable improvement in symptom management and overall quality of life. AREAS COVERED: This review emphasizes the importance of a prompt diagnosis of MBO with early introduction of pharmacological agents to optimize symptom control. The authors summarize the treatment options available for bowel obstruction in those patients for whom surgical intervention is not a feasible option. The authors also explore the complexities involved in the introduction of parenteral hydration and total parenteral nutrition in this group of patients. EXPERT OPINION: It is not always easy to distinguish reversible from irreversible bowel obstruction. Early and aggressive management with the introduction of pharmacological agents including corticosteroids, octreotide and anti-cholinergic agents have the potential to maintain bowel patency, and allow for more rapid recovery of bowel transit. A combination of analgesics, anti-emetics and anti-cholinergics with or without anti-secretory agents can successfully improve symptom control in patients with irreversible bowel obstruction.

  9. Palliative management of malignant bowel obstruction in terminally Ill patient

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    Darshit A Thaker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mr. P was a 57-year-old man who presented with symptoms of bowel obstruction in the setting of a known metastatic pancreatic cancer. Diagnosis of malignant bowel obstruction was made clinically and radiologically and he was treated conservatively (non-operativelywith octreotide, metoclopromide and dexamethasone, which provided good control over symptoms and allowed him to have quality time with family until he died few weeks later with liver failure. Bowel obstruction in patients with abdominal malignancy requires careful assessment. The patient and family should always be involved in decision making. The ultimate goals of palliative care (symptom management, quality of life and dignity of death should never be forgotten during decision making for any patient.

  10. Bizarre behaviour, bizarre intruder and bizarre bowel obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Di Saverio, Salomone; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Gazzotti, Filippo; Filicori, Filippo; Ansaloni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    An 82-year-old woman, with previous history of hiatal hernia, cholecystectomy and depression, has been admitted for worsening diffuse abdominal pain with constipation and vomiting for 4 days. She lived alone, without signs of dementia or cognitive impairment. The abdomen was distended and tender in middle quadrants. Abdominal x-ray revealed concentric distension of bowel loops. CT scan confirmed mechanical small bowel obstruction with a transition point in the right iliac fossa. At laparotomy...

  11. Laparoscopic Surgery is Useful for Preventing Recurrence of Small Bowel Obstruction After Surgery for Postoperative Small Bowel Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takatoshi; Sato, Takeo; Naito, Masanori; Ogura, Naoto; Yamanashi, Takahiro; Miura, Hirohisa; Tsutsui, Atsuko; Yamashita, Keishi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-02-01

    Risk factors for recurrence postoperative small bowel obstruction in patients who have postoperative abdominal surgery remain unclear. The study group comprised 123 patients who underwent surgery for ileus that developed after abdominal surgery from 1999 through 2013. There were 58 men (47%) and 65 women (53%), with a mean age of 63 years (range, 17 to 92 y). The following surgical procedures were performed: lower gastrointestinal surgery in 47 patients (39%), gynecologic surgery in 39 (32%), upper gastrointestinal surgery in 15 (12%), appendectomy in 9 (7%), cholecystectomy in 5 (4%), urologic surgery in 5 (4%), and repair of injuries caused by traffic accidents in 3 (2%). Laparoscopic surgery was performed in 75 patients (61%), and open surgery was done in 48 (39%). We examined the following 11 potential risk factors for recurrence of small bowel obstruction after surgery for ileus: sex, age, body mass index, the number of episodes of ileus, the number of previously performed operations, the presence or absence of radiotherapy, the previously used surgical technique, the current surgical technique (laparoscopic surgery, open surgery), operation time, bleeding volume, and the presence or absence of enterectomy. The median follow-up was 57 months (range, 7 to 185 mo). Laparoscopic surgery was switched to open surgery in 11 patients (18%). The reason for surgery for postoperative small bowel obstruction was adhesion to the midline incision in 36 patients (29%), band formation in 30 (24%), intrapelvic adhesion in 23 (19%), internal hernia in 13 (11%), small bowel adhesion in 20 (16%), and others in 1 (1%). Postoperative complications developed in 35 patients (28%): wound infection in 12 (10%), recurrence of postoperative small bowel obstruction in 12 (10%), paralytic ileus in 4 (3%), intra-abdominal abscess in 3 (2%), suture failure in 1 (1%), anastomotic bleeding in 1 (1%), enteritis in 1 (1%), and dysuria in 1 (1%). Enterectomy was performed in 42 patients (38

  12. A case of endometriosis causing acute large bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Zexi

    2018-01-01

    Endometriosis is a gynaecological condition which produce symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal menstruation and infertility. Intestinal endometriosis can occur however endometriosis causing acute large bowel obstruction is extremely rare. We present a 37-year-old lady with acute large bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis. Despite initial endoscopic decompression being unsuccessful due to severe mucosal stenosis, she underwent emergency laparoscopic wedge resection and decompression successfully. Diagnosing intestinal endometriosis is difficult. While different modalities of investigation help, definitive diagnosis is achieved via laparoscopy. Treatment of obstruction is decompression followed by surgical resection. Diagnosing intestinal endometriosis with or without obstruction is challenging. Correct diagnosis is needed for definitive management. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Urachal Cyst Causing Small Bowel Obstruction in an Adult with a Virgin Abdomen

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    Michael P. O’Leary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A patent urachus is a rare congenital or acquired pathology, which can lead to complications later in life. We describe a case of urachal cystitis as the etiology of small bowel obstruction in an adult without prior intra-abdominal surgery. Case Report. A 64-year-old male presented to the acute care surgery team with a 5-day history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain, distention, nausea, and vomiting. He had a two-month history of urinary retention and his past medical history was significant for benign prostate hyperplasia. On exam, he had evidence of small bowel obstruction. Computed tomography revealed high-grade small bowel obstruction secondary to presumed ruptured appendicitis. In the operating room, an infected urachal cyst was identified with adhesions to the proximal ileum. After lysis of adhesions and resection of the cyst, the patient was subsequently discharged without further issues. Conclusion. Although rare, urachal pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient with small bowel obstruction without prior intraabdominal surgery, hernia, or malignancy.

  14. Resection of peritoneal metastases causing malignant small bowel obstruction

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    Merrie Arend EH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resection of peritoneal metastases has been shown to improve survival in patients with abdominal metastatic disease from abdominal or extra abdominal malignancy. This study evaluates the benefit of peritoneal metastatic resection in patients with malignant small bowel obstruction and a past history of treated cancer. Patients and methods Patients undergoing laparotomy for resection of peritoneal metastases from recurrence of previous cancer between 1992–2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected about type of primary cancer, interval to recurrence, extent of the disease and completeness of resection, morbidity and mortality and long-term survival. Results Between 1992 and 2003 there were 79 patients (median age 62, range 19–91 who had laparotomy for small bowel obstruction due to recurrent cancer. The primary cancer was colorectal (31, gynaecologic cancer (19, melanoma (16 and others (13. Overall, the rate of complications was 35% and mortality was 10%. Median survival was 5 months; patients with history of colorectal cancer had better survival than other cancer (median survival 7 months vs. 4 months; p = 0.02. Multivariate analysis showed that the extent of recurrent disease was the only factor that affected overall survival. Conclusion Laparotomy for small bowel obstruction is a worthwhile option for patients with malignant small bowel obstruction. Although it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality it offers a reasonable survival benefit in particular for patients with completely resectable disease.

  15. Small bowel obstruction following perforation of the uterus at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion is an important contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To present a case of small bowel obstruction following perforation of the uterus at induced abortion. METHODS: A 36-year-old woman, presented at a private hospital, with abdominal pain and weight loss. She had ...

  16. Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis of obstructive bowel disease: A retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Heydanus (Rogier); M.C. Spaargaren; J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractFetal obstructive bowel disease was diagnosed in 29 patients at 22–37 weeks (median 32 weeks) of gestation, seven (24 per cent) of whom also displayed other anomalies. Polyhydramnios was present in 20/29 cases (69 per cent). An abnormal karyotype existed in 7/29 cases (24 per cent), of

  17. Compression of the Inferior Vena Cava in Bowel Obstruction

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    Alessandro Cina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We investigated whether (a the inferior vena cava (IVC is compressed in bowel obstruction and (b some tracts are more compressed than others. Methods. Two groups of abdominal computed tomography (CT examinations were collected retrospectively. Group O ( scans were positive for bowel obstruction, group C ( scans were negative for diseases. IVC anteroposterior and lateral diameters (APD, LAD were assessed at seven levels. Results. In group C, IVC section had an elliptic shape (APD/LAD: .76 ± .14, the area of which increased gradually from 1.9 (confluence of the iliac veins to 3.1 cm2/m2 of BSA (confluence of the hepatic veins with a significant narrowing in the hepatic section. In group O, bowel obstruction caused a compression of IVC (APD/LAD: .54 ± .17. Along its course, IVC section area increased from 1.3 to 2.5 cm2/m2. At ROC curve analysis, an APD/LAD ratio lower than 0.63 above the confluence of the iliac veins discriminated between O and C groups with sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 96%. Conclusions. Bowel obstruction caused a compression of IVC, which involved its entire course except for the terminal section. APD/LAD ratio may be useful to monitor the degree of compression.

  18. Neonatal Small Bowel Obstruction in Alexandria, Egypt.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    Bianchi supra umbilical incision was done in two cases of intestinal atresia. A half of .... contrary Ameh et al7 found obstructed inguinal hernia and Saha et al9 obtained ... mainly being due to misdiagnosis showing inadequacy in suspicion and.

  19. Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Oscar M.; Daneman, Alan; Miller, Stephen F. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

  20. Gallstone ileus, an uncommon cause of bowel obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García-Marín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis. It is characterized by bowel obstruction secondary to gallstone impaction at some point of the gastrointestinal tract due to the existence of a bilioenteric fistula. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate our experience through a retrospective study, covering a 12-year period. It included 14 cases (10 women and 4 men with a median age of 81 years; 11 of the patients had comorbidities. The main analytic alteration was an increase in urea (median 79 mg/dl. Diagnosis was confirmed through abdominal computed tomography in 10 cases and plain abdominal x-ray in 4. The stone was located in the jejunum in 6 cases, the ileum in 6, and the sigmoid colon in one; the mean stone size was 3 cm. There were 11 cases of cholecystoduodenal fistula, one case of cholecystocolonic fistula, and one idiopathic fistula. Two patients died, including the patient that did not undergo surgery.

  1. Small bowel obstruction in children: usefulness of CT for diagnosis and localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT for the diagnosis of the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction. Out of a group of children who underwent a CT examination for a suspected small bowel obstruction, 19 patients with confirmed underlying disorders were identified and included in the study. Neonates and patients with duodenal obstruction were excluded from the study. The CT findings were analyzed for the location of obstruction site, abnormalities of the mesentery and mesenteric vessels, bowel wall thickening, closed loop obstruction, and strangulation. The obstruction site was divided into five parts. The preoperative CT diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis. Causes of small bowel obstruction were intussusception (n = 6), appendiceal perforation (n = 4), transmesenteric internal hernia (n = 2), postoperative bands (n = 1), idiopathic multiple bands (n = 1), a foreign body (n = 1), a small bowel adenocarcinoma (n = 1), Meckel's diverticulitis (n = 1), tuberculous peritonitis (n = 1) and Salmonella enteritis with bowel perforation (n = 1). The CT findings showed mesenteric vascular prominence (n = 13), omental or mesenteric infiltration (n = 10), localized bowel wall thickening (n = 7) closed loops obstruction (n = 3) and strangulation (n = 1). The obstruction site was identified in all cases. The causes of obstruction could be diagnosed preoperatively in 14 cases, but a preoperative diagnosis was difficult in 5 cases. The causes of small bowel obstruction in children are variable, and CT is useful for evaluating the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction.

  2. Exceptional cause of bowel obstruction: rectal endometriosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometriosis with intestinal serosal involvement is not uncommon in women of childbearing age. However, endometriosis presenting as colon obstruction is rare and occurs in less than 1% of cases. The Lack of pathognomonic signs makes the diagnosis difficult, mostly because the main differential diagnosis is with ...

  3. Small Bowel Obstruction Caused by Aloe vera Bezoars: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In Taik; Cha, Jae Myung; Ki, Hye Jin; Kwak, Min Seob; Yoon, Jin Young; Shin, Hyun Phil; Jeoun, Jung Won; Choi, Sung Il

    2017-05-25

    Small bowel obstruction is a clinical condition commonly caused by postoperative adhesion, volvulus, intussusceptions, and hernia. Small bowel obstruction due to bezoars is clinically uncommon, accounting for approximately 2-4% of all obstructions. Computed tomography (CT) is a useful method in diagnosing the cause of small bowel obstruction. However, small bowel obstruction caused by bezoars may not be detected by an abdominal CT examination. Herein, we report a rare case of small bowel obstruction by Aloe vera bezoars, which were undetected by an abdominal CT. Phytobezoars should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction in patients with predisposing factors, such as excessive consumption of high-fiber food and diabetes.

  4. Laparoscopic Surgery is Useful for Preventing Recurrence of Small Bowel Obstruction After Surgery for Postoperative Small Bowel Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Takatoshi; Sato, Takeo; Naito, Masanori; Ogura, Naoto; Yamanashi, Takahiro; Miura, Hirohisa; Tsutsui, Atsuko; Yamashita, Keishi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Risk factors for recurrence postoperative small bowel obstruction in patients who have postoperative abdominal surgery remain unclear. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 123 patients who underwent surgery for ileus that developed after abdominal surgery from 1999 through 2013. There were 58 men (47%) and 65 women (53%), with a mean age of 63 years (range, 17 to 92 y). The following surgical procedures were performed: lower gastrointestinal surgery in 47 patients (3...

  5. Gastric Trichobezoar Causing Intermittent Small Bowel Obstruction: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole G. Coufal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the unusual case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with multiple episodes of small bowel obstruction. Initial exploratory lap-roscopy did not reveal an etiology of the obstruction. Subsequent upper endoscopy identified a non-obstructing gastric trichobezoar which could not be removed endoscopically but was not thought to be responsible for the small bowel obstruction given its location. One week postoperatively, the patient experienced recurrence of small bowel obstruction. Repeat endoscopy disclosed that the trichobezoar was no longer located in the stomach and upon repeat laparotomy was extracted from the mid-jejunum. In the following 8 months, the patient had no further episodes of small bowel obstruction. Consequently, gastric bezoars should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent small bowel obstruction.

  6. Detected peritoneal fluid in small bowel obstruction is associated with the need for surgical intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2009-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Predicting the clinical course in adhesional small bowel obstruction is difficult. There are no validated clinical or radiologic features that allow early identification of patients likely to require surgical intervention. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary level teaching hospital over a 3-year period (2002-2004) who had acute adhesional small bowel obstruction and underwent computed tomography (CT). The primary outcomes that we assessed were conservative management or the need for surgical intervention. We investigated time to physiologic gastrointestinal function recovery as a secondary outcome. We examined independent predictors of surgical intervention in a bivariate analysis using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients investigated, we excluded 12. Of the 88 remaining patients, 58 (66%) were managed conservatively and 30 (34%) underwent surgery. Peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan (n = 37) was associated more frequently with surgery than conservative management (46% v. 29%, p = 0.046, chi(2)). Logistical regression identified peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan as an independent predictor of surgical intervention (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.15-7.84). CONCLUSION: The presence of peritoneal fluid on a CT scan in patients with adhesional small bowel obstruction is an independent predictor of surgical intervention and should alert the clinician that the patient is 3 times more likely to require surgery.

  7. Complicated Jejunal Diverticulosis: Small Bowel Volvulus with Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Singh Mohi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of the diverticulum of the small bowel varies from 0.2-1.3% in autopsy studies to 2.3% when assessed on enteroclysis. It occurs mostly in patients in the 6th decade of their life. Of all the small bowel diverticuli, jejunal diverticulum is the most common type. This rare entity is usually asymptomatic. However, they may cause chronic non-specific symptoms for a long period of time like dyspepsia, chronic postprandial pain, nausea, vomiting, borborgymi, alternating diarrhoea and constipation, weight loss, anaemia, steatorrhea or rarely lead to complications like haemorrhage, obstruction, perforation. Obstruction can be due to enterolith, adhesions, intussusception, and volvulus. The condition is difficult to diagnose because patients are generally presented with symptoms that mimic other diseases. It is important for clinicians to have awareness of this entity. Here, we present a case of multiple jejunal diverticuli with a history of repeated attacks of diverticulitis over past 20 years, which were misdiagnosed and now presented with intestinal obstruction due to volvulus of the involved segment along with mesentery around its axis. Resection of the diverticuli segment of jejunum was done with end-to-end jejuno-jejunal anastomosis. The patient is asymptomatic since 10 months of follow-up.

  8. Small bowel obstruction caused by congenital transmesenteric defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouira F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmesenteric hernias are extremely rare. A strangulated hernia through a mesenteric opening is a rare operative finding. Preoperative diagnosis still is difficult in spite of the imaging techniques currently available. The authors describe two cases of paediatric patients presenting with bowel obstruction resulting from a congenital mesenteric hernia. The first patient had a 3-cm wide congenital defect in the ileal mesentery through which the sigmoid colon had herniated. The second patient is a newborn infant who presented with symptoms and radiographic evidence of neonatal occlusion. At surgical exploration, a long segment of the small bowel had herniated in a defect in the ileal mesentery. A brief review of epidemiology and anatomy of transmesenteric hernias is included, along with a discussion of the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  9. Huge simultaneous trichobezoars causing gastric and small-bowel obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bezoars are concretions of foreign materials that impair gastrointestinal motility or cause intestinal obstruction in the stomach, small intestine or bowel of humans or animals. There are many types of them such as phyto, lacto and trichobezoars. Although bezoars are not rare, multiple giant bezoars which totally fill the stomach lumen and have extension to the small intestine (Rapunzel syndrome are very rare. This is a case report of a young girl who had a history of trichophagia and presented with partial gastric and intestinal obstructive signs. The patient was healthy, and her physical exam was almost normal and the only positive thing in her past medical history was trichophagia from several years ago. She had a big trapped bobble in her stomach and several air-fluid levels in abdominal radiograph and was investigated with endoscopy which confirmed the diagnosis of a huge gastric trichobezoar.

  10. An undigested cherry tomato as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortezavi, A; Schneider, P M; Lurje, G

    2015-07-01

    Small bowel obstruction due to undigested fibre from fruits and vegetables is a rare but known medical condition. We report a case of small bowel obstruction caused by a whole cherry tomato in a patient without a past medical history of abdominal surgery. A 66-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of lower abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting. His last bowel movement had occurred on the morning of presentation. He underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT), which showed a sudden change of diameter in the distal ileum with complete collapse of the proximal small bowel segment. Laparoscopy confirmed a small bowel obstruction with a transition point close to the ileocaecal valve. An enterotomy was performed and a completely undigested cherry tomato was retrieved. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a small bowel obstruction caused by a whole cherry tomato.

  11. [Obstructive anuria secondary to uterine prolapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Alonso, A; González Blanco, A; Cachay Ayala, M E; Bonelli Martín, C i; Porta Vila, A; Lorenzo Franco, J; Cuerpo Pérez, M A; Nieto García, J

    2002-10-01

    The prevalence of obstructive uropathy linked to uterine prolapse ranges between 4% and 80%, depending on the series, probably due to the varying degree of severity of the prolapses under consideration. Renal failure or anuria is an unusual complication. Several etiopathogenic theories regarding obstructive uropathy secondary to prolapse have been put forward: ureteral compression by the uterine vessels, severe urethral angulation, ureteral compression against levator ani muscles and the elongation and narrowing of the distal ureter. The major radiological exploration used in studying the urinary tract of these patients is intravenous urography in bipedestation. Emergency treatment for obstructive anuria resulting from a uterine prolapse consists of manually replacement of the prolapse. Surgery is considered to be the definitive ideal treatment, although in the case of surgical or anaesthetic high risk patients, inserting a permanent pessary may constitute a satisfactory solution. We present a case of obstructive anuria resulting from uterine prolapse, which was successfully treated with the insertion of a ring pessary.

  12. Bizarre behaviour, bizarre intruder and bizarre bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Saverio, Salomone; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Gazzotti, Filippo; Filicori, Filippo; Ansaloni, Luca

    2010-11-12

    An 82-year-old woman, with previous history of hiatal hernia, cholecystectomy and depression, has been admitted for worsening diffuse abdominal pain with constipation and vomiting for 4 days. She lived alone, without signs of dementia or cognitive impairment. The abdomen was distended and tender in middle quadrants. Abdominal x-ray revealed concentric distension of bowel loops. CT scan confirmed mechanical small bowel obstruction with a transition point in the right iliac fossa. At laparotomy, the obstruction was caused by an intraluminal mass. After enterotomy, a 5.5 cm large phytobezoar was extracted; immediately after, a small live insect jumped out from the vegetable mass crawling onto the surgical area. The specimen was sent for parasitology and identified as a crustacean isopod, terrestrial arthropod, classified in the phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea and order Isopoda. They usually live in humid, moist conditions, obtaining their nourishment from decomposing vegetable matter. They often colonise in greenhouse pot plants. No cases of parasitisation in vertebrate species have been reported to date.

  13. Intussusception of the small bowel secondary to an enterolith from a jejunal diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, Aimee N; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Zacharakis, Emmanouil

    2012-09-01

    We report a case of acute, small bowel obstruction secondary to intussusception caused by an enterolith from a jejunal diverticulum, in an elderly female with a history of chronic, intermittent abdominal pain. Diagnostic work-up of the patient included a computed tomographic (CT) scan which demonstrated the intussusception, but not the enterolith, which was characteristically radiolucent. A laparotomy was performed and the enterolith was found and delivered. A fistula between the gallbladder and small bowel was sought, but not found. Multiple diverticulae were found throughout the small bowel. Although small bowel diverticulosis is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen and chronic abdominal pain, especially in those with known colonic diverticulosis, in whom this condition is more common.

  14. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of octreotide in malignant bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currow, David C; Quinn, Stephen; Agar, Meera; Fazekas, Belinda; Hardy, Janet; McCaffrey, Nikki; Eckermann, Simon; Abernethy, Amy P; Clark, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Does octreotide reduce vomiting in cancer-associated bowel obstruction? To evaluate the net effect of adding octreotide or placebo to standardized therapies on the number of days free of vomiting for populations presenting with vomiting and inoperable bowel obstruction secondary to cancer or its treatment. Twelve services enrolled people with advanced cancer presenting with vomiting secondary to bowel obstruction where surgery or anti-cancer therapies were not indicated immediately. In a double-blind study, participants were randomized to placebo or octreotide (600 μg/24 hours by infusion). Both arms received standardized supportive therapy (infusion of ranitidine [200 mg/24 hours], dexamethasone [8 mg/24 hours], and parenteral hydration [10-20 mL/kg/24 hours]). The primary outcome was patient-reported days free of vomiting at 72 hours. In a study that recruited to the numbers identified in its power calculation, 87 participants provided data at 72 hours (45, octreotide arm). Seventeen people (octreotide) and 14 (placebo) were free of vomiting for 72 hours (P = 0.67). Mean days free of vomiting were 1.87 (SD 1.10; octreotide) and 1.69 (SD 1.15; placebo; P = 0.47). An adjusted multivariate regression of the incidence of vomiting over the study showed a reduced number of episodes of vomiting in the octreotide group (incidence rate ratio = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.86; P = 0.019); however, people in the octreotide arm were 2.02 times more likely to be administered hyoscine butylbromide (P = 0.004), potentially reflecting increased colicky pain. Although there was no reduction in the number of days free of vomiting, the multivariate analysis suggests that further study of somatostatin analogues in this setting is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnosis of strangulated small bowel obstruction; Efficacy of enhanced CT scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Masaya; Noto, Takashi; Iwata, Yoshio (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    We have experienced 25 cases of strangulated small bowel obstruction with bowel resection in the past 10 years. According to the histological findings in the resected bowel, these cases were divided into a necrotic group and a non-necrotic group. Preoperative findings on the clinical course and hematobiochemical examination in these two groups were compared, but no significant examination in these two groups were compared, but no significant differences were found. The results of enhanced CT scanning in these two groups were analyzed and some characteristic findings were seen in the necrotic group. Gasless small bowel, disappearance of the Kerckring's folds and increased mesenteric density were special features in the necrotic cases. Blurred enhancement of the small bowel wall and increased density of the bowel contents indicating bleeding were observed in the more severe cases. Enhanced CT scanning is very useful for diagnosing strangulated small bowel obstruction and should be used in cases of suspected necrotic bowel. (author).

  16. Small bowel obstruction from potato and broccoli phytobezoar mimicking mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Karen D; Tupesis, Janis P

    2013-01-01

    Bezoars are concretions of undigested foreign material that form in the gastrointestinal tract. Rare in humans, they are nonetheless a well-documented cause of intraluminal bowel obstruction. The objectives of this case report include describing an unusual presentation of small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar, which mimicked mesenteric ischemia, and highlighting the risk factors, presentation, and management of bezoars, in addition to covering historical beliefs regarding bezoars. Here we report a 64-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department with chest pain, vomiting, and hypotension. Initial work-up was directed at ruling out cardiac causes and aortic catastrophe such as aortic dissection or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Computed tomography angiography of the chest and abdomen showed findings suggestive of mesenteric ischemia and small bowel obstruction. However, exploratory laparotomy revealed intraluminal small bowel obstruction from a phytobezoar consisting of undigested chunks of potato, brussels sprouts, and broccoli. Although rare in humans, bezoars are a documented cause of small bowel obstruction, and should be considered when intraluminal bowel obstruction occurs. Bezoars causing small bowel obstruction require surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of high-grade small bowel obstruction on conventional radiography with convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Phillip M; Tejura, Tapas K; Tran, Khoa N; Whang, Gilbert

    2017-08-21

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether a deep convolutional neural network can be trained with limited image data to detect high-grade small bowel obstruction patterns on supine abdominal radiographs. Grayscale images from 3663 clinical supine abdominal radiographs were categorized into obstructive and non-obstructive categories independently by three abdominal radiologists, and the majority classification was used as ground truth; 74 images were found to be consistent with small bowel obstruction. Images were rescaled and randomized, with 2210 images constituting the training set (39 with small bowel obstruction) and 1453 images constituting the test set (35 with small bowel obstruction). Weight parameters for the final classification layer of the Inception v3 convolutional neural network, previously trained on the 2014 Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge dataset, were retrained on the training set. After training, the neural network achieved an AUC of 0.84 on the test set (95% CI 0.78-0.89). At the maximum Youden index (sensitivity + specificity-1), the sensitivity of the system for small bowel obstruction is 83.8%, with a specificity of 68.1%. The results demonstrate that transfer learning with convolutional neural networks, even with limited training data, may be used to train a detector for high-grade small bowel obstruction gas patterns on supine radiographs.

  18. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome following Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoumitro Deb

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 64-year-old lady who developed clinical features of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome following a laparotomy for small bowel obstruction. Following the operation she developed paralytic ileus and required total parenteral nutrition for one month. A suspected history of average 40 units of weekly alcohol consumption prior to the operation could not be confirmed and the patient did not show any sign of alcohol dependence. Within a few months of treatment with a daily oral dose of thiamine 200 mgs supplemented by multivitamins the patient showed subjective evidence of improvement in confusion, confabulation, and anterograde amnesia, although objective tests showed residual deficits in many areas of cognitive functioning, including immediate and delayed recall of verbal and non-verbal materials, planning and switching of attention.

  19. Small bowel volvulus with jejunal diverticulum: Primary or secondary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Wen-Xian; Cao, Ke; Wang, Hao; Du, Jun-Feng

    2015-09-28

    Small bowel volvulus, which is torsion of the small bowel and its mesentery, is a medical emergency, and is categorized as primary or secondary type. Primary type often occurs without any apparent intrinsic anatomical anomalies, while the secondary type is common clinically and could be caused by numerous factors including postoperative adhesions, intestinal diverticulum, and/or tumors. Here, we report a rare case of a 60-year-old man diagnosed with small bowel volvulus using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography. Further discovery by laparotomy showed one jejunal diverticulum, longer corresponding mesentery with a narrower insertion, and a lack of mesenteric fat. This case report includes several etiological factors of small bowel volvulus, and we discuss the possible cause of small bowel volvulus in this patient. We also highlight the importance of MDCT angiography in the diagnosis of volvulus and share our experience in treating this disease.

  20. Treating Small Bowel Obstruction with a Manual Physical Therapy: A Prospective Efficacy Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice, Amanda D; Patterson, Kimberley; Reed, Evette D; Wurn, Belinda F; Klingenberg, Bernhard; King, 3rd, C Richard; Wurn, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    .... This study examines the efficacy of a manual physical therapy treatment regimen on the pain and quality of life of subjects with a history of bowel obstructions due to adhesions in a prospective...

  1. CT Findings of Patients with Small Bowel Obstruction due to Bezoar: A Descriptive Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Degirmenci, Bumin; Dikicier, Enis; Cakmak, Guner; Kivilcim, Taner; Akbulut, Gokhan; Dilek, Osman Nuri; Gunduz, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to present the computed tomography (CT) findings of bezoars that cause obstruction in the small bowel and to emphasize that some CT findings can be considered specific to some bezoar types...

  2. Treating Small Bowel Obstruction with a Manual Physical Therapy: A Prospective Efficacy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Amanda D.; Kimberley Patterson; Reed, Evette D.; Wurn, Belinda F.; Bernhard Klingenberg; C. Richard King; Lawrence J. Wurn

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) caused by adhesions are a common, often life-threatening postsurgical complication with few treatment options available for patients. This study examines the efficacy of a manual physical therapy treatment regimen on the pain and quality of life of subjects with a history of bowel obstructions due to adhesions in a prospective, controlled survey based study. Changes in six domains of quality of life were measured via ratings reported before and after treatment ...

  3. Small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar formation within meckel diverticulum: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazzini, V.I. Jr.; English, W.J.; Bashist, B.; Moore, E. [Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Intestinal obstruction due to a phytobezoar within a Meckel diverticulum is exceedingly rare, with only seven reported cases in the surgical literature. The most important precipitating factor is the ingestion of agents high in fiber and cellulose. Small bowel obstruction in all but one case was due to retrograde propagation of the bezoar into the small bowel lumen. We report the clinical and CT findings in such a patient following a vegetarian diet. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Imaging bowel obstruction: A comparison between fast magnetic resonance imaging and helical computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, D.P.; Fortman, B.J.; Lawler, B.C.; Regan, F

    2002-08-01

    AIM: To compare the accuracy of fast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using the half-Fourier single shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequence with helical computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing bowel obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective evaluation of 44 patients with clinical evidence of bowel obstruction was conducted using various investigations including HASTE MR and helical CT. MR was performed with a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MR Imaging System and CT was performed with one of two Siemens ARHP CT systems using helical technique. MR acquisition allowed data to be gathered in 6-10 minutes and no contrast media were administered. CT imaging consisted of consecutive helical CT through the abdomen and pelvis with oral and intravenous contrast medium used when indicated. Bowel dilation along with the presence and level of obstruction were determined. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients had bowel obstruction confirmed at laparotomy or by radiographic assessment. Of these, 25 had small bowel obstruction and three had colonic obstructions. The obstruction was due to fibrous adhesions in nine patients, metastases or primary carcinoma in seven, Crohn's disease in four, hernias in two, and inflammation or abscess in two. Other causes of obstruction included lymphoma, intussusception and anastomotic stricture. The cause of obstruction was correctly diagnosed by CT in 71%, and by MR in 95% of cases. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for HASTE MR imaging was 95%, 100% and 96% respectively as compared to 71%, 71% and 71% for helical CT. CONCLUSION: Fast MR imaging using the HASTE sequence is more accurate than helical CT in diagnosing bowel obstruction. Beall, D.P. et al. (2002)

  5. [The role of contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan in clinical decision in the management of adhesive small bowel obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada-Sanhueza, Nicolás; León-Ferrufino, Felipe; Bächler-González, Jean; Riquelme-Pizarro, Carlos; Crovari-Eulufi, Fernando; Jarufe-Cassis, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is currently the exam of choice for bowel obstruction. The test reports the etiology, site and grade of obstruction, and the presence of bowel ischemia, affecting the surgical decision. We undertook this study to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CT for bowel ischemia and the probability of surgery depending on signs of bowel ischemia and grade of bowel obstruction observed in CT in patients with adhesive small bowel obstruction. We carried out a retrospective study including patients from 2007-2010 admitted due to adhesive bowel obstruction and with intravenous contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT at admission. Tomographic signs of bowel ischemia were established and diagnostic accuracy was calculated. We also determined the probability of surgery depending on tomographic grade of obstruction and signs of bowel ischemia by subgroup analysis. This was a cohort of 164 patients with a mean age of 60.4 ± 20 years; 87% had previous abdominal surgery and 86 patients required surgery (52%). In regard to tomographic signs of bowel ischemia, sensitivity was 72.5%, specificity 97.5%, positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 91%, positive likelihood ratio 29.9, and negative likelihood ratio 0.28. Tomographic signs of bowel ischemia simultaneously with high-grade obstruction presented an 83% probability of surgery; high-grade obstruction alone presented a 57% probability and in absence of both signs was 36%. There is good diagnostic accuracy for tomographic signs of bowel ischemia and its definitive presence. Tomographic signs of bowel ischemia simultaneously with high-grade bowel obstruction significantly increase the probability of surgery.

  6. Acute large bowel pseudo-obstruction due to atrophic visceral myopathy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Wrenn

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Atrophic visceral neuropathy is a rare cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction. While often presenting with chronic obstruction in younger populations, we present a rare late-onset acute presentation that may have been secondary to underlying hypothyroidism.

  7. Usefulness of helical CT in the diagnosis of strangulation in small bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hye; Kim, Won Hong; Jeon, Yong Sun; Shin, Dong Jae; Cho, Soon Gu; Lee, Chang Keun; Choi, Sun Keun [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    We wished to evaluate the usefulness of helical CT for the diagnosis of strangulation of the dilated small bowels. The CT scans of 31 patients with small bowel obstruction from various causes were reviewed retrospectively. Thirteen of these patients were confirmed as small bowel strangulation by surgery and pathology. Fourteen patients underwent surgery, but they had no strangulation. Three patients were reduced by using a nasogastric tube and one infant with intussusception was reduced by air reduction. The following CT findings of strangulation were evaluated: reduced bowel wall enhancement by visual assessment and measuring the HU, ascites, thickening of bowel wall, abnormal mesenteric vessel location and whirlpool appearance, and mesenteric venous engorgement. For the precise evaluation of reduced bowel wall enhancement, the HUs were measured by 1 mm{sup 2} of ROI, and the differences of HUs between the well enhanced bowel and poorly enhanced bowel were compared. For the diagnosis of strangulation, measurement of HU of the bowel wall could improve the sensitivity from 69% to 100%. The specificity of both methods, by visual assessment and measurement of HU, was 94%. Ascites had a sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 44%. Thickening of bowel wall had a sensitivity of 38% and specificity of 78%. Abnormal mesenteric vessel location and whirlpool appearance had a sensitivity of 38% and specificity of 83%. Mesenteric venous engorgement had a sensitivity of 31% and specificity of 72%. Measurement of HU of the bowe wall after contrast enhancement can be a useful method in the differential diagnosis between the strangulated and non-strangulated bowels in patients with small bowel obstruction.

  8. Giant Fecaloma Causing Small Bowel Obstruction: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Mosin; Shah, Mubashir A; Malik, Aijaz A; Wani, Khurshid A; Thakur, Natasha; Q Parray, Fazl

    2015-01-01

    Fecaloma is a mass of hardened feces being impacted mostly in rectum and sigmoid. The most common sites of the fecaloma is the sigmoid colon and the rectum. There are several causes of fecaloma and have been described in association with Hirschsprung’s disease, psychiatric patients, Chagas disease, both inflammatory and neoplastic, and in patients suffering with chronic constipation. Up to now several cases of giant fecaloma has been reported in the literature most of them presenting with megacolon or urinary retention. We herein report a case of giant fecaloma leading to bowel obstruction who was successfully treated by surgery. A 30-yrar-old man presented with sign and symptoms of acute bowel obstruction. He underwent exploratory laparotomy and enterotomy. He was found to have a giant fecaloma causing bowel obstruction in the jejunum. He was discharged after the operation with good condition. Jejunal fecaloma is extremely rare condition. PMID:27162906

  9. [Multimordality of cluster treatment strategy for early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-guang; Zhang, Yang; He, Liang; Chen, Yan; Yu, Jin-hai; Sun, Xuan; Wang, Li-xin; Suo, Jian

    2013-09-01

    To explore the application of multimordality of cluster treatment strategy in early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction. Clinical data of 31 cases of early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction in our department from July 2007 to July 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Multimordality of cluster treatment strategy was used in 13 cases (treatment group), and other non-surgical treatment was applied in 18 cases (control group). Efficacy and prognosis were compared between the two groups. Four-day improvement rate was 76.9% (10/13) and 44.4% (8/18), and 7-day cure rate was 92.3% (12/13) and 77.8% (14/18) in the treatment group and the control group, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (both Ptreatment group as compared to the control group (all Pcluster treatment strategy can effectively shorten the healing time of early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction, which possesses a good clinical application prospect.

  10. Phytobezoar impaction in a Meckel’s diverticulum; a rare cause of bowel obstruction: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Abou Hussein

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Complicated Meckel’s diverticulum can have different clinical presentations and can cause bowel obstruction. An association with bezoars impaction is possible and it should be suspected in adult patients presenting with bowel obstruction of unknown causes especially those with high vegetarian diet.

  11. Prenatal magnetic resonance and ultrasonographic findings in small-bowel obstruction: imaging clues and postnatal outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, Eva I.; Blask, Anna R.; Bulas, Dorothy I. [Children' s National Medical System, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Badillo, Andrea T. [Children' s National Medical System, Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Prenatal small-bowel obstruction can result from single or multiple atresias, and it can be an isolated abnormality or part of a syndrome. It is sometimes the first manifestation of cystic fibrosis. Accurate prediction of the level of obstruction and length of bowel affected can be difficult, presenting a challenge for counseling families and planning perinatal management. To review the prenatal US and MRI findings of small-bowel obstruction and to assess whether fetal MRI adds information that could improve prenatal counseling and perinatal management. We retrospectively reviewed 12 prenatally diagnosed cases of small-bowel obstruction evaluated by both US and MRI from 2005 to 2015. We analyzed gestational age at evaluation, US and MRI findings, gestational age at delivery and postnatal outcomes. The final diagnoses were jejunal atresia (7), ileal atresia (1), cystic fibrosis (3) and combined jejunal and anal atresia (1). Four of the eight with jejunal atresia were found to have multiple small-bowel atresias. Prenatal perforation was noted in three. We identified a trend of increasing complexity of bowel contents corresponding to progressively distal level of obstruction, as indicated by increasing US echogenicity and high T1 signal on MRI. Seven cases of jejunal atresia and one case of ileal atresia demonstrated small ascending, transverse and descending colon (microcolon) with filling of a normal-diameter rectum. In contrast, all three fetuses with cystic fibrosis and the fetus with jejunal-anal atresia demonstrated microcolon as well as abnormal paucity or absence of rectal meconium. Polyhydramnios was present in nine. Eight were delivered prematurely, of whom seven had polyhydramnios. The fetus with jejunal and anal atresia died in utero. Postnatally, three had short gut syndrome, all resulting from multiple jejunal atresias; these three were among a subset of four fetuses whose bowel diameter measured more than 3 cm. Eight infants had no further

  12. Ruptured Jejunal Diverticulum Due to a Single-Band Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaraman Durai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is rare and often goes unnoticed until complications occur. The diverticula are true, acquired diverticula and often asymptomatic. Jejunal diverticulosis can be associated with diverticulosis of the duodenum, ileum, and colon. Here we describe a patient with known severe diverticular disease of the large bowel, who presented acutely with abdominal pain and signs of generalised peritonitis. Laparotomy showed ruptured jejunal diverticulosis with a single band over the terminal ileum, causing small bowel obstruction. Spontaneous perforation of a jejunal diverticulum is rare and is usually an intraoperative finding. One should exclude a precipitating cause, such as coexisting distal obstruction, stricture, or a foreign body.

  13. Safety and efficacy of radiological percutaneous jejunostomy for decompression of malignant small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo; Yoon, Chang Jin; Seong, Nak Jong; Kang, Sung-Gwon; An, Seung-Won; Woo, Young-Nam

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous radiological jejunostomy (PRJ) and stent placement in patients with malignant small bowel obstructions (MSBO). A total of 21 patients (mean age 60 years) with single (n = 4) or multiple (n = 17) MSBO underwent PRJ following jejunopexy. The medical records and imaging studies were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the technical/clinical success and complications. Clinical success was determined by symptomatic relief and radiologic bowel decompression. PRJ using a 12- or 14-F drainage catheter was technically successful in all patients. Eleven patients required placement of an 18-F nasogastric tube across one (n = 3), two (n = 6) and three (n = 2) obstructions to achieve clinical success. Subsequently, self-expandable stents were placed through the PRJ tracts to recanalise MSBO in four patients. Clinical success was achieved in 18 patients (85.7 %). The median food intake capacity score improved from 4.0 to 2.0 (P = 0.001). There were one major (peritonitis, 4.8 %) and six minor complications (28.6 %) PRJ using a nasogastric tube across the obstructions is an effective palliative treatment for MSBO. The PRJ tract can be used as an approach route for stent placement to recanalise MSBO. However, dedicated devices should be developed to reduce frequent procedure-related complications. • Bowel decompression provides palliative treatment in malignant small bowel obstruction • Percutaneous radiological jejunostomy (PRJ) is a safe and effective palliative treatment. • Long tube placement across obstructions facilitates adequate drainage of multiple bowel obstructions. • PRJ tract can be used for stent placement to approach MSBO recanalisation.

  14. Mechanical small bowel obstruction due to an inflamed appendix wrapping around the last loop of ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, M; Ricci, G; Bartolucci, P; Modini, C

    2005-01-01

    Acute apendicitis rarely presents with a clinical picture of mechanical small-bowel obstruction. The Authors report a case of this inusual clinical occurrence, arised like a complication of a common disease, characterized by a chronically inflamed appendix (mucocele) wrapping around the last loop of ileum that produced volvolus and strangulation. The few similar cases reported in the literature are moreover reviewed.

  15. Treating Small Bowel Obstruction with a Manual Physical Therapy: A Prospective Efficacy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda D; Patterson, Kimberley; Reed, Evette D; Wurn, Belinda F; Klingenberg, Bernhard; King, C Richard; Wurn, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) caused by adhesions are a common, often life-threatening postsurgical complication with few treatment options available for patients. This study examines the efficacy of a manual physical therapy treatment regimen on the pain and quality of life of subjects with a history of bowel obstructions due to adhesions in a prospective, controlled survey based study. Changes in six domains of quality of life were measured via ratings reported before and after treatment using the validated Small Bowel Obstruction Questionnaire (SBO-Q). Improvements in the domains for pain (p = 0.0087), overall quality of life (p = 0.0016), and pain severity (p = 0.0006) were significant when average scores before treatment were compared with scores after treatment. The gastrointestinal symptoms (p = 0.0258) domain was marginally significant. There was no statistically significant improvement identified in the diet or medication domains in the SBO-Q for this population. Significant improvements in range of motion in the trunk (p ≤ 0.001), often limited by adhesions, were also observed for all measures. This study demonstrates in a small number of subjects that this manual physical therapy protocol is an effective treatment option for patients with adhesive small bowel obstructions as measured by subject reported symptoms and quality of life.

  16. Treating Small Bowel Obstruction with a Manual Physical Therapy: A Prospective Efficacy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Rice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel obstructions (SBOs caused by adhesions are a common, often life-threatening postsurgical complication with few treatment options available for patients. This study examines the efficacy of a manual physical therapy treatment regimen on the pain and quality of life of subjects with a history of bowel obstructions due to adhesions in a prospective, controlled survey based study. Changes in six domains of quality of life were measured via ratings reported before and after treatment using the validated Small Bowel Obstruction Questionnaire (SBO-Q. Improvements in the domains for pain (p=0.0087, overall quality of life (p=0.0016, and pain severity (p=0.0006 were significant when average scores before treatment were compared with scores after treatment. The gastrointestinal symptoms (p=0.0258 domain was marginally significant. There was no statistically significant improvement identified in the diet or medication domains in the SBO-Q for this population. Significant improvements in range of motion in the trunk (p≤0.001, often limited by adhesions, were also observed for all measures. This study demonstrates in a small number of subjects that this manual physical therapy protocol is an effective treatment option for patients with adhesive small bowel obstructions as measured by subject reported symptoms and quality of life.

  17. Reduction in adhesive small-bowel obstruction by Seprafilm adhesion barrier after intestinal resection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazio, V.W.; Cohen, Z.; Fleshman, J.W.; Goor, H. van; Bauer, J.J.; Wolff, B.G.; Corman, M.; Beart Jr, R.W.; Wexner, S.D.; Becker, J.M.; Monson, J.R.; Kaufman, H.S.; Beck, D.E.; Bailey, H.R.; Ludwig, K.A.; Stamos, M.J.; Darzi, A.; Bleday, R.; Dorazio, R.; Madoff, R.D.; Smith, L.E.; Gearhart, S.; Lillemoe, K.; Gohl, J.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although Seprafilm has been demonstrated to reduce adhesion formation, it is not known whether its usage would translate into a reduction in adhesive small-bowel obstruction. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, multinational, single-blind, controlled study. This

  18. Total colectomy in a gangrenous large bowel due to a rare double closed loop obstruction

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    Priyanka Akhilesh Sali

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: To our knowledge, such gangrene of the entire large bowel due to a sigmoid volvulus and a competent ileocaecal valve has not been reported in literature so far. We also highlight here, the rapid ischaemic changes that follow a closed loop obstruction. In our case the CT has shown ischaemic changes only in the sigmoid. Hence, timely diagnosis and intervention is imperative.

  19. Intussusception as a cause of bowel obstruction in adults from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Intussusception refers to the telescoping of a proximal segment of bowel into a distal segment. It is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adulthood. CASE DETAILS: We report two cases of adult intussusception in a post-operative period following Caesarean Section (with no lead point) and ...

  20. Penetrating ectopic peptic ulcer in the absence of Meckel's diverticulum ultimately presenting as small bowel obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, Hilary

    2012-02-03

    We report here how a heterotopic penetrating peptic ulcer progressed to cause small bowel obstruction in a patient with multiple previous negative investigations. The clinical presentation, radiographic features and pathological findings of this case are described, along with the salient lessons learnt. The added value of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in such circumstances is debated.

  1. Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of small bowel volvulus in adults: A monocentric summary of a rare small intestinal obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohang Li

    Full Text Available Small bowel volvulus is a rare disease, which is also challenging to diagnose. The aims of this study were to characterize the clinical and radiological features associated with small bowel volvulus and treatment and to identify risk factors for associated small bowel necrosis.Patients with small bowel volvulus who underwent operations from January 2001 to December 2015 at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University (Shenyang, China were reviewed. Clinical, surgical and postsurgical data were registered and analyzed.Thirty-one patients were included for analysis. Fifteen patients were female (48.4%, with an average age of 47.7 years (18-79 years. The clinical signs and symptoms were unspecific and resembled intestinal obstruction. Clinical examination revealed abdominal distension and/or diffuse tenderness with or without signs of peritonitis. The use of CT scans, X-rays or ultrasound did not differ significantly between patients. In 9 of 20 patients that received abdominal CT scans, "whirlpool sign" on the CT scan was present. Secondary small bowel volvulus was present in 58.1% of patients, and causes included bands (3, adhesion (7, congenital anomalies (7 and stromal tumor (1. Out of the 31 patients, 15 with gangrenous small bowel had to undergo intestinal resection. Intestinal gangrene was present with higher neutrophils count (p<0.0001 and the presence of bloody ascites (p = 0.004. Three patients died of septic shock (9.68%, and the recurrence rate was 3.23%.To complete an early and accurate diagnosis, a CT scan plus physical exam seems to be the best plan. After diagnosis, an urgent laparotomy must be performed to avoid intestinal necrosis and perforation. After surgery, more than 90% of the patients can expect to have a favorable prognosis.

  2. Medical malpractice in the management of small bowel obstruction: A 33-year review of case law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Asad J; Haddad, Nadeem N; Rivera, Mariela; Morris, David S; Zietlow, Scott P; Schiller, Henry J; Jenkins, Donald H; Chowdhury, Naadia M; Zielinski, Martin D

    2016-10-01

    Annually, 15% of practicing general surgeons face a malpractice claim. Small bowel obstruction accounts for 12-16% of all surgical admissions. Our objective was to analyze malpractice related to small bowel obstruction. Using the search terms "medical malpractice" and "small bowel obstruction," we searched through all jury verdicts and settlements for Westlaw. Information was collected on case demographics, alleged reasons for malpractice, and case outcomes. The search criteria yielded 359 initial case briefs; 156 met inclusion criteria. The most common reason for litigation was failure to diagnose and timely manage the small bowel obstruction (69%, n = 107). Overall, 54% (n = 84) of cases were decided in favor of the defendant (physician). Mortality was noted in 61% (n = 96) of cases. Eighty-six percent (42/49) of cases litigated as a result of failing to diagnose and manage the small bowel obstruction in a timely manner, resulting in patient mortality, had a verdict with an award payout for the plaintiff (patient). The median award payout was $1,136,220 (range, $29,575-$12,535,000). A majority of malpractice cases were decided in favor of the defendants; however, cases with an award payout were costly. Timely intervention may prevent a substantial number of medical malpractice lawsuits in small bowel obstruction, arguing in favor of small bowel obstruction management protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Advances in the treatment of malignant large-bowel obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-07-19

    . (a time-consuming ... metal stents, which allow non-operative decompression of obstructing lesions. These are similar in ... contrasted CT scan or flexible endoscopy. Where contrast is used, if one is considering stenting as ...

  4. Adult large bowel obstruction: A review of clinical experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current controversy concerns the surgical management of the acutely obstructed left colon. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of adult patients with ... Twelve patients had colon cancer, four had left hemicolectomy and primary ...

  5. Reversible small bowel obstruction in the chicken foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Oetzmann von Sochaczewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ligation of the embryonic gut is an established technique to induce intestinal obstruction and subsequently intestinal atresia in chicken embryos. In this study, we modified this established chicken model of prenatal intestinal obstruction to describe (1 the kinetics of morphological changes, (2 to test if removal of the ligature in ovo is possible in later embryonic development and (3 to describe morphological adaptations following removal of the ligature. Materials and Methods: On embryonic day (ED 11, small intestines of chick embryos were ligated micro surgically in ovo. In Group 1 (n = 80 gut was harvested proximal and distal to the ligation on ED 12-19. In Group 2 (n = 20 the induced obstruction was released on day 15 and gut was harvested on ED 16-19. Acetyl choline esterase staining was used as to assess resulting morphological changes. Results: A marked intestinal dilatation of the proximal segment can be seen 4 days after the operation (ED 15. The dilatation increased in severity until ED 19 and intestinal atresia could be observed after ED 16. In the dilated proximal segments, signs of disturbed enteric nervous system morphology were obvious. In contrast to this, release of the obstruction on ED 15 in Group 2 resulted in almost normal gut morphology at ED 19. Conclusion: Our model not only allows the description of morphological changes caused by an induced obstruction on ED 11 but also-more important - of morphological signs of adaptation following the release of the obstruction on ED 15.

  6. An Uncommon Cause of Acute Bowel Obstruction: The Left Para ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-ray showed an air-fluid small bowel levels. The computed tomography (CT) showed the presence ... Although PH is congenital, most cases are discovered between the 4th and 6th decades of life with mean age about ... guided, its discovery sometimes occurs during surgery. After diagnosis of PH is made, the treatment is ...

  7. Obstructive Small Bowel Metastasis from Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir A. Tunio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare and aggressive gynecologic malignancy with an overall poor prognosis. Lungs, bones, and brain are common sites of metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma to the small bowel are extremely rare, and only four case reports have been published to date. Case presentation. A 55-year-old Saudi woman diagnosed with a case of uterine leiomyosarcoma treated with total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH and bilateral salpingooophorectomy (BSO presented in emergency room after sixteen months with acute abdomen. Subsequent work-up showed a jejunal mass for which resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of small bowel metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma. Further staging work-up showed wide spread metastasis in lungs and brain. After palliative cranial irradiation, systemic chemotherapy based on single agent doxorubicin was started. Conclusion. Metastatic leiomyosarcoma of small bowel from uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare entity and is sign of advanced disease. It should be differentiated from primary leiomyosarcoma of small bowel as both are treated with different systemic chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Ileus and Small Bowel Obstruction in an Emergency Department Observation Unit: Are there Outcome Predictors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Emerman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of our study was to describe the evaluation and outcome of patients with ileus and bowel obstruction admitted to an emergency department (ED observation unit (OU and to identify predictors of successful management for such patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 129 patients admitted to a university-affiliated, urban, tertiary hospital ED OU from January 1999 through November 2004. Inclusion criteria were all adult patients admitted to the OU with an ED diagnosis of ileus, partial small bowel obstruction, or small bowel obstruction, and electronic medical records available for review. The following variables were examined: ED diagnosis, history of similar admission, number of prior abdominal surgeries, surgery in the month before, administration of opioid analgesia at any time after presentation, radiographs demonstrating air–fluid levels or dilated loops of small bowel, hypokalemia, use of nasogastric decompression, and surgical consultation. Results: Treatment failure, defined as hospital admission from the OU, occurred in 65 (50.4% of 129 patients. Only the use of a nasogastric tube was associated with OU failure (21% discharged versus 79% requiring admission, P ¼ 0.0004; odds ratio, 5.294; confidence interval, 1.982–14.14. Conclusion: Half of the patients admitted to our ED OU with ileus or varying degrees of small bowel obstruction required hospital admission. The requirement of a nasogastric tube in such patients was associated with a greater rate of observation unit failure. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:404–407.

  9. Retrospective analysis of large bowel obstruction or perforation caused by oral preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihiro; Kudo, Shin-Ei; Mori, Yuichi; Miyachi, Hideyuki; Misawa, Masashi; Kamo, Hatsumi; Hisayuki, Tomokazu; Kudo, Toyoki; Hayashi, Takemasa; Wakamura, Kunihiko; Katagiri, Atsushi; Baba, Toshiyuki; Hidaka, Eiji; Ishida, Fumio

    2017-06-01

     Patients undergoing bowel preparation for colonoscopy are at risk of potentially severe adverse events such as large-bowel obstruction (LBO) and perforation. These patients usually need emergency surgery and the consequences may be fatal. Little is known about the risk factors for LBO and perforation in these circumstances. We sought to establish the natural history of LBO and perforation caused by oral preparation for colonoscopy.  We retrospectively analyzed data from 20 patients with LBO or perforation associated with oral preparation for colonoscopy. All patients were treated at the Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital (SUNYH) between April 2001 and December 2015. Drugs used for bowel preparation, age, sex, indication for colonoscopy, pathogenesis and treatment were recorded.  Eighteen of the patients had LBO and 2 had perforation. Fourteen events occurred at SUNYH, which accounted for 0.016 % of patients who underwent bowel preparation during this period. Seventeen patients were symptomatic when the decision to undertake colonoscopy was made (including 7 who complained of constipation and 4 who complained of abdominal pain; 3e were asymptomatic). Nineteen patients ultimately required surgery, 13 within 3 days of presentation. Eleven patients ultimately required colostomy. There was no perioperative mortality in our cases.  Large bowel obstruction and perforation are rare events associated with oral preparation for colonoscopy, but frequently require surgery. Exacerbation of constipation might be a risk factor for LBO or perforation. Potentially catastrophic situations can be avoided by early detection and treatment.

  10. Perforated Closed-Loop Obstruction Secondary to Gallstone Ileus of the Transverse Colon: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Carr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gallstone ileus (GSI of the colon is an extremely rare entity with potentially serious complications including perforation. Case Presentation. An 88-year-old man presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and distension. Clinical exam revealed signs of peritonism. Computed tomography (CT revealed GSI of the transverse colon with a closed-loop large bowel obstruction (LBO and caecal perforation. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy. A right hemicolectomy was performed, the gallstone was removed, and a primary bowel anastomosis was undertaken. A Foley catheter was sutured into the residual gallbladder bed to create a controlled biliary fistula. The patient recovered well postoperatively with no complications. He was discharged home with the Foley catheter in situ. Discussion. Gallstone ileus is a difficult diagnosis both clinically and radiologically with only 50% of cases being diagnosed preoperatively. Most commonly it is associated with impaction at the ileocaecal valve and small bowel obstruction. Gallstone ileus should also be considered as a rare but potential cause of LBO. This is the first reported case of caecal perforation secondary to gallstone ileus of the transverse colon. Successful operative management consisted of a one-stage procedure with right hemicolectomy and formation of a controlled biliary fistula.

  11. Sigmoid endometriosis in a post-menopausal woman leading to acute large bowel obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Bidarmaghz, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This case report shows that colonic endometriosis, although rare, can be significantly infiltrative and lead to complications such as a large bowel obstruction. Diagnosing this condition can be challenging and usually requires histological confirmation.

  12. Obstructive Bezoars of the Small Bowel Treated with Coca-Cola Zero through a Long Intestinal Tube and Endoscopic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kei; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Takikawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-11-15

    An 82-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with abdominal fullness accompanied by lower abdominal pain. He presented with small bowel obstruction due to multiple diospyrobezoars. The bezoars were successfully removed without any surgical intervention by the administration of Coca-Cola Zero through a long intestinal tube and subsequent endoscopic manipulation. Such a combination may be the treatment of choice for small bowel obstruction due to bezoars.

  13. Mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng-shui; Xu, Wei; Ying, Jia-qi; Cheng, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma can present in various ways, and it is most commonly encountered incidentally during appendectomy, but mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to an appendiceal mucocele has been rarely reported. Methods: We report a case of mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma. After nasogastric decompression and initial aggressive intravenous fluid resuscitation, an emergency operation was performed under the diagnosis of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction. Results: We performed an appendectomy and intraoperative enteral decompression without anastomoses. The pathologic examination (PE) revealed appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma. After the operation, the patient's recovery went smoothly, and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. No tumor recurrence was recorded over an 8 month follow-up period. Conclusion: Early operative intervention should be recommended to the patient with acute mechanical complete intestinal obstruction, especially the patient who had no previous abdominal surgery. And it is vital to discriminate benign and malignantappendiceal mucocel in determining the extent of surgery. PMID:28151903

  14. Intestinal Radiation-Induced Stricture Favours Small Bowel Obstruction by Phytobezoar: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Quercioli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bezoars represent the fifth most frequent cause of acute small bowel obstruction. Phytobezoar is the most common type of bezoar. It is a concretion of undigestible fibers derived from ingested vegetables and fruits. We report a case of a woman with a 1-year history of recurrent epigastric and periumbilical abdominal pain with intermittent vomiting caused by phytobezoar of the terminal ileum. After careful investigation of the case and review of literature, we identified the factor involved in bezoar formation as radiation-induced ileal stenosis due to previous treatment for a pelvic tumour. This report provides evidence to consider phytobezoar as a possible cause of small bowel obstruction in patients previously treated with abdominal radiotherapy.

  15. TRANSMURAL MIGRATION OF A RETAINED SPONGE THROUGH BOWEL WALL CAUSING INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanief Dar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gossypiboma (GP or retained surgical sponge is one of the rare surgical complications which can happen despite precautions. It is an avoidable surgical complication which can lead to increased patient Morbidity and profound Medicolegal implications. Abdominal textiloma may be asymptomatic or present serious gastrointestinal complications such as bowel obstruction, perforation or fistula formation because of misdiagnosis, it may mimic abscess formation in early stage or soft tissue masses in chronic stage.

  16. Congenital fibrosarcoma of the bowel: sonographic description of a rare case of neonatal intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Costanza; Caliari, Giuliana; Zampieri, Nicola; Segala, Diego; Pozzi-Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    A case of localization in the bowel of congenital fibrosarcoma (a rare soft-tissue tumor usually occurring in the extremities) causing intestinal obstruction in a newborn girl is described. A focal thickening of the ileal wall with features mimicking intussusception was identified at sonography; the final diagnosis was achieved by means of molecular analysis after surgical removal of the mass. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Spontaneous transmesenteric hernia: a rare cause of small bowel obstruction in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of spontaneous transmesenteric hernia with strangulation in an adult. Transmesenteric hernia (TMH is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction and is seldom diagnosed preoperatively, and most TMHs in adults are related to predisposing factors, such as previous surgery, abdominal trauma, and peritonitis. TMH are more likely to develop volvulus and strangulation or ischemia. A brief review of etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment is discussed.

  18. The role of multidetector computed tomography in evaluation of small bowel obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih İnci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate therole and additional diagnostic contribution of multi-detectorcomputed tomography (MDCT in patients with acuteabdominal pain caused by small bowel obstruction.Materials and methods: A total of 48 patients who admittedto our hospital with acute abdominal pain and underwentMDCT on suspicion of intestinal obstruction and hadabdominal surgery between January 2012 and October2012 were included to our study. MDCT images were interpretedby two experienced radiologist retrospectively.All clinical data and surgery notes also were evaluated.Patients had surgery due to penetrating or blunt abdominalinjury were excluded.Results: Of these 48 patients, 26 (54.1% were male and22 (45.9% were female. Patients’ ages ranged 25 to 71and mean age was 52±5.4 years. The causes of intestinalobstruction of patients were adhesions for 12 (46.1% patients,tumors for 7 (26.9% patients, external hernias for5 (19.2% patients, internal hernia for 1 (3.9% patient andintussusception for 1 (3.9% patient. A total concordancebetween the MDCT findings and definitive diagnosis wasfound in 26 of 23 cases and the sensitivity and specifityof MDCT in the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction werefound to be 88.5% and 90%, respectively.Conclusion: MDCT is a fast, effective and reliable imagingmethod for preoperative diagnosing small bowel obstructioncauses acute abdominal pain with the advantagesof MDCT such as multi-planar and three-dimensionalreformatted imaging.Key words: Acute abdominal pain, multi-detector computed tomography, small bowel obstruction

  19. Malignant bowel obstruction in advanced cancer patients: epidemiology, management, and factors influencing spontaneous resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuca A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Albert Tuca1, Ernest Guell2, Emilio Martinez-Losada3, Nuria Codorniu41Cancer and Hematological Diseases Institute, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Palliative Care Unit, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 3Palliative Care Unit, Institut Català Oncologia Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Medical Oncology Department, Institut Català Oncologia L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO is a frequent complication in advanced cancer patients, especially in those with abdominal tumors. Clinical management of MBO requires a specific and individualized approach that is based on disease prognosis and the objectives of care. The global prevalence of MBO is estimated to be 3% to 15% of cancer patients. Surgery should always be considered for patients in the initial stages of the disease with a preserved general status and a single level of occlusion. Less invasive approaches such as duodenal or colonic stenting should be considered when surgery is contraindicated in obstructions at the single level. The priority of care for inoperable and consolidated MBO is to control symptoms and promote the maximum level of comfort possible. The spontaneous resolution of an inoperable obstructive process is observed in more than one third of patients. The mean survival is of no longer than 4–5 weeks in patients with consolidated MBO. Polymodal medical treatment based on a combination of glucocorticoids, strong opioids, antiemetics, and antisecretory drugs achieves very high symptomatic control. This review focuses on the epidemiological aspects, diagnosis, surgical criteria, medical management, and factors influencing the spontaneous resolution of MBO in advanced cancer patients.Keywords: malignant bowel obstruction, cancer, intestinal obstruction, bowel occlusion

  20. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube occlusion in malignant peritoneal carcinomatosis-induced bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashi, Pankaj G; Dahlk, Sadie; Vashi, Rohan P; Gupta, Digant

    2011-11-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement for decompression in advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis with bowel obstruction is a safe and feasible palliative procedure. We describe a rare, previously unreported phenomenon of PEG tube occlusion by gastric mucosal herniation. A consecutive case series of 73 patients with advanced abdominal carcinomatosis-induced bowel obstruction from January 2007 to June 2010. All patients had a 28 Fr (Bard) PEG tube placed for drainage. None of them were surgical candidates due to extensive peritoneal involvement. Patients with PEG tube occlusion as a result of gastric mucosal herniation were further evaluated. Nineteen patients were men and 54 were women. The mean age was 53.3 years. The most common cancer types were ovary, pancreas, colon, and stomach. All patients had PEG tube functioning well after the procedure with immediate relief of obstructive symptoms. Subsequently, 10 patients developed acute occlusion of PEG tubes with reoccurrence of obstructive symptoms. The time between the placement of the PEG tube and its occlusion ranged from 5 to 129 days. Repeat endoscopy showed the PEG tube occluded with gastric mucosa from the opposite wall. PEG tube was replaced with a 28 Fr balloon replacement tube leading to symptom improvement in all 10 patients. This rare but correctable phenomenon of obliteration of PEG tube from the gastric mucosa should be considered in any patient who develops intermittent occlusive symptoms. This phenomenon can be corrected by replacing the PEG tube with a ballooned replacement tube as well as occasional manipulation of the tube.

  1. Bowel obstruction and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the elderly. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Michele L; Grifasi, Carlo; Criscitiello, Carmen; Giuliano, Mario; Calogero, Armando; Dodaro, Concetta; Incollingo, Paola; Rupealta, Niccolò; Candida, Maria; Chiacchio, Gaetano; Riccio, Eleonora; Pisani, Antonio; Tammaro, Vincenzo; Carlomagno, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    There are not guidelines for surgical management of malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) caused by peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), mainly when it involves elderly; so its treatment is still debated. To outline indications and benefits of palliative surgery for obstructive carcinomatosis and determine what prognostic factors, including age, have independent and significant association with outcome. We conducted English-language MEDLINE and EMBASE searches of articles published between 1998 and 2016, which reported outcome data after palliative surgery for MBO due to PC. We excluded all articles lacking of surgical cohort and those with main interest in conservative treatment. Of 1275 articles identified, 12 satisfied selection criteria and were included in our analysis. Overall, these studies involved 548 patients undergoing palliative surgery for MBO caused by PC. The median age was 58 (range 19-93). Relief of symptoms was achieved in 26.5-100% of cases. Postoperative morbidity ranged between 7 and 44%. Mortality was high (6-22%). The median survival was longer in surgical patients than in those receiving conservative therapy (8-34 vs 4-5 weeks). Factors associated with surgery failure were poor performance status, diffuse carcinomatosis, previous radiotherapy, and obstruction of small bowel. Old age was significantly associated with a poor prognosis upon univariate analysis, while this association vanished upon multivariate analysis. Surgical palliation can provide relief of obstructive symptoms as well as improved survival in well-selected patients, even if elderly.

  2. Small bowel obstruction due to laparoscopic barbed sutures: an unknown complication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Ashrafian, Hutan; Navarro-Sánchez, Antonio; Jenkins, John T; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Martínez-Isla, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing uptake in the use of barbed sutures, particularly in minimally invasive and laparoscopic procedures where they may reduce operating time and improve surgical efficiency. However, little is known about the adverse events associated with these new materials and concerns have arisen regarding their safety in certain procedures. We performed a search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database). We reveal up to 15 cases of small bowel obstruction (SBO) complicating laparoscopic pelvic surgery that have been reported to date adding two cases of SBO in our own practice following the use of barbed sutures in laparoscopic operations, both requiring surgical re-intervention in the early post-operative period. Fifteen similar cases of small bowel obstruction were identified, all of which occurred in patients undergoing surgery below the transverse colon . Surgical re-intervention was required in all cases although 60% of these were performed laparoscopically. These cases highlight that although barbed sutures provide an attractive means to allow easier and faster laparoscopic suturing, they should be used carefully in inframesocolic surgery and the suture end cut and buried to avoid inadvertent attachment to the small bowel or its mesentery. Barbed suture entanglement should be considered as an uncommon yet potentially serious differential cause for SBO presenting in the early period after laparoscopic surgery where a barbed suture has been used.

  3. Helical CT diagnosis of small bowel obstruction in the acute clinical setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, Mariano E-mail: mscaglione@tiscalinet.it; Romano, Stefania; Pinto, Fabio; Flagiello, Ferdinando; Farina, Roberto; Acampora, Ciro; Romano, Luigia

    2004-04-01

    Definite confirmation or exclusion closed loop obstruction (CLO) is one of the most difficult tasks the radiologist has to face in the clinical practice. Aim of this retrospective work was to study the value of spiral computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of closed loop obstruction complicated by intestinal ischemia. The state of the art CT signs of closed loop obstruction were taken into consideration. Serrated beaks with poor or no contrast enhancement of the bowel walls, ascites or engorgement of the mesenteric vasculature allowed the CT diagnosis of CLO complicated by ischaemia. U or C-sharped of dilated loops, radial distribution of the mesenteric vessels, beaks and whirls suggested CLO, but did not help differentiate CLO from strangulation. CLO is a dynamic entity which may regress or need laparotomy depending on the time and degree of rotation of the incarcerated loops. CT is a reliable imaging modality able to differentiate CLO from strangulation, which is rarely simple and obvious. Detection of ischemic changes in the bowel walls and/or attached mesentery on CT scans imply strangulation highlighting the need for laparotomy; if only signs of CLO are detected, the existence and/or development of strangulation cannot be predicted.

  4. Predictors of adverse surgical outcome in the management of malignant bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Franco, Heriberto; García-Alvarez, Miriam N; Ortiz-López, Laura J; Cuairán, Jorge Zerón-Medina

    2008-01-01

    Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is a common problem in patients with advanced colorectal or ovarian cancer. The management of this group of patients is complex and controversial. To analyze the factors associated with morbidity and mortality in patients who underwent surgery for MBO in a tertiary referral center in Mexico City. Hospital records of patients who underwent surgery for malignant bowel obstruction from January 1987 through December 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical and surgical variables were recorded. Morbidity and mortality within 30-day of surgical procedure were registered. Factors associated with outcome were analyzed with the chi-square test. Survival curves were constructed with the Kaplan-Meier method. One-hundred and thirty patients were included. Primary neoplasm was the cause of bowel obstruction in 51 (39.2%) patients. Resection and anastomosis was performed in 45 patients (34.6%); in 30 cases (23.1%) a palliative estoma was constructed. Hospital mortality rate was 10.8%, and major postoperative morbidity was 16.2%. Factors associated with a significant increase in surgical mortality were: advanced patient age 17.2% (p = 0.009), hipoalbuminemia 14.45% (p = 0.027) and surgery performed for neoplasms different from those of gastrointestinal origin 17.6% (p = 0.005). Surgical morbidity was significantly higher in patients with poor performance status 16.2% (p = 0.017), advanced age 18% (p = 0.04), and low albumin levels 13.5% (p = 0.03). Median survival for the entire cohort was nine months (95% CI 5-13). Actuarial one, three and five year survival were 38.4, 27.5 and 25.4%, respectively. The most significant predictor of survival was performance status. When surgical management of MBO is considered, a careful assessment of the factors shown here to predict an adverse surgical outcome and poor prognosis is required.

  5. Meckel’s diverticulitis causing small bowel obstruction by a novel mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishalkumar G. Shelat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Meckel’s diverticulum occurs in 2% of the general population and majority of patients remain asymptomatic. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common presentation in the paediatric population. While asymptomatic and incidentally found Meckel’s diverticulum may be left alone, surgery is essential for treating a symptomatic patient. Despite advances in imaging and technology, pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. We present a first report of an unusual mechanism of small bowel obstruction due to Meckel’s diverticulitis in a paediatric patient. The diagnosis was only apparent at laparotomy.

  6. Can diagnostic imaging reliably predict the need for surgery in small bowel obstruction? Critically appraised topic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, M. [Hamilton Health Sciences Centre-MUMC Site, Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Malone, D.E. [St. Vincent' s Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: D.Malone@st-vincents.ie

    2005-04-15

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) in many patients does not settle quickly. Surgeons often ask radiologists whether the SBO is resolving or is likely to resolve without surgery. In patients with SBO, can imaging reliably predict whether nonoperative management with be successful? Best current evidence was chosen according to the Oxford University National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) hierarchy of validity for studies of diagnosis. The retrieved studies were also categorized according to the 6-level hierarchical model of efficacy described by Fryback and Thornbury. (author)

  7. Migration of eroded laparoscopic adjustable gastric band causing small bowel obstruction and perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Ashvini; Lee, Jerry; Ghosh, Simon; Hacking, Craig

    2017-05-12

    We present an unusual and rare complication caused by gastric band erosion into the stomach after band placement 15 years ago. The complication was only picked up after the band had subsequently migrated from the stomach at the site of erosion, to the distal ileum causing acute small bowel obstruction and focal perforation requiring emergency laparotomy.Abdominal pain in patients with gastric band should always be treated as serious until proven otherwise. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Acute small bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceglie, Antonella; Bilardi, Claudio; Blanchi, Sabrina; Picasso, Massimo; Di Muzio, Marcello; Trimarchi, Alberto; Conio, Massimo

    2008-06-07

    Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women and exclusive localization on the ileum is very rare (1%-7%). Endometriosis of the distal ileum is an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction, ranging from 7% to 23% of all cases with intestinal involvement. We report a case in which endometrial infiltration of the small bowel caused acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery, in a woman whose symptoms were not related to menses. Histology of the resected specimen showed that endometriosis was mainly prevalent in the muscularis propria and submucosa and that the mucosa was not ulcerated but had inflammation and glandular alteration. Endometrial lymph node involvement, with a cystic glandular pattern was also detected.

  9. Massive retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma presenting with small bowel obstruction 18 years following initial diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, E M P

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Ganglioneuroma is a rare tumour of neural crest origin, which arises from maturation of a neuroblastoma. While previously considered to be non-functioning, they are now known to be frequently endocrinologically active. AIMS AND METHODS: We report a case of a massive retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma presenting with small bowel obstruction in an adult, 18 years after initial diagnosis. Urinary dopamine levels were elevated, but other catecholamines were within normal limits. This is the first report in the English-language literature of a retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma presenting with or causing intestinal obstruction. We also review the metabolic, radiological, and histological features of these tumours. Relevant publications were identified from a Medline search using the MeSH headings \\'ganglioneuroma\\

  10. Small Bowel Obstruction Following Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Enterography Using Psyllium Seed Husk As an Oral Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingming Amy Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case series describing four patients who developed small bowel obstruction following the use of psyllium seed husk as an oral contrast agent for computed tomography or magnetic resonance enterography. Radiologists who oversee computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography should be aware of this potential complication when using psyllium seed husk and other bulking agents, particularly when imaging patients with known or suspected small bowel strictures or active inflammation.

  11. Small bowel obstruction following computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography using psyllium seed husk as an oral contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingming Amy; Cervini, Patrick; Kirpalani, Anish; Vlachou, Paraskevi A; Grover, Samir C; Colak, Errol

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a case series describing four patients who developed small bowel obstruction following the use of psyllium seed husk as an oral contrast agent for computed tomography or magnetic resonance enterography. Radiologists who oversee computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography should be aware of this potential complication when using psyllium seed husk and other bulking agents, particularly when imaging patients with known or suspected small bowel strictures or active inflammation.

  12. Microscopy of bacterial translocation during small bowel obstruction and ischemia in vivo – a new animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafner Mathias

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model to assess bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier function in vivo. Methods In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, 0.5 ml of a suspension of green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli was administered by intraluminal injection in a model of small bowel obstruction. Animals were randomly subjected to non-ischemic or ischemic bowel obstruction. Ischemia was induced by selective clamping of the terminal mesenteric vessels feeding the obstructed bowel loop. Time intervals necessary for translocation of E. coli into the submucosal stroma and the muscularis propria was assessed using intravital microscopy. Results Bacterial translocation into the submucosa and muscularis propria took a mean of 36 ± 8 min and 80 ± 10 min, respectively, in small bowel obstruction. Intestinal ischemia significantly accelerated bacterial translocation into the submucosa (11 ± 5 min, p E. coli were visible in frozen sections of small bowel, mesentery, liver and spleen taken two hours after E. coli administration. Conclusions Intravital microscopy of fluorescent bacteria is a novel approach to study bacterial translocation in vivo. We have applied this technique to define minimal bacterial transit time as a functional parameter of intestinal barrier function.

  13. Surgery for the resolution of symptoms in malignant bowel obstruction in advanced gynaecological and gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Sarah E; Tempest, Emma; Feuer, David J

    2016-01-04

    This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2000. Intestinal obstruction commonly occurs in progressive advanced gynaecological and gastrointestinal cancers. Management of these patients is difficult due to the patients' deteriorating mobility and function (performance status), the lack of further chemotherapeutic options, and the high mortality and morbidity associated with palliative surgery. There are marked variations in clinical practice concerning surgery in these patients between different countries, gynaecological oncology units and general hospitals, as well as referral patterns from oncologists under whom these patients are often admitted. To assess the efficacy of surgery for intestinal obstruction due to advanced gynaecological and gastrointestinal cancer. We searched the following databases for the original review in 2000 and again for this update in June 2015: CENTRAL (2015, Issue 6); MEDLINE (OVID June week 1 2015); and EMBASE (OVID week 24, 2015).We also searched relevant journals, bibliographic databases, conference proceedings, reference lists, grey literature and the world wide web for the original review in 2000; we also used personal contact. This searching of other resources yielded very few additional studies. The Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Review Group no longer routinely handsearch journals. For these reasons, we did not repeat the searching of other resources for the June 2015 update. As the review concentrates on the 'best evidence' available for the role of surgery in malignant bowel obstruction in known advanced gynaecological and gastrointestinal cancer we kept the inclusion criteria broad (including both prospective and retrospective studies) so as to include all studies relevant to the question. We sought published trials reporting on the effects of surgery for resolving symptoms in malignant bowel obstruction for adult patients with known advanced gynaecological and gastrointestinal

  14. Obstructive Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to PEG Tube Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Douglas F; Cho, Ryan; Cho, Allan; Nguyen, Viet; Sunnapwar, Abhijit; Womeldorph, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Percutaneous gastrostomy is a well-established method of providing enteral nutrition to patients incapable of oral intake, or for whom oral intake is insufficient to meet metabolic needs. In comparison to total parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding is advantageous in that it helps maintain gut mucosal integrity, which decreases the risk of bacterial translocation through the gastrointestinal tract. Complications include bleeding, aspiration, internal organ injury, perforation, periostomal leaks, tube dislodgement, and occlusion. Acute pancreatitis secondary to percutaneous gastrostomy tube migration is rare. We present a patient with acute obstructive pancreatitis secondary to percutaneous gastrostomy tube migration.

  15. What to do with a non-rolling stone? Surgical on-table dilemma in large bowel obstruction due to an impacted gallstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Niloy; Plummer, Nicholas R; Raja, Hassan; Vashist, Ashok

    2014-07-06

    We present a rare case of large bowel obstruction secondary to colonic gallstones in a frail nonagenarian. Uniquely, the stone was impacted in the descending colon-sigmoid junction, in the absence of underlying bowel pathology distal to the stone. In light of worsening pain and distension after failed endoscopic treatment, the patient was treated with an emergency laparotomy. After an on-table dilemma, a proximal defunctioning loop colostomy was fashioned and the stone left in situ, with the eventual fate of the stone currently undecided. We also discuss alternative treatment options and explain the thought processes that lead to our decision. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014.

  16. Acute small bowel obstruction as a result of a Meckel's diverticulum encircling the terminal ileum: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakor Avnesh S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developed world, small bowel obstruction accounts for 20% of all acute surgical admissions. The aetiology for majority of these cases includes postoperative adhesions and herniae. However, a relatively uncommon cause is a Meckel's diverticulum. Although this diagnosis is primarily reported in the adolescent population, it should also be considered in adults. Case Presentation In the present report, we present a rare case where a fit and healthy 74-year-old gentleman, with no previous history of abdominal surgery, presented with the cardinal symptoms and signs of small bowel obstruction as the result of a Meckel's diverticulum encircling his terminal ileum. Initial investigations included a supine abdominal x-ray showing dilated loops of small bowel and computerised tomographic imaging of the abdomen, which revealed a stricture in the terminal ileum of unknown aetiology. At laparotomy, multiple loops of distended small bowel were seen from the duodeno-jeujenal junction to the terminal ileum, which was encircled by a Meckel's diverticulum. The Meckel's diverticulum was then divided to release the obstruction, mobilised and subsequently removed. Finally, the small bowel contents were decompressed into the stomach and the nasogastric tube aspirated, before returning the loops of bowel into the abdomen in sequence. The patient made a good postoperative recovery and was discharged home 5 days later. Conclusion This report highlights the importance of considering a Meckel's diverticulum as a cause of small bowel obstruction in individuals from all age groups and especially in a person with no previous abdominal pathology or surgery.

  17. Blowhole colostomy for the urgent management of distal large bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Kevin R; Midura, Emily F; Davis, Bradley R; Rafferty, Janice F; Paquette, Ian M

    2014-05-01

    Complete obstruction of the distal colon or rectum often presents as a surgical emergency. This study evaluated the efficacy of blowhole colostomy versus transverse loop colostomy for the emergent management of distal large intestinal obstruction. Retrospective chart review of all colostomy procedures (CPT 44320) performed for complete distal large bowel obstruction during the past 6 y in a university hospital practice was undertaken. Blowhole was compared with loop colostomy with a primary endpoint of successful colonic decompression. One hundred forty-one patients underwent colostomy creation during the study period. Of these, 61 were completed for acute obstruction of the distal colon or rectum (19 blowhole versus 42 loop colostomy). No differences between study groups were seen in age, gender, body mass index, malnutrition, American Society of Anesthesiology class, time to liquid or regular diet, 30-d or inhospital mortality, or rates of complications. Patients undergoing blowhole colostomy had significantly higher cecal diameters at diagnosis (9.14 versus 7.31 cm, P = 0.0035). Operative time was shorter in blowhole procedures (43 versus 51 min, P = 0.017). Postoperative length of stay was significantly shorter for blowhole colostomy (6 versus 8 d, P = 0.014). The primary endpoint of successful colonic decompression was met in all colostomy patients. Diverting blowhole colostomy is a safe, quick, and effective procedure for the urgent management of distal colonic obstruction associated with obstipation and massive distention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Usefulness of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in predicting strangulated small bowel obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotada Kittaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP is considered to be useful diagnostic markers of small bowel ischemia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate whether the serum I-FABP level is a predictive marker of strangulation in patients with small bowel obstruction (SBO. METHODS: A total of 37 patients diagnosed with SBO were included in this study. The serum I-FABP levels were retrospectively compared between the patients with strangulation and those with simple obstruction, and cut-off values for the diagnosis of strangulation were calculated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with strangulated SBO. The serum I-FABP levels were significantly higher in the patients with strangulation compared with those observed in the patients with simple obstruction (18.5 vs. 1.6 ng/ml p<0.001. Using a cut-off value of 6.5 ng/ml, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 71.4%, 93.8%, 93.8% and 71.4%, respectively. An I-FABP level greater than 6.5 ng/ml was found to be the only independent significant factor for a higher likelihood of strangulated SBO (P =  0.02; odds ratio: 19.826; 95% confidence interval: 2.1560 - 488.300. CONCLUSIONS: The I-FABP level is a useful marker for discriminating between strangulated SBO and simple SBO in patients with SBO.

  19. Bowel Obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    after normal barium enema x-ray. She experienced temporal relief ... chest x-rays were also normal. A complete blood count was ... Since its discovery, intussusception has always been described as a disease of infancy and early childhood. In the paediatric population, its occurrence is usually idiopathic ~ 80% as opposed ...

  20. Acute small bowel obstruction due to ileal endometriosis: A case report and review of the most recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unalp Recai Haluk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endometriosis is defined as the presence of benign endometrial glands and stroma outside the normal anatomical location. Endometriosis of the small bowel, especially symptomatic small bowel involvement, is very unusual. Case report. We presented a 45-year-old woman with acute intestinal obstruction due to ileal endometriosis The patient complained of severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomitting. Immediate laparotomy was carried out. Above the ileocecal valve there was an ulcerated, edematous and fragile segmental lesion that caused intestinal obstruction. Histology of this ileal segment revealed endometriosis and an annular stricture that again showed foci of endometriosis. Conclusion. In reproductiveage women with the symptoms of intestinal obstruction, intestinal endometriosis should be kept in mind.

  1. Intestinal obstruction secondary to primary ileocecal tuberculosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muayad A Merza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old Iraqi male presented with a case of intestinal obstruction secondary to primary ileocecal tuberculosis (TB. The presumptive diagnosis of either Crohn's disease or neoplasm was expected. A right hemicolectomy was performed. Histopathology revealed an inflammatory mass of TB origin; a polymerase chain reaction (PCR confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was treated with standard anti-TB drugs for 6 months. Following the treatment, the systemic symptoms disappeared and the laboratory investigations returned to normal. Follow-up period showed no recurrence of the disease.

  2. Incarcerated Bochdalek hernia causing bowel obstruction in an adult male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Emnp; Fernando, S A; Durairajah, P L; Jayasundara, Jasb

    2017-07-01

    Bochdalek hernias occur as a result of congenital fusion failure of the posterolateral muscular portion of the diaphragm derived from the embryonic pleuroperitoneal membrane. The vast majority of symptomatic Bochdalek hernias are diagnosed during the neonatal period. Congenital diaphragmatic hernias showing symptoms in adulthood are rare. We report the case of a 28-year-old man who presented with subacute bowel obstruction, later diagnosed to have a left-sided incarcerated Bochdalek hernia containing an ischaemic splenic flexure and the distal transverse colon. During laparotomy, he underwent primary repair of the diaphragmatic defect and an extended right hemicolectomy with ileocolic anastomosis. The patient made a good recovery and is well at three months following surgery. This case highlights the need for surgeons to be vigilant about rare types of congenital internal hernias as they may become symptomatic later in life.

  3. Ethical issues in research to improve the management of malignant bowel obstruction: challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneader, Alice; Angelos, Peter; Ferrell, Betty R; Kolker, Ann; Miner, Thomas; Padilla, Geraldine; Swaney, Julie; Krouse, Robert S; Casarett, David

    2007-07-01

    Research to improve the care of patients with malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is urgently needed. In particular, there is an urgent need for high-quality descriptive research, including prospective cohort studies, as well as randomized controlled trials to define optimal management strategies. However, investigators and clinicians face numerous barriers in conducting high-quality research in this patient population. These barriers include lack of funding, difficulties in identifying eligible patients, and a variety of practical and methodological challenges of designing these studies. In addition, there are a variety of ethical challenges that arise in the design and conduct of studies of MBO and particularly in the conduct of clinical trials. In this article, we address four categories of ethical issues: study design, recruitment, informed consent, and Institutional Review Board review. For each, we outline salient issues and suggest recommendations for enhancing the ethics of MBO studies, including interventional trials.

  4. Risk factors affecting morbidity and mortality following emergency laparotomy for small bowel obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Maja Haunstrup; Tolstrup, Mai-Britt; Kehlet Watt, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONS: To identify risk factors for increased 30-day morbidity and mortality, using standardized measuring tools for the characterization of complications after emergency surgery for small bowel obstruction. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including patients treated with emergency...... were identified as independent risk factors associated with morbidity by multiple logistic regression analysis. The highest odds for morbidity were seen in patients with chronic nephropathy (Odds Ratio [OR] = 3.9; 95% CI 1.3-15.1), and in patients with a daily use of steroids (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.......2-10.4). Five independent risk factors were associated with increased odds for mortality. Patients with low physical performance (OR = 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-8.2) or metabolic disorders (OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.5) had the highest risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Morbidity and mortality rates were high in this study...

  5. Chronic Pain, Quality of Life, and Functional Impairment After Surgery Due to Small Bowel Obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Maja; Tolstrup, Mai-Britt; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    -related functional impairment and quality of life were measured using the AAS and the GIQLI questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients returned the questionnaire (response rate 82 %). Nineteen patients (21 %) suffered from chronic postoperative pain. Seventeen patients (19 %) had pain......-related functional impairment as a result of the surgery, and 17 patients (19 %) had an incisional hernia at follow-up. Patients with chronic postoperative pain had significantly lower gastrointestinal quality of life score compared with the remaining study population (109 (IQR 39) vs. 127 (IQR 19), P ... the gastrointestinal quality of life after emergency laparotomy due to small bowel obstruction. METHODS: This study was a questionnaire study, conducted at a major gastrointestinal-surgery department in a single tertiary university hospital in Denmark. Patients who had been through emergency laparotomy due to small...

  6. Impact of introduction of an acute surgical unit on management and outcomes of small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiienko, Anton M; Shakerian, Rose; Gorelik, Alexandra; Thomson, Benjamin N J; Skandarajah, Anita R

    2016-10-01

    The acute surgical unit (ASU) is a recently established model of care in Australasia and worldwide. Limited data are available regarding its effect on the management of small bowel obstruction. We compared the management of small bowel obstruction before and after introduction of ASU at a major tertiary referral centre. We hypothesized that introduction of ASU would correlate with improved patient outcomes. A retrospective review of prospectively maintained databases was performed over two separate 2-year periods, before and after the introduction of ASU. Data collected included demographics, co-morbidity status, use of water-soluble contrast agent and computed tomography. Outcome measures included surgical intervention, time to surgery, hospital length of stay, complications, 30-day readmissions, use of total parenteral nutrition, intensive care unit admissions and overall mortality. Total emergency admissions to the ASU increased from 2640 to 4575 between the two time periods. A total of 481 cases were identified (225 prior and 256 after introduction of ASU). Mortality decreased from 5.8% to 2.0% (P = 0.03), which remained significant after controlling for confounders with multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.08-0.73, P = 0.012). The proportion of surgically managed patients increased (20.9% versus 32.0%, P = 0.003) and more operations were performed within 5 days from presentation (76.6% versus 91.5%, P = 0.02). Fewer patients received water-soluble contrast agent (27.1% versus 18.4%, P = 0.02), but more patients were investigated with a computed tomography (70.7% versus 79.7%, P = 0.02). The ASU model of care resulted in decreased mortality, shorter time to intervention and increased surgical management. Overall complications rate and length of stay did not change. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Contrast induced obstructive anuria in uretero-pelvic junction obstruction secondary to a crossing vessel in a solitary kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Pankaj; Gautam, Gagan; Aron, Monish

    2007-01-01

    Acute renal dysfunction due to iodinated contrast is usually associated with non-oliguric renal failure. We report an unusual occurrence of complete obstructive anuria in a case of uretero-pelvic junction obstruction secondary to an occlusive crossing vessel precipitated by an intravenous urogram.

  8. Value of CT findings to predict surgical ischemia in small bowel obstruction: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Taourel, Patrice; Ruyer, Alban [CHU Lapeyronie, From Department of Medical Imaging, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Molinari, Nicolas [CHU Montpellier, From Department of Medical Information, Montpellier (France)

    2015-06-01

    Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance in determining strangulation in small bowel obstruction (SBO) for five CT findings commonly considered in published small bowel obstruction (SBO) management guidelines. Medical databases were searched for ''bowel obstruction'', ''computed tomography'', ''strangulation'', and related terms. Two reviewers independently selected articles for CT findings investigated with surgical or histological reference standards for strangulation. Bivariate random-effects meta-analytical methods were used. A total of 768 patients, including 205 with strangulation from nine studies, were evaluated. The reduced bowel wall enhancement CT sign had the highest specificity (95 %, CI 75-99), with a positive LR of 11.07 (2.27-53.88) and DOR of 22.86 (4.99-104.61). The mesenteric fluid sign had the highest sensitivity (89 %, CI 75-96) with a negative LR of 0.16 (0.07-0.39) and a DOR of 13.9 (5.73-33.75). The bowel wall thickness had a sensitivity of 48 % (CI 41-54), a specificity of 83 % (CI 74-89), a positive LR of 2.84 (1.83-4.41) and a negative LR of 0.62 (0.53-0.72). The other CT findings had lower diagnostic performance. Two CT findings should be used in clinical practice: reduced enhanced bowel wall is highly predictive of ischemia, and absence of mesenteric fluid is a reliable finding to rule out strangulation. (orig.)

  9. Scintigraphic Demonstration of Urine Extravasation Secondary to Acute Ureteral Obstruction: A Case Report and Some Considerations about Acute Ureteral Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico M. Sarmiento

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ureteral obstruction produces renal damage and complications that are proportional to the severity and length of the obstruction. Anatomic diagnosis of the obstruction may be insufficient to manage the patient. Intravenous urogram (IVU is the method usually advised by radiologists to obtain functional information, but requires iodinated contrast agents. IVU anatomic information is superior to anatomic information obtained with renal scintigraphy, but normally the physician already has the anatomic information (unenhanced CT or ultrasound. A renal scan offers better physiologic information than the IVU, has neither adverse effects nor complications, is accurate to confirm or discard significant ureteral obstruction, and depicts obstruction complications. This paper presents a patient with spontaneous urine extravasation secondary to acute renal obstruction who is diagnosed with renal scintigraphy. The authors describe the scintigraphic signs of extraperitoneal, diffuse perinephric, urine extravasation and emphasize the role of renal scintigraphy in diagnosis and follow-up of renal colic.

  10. Clinical variables related to small bowel obstruction: comparison of patients with and without Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Al Qahtani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel obstruction is a known complication of Crohn’s disease. Determining need for operation is a demanding task. The aim of this study was to fine tune the decision-making process by evaluating standard clinical and laboratory parameters in small bowel obstruction of any cause and compare etiologies. Consecutive patients with Crohn’s disease and small bowel obstruction were selected retrospectively and compared to a randomly selected group of non Crohn’s patients with obstruction over a 9 year period. Twenty-two clinical, laboratory and radiological variables were assessed for the following outcomes: i diagnosis of Crohn’s; ii operative or non operative treatment in Crohn’s; iii operative or non operative treatment without Crohn’s; iv exacerbation or adhesions causing obstruction among Crohn’s patients. Multivariable models were developed for each outcome using logistic regression. Age less than 50, history of smoking, Jewish ethnicity, white count >11x10E9, neutrophils >7.5x10E9 and platelet volume <9.9 fL, supported the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease. Operation in Crohn’s disease within the same admission was associated with a history of smoking, temperature >38˚, high pulse >100, leukocytosis (>11x10E9 and obstruction on abdominal scan, while operation in patients without Crohn’s in the sentinel admission, was associated with temperature >38˚, tachycardia, leukocytosis (>11x10E9 and previous operation. Confirmation of these predictive patterns in a validation group could help in clinical decisions regarding therapeutic options in an emergency setting.

  11. Colonic stenting as a bridge to surgery in malignant large-bowel obstruction: a report from two large multinational registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Pérez, J; Casellas, J; García-Cano, J

    2011-01-01

    To date, this is the largest prospective series in patients with malignant colorectal obstruction to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of colonic self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) as an alternative to emergency surgery. SEMSs allow restoration of bowel transit and careful tumor staging in p...... in preparation for elective surgery, hence avoiding the high morbidity and mortality associated with emergency surgery and stoma creation....

  12. Small Bowel Angioedema Secondary to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is a rare clinicopathologic entity. It frequently poses a diagnostic challenge and is often not recognized before surgical exploration. The present study illustrates that clinical awareness for this condition and adequate use of radiologic investigations can help make the correct diagnosis of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema, thus avoiding the cost and morbidity associated with unnecessary interventions. PMID:28133581

  13. Small Bowel Angioedema Secondary to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is a rare clinicopathologic entity. It frequently poses a diagnostic challenge and is often not recognized before surgical exploration. The present study illustrates that clinical awareness for this condition and adequate use of radiologic investigations can help make the correct diagnosis of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema, thus avoiding the cost and morbidity associated with unnecessary interventions.

  14. Risk Factors for Early Postoperative Small Bowel Obstruction After Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Katsuhito; Ushigome, Takuro; Ohtsu, Masamichi; Narihiro, Satoshi; Ryu, Shunjin; Shimoyama, Yuya; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate risk factors for small bowel obstruction (SBO) in early postoperative period after anterior resection for rectal cancer. Patients who underwent anterior resection (AR) [high AR (HAR) or low AR (LAR)] for rectal cancer between January 2009 and April 2016 were enrolled into the study after fulfilling selection criteria. In included patients, risk factors for early postoperative SBO (EPSBO) were analyzed by means of univariate and multivariate analysis. Cases with perioperative major complications other than intestinal obstruction and with simultaneous resection of other organs were excluded. The same analyses were also performed for cases of redo surgery due to EPSBO. EPSBO was defined as clinically and radiologically confirmed SBO that developed after resuming oral intake within 30 days following surgery. The logistic regression method was used for statistical analyses. In enrolled 180 patients, EPSBO occurred in 23 (12.8%). In univariate analysis, male sex [odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, 95% CI = 0.82-6.84, p surgery (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.03-0.73, p = 0.0117), low tumor (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.28-8.13, p = 0.0140), LAR (OR = 17.25, 95% CI = 3.49-312.55, p risk factors for EPSBO. Four cases (17.4%) with EPSBO required re-operation because conservative therapies failed; all were laparoscopic DI formation cases. In three of those four cases, stenosis of stoma at the level of the posterior sheath of rectus abdominis muscle was the reason of SBO, and in one case it was kinking of the stomal limb. D3 lymph node dissection and DI formation are independent risk factors for EPSBO in AR.

  15. Intussusception of the small bowel secondary to malignant metastases in two 80-year-old people: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanicolaou Athanasios

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Small bowel intussusception is rare in adults and accounts for one percent of all bowel obstructions. Malignancy is the etiologic agent in approximately 50 percent of all cases. Case presentation Our first patient was an 80-year-old Caucasian woman with signs and symptoms of intermittent bowel obstruction for the last 12 months. Pre-operative investigation by abdominal computed tomography scanning revealed an obstruction at the ileocecal valve. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ileocecal intussusception. She underwent an enterectomy. Histological examination showed metastatic breast cancer (lobular carcinoma. Our patient had previously undergone a mastectomy due to carcinoma three years earlier. Our second patient was an 80-year-old Caucasian man with signs and symptoms of acute bowel obstruction. Pre-operative investigation by abdominal computed tomography scanning showed an intussusception in the proximal part of the small bowel. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a jejunojejunal intussusception. He underwent an enterectomy. Histological examination showed metastatic melanoma. Our patient had a prior history of a primary cutaneous melanoma which was excised two years ago. Conclusion Pre-operative determination of the etiologic agent of intussusception in the small bowel in adults is difficult. Although a computed tomography scan is very helpful, the diagnosis of intussusception is made by exploratory laparotomy and histological examination defines the etiologic agent. A prior malignancy in the patient's history must be taken under consideration as a possible cause of intussusception.

  16. Bowel obstruction from wild bananas: a neglected health problem in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesak, Günther; Mounlaphome, Kaisouksavanh; Inthalad, Saythong; Phoutsavath, Ounheaun; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the significance and risk factors of bowel obstruction caused by the consumption of wild bananas (BOWB) in Laos. Of six patients with BOWB in Luang Namtha, North Laos, five required enterotomy for phytobezoars. All had eaten wild banana (WB) seeds. Of 227 other patients/relatives: 91.2% had eaten WB; 46.3% had also eaten the seeds and 45.4% knew of complications resulting from eating WB; 42.3% were aware of the complications of ingesting the seeds (constipation [37.9%], appendicitis/abdominal pain/vomiting [2.6% each] and bloated stomach/death [1.3% each]). Middle/highland Lao ethnicity was associated with WB and seed consumption (odds ratio [OR] 9.91 and 2.33), male sex with WB consumption and unawareness (OR 4.31 and 1.78). At all surgically-equipped hospitals in Laos, 33/44 doctors knew of BOWB, describing patients as young adults (16/30), male (24/30) and from middleland Lao (18/30). Countrywide, 46/48 patients with BOWB required laparotomy in 2009 (incidence 0.8/100,000). All consumed WB seeds. BOWB is widespread in Laos, especially among young middleland Lao men consuming WB seeds on an empty stomach.

  17. Inflammatory fibroid polyp of the ileum presenting with small bowel obstruction in an adult patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toydemir Toygar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inflammatory fibroid polyps are rare benign tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with the gastric antrum being the most common site, followed by the ileum. Histogenesis is still unknown and controversial. Inflammatory fibroid polyps are one of the rare benign conditions leading to intestinal obstruction in adults. Case presentation A 54-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute abdomen pain and a two month history of intermittent cramping and lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography imaging demonstrated a partial intestinal obstruction in the location of the terminal ileum. An ileo-ileal intussusception due to a mass lesion 15 cm proximal to the caecum was found on exploratory laparotomy. Intussusception was spontaneously reduced during exploration and a wedge resection was performed to the affected bowel segment. Histopathologic examination showed the mass to be an inflammatory fibroid polyp. Conclusion Although inflammatory fibroid polyps are rare and benign, in the case of intestinal obstruction the only solution is a surgical approach.

  18. Safety and efficacy of percutaneous cecostomy/colostomy for treatment of large bowel obstruction in adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Sanjit O; Getrajdman, George I; Petre, Elena N; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Siegelbaum, Robert H; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Weiser, Martin R; Thornton, Raymond H

    2015-02-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of image-guided percutaneous cecostomy/colostomy (PC) in the management of colonic obstruction in patients with cancer. Twenty-seven consecutive patients underwent image-guided PC to relieve large bowel obstruction at a single institution between 2000 and 2012. Colonic obstruction was the common indication. Patient demographics, diagnosis, procedural details, and outcomes including maximum colonic distension (MCD; ie, greatest transverse measurement of the colon on radiograph or scout computed tomography image) were recorded and retrospectively analyzed. Following PC, no patient experienced colonic perforation; pain was relieved in 24 of 27 patients (89%). Catheters with tip position in luminal gas rather than mixed stool/gas or stool were associated with greater decrease in MCD (-40%, -12%, and -16%, respectively), with the difference reaching statistical significance (P = .002 and P = .013, respectively). Catheter size was not associated with change in MCD (P = .978). Catheters were successfully removed from six of nine patients (67%) with functional obstructions and two of 18 patients (11%) with mechanical obstructions. One patient underwent endoscopic stent placement after catheter removal. Three patients required diverting colostomy after PC, and their catheters were removed at the time of surgery. One major complication (3.7%; subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and sepsis) occurred 8 days after PC and was successfully treated with cecostomy exchange, soft-tissue drainage, and intravenous antibiotic therapy. Image-guided PC is safe and effective for management of functional and mechanical bowel obstruction in patients with cancer. For optimal efficacy, catheters should terminate within luminal gas. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Failure of laparoscopy to relieve ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Huang, Ming-Chao; Hung, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Yung-Hsuen

    2006-06-01

    To present a case of hydronephrosis and hydroureter secondary to pelvic endometriosis and to discuss the pitfalls in laparoscopic management. A 37-year-old nulligravida woman had mild elevation of blood pressure for about 1 year without abdominal pain, dyspareunia, or dysmenorrhea. Renal ultrasound revealed left hydronephrosis and a 4-cm pelvic cyst. Intravenous pyelogram showed distal ureteral obstruction. An MRI with fat saturation disclosed a left ovarian endometrioma and a lesion in the uterosacral ligament causing periureteral compression. Laparoscopic findings included a dilated left ureter above the uterosacral ligament, left uterosacral ligament endometriosis with adhesions, and a 4-cm left ovarian endometrioma. Cystoureteroscopy showed external ureteral compression 2 cm above the ureteral orifice. A ureteral catheter was placed. The left endometrioma was enucleated and ureterolysis was performed. The latter procedure had to be discontinued because of bleeding from descending uterine vessels. The ureteral catheter was removed 2 months later and her blood pressure gradually returned to normal. However, after 1 year, she was found to have recurrent hydronephrosis and underwent segmental resection of the distal ureter and reconstruction by end-to-end reanastomosis. In women of reproductive age, hydronephrosis and hypertension may be the only symptoms of endometriosis. While laparoscopic treatment is useful in endometriosis, it may fail in the presence of chronic inflammation and severe fibrosis.

  20. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST of the Treitz’s angle– a very rare cause of high bowel obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Elena Tobă

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are somewhat rare gastrointestinal tumors - approximately 1% to 3% incidence, but they are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are usually found in the stomach or small intestine but can occur anywhere within the gastrointestinal tract, even in extremely uncommon locations like duodeno-jejunal flexure. Only 3% – 5% of GISTs are located in the duodenum and tumors occurring in the angle of Treitz are even rarer, most published studies being case reports. These tumors have a size ranging from small lesions to large masses and can cause digestive bleeding or high bowel obstruction. This paper is a case presentation illustrating an emergency situation involving a high bowel obstruction caused by a small tumor with an unusual location in the Treitz’s angle. A large percentage of duodenal GISTs are localized in the third and fourth part of the duodenum and may not be found through standard upper endoscopy; only the barium study of the upper gastrointestinal tract highlights the obstruction point. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult but non-invasive imaging techniques like ultrasonography and computed tomography of the abdomen can be helpful. Recently, targeted therapy with inhibitors of tyrosine kinase receptors (IMATINIB has been introduced for the management of advanced and metastatic tumors. In our opinion the surgical resection with curative intent is the treatment of choice.

  1. A Formal Palliative Care Service Improves the Quality of Care in Patients with Stage IV Cancer and Bowel Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Emmanuel; Kukar, Moshim; Groman, Adrienne; Alvarez-Perez, Amy; Schneider, Jaclyn; Francescutti, Valerie

    2017-02-01

    Patients with stage IV cancer and bowel obstruction present a complicated management problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the palliative care service (PC) in the management of this complex disease process. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients admitted to Roswell Park Cancer Institute with stage IV cancer and bowel obstruction from 2009 to 2012 after the institution of a formal PC. This cohort was matched to similar patients from 2005 to 2008 (no palliative care service or NPC). Patient characteristics and outcomes included baseline demographics, comorbid conditions, do-not-resuscitate (DNR) status, laboratory parameters, medical and surgical management, length of stay, symptom relief, and disposition status. A total of 19 patients were identified in the PC group. Based on the PC group baseline characteristics, 19 patients were identified for the NPC group using matched values. Regarding outcomes, there were significant differences in the medication regimens (narcotics, octreotide, and Decadron) between the 2 groups. In the PC group, 14 of 19 patients showed improvement compared to 9 of 19 in the NPC group. Nearly 60% of patients in the PC group had a formal DNR order versus 10.5% in NPC ( P = .002). A significantly higher percentage of patients were discharged to hospice in the PC group (47.4% vs 0.0%, P = .006). Palliative care consultation improves the quality of care for patients with stage IV cancer and bowel obstruction, with particular benefits in symptom management, end-of-life discussion, and disposition to hospice.

  2. Determination of therapeutic strategy for adhesive small bowel obstruction using water-soluble contrast agents: An audit of 776 cases in a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Haruki; Kaneoka, Yuji; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Takayama, Yuichi; Takahashi, Takamasa; Onoe, Shunsuke; Fukami, Yasuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic role of water-soluble contrast agents in adhesive small bowel obstruction, but there is no clear diagnostic classification for the determination of therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical value of classification using water-soluble contrast agents in patients with adhesive small bowel obstruction. Between January 2009 and December 2015, 776 consecutive patients with adhesive small bowel obstruction were managed initially with water-soluble contrast agents and were included in the study. Abdominal x-rays were taken 5 hours after administration of 100 mL water-soluble contrast agents and classified into 4 types. The medical records of the patients with adhesive small bowel obstruction were analyzed retrospectively and divided into 2 groups of patients with complete obstruction (ie, the absence of contrast agent in the colon) with (type I) or without (type II) a detectable point of obstruction and a group with an incomplete obstruction (ie, the presence of contrast agent in the colon) with (type IIIA) or without (type IIIB) dilated small intestine. Types I, II, IIIA, and IIIB were identified in 27, 90, 358, and 301 patients, respectively. The overall operative rate was 16.6%. In the patients treated conservatively (types IIIA and IIIB), 647 patients (98.2%) were treated successfully without operative intervention. The operative rate was 3.4% (n = 12/358) in type IIIA vs 0% (n = 0/301) in the type IIIB group (P = .001). Compared with type IIIA, type IIIB was associated with earlier initiation of oral intake (2.1 vs 2.6 days, P strategy for adhesive small bowel obstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Tubal Obstruction in the Hysterosalpingogram of Women with Primary and Secondary Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Al Subhi, Taimoora; Al Jashnmi, Ruqaiya Nasser; Al Khaduri, Maha; Gowri, Vaidyanathan

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fallopian tube of women with infertility and to observe whether there are any significant differences in the Hysterosalpingogram findings with regard to prevalence of tubal block in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods A retrospective study of unilateral and bilateral tubal obstruction in Hysterosalpingogram of women with primary and secondary infertility was carried out. Results The frequencies of tubal obstruction wer...

  4. [Small bowel obstruction and gastric ulceration resulting from rice cake ingestion -computed tomography diagnosis in eight patients-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Akihiko; Amano, Yuji; Uchida, Yasushi; Kagawa, Kouji; Takatori, Kento; Kitajima, Naoto; Sonoyama, Hiroki; Tada, Yasumasa; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Oshima, Naoki; Moriyama, Ichiro; Yuki, Takafumi; Kawashima, Kousaku; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2013-10-01

    Here we report the cases of eight patients who developed small bowel obstruction and/or gastric ulcers after ingesting rice cake, the traditional Asian food, and were managed conservatively. This report adds to the existing literature on gastrointestinal disorders induced by rice cake ingestion, which are characterized by gastrointestinal obstruction, perforation, and ulceration and are occasionally accompanied by peritonism. These conditions tend to occur in 50-60-year-old males who wear dentures or eat rapidly. Therapeutically, hard rice cake remnants in the upper gastrointestinal tract can be broken up by endoscopic snaring and can be detected by computed tomography as homogeneous high-density material at approximately 145 (range:120-206) Hounsfield units.

  5. Assessment of small bowel motility in patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction using cine-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Hidenori; Kessoku, Takaomi; Fuyuki, Akiko; Iida, Hiroshi; Inamori, Masahiko; Fujii, Tetsuro; Kawamura, Harunobu; Hata, Yasuo; Manabe, Noriaki; Chiba, Toshimi; Kwee, Thomas C; Haruma, Ken; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takahara, Taro

    2013-07-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare, serious motility disorder, with life-threatening complications over time. However, lack of an established, non-invasive diagnostic method has caused delays in the diagnosis of this intractable disease. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging technique, with a potential to evaluate the motility of the entire bowel. We compared small bowel motility in healthy volunteers, patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and those with CIPO, using cine-MRI, and evaluated the usefulness of cine-MRI as a novel diagnostic method for CIPO. Twelve healthy volunteers, IBS patients, and CIPO patients prospectively underwent cine-MRI at 1.5 T. Luminal diameter, contraction ratio, and contraction cycle were measured and compared between the groups. Cine-MRI provided sufficient dynamic images to assess the motility of the entire small bowel. Luminal diameter (mean±s.d.) in CIPO patients was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers and IBS patients (43.4±14.1, 11.1±1.5, and 10.9±1.9 mm, respectively), and contraction ratio was significantly lower in CIPO patients than that in healthy volunteers and IBS patients (17.1±11.0%, 73.0±9.3%, and 74.6±9.4%, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the contraction cycle. This study is the first to assess the clinical utility of cine-MRI in CIPO patients. Cine-MRI clearly detected contractility impairments in CIPO patients. Cine-MRI is noninvasive, radiation-free, and can directly evaluate the entire small bowel peristalsis, and can detect the affected loops at a glance; therefore, it might be extremely useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of CIPO patients in clinical practice.

  6. Transmesenteric hernia with bowel ischemia in unusual site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old girl presented with distal ileal obstruction secondary to transmesenteric hernia. The ileum just proximal to the herniated loop was ischemic, while the herniated bowel did not show ischemia. The ischemia was due to stretching and torsion of the vessels around the mesenteric defect by the herniated bowel. Such a mechanism has not been reported before.

  7. Large Bowel Obstruction and Multiple Small and Large Bowel Micro Perforation Caused by the Ingestion of Foreign Body (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrabi Saadat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 50 years old Schizophrenic male referred with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting .patient reported abdominal pain since one year prior to admission. Previous studies, including ultrasound and lab tests did not show anything .plain abdominal radiography showed multiple metallic bars in abdominal cavity. Abdominal laparotomy was done and nine metallic bars removed from stomach and small and large bowel and patient discharged with good condition. Report of this patient emphasizes on importance of simple abdominal radiography in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain.

  8. Clinical potential of retrospective on-demand spectral analysis using dual-layer spectral detector-computed tomography in ischemia complicating small-bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Funama, Yoshinori; Taguchi, Narumi; Imuta, Masanori; Nagayama, Yasunori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2017-08-01

    We describe a case of ischemia complicating acute small-bowel obstruction in which retrospective on-demand spectral analysis using dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography (CT) provided a higher degree of confidence pertaining to the diagnosis. Dual-layer spectral detector CT enables retrospective on-demand spectral analysis, including virtual monochromatic imaging, iodine mapping, and determining the effective atomic number Z, without the need of a pre-scan setting requiring a special protocol, particularly facilitating emergency situations. Retrospective on-demand spectral analysis could improve the accuracy and diagnostic confidence in cases with ischemia complicating small-bowel obstruction.

  9. Randomised Controlled Trial of Colonic Stent Insertion in non-curable large bowel obstruction: A Post-hoc Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christopher J; Zahid, Assad

    2017-11-01

    With the increasing burden on the health care system, this study aims to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis on the management of incurable large bowel obstruction comparing the cost of a stent versus surgery. A prospective randomised controlled trial was conducted at two major teaching hospitals in Australia between September 2006 and November 2011. 56 patients with malignant incurable large bowel obstruction were randomised to stent insertion or surgical decompression, of whom 52 were included in the final analysis. Data was collected at all points during the patient journey and quality of life (QoL) data was obtained by patient surveys. All data points were analysed and a cost-effectiveness study was performed to compare the costs between the two treatment groups. Stenting as a procedure was significantly more expensive than surgery (AUD$4,462.50 vs $3,251.50; pdischarge from hospital. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Perforated Meckel's diverticulum presenting with combined bowel and urinary obstruction and mimicking Crohn's disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Banny S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Meckel's diverticulum is a common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, but is an uncommon cause of serious complications in adults. Although cases of patients with hemorrhage, bowel obstruction or perforation associated with Meckel's diverticulum have been reported, there have been no prior reports of patients with combined urinary and bowel obstruction due to abscess formation. Case presentation We describe the case of a 21-year-old man with a history of recurrent papillary thyroid cancer, but no prior abdominal surgeries, who presented with a one-month history of rectal pain and new-onset obstipation with urinary retention. He reported night sweats and weight loss, and had a second-degree relative with known Crohn's disease. A digital rectal examination was notable and revealed marked tenderness with proximal induration. A computed tomography scan of the patient's abdomen revealed a large, complex, circumferential perirectal abscess compressing the rectal lumen and base of the urinary bladder, associated with terminal ileal thickening and an ileocecal fistula. A flexible sigmoidoscopy with an endorectal ultrasound scan displayed a complex abscess with extensive mucosal and surrounding inflammation. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a Meckel's diverticulum with a large perforation at its base, positioned near the ileocecal fistula and immediately superior to the perirectal abscess. The section of small bowel containing the Meckel's diverticulum, the terminal ileum, and the cecum, were all resected, and the abscess was debrided. Conclusions Pre-operative diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum can be difficult. If the nature of the complication makes ultimate surgical management likely, an early laparoscopic or open exploration should be performed to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with late complications.

  11. Mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma: A case report and brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng-Shui; Xu, Wei; Ying, Jia-Qi; Cheng, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma can present in various ways, and it is most commonly encountered incidentally during appendectomy, but mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to an appendiceal mucocele has been rarely reported. We report a case of mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma. After nasogastric decompression and initial aggressive intravenous fluid resuscitation, an emergency operation was performed under the diagnosis of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction. We performed an appendectomy and intraoperative enteral decompression without anastomoses. The pathologic examination (PE) revealed appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma. After the operation, the patient's recovery went smoothly, and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. No tumor recurrence was recorded over an 8 month follow-up period. Early operative intervention should be recommended to the patient with acute mechanical complete intestinal obstruction, especially the patient who had no previous abdominal surgery. And it is vital to discriminate benign and malignantappendiceal mucocel in determining the extent of surgery.

  12. An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction in children: lentil soup bezoar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plataras, Christos; Sardianos, Nektarios; Vlatakis, Stephanos; Nikas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Bezoars are an unusual cause of acute intestinal obstruction in children. Most cases are trichobezoars in adolescent girls who swallow their hair. Lactobezoars are another unusual but occasionally reported cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. Phytobezoars and food bolus bezoars are the least common types of intestinal obstruction that have been reported in children. Of the few paediatric cases that have been described, the majority involve persimmons. Moreover, all of these cases involve the ingestion of raw fibres or fruit that have not been cooked. We report a case of a girl who presented with acute ileal obstruction because of lentil soup bezoar. Given the wide use of this otherwise nutritional foodstuff, we highlight the danger from its inappropriate preparation to the health of children. This is the first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused by lentils in children and we hope to raise concern among paediatricians regarding this matter. PMID:24692381

  13. Spontaneous rupture of renal pelvis secondary to ureteral obstruction by urothelial tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Daniel Alvarenga; Palma, Ana Laura Gatti; Kido, Ricardo Yoshio Zanetti; Barros, Ricardo Hoelz de Oliveira; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Penachim, Thiago Jose; Caserta, Nelson Marcio Gomes, E-mail: daniel_alvafer@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: daniel_alvafer@icloud.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    2014-09-15

    Partial spontaneous rupture of the upper urinary tract is rare and usually associated with nephrolithiasis. Other reported causes, apart from instrumentation and trauma, involve obstructive ureteral tumor in the pelvic cavity, retroperitoneal fibrosis, fluid overload, and pregnancy. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of renal pelvis secondary to ureteral obstruction caused by urothelial tumor, clinically suspected and evaluated by CT scans and MRIs, discussing the relevant findings for diagnosis.(author)

  14. Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction Secondary to Metastatic Relapse of Breast Cancer

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    Paras H. Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 53-year-old woman with a history of localized breast cancer who presented with flank pain and was found to have new-onset obstruction of the left ureteropelvic junction. Although initially believed to be unrelated to her history of prior malignancy, intraoperative assessment of tissue from the ureteropelvic junction during planned laparoscopic pyeloplasty revealed urothelial infiltration by carcinoma of breast origin.

  15. Common Bile Duct Obstruction Secondary to a Periampullary Diverticulum

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    Anastasios J. Karayiannakis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Periampullary duodenal diverticula are not uncommon and are usually asymptomatic although complications may occasionally occur. Here, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman who presented with painless obstructive jaundice. Laboratory tests showed abnormally elevated serum concentrations of total and direct bilirubin, of alkaline phosphatase, of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases. Serum concentrations of the tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen were normal. Abdominal ultrasonography showed dilatation of the common bile duct (CBD, but no gallstones were found either in the gallbladder or in the CBD. The gallbladder wall was normal. Computed tomography failed to detect the cause of CBD obstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a periampullary diverticulum measuring 2 cm in diameter and compressing the CBD. The pancreatic duct was normal. Hypotonic duodenography demonstrated a periampullary diverticulum with a filling defect corresponding to the papilla. CBD compression by the diverticulum was considered as the cause of jaundice. The patient was successfully treated by surgical excision of the diverticulum. In conclusion, the presence of a periampullary diverticulum should be considered in elderly patients presenting with obstructive jaundice in the absence of CBD gallstones or of a tumor mass. Non-interventional imaging studies should be preferred for diagnosis of this condition, and surgical or endoscopic interventions should be used judiciously for the effective and safe treatment of these patients.

  16. Small Bowel Obstruction from Internal Hernia as a Complicaton of Colonscopy

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    Robert Patterson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available After colonoscopy with polypectomy, a patient developed a surgically acute abdomen. Although abdominal radiology did not show free air, a presumptive diagnosis of bowel perforation was made and laparotomy performed. At the time of surgery the colon was normal, and there was no peritoneal contamination. A loop of ileum was discovered incarcerated into an internal paracecal hernia. The bowel was freed, and the operation was completed without need for resection. Several cases of incarcerated inguinal hernia resulting from endoscopy are described in the medical literature; this is the first reported case of an incarcerated internal hernia as a complication of colonoscopy.

  17. Sapovirus Gastroenteritis in Young Children Presenting as Distal Small Bowel Obstruction: A Report of 2 Cases and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Model

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pain and distention in children are commonly encountered problems in the pediatric emergency room. The majority of complaints are found to be due to benign entities such as gastroenteritis and constipation. What confounds these diagnoses is that young children often deliver a challenging and unreliable exam. Thus, it often becomes exceedingly problematic to differentiate these benign conditions from surgical conditions requiring prompt attention including small or large bowel obstruction, volvulus, and appendicitis. The cases highlight Sapovirus as a cause of severe abdominal distention and vomiting in children and this report is the first to describe and demonstrate the impressive radiologic findings that may be associated with this infection. Surgeons should heed this information and hesitate to emergently operate on similar children.

  18. Decreased risk of surgery for small bowel obstruction after laparoscopic colon cancer surgery compared with open surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Andersen, Peter; Erichsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of surgical approach on the incidence of small bowel obstruction (SBO) is unclear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the long-term risk of surgery for SBO after open and laparoscopic surgery and to assess how subsequent SBO surgery impacts on mortality after colonic...... cancer resection. METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study of patients undergoing elective colonic cancer resection with primary anastomosis in Denmark between 2001 and 2008. All included patients were operated with curative intent. Patients were identified in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group...... for SBO during follow-up (median 8.8 years). The 3-year cumulative incidence of SBO surgery was 1.5 %; 1.2 % after laparoscopic and 1.6 % after open surgery. Laparoscopic surgery was associated with a decreased risk of SBO (hazard ratio [HR] 0.61 (CI 0.37 to 0.99, P = 0.048) compared with open surgery...

  19. Acute pseudo-obstruction of the large bowel with caecal perforation following normal vaginal delivery: a case report

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    Seenath Marlon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute pseudo-obstruction of the large bowel following normal vaginal delivery is an extremely rare complication of normal vaginal delivery. It can be fatal if not recognized early. Only one previous report has been found in the English literature. Case presentation A 36-year old Caucasian, normally fit woman presented with abdominal distension and vomiting five days post-normal vaginal delivery at term. Localised peritonitis in the right iliac fossa developed in the next few days, and caecal perforation was found at laparotomy, without evidence of appendicitis or colitis. Conclusion Although very rare, Ogilvie's syndrome should be considered by obstetricians, general surgeons and general practitioners as a potential cause of vomiting and abdominal pain following normal vaginal delivery. Early recognition and management are essential to minimize the possibility of developing serious complications.

  20. Bowel perforation secondary to illegally induced abortion: a tertiary hospital experience in Tanzania

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    Mabula Joseph B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bowel perforation though rarely reported is a serious complication of induced abortion, which is often performed illegally by persons without any medical training in developing countries. A sudden increase in the number of patients in our centre in recent years prompted the authors to analyze this problem. The study was conducted to describe our own experiences in the surgical management of these patients. Methods This was a retrospective study involving patients who were jointly managed by the surgical and gynecological teams at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC for bowel perforation secondary to illegally induced abortion from January 2002 to December 2011. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0. Results A total of 68 patients (representing 4.2% of cases were enrolled in the study. Their ages ranged from 14 to 45 years with a median age of 21 years. Majority of patients were, secondary school students/leavers (70.6%, unmarried (88.2%, nulliparous (80.9%, unemployed (82.4% and most of them were dependent member of the family. Previous history of contraceptive use was reported in only 14.7% of cases. The majority of patients (79.4% had procured the abortion in the 2nd trimester. Dilatation and curettage (82.4% was the most common reported method used in procuring abortion. The interval from termination of pregnancy to presentation in hospital ranged from 1 to 14 days (median 6 days . The ileum (51.5% and sigmoid colon (22.1% was the most common portions of the bowel affected. Resection and anastomosis with uterine repair was the most common (86.8% surgical procedure performed. Complication and mortality rates were 47.1% and 10.3% respectively. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, gestational age at termination of pregnancy, delayed presentation, delayed surgical treatment and presence of complications were significantly associated with mortality (P Conclusion Bowel perforation following

  1. Effectiveness of the bowel management program in children with constipation secondary to anorectal malformations

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    Santos Jasso Karla A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One thousand children with anorectal malformation (ARM are born in Mexico every year. In spite of surgical correction, these children continue to present functional fecal problems (constipation and fecal incontinence. We conducted an Intestinal Rehabilitation Program (IRP which consists of an initial rectal disimpaction followed by administration of stimulant-type laxative (senna, with favorable results. The objective of this paper is to describe the effectiveness of the Intestinal Rehabilitation Program/bowel management program (IRP/BMP in children with constipation secondary to surgically corrected ARM. Materials and methods: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study, describing which was the IRP effectiveness in children with constipation secondary to ARM. The effectiveness was measured by means of a construct of three variables (presence of daily bowel movements, absence of fecal staining, and having a plain abdominal radiograph without fecal residue in left colon and rectum after passing stool. All children who had surgically corrected ARM and constipation in two referral centers were included. Results. One hundred and fifty one children with ARM were included: 21.85% had fecal incontinence, and 67.33% had constipation. Of this group 88.1% showed good response to the BMP. The mean dose of sennoside was 8.45 mg/kg, 95% CI: 5.94-11.12 mg/kg (199.5 mg total dose, 95% CI: 139.50-259.50 mg. Colicky abdominal pain occurred in 5.8% of the patients. Discussion. The use of sennoside has had a positive impact on our patients by means of colonic and rectal emptying without fecal soiling. Key words: Constipation, Anorrectal Malformation, Bowel Managment Program, Sennoside.

  2. Are interstitial cells of Cajal involved in mechanical stress-induced gene expression and impairment of smooth muscle contractility in bowel obstruction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester C Wu

    Full Text Available The network of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC is altered in obstructive bowel disorders (OBD. However, whether alteration in ICC network is a cause or consequence of OBD remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanical dilation in obstruction disrupts the ICC network and that ICC do not mediate mechanotranscription of COX-2 and impairment of smooth muscle contractility in obstruction.Medical-grade silicon bands were wrapped around the distal colon to induce partial obstruction in wild-type and ICC deficient (W/W(v mice.In wild-type mice, colon obstruction led to time-dependent alterations of the ICC network in the proximal colon segment. Although unaffected on days 1 and 3, the ICC density decreased markedly and the network was disrupted on day 7 of obstruction. COX-2 expression increased, and circular muscle contractility decreased significantly in the segment proximal to obstruction. In W/W(v control mice, COX-2 mRNA level was 4.0 (±1.1-fold higher (n=4 and circular muscle contractility was lower than in wild-type control mice. Obstruction further increased COX-2 mRNA level in W/W(v mice to 7.2 (±1.0-fold vs. W/W(v controls [28.8 (±4.1-fold vs. wild-type controls] on day 3. Obstruction further suppressed smooth muscle contractility in W/W(v mice. However, daily administration of COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 significantly improved muscle contractility in both W/W(v sham and obstruction mice.Lumen dilation disrupts the ICC network. ICC deficiency has limited effect on stretch-induced expression of COX-2 and suppression of smooth muscle contractility in obstruction. Rather, stretch-induced COX-2 plays a critical role in motility dysfunction in partial colon obstruction.

  3. Bilateral breast swelling secondary to superior vena cava obstruction and subclavian vein thrombosis

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    Ariadne Mayumi Yamada

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava syndrome is defined by a set of signs and symptoms secondary to superior vena cava obstruction caused principally by malignant diseases. The present report describes the case of an unusual clinical manifestation of this syndrome with bilateral breast swelling, and emphasizes the relevance of knowledge on mammographic signs of systemic diseases.

  4. Results of a laparoscopic approach for the treatment of acute small bowel obstruction due to adhesions and internal hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poves, Ignasi; Sebastián Valverde, Enric; Puig Companyó, Sònia; Dorcaratto, Dimitri; Membrilla, Estela; Pons, María José; Grande, Luís

    2014-05-01

    Laparotomy is the standard approach for the surgical treatment of acute small bowel obstruction (ASBO). From February 2007 to May 2012 we prospectively recorded all patients operated by laparoscopy in our hospital because of ASBO due to adhesions (27 cases) and/or internal hernia (6 cases). A preoperative abdominal CT was performed in all cases. Patients suffering from peritonitis and/or sepsis were excluded from the laparoscopic approach. It was decided to convert to laparotomy if intestinal resection was required. The mean age of the 33 patients who underwent surgery was 61.1 ± 17.6 years. 64% had previous history of abdominal surgery. 72% of the cases were operated by surgeons highly skilled in laparoscopy. Conversion rate was 21%. Operative time and postoperative length of stay were 83 ± 44 min. and 7.8 ± 11.2 days, respectively. Operative time (72 ± 30 vs 123 ± 63 min.), tolerance to oral intake (1.8 ± 0.9 vs 5.7 ± 3.3 days) and length of postoperative stay (4.7 ± 2.5 vs 19.4 ± 21 days) were significantly lower in the laparoscopy group compared with the conversion group, although converted patients had greater clinical severity (2 bowel resections). There were two severe complications (Clavien-Dindo III and V) in the conversion group. In selected cases of ASBO caused by adhesions and internal hernias and when performed by surgeons highly skilled in laparoscopy, a laparoscopic approach has a high probability of success (low conversion rate, short hospital length of stay and low morbidity); its use would be fully justified in these cases. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BLOOD AT PATIENTS WITH BOWEL OBSTRUCTION OF TUMORAL GENESIS IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD

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    V. V. Maslyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Microcirculation plays an important role in early postoperative period in colorectal cancer patients. At the same time the question connected with studying of rheological properties of blood as one of microcirculation indicators in literature it studied insufficiently.Materials and methods. We studied rheological properties of blood in 30 patients operated for bowel obstruction caused by right colon cancer. 17 (56,7 % patients were male, 13 (43,3 % – female. Average age was 57 ± 3 years. Time from the moment of manifestation of the first clinical signs before admission to a hospital and the beginnings of carrying out medical and diagnostic actions was 12 ± 0,5 h. The stage of a disease was T3N0–1M0. The group of comparison consisted of 20 healthy volunteers of the same age. Changes of a rheology of blood were measured by means of the accounting of viscosity of blood, change of an index of deformation and aggregation of erythrocytes. Studying of viscosity of blood was carried out by means of the rotational viscometer at shift speeds: 200; 100; 150; 50 and 20 MPas. Measures were conducted at the time of receipt, on the first, third, fifth, seventh and tenth postoperative day.Results. In patients with bowel impassability at the time of receipt the increase in indicators of viscosity of blood is noted at all speeds of the shift, analyzed indicators increase by the third postoperative day, decrease on the seventh and are partially restored for the tenth postoperative days. Complications developed in 16,6 % of cases, in all cases – pneumonia. By comparison of the obtained laboratory data to a clinical picture it is established that complications developed on 3–5th postoperative days.

  6. Hypertonic saline solution reduces mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunctions and bacterial translocation in a rat model of strangulated small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz Zanoni, Fernando; Costa Cruz, José Walber Miranda; Martins, Joilson Oliveira; Benabou, Simon; Vicente Greco, Karin; Ramos Moreno, Ana Carolina; Baquerizo Martinez, Marina; Ferraro Calderaro, Franco; Rocha e Silva, Mauricio; Sannomiya, Paulina

    2013-07-01

    We examined the effects of hypertonic saline (HS) on inflammatory, metabolic variables, and bacterial translocation (BT) in rats submitted to intestinal obstruction and ischemia (IO). Male Wistar rats were submitted to IO and treated, 2 h thereafter, with lactated Ringer's (LR) (4 mL/kg per 5 min, i.v.) or HS (7.5% NaCl, 4 mL/kg per 5 min, i.v.). Twenty-four hours after IO, rats were also submitted to enterectomy/enteroanastomosis to resection of necrotized small bowel. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were investigated by intravital microscopy and the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 by immunohistochemistry. Bacterial cultures of mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and blood were used to evaluate BT. Levels of chemokines (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants 1 and 2), insulin, and corticosterone were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intestinal histology, serum urea and creatinine levels, and hepatic enzymes activities were performed to evaluate local and remote damage. Relative to IO and LR-treated rats, which exhibited increases in the number of rolling (1.5-fold), adhered (3.5-fold) and migrated (9.0-fold) leukocytes, and increased expression of P-selectin (3-fold) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (3-fold) on mesenteric microcirculation, treatment with HS followed by enterectomy reduced leukocyte-endothelial interactions and expression of both adhesion molecules to values attained in sham rats. Serum chemokines were normalized after treatment with both solutions followed by enterectomy. Hypertonic saline-treated rats demonstrated a significant reduction in BT to 50% in liver and spleen samples and bacteremia (14%), compared with 82% of BT in liver and spleen samples of IO and LR-treated rats and bacteremia (57%). Local intestinal damage was attenuated, and renal and hepatic function preserved by treatment with HS followed by enterectomy. Survival rate increased to 86% up to 15 days. Data presented

  7. [Correction of early liver dysfunction in patients with acute small bowel obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypko, V D; Klymenko, A O; Honchar, M H; Klymenko, Iu A

    2014-08-01

    Conducted a comprehensive examination and surgical treatment for acute obstruction of the small intestine (SI). It is established that, both before and after surgery to restore patency of SI is a significant violation of the functional state of the liver. This became the basis for the appointment of antioxidant therapy in the complex standard treatment. Using the solution reamberin promotes effective correction protein syntesis function disorders of the liver, reduces the severity of inflammation and stagnation in the hepatocytes, the severity of endogenous intoxication and the incidence of postoperative complications.

  8. [Correction of early liver dysfunction in patients in acute small bowel obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Conducted a comprehensive examination and surgical treatment for acute obstruction of the small intestine (SI). It is established that, both before and after surgery to restore patency of SI is a significant violation of the functional state of the liver. This became the basis for the appointment of antioxidant therapy in the complex standard treatment. Using the solution reamberin promotes effective correction protein syntesis function disorders of the liver, reduces the severity of inflammation and stagnation in the hepatocytes, the severity of endogenous intoxication and the incidence of postoperative complications.

  9. Triple negative invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast presents as small bowel obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Khokhlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis from breast carcinoma to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT is very uncommon. To date, only a few cases have been described worldwide. Of those which do metastasize to the GIT, only estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2-neu receptor positive cancers have been reported and none have been mentioned in the U.S. We report a case of a 70-year-old white female with history of triple negative lobular carcinoma eight years earlier who presented with solitary jejunal mass causing obstruction.

  10. Colonic obstruction secondary to sigmoid fecaloma endoscopically resolved with Coca-Cola®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontanilla Clavijo, Guillermo; León Montañés, Rafael; Sánchez Torrijos, Yolanda; López Ruiz, Teófilo; Bozada García, Juan Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Colonic obstruction is a relatively common condition in emergency care, with a mortality rate of up to 20%. In 90% of cases it results from colonic or rectal adenocarcinoma, volvulus, or stenosis secondary to diverticular disease. When fecal impaction is the underlying cause, the condition is usually managed conservatively, but may on occasion become complicated and even require surgical intervention. Based on the proven efficacy of Coca-Cola® to dissolve gastric phytobezoars, we report a case of colonic obstruction secondary to sigmoid fecaloma. A 58 years old woman arrived at the Emergency Room (ER) with persistent constipation for the last six days. An abdominal CT scan showed a large fecal mass at the sigmoid colon with retrograde dilated colonic loops. Cleansing enemas and oral lactulose were administered, which failed to resolve the clinical presentation, so we then proceeded to inject Coca-Cola® within the fecaloma using a sclerosing needle, and then washed the fecaloma surface also with Coca-Cola®. After a few minutes we started to fragment the fecalith, the consistency of which had been notably decreased. The use of Coca-Cola® for gastric washes in the management of phytobezoars is well established. Since fecaliths are partly composed of these same substances than phytobezoars, the use of Coca-Cola® might well be warranted against them as in our patient, without surgery. Our case report is the second one published in the literature, in which Coca-Cola® helped solve colonic obstruction secondary to fecaloma.

  11. Large bowel perforation secondary to CMV colitis: an unusual primary presentation of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Daniel Richard; Tucker, Simon; Varia, Haren; Isaacs, Peter

    2016-12-21

    We report a case of HIV-associated Cytomegalovirus colitis complicated by large bowel perforation. A 62-year-old man of same-sex relationship was not known to have HIV, but a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease was made early in his admission, with steroid treatment initiated. He was later confirmed to be HIV positive, and found to have multiple microperforations of the bowel necessitating ileocecectomy and Hartmann's procedures. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Is non-operative management still justified in the treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Abdulrasheed A; Abdur-Rahman, Lukman O; Bamigbola, Kayode T; Oyinloye, Adewale O; Abdulraheem, Nurudeen T; Adeniran, James O

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) is a feared complication after abdominal operations in both children and adults. The optimal management of ASBO in the pediatric population is debated. The aim of the present study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of non-operative management in ASBO. A retrospective review of 33 patients who were admitted for ASBO over a 5-year period was carried out. Follow-up data were available for 29 patients. Demographic, clinical, and operative details and outcomes were collected for these patients. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 15.0. P ≤ 0.05 was regarded as significant. Out of 618 abdominal surgeries within the 5-year period, 34 admissions were recorded from 29 patients at the follow-up period of 1-28 months. There were 19 boys (65.5%). The median age of patients was 4.5 years. Typhoid intestinal perforation (n = 7), intussusception (n = 6), intestinal malrotation (n = 5), and appendicitis (n = 4) were the major indications for a prior abdominal surgery leading to ASBO. Twenty-five patients (73.5%) developed SBO due to adhesions within the first year of the primary procedure. Of the 34 patients admitted with ASBO, 18 (53%) underwent operative intervention and 16 (47%) were successfully managed non-operatively. There were no differences in sex (P = 0.24), initial procedure (P = 0.12), age, duration of symptoms, and time to re-admission between the patients who responded to non-operative management and those who underwent operative intervention. However, the length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the non-operative group (P operative management is still a safe and preferred approach in selected patients with ASBO. However, 53% eventually required surgery.

  13. Clinical Relevance of the Feces Sign in Small-Bowel Obstruction Due to Adhesions Depends on Its Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Wassef; Millet, Ingrid; Corno, Lucie; Bouley-Coletta, Isabelle; Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine; Taourel, Patrice; Zins, Marc

    2018-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate if the feces sign can be used to predict successful nonoperative treatment or progression to ischemia in patients with small-bowel obstruction (SBO) due to adhesions. For this single-center retrospective observational study involving a blinded independent review by two radiologists of 237 consecutive CT examinations of 216 patients with SBO due to adhesions (age: mean, 70.9 years; median, 74 years; interquartile range, 62-84 years), the location of the transition zone (TZ), number of TZs, and presence and location of the feces sign relative to the TZ were recorded. The reference standard for diagnosing ischemia was surgical and pathologic findings (n = 108 CT examinations) or, when treatment was nonoperative (n = 129 CT examinations), clinical outcome. Factors associated with successful nonoperative treatment and ischemia were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. A feces sign was seen in 88 of 237 CT examinations (37.1%). The feces sign was at the TZ, which we refer to as the "TZ feces" sign, in 82 of 88 (93.2%) patients; between two TZs, which we refer to as the "trapped feces" sign, in 14 (15.9%) patients; and in both locations in eight (9.1%) patients. By univariate analysis, an isolated TZ feces sign was associated positively with successful nonoperative treatment (odds ratio [OR], 3.37; 95% CI, 1.71-6.66; p signs were associated with ischemia (OR, 24.16; 95% CI, 2.86-203.89; p = 0.003). By multivariate analysis, regardless of the location of the feces sign, the feces sign was not significantly associated with successful nonoperative treatment or progression to ischemia. The feces sign is common and helps to identify the TZ. Among the CT signs of SBO, the feces sign does not independently help to predict successful nonoperative treatment or progression to ischemia.

  14. Small bowel obstruction after antecolic and antegastric laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: could the incidence be reduced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Arturo; Mosti, Maureen; Sierra, Mauricio; Pérez-Johnson, Rocío; Flores, Salvador; Dominguez, Guillermo; Sánchez, Hugo; Zarco, Artemio; Romay, Karen; Herrera, Miguel F

    2010-10-01

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) may be related to the surgical technique used. The frequency and characteristics of postoperative SBO were studied in two cohorts of patients after LRYGB. In a 4-year period, 359 patients underwent LRYGB as an initial bariatric operation at our clinic. Patients were divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n = 187), the mesentery of the jejunum was widely divided, the mesenteric defect was closed, and Petersen's space was not sutured. In Group 2 (n = 172), the mesentery was not divided, and both the mesenteric folds and Petersen's space were closed. Episodes of SBO, etiology, treatment, and outcome were analyzed and compared. There were 141 males and 218 females, with mean age of 41 ± 11 years. Preoperative BMI was 43.2 ± 7 kg/m(2). In Group 1, 29/187 patients (15.5%) developed SBO at a mean follow-up of 15 ± 6.4 months. In Group 2, 2/172 patients (1.1%) developed SBO at 12.3 ± 6.7 months. Internal hernia was responsible for the SBO in 29 patients (19 through the adjacent mesenteric defect and 10 through Petersen's space). Mean EWL at the time of SBO was 82.2 ± 22.7%. SBO was successfully resolved by laparoscopy in 25 patients, conversion was necessary in three, and one was treated by open surgery. One patient presented intestinal perforation after revision. Surgical details such as leaving the jejunal mesentery intact and closing all created defects significantly decreased the incidence of SBO due to internal hernias in antecolic antegastric LRYGB.

  15. 'Little old lady's hernia' causing small bowel obstruction in a man: a case report with a review of literature on the pathophysiology of obturator hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Ola; Ghosh, Anil

    2014-11-12

    Commonly known as 'little old lady's hernia', obturator hernias are usually seen in frail, octogenarian multiparous women reporting non-specific nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and anteromedial thigh pain. They are exceedingly rare; even less frequently are they diagnosed preoperatively, with the vast majority being found incidentally at laparotomy for small bowel obstruction. This case report describes an atypical presentation of a 'little old lady's hernia' in a man, in whom, thanks to high degree of clinical suspicion, an incarcerated obturator hernia was diagnosed preoperatively and treated successfully. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Colonic obstruction secondary to sigmoid fecaloma endoscopically resolved with Coca-Cola®

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    Guillermo Ontanilla-Clavijo

    Full Text Available Background: Colonic obstruction is a relatively common condition in emergency care, with a mortality rate of up to 20%. In 90% of cases it results from colonic or rectal adenocarcinoma, volvulus, or stenosis secondary to diverticular disease. When fecal impaction is the underlying cause, the condition is usually managed conservatively, but may on occasion become complicated and even require surgical intervention. Based on the proven efficacy of Coca-Cola® to dissolve gastric phytobezoars, we report a case of colonic obstruction secondary to sigmoid fecaloma. Case report: A 58 years old woman arrived at the Emergency Room (ER with persistent constipation for the last six days. An abdominal CT scan showed a large fecal mass at the sigmoid colon with retrograde dilated colonic loops. Cleansing enemas and oral lactulose were administered, which failed to resolve the clinical presentation, so we then proceeded to inject Coca-Cola® within the fecaloma using a sclerosing needle, and then washed the fecaloma surface also with Coca-Cola®. After a few minutes we started to fragment the fecalith, the consistency of which had been notably decreased. Discussion: The use of Coca-Cola® for gastric washes in the management of phytobezoars is well established. Since fecaliths are partly composed of these same substances than phytobezoars, the use of Coca-Cola® might well be warranted against them as in our patient, without surgery. Our case report is the second one published in the literature, in which Coca-Cola® helped solve colonic obstruction secondary to fecaloma.

  17. Rhinovirus infection induces degradation of antimicrobial peptides and secondary bacterial infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Patrick; Footitt, Joseph; Sotero, Rosa; Jepson, Annette; Contoli, Marco; Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria-Belen; Kebadze, Tatiana; Aniscenko, Julia; Oleszkiewicz, Gregory; Gray, Katrina; Message, Simon D; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J; Adcock, Ian M; Papi, Alberto; Stanciu, Luminita A; Elkin, Sarah L; Kon, Onn M; Johnson, Malcolm; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections. To investigate relationships between rhinovirus infection and bacterial infection and the role of antimicrobial peptides in COPD exacerbations. We infected subjects with moderate COPD and smokers and nonsmokers with normal lung function with rhinovirus. Induced sputum was collected before and repeatedly after rhinovirus infection and virus and bacterial loads measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culture. The antimicrobial peptides secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), elafin, pentraxin, LL-37, α-defensins and β-defensin-2, and the protease neutrophil elastase were measured in sputum supernatants. After rhinovirus infection, secondary bacterial infection was detected in 60% of subjects with COPD, 9.5% of smokers, and 10% of nonsmokers (P rhinovirus infection exclusively in subjects with COPD with secondary bacterial infections, and SLPI and elafin levels correlated inversely with bacterial load. Rhinovirus infections are frequently followed by secondary bacterial infections in COPD and cleavage of the antimicrobial peptides SLPI and elafin by virus-induced neutrophil elastase may precipitate these secondary bacterial infections. Therapy targeting neutrophil elastase or enhancing innate immunity may be useful novel therapies for prevention of secondary bacterial infections in virus-induced COPD exacerbations.

  18. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to paraesophageal herniation of gastric antrum after laparoscopic fundoplication

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    Selcuk Coskun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common causes of acute gastric outlet obstruction (GOO are duodenal and type 3 gastric ulcers. However, mechanical or functional causes may also lead to this pathology. Acute GOO is characterized by delayed gastric emptying, anorexia, or nausea accompanied by vomiting. Herein we report a 56-year-old man diagnosed with GOO secondary to paraesophageal hiatal herniation of gastric antrum after laparoscopic fundoplication. Because of the rarity of this disease, common gastrointestinal complaints may mislead the emergency physician to diagnose a nonsurgical gastrointestinal disease if a detailed history and physical examinations are not obtained.

  19. Hormonal manipulation of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic obstruction

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    Adita Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS is often multifactorial, a significant proportion of men over the age of 50 suffer from benign prostatic obstruction (BPO secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate, being an androgen responsive organ is dependent on the male sex hormone, testosterone, for growth. Thus, treatment strategies that manipulate the levels of circulating hormones that influence the level of testosterone and/or prostatic growth represent an important potential option for patients suffering with troublesome LUTS due to BPO. Despite this, the only hormonal treatment that is currently used in daily clinical practice is the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor. In this article, we review the current evidence on the use of the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride. We also discuss new emerging hormonal manipulation strategies for patients with LUTS secondary to BPO.

  20. Decompressive percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in advanced cancer patients with small-bowel obstruction is feasible and effective: a large prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchi, Elena; Fornasarig, Mara; Martella, Luca; Maiero, Stefania; Lucia, Emilio; Borsatti, Eugenio; Balestreri, Luca; Giorda, Giorgio; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Cannizzaro, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient-centered outcomes of decompressive percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (dPEG) in patients with malignant bowel obstruction due to advanced gynecological and gastroenteric malignancies. This is a prospective analysis of 158 consecutive patients with small-bowel obstruction from advanced gynecological and gastroenteric cancer who underwent PEG or percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) positioning for decompressive purposes from 2002 to 2012. All of them had previous abdominal surgery and were unfit for any other surgical procedures. Symptom relief, procedural complications, and post dPEG palliation were assessed. Global Quality of Life (QoL) was evaluated in the last 2 years (25 consecutive patients) before and 7 days after dPEG placement using the Symptom Distress Scale (SDS). dPEG was successfully performed in 142 out of 158 patients (89.8 %). Failure of tube placement occurred in 16 patients (10.1 %). In 8/142 (5.6 %) patients, dPEG was guided by abdominal ultrasound. In 3/142 patients, dPEG was CT-guided. In 14 (9.8 %) patients, who had previously undergone total or subtotal gastrectomy, decompressive percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (dPEJ) was performed. In 1/14 patients, dPEJ was CT-guided. Out of 142 patients, 110 (77.4 %) experienced relief from nausea and vomiting 2 days after PEG. Out of 142 patients, 116 (81.6 %) were discharged. The median postoperative hospital stay was 9 days (range 3-60). Peristomal infection (14 %) and intermittent obstruction (8.4 %) were the most frequent complications associated with PEG. Median survival time was 57 days (range 4-472) after PEG placement. Twenty-five patients had QoL properly evaluated with SDS score before and 7 days after dPEG. Sixteen patients (64 %) out of 25 exhibited an improvement of QoL (p < 0.05), 7 (28 %) patients exhibited a non-significant worsening of QoL (p = 0.18), and in 2 (8 %) patients, it remained unmodified. dPEG is

  1. Transient angioedema of small bowel secondary to intravenous iodinated contrast medium

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    Kirankumar N Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical details and imaging findings of a case of transient angioedema of the small bowel following intravenous administration of non-ionic iodinated contrast material in a 17 year old female with no predisposing risk factors. Findings included long segment, symmetric, circumferential, low-density, bowel wall thickening involving the duodenum, jejunum, and most of the ileum on computed tomography scan obtained at 7 min following intravenous contrast material injection. This entity is self-limiting with a favourable clinical outcome and requires no specific treatment but only aggressive clinical monitoring.

  2. The effects of hydralazine on exercise capacity in pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Nogare, A R; Rubin, L J

    1986-03-01

    Vasodilator therapy of pulmonary hypertension has been shown to improve hemodynamics in some patients, but the clinical benefits of this therapy have not been evaluated. We studied 14 patients who had pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to determine the effect of hydralazine treatment on hemodynamics and maximal exercise. Baseline exercise in these subjects showed an abnormal pattern of excessive tachycardia and low stroke volumes, and the stroke volume correlated inversely with the pulmonary vascular resistance during exercise (r = -0.61, p less than 0.05). After 48 h of hydralazine there were decreases in the mean pulmonary artery pressure (43 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 8 mmHg, p less than 0.06) and pulmonary vascular resistance (3.97 +/- 0.97 to 2.88 +/- 1.28 units, p less than 0.05) measured at maximal exercise, and the maximal cardiac output was increased (8.05 +/- 2.57 to 10.13 +/- 2.79 L/min, p less than 0.05), but there was no change in symptom-limited maximal oxygen consumption (747 +/- 266 to 752 +/- 244 ml/min, p = NS). Significant increases in resting and maximal exercise values of minute ventilation and mixed venous oxygen tension were also noted with hydralazine. Repeat exercise testing after 2 to 4 months of chronic hydralazine therapy demonstrated no change in symptom-limited maximal oxygen consumption. We conclude that vasodilator therapy with hydralazine, although hemodynamically efficacious, does not increase exercise capacity in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and secondary pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Risk of bowel obstruction during in vitro fertilization treatment of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyer-Hansen, Mikkel; Egekvist, Anne; Forman, Axel; Riiskjaer, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Women with endometriosis often experience pain and infertility. Medical treatment interferes with the possibility of attaining pregnancy. For infertile women with endometriosis, surgery is a possible treatment, but with advanced disease there is an increased risk of serious complications. With only limited pain, women will often be referred for in vitro fertilization treatment instead. The disease is estrogen-dependent and during in vitro fertilization treatment the women could theoretically experience worsening of their symptoms. The study is a retrospective cohort study of 76 women with bowel endometriosis who were treated conservatively and underwent in vitro fertilization treatment. Nine (11.8%) of the women experienced severe worsening of their bowel-related symptoms, including two patients presenting with colon ileus. One additional woman had no previous diagnosis of endometriosis before she presented with subocclusion of the bowel during in vitro fertilization. In all cases the in vitro fertilization treatment was stopped. Our study revealed that bowel endometriosis increases the risk of complications during in vitro fertilization treatment. This is in contrast to several publications. However, our study population is different due to the fact that none of these women had previous operations for bowel endometriosis. In all, 88% of the women completed fertility treatment without need for surgery. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Presumptive pseudohypoaldosteronism secondary to chronic urinary tract obstruction from sloughed urinary bladder mucosa and urinary tract infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlum, Lisa M; Rollings, Christopher; Basseches, Jessica; Bracker, Kiko

    2010-12-01

    To describe a case of presumptive secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) in a cat with urinary tract infection and chronic urethral obstruction. The obstruction was believed to have resulted from sloughed urinary bladder mucosa secondary to pressure necrosis. A 5-year-old, 4 kg, castrated male Siamese cat presented for vomiting and stranguria. Medical history included a perineal urethrostomy for urethral obstruction. Physical examination revealed a large, painful, nonexpressible urinary bladder. Point-of-care testing demonstrated electrolyte derangements consistent with a postrenal azotemia and metabolic acidosis. Results of urine culture was positive for bacterial growth. Diagnostic imaging revealed presence of retroperitoneal fluid, marked urinary bladder wall thickening, bilateral hydroureter, mild bilateral pyelectasia, and small nephroliths. The patient was treated for a urinary tract obstruction and infection. In the 3 weeks following initial discharge, the patient was evaluated on multiple occasions for lethargy, intermittent vomiting, inappropriate urination, and progressive polyuria and polydipsia. Although the urinary bladder was easily expressed during repeat examinations, it was persistently distended and subjectively thickened upon palpation. Repeat ultrasound of the urinary tract showed evidence of sloughed tissue in the bladder lumen, likely secondary to chronic urethral obstruction and pressure necrosis. A cystotomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue, and a revised perineal urethrostomy was done due to a partial urethral stricture. Bladder biopsies were obtained at this time. Postoperatively, the cat was reported by the owners to be urinating normally but continued to be polyuric and polydipsic in the week following discharge. One week after surgery, the cat presented in hypovolemic shock with laboratory findings consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of secondary PHA. PHA has not been reported previously in a cat. This case report

  5. Bladder outlet obstruction in a 6-month-old alpaca secondary to pelvic displacement of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    McClanahan, Susan L.; Malone, Erin D.; Anderson, Kari L.

    2005-01-01

    A 6-month-old female alpaca was presented for stranguria. Based on the history, physical examination findings, and radiographic studies, the alpaca was diagnosed with bladder outlet obstruction, secondary to pelvic displacement of the bladder, a condition previously unreported in camelids. Cystopexy was performed and the alpaca recovered unremarkably.

  6. Mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunctions and translocation of indigenous bacteria in a rat model of strangulated small bowel obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Zanoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PRUPOSE: Bacterial translocation has been shown to occur in critically ill patients after extensive trauma, shock, sepsis, or thermal injury. The present study investigates mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunctions, the bacterial translocation phenomenon, and hemodynamic/metabolic disturbances in a rat model of intestinal obstruction and ischemia. METHODS: Anesthetized (pentobarbital 50 mg/kg, i.p. male Wistar rats (250-350 g were submitted to intestinal obstruction or laparotomy without intestinal obstruction (Sham and were evaluated 24 hours later. Bacterial translocation was assessed by bacterial culture of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, liver, spleen, and blood. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation were assessed by intravital microscopy, and P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 expressions were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Hematocrit, blood gases, lactate, glucose, white blood cells, serum urea, creatinine, bilirubin, and hepatic enzymes were measured. RESULTS: About 86% of intestinal obstruction rats presented positive cultures for E. coli in samples of the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, and 57% had positive hemocultures. In comparison to the Sham rats, intestinal obstruction induced neutrophilia and increased the number of rolling (~2-fold, adherent (~5-fold, and migrated leukocytes (~11-fold; this increase was accompanied by an increased expression of P-selectin (~2-fold and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (~2-fold in the mesenteric microcirculation. Intestinal obstruction rats exhibited decreased PaCO2, alkalosis, hyperlactatemia, and hyperglycemia, and increased blood potassium, hepatic enzyme activity, serum urea, creatinine, and bilirubin. A high mortality rate was observed after intestinal obstruction (83% at 72 h vs. 0% in Sham rats. CONCLUSION: Intestinal obstruction and ischemia in rats is a relevant model for the in vivo study of mesenteric microcirculatory

  7. Mesenteric Microcirculatory Dysfunctions and Translocation of Indigenous Bacteria in a Rat Model of Strangulated Small Bowel Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Fernando Luiz; Benabou, Simon; Greco, Karin Vicente; Moreno, Ana Carolina Ramos; Cruz, José Walber Miranda Costa; Filgueira, Fernando Paranaiba; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; de Figueiredo, Luiz Francisco Poli; Silva, Maurício Rocha e; Sannomiya, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    PRUPOSE Bacterial translocation has been shown to occur in critically ill patients after extensive trauma, shock, sepsis, or thermal injury. The present study investigates mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunctions, the bacterial translocation phenomenon, and hemodynamic/metabolic disturbances in a rat model of intestinal obstruction and ischemia. METHODS Anesthetized (pentobarbital 50 mg/kg, i.p.) male Wistar rats (250–350 g) were submitted to intestinal obstruction or laparotomy without intestinal obstruction (Sham) and were evaluated 24 hours later. Bacterial translocation was assessed by bacterial culture of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, spleen, and blood. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation were assessed by intravital microscopy, and P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expressions were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Hematocrit, blood gases, lactate, glucose, white blood cells, serum urea, creatinine, bilirubin, and hepatic enzymes were measured. RESULTS About 86% of intestinal obstruction rats presented positive cultures for E. coli in samples of the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, and 57% had positive hemocultures. In comparison to the Sham rats, intestinal obstruction induced neutrophilia and increased the number of rolling (~2-fold), adherent (~5-fold), and migrated leukocytes (~11-fold); this increase was accompanied by an increased expression of P-selectin (~2-fold) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (~2-fold) in the mesenteric microcirculation. Intestinal obstruction rats exhibited decreased PaCO2, alkalosis, hyperlactatemia, and hyperglycemia, and increased blood potassium, hepatic enzyme activity, serum urea, creatinine, and bilirubin. A high mortality rate was observed after intestinal obstruction (83% at 72 h vs. 0% in Sham rats). CONCLUSION Intestinal obstruction and ischemia in rats is a relevant model for the in vivo study of mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunction

  8. Strangulated small bowel gangrene due to torsioned gangrenous appendix in an old man: a case report

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    Ardavan Shahbazi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Torsion of the appendix is a rare entity and divided into two categories: primary and secondary. The primary mode is due to an abnormality in either appendix anatomy or its meso or both and is more common in children. The secondary forms happen in adults which can be associated with appendiceal tumor, appendiceal mucocele, fecal impaction, volvulus of ovarian cyctadenoma. Adynamic small bowel obstruction or ileus is seen frequently with all forms of peritoneal inflammation. However, Anatomical small intestinal obstruction or gangrene due to torsioned appendix is a rare condition and few cases reported in the literature. Method: Here we have a 83-year-old man patient with small bowel obstruction and localized right lower quadrant peritonitis who undergo emergency laparotomy to eliminate small bowel obstruction and peritonitis. Preoperative abdominal radiography showed multiple dilated small bowel loops with empty colon. Results: During exploration necrosis of the terminal 40cm of the ileum due to a twisted and gangrenous appendix was discovered. Other parts were normal. Conclusion: it may be useful to recommend early midline exploratory laparotomy for patients with small bowel obstruction even in the presence symptoms of local appendicitis. This operation can be both diagnostic and therapeutic.

  9. Management of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome secondary to temporomandibular joint ankylosis by mandibular elongation using distraction osteogenesis

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    Yadavalli Guruprasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is associated with repetitive nocturnal upper airway obstruction leading to daytime sleepiness, cardiovascular derangements, and can be a debilitating, even life-threatening condition. The most favorable treatment for patients with OSAS is multidisciplinary care by a team that represents various dental and medical disciplines. Prescribed therapies might include weight loss, behavior modification, oral appliances, soft tissue surgery, skeletal surgery, or some combination of approaches. Osteogenesis by mandibular distraction has proved effective in children in the treatment of obstructive apnea syndrome associated with congenital malformations. In the adult, the possibility of using distraction osteogenesis in the management of OSAS remains to be defined. We report a case of an adult patient treated for OSAS secondary to temporomandibular joint ankylosis by mandibular distraction followed by interpositional arthroplasty.

  10. Anuria Secondary to Bilateral Obstructing Ureteral Stones in the Absence of Renal Colic

    OpenAIRE

    Salter, Carolyn A.; Lang, Christopher; Altamar, Hernan O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obstructing ureteral stones are a rare cause of anuria, which is typically from prerenal or renal etiologies. Classically, obstructive stones cause moderate to severe renal colic. Urolithiasis is rarely considered during evaluation of painless anuria. Case Presentation: We present an unusual case of a 73-year-old Caucasian female who presented with anuria and was found to have large bilateral obstructing ureteral stones in the absence of renal colic. Conclusion: Given tha...

  11. Anuria Secondary to Bilateral Obstructing Ureteral Stones in the Absence of Renal Colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Carolyn A; Lang, Christopher; Altamar, Hernan O

    2016-01-01

    Obstructing ureteral stones are a rare cause of anuria, which is typically from prerenal or renal etiologies. Classically, obstructive stones cause moderate to severe renal colic. Urolithiasis is rarely considered during evaluation of painless anuria. We present an unusual case of a 73-year-old Caucasian female who presented with anuria and was found to have large bilateral obstructing ureteral stones in the absence of renal colic. Given that patients with obstructive anuria can be asymptomatic, urolithiasis should be considered in all patients presenting with anuria.

  12. Biliary tract obstruction secondary to cancer: management guidelines and selected literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokich, J J; Kane, R A; Harrison, D A; McDermott, W V

    1987-06-01

    Malignant biliary tract obstruction (MBTO) due to either primary biliary tract cancer or metastasis to the porta hepatis is a common clinical problem. The most common metastatic tumors causing MBTO in order of frequency are gastric, colon, breast, and lung cancers. Radiographic diagnostic procedures should proceed in a cost-effective sequence from ultrasonography, computerized tomography (CT), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC), and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography with the goal of establishing the site of the biliary tract obstruction. The identification of the site of obstruction could be established by ultrasound 70% to 80%, CT scan 80% to 90%, PTHC 100%, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) 85%. Therapeutic intervention by radiographic decompression (PTHC or endoscopic prosthesis), surgical bypass, or radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy may be selectively used based on (1) the site of obstruction; (2) the type of primary tumor; and (3) the presence of specific symptoms related to the obstruction. ("Prophylactic" biliary tract decompression to prevent ascending cholangitis is not supported by the literature in that the frequency of sepsis in the face of malignant obstruction is small (in contrast to sepsis associated with stone disease). Furthermore, PTHC with drainage as a long-term procedure is associated with a substantial frequency of sepsis and is unnecessary and possibly problematic as a preoperative procedure simply to reduce the bilirubin level. The use of radiation therapy in conjunction with chemotherapy for patients not deemed suitable for a surgical bypass because of the presence of proximal obstruction is an important alternative to PTHC.

  13. Prenatal intestinal obstruction affects the myenteric plexus and causes functional bowel impairment in fetal rat experimental model of intestinal atresia.

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    Naziha Khen-Dunlop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal atresia is a rare congenital disorder with an incidence of 3/10,000 birth. About one-third of patients have severe intestinal dysfunction after surgical repair. We examined whether prenatal gastrointestinal obstruction might effect on the myenteric plexus and account for subsequent functional disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied a rat model of surgically induced antenatal atresia, comparing intestinal samples from both sides of the obstruction and with healthy rat pups controls. Whole-mount preparations of the myenteric plexus were stained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT and nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to analyze mRNAs for inflammatory markers. Functional motility and permeability analyses were performed in vitro. Phenotypic studies were also performed in 8 newborns with intestinal atresia. In the experimental model, the proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons was similar in proximal and distal segments (6.7±4.6% vs 5.6±4.2%, p = 0.25, but proximal segments contained a higher proportion of ChAT-immunoreactive neurons (13.2±6.2% vs 7.5±4.3%, p = 0.005. Phenotypic changes were associated with a 100-fold lower concentration-dependent contractile response to carbachol and a 1.6-fold higher EFS-induced contractile response in proximal compared to distal segments. Transcellular (p = 0.002 but not paracellular permeability was increased. Comparison with controls showed that modifications involved not only proximal but also distal segments. Phenotypic studies in human atresia confirmed the changes in ChAT expression. CONCLUSION: Experimental atresia in fetal rat induces differential myenteric plexus phenotypical as well as functional changes (motility and permeability between the two sides of the obstruction. Delineating these changes might help to identify markers predictive of motility dysfunction and to define guidelines for post

  14. Bowel Angiodysplasia and Myocardial Infarction secondary to an ischaemic imbalance: a case report

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    Salzano Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiodysplasia, defined as a vascular ectasia or arteriovenous malformation, is the most frequent cause of occult bleeding in patients older than 60 years and a significant association with several cardiac condition is described. Patients with anemia and negative findings on upper endoscopy and colonoscopy should be referred for further investigation of the small bowel. The investigation of choice, when available, is wireless capsule endoscopy. Several therapeutic options are available in this cases, as we reviewed in this report. We report a case of 78-year old man admitted to our Intensive Coronary Unit for dyspnea and chest pain. A diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome was made and a concomintant, significant anemia was found (hemoglobin 8.2 g/dl. No cororary disease was found by an angiography though the past medical history revealed systemic hypertension, chronic kidney disease (KDOQY stage III, and diabetes mellitus type II on insuline therapy. A Wireless Video capsule examination was positive for jejunum angiodysplasia and an argon plasma coagulation was chosen as terapeutic option. No subsequent supportive therapy and interventions were required in subsequent one year of follow-up.

  15. Bowel Angiodysplasia and Myocardial Infarction secondary to an ischaemic imbalance: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Andrea; Rocca, Aldo; Arcopinto, Michele; Amato, Bruno; Marra, Alberto Maria; Simonelli, Vincenzo; Mozzillo, Pasquale; Giuliani, Antonio; Tafuri, Domenico; Cinelli, Mariapia

    2015-01-01

    Angiodysplasia, defined as a vascular ectasia or arteriovenous malformation, is the most frequent cause of occult bleeding in patients older than 60 years and a significant association with several cardiac condition is described. Patients with anemia and negative findings on upper endoscopy and colonoscopy should be referred for further investigation of the small bowel. The investigation of choice, when available, is wireless capsule endoscopy. Several therapeutic options are available in this cases, as we reviewed in this report. We report a case of 78-year old man admitted to our Intensive Coronary Unit for dyspnea and chest pain. A diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome was made and a concomintant, significant anemia was found (hemoglobin 8.2 g/dl). No cororary disease was found by an angiography though the past medical history revealed systemic hypertension, chronic kidney disease (KDOQY stage III), and diabetes mellitus type II on insuline therapy. A Wireless Video capsule examination was positive for jejunum angiodysplasia and an argon plasma coagulation was chosen as terapeutic option. No subsequent supportive therapy and interventions were required in subsequent one year of follow-up.

  16. Examination of Physicians’ Perception of the Indications of Colorectal Stents in the Management of Malignant Large Bowel Obstruction: A Provincial Survey

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    Jean-Frédéric LeBlanc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Data are conflicting when assessing indications for colorectal self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS in managing acute malignant large bowel obstruction (MLO. In November 2014, European and American Societies published guidelines to aid in understanding which patients might benefit from colorectal stenting. Yet, there remain marked disparities in clinical practice. Methods. A web-based survey was sent to Gastroenterologists and Surgical Specialists across Quebec to assess physicians’ knowledge and adherence to the indications for colonic SEMS placement in the management of MLO using eight clinical scenarios. Results. Out of 112 respondents, 74% preferred surgical intervention in young, healthy individuals with MLO. Advanced age and comorbidities motivated 56.3% (95% CI 47.1–65.5% of participants to opt for SEMS placement. In palliative settings of patients undergoing chemotherapy including bevacizumab, a minority of respondents followed guidelines, 12.5% (95% CI 6.4–18.6% for young patients and 25.0% for elderly patients (95% CI 17.0–33.0%. The pooled overall adherence to guidelines was 50.4% (95% CI 40.7–59.3%. Conclusion. This survey suggests that guidelines recommendations are not being implemented by at least half of specialists involved in the care of patients with MLO. Future studies should attempt to identify possible barriers responsible for this impaired knowledge translation and tailored educational initiatives planned accordingly.

  17. Effect of the Japanese Herbal Kampo Medicine Dai-Kenchu-To on Postoperative Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction Requiring Long-Tube Decompression: A Propensity Score Analysis

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    Hideo Yasunaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO is an adverse consequence of abdominal surgery. Although the Kampo medicine Dai-kenchu-to is widely used in Japan for treatment of postoperative ASBO, rigorous clinical studies for its use have not been performed. In the present retrospective observational study using the Japanese diagnosis procedure combination inpatient database, we selected 288 propensity-score-matched patients with early postoperative ASBO following colorectal cancer surgery, who received long-tube decompression (LTD with or without Dai-kenchu-to administration. The success rates of LTD were not significantly different between Dai-kenchu-to users and nonusers (84.7% versus 78.5%; P=.224, while Dai-kenchu-to users showed a shorter duration of LTD (8 versus 10 days; P=.012, shorter duration between long-tube insertion and discharge (23 versus 25 days; P=.018, and lower hospital charges ($23,086 versus $26,950; P=.018 compared with Dai-kenchu-to nonusers. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Dai-kenchu-to is effective for reducing the duration of LTD and saving costs.

  18. Upper gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to aortoduodenal syndrome owing to a noninflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2012-01-31

    Aortoduodenal syndrome is a rare complication of an abdominal aortic aneurysm wherein the aneurysm sac obstructs the patient\\'s duodenum. It presents with the symptoms of an upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction and requires surgical intervention to relieve it. Previously, gastric bypass surgery was advocated, but now aortic replacement is the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman whose aortoduodenal syndrome was successfully managed and review the literature on this topic.

  19. DOES URINARY DIVERSION IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN OBSTRUCTIVE UROPATHY SECONDARY TO ADVANCED PELVIC MALIGNANCY?

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    Shivashankarappa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The incidence of patients presenting with advanced pelvic malignancy with obstructive uropathy is high in our country. Relentless progress of the malignancy will cause deterioration of renal function, aggravation of pain, infection, deterioration of Quality of Life (QOL, uremia and death. Decreased renal function is considered as a contraindication for palliative chemo and radiotherapy. However urinary diversion in these patients will lead to improvement in renal function and may help in administration of palliative therapy and thus, improve the quality of life of these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study includes the obstructive uropathy patients secondary to pelvic malignancy referred to our institution for urinary diversion between Jan 2010 to Dec 2014. Total 40 patients were included, of which, 25 patients underwent PCN, 9 patients retrograde DJ stenting, 4 patients refused the treatment, 2 patients were not fit for any intervention due to coagulopathy & comorbid conditions. Of 34 treated patients, 30 were female patients and 4 were male patients. All the patients were explained about the procedure and proper consent taken. Laboratory investigations like CBC, coagulation profile, LFT, routine urine analysis, urine C&S and serum electrolytes were carried out. Haemodialysis was done for 10 patients whose serum creatinine was >6mg% & potassium >6meq. USG guided PCN insertion was done in 8 patients, and in those who failed in this procedure, fluoroscopic C-ARM guided PCN insertion done in 17 patients. Post operatively RFT and serum electrolytes were assessed on 3, 7, 15, & 30th day. PCN catheter was changed once in 3 months. RESULTS 8 patients succeeded in USG guided PCN insertion and 17 patients who failed USG PCN insertion, was done under C–Arm guidance. 3 patients received blood transfusion. No deaths were seen during or post procedure in the hospital. Renal functions improved and normalised in most of the

  20. Percutaneous placement of self-expandable metallic stents in patients with obstructive janudice secondary to metastalic gastric cancer after gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, In Ho; Yu, Jung Rim; Mok, Young Jae; Oh, Joo Hyeong [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Se Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kwon [Division of Interventional Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States)

    2013-10-15

    To evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous placements of a biliary stent for obstructive jaundice secondary to metastatic gastric cancer after gastrectomy. Fifty patients (mean age, 62.4 years; range, 27-86 years) who underwent percutaneous placements of a biliary stent for obstructive jaundice secondary to metastatic gastric cancer after gastrectomy were included. The technical success rate, clinical success rate, complication rate, stent patency, patient survival and factors associated with stent patency were being evaluated. The median interval between the gastrectomy and stent placement was 23.1 months (range, 3.9-94.6 months). The 50 patients received a total of 65 stents without any major procedure-related complications. Technical success was achieved in all patients. The mean total serum bilirubin level, which had been 7.19 mg/dL ± 6.8 before stent insertion, decreased to 4.58 mg/dL ± 5.4 during the first week of follow-up (p < 0.001). Clinical success was achieved in 42 patients (84%). Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage catheters were removed from 45 patients (90%). Infectious complications were noted in two patients (4%), and stent malfunction occurred in seven patients (14%). The median stent patency was 233 ± 99 days, and the median patient survival was 179 ± 83 days. Total serum bilirubin level after stenting was an independent factor for stent patency (p = 0.009). Percutaneous transhepatic placement of a biliary stent for obstructive jaundice secondary to metastatic gastric cancer after gastrectomy is a technically feasible and clinically effective palliative procedure.

  1. Intussusception of the bowel in adults: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinis, Athanasios; Yiallourou, Anneza; Samanides, Lazaros; Dafnios, Nikolaos; Anastasopoulos, Georgios; Vassiliou, Ioannis; Theodosopoulos, Theodosios

    2009-01-01

    Intussusception of the bowel is defined as the telescoping of a proximal segment of the gastrointestinal tract within the lumen of the adjacent segment. This condition is frequent in children and presents with the classic triad of cramping abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and a palpable tender mass. However, bowel intussusception in adults is considered a rare condition, accounting for 5% of all cases of intussusceptions and almost 1%-5% of bowel obstruction. Eight to twenty percent of cases are idiopathic, without a lead point lesion. Secondary intussusception is caused by organic lesions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, postoperative adhesions, Meckel’s diverticulum, benign and malignant lesions, metastatic neoplasms or even iatrogenically, due to the presence of intestinal tubes, jejunostomy feeding tubes or after gastric surgery. Computed tomography is the most sensitive diagnostic modality and can distinguish between intussusceptions with and without a lead point. Surgery is the definitive treatment of adult intussusceptions. Formal bowel resection with oncological principles is followed for every case where a malignancy is suspected. Reduction of the intussuscepted bowel is considered safe for benign lesions in order to limit the extent of resection or to avoid the short bowel syndrome in certain circumstances. PMID:19152443

  2. Bronchial obstruction secondary to idiopathic scoliosis in a child: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alotaibi Saad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients with severe idiopathic scoliosis are reported to have significant pulmonary complications, including recurrent chest infections, alveolar hypoventilation and respiratory failure. Case presentation We report a case of a 13-year-old boy with moderate-to-severe scoliosis resulting in torsion or twisting of the bronchus intermedius, which contributed to airflow obstruction defects, as revealed by both spirometry and bronchoscopy. Conclusion We recommend that inspection of the shape of the maximal expiratory flow-volume loop obtained from spirometry, as well as other parameters suggestive of obstructive lung disease, may be important in children with scoliosis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a child in which pulmonary function testing and direct visualization via a flexible bronchoscope have been used to characterize intrathoracic large airway obstruction.

  3. Bologna Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction (ASBO): 2010 Evidence-Based Guidelines of the World Society of Emergency Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is no consensus on diagnosis and management of ASBO. Initial conservative management is usually safe, however proper timing for discontinuing non operative treatment is still controversial. Open surgery or laparoscopy are used without standardized indications. Methods A panel of 13 international experts with interest and background in ASBO and peritoneal diseases, participated in a consensus conference during the 1st International Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery and 9th Peritoneum and Surgery Society meeting, in Bologna, July 1-3, 2010, for developing evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management of ASBO. Whenever was a lack of high-level evidence, the working group formulated guidelines by obtaining consensus. Recommendations In absence of signs of strangulation and history of persistent vomiting or combined CT scan signs (free fluid, mesenteric oedema, small bowel faeces sign, devascularized bowel) patients with partial ASBO can be managed safely with NOM and tube decompression (either with long or NG) should be attempted. These patients are good candidates for Water Soluble Contrast Medium (WSCM) with both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The appearance of water-soluble contrast in the colon on X-ray within 24 hours from administration predicts resolution. WSCM may be administered either orally or via NGT (50-150 ml) both immediately at admission or after an initial attempt of conservative treatment of 48 hours. The use of WSCM for ASBO is safe and reduces need for surgery, time to resolution and hospital stay. NOM, in absence of signs of strangulation or peritonitis, can be prolonged up to 72 hours. After 72 hours of NOM without resolution surgery is recommended. Patients treated non-operatively have shorter hospital stay, but higher recurrence rate and shorter time to re-admission, although the risk of new surgically treated episodes of ASBO is unchanged. Risk factors for recurrences are age surgery when

  4. Adult Giant Hydonephrosis Secondary to Uretheral Obstruction: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavit Ceylan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Giant hydronephrosis cases are extremely rare and usually contains 1-2 liters fluid in the collecting system of the kidney. Signs and symptoms are generally due to mass effect on the adjacent organs and it’s important to discriminate these lesions from other intraabdominal cystic masses. The etiology can be also ureteral obstruction. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction which contains 4000 ml fluid in the collecting system of the kidney representing as an intraabdominal cystic mass.

  5. [Obstructive anuria secondary to left external iliac artery aneurysm. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Urdangarain, Otto; Hermida Pérez, José A; Montes de Oca, Johannes Ochoa

    2006-04-01

    To report one case of obstructive anuria due to ureteral compression by an external iliac artery aneurysm in a patient with a single kidney. We report the case of a 76-year-old male with a single kidney presenting at the emergency department with left lumbar pain and anuria for several days. Hydronephrosis of the solitary left kidney due to an aneurysmatic tumor of the external iliac artery was diagnosed after performing various tests (ultrasound, arteriography). Emergency percutaneous nephrostomy was performed with subsequent vascular repair of the aneurysm. The outcome was favourable. Aorto-iliac aneurysm constitutes a rare cause of obstructive anuria. Patients affected are usually males over 50 years of age, smokers, with a history of diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension (AHT), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), etc. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, outstandingly lumboabdominal pain, and the finding of a beating abdominal tumor, as well as signs of a renal failure. Useful complementary studies for diagnosis include ultrasound, intravenous urography (IVU), arteriography and computerised axial tomography (CT). Surgical treatment of the aneurysm generally relieves the obstruction.

  6. Bidirectional Jejunojejunal Anastomosis Prevents Early Small Bowel Obstruction Due to the Kinking After Closure of the Mesenteric Defect in the Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Pierre; Alratrout, Hefzi; Siciliano, Iole; Keller, Philippe

    2018-01-11

    The closure of the mesenteric defects (CMD) in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces the risk of small bowel obstruction (SBO) due to internal hernia but might be associated with an increased risk of early SBO triggered by the jejunojejunal anastomosis (JJS) kinking. The aim of this study was to assess how enlarging the JJS with a bidirectional linear stapling can aid in avoiding the risk of early SBO by kinking. This retrospective cohort study concerns 1327 patients who underwent RYGB with CMD between May 2007 and August 2016. The first 626 patients (group A) had a unidirectional JJS. The following 701 patients (group B) had a bidirectional side-to-side JJS and a hand-sewn closure of the remaining defect. We compared early SBO between the two groups. Eleven (1.75%) early SBO due to the JJS kinking occurred in group A, whereas none occurred in group B (p = 0.0012). Thirty-nine early postoperative complications happened in group A versus 32 in group B (p = 0.17). Nine (1.2%) digestive bleedings occurred in group B versus two (0.3%) in group A (OR = 4.05 [0.87-18], p = 0.054). Average operating time was 81 min [37-330] in group A and 77 min [33-240] in group B. Enlarging the JJS with a bidirectional linear stapling is associated with a reduced risk of early SBO due to the anastomosis kinking. However, it could be related to an increased risk of digestive bleedings.

  7. Clinical importance of cine-MRI assessment of small bowel motility in patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: a retrospective study of 33 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuyuki, Akiko; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Iida, Hiroshi; Inoh, Yumi; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Although chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare and extremely severe functional digestive disorder, its clinical course and severity show various patterns. We assessed small bowel peristalsis in CIPO patients using cine-MRI (video-motion MRI) and their clinical characteristics to evaluate the clinical importance of performing cine-MRI in patients with this intractable disease. The medical records of 131 patients referred to our institution with a suspected diagnosis of CIPO between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. Thirty-three patients (22 female/11 male; age range 16-79 years) who met the criteria for CIPO and underwent cine-MRI were enrolled. Mean luminal diameter (MLD), contraction ratio (CR), and contraction cycle (CC) were determined and compared with these parameters in healthy volunteers. Clinical outcomes in patients with CIPO were also evaluated. The median follow-up time was 25.2 months (range, 1-65 months). Of the 33 patients with CIPO, 23 (70 %) showed apparently disturbed small intestinal peristalsis, whereas 10 (30 %) did not. The percentage of patients requiring intravenous alimentation was significantly higher (p = 0.03), and the mean serum albumin level was significantly lower (p = 0.04), in patients with than without impaired small intestinal peristalsis. Although both cine-MRI and CT findings in the latter ten cases were within the normal range, MLD and CR differed significantly from healthy volunteers. Cine-MRI is useful in predicting severe clinical features in patients with CIPO, and in detecting slightly impaired small contractility that cannot be detected on CT.

  8. Upper Airway Obstruction Requiring Emergent Tracheostomy Secondary to Laryngeal Sarcoidosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Changwan; Herzog, Erica L; Pan, Hongyi; Homer, Robert; Gulati, Mridu

    2017-02-13

    BACKGROUND Laryngeal sarcoidosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis, accounting for 0.33-2.1% of cases. A life-threatening complication of laryngeal sarcoidosis is upper airway obstruction. In this report we describe our experience in the acute and chronic care of a patient who required an emergent tracheostomy, with the aim to provide further insight into this difficult to manage disease. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old African American female with a 10-year history of stage 1 sarcoidosis presented with severe dyspnea. Laryngeal sarcoidosis was diagnosed three years previously, and she remained stable on low-dose prednisone until six months prior to admission, at which time she self-discontinued her prednisone for the homeopathic treatment Nopalea cactus juice. Her physical examination was concerning for impending respiratory failure as she presented with inspiratory stridor and hoarseness. Laryngoscopy showed a retroflexed epiglottis obstructing the glottis with edematous arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Otolaryngology performed an emergent tracheostomy to secure her airway and obtained epiglottic biopsies, which were consistent with sarcoidosis. She was eventually discharged home on prednisone 60 mg daily. Following months of corticosteroids, a laryngoscopy showed the epiglottis continuing to obstruct the glottis. The addition of methotrexate to a tapered dosage of prednisone 10 mg daily was unsuccessful, and she remains on prednisone 20 mg daily for disease control. CONCLUSIONS Laryngeal sarcoidosis, a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis, uncommonly presents as the life-threatening complication of complete upper airway obstruction. As such, laryngeal sarcoidosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring a high index of suspicion for timely diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Biliary tract obstruction secondary to Burkitt lymphoma; Linfoma de Burkitt associado a obstrucao de vias biliares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Wellington L.; Bezerra, Alanna Mara P.S.; Carvalho Filho, Nevicolino P.; Coelho, Robson C. [Hospital do Cancer, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa. Dept. de Pediatria; Soares, Fernando A. [Hospital do Cancer, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa. Dept. de Patologia; Pecora, Marcela S. [Hospital do Cancer, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa. Dept. de Imagem; Chapchap, Paulo [Hospital do Cancer, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa. Servico de Cirurgia Pediatrica

    2004-09-01

    The abdomen, in particular the ileocecal region, appendix and colon, is the most common primary site for Burkitt non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Involvement of the bile duct is rare. The authors describe a patient with abdominal NHL in which jaundice due to bile duct obstruction was the first clinical sign. Case report: a 3 year old white boy presented with one month of progressive jaundice, clay-colored stools, tea colored urine and increase of abdominal volume. Physical examination showed jaundice 3+/4+ and pale mucosa. The abdomen was moderately distended and timpanous and the liver was enlarged. Laboratory examinations confirmed cholestasis with total bilirubin of 8.2 mg/dl (direct bilirubin of 7.8 mg/dl), and microcytic and hypochromic anemia. Ultrasonography (US) and abdominal CT showed two solid tumors in hepatic hilar topography, and dilated intrahepatic biliary tree. The Doppler US showed hepatic artery and portal vein dislocation by the nodules. Comment: although jaundice occurs frequently as a late manifestation of NHL, it is rarely seen as the presenting sign. When jaundice is the first clinical sign and image studies show hepatic hilar tumor and bile duct obstruction, NHL should be considered in the differential diagnosis. (author)

  10. Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction secondary to hypovolemia in a German Shepard dog with splenic hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuma; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Ito, Tetsuro; Kanai, Eiichi; Neo, Sakurako; Fujii, Yoko; Wakao, Yoshito

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (DLVOTO) is a common condition in cats and humans. In this case report, a dog is described with DLVOTO secondary to severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage caused by a hemangiosarcoma. The dog was a 9-year-old, 35.7-kg, spayed female German Shepard dog that presented with a history of tachypnea and collapse. A Levine II/VI systolic murmur was present at the heart base. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a splenic mass and a large amount of ascites. Echocardiography showed a reduced left ventricular diameter and an increased aortic velocity caused by systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve apparatus. The heart murmur and the SAM were resolved after treatment including a splenectomy and a blood transfusion.

  11. A case report of small bowel perforation secondary to cytomegalovirus related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María Gutiérrez-Delgado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-traumatic small bowel perforation is rare in adults but carries a high morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is made on clinical suspicion, and the most common causes in developing countries are infectious diseases, being cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompromised patients the main etiology. We describe a patient with a recently diagnosed advanced stage HIV infection and an intestinal perforation associated with cytomegalovirus immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation.•Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the main etiology of non-traumatic perforation of the small bowel in immunocompromised individuals.•We describe a case of CMV associated Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.•To our knowledge this is the first case of small bowel perforation due to IRIS related CMV.•It is of importance for the clinician to consider CMV related IRIS as a cause of acute abdomen.

  12. Sub-aortic obstruction of left ventricular outflow tract secondary to benfluorex-induced endocardial fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Szymanski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients exposed to benfluorex have an increased risk of restrictive organic valvular heart disease. Aortic and mitral regurgitations caused by fibrotic valve disease are the most common features observed in exposure to fenfluramine derivatives in general and benfluorex in particular. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, a well-documented case in which obstructive sub-aortic endocardium fibrosis within the left ventricular outflow tract is related with exposure to a drug that modifies the metabolism of serotonin. It now remains to be established whether extensive fibrosis of the myocardium in addition to well-documented valvular fibrosis may develop in patients exposed to amphetamine-derived drugs affecting the serotonin system.

  13. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passes through the large intestine too slowly. Bowel incontinence is a problem controlling your bowel movements. Other abnormalities with bowel movements may be a sign of a digestive problem. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  14. Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ) - Bowel Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for signs of disease or agents that cause disease, to check for antibodies or tumor markers , or to see how well treatments are working. Electrocardiogram (EKG) : A test that shows the activity of the heart. Small electrodes are placed on the skin of ...

  15. Obstructive mesenteric cyst is not always the cause of obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassouli-Kirchmeier, R.; Hulscher, J. B. F.; de Langen, Z. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In newborns presenting with clinical signs of obstruction of the small bowel, atresia of the small bowel as well as mesenteric cyst can be one of the differential diagnoses. Whereas clinically these two different diagnoses cannot be distinguished from each other, the operative therapy is

  16. Gastric obstruction secondary to metastatic breast cancer: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Tasadooq

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gastrointestinal tract soft tissues metastasis is a well-known occurrence with invasive lobular breast cancer subtypes. Gastric involvement is more common, with reports of both diffuse and localized involvements. Usually, a gastric localized involvement presents as wall thickening with an appearance similar to that of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour; rarely does a localized metastatic deposit grow aggressively to present as a large tumour causing obstructive symptoms. Our case highlights one such unusual presentation in a patient presenting with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on a similar presentation occurring from a localized metastasis. Case presentation A 65-year-old Caucasian woman awaiting an outpatient oral gastroduodenoscopy for symptoms of intermittent vomiting, epigastric pains and weight loss of six weeks’ duration presented acutely with symptoms of haematemesis and abdominal distension. An initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed a grossly dilated stomach with a locally advanced stenosing tumour mass at the pylorus. Our patient had a history of left mastectomy and axillary clearance followed by adjuvant endocrine therapy for an oestrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive, grade 2, invasive lobular breast cancer. The oral gastroduodenoscopy confirmed the computed tomography findings; biopsies of the pyloric mass on immunohistochemistry stains were strongly positive for pancytokeratin and gross cystic disease fluid proteins, consistent with an invasive lobular breast cancer metastasis. She received a palliative gastrojejunal bypass and her adjuvant endocrine treatment was switched over to exemestane. Conclusion Our case highlights the aggressive behaviour of a localized gastric metastasis that is unusual and unexpected. Gastrointestinal symptomatology can be non-specific and, at times, non-diagnostic on

  17. Multiple bowel perforation and necrotising fasciitis secondary to abdominal liposuction in a patient with bilateral lumbar hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Delliere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare complication of abdominal liposuction: bowel perforation and necrotizing fasciitis. Because of bilateral lumbar hernia, a 56-year-old woman had caecum and descending colon perforation during lipoplasty. She had septic shock syndrome at her admission. The authors treated this complex wound with several debridement, omental flap, NPWT and split-thickness skin graft. The incidence of abdominal wall perforation with visceral injury is 14 in 100,000 liposuctions performed. There are only 12 cases of bowel perforation in literature but this complication is probably underestimated. Prompt surgical debridement is absolutely mandatory in this life threatening scenario. Lumbar hernia is very rare and should be ruled out before every abdominal liposuction clinically or with imaging modalities.

  18. Radiological assessment of small bowel obstructions: value of conventional enteroclysis and dynamic MR-enteroclysis; Radiologische Diagnostik obstruktiver Duenndarmlaesionen: Wertigkeit von konventionellem Enteroklysma und dynamischem MR-Enteroklysma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, A.; Rohr, D.; Heller, M.; Reuter, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany); Kuehbacher, T.; Schreiber, S. [1. Medizinische Klinik, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Purpose: To compare small bowel lesions, especially stenoses, with conventional enteroclysis, static MRI and dynamic MR-enteroclysis. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with Crohn's disease or other suspected small bowel lesions were examined. MRI was performed in a static and a dynamic way either within one hour after conventional enteroclysis (n = 30) or a few days afterwards (n = 12). In order to monitor bowel filling and to characterize stenoses in a dynamic fashion, 4 series of coronal T2w HASTE breath hold sequences were used, first without additional bowel opacification and then during administration of 1,5 l methyl cellulose via a naso-intestinal tube in the MR unit. Intravenously applied Buscopan was used to reduce bowel movement. Results: In 4 out of 42 Patients, application of methylcellulose was limited to 1000 ml because of gastrointestinal complaints or visible gastral reflux. All patients could be evaluated. Static MRI performed within one hour after conventional enteroclysis and no additional bowel opacification showed insufficient bowel distension. Distension was still better than in MRI without prior application of contrast medium. On the contrary, dynamic MR - enteroclysis lead to controlled and complete bowel distension which allowed for significantly better evaluation of normal bowel anatomy and pathological alterations of the gut. Because of a better bowel distension and dynamic evaluation, MR-enteroclysis revealed significantly more stenoses (n = 42) than MRI obtained with less distension (n = 27, p < 0.001), and characterization of lesions was comparable to conventional enteroclysis (p < 0.001). Fixed and non-fixed stenoses could be differentiated by dynamic MR-enteroclysis. Furthermore, extraluminal complication of Crohn's disease such as abscesses and fistulae or large bowel manifestation of disease were shown in 13 patients. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Vergleich von konventionellem Enteroklysma und dynamischen MR

  19. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care - a long-term, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Chalotte Heinsvig; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs) and funct......Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs...... for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS. Results: Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS...... and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental vulnerability, IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were no longer associated with CMDs, but the significant relationship...

  20. Liver Injury Secondary to Anti-TNF-Alpha Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Parekh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Biologic therapy to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is an effective, safe treatment for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. All TNF-α inhibitors have been associated with liver toxicity, but many of these cases have been reported in patients receiving therapy for rheumatologic disease. Herein we report the first single-center case series of TNF-α antagonist related liver injury in patients with IBD. Methods. A retrospective case series was performed at the Henry Ford Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Center. IRB approval was obtained. Results. 2 patients were treated with infliximab, whereas the 3rd patient was treated with adalimumab for IBD. All 3 patients had negative viral markers, normal autoimmune serologies, and normal biliary imaging studies. Liver biopsy was performed in all 3 patients, and evidence of portal inflammation was seen. Liver enzymes normalized after discontinuation of therapy in all patients, and no long term effects have been observed. One patient was successfully transitioned from infliximab to adalimumab without relapse of either IBD or liver injury. Conclusion. Liver injury secondary to TNF-α antagonist is an underrecognized, important clinical entity with potentially serious consequences. The mechanism of drug-induced injury is idiosyncratic. Larger cohort studies are needed to establish risk factors and injury patterns related to hepatotoxicity in these patients.

  1. Small bowel volvulus with intussusception: an unusual revelation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biological test showed no hydro electrolytic disorders with normal hemoglobin and normal renal function. The abdominal CT-Scan showed signs of bowel obstruction due to a volvulus with intussusception without ischemia. The patient was operated urgently; the exploration has revealed a small bowel obstruction in the ...

  2. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care - a long-term, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Chalotte Heinsvig; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs...... and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental vulnerability, IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were no longer associated with CMDs, but the significant relationship...... for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS. RESULTS: Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS...

  3. Mechanisms of tissue remodeling in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Florian; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is highly heterogeneous and often unpredictable, with multiple and serious complications that range from stricture formation to bowel obstruction or perforation, fistula formation and the need for surgery. All these problems are manifestations of tissue remodeling, a secondary but universal response to the insults of chronic inflammation. The factors involved in tissue remodeling are several, including the site and duration of inflammation, soluble molecules, the gut microbiota, and the type of mesenchymal cell response. The prototypical and most common type of tissue remodeling in IBD, and Crohn's disease (CD) in particular, is a fibrotic response, and this review will focus on the factors and mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, and speculate on what is needed for the development of a rational treatment of intestinal fibrosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Bladder and bowel dysfunctions in 1748 children referred to pelvic physiotherapy: clinical characteristics and locomotor problems in primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelenburg-van Lonkhuyzen, Marieke L; Bols, Esther M J; Benninga, Marc A; Verwijs, Wim A; de Bie, Rob A

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study are to evaluate in a pragmatic cross-sectional study, the clinical characteristics of childhood bladder and/or bowel dysfunctions (CBBD) and locomotor problems in the primary through tertiary health care setting. It was hypothesized that problems would increase, going from primary to tertiary healthcare. Data were retrieved from patient-records of children (1-16 years) presenting with CBBD and visiting pelvic physiotherapists. Prevalence's of dysfunctions were compared between healthcare settings and gender using ANOVA and chi-square test. Agreement between physicians' diagnoses and parent-reported symptoms was evaluated (Cohen's Kappa). One thousand seventy hundred forty-eight children (mean age 7.7 years [SD 2.9], 48.9% boys) were included. Daytime urinary incontinence (P = 0.039) and enuresis (P pain (P = 0.009) increased from primary to tertiary healthcare. All parent-reported symptoms occurred more frequently than indicated by the physicians. Poor agreement between physicians' diagnoses and parent-reported symptoms was found (k = 0.16). Locomotor problems prevailed in all healthcare settings, motor skills (P = 0.041) and core stability (P = 0.015) significantly more in tertiary healthcare. Constipation and abdominal pain (physicians' diagnoses) and the parent-reported symptoms hard stools and bloating increased from primary to tertiary healthcare. Discrepancies exist between the prevalence's of physicians' diagnoses and parent-reported symptoms. Locomotor problems predominate in all healthcare settings. What is Known: • Childhood bladder and/or bowel dysfunctions (CCBD) are common. • Particularly tertiary healthcare characteristics of CBBD are available What is New: • Characteristics of CBBD referred to pelvic physiotherapy are comparable in primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare settings. • Concomitant CBBD appeared to be more prevalent than earlier reported. • Discrepancies exist between referring physicians

  5. Indications and outcome of childhood preventable bowel resections in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu Obiora Ezomike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While many bowel resections in developed countries are due to congenital anomalies, indications for bowel resections in developing countries are mainly from preventable causes. The aim of the following study was to assess the indications for, morbidity and mortality following preventable bowel resection in our centre. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all cases of bowel resection deemed preventable in children from birth to 18 years from June 2005 to June 2012. Results: There were 22 preventable bowel resections with an age range of 7 days to 17 years (median 6 months and male:female ratio of 2.1:1. There were 2 neonates, 13 infants and 7 older children. The indications were irreducible/gangrenous intussusceptions (13, abdominal gunshot injury (2, gangrenous umbilical hernia (2, blunt abdominal trauma (1, midgut volvulus (1, necrotizing enterocolitis (1, strangulated inguinal hernia (1, post-operative band intestinal obstructions (1. There were 16 right hemicolectomies, 4 small bowel resections and 2 massive bowel resections. Average duration of symptoms before presentation was 3.9 days (range: 3 h-14 days. Average time to surgical intervention was 42 h for survivors and 53 h for non-survivors. Only 19% presented within 24 h of onset of symptoms and all survived. For those presenting after 24 h, the cause of delay was a visit to primary or secondary level hospitals (75% and ignorance (25%. Average duration of post-operative hospital stay is 14 days and 9 patients (41% developed 18 complications. Seven patients died (31.8% mortality which diagnoses were irreducible/gangrenous intussusceptions (5, necrotising enterocolitis (1, midgut volvulus (1. One patient died on the operating table while others had overwhelming sepsis. Conclusion: There is a high rate of morbidity and mortality in these cases of preventable bowel resection. Typhoid intestinal perforation did not feature as an indication for bowel resection in this

  6. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma causing intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Salman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy toddler with bilious vomiting and erythematous gluteal rash over 2 weeks had intermittent pain, constipation and decreased appetite. All labs were negative with the exception of fecal occult blood. Abdominal x-ray and ultrasound revealed dilated air-filled loops of bowel and partial small bowel obstruction. After persistent worsening abdominal pain and vomiting a CT scan with IV contrast (Fig. 1 suggested small bowel obstruction. Emergent surgery was performed and diagnostic laparoscopy revealed about 61 cm of necrotic bowel causing stricture formation and mesenteric shortening in the distal small bowel. 56 cm of inflamed bowel was resected with end-to-end anastomosis. Final pathology report indicated diffuse intestinal angiomatosis with transmural involvement and focal erosion consistent with KHE (Fig. 2. Presentation is varied, consists of cutaneous lesion, retroperitoneal mass, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, intussusception, or multifocal neoplasms. Complete surgical resection with wide margins is the best therapeutic option and has achieved the best outcomes. If not treated in sufficient time, KHE has a relatively high mortality rate of 30%, with most deaths occurring due to its locally invasive effects [5]. There are limited reports of identifying features of KHE on imaging. Of 165 cases of KHE none were presented in the small bowel [5]. We report the unique case of KHE presenting as a hypervascular mass causing obstruction in the distal small bowel. Although extremely rare, KHE should be considered as a reason for severe GI stricture or obstruction in infants and children in obscure cases and included in the differential.

  7. Bowel obstruction from intramural hematoma in two children treated with low molecular weight heparin: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Schroeder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH is frequently employed in children to prevent extension of intravascular thrombosis. However, this therapy can result in pathologic bleeding, including spontaneous intramural hematoma of the intestinal wall. In this report, we describe two cases of intestinal obstruction resulting from intramural hematomas during therapeutic LMWH therapy in children. The diagnostic studies and management of spontaneous intramural hematoma in children are discussed.

  8. Closed loop obstruction: pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, A; Ndiaye, A; Soko, T O; Sahnoun, M; Fall, A; Diouf, C T; Régent, D; Diakhaté, I C

    2015-02-01

    Closed loop obstruction occurs when a segment of bowel is incarcerated at two contiguous points. The diagnosis is based on multiple transitional zones. The incarcerated loops appear in U or C form or present a radial layout around the location of the obstruction. It's very important to specify the type of obstruction because, in patients with simple bowel obstruction, a conservative approach is often advised. On the other hand, a closed loop obstruction immediately requires a surgical approach because of its high morbidity and the risk of death in case of a late diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Collagen levels are normalized after decompression of experimentally obstructed colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Martin; Ågren, Sven Per Magnus; Syk, I

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to define the dynamics in collagen concentrations in the large bowel wall following decompression of experimental obstruction.......Our aim was to define the dynamics in collagen concentrations in the large bowel wall following decompression of experimental obstruction....

  10. Hemangioma cavernoso de intestino delgado: una causa rara de obstrucción intestinal Cavernous haemangioma of the small bowel: an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Calvo; Erce, R. (R.); S. Montón; Martínez, A.; Otero, A.

    2003-01-01

    El hemangioma cavernoso de intestino delgado es un tumor vascular, benigno e infrecuente, sin predilección en cuanto al sexo y más frecuente a partir de la tercera década. Su manifestación clínica más común es la anemia crónica secundaria al sangrado del hemangioma gastrointestinal, seguida de la obstrucción y perforación intestinal. El diagnóstico preoperatorio es difícil y el tratamiento de elección es la resección quirúrgica.Cavernous haemangioma of the small bowel is a vascular, benign an...

  11. Interactive navigation-guided ophthalmic plastic surgery: the utility of 3D CT-DCG-guided dacryolocalization in secondary acquired lacrimal duct obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Javed Ali,1 Swati Singh,1 Milind N Naik,1 Swathi Kaliki,2 Tarjani Vivek Dave1 1Govindram Seksaria Institute of Dacryology, 2The Operation Eyesight Universal Institute for Eye Cancer, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India Aim: The aim of this study was to report the preliminary experience with the techniques and utility of navigation-guided, 3D, computed tomography–dacryocystography (CT-DCG in the management of secondary acquired lacrimal drainage obstructions.Methods: Stereotactic surgeries using CT-DCG as the intraoperative image-guiding tool were performed in 3 patients. One patient had nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO following a complete maxillectomy for a sinus malignancy, and the other 2 had NLDO following extensive maxillofacial trauma. All patients underwent a 3D CT-DCG. Image-guided dacryolocalization (IGDL was performed using the intraoperative image-guided StealthStation™ system in the electromagnetic mode. All patients underwent navigation-guided powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR. The utility of intraoperative dacryocystographic guidance and the ability to localize the lacrimal drainage system in the altered endoscopic anatomical milieu were noted.Results: Intraoperative geometric localization of the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct could be easily achieved. Constant orientation of the lacrimal drainage system was possible while navigating in the vicinity of altered endoscopic perilacrimal anatomy. Useful clues with regard to modifications while performing a powered endoscopic DCR could be obtained. Surgeries could be performed with utmost safety and precision, thereby avoiding complications. Detailed preoperative 3D CT-DCG reconstructions with constant intraoperative dacryolocalization were found to be essential for successful outcomes.Conclusion: The 3D CT-DCG-guided navigation procedure is very useful while performing endoscopic DCRs in cases of secondary acquired and complex

  12. A rare case of small bowel volvulus after jenjunoileal bariatric bypass requiring emergency surgery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Pranav H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bariatric surgery is on the increase throughout the world. Jejunoileal bypass bariatric procedures have fallen out of favor in western surgical centers due to the high rate of associated complications. They are, however, performed routinely in other centers and as a consequence of health tourism, management of complications related to these procedures may still be encountered. Case presentation We describe a rare case of small bowel obstruction in a 45-year-old British Caucasian woman, secondary to a volvulus of the jejunoileal anastomosis following bariatric bypass surgery. The pre-operative diagnosis was confirmed by radiology. We describe a successful surgical technique for this rare complication. Conclusions Bariatric surgery may be complicated by bowel obstruction. Early imaging is vital for diagnosis and effective management. The use of our surgical technique provides a simple and effective approach for the successful management of this bariatric complication.

  13. Laparoscopic Reduction and Closure of an Internal Hernia Secondary to Gynecologic Surgery

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    Takashi Sakamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal hernia is a rare cause of bowel obstruction which often requires emergent surgery. In general, the preoperative diagnosis of internal hernia is difficult. The pelvic cavity has various spaces with the potential to result in a hernia, especially in females. In this report, we describe a patient with an internal hernia secondary to previous gynecologic surgery. A 49-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain and a history of previous right oophorectomy for a benign ovarian cyst. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed obstruction with strangulation and emergent laparoscopic exploration was performed. Intraoperatively, there was an incarcerated internal hernia in the pelvis, located in the vesicouterine pouch, which was reduced. The orifice of the hernia was a 2 cm defect caused by adhesions between the uterus and bladder. The defect was closed with a continuous suture. The herniated bowel was viable, and the operation was completed without intestinal resection. She was discharged four days after surgery without complications. Laparoscopy is useful to diagnose bowel obstruction in selected patients and may also be used for definitive therapy. It is important to understand pelvic anatomy and consider an internal hernia of the pelvic cavity in females, in the differential diagnosis of bowel obstruction, especially those with a history of gynecological surgery.

  14. THE EFFECT OF THE SOMATOSTATIN ANALOGUE OCTREOTIDE ON EXPERIMENTAL INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION IN RATS

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    Paran Haim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Somatostatin has an inhibitory effect on the endocrine and exocrine secretions of the gut. It may have a beneficial effect in the conservative treatment of intestinal obstruction. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of octreotide in mechanical intestinal obstruction in rats. Method: Intestinal obstruction was induced in rats by ligation of a segment of the distal ileum. Animals were treated with the somatostatin analogue octreotide (n=16, or saline (n=16. Eight rats were operated but their intestine was not ligated (n=8 serving as sham controls. Forty eight hours after the operation, the animals were operated upon again and blood samples from the femoral vein were tested for electrolytes, urea, glucose, lactic acid, amylase, ph and bicarbonate. Portal vein blood samples were also obtained and tested for lactic acid and amylase. Results: Intestinal obstruction resulted, after 48 hours, in severe dilatation of bowel loops. A significant increase in plasma levels of urea, amylase and lactic acid was observed. Plasma pH decreased. In blood samples from the portal vein, a significant increase in lactic acid was observed, indicating metabolic acidosis, probably secondary to bowel ischemia. Octreotide treatment, resulted in less acidosis, with concomitant lower urea and lactic acid levels in the plasma and especially in the portal vein. Conclusion: Octreotide treatment may have a beneficial effect in the conservative treatment of selected cases of intestinal obstruction.

  15. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care - a long-term, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Chalotte Heinsvig; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Eliasen, Marie; Skovbjerg, Sine; Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Schröder, Andreas; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs) and functional somatic syndromes (FSSs). A longitudinal population-based study comprising two 5-year follow-up studies, Dan-MONICA 1 (1982-1987) and Inter99 (1999-2004), recruited from the western part of Copenhagen County. The total study population (n = 7,278) was divided into symptom groups according to the degree of IBS definition fulfillment at baseline and/or follow-up and was followed until December 2013 in Danish central registries. Cox regression was used for the analyses, adjusting for age, sex, length of education and cohort membership. In a subsequent analysis, we adjusted for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS. Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental vulnerability, IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were no longer associated with CMDs, but the significant relationship to other FSSs remained. In a clinical setting, the perspective should be broadened to individuals not fulfilling the symptom cluster of IBS but who report frequent abdominal pain. Additionally, it is important to combine symptom-based criteria of IBS with psychosocial markers such as mental vulnerability, because it could guide clinicians in decisions regarding prognosis and treatment.

  16. Use of a sternal elevator to reverse complete airway obstruction secondary to anterior mediastinal mass in an anesthetized child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Linnaus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with an anterior mediastinal mass pose significant risk for cardiorespiratory compromise during surgical procedures and general anesthesia. Several techniques have been described to reverse airway obstruction in these patients. In extreme circumstances, patients may require cardiac bypass or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO until definitive treatment of the mass and patient stabilization is achieved. We present a case in which the RulTract® system was used for emergency sternal elevation as a bridge to ECMO in acute respiratory collapse in an 11-year-old female with a minimally symptomatic anterior mediastinal mass.

  17. Coexistence of Upper Airway Obstruction and Primary and Secondary Enuresis Nocturna in Children and the Effect of Surgical Treatment for the Resolution of Enuresis Nocturna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Soylu Özler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate the coexistence of upper airway obstruction (UAO and primary enuresis nocturna (PEN and secondary enuresis nocturna (SEN in children. Besides, the efficacy of surgery on resolution of enuresis nocturna is evaluated. Materials and Methods. The children with PEN and SEN were included in the first group and investigated for UAO in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology. During the same period, children who had been planned for an operation to treat UAO over 5 years old were included in the second group and were evaluated in the Department of Urology for PEN and SEN before the operation. Results. A hundred patients completed the study (50 patients in Group 1, 50 patients in Group 2. According to the otolaryngologic examination, 20 of 25 PEN patients and 9 of 25 SEN patients also had UAO. The difference was statistically different (P<0.05. The second group consisted of fifty patients on the surgery list for upper airway obstructive pathologies. Coexistence of PEN and SEN is found in 12 and 3 of children, respectively. These ratios were statistically significant (P<0.05. The improvement rate of PEN and SEN after operation in the second group was 83.3% and 33.3%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion. There is a strong relationship between PEN and UAO, but it cannot be declared for SEN patients. UAO should be kept in mind as a possible etiologic factor for PEN.

  18. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA) is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed ...

  19. Primary Small Bowel Volvulus in Adults - a difficult diagnosis in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of small bowel obstruction but can be fatal. The chief problem is differentiating it from other causes of obstruction that can be treated conservatively. We report two cases of primary small bowel volvulus within a 2 months period in a regional hospital in the south west region of Cameroon and briefly review the literature.

  20. Small bowel intussusception in 2 adults caused by inflammatory polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carvalho, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory fibroid polyps are rare, benign pseudotumors of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology, which may rarely present as bowel intussusception and obstruction. The authors describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of 2 patients with ileal inflammatory fibroid polyps presenting as small bowel intussusception.

  1. Retro-ureteral Small Bowel Herniation After Radical Cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey L. Cole-Clark

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel obstruction caused by internal herniation under ureteric bands is a rare occurrence. Only 6 previous cases have been documented. This case report reviews the case of a 79-year-old male who presented to emergency with abdominal pain requiring subsequent laparotomy and release of internal herniation of bowel under ureter.

  2. Splenosis: A Rare Etiology for Bowel Obstruction—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, George; Wills, Edward; Hafner, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Splenosis is a historically uncommon etiology for bowel obstruction. Autotransplanted splenic tissues following surgery or trauma of the spleen are known to occur in multiple locations of the abdominal cavity and pelvis. The small bowel mesentery is a blood vessel-rich environment for growth of splenic fragments. We present a case of a 36-year-old male patient who sustained a gunshot wound to his left abdomen requiring a splenectomy and bowel resection fifteen years prior to his presentation with small bowel obstruction requiring exploration, adhesiolysis, and resection of the mesenteric splenic deposit. Our aim in this report is to provide awareness of splenosis as an etiology for bowel obstruction, especially with increased incidence and survival following abdominal traumas requiring splenectomies. We also stress on the importance of history and physical examination to include splenosis on the list of differential diagnoses for bowel obstruction. PMID:26543660

  3. Splenosis: A Rare Etiology for Bowel Obstruction—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Younan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenosis is a historically uncommon etiology for bowel obstruction. Autotransplanted splenic tissues following surgery or trauma of the spleen are known to occur in multiple locations of the abdominal cavity and pelvis. The small bowel mesentery is a blood vessel-rich environment for growth of splenic fragments. We present a case of a 36-year-old male patient who sustained a gunshot wound to his left abdomen requiring a splenectomy and bowel resection fifteen years prior to his presentation with small bowel obstruction requiring exploration, adhesiolysis, and resection of the mesenteric splenic deposit. Our aim in this report is to provide awareness of splenosis as an etiology for bowel obstruction, especially with increased incidence and survival following abdominal traumas requiring splenectomies. We also stress on the importance of history and physical examination to include splenosis on the list of differential diagnoses for bowel obstruction.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea in a 5 month old with tonsillar hypertrophy secondary to congenital neutropenia: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, O G; Lambert, E M

    2017-05-01

    Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) is the primary surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy (TAH). We present the case of a 5-month old male with congenital neutropenia who developed severe TAH during treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). He had severe OSA, decreased oral intake, and failure to thrive (FTT) which all improved after undergoing a successful intracapsular T&A. We describe a successful procedure to help alleviate symptoms of OSA and FTT in this young infant with congenital neutropenia who developed TAH during treatment with G-CSF. It highlights the need for further research into the pathophysiology of TAH in immunocompromised children and the effects of G-CSF on Waldeyer's Ring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CT Diagnosis of intestinal obstruction: Findings and usefulness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae; Kim, Mi Young [Inha University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1994-05-15

    To present the findings of intestinal obstruction and evaluate the value of CT in the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. We prospectively analyzed CT scans of twenty-two patients who were suspected to have intestinal obstruction. All 22 patients were confirmed with surgery: 10 patients with adhesion, four with primary tumor, one with metastatic intestinal tumor, two with inflammatory bowel disease, two with intussusception, two with extrinsic compression by ovarian tumor, and one with inguinal hernia. The CT scans were evaluated with special attention to their causes, locations, and CT findings and intestinal obstruction. CT diagnosis and findings were compared with surgical results. Their causes were diagnosed correctly on CT scans in seventeen of 22 cases(77.3%). Locations of the intestinal obstruction were diagnosis correctly in 16 cases(72.7%). The CT findings intestinal obstruction were categorized into dilated proximal bowel loops with normal distal loops, thickening of the affected bowel wall, presence of the transitional zone, and no detectable abnormalities. The associated extraluminal findings were fat infiltration around the dilated bowel loops, ascites, and mesenteric lymph nodes enlargement. There were two limitations of CT in our study: first, no detectable difference between jejunum and ileum on CT scans, and second, difficulty in differential diagnosis between thickened bowel wall mimicking normal non-dilated segment and mechanical obstruction from tumors or inflammatory bowel diseases. We conclude that CT is useful method in the evaluation of causes and locations of intestinal obstruction and the demonstration of the associated extraluminal abnormalities.

  6. Predictors of mortality of patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to an intensive care unit: A one year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banga Amit

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD commonly require hospitalization and admission to intensive care unit (ICU. It is useful to identify patients at the time of admission who are likely to have poor outcome. This study was carried out to define the predictors of mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD and to device a scoring system using the baseline physiological variables for prognosticating these patients. Methods Eighty-two patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to COPD admitted to medical ICU over a one-year period were included. Clinical and demographic profile at the time of admission to ICU including APACHE II score and Glasgow coma scale were recorded at the time of admission to ICU. In addition, acid base disorders, renal functions, liver functions and serum albumin, were recorded at the time of presentation. Primary outcome measure was hospital mortality. Results Invasive ventilation was required in 69 patients (84.1%. Fifty-two patients survived to hospital discharge (63.4%. APACHE II score at the time of admission to ICU {odds ratio (95 % CI: 1.32 (1.138–1.532; p Conclusion APACHE II score at admission and SA levels with in 24 hrs after admission are independent predictors of mortality for patients with COPD admitted to ICU. The equation derived from these two parameters is useful for predicting outcome of these patients.

  7. Adult Bochdalek hernia with bowel incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yeh-Huang; Chien, Yu-Hon; Yan, Sheng-Lei; Chen, Ming-Feng

    2008-10-01

    Bochdalek hernias are rare in adults. We report 2 cases of Bochdalek hernia with bowel obstruction. The first case was a 74-year-old male patient who suffered from abdominal pain and chest tightness for 1 day. Chest radiography indicated a mass-like lesion above the left diaphragm. The pain could not be relieved by nasogastric tube decompression for 12 hours. We arranged computed tomography, which revealed a dilated bowel above the diaphragm and intestinal obstruction with gangrenous change. The patient received emergency laparotomy, and a Bochdalek hernia was detected during the operation. The second case was a 75-year-old female patient who suffered from chest tightness and dyspnea for about 1 week. Chest X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging revealed herniation of small and large bowels at the right posterior aspect of the thoracic cavity. She received transthoracic repair of diaphragmatic hernia, recovered, and was discharged 15 days later. We recommend that adult Bochdalek hernia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bowel obstruction.

  8. Adult Bochdalek Hernia with Bowel Incarceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh-Huang Hung

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bochdalek hernias are rare in adults. We report 2 cases of Bochdalek hernia with bowel obstruction. The first case was a 74-year-old male patient who suffered from abdominal pain and chest tightness for 1 day. Chest radiography indicated a mass-like lesion above the left diaphragm. The pain could not be relieved by nasogastric tube decompression for 12 hours. We arranged computed tomography, which revealed a dilated bowel above the diaphragm and intestinal obstruction with gangrenous change. The patient received emergency laparotomy, and a Bochdalek hernia was detected during the operation. The second case was a 75-year-old female patient who suffered from chest tightness and dyspnea for about 1 week. Chest X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging revealed herniation of small and large bowels at the right posterior aspect of the thoracic cavity. She received transthoracic repair of diaphragmatic hernia, recovered, and was discharged 15 days later. We recommend that adult Bochdalek hernia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bowel obstruction.

  9. OBSTRUCTIVE NEPHROPATHY: ITS PHYSIOPATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive nephropathy is the functional and /or parenchymal renal damage secondary to the urinary tract occlusion at any part of it. The inducing urinary obstruction diseases can vary depending on the patient´s age and gender. There are many renal dysfunction inducing mechanisms involved in this entity: increase in the intra-luminal pressure, ureteral dilatation with ineffective ureteral peristalsis, glomerular ultrafiltration net pressure reduction, intra-renal glomerular blood flux reduction due to vasoconstriction, and local disease of chemotactic substances. Obstructive nephropathy can also lead to hypertension (vasoconstriction-hypervolemia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis (aldosterone resistance, diabetes insipidus (vasopressine resistance. In conclusion, since obstructive nephropathy is a potentially reversible cause of renal dysfunction, it should always be taken into account among the differential diagnosis of renal failure inducing mechanisms.

  10. [Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: visceral myopathy. Report of 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pini, A F; de Dávila, M T; Marín, A; Guastavino, E; Ruiz, J A; De Rosa, S

    1993-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is the term applied to a heterogeneous group of functional motility disorders sharing a common clinical expression: signs and symptoms of bowel obstruction in absence of mechanical occlusion. It is caused by ineffective intestinal propulsion. The chronic form of intestinal pseudo-obstruction may be primary or secondary. Primary pseudo-obstruction or chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) defines a group of propulsive disorders having no recognized underlying diseases. This study presents four female patients, aged between 4 months to 7 years, and makes a review of the literature. The symptoms, very similar in three of them, were bilious vomiting, abdominal distention and constipation, alternating with diarrhea and malnutrition. The fourth patient, different from the others in the age of onset and evolution, only had severe constipation and abdominal bloating. The diagnostic was made by full thickness biopsies during laparotomy, getting specimens by mapping, at different heights of intestine and stomach. Samples were studied by optic and electronic microscopy and visceral myopathies were found. None of them had urinary disorders. Medical treatment consisted of total parental nutrition and/or enteral nutrition. Cisapride was not effective in the two patients who received it.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis and outcome of fetal gastrointestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patricio E; Cruz, Stephanie; Cassady, Christopher I; Mehollin-Ray, Amy R; Ruano, Rodrigo; Keswani, Sundeep; Lee, Timothy C; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Cass, Darrell L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for fetuses with gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction with correlation to postnatal outcomes. Fetuses diagnosed with GI obstruction (excluding esophageal and duodenal) were reviewed for those evaluated between 2006 and 2016. Prenatal diagnosis and imaging studies were compared to postnatal findings. Outcomes evaluated included diagnostic accuracy, rate of other anomalies, neonatal length of stay, incidence of short bowel syndrome, and discharge with TPN or gastrostomy. Forty-eight patients were diagnosed prenatally with obstruction. Six patients were excluded owing to incomplete records and follow-up. Twelve fetuses were diagnosed with ultrasound alone, and thirty-four with ultrasound and MRI. A diagnosis of obstruction was accurate in 88.1% (n=37/42) with a positive predictive value of 91.3%, while US with MRI had an accuracy of 84.4%. Associated anomalies were highest among fetuses with anorectal obstruction (90.1%), compared to large (50%) or small bowel obstruction (28%). Survival rate was lowest for anorectal obstruction (54.5%), compared to large or small bowel obstruction (100% for both). Fetal MRI is an accurate modality in the diagnosis of fetal GI obstruction and can complement findings characterized by ultrasound. Fetuses with anorectal obstruction have a higher rate of associated anomalies and the lowest survival. IIb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Strangulated obturator hernia - an unusual presentation of intestinal obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zeeshan, Saqib

    2012-01-31

    An 81-year-old Caucasian emaciated female presented with 3 days history of colicky abdominal pain nausea, projectile vomiting and abdominal distension. A pre-operative diagnosis of mechanical bowel obstruction was made. The absence of characteristic clinical signs in this thin elderly woman with a small bowel obstruction failed to provide a pre-operative diagnosis. She underwent a midline laparotomy and resection and anastomosis of small bowel and repair of the strangulated right obturator hernia. The high mortality rate associated with this type of abdominal hernias requires a high index of suspicion to facilitate rapid diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention if the survival rate is to be improved.

  13. an unusual cause of post-shunt intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection, intestinal obstruction, migration of the shunt and perforation of the internal organs, have been described with this invasive procedure. We report a case in which bowel prolapsed through the peritoneal opening and caused intestinal obstruction in a female baby. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is the most widely ...

  14. A challenging case of gastric outlet obstruction (Bouveret's syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelrud Andres

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bouveret's syndrome is a clinically distinct form of gallstone ileus caused by the formation of a fistula between the biliary tract and duodenum. This case reinforces the need for early recognition and treatment of Bouveret's syndrome, as it is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Case presentation An 82-year-old Caucasian woman presented with signs and symptoms of small bowel obstruction. Her laboratory workup showed elevated alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels. Computed tomography of her abdomen revealed pneumobilia, a choledochoduodenal fistula and a gallstone obstructing her distal duodenum. The impacted gallstone could not be extracted endoscopically, so our patient underwent open enterolithotomy successfully. However, the postoperative course was complicated by myocardial infarction, respiratory failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. She died 22 days after surgery, secondary to cardiopulmonary arrest. Conclusion This case clearly highlights the considerable morbidity and mortality associated with Bouveret's syndrome.

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious ... to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious ...

  16. Gastric heterotopia causing jejunal ulceration and obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... meal and follow-through study showed a proximal near-complete jejunal obstruction (Fig. ... gastric heterotopia. Sections of the resected small intestine showed ... gastric heterotopia in the small bowel is rare, and to our knowledge this is the first report of jejunal gastric heterotopia resulting in ulceration with ...

  17. Spectrum of biliary abnormalities in portal cavernoma cholangiopathy (PCC) secondary to idiopathic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO)-a prospective magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shumyla; Robbani, Irfan; Choh, Naseer A; Ashraf, Obaid; Shaheen, Feroze; Gojwari, Tariq; Gul, Sabeeha

    2016-12-01

    To characterize biliary abnormalities seen in portal cavernoma cholangiopathy (PCC) on MR cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) and elucidate certain salient features of the disease by collaborating our findings with those of previous studies. We prospectively enrolled 52 patients with portal cavernoma secondary to idiopathic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction, who underwent a standard MRCP protocol. Images were analyzed for abnormalities involving the entire biliary tree. Terms used were those proposed by the Indian National Association for Study of the Liver. Angulation of the common bile duct (CBD) was measured in all patients with cholangiopathy. Cholangiopathy was seen in 80.7% of patients on MRCP. Extrahepatic ducts were involved in 95% of patients either alone (26%) or in combination with the intrahepatic ducts (69%). Isolated involvement of the intrahepatic ducts was seen in 4.8% of patients. Abnormalities of the extrahepatic ducts included angulation (90%), scalloping (76.2%), extrinsic impression/indentation (45.2%), stricture (14.3%) and smooth dilatation (4.8%). The mean CBD angle was 113.2 ± 19.8°. Abnormalities of the intrahepatic ducts included smooth dilatation (40%), irregularity (28%) and narrowing (9%). Cholelithiasis, choledocholithiasis and hepatolithiasis were seen in 28.6% (12) patients, 14.3% (6) patients and 11.9% (5) patients, respectively. There was a significant association between choledocholithiasis and CBD stricture, with no significant association between choledocholithiasis and cholelithiasis. A significant association was also seen between hepatolithiasis and choledocholithiasis. The spectrum of biliary abnormalities in PCC has been explored and some salient features of the disease have been elucidated, which allow a confident diagnosis of this entity. Advances in knowledge: PCC preferentially involves the extrahepatic biliary tree. Changes in the intrahepatic ducts generally occur as sequelae of involvement of the extrahepatic

  18. [Obstructive shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, H; Heller, A R

    2015-05-01

    An acute obstruction of blood flow in central vessels of the systemic or pulmonary circulation causes the clinical symptoms of shock accompanied by disturbances of consciousness, centralization, oliguria, hypotension and tachycardia. In the case of an acute pulmonary embolism an intravascular occlusion results in an acute increase of the right ventricular afterload. In the case of a tension pneumothorax, an obstruction of the blood vessels supplying the heart is caused by an increase in extravascular pressure. From a hemodynamic viewpoint circulatory shock caused by obstruction is closely followed by cardiac deterioration; however, etiological and therapeutic options necessitate demarcation of cardiac from non-cardiac obstructive causes. The high dynamics of this potentially life-threatening condition is a hallmark of all types of obstructive shock. This requires an expeditious and purposeful diagnosis and a rapid and well-aimed therapy.

  19. Daily bowel care program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000133.htm Daily bowel care program To use the sharing features on this page, ... Work with your health care provider. Basic Bowel Program Keeping active helps prevent constipation. Try to walk, ...

  20. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I do to help treat accidental bowel leakage? Kegel exercises strengthen the muscles that surround the openings ... bowels that may cause cramping, diarrhea, or constipation. Kegel Exercises: Pelvic muscle exercises that assist in bladder ...

  1. CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Gab Choul; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer. Of the 1468 patients with primary lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, 13 patients who had metastasis to the small intestine were collected. Of these 13 patients, nine who underwent CT scan were included for analysis. The pathologic diagnoses of primary lung cancer in these nine patients were squamous cell carcinoma in six, adenocarcinoma in two, and large cell carcinoma in one. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the site and patterns (intraluminal mass/bowel wall thickening/bowel implants) of metastatic masses, and the presence or absence of complication such as intussusception, obstruction, or perforation of the small bowel. The medical records of the patients were also reviewed retrospectively for evaluation of presenting abdominal symptom and time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Metastatic lesions were distributed throughout the small intestine: the duodenum in five, the jejunum in four, the ileum in six, and both jejunum and ileum in one patient. The size of metastatic masses of small bowel ranged from 1.3 cm to 5.0 cm (mean size, 2.6 cm) On CT, the small bowel was involved with intraluminal masses (mean size, 3.4 cm) in eight patients, diffuse wall thickening (mean thickness, 1.6 cm) in five, and bowel implants (mean size, 2.2 cm) in two. Complications occurred in seven patients, including intussusceptions without obstruction in two patients and with obstruction in two, obstruction without intussusceptions in two, and bowel perforation in one. Of 9 patients, 6 had at least one symptom referable to the small bowel including abdominal pain in 4, anemia in 3, vomiting in 1, and jaundice in 1. Lung cancer and small bowel lesions were detected simultaneously in four patients and the time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer ranged from 10 days to 30 months (median interval, 54 days) in patients. CT helps in defining the extent and

  2. Veloplastia funcional secundaria: Una alternativa no obstructiva en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia velofaríngea Secondary functional veloplasty: a non-obstructive approach to valopharyngeal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cortés Araya

    2004-04-01

    of choice, there being several techniques published. Whatever they are, they have the common factor of the use of pharyngeal flaps that determine a reduction of the upper airway diameter with the consequent risk of generating obstructive sleep disorder. Objective: In order to obviate this situation and simultaneously lengthen and provide velopalatine competence, a surgical technique, inspired by the DELAIRE principles, that aims to make the velar mophofunctional reconstruction or secondary functional veloplasty has been designed. Surgical procedure: We present our experience based on a series of 15 cases treated in this new way: the soft palate, affecting the middle line and exposing both hemivelar portions until the retrouvular region. At this moment, the remaining muscular structures are identifyed, the palatal bone and nasal and buccal mucosa border are separated and are joined in a more posterior position of the contralaterals of the midline. Results: In our experience, we have achieved velar lengthening and hypernasal correction or improvement. After the surgery, patients were evaluated with a phonetic test and aerophonoscopy. The outcome of this evaluation has shown the effectiveness of this surgical technique.

  3. Frequent Bowel Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/irritable-bowel-syndrome. Accessed Nov. 15, 2017. Nov. 18, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/frequent-bowel- ...

  4. Gallstone obstruction in anastomotic stricture: A very rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Veli Ülger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is a rare but serious complication of cholelithiasis. It is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction but it accounts up to 25% of non-strangulated small bowel obstructions in elderly. Obstruction usually occurs in the terminal ileum. Although the most frequent mechanism of gallstone ileus is migration of the gallstone through a gallbladder-duodenal fistula, there have been cases of bowel obstruction caused by gallstones without any findings of bilio-enteric fistula during the operation. The diagnosis is usually delayed due to nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT scan is the optimal way to diagnose the gallstone ileus. It can identify the site and nature of the obstruction. The optimal surgical approach is a matter of debate. Enterolithotomy is the most performed operation. One stage operation should be performed in selected low risk patients. In this study, we report a 55 years old male patient who underwent surgical intervention due to gallstone ileus. During the operation, we observed that two individual gallstones lead to obstruction in anastomoticstricture which was due to the patient’s prior small bowel resection. Also, no fistula was found during the operation between the gall bladder and the gastrointestinal tract of patient. The gallstones were removed by enterolithotomy. Because there was no gallstone in the allbladder, we did not perform cholecystectomy. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1: 72-74

  5. Fetal Bowel Dilatation due to Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia: A Rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, Arzu; Anadut, Karar Orkun; Yalcin, Omer; Kaya, Mete

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) type B is characterized by malformation of parasympathetic plexus and manifests at more than 6 month of age with progressive severe constipation. We report a case of IND type B presented with bowel dilatation on antenatal scan and neonatal intestinal obstruction which is unusual with this type of IND.

  6. Gastrografin in the management of adhesive small bowel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/purpose Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) is a common emergency problem in children with previous abdominal surgery. Management protocols usually start with a conservative approach that may be successful in some cases, whereas in others it will end eventually by laparotomy with its associated ...

  7. Surgical treatment of complex small bowel Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelassi, Fabrizio; Sultan, Samuel

    2014-08-01

    The clinical presentations of Crohn disease of the small bowel vary from low to high complexity. Understanding the complexity of Crohn disease of the small bowel is important for the surgeon and the gastroenterologist caring for the patient and may be relevant for clinical research as a way to compare outcomes. Here, we present a categorization of complex small bowel Crohn disease and review its surgical treatment as a potential initial step toward the establishment of a definition of complex disease. The complexity of small bowel Crohn disease can be sorted into several categories: technical challenges, namely, fistulae, abscesses, bowel or ureteral obstruction, hemorrhage, cancer and thickened mesentery; extensive disease; the presence of short gut; a history of prolonged use of medications, particularly steroids, immunomodulators, and biological agents; and a high risk of recurrence. Although the principles of modern surgical treatment of Crohn disease have evolved to bowel conservation such as strictureplasty techniques and limited resection margins, such practices by themselves are often not sufficient for the management of complex small bowel Crohn disease. This manuscript reviews each category of complex small bowel Crohn disease, with special emphasis on appropriate surgical strategy.

  8. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Yadavrao Kshirsagar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed signs of intestinal obstruction on day one after birth, for which an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Type 3 JIA was found for which resection of atretic segments with jejuno-ascending colon anastomosis was preformed.

  9. MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, C.G. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: carmelcronin2000@hotmail.com; Lohan, D.G.; Browne, A.M.; Alhajeri, A.N.; Roche, C.; Murphy, J.M. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Magnetic reasonance (MR) enterography enables high contrast resolution depiction of the location and cause of bowel obstruction through a combination of predictable luminal distension and multiplanar imaging capabilities. Furthermore, because the patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation, sequential 'dynamic' MR imaging can be performed repeatedly over time further facilitating depiction of the site and/or the cause of obstruction. With increasing availability of MR imaging and standardization of the oral contrast medium regimens, it is likely that this technique will assume an ever-increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel dilation in the coming years. We illustrate the utility of MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation, whether it be mechanical, functional (e.g., ileus), or related to infiltrative mural disease.

  10. Functional bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with functional bowel disease were given fructose, sorbitol, fructose-sorbitol mixtures, and sucrose. The occurrence of malabsorption was evaluated by means of hydrogen breath tests and the gastrointestinal symptoms, if any, were recorded. One patient could not be evaluated...... with functional bowel disease. The findings may have direct influence on the dietary guidance given to a major group of patients with functional bowel disease and may make it possible to define separate entities in this disease complex....

  11. [SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME AND NUTRITIONAL ENTERAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariadel Cobo, Diana; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Socas Macías, María; Serrano Aguayo, Pilar; Gómez Liébana, Eulalia; Morales Conde, Salvador; García Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The particularity of this case is the nutritional management that has managed to avoid the use of prolonged parenteral nutrition and possible complications by placing jejunal tube at the distal end in patients with short bowel. It is a 34-year-old colecistectomizado complicated with postoperative peritonitis and dehiscence; two years he studied with small bowel obstruction, he was made de-volvulus and was complicated with two leak at different times after the second escape took place jejunostomy side double barreled shotgun level dehiscence, presented high debits by afferent loop of the terminal jejunostomy; during admission, polyurethane probe enteral feeding was inserted by the efferent loop jejunostomy. He received jejunal tube feeding laundry in the efferent loop terminal with decreased weight gain and subsequent reconstruction of intestinal transit debit proximal jejunostomy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Bowel Diseases and Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Dorofeiev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review of contemporary publications analyzes the prevalence of combinations of bowel and renal diseases. Special attention is paid to the problem of correlation between bowel diseases and urolithiasis. We consider the possible pathogenic mechanisms of lesions, such as genetically determined violations of intestinal absorption and secretion, changes in the intestinal microbiota, systemic inflammatory response, water and electrolyte disturbances.

  13. Incarcerated small bowel within a spontaneous lumbar hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, K A T; Burns, E; Garcea, G; Abela, J E; McKay, C J

    2010-10-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare, resulting from protrusion through the posterior abdominal wall that may be congenital, acquired or spontaneous. They very rarely present with acute bowel obstruction. We present a case of incarcerated small bowel within a spontaneous inferior (Petit's) lumbar hernia, treated by early open repair with mesh insertion. This case highlights the importance of thorough clinical examination and a high index of suspicion, even in the absence of previous surgery around the anatomical site of the suspected hernia, in order to effect an early repair before the onset of ischaemia in incarcerated contents.

  14. Obstructed uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, W.W.; Rosenshein, N.B.; Siegelman, S.S.; Sanders, R.C.

    1981-12-01

    Eleven patients with an obstructed, fluid-filled uterus, due to carcinoma of the uterus or to its treatment by radiation therapy, were examined with computed tomography (CT) and/or ultrasound. It is important to recognize this abnormality to differentiate it from other causes of pelvic mass and to ensure prompt treatment of pyometra, should it develop. Both CT and ultrasound reliably identified this condition and differentiated it from other pelvic masses.

  15. [Prevention and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome by acute intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibirov, M D; Kostiuchenko, M V; Iuanov, A A; Shvidko, V S; Ramazanova, Iu I

    2010-01-01

    Results of treatment were analyzed in 358 patients with acute bowel obstruction resulted from a variety of causes. Algorithm for control of liver and renal function disturbances in dynamics was estimated basing on the markers for hepatorenal failure. It is shown that differentiated approach to extracorporal detoxification combined with enterosorbtion and complex therapy allows preventing hepatorenal failure and decreasing lethality and terms of hospitalization.

  16. Mucin as possible cause of early adhesional intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To report the case of a 24 year old female undergraduate who presented with bowel obstruction, three weeks following the excision of a mucinous ovarian cyst . Patient and methods: The records of the patients past and recent medical history laboratory and imaging studies were reviewed. Results: Clinical ...

  17. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protecting Your Online Identity and Reputation ADHD Medicines Inflammatory Bowel Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Inflammatory Bowel Disease Print A ... en español Enfermedad inflamatoria del intestino What Is Inflammatory Bowel Disease? Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a condition that ...

  18. Multiple, persistent gastropancreato-neuroendocrine tumours accompanying sigmoid bowel adenocarcinoma: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchen, Andrew James; Naidoo, Khimara; Lanzon-Miller, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gastropancreato-neuroendocrine tumours (GETs) are rare, especially when they occur alongside colorectal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, multiple GETs occurring within the small bowel are less frequent with only two cases described within the literature. Presentation of case A healthy 58-year old woman presented with severe gastrointestinal pain and faecal incontinence. Family history revealed consanguineous parents and a brother who had recently died of a gastric GET. First biopsy showed a sigmoid adenocarcinoma. Histology of the resected sigmoid revealed both adenocarcinoma and GET. After this, she presented with small bowel obstruction secondary to multiple ileal and jejunal GETs, also treated with resection. All imaging modalities gave no evidence of extra-intestinal metastasis. The patient received multiple operations and chemotherapy but died 18 months after the original presentation. Discussion A case of such persistent and multiple small bowel GET without extra-intestinal metastasis has yet to be reported within the literature. GETs are rare and typically asymptomatic with a small proportion giving the classical carcinoid syndrome. Surgery is usually reserved for smaller GETs with high five-year survival. Despite this, surgery and chemotherapy were performed and both proved to be ineffective. Furthermore, a genetic basis for GETs is supported in this case with her brother suffering a similar fatal tumour. Conclusion This case highlights a rare GET that has a likely underlying familial origin. It illustrates the non-specific presentation of these tumours and the importance of taking a thorough family history. It also demonstrates that these tumours can be fatal even in the absence of extra-intestinal metastasis. PMID:25568786

  19. Aerobic Bacterial Causes of Secondary Peritonitis and Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic Bacterial Causes of Secondary Peritonitis and Their Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns among HIV Negative Patients with Non-traumatic Small Bowel Perforations in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital.

  20. Acute Abdominal Pain Secondary to Chilaiditi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilaiditi syndrome is a rare condition occurring in 0.025% to 0.28% of the population. In these patients, the colon is displaced and caught between the liver and the right hemidiaphragm. Patients' symptoms can range from asymptomatic to acute intermittent bowel obstruction. Diagnosis is best achieved with CT imaging. Identification of Chilaiditi syndrome is clinically significant as it can lead to many significant complications such as volvulus, perforation, and bowel obstruction. If the patient is symptomatic, treatment is usually conservative. Surgery is rarely indicated with indications including ischemia and failure of resolution with conservative management.

  1. Bowel transit time

    Science.gov (United States)

    You will be asked to swallow 2 gelatin capsules filled with a colored food dye. You take these capsules with a meal. Afterwards, you observe your bowel movements and write down how long it takes for the ...

  2. Primary Amyloidosis Presenting as Small Bowel Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Jones

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a pathological process which encompasses a spectrum of diseases that result from extracellular deposition of pathological fibrillar proteins. Clinical presentations vary depending on the organs involved. There is no documented case of amyloidosis presenting as small bowel encapsulation. A previously healthy 62-year-old man developed a small bowel obstruction in 1997. At surgery, a peculiar membrane encasing his entire small bowel was discovered. This appeared to have no vascularity and was removed without difficulty, exposing a grossly normal bowel. Histopathology revealed thick bands of collagen overlying the peritoneal surface, which was congo red positive and showed apple green birefringence. The findings were consistent with encapsulating peritonitis due to amyloidosis. There was no history or symptoms of any chronic inflammatory condition and he became symptom-free postoperatively. An abdominal fat pad biopsy failed to demonstrate amyloidosis. Endoscopic duodenal biopsies revealed classical primary amyloidosis. Quantitative immunoglobulins, lactate dehydrogenase, C3, C4 and beta-2 microglobulin were normal. Protein electrophoresis identified monoclonal paraprotein, immunoglobulin G lambda 3.7 g/L. Bone marrow biopsy and aspirate revealed only a mild plasmacytosis (5% to 10%. Echocardiogram and skeletal survey were normal. He had mild proteinuria. Complete blood count, C-reactive protein, calcium, albumin and total protein were normal. No specific therapy was instituted. In January of 1998 the patient remained asymptomatic with no gastrointestinal, cardiovascular or constitutional symptoms. He had developed nephrotic range proteinuria (3.95 g/24 h, microalbuminuria, hypoalbuminemia and a renal biopsy consistent with renal amyloidosis. In 1999 there was an increase in the monoclonal paraprotein (6.2 g/L. The remaining investigations were normal except for an echocardiogram which showed left ventricular hypertrophy but a normal

  3. Giant mesenteric lymphatic malformation presenting as small bowel volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Christy E; Spencer, Philip J; Sagar, Pallavi; Goldstein, Allan M

    2013-09-20

    Abdominal pain with bilious emesis is an ominous clinical presentation with many possible causes. We describe a previously healthy 4-year-old boy who presented with these symptoms and ultrasound findings of fluid throughout most of the abdominal cavity. Computed tomography imaging revealed a large cystic mass (21-by-13 cm) associated with a small bowel obstruction due to volvulus. A laparoscopic exploration was undertaken, revealing a large mass arising from the small intestinal mesentery and causing a segmental volvulus of the small bowel. Conversion to mini-laparotomy allowed reduction of the volvulus and segmental resection of the small bowel associated with a giant mesenteric lymphatic malformation. This case describes a rare cause of intestinal volvulus due to a mesenteric lymphatic malformation. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013.

  4. Nutrigenomics and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2010-07-01

    The field of nutrigenomics recognizes gene-diet interactions, with regard to both the impact of genetic variation on nutrient requirements, and conversely nutrient regulation of the expression of genes. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases for which twin studies reveal genetic susceptibility that is impacted by diet and environment. Apparently contradictory data on the role of diet in inflammatory bowel disease would be entirely explainable if genetic variability determined dietary requirements and intolerances. Considering Crohn's disease, we recognize three major classes of genes. The first of these involves bacterial recognition through pattern recognition receptors and autophagy genes, while the second act through secondary immune response, and the third concern epithelial barrier integrity. Despite genetic overlap with CD, the first two groups of genes appear to be less important in ulcerative colitis, while other genes, particularly those involved in barrier function, gain prominence. Case-control studies suggest that these different genetic groups reflect distinct dietary requirements. Such studies suggest nutrigenomic approaches to maintaining disease remission at present, and preventing disease development in the future.

  5. Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated on a structured proforma and analysed for age, sex, weight, presentation, type/date of gestation/delivery, aetiology, clinical presentation, associated anomaly, treatment, and outcome. Results: There were 71 neonates, 52 were males and 19 were females (2.7:1. Their age range was between 12 hours and 28 days (mean, 7.9 ± 2.7 days and they weighed between 1.8 and 5.2 kg (average, 3.2 kg. The causes of intestinal obstruction were: Anorectal anomaly, 28 (39.4%; Hirschsprung′s disease, 8 (11.3%′ prematurity, 3 (4.2%; meconeum plug, 2 (2.8%; malrotation, 6 (8.5%; intestinal atresia, 8 (11.3%; necrotising enterocolitis (NEC, 4 (5.6%; obstructed hernia, 4 (5.6%; and spontaneous gut perforation, 3 (4.2%. Also, 27 (38% children had colostomy, 24 (33.8% had laparotomy, 9 (12.8% had anoplasty, while 11 (15.4% were managed nonoperatively. A total of 41 (57.7% neonates required incubator, 26 (36.6% needed total parenteral nutrition, while 15 (21.1% require d paediatric ventilator. Financial constraint, late presentation, presence of multiple anomalies, aspiration, sepsis, gut perforation, and bowel gangrene were the main contributors to death. Neonates with lower obstructions had a better outcome compared to those having upper intestinal obstruction ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Outcomes of intestinal obstruction are still poor in our setting; late presentation, financial constraints, poor parental motivation and lack of basic facilities were the major determinants of mortality.

  6. A simple method to minimize spillage on retrograde examination of the bowel in patients with an ileostomy or colostomy: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torreggiani, W.C.; Lyburn, I.D.; Harris, A.C.; Zwirewich, C.V. [Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Abdominal Div., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Retrograde examination of the bowel in patients with an ileostomy or colostomy is a well-described technique and is still widely practised in most radiology departments. The procedure is useful for examining the bowel for evidence of strictures, obstruction, hernias or local disease recurrence. The technique may also be used to delineate gut anatomy before ileostomy or colostomy reversal. (author)

  7. Outcomes after laparoscopic surgery in children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Ivan R; Gerstle, J Ted; Kim, Peter C W; Langer, Jacob C

    2010-11-01

    The utility and efficacy of the laparoscopic approach to the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children are not clearly known. We conducted a retrospective descriptive cohort study of children with a diagnosis of IBD who underwent a laparoscopic or laparoscopy-assisted procedure at a quaternary pediatric referral center between 1999 and 2007. One-hundred thirty-six children underwent 154 operations (85 small bowel/ileocolic and 69 colorectal) over the 8 years of the study. Median age was 14.8 years (range = 1.8-18.8). The diagnosis was Crohn's disease in 83, ulcerative colitis in 50, and indeterminate colitis in 3. Median time to regular diet was 5 days (range = 1-19), and median postoperative stay was 7 days (range = 1-70). Seven patients undergoing a small bowel/ileocolic resection (8.2%) were converted to an open procedure. Overall morbidity for the small bowel/ileocolic procedures was 27.1%. The conversion rate during subtotal colectomy (STC) was 7.1% (3/42), and it was 0% for the 22 patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedures. Overall morbidity associated with STC was 62.8%, and following IPAA it was 63.6%. Sixteen percent (7/69) of those who underwent a colorectal procedure developed a late postoperative bowel obstruction with three patients requiring operative intervention. A laparoscopic approach is feasible with a low conversion rate in most children with IBD. Despite superior cosmesis, perioperative morbidity is similar to that seen with open procedures. Laparoscopic colorectal IBD procedures are associated with an unexpectedly high incidence of postoperative bowel obstruction, although the rates are comparable to those seen with open surgery.

  8. IDIOPATHIC SCLEROSING ENCAPSULATING PERITONITIS CAUSING ACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION AND GANGRENE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction resulting from encasement of variable lengths of bowel by dense fibro-collagenous membrane. It is more common in young females, and shows tropical and sub-tropical distribution. The idiopathic cases of SEP, which lack any identifiable cause from clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, are also reported under the descriptive term “abdominal cocoon syndrome”. SEP presents with acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction with or without a mass. In the era of laparoscopic surgery, inadvertent damage to the small bowel at insertion of the trocar and cannula can occur by being unaware of this condition resulting in unnecessary bowel resection. Persistent untreated SEP may advance to bowel gangrene or intestinal perforation, representing life threatening conditions. We report the clinical presentation of a 75-year-old female presenting with signs of intestinal obstruction whose imaging findings revealed abdominal cocoon with bowel gangrene leading to perforation and the same confirmed at surgery. Surgical excision of the fibrotic sac encasing the bowel, resection of gangrenous bowel segment and end ileostomy was performed. Histopathology of the excised membrane confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. To our knowledge, only a few cases of abdominal cocoon with perforation have been reported in literature so far. Radiologists should be aware of this relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction, its imaging findings and complications, as preoperative diagnosis will prevent delay and aid in treatment planning to the surgeon. Identification of soft tissue density membrane encasing congregated small bowel loops into a single area on computed-tomography gives diagnostic clue. Surgical excision of sac, release of bowel loops and adhesions with partial intestinal resection when necessary is the treatment.

  9. Small bowel imaging - still a radiologic approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Ingrid; Kluchova, Katerina; Zboril, Radek; Mashlan, Miroslav; Herman, Miroslav

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in small bowel imaging using a variety of radiologic or endoscopic techniques. This article gives an overview and comparison of old and new techniques used in small bowel imaging. New imaging methods as computed tomography (CT), CT enteroclysis (CTEc), CT enterography (CTEg), ultrasound (US), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), US enteroclysis, US enterography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR enteroclysis (MREc) and MR enterography (MREg) are compared with the older techniques such as small- bowel follow- through (SBFT), conventional enteroclysis (CE) and endoscopic techniques including push enteroscopy, ezofagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), sonde enteroscopy, ileocolonoscopy, double-balloon enteroscopy, intraoperative enteroscopy and wireless capsule enteroscopy (WCE). Systematic scan of Pubmed, Medline, Ovid, Elsevier search engines was used.. Additional information was found through the bibliographical review of relevant articles. SBFT has only secondary role in small bowel imaging. US is still the method of choice in imaging for pediatric populations. US and CEUS are also accepted as a method of choice especially in inflammatory cases. CE has been replaced by new cross - sectional imaging techniques (CTEc/CTEg or MREc/MREg). CTEc combines the advantages of CT and CE. MREc combines the advantages of MRI and CE. Some authors prefer CTEg or MREg with peroral bowel preparation and they strictly avoid nasojejunal intubation under fluoroscopic control. MREc has better soft tissue contrast, showing it to be more sensitive in detecting mucosal lesions than CTEc in inflammatory diseases. CTEg/MREg are techniques preferred for patients in follow-up of the inflammatory diseases. The radiologic community is not unanimous however about their role in the imaging process. CTEc/MREc as well as CTEg/MREg are superior to endoscopic methods in the investigation of small-bowel tumors. WCE gives unparalleled imaging of the mucosal

  10. The impact of telehealth support for patients with diabetes or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on unscheduled secondary care utilisation: a service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew CK Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Telehealth has been promoted as an adjunct to managing patients with long-term conditions. It has been used in various settings and for different disease groups. However, robust evidence for the efficacy of telehealth is currently lacking.Objectives To evaluate the impact of a telehealth service on emergency admissions and emergency department (ED attendances.Methods We evaluated a telehealth service providing supported self-management to patients that was implemented in Nottingham City. Two groups of patients (‘graduates’ of the Nottingham telehealth service and service ‘decliners’ were compared for two periods; 2009 (pre-service implementation and 2011. Eighty-nine pairs of graduates and decliners were identified who were matched for age and sex. The number and cost of emergency admissions and ED attendances for these patients were then collated and analysed.Results Graduates had significantly fewer emergency admissions and ED attendances compared with decliners in 2011. However, differences of a similar magnitude in emergency admissions and ED attendances were found in 2009. Telehealth service users were likely to be qualitatively different from decliners, reflecting a degree of self-selection. This suggests that decliners were more likely to have a  confounding reason for not engaging with telehealth, such as greater disease severity.Conclusions This service review found no evidence that the Nottingham telehealth service has had a significant impact on secondary care utilisation in the short term. Longer term follow up is needed to establish conclusively whether telehealth initiatives like the Nottingham telehealth service does lead to tangible patient benefits and provide value for money.

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (For Children)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Disease Print A A A en español Enfermedad inflamatoria del intestino What Is Inflammatory Bowel Disease? ... of IBD? There are two kinds of IBD: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (say: UL-sur-uh- ...

  12. Treatment of end stage chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction by subtotal enterectomy and home parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, M M; Irving, M H

    1988-11-01

    Three cases are described of end stage chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction successfully treated by subtotal enterectomy and home parenteral nutrition (HPN). In all three patients prior use of drugs to stimulate gastrointestinal motility, antibiotics to suppress bacterial overgrowth and surgical bypass of dilated bowel had failed to alleviate the symptoms of chronic intestinal obstruction. Similarly parenteral nutrition combined with restriction of oral intake, although improving nutrition did not relieve symptoms. The treatment of end stage chronic pseudo-obstruction should relieve intestinal obstruction and correct nutritional deficiency. In our experience this is best achieved by subtotal enterectomy, restoration of continuity by end-to-end anastomosis and total parenteral nutrition.

  13. New pharmacological treatment options for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusrat, Salman; Miner, Philip B

    2015-01-01

    Constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) is a common disorder and accounts for a large number of ambulatory visits. Sensory abnormalities, that is, presence of abdominal pain and discomfort, distinguish IBS-C from chronic idiopathic constipation. This review focuses on the pharmacology, efficacy, safety, and future of prucalopride, YKP-10811, DSP-6952, dexloxiglumide, linaclotide, plecanatide, tenapanor, and elobixibat. It is now well established that treatment focusing only on bowel transit provides incomplete relief to patients with IBS-C. Improved understanding of pathophysiology of IBS-C has led to use of sensory end points like complete spontaneous bowel movements and the FDA combined end point (abdominal pain and complete spontaneous bowel movements) in clinical trials. A number of drugs are in development and provide hope for this challenging group of patients. However, because of recent failures secondary to ineffectiveness and/or adverse events, we cautiously await how clinical data play out in larger studies and in clinical practice.

  14. Trichobezoar obstruction after stapled jejunal anastomosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carobbi, Barbara; Foale, Robert D; White, Richard A S

    2009-04-01

    To describe an unusual long-term complication of circular end-to-end anastomosis (CEEA) stapling in a dog. Clinical case report. An 11-year-old, female neutered, Labrador Retriever. The dog was referred for clinical signs of bowel obstruction. An enterectomy was performed 2 years before presentation using a CEEA stapling device. Palpation, plain radiographs, and ultrasound of the abdomen confirmed the presence of a mass in the bowel, causing obstruction, and requiring surgical approach. An exploratory celiotomy revealed a 5 cm mass in the jejunum, involving the site of the previous surgery. The mass was removed by enterectomy. Dissection of the mass revealed the presence of many staples at the previous enterectomy site, and a trichobezoar entangled in the exposed parts of the staples. An enterectomy was required to treat an intestinal obstruction caused by a trichobezoar entangled in a CEEA-stapled anastomosis. Development of trichobezoar and subsequent bowel obstruction should be considered an unusual but potential long-term complication of CEEA-stapled anastomosis.

  15. Meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation without peritoneal calcification: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valladares Esther

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A case of giant meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation is presented. Conventional radiographic features of meconium peritonitis with secondary meconium pseudocyst formation are well described. Our case is unusual in comparison to other cases reported in the literature and needs to be reported because the meconium pseudocyst presented without the typical ultrasound features (calcifications, polyhydramnios and ascites and was initially identified as an abdominal mass. Case presentation We describe the case of a 29-year-old Caucasian woman in her third trimester of pregnancy, in which an abdominal mass was detected in the fetus. The newborn was diagnosed in the early neonatal period with meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation. Conclusions The prenatal appearance of a meconium pseudocyst can be complemented by other signs of bowel obstruction (if present such as polyhydramnios and fetal bowel dilatation. This is an original case report of interest to all clinicians in the perinatology and fetal ultrasound field. We consider that the utility of this case is the recognition that a meconium pseudocyst might appear without the typical ultrasound features and should be considered as a differential diagnosis when an echogenic intra-abdominal cyst is seen.

  16. Gallstone ileus obstructing within an incarcerated lumbar hernia: an unusual presentation of a rare diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesmann, Markus Tyler; Alotaiby, Nouf; Abbasi, Thamer Al; Rezende-Neto, Joao B

    2014-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with signs and symptoms of small-bowel obstruction and a clinically appreciable, irreducible, left-sided lumbar hernia associated with previous iliac crest bone graft harvesting. Palpation of the hernia demonstrated a small, firm mass within the loops of herniated bowel. CT scanning recognised an intraluminal gallstone at the transition point, establishing the diagnosis of gallstone ileus within an incarcerated lumbar hernia. The proposed explanatory mechanism is that of a gallstone migrating into an easily reducible hernia containing small bowel causing obstruction at the hernia neck by a ball-valve mechanism, resulting in proximal bowel dilation and thus hernia incarceration; it remains unclear when the stone entered the hernia, and whether it enlarged in situ or prior to entering the enteral tract. This is only the second reported instance in the literature of an intraluminal gallstone causing hernia incarceration. PMID:25471112

  17. Small bowel perforation 17 months after robotic surgery for endometrial cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Jonathan P; Graybill, Whitney S; Tung, Celestine S; Jhingran, Anuja; Ramirez, Pedro T; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    ► Robotic surgery offers several advantages in the management of endometrial cancer. ► No long-term data exist regarding recurrence in patients undergoing robotic surgery. ► Metastasis or recurrence may result in bowel obstruction post surgery.

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Munkholm, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, yet the reasons remain unknown. New therapeutic approaches have been introduced in medical IBD therapy, but their impact on the natural history of IBD remains uncertain. This review will summarize the recent findings...

  19. Bowel Endometriosis Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riiskjær, M; Egekvist, A G; Hartwell, D

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to develop a validated score that can identify women with Bowel Endometriosis Syndrome (BENS) and be used to monitor the effect of medical and surgical treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: The BENS score can be used to identify women with BENS and to monitor the effect...

  20. Bowel obstruction in obturator hernia: A challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Conti

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Obturator hernia is a rare type of hernia due to his diagnosis, which is often unclear; a prompt suspect based for the non-specific symptoms is crucial for the diagnosis. Surgical management depends on early diagnosis and it is the only possible treatment for this pathology.

  1. Palliation of malingnant hilar obstruction at a single centre - review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Jaundice secondary to a malignant hilar obstruction can be relieved by operative bypass or percutaneous stenting. Comparative trials involving these techniques are scarce. We reviewed our experience with these competing techniques in the palliation of malignant hilar obstruction. Patients and methods.

  2. Ureteral switch for bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a typical case of MRKH type II associated with bilateral pelvic kidneys ectopia, ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction and high inserting ureters. The ureteral switch was performed at the time of pyeloplasty to prevent postoperative obstruction secondary to the angulation. Keywords: Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster- ...

  3. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by a Bezoar in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsueh Tseng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel obstruction caused by phytobezoars is quite uncommon in patients suffering from acute abdomen. The most common causes of small bowel obstruction are adhesive bands, incarcerated hernia, and adjacent tumor. We present a rare case of phytobezoar-induced small bowel obstruction in a female elderly patient without a history of abdominal surgery. An 83-year-old female presented to our emergency department on 5 March 2008 with intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain. After failure of conservative treatment with nasogastric tube decompression and a prokinetic agent, abdominal computed tomography (CT with contrast was arranged on March 9, 2008. The CT scan showed marked dilatation of the jejunum with fluid retention and possibly a large calcified bezoar (2.7cm × 3.16cm causing obstruction at the ileum. Surgery was performed on March 13, 2008, and the pathologic report showed a fibrocalcified nodule. Based on this case, we have suggest that bezoar-induced small bowel obstruction remains possible even in patients with no history of gastric surgery, autonomic enteropathy, or recent intake of persimmons. Surgical intervention is the standard management for intestinal bezoars, and early diagnosis and intervention reduces morbidity and mortality.

  4. Acute colonic obstruction due to benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mac Giobuin, S

    2012-02-01

    A seventy two year old man presented to the Emergency Department with clinical features of colonic obstruction. Subsequent radiological investigations confirmed this impression and revealed the aetiology to be compression of the sigmoid colon against the sacrum by a massively distended urinary bladder. Chronic urinary retention due to benign prostatic hypertrophy is an extremely unusual cause of large bowel obstruction. Little in this patient\\'s clinical findings suggested this aetiology. We reviewed the literature in this area and highlight the benefits of CT scanning over contrast studies.

  5. extreme hyperkalaemia secondary to malignant ureteric obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-11-01

    Nov 1, 2006 ... should be avoided. The highest recorded survivable serum K+ was 14 mmol/L, but this may be considered to be iatrogenic in origin since the patient had such high K+ level sequel to massive rhabdomyolysis sustained during the trauma of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and external defibrillation as well as.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea in ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Tosun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ischemic stroke and to evaluate the effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment. METHODS: Overnight polysomnography was performed by a computerized system in 19 subjects with ischemic stroke. Patients with an apnea-hypopnea index > 5 were considered to have obstructive sleep apnea. The appropriate level of continuous positive airway pressure for each patient was determined during an all-night continuous positive airway pressure determination study. Attended continuous positive airway pressure titration was performed with a continuous positive airway pressure auto-titrating device. RESULTS: Obstructive sleep apnea prevalence among patients with ischemic stroke was 73.7%. The minimum SaO2 was significantly lower, and the percent of total sleep time in the wake stage and stage 1 sleep was significantly longer in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In two patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea, we observed a decrease in the apnea-hypopnea index, an increase in mean wake time, mean SaO2, and minimum SaO2, and alterations in sleep structures with continuous positive airway pressure treatment. CONCLUSION: As the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is of particular importance in secondary stroke prevention, we suggest that the clinical assessment of obstructive sleep apnea be part of the evaluation of stroke patients in rehabilitation units, and early treatment should be started.

  7. Mesenteric Air Embolism Following Enteroscopic Small Bowel Tattooing Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE is a revolutionary procedure in which the entire small bowel can be visualized endoscopically. DBE has the advantage of both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in the setting of small bowel neoplasms and vascular malformations. We present a unique case of a 76-year-old female who underwent small bowel DBE tattoo marking of a distal small bowel tumor complicated by development of severe abdominal pain postprocedure secondary to bowel air embolism into the mesenteric veins. Mesenteric air can be seen after other endoscopic procedures such as biopsy, mucosal clip placement and polypectomy, or following a colonoscopy. Mesenteric air embolism following small bowel tattooing procedure has not been previously reported in the literature. Mesenteric air when present may be attributed to mesenteric ischemia and can subject the patient to unnecessary surgical intervention if misdiagnosed. Thus, this report holds significance for the radiologist as computed tomography (CT findings of mesenteric air embolism must be evaluated in the context of appropriate clinical history before treatment decisions are made.

  8. Mesenteric air embolism following enteroscopic small bowel tattooing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Natalie; Lamba, Ramit; Lee, John; Lall, Chandana

    2012-01-01

    Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is a revolutionary procedure in which the entire small bowel can be visualized endoscopically. DBE has the advantage of both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in the setting of small bowel neoplasms and vascular malformations. We present a unique case of a 76-year-old female who underwent small bowel DBE tattoo marking of a distal small bowel tumor complicated by development of severe abdominal pain postprocedure secondary to bowel air embolism into the mesenteric veins. Mesenteric air can be seen after other endoscopic procedures such as biopsy, mucosal clip placement and polypectomy, or following a colonoscopy. Mesenteric air embolism following small bowel tattooing procedure has not been previously reported in the literature. Mesenteric air when present may be attributed to mesenteric ischemia and can subject the patient to unnecessary surgical intervention if misdiagnosed. Thus, this report holds significance for the radiologist as computed tomography (CT) findings of mesenteric air embolism must be evaluated in the context of appropriate clinical history before treatment decisions are made.

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  10. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in an infant after retroperitoneal pyeloplasty successfully treated with rectal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Jazaeri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction is frequently observed in adults but is rarely seen in children. The illness has never been reported in infants, who might differ in their reaction to the acute bowel distension and their response to the available management options. This report describes the presentation of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in an infant after retroperitoneal pyeloplasty and its successful treatment with rectal irrigation.

  11. Treatment of end stage chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction by subtotal enterectomy and home parenteral nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, M M; Irving, M H

    1988-01-01

    Three cases are described of end stage chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction successfully treated by subtotal enterectomy and home parenteral nutrition (HPN). In all three patients prior use of drugs to stimulate gastrointestinal motility, antibiotics to suppress bacterial overgrowth and surgical bypass of dilated bowel had failed to alleviate the symptoms of chronic intestinal obstruction. Similarly parenteral nutrition combined with restriction of oral intake, although improving nutrition d...

  12. A case of bowel entrapment after penetrating injury of the pelvis: don't forget the omentumplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsman Jan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bowel entrapment within a pelvic injury is rare and difficult to diagnose. Usually, it is diagnosed late because of concomitant abdominal injuries. It may present itself as an acute intestinal obstruction or, more commonly, as a prolonged or intermittent ileus. Therefore, one should be aware of this late complication and primarily take measures for avoiding bowel entrapment. This report describes an unusual case of bowel entrapment within a pelvic fracture after a penetrating injury, and discusses options for preventing such a complication.

  13. Short bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  14. Malignant duodenal obstructions: palliative treatment with covered expandable nitinol stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung Min; Oh, Kyung Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Cho, Young Duk [College of Medicine, Kosin Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of using a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent in the palliative treatment of malignant duodenal obstruction. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent was placed in 12 consecutive patients with malignant duodenal obstructions. All presented with severe nausea and recurrent vomiting. The underlying causes of obstruction were duodenal carcinoma (n=4), pancreatic carcinoma (n=4), gall bladder carcinoma (n=2), distal CBD carcinoma (n=1), and uterine cervical carcinoma (n=1). The sites of obstruction were part I (n=1), part II (n=8), and III (n=3). Due to pre-existing jaundice, eight patients with part II obstructions underwent biliary decompression prior to stent placement. An introducer sheath with a 6-mm outer diameter and stents 16 mm in diameter were employed, and to place the stent, and after-loading technique was used. Stent placement was technically successful in ten patients, and no procedural complications occuured. In one of two patients in whom there was technical failure, and in whom the obstructions were located in part III, the stent was placed transgastrically. Stent migration occurred in one patient four days after the procedure, and treatment involved the palcement of a second, uncovered, nitinol stent. After stent placement, symptoms improved in all patients. During follow-up, obstructive symptoms due to stent stenosis (n=1), colonic obstruction (n=1), and multiple small bowel obstruction (n=1) recurred in three patients. Two of these were treated by placing additional stents in the duodenum and colon, respectively. One of the eight patients in whom a stent was placed in the second portion of the duodenum developed jaundice. The patients died a mean 14 (median, 9) weeks after stent placement. The placement of a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent seems to be technically feasible, safe and effective for the palliative treatment of malignant

  15. Advances in small bowel transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Gürkan, Alp

    2017-01-01

    Small bowel transplantation is a life-saving surgery for patients with intestinal failure. The biggest problem in intestinal transplantation is graft rejection. Graft rejection is the main reason for morbidity and mortality. Rejection has a negative effect on the survival of the graft. While 50%–75% of small bowel transplantation patients experience acute rejection, chronic rejection occurs in approximately 15% of patients. Immune monitoring is crucial after small bowel transplantation. Unlik...

  16. A Population-Based Analysis of Three Treatment Modalities for Malignant Obstruction of the Proximal Colon: Acute Resection Versus Stent or Stoma as a Bridge to Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, F. J.; Consten, E. C. J.; Siersema, P. D.; Tanis, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant obstruction of the proximal colon (MOPC) traditionally has been treated with acute resection. However, morbidity and mortality rates following these emergency surgeries are high. Initial bowel decompression by stent placement or stoma construction has been used for distal obstructions as

  17. Adhesive small bowel obstruction: predictive value of oral contrast administration on the need for surgery Obstrucción intestinal adherencial: valor predictivo de la administración precoz de contraste radiológico sobre la necesidad de cirugía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Perea García

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: adhesive small bowel obstruction (SBO is a common cause of hospital admission. Nonoperative management is initially recommended unless there is suspicion of strangulation, but its optimal duration is controversial. The aims of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of radiographic small bowel examination with contrast medium to predict the need for surgery in SBO. Material and methods: this prospective study carried out from January 1999 to December 2001, included 100 patients with clinical and radiological criteria of adhesive SBO. We described the past medical history, as well as clinical picture, blood tests and radiological findings in these patients. Fifty cubic centimeters of 5% barium suspension were given orally, and plain abdominal radiographs were taken at 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours afterwards. A liquid diet was given as soon as the contrast medium appeared in the right colon. Otherwise, surgical intervention was considered based on the outcome of the patient and the criteria of the emergency surgical team. Results: in 70 patients, barium contrast appeared in the right colon, and a liquid diet was tolerated by 69 of them (98.6%. Mean hospitalization time for this group was 43 ± 17 hours. In the remaining 30 patients, no evidence of barium contrast in the right colon was seen, and 25 of them underwent surgery (75%, while the other 5 tolerated a liquid diet. Mean hospitalization time for this second group of patients was 13.8 ± 11 days. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the absence of contrast medium in the right colon within 24 hours as a predictor of surgery were 93, 96, 98 and 83%, respectively. There was a statistical significant relationship (p Introducción: la obstrucción intestinal adherencial (OIA es una importante causa de ingreso hospitalario. Salvo que exista sospecha de estrangulación, está indicado inicialmente el manejo conservador. No obstante, el

  18. Acutely Obstructed Airway Resulting from Complications of a Laryngopyocoele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Mole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngocoeles are rare cystic dilatations of the laryngeal ventricle. Obstruction of its outlet can cause entrapment of mucus and superimposed infection causes a laryngopyocoele. Such presentations, although rare, have potential to cause airway obstruction. A 67-year-old lady presented with a one-week history of hoarseness and shortness of breath. On examination, she was stridulous and had fullness of the left side of the neck. Nasendoscopy revealed large bilateral vocal cord polyps and near-complete glottis obstruction. She was taken to emergency theatre for restoration of a viable airway. Upon excision of the polyps, pus was visualised originating from the laryngeal ventricle. Literature proposes that laryngocoeles develop secondary to a one-way valve caused by an obstructing lesion distorting the saccule neck. We propose that the laryngocoele developed secondary to large obstructing polyps. Urgent excision of the polyps allowed decompression of the laryngopyocoele and reestablishment of a patent airway.

  19. Leven met Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk J. van, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Leven met Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is de verzamelnaam voor Colitis ulcerosa en de ziekte van Crohn. Het zijn chronische darmontstekingen, waarvan de ziekteactiviteit wisselt en zich niet laat voorspellen. Door de lichamelijke klachten en het onvoorspelbare karakter

  20. Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plavšić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder diagnosed on symptom-based criteria without inclusion of any objective parameter measurable by known diagnostic methods. Heterogeneity of the disorder and overlapping with more serious organic diseases increase uncertainty for the physician’s work and increase the cost of confirming the diagnosis. This paper is an attempt to summarize the efforts to find adequate biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome, which should shorten the time to diagnosis and reduce the cost. Most of the reviewed papers were observational studies from secondary care institutions. Since publication of the Rome III criteria in 2006, most recent studies use these for the recruitment of IBS patients. This is a positive step forward as future studies should use the same criteria, facilitating comparison of their results. Among the studied biomarkers, most evidence is provided for fecal calprotectin. Cutoff values for fecal calprotectin have still to be investigated prior to inclusion in the irritable bowel syndrome diagnostic algorithm.

  1. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...... healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance......, plasma and extracellular volume, balance function, and biochemical parameters were measured. RESULTS: Bowel preparation led to a significant decrease in exercise capacity (median, 9 percent) and weight (median, 1.2 kg). Plasma osmolality was significantly increased from 287 to 290 mmol kg(-1), as well...

  2. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...... healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...... preparation has significant adverse physiologic effects, which may be attributed to dehydration. The majority of these findings is small and may not be of clinical relevance in otherwise healthy patients undergoing bowel preparation and following recommendations for oral fluid intake....

  3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kavuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha’s Adhi (originated from mind and Vyadhi (ailment/disease concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS.

  5. Effective Endovascular Stenting of Malignant Portal Vein Obstruction in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Ellis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the case of a patient successfully treated by transhepatic portal venous stent placement for malignant portal vein obstruction with associated gastric and small bowel varices and repeated gastrointestinal bleeding. CT angiography and portography showed severe portal vein obstruction from recurrent pancreatic cancer 15 months following pancreaticoduodenectomy with tumor encasement and dilated collateral veins throughout the gastric and proximal small bowel wall as the suspected cause of the GI bleeding. Successful transhepatic endovascular stent placement of the splenic vein at the portal vein confluence followed by balloon dilation was performed with immediate decompression of the gastric and small bowel varices and relief of GI hemorrhage in this patient until his death four months later. The treatment for patients with this dilemma can prove to be difficult, but as we have shown endovascular stenting of the portal system is an effective treatment option.

  6. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A N; Kukuruzovic, R H; Catto-Smith, A G; Sawyer, S M

    2007-10-17

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder of unknown aetiology. Current pharmacological treatments have limited value. Hypnotherapy has been reported to have beneficial effects for IBS symptoms. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised clinical trials were identified through structured searches of MEDLINE (1966 to March 2006), EMBASE (1980 to March 2006), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2006), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1982 to March 2006), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, 1985 to March 2006) and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials. Conference proceedings from Digestive Disease Week (1980 to 2005) were also searched. Eligible studies included all randomised and quasi-randomised clinical studies comparing hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with no treatment or another therapeutic intervention. All studies were evaluated for eligibility for inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality and data were extracted independently by four authors. The primary outcome measure of interest was the overall bowel symptom severity score which combines abdominal pain, diarrhoea or constipation and bloating. Secondary outcomes included abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation, bloating, quality of life, patient's overall assessment of well-being, psychological measures as per validated questionnaires, and adverse events. Four studies including a total of 147 patients met the inclusion criteria. Only one study compared hypnotherapy to an alternative therapy (psychotherapy and placebo pill), two studies compared hypnotherapy with waiting-list controls and the final study compared hypnotherapy to usual medical management. Data were not pooled for meta-analysis due to differences in outcome measures and study design. The therapeutic

  7. A RARE CASE OF BOWEL GANGRENE WITH PREGNANCY WITH IUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir Kaur Saluja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PRESENTATION OF CASE A 26 year primigravida was referred with the diagnosis of 28 week pregnancy with intestinal obstruction. She complained of distension, pain in abdomen, not passing stool and flatus since 2 days, vomiting since 1 day. No history of previous surgery. On examination, her condition was poor, pulse 120/min., respiration 44/min. and blood pressure 100/60 mmHg. Abdominal inspection revealed gross distension. On palpation, abdomen was tense, guarding and tenderness was present, no fluid thrill or shifting dullness found, bowel sounds absent. Height of uterus was not clearly marked. Vaginal examination showed foetal head deep in pelvis and cervical os closed and posteriorly placed. Per rectal examination revealed an empty rectum. Investigation- HB 8.7 g%, blood group- O negative, WBC 20.95 x 10 3 /UL, urine examination positive for blood cells, pus cells 40-50/hpf and RBC 30-40/hpf. USG whole abdomen showed subacute intestinal obstruction with mild ascites. USG obstetrics showed 28 weeks pregnancy with intrauterine dead foetus. X-ray abdomen standing showed multiple free fluid levels suggestive of intestinal obstruction. Fluid resuscitation and intravenous antibiotics were started, nasogastric tube suctioning had large amount of bilious fluid (approximately 1000 mL. Surgical referral suggested subacute intestinal obstruction.

  8. Small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Marco; Spada, Cristiano; Eliakim, Rami; Keuchel, Martin; May, Andrea; Mulder, Chris J; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Adler, Samuel N; Albert, Joerg; Baltes, Peter; Barbaro, Federico; Cellier, Christophe; Charton, Jean Pierre; Delvaux, Michel; Despott, Edward J; Domagk, Dirk; Klein, Amir; McAlindon, Mark; Rosa, Bruno; Rowse, Georgina; Sanders, David S; Saurin, Jean Christophe; Sidhu, Reena; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Gralnek, Ian M

    2015-04-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). The Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). It addresses the roles of small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends small-bowel video capsule endoscopy as the first-line investigation in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 2 In patients with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, ESGE recommends performing small-bowel capsule endoscopy as soon as possible after the bleeding episode, optimally within 14 days, in order to maximize the diagnostic yield (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3 ESGE does not recommend the routine performance of second-look endoscopy prior to small-bowel capsule endoscopy; however whether to perform second-look endoscopy before capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding or iron-deficiency anaemia should be decided on a case-by-case basis (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 In patients with positive findings at small-bowel capsule endoscopy, ESGE recommends device-assisted enteroscopy to confirm and possibly treat lesions identified by capsule endoscopy (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends ileocolonoscopy as the first endoscopic examination for investigating patients with suspected Crohn's disease (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). In patients with suspected Crohn's disease and negative ileocolonoscopy findings, ESGE recommends small-bowel capsule endoscopy as the initial diagnostic modality for investigating the small bowel, in the absence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence).ESGE does not recommend routine small-bowel imaging or the use of the PillCam patency capsule

  9. Alosetron relieves pain and improves bowel function compared with mebeverine in female nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R H; Holtmann, G; Rodrigo, L; Ehsanullah, R S; Crompton, P M; Jacques, L A; Mills, J G

    1999-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, yet no therapy convincingly controls the multiple symptoms of this syndrome. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of the new 5-HT3-receptor antagonist alosetron and the smooth muscle relaxant mebeverine in a double-blind, multicentre, randomized trial. Six hundred and twenty-three nonconstipated females with irritable bowel syndrome were randomized to receive alosetron 1 mg twice daily (n=319) or mebeverine 135 mg three times daily (n=304) for 12 weeks, followed by a 4-week post-treatment period. The primary efficacy end-point was monthly responders for adequate relief of irritable bowel syndrome related abdominal pain and discomfort (defined as patients reporting adequate relief on at least 2 out of 4 weeks). Secondary end-points included assessments of bowel function, including urgency, stool frequency and stool consistency. There were significantly more responders in the alosetron group compared with mebeverine at months 2 and 3 (P mebeverine, the alosetron group experienced significant decreases in proportion of days with urgency and mean stool frequency, and had firmer stools within 1 week of starting treatment. A similar proportion of patients reported adverse events in the two treatment groups. In nonconstipated female irritable bowel syndrome patients, alosetron is significantly more effective than mebeverine in improving symptoms.

  10. COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / COPD COPD Also known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , Emphysema Leer en español What Is Also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic bronchitis; or emphysema. COPD, or chronic obstructive ...

  11. Impact of patient education with cartoon visual aids on the quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Chan; Hong, Su Jin; Han, Jae Pil; Lee, Yun Hee; Chung, Jong Ho; Yoon, Hyung Geun; Ko, Bong Min; Cho, Joo Young; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Moon Sung

    2012-10-01

    High-quality bowel preparation is a prerequisite for colonoscopy. Few studies have evaluated visual aids as a means of improving the quality of bowel preparation. To assess the effect of patient education by using cartoon visual aids on the quality of bowel preparation. An endoscopist-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Tertiary referral center. Patients scheduled for screening colonoscopy in a health examination center. Patients were assigned to receive the existing verbal and written instructions (group A) or a new cartoon visual educational instruction (group B) for colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was the quality of bowel preparation, assessed by using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS). Secondary endpoints were the quality of bowel preparation assessed by using the Universal Preparation Assessment Scale; insertion, withdrawal, and workup times; and polyp detection rates in the 2 groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with poor bowel preparation according to a BBPS score less than 5. Group B exhibited better bowel preparation than group A according to BBPS scores (mean BBPS score, 6.12 ± 2.19 vs 7.44 ± 1.87, P ≤ .01; median BBPS score, 6.00 ± 0.00 vs 9.00 ± 0.00, P ≤ .01; good bowel preparation for colonoscopy, BBPS score ≥5, 81.6% vs 93.1%, P = .02). Multivariate analysis revealed that older age (odds ratio 1.07, P ≤ .01) and no use of visual aids (odds ratio 3.08, P = .02) were independent factors associated with poor bowel preparation. Single-center study. Patient education with cartoons effectively improved bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ageing with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2017-01-01

    at 18% in 1996 and 19% in 2015. During the 19-year period, there had been no significant change in the methods for bowel care, but 22 (20%) had undergone surgery for bowel dysfunction, including 11 (10%) who had some form of stoma. Conclusion: Self-assessed severity of constipation increased but quality...... of life remained stable in a cohort of people with SCI followed prospectively for 19 years. Methods for bowel care remained surprisingly stable but a large proportion had undergone stoma surgery....

  13. MINERALIZATION DISORDER OF OSSEOUS TISSUE AMONG THE CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Yablokova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate of inflammatory bowel diseases among children actualizes early detection of this pathology form and its aftera effects, including secondary osteoporosis. The research purpose is to study the characteristics of osseous tissue mineralization, disorder of physical growth and sexual maturity of children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. The researchers have examined 116 children, including 33 children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases; 26 children, suffering from persistent colitis; 29 children, suffering from gasatroduodenitis; and 28 children with no GI tract pathologies. The study deals with estimate of level of mineral osseous tissue density, biochemical rates of osseous metabolism, as well as physical growth and sexual maturity. reduction of mineral osseous tissue density was found among 48,5% of children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, 23% of children, suffering from persistent colitis, 31% of children, suffering from chronic gastritis and 18% of almost healthy children, at the same time, it was more apparent among children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. The lowest rates of mineral osseous tissue density were among girls. Calcium phosphoric metabolism did not change apart from calcium creatinine coefficient, if osteopenia was observed. Thus, reduction of mineral osseous tissue density is often observed among children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, especially among adolescent girls. Therefore, it conditions the necessity to include densimetry into the conventional examination plan for children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. Authors also find it advisable to monitor physical growth and sexual maturity of children.Key words: children, inflammatory bowel diseases, osteoporosis.

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  15. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Adhesions after abdominal and pelvic surgery are a major cause of intestinal obstruction in the western world and the pathology is steadily gaining prominence in our practice. Objective: To determine the magnitude of adhesive intestinal obstruction; to determine the types.

  16. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... obstruction. Brit. I. Surg. 1998; 85: 1071-1074. The acute abdomen: Intestinal obstruction. In: Primary surgery, Vol. 1. Edited by Maurice King et al. Oxford. Med. PubL, Oxford. 1990; 142-169. Fluids and electrolyte management. In: Essentials of pediatric surgery. Edited by Marc Rowe et al. Mosby,. St. Louis ...

  17. Short bowel syndrome in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matarese, Laura E; Jeppesen, Palle B; O'Keefe, Stephen J D

    2014-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a heterogeneous disorder with broad variation in disease severity arising from different types of intestinal resection. The spectrum of malabsorption ranges from intestinal insufficiency to intestinal failure. Individualized patient strategies involving modifications...

  18. Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) View or Print All Sections ... NIDDK would like to thank: William E. Whitehead, Ph.D., University of North Carolina School of Medicine ...

  19. IRRITATED BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Privorotskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritated bowel syndrome is a significant and underestimated problem in childhood. This condition is not so good studied in pediatrics in comparison with adult practice. Pediatricians often diagnosed this disease in infants and young children without proper reasons. The authors analyze current opinions about etiology and pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosticsand treatment of irritated bowel syndrome in children. An emphasis is made on diagnostic criteria, which allow suggesting and confirming the diagnosis.

  20. The Incidence of Intestinal Obstructive Diseases in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are characterized by severe hypovolemia and septic shock secondary to devitalization of the intestinal wall. The consequent surgical complications such as ileus, adhesions and short bowel syndrome with resultant death of the patients also pose management challenges to the clinician. This study investigated the ...

  1. Mechanisms, Management, and Treatment of Fibrosis in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Florian; Fiocchi, Claudio; Rogler, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    In the last 10 years, we have learned much about the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of intestinal fibrosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Just a decade ago, intestinal strictures were considered to be an inevitable consequence of long-term inflammation in patients who did not respond to anti-inflammatory therapies. Inflammatory bowel diseases-associated fibrosis was seen as an irreversible process that frequently led to intestinal obstructions requiring surgical intervention. This paradigm has changed rapidly, due to the antifibrotic approaches that may become available. We review the mechanisms and diagnosis of this serious complication of inflammatory bowel diseases, as well as factors that predict its progression and management strategies. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Small Bowel Perforation as a Postoperative Complication from a Laminectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Krieger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain is one of the leading chief complaints affecting adults in the United States. As a result, this increases the percentage of patients that will eventually undergo surgical intervention to alleviate debilitating, chronic symptoms. A 37-year-old woman presented ten hours postoperatively after a lumbar laminectomy with an acute abdomen due to the extraordinarily rare complication of small bowel injury secondary to deep surgical penetration.

  3. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenaga, K F; Matos, D; Castro, A A; Atallah, A N; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2003-01-01

    RCT was summarised in 2 x 2 tables for each outcome. For analysis the Peto-Odds ratio was used as defaults (no statistical heterogeneity was observed) Of the 1159 patients with anastomosis (6 RCTs), 576 were allocated for mechanical bowel preparation (groups 1) and 583 for no preparation (groups 2) before elective colorectal surgery. Of 1204 patients totally enrolled 595 were in groups 1 and 609 in groups 2. 1) Anastomotic leakage - stratified:A) Low anterior resection: 12.5% (6 of 48 patients in 1) compared with 12% (6 of 50 patients in 2); Peto OR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.35 - 3.96 (non-significant) B) Colonic surgery: 1.16% (2 of 172 patients in 1) compared with 0.6% (1 of 166 patients in 2); Peto OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.18 - 17.02 2) Overall anastomotic leakage: 5.5% (32 of 576 patients in 1) compared with 2.9% (17 of 583 patients in 2); Peto OR 1.94, 95% CI: 1.09 - 3.43 (P=0.02) SECONDARY OUTCOMES: 3) Mortality: 0.6% (2 of 329 patients in 1) compared with 0% (0 of 326 patients in 2); Peto OR 7.95, 95% CI: 0.49 - 128.34 (non-significant) 4) Peritonitis: 5.1% ( 13 of 254 patients in 1) compared with 2.8% (7 of 252 patients in 2); Peto OR 1.90, 95% CI: 0.78 -4.64) (non significant) 5) Reoperation: 3.3% ( 11 of 329 patients) compared with 2.5% (8 of 326 patients); Peto OR 1.40, 95% CI: 0.56 - 3.49) (non-significant) 6) Wound infection: 7.4% (44 of 595 patients in 1) compared with 5.7% (35 of 609 patients in 2); Peto OR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.85 - 2.13 (non-significant) 7) Infectious extra-abdominal complication: 8.3% ( 14 of 168 patients in 1) compared with 9.4% (15 of 159 patients in 2); Peto OR, 95%: 0.87 (0.41 - 1.87) 8) Non-infection extra-abdominal complication: 8.0% ( 20 of 250 patients in 1) compared with 7.0% (17 of 246 patients in 2); Peto OR 1.19, 95% CI: 0.61 - 2.32 (non-significant) - 9) Surgical site infection: 9.8% (31 of 325 patients in 1) compared with 8.3% (27 of 322 patients in 2); Peto OR 1.20, 95% CI: 0.70 - 2.05 (non-significant) - The results failed to support the

  4. Mebeverine alters small bowel motility in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, P R; Bak, Y T; Kellow, J E

    1996-10-01

    Despite its widespread use in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), limited clinical data exist on the effects of mebeverine hydrochloride on gastrointestinal motility. Human motor activity in the small bowel is more reproducible than that in the large bowel; therefore the aim of this study was to determine in the small bowel the effects of oral mebeverine in both IBS patients and in healthy controls. Twelve IBS patients (11 females/1 male, 46 +/- 13 years old)-predominant constipation (IBS-C, n = 6) and predominant diarrhoea (IBS-D, n = 6)-and six healthy controls, underwent continuous 48 h ambulant recording of small bowel motor activity. One low energy (400 kcal) and one high energy (800 kcal) standard meal were administered in each consecutive 24-h period. Subjects received, in blinded fashion, placebo tablets in the first 24 h then mebeverine 135 mg q.d.s. in the second 24 h. Mebeverine had no effect on parameters of small bowel motility in controls. In contrast, in both IBS-C (P = 0.01) and IBS-D (P mebeverine administration. Also, after mebeverine the proportion of the migrating motor complex cycle occupied by phase 2 was reduced in IBS-D (P = 0.01), while phase 2 burst frequency was reduced in IBS-C (P mebeverine, in the initial dosing period, has a normalizing effect in the small bowel in IBS, enhancing contractile activity in a similar fashion to 'prokinetic' agents, as well as producing alterations in motor activity consistent with an 'antispasmodic' effect.

  5. Radiologic evaluation of intestinal obstruction in the neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Eun Suk; Kwon, Sun Young [Eul Ji General Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Young [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hye Jeong [Eul Ji General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiologic findings of the intestinal obstruction in the neonate according to the causes and to determine the findings useful for the differential diagnosis. The materials consisted of 29 neonates with surgically proven gastrointestinal tract obstruction. We analyzed simple abdominal radiography and barium study comparing with the operative findings. The causes of intestinal obstruction were gastric atresia in 1 case, duodenal atresia in 3 cases, small bowel atresia in 11 cases (jejunal; 3 cases, ileal; 8 cases), colonic atresia in 2 cases, Hirschsprung's disease in 9 cases, ano-rectal anomaly in 6 cases, midgut volvulus in 2 cases, and Meckel's diverticulum in 1 case. Vomiting was noted in the all cases. The abdominal distension was not noted in the cases of gastric atresia, duodenal atresia, and proximal jejunal atresia. The meconium passage was noted in 2 cases of ileal atresia and 3 cases of Hirschsprung's disease. On barium study, site of obstruction was predicted accurately in gastric atresia, duodenal atresia, proximal jejunal atresia, and colonic atresia but it was not possible in distal jejunal atresia and ileal atresia. The microcolon was noted in 2 cases of jejunal atresia, 4 cases of ileal atresia, and 2 cases of colonic atresia. Out of 9 Hirschsprung's disease transition zones were seen on rectum or rectosigmoid junction in 7 cases and barium study was normal in 2 cases. In the diagnosis of neonatal intestinal obstruction, the basic radiologic studies such as simple abdominal radiography and gastrointestinal contrast study was useful for the differential diagnosis of the proximal bowel loop atresia colonic atresia, and midgut volvulus.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea in Treacher Collins syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Akre, Harriet; ?verland, Britt; ?sten, Pamela; Skogedal, Nina; Heimdal, Ketil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) among the Norwegian population with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). A secondary aim was to establish whether TCS phenotype severity is associated with OSAS severity. A prospective case study design was used. Individuals who were 5?years old and above with a known diagnosis of TCS in Norway were invited to participate in a study. The study included genetic testing, medical and dental exam...

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it "irritable brain" or "irritable bowel"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed.

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease: pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Li, Yong-Yu

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. It has been a worldwide health-care problem with a continually increasing incidence. It is thought that IBD results from an aberrant and continuing immune response to the microbes in the gut, catalyzed by the genetic susceptibility of the individual. Although the etiology of IBD remains largely unknown, it involves a complex interaction between the genetic, environmental or microbial factors and the immune responses. Of the four components of IBD pathogenesis, most rapid progress has been made in the genetic study of gut inflammation. The latest internationally collaborative studies have ascertained 163 susceptibility gene loci for IBD. The genes implicated in childhood-onset and adult-onset IBD overlap, suggesting similar genetic predispositions. However, the fact that genetic factors account for only a portion of overall disease variance indicates that microbial and environmental factors may interact with genetic elements in the pathogenesis of IBD. Meanwhile, the adaptive immune response has been classically considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of IBD, as new studies in immunology and genetics have clarified that the innate immune response maintains the same importance in inducing gut inflammation. Recent progress in understanding IBD pathogenesis sheds lights on relevant disease mechanisms, including the innate and adaptive immunity, and the interactions between genetic factors and microbial and environmental cues. In this review, we provide an update on the major advances that have occurred in above areas.

  9. Wrecks and Obstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In 1981, NOAA�s National Ocean Service (NOS) implemented the Automated Wreck and Obstruction Information System (AWOIS) to assist in planning hydrographic survey...

  10. Bladder outlet obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names BOO; Lower urinary tract obstruction; Prostatism; Urinary retention - BOO Images Kidney anatomy Female urinary tract Male ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  11. Lubiprostone for constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Ashok K; Rao, Satish S C

    2008-12-01

    Chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome are heterogeneous disorders characterized by altered bowel habits, abdominal discomfort and/or difficult defecation. These conditions have a significant impact on patients' quality of life, as well as on the US economy, both in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity. Treatment typically begins with lifestyle changes, increased fiber intake and osmotic and stimulant laxative intake. However, treatments for constipation vary in terms of their efficacy and safety. Furthermore, surveys of physicians and patients have revealed a strong desire for improved therapeutic options. Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid that is gut selective and stimulates type 2 chloride channels, resulting in increased chloride, sodium and water secretion into the lumen. The increased fluid secretion causes luminal distension, secondary peristalsis and laxation. Randomized Phase III trials have shown that lubiprostone is efficacious in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. The US FDA has approved lubiprostone at a dose of 24 microg twice daily for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults, and at a dose of 8 microg twice daily for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in adult women. Nausea, diarrhea and headaches are the most commonly reported side effects. In long-term studies, lubiprostone appears to be safe.

  12. Tumours in the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kurniawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel tumours are rare and originate from a wide variety of benign and malignant entities. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent primary malignant small bowel tumours. Submucosal tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST or neuroendocrine tumours (NET may show a central umbilication, pathologic vessels, bridging folds or an ulceration of the overlying mucosa. These signs help to differentiate them from harmless bulges caused by impression from outside, e.g. from other intestinal loops. Sarcomas of the small bowel are rare neoplasias with mesenchymal origin, sometimes presenting as protruding masses. Benign tumours like lipoma, fibrolipoma, fibroma, myoma, and heterotopias typically present as submucosal masses. They cannot be differentiated endoscopically from those with malignant potential as GIST or NET. Neuroendocrine carcinomas may present with diffuse infiltration, which may resemble other malignant tumours. The endoscopic appearance of small bowel lymphomas has a great variation from mass lesions to diffuse infiltrative changes. Melanoma metastases are the most frequent metastases to the small bowel. They may be hard to distinguish from other tumours when originating from an amelanotic melanoma.

  13. Primary small bowel anastomosis in generalised peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGraaf, JS; van Goor, Harry; Bleichrodt, RP

    Objective: To find out if primary small bowel anastomosis of the bowel is safe in patients with generalised peritonitis who are treated by planned relaparotomies. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: University hospital, The Netherlands. Subjects. 10 Patients with generalised purulent peritonitis

  14. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to inflammatory bowel disease may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  15. Laparoscopic Bowel Injuries Among Gynecologic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. R. Garcia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bowel injury is an uncommon but recognized risk of operative laparoscopy. Because of the significant morbidity that can occur with this complication, it is important that clinicians be aware of its incidence, presentation, and management. This manuscript outlines the common causes of bowel injury, including herniation and traumatic bowel perforation. Management of laparoscopic bowel injuries is discussed and recommendations are made for avoidance of such complications.

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewska, Anna Małgorzata; Warska, Aleksandra; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Włodzimierz

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprising Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) may appear at any age. As such, IBD commonly affects young patients in their reproductive age. Rate of voluntary childlessness among women with IBD far exceed that of the general population, as patients with IBD fear not only the effect of pregnancy on the course of inflammatory bowel disease, but also the increased risk of the offspring developing the disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, the effect IBD treatment may have on the health and development of the infant or the risk of relapse during pregnancy and the influence of lactation on child development and disease course. This article aims at improving pre-conception counseling of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  17.  Papillary Cystadenocarcinoma of Ovary Presenting as Obstructive Jaundice: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Obstructive jaundice resulting from malignancy of gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary tract has been reported in various studies. Ovarian malignancy leading to obstructive jaundice due to portal lymphadenopathy is of rare occurrence. We report a case presented with obstructive jaundice and on further evaluation, found to have ovarian papillary cyst adenocarcinoma with secondaries at porta hepatis which was managed successfully by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by cytoreductive surgery.

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with a change in bowel habit, or with features of disordered defecation. Patients and doctors in primary care generally agree on IBS symptomatology and consider pain and bloating as its

  19. Perforated small bowel in omphalocele at birth

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    Kale R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of an omphalocele sac during birth is a well recognized entity. The associated lesions due to vascular compromise can result in necrosis of the bowel with perforation. Spontaneous bowel perforation in an omphalocele at birth is not reported in the literature. We describe a case with bowel perforation at the fundus of an omphalocele in a newborn.

  20. Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction-Four Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rathore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To study the aetiology and frequency, sex incidence, age of presentation, management and outcome of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Material and Methods: This prospective study of 316 neonates with intestinal obstruction was conducted over a period of 4 years from November 2009 to October 2013 at single institute. These cases were managed by various surgical procedures. Their epidemiology, day of presentation, associated anomalies and outcomes were studied. Results: A total of 316 neonates (277 males and 39 females were operated for intestinal obstruction. 268(84.81% neonates presented in the 1st week of life. Imperforate anus occurred in 206 (65.19%.Small bowel atresia accounted for23 (7.27% cases while duodenal atresia was seen in19 (6.01% patients. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and Malrotation each occurred in 14 (4.43% patients; Hirschsprung’s disease in 18(5.69%, Necrotising Enterocolitis in 12(3.79%, Meconium disease of newborn in 9(2.85% while colonic atresia was seen in one (0.3% patient. Colostomy was performed in 145(45.88%, Pouchostomy in 15(4.74% and Cutback anoplasty in 56(17.72% patients. Ramsted’s Pyloromyotomy in 13(4.11%% neonates, Laparoscopic Pyloromyotomy in 1(0.3%,Kimura’s Duodenoduodenostomy in 19(6.01% ,End to Back anastomosis in 24(7.59% , End to End anastomosis in 7(2.21% , Multiple anastomosis in 2(0.6% , Enterotomy with irrigation in 7(2.21% , Ladd’s procedure in 14(4.43% , ,Single stage transanal pull through in 8(2.53% , Ileostomy in 2(0.6% , Single stage Abdominoperineal pull through in 2(0.6%, Levelling colostomy in 6(1.89% ,Peritoneal drain insertion under Local anaesthesia in 5(1.58% . Overall mortality was 13.60%. Conclusion: Intestinal Obstruction is the most common surgical emergency in neonatal period. Early and accurate diagnosis is paramount for proper patient management. The etiology, mode of presentation, morbidity and outcome of surgery of intestinal obstruction in

  1. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction applicable to children in a resource-poor country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of records of children who were managed with adhesive intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between January 2002 and December 2008. Results: Adhesive intestinal obstruction accounted for 21 (8.8% of 238 children managed with intestinal obstruction. They were aged between 7 weeks and 16 years (mean 3 ± 6.4 years, comprising 13 males and eight females (ratio 1.6:1. Prior laparotomy for gangrenous/perforated intussusception (seven, 33.3%, perforated appendix (five, 23.8%, perforated volvulus (three, 14.3%, penetrating abdominal trauma (two, 9.5% and perforated typhoid (two, 9.5% were major aetiologies. Adhesive obstruction occurred between 6 weeks and 7 years after the index laparotomies. All the 21 children had initial nonoperative management without success, owing to lack of total parenteral nutrition and monitoring facilities. Outcomes of open adhesiolysis performed between 26 and 48 h in six (28.6% children due to poor response to nonoperative management, 11-13 days in 12 (57.1% who responded minimally and 2-5 weeks in three (14.3% who had relapse of symptoms were encouraging. Exploration of the 21 adhesive obstructions confirmed small bowel obstruction due to solitary bands (two, 9.5%, multiple bands/adhesions (13, 61.9% and encasement, including one bowel gangrene (six, 28.6%. Postoperatively, the only child who had recurrence during 1-6 years of follow-up did well after a repeat adhesiolysis. Conclusion: Nonoperative management was unsuccessful in this setting. Open adhesiolysis may be adopted in children to prevent avoidable morbidities and

  2. Radiological evaluation of intestinal obstruction in neonate and infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, D. S.; Lim, K. Y.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S. [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    281 cases of neonatal and infantile intestinal obstruction confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure from 1975 till 1979 were reviewed radiologically. The result was as follows; 1. Intussusception was the most common cause of intestinal obstruction under one year of age (173/281: 61.56%), and other causes of descending order were infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (20: 7.11%), congenital megacolon (19: 6.76%), anorectal malformation (17: 6.05%), meconium plug syndrome (17: 6.05%), hernia (12: 4.27%), band adhesion (8: 2.85%), rotation anomaly (5: 1.78%), small bowel atresia (3: 1.07%), Meckel's diverticulum (3: 1.07%), duodenal atresia (2: 0.71%), meconium ileus (1: 0.36%) and annular pancreas (1: 0.36%). Congenital type of intestinal obstruction (we classified intussusception acquired and others congenital) occupied 38.44%. 2. The ratio of male to female was 3: 1, congenital type 4.69 : 1 and acquired 2.39 : 1. 3. Vomiting, bloody stool, fever and abdominal distention were the most 4 symptoms. 4. The frequency of typical mechanical ileus pattern on plain abdomen films was 226 cases(80.43%) paralytic ileus or normal finding was 52 cases (18.51%) and pneumoperitoneum with ileus sign was 3 cases (1.06%). 5. Barium meal or enema was performed in 228 cases and narrowing or obstructed site was found in 213 cases of them (93.42%); intussusception 100% (173/173), infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 93.33% (14/15) and congenital megacolon 82.35% (14/17). 6. Only 10 cases had associated disease such as Mongolism, thoracic kyphosis and scoliosis, microcolon, prematurity, ileocolic fistula, undescended testicle and hydrocele. 7. Meconium plug syndrome, duodenal atresia, small bowel atresia, mecondium ileus and annular pancreas were developed early after birth with average onset age of 3.6 days.

  3. Post appendectomy acalculus bilateral ureteric obstruction: A rare entity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral acalculus ureteric obstruction is described as rare sequelae of acute appendicitis in two paediatric patients aged 6 and 11 years presented with features of anuria. Imaging and endoscopic evaluation confirmed bilateral ureteric obstruction secondary to bladder wall oedema as an inflammatory reaction to appendix. Both cases recovered following bilateral ureteric stenting and are doing well.

  4. Cutaneous Manifestations in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Roxana Georgescu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases have a high frequency in Europe. They are chronic disorders that evolve with relapses and remissions. Clinical features include the signs of underlying inflammatory bowel disease and also signs of extraintestinal manifestations. Cutaneous disorders are the most common extraintestinal manifestations associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, which can be dependent on or independent of gastrointestinal disease activity. The main cutaneous disorders are erythema nodosum and pyodermagangrenosum. The pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood but it seems that related mechanisms are involved in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases and extraintestinal manifestations. Treatment should be aimed at both the cutaneous manifestations and the bowel inflammation

  5. Delayed Diagnosis of Gastric Outlet Obstruction from Bouveret Syndrome in a Young Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, Zachary

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bouveret syndrome is a rare presentation of gastric outlet obstruction caused by a gallstone in the proximal duodenum via a bilioenteric fistula. This is an infrequent although clinically significant cause of abdominal pain, almost exclusively in the elderly. The clinical presentation is similar to that of a small bowel obstruction with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Surgery or endoscopy is often required for definitive diagnosis and therapy. We describe the case of a young woman with this condition who had a delayed diagnosis in part because of her age and the rarity of the condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:151-153.

  6. Capsule endoscopy: Beyond small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Adler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the brief and dramatic history of capsule endoscopy of the digestive tract is reviewed. Capsule endoscopy offers a non invasive method to diagnose diseases that affect the esophagus, small bowel and colon. Technological improvements relating to optics, software, data recorders with two way communication have revolutionized this field. These advancements have produced better diagnostic performance.

  7. Small Bowel Review: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. In preparation for this review, over 500 papers were assessed; some have been selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist.

  8. Radiological Evaluation of Bowel Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatt, Harpreet S.; Behr, Spencer C; Miracle, Aaron; Wang, Zhen Jane; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia, which refers to insufficient blood flow to the bowel, is a potentially catastrophic entity that may require emergent intervention or surgery in the acute setting. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of intestinal ischemia are nonspecific, CT findings can be highly suggestive in the correct clinical setting. In this chapter we review the CT diagnosis of arterial, venous, and non-occlusive intestinal ischemia. We discuss the vascular anatomy, pathophysiology of intestinal ischemia, CT techniques for optimal imaging, key and ancillary radiological findings, and differential diagnosis. In the setting of an acute abdomen, rapid evaluation is necessary to identify intraabdominal processes that require emergent surgical intervention (1). While a wide-range of intraabdominal diseases may be present from trauma to inflammation, one of the most feared disorders is mesenteric ischemia, also known as intestinal ischemia, which refers to insufficient blood flow to the bowel (2). Initial imaging evaluation for intestinal ischemia is typically obtained with CT. Close attention to technique and search for key radiologic features with relation to the CT technique is required. Accurate diagnosis depends on understanding the vascular anatomy, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of various forms of mesenteric ischemia and their corresponding radiological findings on MDCT. At imaging, not only is inspection of the bowel itself important, but evaluation of the mesenteric fat, vasculature, and surrounding peritoneal cavity also helps improves accuracy in the diagnosis of bowel ischemia. PMID:26526436

  9. Anteroapical stunning and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, R P; Achari, A; Wilansky, S; Wilson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is typically observed in the setting of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It has also been reported with concentric LV hypertrophy, excessive sympathetic stimulation, and acute myocardial infarction. We describe 3 patients with chest discomfort after emotional stress, who had pronounced abnormalities on electrocardiograms, insignificant obstructive coronary disease and hemodynamic instability with LVOT obstruction, and regional wall motion abnormalities. Suppression of contractility with beta-blockers resulted in resolution of the gradient and in clinical improvement. On follow-up, functional recovery was excellent, and ventricular function had normalized. The conditions and mechanisms that may produce this sequence of events are discussed. The most probable scenario is that an acute ischemic insult secondary to vasospasm, LV stunning, and acute geometric remodeling produced a substrate for LVOT obstruction that was exacerbated by basal LV hypercontractility. The importance of this observation is that routine treatment of cardiogenic shock cannot be used and that conservative management results in excellent prognosis.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  11. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease that makes it difficult to empty air out of the lungs. This difficulty in ...

  12. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Brøvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  13. Low-FODMAP diet reduces irritable bowel symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Natalia; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria; Wachmann, Henrik; Végh, Zsuzsanna; Molzen, Line; Burisch, Johan; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Munkholm, Pia

    2017-05-14

    To investigate the effect of a low-FODMAP diet on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This was a randomised controlled open-label trial of patients with IBD in remission or with mild-to-moderate disease and coexisting IBS-like symptoms (Rome III) randomly assigned to a Low-FODMAP diet (LFD) or a normal diet (ND) for 6 wk between June 2012 and December 2013. Patients completed the IBS symptom severity system (IBS-SSS) and short IBD quality of life questionnaire (SIBDQ) at weeks 0 and 6. The primary end-point was response rates (at least 50-point reduction) in IBS-SSS at week 6 between groups; secondary end-point was the impact on quality of life. Eighty-nine patients, 67 (75%) women, median age 40, range 20-70 years were randomised: 44 to LFD group and 45 to ND, from which 78 patients completed the study period and were included in the final analysis (37 LFD and 41 ND). There was a significantly larger proportion of responders in the LFD group (n = 30, 81%) than in the ND group (n = 19, 46%); (OR = 5.30; 95%CI: 1.81-15.55, P FODMAP diet reduced IBS-like symptoms and increased quality of life in patients with IBD in remission.

  14. Bowel resection in Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur-Rahman L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Although bowel resections are commonly done for congenital malformations in children in developed countries, they usually follow neglected and preventable acquired diseases of the intestine in developing countries. Objectives : To determine the indications and outcome of bowel resections in children of a developing country in a university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Data of the patients operated (from birth to 15 years was retrospectively collected over eight years (January 1999 to December 2006. The biodata of children included the following: Indications for operation, type of operations, duration of admission, and outcome of treatment including complications. Patients with Hirschsprung′s disease were excluded from the study because bowel resection forms part of their definitive surgical management. Results : There were 70 patients (38 boys and 32 girls. The age ranged between four hours to 15 years (median, five months. There were 16 (22.9% neonates, 26 (37.1% infants, and 28 (40% grown children. The indications were congenital anomalies in the 16 neonates. Also, 23 (88.5% infants had intussusception, 2 (7.7% had midgut vovulusm and 1 (3.8% had congenital small intestine band. Among the grown children, typhoid ileal perforation (TIP was seen in 14 (50.0%, intussusception in 5 (17.9%, and other causes in nine patients. Overall, intussusception was the most common indication for bowel resection, followed by TIP. A total of 24 patients developed 33 complications. Complications included wound infection in 47.8% and anastomotic leak in 42.8%. The duration of admission ranged between 4-35 days (median, 15 days. The overall mortality was 17.1% -; which was highest among neonates (56.3%, followed by the infants (26.9% -. Conclusion : Bowel resections are mainly done for intussusception and complications of TIP at our centre. Late presentation, preexisting malnutrition, and nonavailability of parenteral nutrition

  15. Obstructive Uropathy in Sudanese Patients

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    El Imam M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the causes, patterns of presentation, and management of obstructive uropathy in Sudanese patients in a retrospective multi-center audit. All patients who presented with obstructive uropathy during 2005 were included in this study. All of the patients were subjected to serial investigations including imaging and tests of renal function. Diversion, stenting, and/or definitive surgery were performed in order to relieve the obstruction. Five hundred twenty patients were diagnosed with obstructive uropathy during this period; 345 (66% patients presented with chronic obstruction and 175 (34% with acute obstruction. Of the study patients, 210 (40% presented with significant renal impairment; 50 (23% of them required emergent dialysis. The patterns of clinical presentation of the obstructed patients included pain at the site of obstruction in 48%, lower urinary tract symptoms in 42%, urine retention in 36.5%, mass effect in 22%, and anuria in 4%. Patients in the pediatric age group constituted 4% of the total. The common causative factors of obstruction included congenital urethral valves, pelvi-ureteral junction obstruction, urolithiasis, and iatrogenic trauma, especially in the obstetric practice. Renal function was completely recovered with early management in 100% of patients with acute obstruction and was stabilized in 90% of patients with chronic obstruction. Four patients were diagnosed with end-stage renal failure; two of them were transplanted. The mortality rate in this study was less than 0.3%.

  16. Resistive Index in Obstructive Uropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Shokeir

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnosis of urinary tract obstruction is a difficult and perplexing problem particularly in children. Pyelocalyectasis is seen not only in obstruction but also in other conditions, such as residual dilatation afler relief of obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux and pyelonephritis.

  17. Urinary balantidiasis: A rare incidental finding in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Balantidiasis is a rare zoonotic disease in humans. Balantidium coli is the causative ciliated protozoan. We present a case of urinary balantidiasis in a patient having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who was on steroids for a long time. He has no symptoms of bowel or urinary involvement. We are reporting this case because of its rarity in human urine and also for future references.

  18. Urinary balantidiasis: A rare incidental finding in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhpreet; Gupta, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Balantidiasis is a rare zoonotic disease in humans. Balantidium coli is the causative ciliated protozoan. We present a case of urinary balantidiasis in a patient having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who was on steroids for a long time. He has no symptoms of bowel or urinary involvement. We are reporting this case because of its rarity in human urine and also for future references.

  19. Internal abdominal hernia: Intestinal obstruction due to trans-mesenteric hernia containing transverse colon

    OpenAIRE

    Crispín-Trebejo, Brenda; Robles-Cuadros, María Cristina; Orendo-Velásquez, Edwin; Andrade, Felipe P.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Internal abdominal hernias are infrequent but an increasing cause of bowel obstruction still often underdiagnosed. Among adults its usual causes are congenital anomalies of intestinal rotation, postsurgical iatrogenic, trauma or infection diseases. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with history of chronic constipation. The patient was hospitalized for two days with acute abdominal pain, abdominal distension and inability to eliminate flatus....

  20. Low-Radiation-Dose Modified Small Bowel CT for Evaluation of Recurrent Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Kielar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease affects any part of the GI tract, commonly the terminal ileum. To decrease radiation exposure we developed a low-radiation-dose unenhanced CT (modified small Bowel CT, MBCT to evaluate the small bowel using hyperdense oral contrast. Technique. MBCT was investigated in patients with pathologically proven Crohn's disease presenting with new symptoms from recurrent inflammation or stricture. After ethics board approval, 98 consecutive patients were retrospectively evaluated. Kappa values from two independent reviewers were calculated for presence of obstruction, active inflammation versus chronic stricture, and ancillary findings. Forty-two patients underwent surgery or colonoscopy within 3 months. Results. Kappa was 0.84 for presence of abnormality versus a normal exam and 0.89 for differentiating active inflammation from chronic stricture. Level of agreement for presence of skip areas, abscess formation, and fistula was 0.62, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. In the subset with “gold standard” follow-up, there was 83% agreement. Conclusions. MBCT is a low-radiation technique with good to very good interobserver agreement for determining presence of obstruction and degree of disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. Further investigation is required to refine parameters of disease activity compared to CT enterography and small bowel follow through.

  1. Inducible laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Thomas; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Bucca, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) describes an inappropriate, transient, reversible narrowing of the larynx in response to external triggers. ILO is an important cause of a variety of respiratory symptoms and can mimic asthma. Current understanding of ILO has been hampered by imprecise nomenc...

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Tønnesen, Philip; Ibsen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most studies have used cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) end-points to measure the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but pre-diagnostic morbidities involve a range of comorbidities that may influence the consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We...

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Subsyndromal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szigethy, Eva; Kenney, Elyse; Carpenter, Johanna; Hardy, Diana M.; Fairclough, Diane; Bousvaros, Athos; Keljo, David; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.; Noll, Robert; DeMaso, David Ray

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depressive symptomatology in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Therapy-Physical Illness(PASCET-PI) modified for youths with IBD was compared to treatment as usual (TAU), plus…

  4. [Chronic renal failure secondary to uterine prolapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Canora, J; Venegas, J L

    2005-01-01

    Acute and chronic renal failure secondary to bilateral severe hydroureteronephrosis is a rare sequela of uterine prolapse. We report a case of neglected complete uterine prolapse in a 72-year-old patient resulting in bilateral hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and chronic renal failure. In an attempt to diminish the ureteral obstruction a vaginal pessary was used to reduce the uterine prolapse. Finally, surgical repair of prolapse by means of a vaginal hysterectomy was performed. In conclusion, all patients presenting with complete uterine prolapse should be screened to exclude urinary tract obstruction. If present, obstructive uropathy should be relieved by the reduction or repair of the prolapse before irreversible renal damage occurs.

  5. Case Study: Small bowel perforation secondary to ileal tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following case study was discussed at the South African Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SASPEN) workshop on critcal care Nutrition held at the 25th Congress of the Nutrition Society of South Africa and the 13th Congress of the Association for Dietetics in South Africa in Johannesburg in September 2014.

  6. Case Study: Small bowel perforation secondary to ileal tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal tuberculosis. • Increased nutrient losses and severe malabsorption: High-output ileostomy. • Other: Post major gastrointestinal surgery, severe hypoalbumi- naemia and abdominal distension. Since there was no absolute contraindication to enteral nutrition, trophic feeding at 10-20 ml/hour was recommended in ...

  7. Imaging of obstructive azoospermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornud, F. [Clinique Radiologique, 15 Avenue Robert Schuman, F-75 007 Paris (France)]|[Service de Radiologie, Hopital Necker, 169 rue de Sevres, F-75 015 Paris (France); Belin, X. [Clinique Radiologique, 15 Avenue Robert Schuman, F-75 007 Paris (France)]|[Service de Radiologie, Hopital Necker, 169 rue de Sevres, F-75 015 Paris (France); Delafontaine, D. [Medicine de la Reproduction, 8 rue Jean Richepin, F-75 016 Paris (France); Amar, T. [Uro-Andrologist, 19 Avenue Victor Hugo, F-75016, Paris (France); Helenon, O. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Necker, 169 rue de Sevres, F-75 015 Paris (France); Moreau, J.F. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Necker, 169 rue de Sevres, F-75 015 Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Obstructive azoospermia represents approximately 10 % of cases of male hypofertility. It is classified according to the volume of ejaculate. When the latter is normal a proximal obstruction is suspected. Scrotal sonography can help to detect dilation of the epididymal head when clinical findings are equivocal. Ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) is suspected when the volume of ejaculate is low. The use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) plays a major role in the investigation of these patients, and endorectal MRI is a very useful adjunct in selected cases. The most common cause of EDO is congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens, which is now thought to be a genital form of cystic fibrosis in 80 % of cases. Consequently, a definitive diagnosis must be made before any attempt at in vitro fertilization. TRUS accurately visualizes abnormalities of the caudal junction of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles, yielding a definitive diagnosis without scrototomy. Other causes of EDO are congenital cysts compressing the distal part of the ejaculatory ducts and inflammatory distal stenosis. The former are accurately identified by TRUS, but the latter give more or less marked signs of obstruction which are only of value in azoospermic patients with a low-volume ejaculate. More invasive imaging is required to diagnose partial obstruction of the ED. Surgical vasography is still the reference, but puncture of the seminal vesicles under TRUS guidance is an attractive alternative, as it permits aspiration of seminal fluid (to seek motile sperm) and vasography without scrototomy. Lastly, endorectal MRI well assesses the relationships between the proximal prostatic urethra and the posterior wall of the ejaculatory ducts, which need to be precisely known when endoscopic resection of the ejaculatory ducts is planned. (orig.). With 9 figs.

  8. Release of obstructing rectal cuff following transanal endorectal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive problems secondary to a tight or a long rectal cuff following transanal endorectal pullthrough for Hirschsprung's disease usually require redo surgery for release. Many approaches have been described. We describe the laparoscopic approach for the release of a tight or a long rectal cuff in two cases after a ...

  9. What do patients with irritable bowel syndrome dream about? A comparison with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Whorwell, P J

    2002-07-01

    It is a common experience for people to dream of events about which they are either anxious or concerned. We therefore hypothesised that the dreams of patients with irritable bowel syndrome may reflect their worries about their problem especially as hospital out-patients with this disorder tend to exhibit some anxiety. In addition, dreaming about, for instance bowels, in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in excess of that observed in other gastrointestinal disorders may be of importance. To establish whether patients with irritable bowel syndrome dream about bowel-related issues more than controls or patients with inflammatory bowel disease. A total of 57 patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 57 patients with inflammatory bowel disease were compared with 60 healthy controls. All subjects completed a structured questionnaire concerning sleeping habits and dream characteristics as well as an assessment of anxiety and depression. There were no differences in the sleeping habits between any of the groups. However, significantly more patients with irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease dreamt about their bowels (22% inflammatory bowel disease patients, 18% irritable bowel syndrome patients vs 3% of controls, p disorders, of both a functional and organic nature, may influence the nature of dreams. In those patients who dream about their symptoms, it would be interesting to know whether this affects the course of their disease, either positively or negatively, in any way.

  10. Effect of Physician-Delivered Patient Education on the Quality of Bowel Preparation for Screening Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Yu Shieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inadequate bowel preparation is common in outpatients undergoing screening colonoscopy because of unawareness and poor adherence to instruction. Methods. Herein, 105 consecutive outpatients referred for screening colonoscopy were enrolled in this prospective, colonoscopist-blinded study. The patients were assigned to an intensive-education group, with 10 minutes of physician-delivered education, or to standard care. At the time of colonoscopy, the quality of bowel preparation was assessed using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS. The primary outcome was a BBPS score ≥5. The secondary outcomes were the mean BBPS score, insertion time, adenoma detection rate, and number of adenomas detected. Results. We analyzed 39 patients who received intensive education and 60 controls. The percentage of adequate bowel preparations with a BBPS score ≥5 was higher in the intensive-education group than in the control group (97.4% versus 80.0%; P=0.01. The adjusted odds ratio for having a BBPS score ≥5 in the intensive-education group was 10.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.23–84.3; P=0.03. Other secondary outcomes were similar in the 2 groups. Conclusions. Physician-delivered education consisting of a brief counseling session in addition to written instructions improves the quality of bowel preparation in outpatients undergoing screening colonoscopy.

  11. CT findings in acute small bowel diverticulitis; Computertomographie bei akuter Duenndarmdivertikulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferstl, F.J.; Obert, R. [Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinisches Zentrum (RNZ) am St. Theresienkrankenhaus Nuernberg (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    Small bowel diverticulitis is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. Originating from acquired diverticula of the jejunum, less often of the ileum, or Meckel diverticulum, the symptoms are non-specific, simulating other acute inflammatory disorders, such as appendicitis, cholecystitis or colonic diverticulitis. The diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis is solely based on radiologic findings, with computed tomography (CT) regarded as the method of choice. In recent years, a number of case reports have described the spectrum of the CT features in acute small bowel diverticulitis and its dependence on the severity of the inflammatory process. Typical findings are an inflamed diverticulum, inflammatory mesenteric infiltration, extraluminal gas collection and mural edema of adjacent small bowel loops with resultant separation of bowel loops. An enterolith is rarely found in an inflamed diverticulum. Complications include abscesses, fistulae, small bowel obstruction and free perforation with peritonitis. Small bowel diverticulitis can be a diagnostic problem if it involves the terminal ileum or Meckel's diverticulum. For preoperative confirmation of the presumed diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis on CT, an enteroclysis for acquired diverticula or a technetium scan for Meckel's diverticulum should be performed. We present the CT findings in three patients of acute small bowel diverticulitis, two affecting the jejunum and one a Meckel's diverticulum. (orig.) [German] Die akute Duenndarmdivertikulitis ist eine seltene Ursache eines akuten Abdomens. Ausgehend von den erworbenen Divertikeln des Jejunums, seltener des Ileums, oder von einem Meckel-Divertikel, manifestiert sich die Divertikulitis klinisch durch eine unspezifische Symptomatik, die zuerst an die haeufigeren, akutentzuendlichen Erkrankungen des Abdomens wie z. B. Appendizitis, Cholezystitis oder Kolondivertikulitis denken laesst. Die Duenndarmdivertikulitis kann praeoperativ nur durch

  12. Abnormal distribution of sarcoglycan subcomplex in colonic smooth muscle cells of aganglionic bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Salvatore; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Favaloro, Angelo; Sinatra, Maria Teresa; Trimarchi, Fabio; Scarvaglieri, Silvia; Mallamace, Agostino; Arena, Francesco; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Di Benedetto, Vincenzo

    2010-03-01

    Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is a development disorder of the enteric nervous system in which the altered innervation explains the inability of the aganglionic segment to relax. Impairment of cytoskeleton in SMC of aganglionic bowel has been shown. Sarcoglycan subcomplex (SG) may support the development and maintenance of muscle cells. We examined the SG subunit expression in colonic aganglionic and ganglionic specimens obtained from patients with HD. Full-thickness bowel specimens were obtained from six patients with HD. Six normal colon specimens were used as controls. Immunofluorescent analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction evaluation were performed for alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and epsilon-SG. In control colon, the indirect immunofluorescence showed a strong staining pattern of beta- gamma- delta- and epsilon-SG while a weak positivity of alpha-SG was recorded. In aganglionic bowel, immunofluorescence intensity values documented a significant lack of epsilon-SG while an enhanced alpha-SG, coupled to a loss of epsilon-SG, was recorded in ganglionic bowel in HD-affected patients. Our observations underscore the assumption that non-neuronal elements of the colon might play a key role in the pathogenesis of HD and loss of epsilon-SG might critically alter the cytoskeleton in the aganglionic bowel segment. Up-regulation of alpha-SG is probably an acquired phenomenon to reinforce the sarcolemma and to perform a forceful contraction in dilated ganglionic HD-affected colon, related to chronic pseudo-obstruction, contributing to the intestinal dysmotility that persists in 20% of patients after resection of the aganglionic bowel.

  13. Adult ileocolic intussusception secondary to ileocaecal valve polyp.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chugthai, Saqib Zeeshan

    2012-01-31

    Intussusception is relatively common in children, but it is a rare cause of abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction in adults. The aetiology, clinical presentation and management of this condition differs in adults and children. Preoperative clinical diagnosis is usually difficult due to the non-specific and intermittent nature of the symptoms. Ultrasound and computed tomography can be helpful in establishing the diagnosis. We present a case of adult ileocolic intussusception with classical radiological signs and operative findings. In adults the diagnosis of intussusception should be considered in a case of intermittent abdominal pain, especially with clinical signs of intermittent bowel obstruction.

  14. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R B; Lichtenstein, G R; Rombeau, J L

    1999-09-01

    Clinical and basic research continues to expand our understanding of the complex pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. The potential roles played by fatty acid intake, serum leptin, and nitric oxide in the promotion of intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis will be reviewed. In addition, important advances in the areas of bone disease, vitamin deficiency, growth failure, and home parenteral nutrition will be discussed.

  15. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is most often a polygenic disorder with contributions from the intestinal microbiome, defects in barrier function, and dysregulated host responses to microbial stimulation. There is, however, increasing recognition of single gene defects that underlie a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly those with early-onset disease, and this review focuses on the primary immunodeficiencies associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. The advent of next-generation sequencing has led to an improved recognition of single gene defects underlying some cases of inflammatory bowel disease. Among single gene defects, immune response genes are the most frequent category identified. This is also true of common genetic variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease, supporting a pivotal role for host responses in the pathogenesis. This review focuses on practical aspects related to diagnosis and management of children with inflammatory bowel disease who have underlying primary immunodeficiencies.

  16. Neurostimulation for Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Worsøe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Loss of normal bowel function caused by nerve injury, neurological disease or congenital defects of the nervous system is termed neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD. It usually includes combinations of fecal incontinence, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. When standard treatment of NBD fails surgical procedures are often needed. Neurostimulation has also been investigated, but no consensus exists about efficacy or clinical use. Methods. A systematic literature search of NBD treated by sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS, sacral nerve stimulation (SNS, peripheral nerve stimulation, magnetic stimulation, and nerve re-routing was made in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Results. SARS improves bowel function in some patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI. Nerve re-routing is claimed to facilitate defecation through mechanical stimulation of dermatomes in patients with complete or incomplete SCI or myelomeningocele. SNS can reduce NBD in selected patients with a variety of incomplete neurological lesions. Peripheral stimulation using electrical stimulation or magnetic stimulation may represent non-invasive alternatives. Conclusion. Numerous methods of neurostimulation to treat NBD have been investigated in pilot studies or retrospective studies. Therefore, larger controlled trials with well-defined inclusion criteria and endpoints are recommended before widespread clinical use of neurostimulation against NBD.

  17. Bowel perforation complicating an ACTH-secreting phaeochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Flynn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ACTH-secreting phaeochromocytoma (ASP is a rare cause of ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (CS. We report the case of a 63-year-old female presenting with CS secondary to an ASP complicated by bowel perforation. This case report highlights ASP as an uncommon but important cause of ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS. There have been 29 cases of ASP, all of which were unilateral and benign, but associated with significant complications. Patients presenting with ASP have the potential for cure with unilateral adrenalectomy. Given this promising prognosis if recognised, ASP should be considered in the diagnostic workup of ACTH-dependent CS. As this case demonstrates, gastrointestinal complications can arise from severe hypercortisolaemia associated with CS. Early medical and surgical intervention is imperative as mortality approaches 50% once bowel perforation occurs. Learning points: • Consider phaeochromocytoma in the diagnostic workup of ACTH-dependent CS; screen with plasma metanephrines or urinary catecholamines. • Serial screening may be required if ACTH-secreting phaeochromocytoma is suspected, as absolute levels can be misleading. • Early catecholamine receptor blockade and adrenal synthesis blockade may avoid the need for rescue bilateral adrenalectomy in ACTH-secreting phaeochromocytoma. • Consider early medical or surgical management when gastrointestinal features are present in patients with CS, as bowel perforation due to severe hypercortisolaemia can occur and is associated with significant mortality.

  18. Transabdominal Ultrasonography of the Small Bowel

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Kralik; Peter Trnovsky; Marcela Kopáčová

    2013-01-01

    In the era of double balloon enteroscopy, capsule endoscopy, CT, and MRI enterography is transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) underestimated method for evaluation of small bowel pathology. As often initial imagine method in abdominal complaints, nowadays has TUS much better diagnostic potential than two decades ago. High-resolution ultrasound probes with harmonic imaging significantly improve resolution of bowel wall in real time, with possibility to asses bowel peristalsis. Color flow dop...

  19. Lubiprostone improves visualization of small bowel for capsule endoscopy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Inou, Yumi; Kanoshima, Kenji; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Iida, Hiroshi; Endo, Hiroki; Nonaka, Takashi; Kusakabe, Akihiko; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

     Lubiprostone has been reported to be an anti-constipation drug. The aim of the study was to investigate the usefulness of lubiprostone both for bowel preparation and as a propulsive agent in small bowel endoscopy.  This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover study of subjects who volunteered to undergo capsule endoscopy (CE). A total of 20 subjects (16 male and 4 female volunteers) were randomly assigned to receive a 24-μg tablet of lubiprostone 120 minutes prior to capsule ingestion for CE (L regimen), or a placebo tablet 120 minutes prior to capsule ingestion for CE (P regimen). Main outcome was gastric transit time (GTT) and small-bowel transit time (SBTT). Secondary outcome was adequacy of small-bowel cleansing and the fluid score in the small bowel. The quality of the capsule endoscopic images and fluid in the small bowel were assessed on 5-point scale.  The capsule passed into the small bowel in all cases. Median GTT was 57.3 (3 - 221) minutes for the P regimen and 61.3 (10 - 218) minutes for the L regimen ( P  = 0.836). Median SBTT was 245.0 (164 - 353) minutes for the P regimen and 228.05 (116 - 502) minutes for the L regimen ( P  = 0.501). The image quality score in the small bowel was 3.05 ± 1.08 for the P regimen and 3.80 ± 0.49 for the L regimen ( P  lubiprostone prior to CE significantly improved visualization of the small bowel during CE as a result of inducing fluid secretion into the small bowel.

  20. Non-small-bowel abnormalities identified during small bowel capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemakers, Reinier; Westerhof, Jessie; Weersma, Rinse K.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence of non-small-bowel abnormalities in patients referred for small bowel capsule endoscopy, this single center study was performed. METHODS: Small bowel capsule endoscopy is an accepted technique to investigate obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. This is defined as

  1. Usefulness of psyllium in rehabilitation of obstructed defecation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciani, F; Raggioli, M; Ringressi, M N

    2011-12-01

    Rehabilitation is the first therapeutic step of obstructed defecation, after failure of conservative therapy with high-fiber diet and laxatives. This study evaluates the usefulness of psyllium, a bulk-forming agent, when used during rehabilitation of obstructed defecation. Between January 2008 and December 2010, 45 patients affected by obstructed defecation were included in the study. Two randomized groups were selected. Group 1 (21 women; age range 25-67 (mean, 51.8) years) continued to consume a high-fiber diet (approximately 30 g fiber per day) during rehabilitation. Group 2 (24 women; age range 46-71 (mean, 59.8) years) consumed only psyllium (3.6 g × 2/day; Psyllogel(®) Fibra, Nathura, Montecchio Emilia, Italy) during the rehabilitative cycle. After a preliminary clinical evaluation, including the obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) score, patients underwent defecography and anorectal manometry as well as rehabilitative treatment according to the "multimodal rehabilitative program" for obstructive defecation. At the end of the program, patients were reassessed by clinical evaluation and anorectal manometry. Post-rehabilitative ODS scores were used for an arbitrary schedule of patients divided into three classes: Class I, good (score ≤ 4); Class II, fair (score > 4 to ≤ 8); Class III, poor (score > 8). The number of bowel movements per week did not increase significantly after rehabilitation. Both groups had a significantly better Bristol stool form scale score (Group 1: P Psyllium is helpful for volumetric rehabilitation: patients who consumed psyllium had lower post-rehabilitative CRST values than subjects were on high-fiber diet.

  2. Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Health Professionals Diabetes Discoveries & Practice Blog Health Communication Programs FAQs ... Syndrome (IBS) Definition & Facts Related Topics Section Navigation Irritable Bowel Syndrome ( ...

  3. Meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileal atresia complicated by volvulus: antenatal MR demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonovsky, Vaclav; Lisy, Jiri [Charles University, Clinic of Imaging Methods, Faculty Hospital Motol and 2nd Medical Faculty, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2007-03-15

    We report a case of meconium pseudocyst evaluated by prenatal MR imaging. The unusual features were its huge size, the absence of meconium peritonitis, and its development late in fetal life. The case also demonstrates a possible diagnostic pitfall since it suggests that rapid deterioration of a mechanically compensated bowel obstruction may occur, potentially occurring only after an MRI study has been performed. (orig.)

  4. Post-Obstructive Pneumonia in Patients with Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Kenneth V I; Nesher, Lior

    2018-02-01

    Published literature on post-obstructive pneumonia is difficult to find and consists mainly of case reports or small case series. This entity is encountered most often in patients with advanced lung malignancy but is also occasionally seen in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). There are substantial differences in the manifestations, treatment, and outcomes of post-obstructive pneumonia in these two settings. When obstruction is present in patients with CAP, it is almost always secondary to an underlying pulmonary malignancy. In fact, the observation of an obstructive component in patients with CAP leads to the detection of primary or metastatic lung cancer in more than 50% of such individuals. Post-obstructive pneumonia in patients with advanced lung malignancy is far more common (~ 50% of patients) and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The management of these patients is very challenging and involves multiple disciplines including medical oncology, pulmonary medicine, infectious diseases, intervention radiology, surgery, and intensive care teams. The administration of broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens is generally required. Refractory or recurrent infections despite the administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy are the norm. Frequent and prolonged antibiotic administration leads to the development of resistant microflora. Complications such as lung abscess, empyema, and local fistula formation develop often. Relief of obstruction generally produces only temporary symptomatic improvement.

  5. Role of intraluminal bowel echogenicity on prenatal ultrasounds to determine the anatomical level of intestinal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goruppi, Ilaria; Arévalo, Silvia; Gander, Romy; Molino, José-Andres; Oria, Marc; Carreras, Elena; Peiro, José-Luis

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between different degrees of bowel intraluminal echogenicity showed by prenatal ultrasounds and the anatomic level of intestinal atresia. We report three cases of intestinal atresia at different intestinal levels verified during the neonatal surgery with specific ultrasonographic prenatal features. Intensity of sonolucency was analyzed using the image-processing program ImageJ for quantitative measurements based on the gray-scale intensity values. A total of three cases are reported, a jejunal, an ileal and a colonic atresia. All cases showed intestinal dilatation. Both, jejunal and ileal atresia, showed two degrees of hypoechoic intestinal content, while colonic atresia showed hyperechogenic content dilated loop at prenatal ultrasound scan. We propose the use of prenatal ultrasounds echogenicity of intestinal dilated loop fluid content to help in determining the level of obstruction in bowel atresia. These are initial results, to be confirmed by a multicentric research with more cases.

  6. Acute Portomesenteric Venous Thrombosis following Laparoscopic Small Bowel Resection and Ventral Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhradeev Sivasambu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but life-threatening complication of laparoscopic surgery that has been described in literature. Prompt diagnosis and early initiation of treatment are vital to prevent life-threatening complications such as mesenteric ischemia and infarction. A 51-year-old lady had laparoscopic small bowel resection and primary anastomosis with ventral hernia repair 4 weeks earlier for partial small bowel obstruction. Her postoperative period was uneventful and she was discharged home. Four weeks after surgery she developed watery diarrhea and generalized abdominal pain for four-day duration. A computed tomography of the abdomen revealed portomesenteric venous thrombosis although a computed tomography of abdomen before surgery 4 weeks back did not show any portomesenteric venous thrombosis. We are reporting a case of acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis as a complication of laparoscopic surgery.

  7. Large Enterolith Complicating a Meckel Diverticulum Causing Obstructive Ileus in an Adolescent Male Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Nastos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a unique case of a 16-year-old male patient who was eventually diagnosed with a large enterolith arising from a Meckel’s diverticulum. The enterolith had caused intermittent intestinal symptoms for three years before resulting in small bowel obstruction requiring surgical intervention. Meckel’s enterolith ileus is very rare with only few cases described in the literature. To our knowledge, this is only the second case of Meckel’s enterolith which had caused intermittent symptoms over a period of time, before resulting in ileus, and the first case where the intermittent symptoms lasted several years before bowel obstruction. The patient had been evaluated with colonoscopy, computerized tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance imaging enterography (MRIE; a calcified pelvic mass had been found, but no further diagnosis other than calcification was established. The patient presented at our emergency department, with symptoms of obstructive ileus and underwent exploratory laparotomy, where a large enterolith arising from a Meckel’s diverticulum (MD was identified, causing the obstruction. A successful partial enterectomy, enterolith removal, and primary end-to-end anastomosis took place; the patient was permanently relieved from his long-standing symptoms. Consequently, complications of Meckel’s diverticulum and enterolithiasis have to be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal complaints.

  8. Overlap, common features, and essential differences in pediatric granulomatous inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damen, Gerard M; van Krieken, J Han; Hoppenreijs, Esther; van Os, Erim; Tolboom, Jules J M; Warris, Adillia; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Escher, Johanna C

    2010-12-01

    Overlap in the clinical presentation of pediatric granulomatous inflammatory bowel disease may be substantial, depending on the mode of presentation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) may present with granulomatous colitis, perianal abscesses, hepatic abscesses or granulomas, failure to thrive, and obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract (including esophageal strictures and dysmotility, delayed gastric emptying, and small bowel obstruction). Anemia, thrombocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and hypoalbuminemia are nonspecific and may occur in any of the granulomatous inflammatory bowel diseases. In histology, macrophages with cytoplasmic inclusions will be rather specific for CGD. Sarcoidosis may present with abdominal pain or discomfort, diarrhea, weight loss, growth failure, delayed puberty, erythema nodosum, arthritis, uveitis, and hepatic granulomata. Only in 55% of the patients will angiotensin-converting enzyme be elevated. The noncaseating epithelioid granulomata will be unspecific. Bronchoalveolar lymphocytosis and abnormalities in pulmonary function are reported in sarcoidosis and in Crohn disease (CD) and CGD. Importantly, patients with CD may present with granulomatous lung disease, fibrosing alveolitis, and drug-induced pneumonitis. Sarcoidosis and concomitant gastrointestinal CD have been reported in patients, as well as coexistence of CD and sarcoidosis in siblings. Common susceptibility loci have been identified in CD and sarcoidosis. CD and CGD share defects in the defense mechanisms against different microbes. In the present review, common features and essential differences are discussed in clinical presentation and diagnostics--including histology--in CGD, sarcoidosis, and CD, together with 2 other granulomatous inflammatory bowel diseases, namely abdominal tuberculosis and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Instructions for specific diagnosis and respective treatments are provided.

  9. A rare case of multiple jejunal diverticulosis presenting as intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverticulosis is rare in jejunum and its unusual presentation of mechanical obstruction is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. We report a case of a 54-year old male patient who had symptoms of general abdominal pain and vomiting off and on for three years. He had been assessed elsewhere and had received a course of anti-tubercular treatment empirically based on features of recurrent intestinal obstruction due to prevalence of tuberculosis in this region. The patient had presented himself with signs and symptoms of dynamic intestinal obstruction. On examination, the abdomen was found to be swollen with a central abdominal distension and hyperactive bowel sounds. The erect abdominal radiograph showed multiple air-fluid levels and dilated jejunal loops. Following this, the patient underwent an emergency exploratory laparotomy. This revealed multiple jejunal diverticulae, multiple bands and adhesions involving jejunum and proximal ileum. The bands and adhesions were removed and the jejunum was resected along with the inflamed diverticulae.

  10. Ileo-ileal knot: a rare case of acute strangulated intestinal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kohei; Iida, Ryo; Watanabe, Tomohiko; Nitta, Masahiko; Tomioka, Masao; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa; Takasu, Akira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strangulated intestinal obstruction is one of the most common types of acute abdomen and requires urgent surgical treatment. Herein, we report a very rare case of strangulated intestinal obstruction caused by an ileo-ileal knot. An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with suspicion of strangulation ileus and underwent emergency laparotomy after investigation by exploratory single-port laparoscopy. During surgery, a small bowel gangrene caused by an ileo-ileal knot was found. The gangrenous segment was resected, and primary anastomosis was performed. Post-operative recovery was uneventful except for a minor wound infection. Our extensive search of the literature found only 7 case reports of ileo-ileal knot including ours. An ileo-ileal knot should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction, because this rare phenomenon requires urgent surgical treatment; and some complications should be considered during or after surgery. PMID:28303069

  11. Small intestine obstruction with ascarididae in foal safter dehelmintisation with ivermectin: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauš Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High intensity of infection with ascaridida Parascaris equorum can lead to intraluminal obstruction of the ileum in foals, especially during the first dehelmintisation (during and after weaning, more rarely in older ones. Bowel obstruction is followed by strong colic pain and shock, which inevitably leads to death, especially in cases when an adequate therapy is not taken on time. The paper describes four cases of small intestine obstruction with ascarididae in foals of American trotter race, provoked by an antiparasitic agent. The first symptoms appeared about twenty hours after the treatment with antiparasitic. Two of the foals have been cured with medicament therapy, one died, and in one case there was taken surgery in field conditions.

  12. Metastatic choriocarcinoma as initial presentation of small bowel perforation in absence of primary uterine lesion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, En Bee; Byun, Jung Mi; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Kim, Young Nam; Sung, Moon Su; Lee, Kyung Bok; Kim, Ki Tae

    2016-11-11

    Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that characteristically spreads via the bloodstream. Small bowel metastasis is very rare, and a small number of cases of choriocarcinoma metastasis to small bowel have been reported. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman presenting with acute abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding due to small bowel perforation secondary to jejunal metastasis. In our case, metastatic choriocarcinoma was present in the small bowel, lung, and liver, but no primary lesion was apparent. After resection and anastomosis of the perforated small bowel, chemotherapy was performed. The patient began chemotherapy with etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine (EMA-CO) for 9 cycles. When the 4th cycle of chemotherapy was finished, β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level was normalized and follow-up computed tomography scans showed regression of the liver metastasis and small bowel lesion and significantly decreased lung metastasis. After 9 cycles of chemotherapy were completed, the patient showed complete response. If patients have high β-hCG of unknown origin and suspected panperitonitis, which are suspicious of choriocarcinoma metastasis to small bowel, the pathologic findings are important. It is essential to confirm the histopathologic diagnosis postoperatively. Choriocarcinoma can spread to various organs and show aggressive manifestations. Therefore, we should be aware of possible metastatic sites and remain alert to its diagnosis.

  13. Detecting inflammation and fibrosis in bowel wall with photoacoustic imaging in a Crohn's disease animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Johnson, Laura A.; Hu, Jack; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease affecting 700,000 people in the United States. This condition may cause obstructing intestinal narrowings (strictures) due to inflammation, fibrosis (deposition of collagen), or a combination of both. Utilizing the unique strong optical absorption of hemoglobin at 532 nm and collagen at 1370 nm, this study investigated the feasibility of non-invasively characterizing intestinal strictures using photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Three normal controls, ten pure inflammation and 9 inflammation plus fibrosis rat bowel wall samples were imaged. Statistical analysis of the PA measurements has shown the capability of discriminating the purely inflammatory from mixed inflammatory and fibrotic strictures.

  14. Botulinum toxin is efficient to treat obstructive symptoms in children with Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Tomas; Granström, Anna Löf

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive symptoms are common after pull-through for Hirschsprung disease. Botulinum toxin injection treatment may improve the bowel function if internal sphincter achalasia is the cause of obstructive symptoms. The aim of this study was to review the outcome in patients treated with intrasphincteric botulinum toxin injections after pull-through for Hirschsprung disease. The operative records were used to identify children with Hirschsprung disease who were treated with botulinum toxin injections at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, from September 2007 to November 2014. Data on age, sex, associated syndromes, length of aganglionic segment, age at pull-through, type of pull-through, age at first botulinum toxin injection, indication for botulinum toxin injection, and effect of first botulinum toxin injection were retrieved from the case records. Bowel function at last follow-up visit or telephone contact was recorded. Nineteen patients were identified. All had biopsy-verified Hirschsprung disease. Eighteen (15 males and 3 females) children had undergone intrasphincteric botulinum toxin injection treatment for obstructive symptoms after pull-through, which was done at 127 (18-538) days of age. Four children had total colonic aganglionosis. The first botulinum toxin injection was given at 2.4 (0.53-6.9) years of age. Thirteen children (72 %) had a good response to the first injection treatment. The children underwent 3 (1-13) injection treatments. At follow-up four patients had improved and did not need treatment for obstruction, four were scheduled for further botulinum toxin injections, eight had persistent obstructive symptoms treated with laxatives or enemas, and two children had an ileostomy. Botulinum toxin injection treatment improves the obstructive symptoms in children after pull-through for Hirschsprung disease. The effect is reversible and a majority of patients need repeat injections. When injection treatment is not repeated, a large

  15. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, D.A.; Jones, H.H.

    1982-12-01

    The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain.

  16. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Complementary Health Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approaches for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2008;23(3):284–292. Wu JC. Complementary and alternative medicine modalities for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: facts or myths? Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2010;6(11):705–711. Yoon ...

  17. Pregnancy outcome in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortoli, A; Pedersen, N; Duricova, D

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently affects women during their reproductive years. Pregnancy outcome in women with IBD is well described, particularly in retrospective studies.......Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently affects women during their reproductive years. Pregnancy outcome in women with IBD is well described, particularly in retrospective studies....

  18. Surgical perspectives on inflammatory bowel disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VikasC

    J. Inflammatory bowel disease in Towsend: Sabiston. Textbook of Surgery. ... 1998; 44:28991. 19. Xie J, Itzkowitz SH. Cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14:37889. 20. Roses RE, Rombeau JL. Recent trends in the surgical ... dyselectrolytemia, anemia, and malnutrition are commonly present.

  19. Childhood Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Libya: Epidemiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background & Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease is thought to be rare in Libya. The aim is to determine the prevalence of juvenile onset inflammatory bowel disease in Libya. Setting: Al-Fateh childrens' hospital, Benghazi, Libya. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all cases diagnosed over 10 years (1997-2006) with ...

  20. Bowel injury as a complication of laparoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, M.; Heijnsdijk, E. A. M.; Gouma, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Bowel injury is a rare but serious complication of laparoscopic surgery. This review examines the incidence, location, time of diagnosis, causative instruments, management and mortality of laparoscopy-induced bowel injury. Methods: The review was carried out using the MeSH browser within

  1. Management of intestinal obstruction in advanced malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry John Murray Ferguson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with incurable, advanced abdominal or pelvic malignancy often present to acute surgical departments with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. It is rare for bowel strangulation to occur in these presentations, and spontaneous resolution often occurs, so the luxury of time should be afforded while decisions are made regarding surgery. Cross-sectional imaging is valuable in determining the underlying mechanism and pathology. The majority of these patients will not be suitable for an operation, and will be best managed in conjunction with a palliative medicine team. Surgeons require a good working knowledge of the mechanisms of action of anti-emetics, anti-secretories and analgesics to tailor early management to individual patients, while decisions regarding potential surgery are made. Deciding if and when to perform operative intervention in this group is complex, and fraught with both technical and emotional challenges. Surgery in this group is highly morbid, with no current evidence available concerning quality of life following surgery. The limited evidence concerning operative strategy suggests that resection and primary anastomosis results in improved survival, over bypass or stoma formation. Realistic prognostication and involvement of the patient, care-givers and the multidisciplinary team in treatment decisions is mandatory if optimum outcomes are to be achieved.

  2. Heritability in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Hannah; Trier Moller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    estimation regard genetic and environmental variance as separate entities, although it is now understood that there is a complex multidirectional interplay between genetic are environmental factors mediated by the microbiota, the epigenome, and the innate and acquired immune systems. Due to the limitations...... of heritability estimates, it is unlikely that a true value for heritability will be reached. Further work aimed at quantifying the variance explained across GWAS, epigenome-wide, and microbiota-wide association studies will help to define factors leading to inflammatory bowel disease....

  3. [Pregnancy and inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walldorf, J; Zwirnmann, K; Seufferlein, T

    2011-01-01

    Medical advice regarding the desire to have children and pregnancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often requested. The influence of IBD on pregnancy and--vice versa--of pregnancy on the activity of IBD is discussed. Based on three clinical cases the chances and limitations of medical treatment of CED during pregnancy are reviewed. Generally it is important to balance the therapy between the patients desire to be treated most effectively and to deliver a healthy child after an uncomplicated pregnancy. An interdisciplinary treatment is always advisable in patients with IBD and a desire to have children.

  4. [Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, A I

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pregnant women in their characteristics do not differ from general population, unless they had operations on the pelvic organs. Women with a first pregnancy, regardless of the activity of IBD have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy and high risk births. Most treatment methods are compatible with pregnancy and breastfeeding. Women affected by IBD should discuss their plans for pregnancy with the doctor first in order to know the possible dangers. Every patient in the IBD during pregnancy must be observed by a gastroenterologist, accoucheur and pediatrician to ensure peace of mother and child.

  5. Small Bowel Review: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year, there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. More than 1500 papers were assessed in preparation for this review. Some were selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist. Relevant review articles have been highlighted, and important clinical learning points have been stressed. The topics are varied in scope, and wherever possible show a logical progression from basic physiology to pathophysiology to clinical disorders and management.

  6. Small bowel diverticulosis as a cause of ileus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevska, D; Trajkovska, M; Janevski, V; Serafimoski, V

    2013-01-01

    Small bowel diverticulosis (SBD) is a rare condition. In most cases it is asymptomatic, but sometimes it can be manifested with chronic non-specific or acute symptoms. Because of the absence of pathognomonic signs and symptoms and truly reliable diagnostic tests, SBD is hard to diagnose and this is usually done incidentally by radiographic examination or during laparatomy. For uncomplicated patients, those with chronic abdominal pain, syndromes of malabsorption related to jejunoileal diverticulosis, bacterial overgrowth or an episode of intestinal obstruction, as in our case, conservative management is the initial option for treatment. A case of a patient with obstructive symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract due to SBD that was conservatively treated and had a positive outcome is presented.

  7. An Automated Inpatient Split-dose Bowel Preparation System Improves Colonoscopy Quality and Reduces Repeat Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, Rena; Johnston, Elyse R; Gluskin, Adam B; Gregory, Dyanna L; Cyrus, Rachel; Werth, Lindsay; Ciolino, Jody D; Grande, David P; Keswani, Rajesh N

    2017-07-19

    Inpatient colonoscopy preparations are often inadequate, compromising patient safety and procedure quality, while resulting in greater hospital costs. The aims of this study were to: (1) design and implement an electronic inpatient split-dose bowel preparation order set; (2) assess the intervention's impact upon preparation adequacy, repeated colonoscopies, hospital days, and costs. We conducted a single center prospective pragmatic quasiexperimental study of hospitalized adults undergoing colonoscopy. The experimental intervention was designed using DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) methodology. Prospective data collected over 12 months were compared with data from a historical preintervention cohort. The primary outcome was bowel preparation quality and secondary outcomes included number of repeated procedures, hospital days, and costs. On the basis of a Delphi method and DMAIC process, we created an electronic inpatient bowel preparation order set inclusive of a split-dose bowel preparation algorithm, automated orders for rescue medications, and nursing bowel preparation checks. The analysis data set included 969 patients, 445 (46%) in the postintervention group. The adequacy of bowel preparation significantly increased following intervention (86% vs. 43%; P<0.01) and proportion of repeated procedures decreased (2.0% vs. 4.6%; P=0.03). Mean hospital days from bowel preparation initiation to discharge decreased from 8.0 to 6.9 days (P=0.02). The intervention resulted in an estimated 1-year cost-savings of $46,076 based on a reduction in excess hospital days associated with repeated and delayed procedures. Our interdisciplinary initiative targeting inpatient colonoscopy preparations significantly improved quality and reduced repeat procedures, and hospital days. Other institutions should consider utilizing this framework to improve inpatient colonoscopy value.

  8. Deliberate Perspectival Obstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Rasmussen, Anders Emil

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the collaborative use of what the authors call ‘perspectival obstructions’. Taking its outset in the events revolving around a series of challenges given to each other, as well as to their interlocutors, in Papua New Guinea, the article unfolds how obstructions may be tied...... may help elicit perspectives that are otherwise kept hidden (deliberately or not), such as power-relations or the occluded side of a friendship or a kinship relation. This, in turn, also poses a danger to the otherwise collaborative ideal of modern ethnographic fieldwork in literally challenging...... and affecting ‘the natives' point of view’....

  9. Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Zarmina; Ishman, Stacey L

    2016-12-01

    Screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with in-laboratory polysomnography is recommended for children with sleep disordered breathing. Adenotonsillectomy is the first-line therapy for pediatric OSA, although intranasal steroids and montelukast can be considered for those with mild OSA and continuous positive airway pressure for those with moderate to severe OSA awaiting surgery, poor surgical candidates or persistent OSA. Bony or soft tissue upper airway surgery is reasonable for children failing medical management or those with persistent OSA following adenotonsillectomy. Weight loss and oral appliance therapy are also useful. A multi-modality approach to diagnosis and treatment is preferred. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple giant diverticula of the jejunum causing intestinal obstruction: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archontovasilis Fotis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple diverticulosis of jejunum represents an uncommon pathology of the small bowel. The disease is usually asymptomatic and must be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained malabsorption, anemia, chronic abdominal pain or discomfort. Related complications such as diverticulitis, perforation, bleeding or intestinal obstruction appear in 10-30% of the patients increasing morbidity and mortality rates. We herein report a case of a 55 year-old man presented at the emergency department with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and fever. Preoperative radiological examination followed by laparotomy revealed multiple giant jejunal diverticula causing intestinal obstruction. We also review the literature for this uncommon disease.

  11. Small Bowel Dissemination of Coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal coccidioidomycosis is extremely rare, with less than 10 cases reported in the literature. We report a case of small bowel dissemination of coccidioidomycosis in a 21-year-old African American male with a history of living in San Joaquin Valley. The patient presented with one week of abdominal pain, nausea, shortness of breath, intermittent fever, and sweat, and one month of abdominal distention. A chest radiograph revealed complete effusion of left lung. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed diffuse small bowel thickening and enhancement, as well as omental and peritoneal nodules, and ascites. The coccidioidal complement fixation titer was 1 : 256. The duodenal biopsy revealed many spherules filled with round fungal endospores. Later, blood fungal culture showed positivity for Coccidioides immitis. The final diagnosis is disseminated coccidioidomycosis involving lungs, blood, and duodenum. Despite aggressive antifungal therapy, the patient’s clinical situation deteriorated and he succumbed to multisystem organ failure one and half months later. A high index of suspicion for gastrointestinal coccidioidomycosis should be maintained in patients from an endemic area presenting as abdominal distention and pain.

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asher; Ballard, Robert D

    2003-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is an increasingly well-recognized disease characterized by periodic collapse of the upper airway during sleep. This leads to either complete or partial obstruction of the airway, resulting in apneas, hypopneas, or both. This disorder causes daytime somnolence, neurocognitive defects, and depression. It affects almost every system in the body, resulting in an increased incidence of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, pulmonary hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and altered immune function. It also increases the risk of having an accident, presumably as a result of associated somnolence. The gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep apnea is an overnight polysomnogram. Split-night studies are becoming increasingly common and allow for quicker implementation of therapy at a reduced cost. Treatment options for sleep apnea include weight loss, positional therapy, oral devices, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and upper airway surgery. CPAP is the most efficacious and widely used therapy. Its complications include nasal congestion or dryness, mask discomfort, and claustrophobia. Heated humidifiers, newer types of masks, and nasal steroids have improved tolerance of this therapy. Bilevel positive-pressure therapy can be considered for patients who find it difficult to exhale against the consistently increased pressure of CPAP. The disease requires aggressive treatment to improve quality of life and prevent its complications.

  13. Understanding Microbial Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Using Click Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0368 TITLE: Understanding Microbial Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Using Click Chemistry PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE with Click Chemistry : : Understanding Microbial Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Click Chemistry Understanding Microbial...Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Click Chemistry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Understanding Microbial Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Using Click

  14. Towards an integrated psychoneurophysiological approach of irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veek, Patrick Petrus Johannes van der

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort accompanied by disturbed bowel habits. It is among the most frequently occurring functional bowel syndromes, but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. A variety of mechanisms

  15. Transabdominal Ultrasonography of the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Kralik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of double balloon enteroscopy, capsule endoscopy, CT, and MRI enterography is transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS underestimated method for evaluation of small bowel pathology. As often initial imagine method in abdominal complaints, nowadays has TUS much better diagnostic potential than two decades ago. High-resolution ultrasound probes with harmonic imaging significantly improve resolution of bowel wall in real time, with possibility to asses bowel peristalsis. Color flow doppler enables evaluation of intramural bowel vascularisation, pulse wave doppler helps to quantificate flow in coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography with oral contrast fluid, as well as contrast enhanced ultrasonography with intravenous microbubble contrast also improves small bowel imaging. We present a review of small intestine pathology that should be detected during ultrasound examinations, discuss technical requirements, advantages and limitations of TUS, typical ultrasound signs of Crohn's disease, ileus, celiac disease, intussusception, infectious enteritis, tumours, ischemic and haemorrhagic conditions of small bowel. In the hands of experienced investigator, despite some significant limitations(obesity, meteorism, is transabdominal ultrasonography reliable, noninvasive and inexpensive alternative method to computerised tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in small bowel examination.

  16. Transabdominal ultrasonography of the small bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Rudolf; Trnovsky, Peter; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    In the era of double balloon enteroscopy, capsule endoscopy, CT, and MRI enterography is transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) underestimated method for evaluation of small bowel pathology. As often initial imagine method in abdominal complaints, nowadays has TUS much better diagnostic potential than two decades ago. High-resolution ultrasound probes with harmonic imaging significantly improve resolution of bowel wall in real time, with possibility to asses bowel peristalsis. Color flow doppler enables evaluation of intramural bowel vascularisation, pulse wave doppler helps to quantificate flow in coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography with oral contrast fluid, as well as contrast enhanced ultrasonography with intravenous microbubble contrast also improves small bowel imaging. We present a review of small intestine pathology that should be detected during ultrasound examinations, discuss technical requirements, advantages and limitations of TUS, typical ultrasound signs of Crohn's disease, ileus, celiac disease, intussusception, infectious enteritis, tumours, ischemic and haemorrhagic conditions of small bowel. In the hands of experienced investigator, despite some significant limitations(obesity, meteorism), is transabdominal ultrasonography reliable, noninvasive and inexpensive alternative method to computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in small bowel examination.

  17. Musculoskeletal Manifestations in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fornaciari

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscoloskeletal manifestations are the most common extraintestinal complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Wide ranges in prevalence have been reported, depending on the criteria used to define spondylarthropathy. In 1991, the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group developed classification criteria that included previously neglected cases of undifferentiated spondylarthropathies, which had been ignored in most of the oldest epidemiological studies on inflammatory bowel disease. The spectrum of muscoloskeletal manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease patients includes all of the clinical features of spondylarthropathies: peripheral arthritis, inflammatory spinal pain, dactylitis, enthesitis (Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis, buttock pain and anterior chest wall pain. Radiological evidence of sacroiliitis is common but not obligatory. The articular manifestations begin either concomitantly or subsequent to the bowel disease; however, the onset of spinal disease often precedes the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. The prevalence of the different muscoloskeletal manifestations is similar in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Symptoms usually disappear after proctocolectomy. The pathogenetic mechanisms that produce the muscoloskeletal manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease are unclear. Several arguments favour an important role of the intestinal mucosa in the development of spondylarthropathy. The natural history is characterized by periods of flares and remission; therefore, the efficacy of treatment is difficult to establish. Most patients respond to rest, physical therapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but these drugs may activate bowel disease. Sulphasalazine may be recommended in some patients. There is no indication for the systemic use of steroids.

  18. Management of a jejunal obstruction caused by the migration of a laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lemaire

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Small bowel obstruction caused by LAGB migration is a rare but serious complication following IGM. In such cases, endoscopy has to be avoided because of the risk of jejunal disruption. The only way to treat it properly is surgery. This type of late complication reinforces the interest in the techniques currently used in bariatric surgery such as sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass, providing also a better weight loss than the LAGB.

  19. Secondary parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. ...

  20. Intestino Corto Short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matilde Socarrás Suárez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El intestino corto está asociado a pérdida o disfunción del intestino delgado por resección del mismo, que causa diarreas, tránsito intestinal acelerado, malabsorción intestinal, y eventualmente la pérdida de peso y el desgaste muscular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar el conocimiento acerca de este síndrome. Se realiza una revisión del tema de intestino corto donde se refiere a su definición, causas fundamentales frecuentes e infrecuentes en el niño y en el adulto, cómo se adapta el intestino a la resección de diferentes extensiones, las funciones del íleon terminal. Se hacen una valoración clínica inicial, con el interrogatorio médico, revisión minuciosa de la historia clínica para cuantificar la capacidad de absorción. Se habla de los síntomas y signos de deficiencia nutricional. Se explican las estrategias del tratamiento, que tienen 3 etapas de evolución clínica. Se concluye que se indica la dietoterapia adecuada según el estado nutricional del paciente y la resección intestinal realizada, evitando las complicaciones para lograr una calidad máxima de vidaShort bowel is associated with loss or dysfunction of the small bowel due to its resection, which causes diarrheas, accelerated intestinal transit, intestinal malabsorption and, eventually, weight loss ansd muscular waste. The objective of this paper was to update knowledge about this syndrome. A review of the short intestine topic is made, making reference to its definition, common and uncommon main cuases in the child and adult, how the bowel adapts itslef to resection of different extensions, and the functions of the terminal ileum. An initial clinical assessment is made with the medical questionnaire and a detailed review of the medical history to quantify the absorption capacity. The symptoms and signs of nutritional deficiency are dealt with. The strategies of the treatment consisting of 3 stages of clinical evolution are explained. It is concluded

  1. Nocturnal mouthpiece ventilation and medical hypnosis to treat severe obstructive sleep apnea in a child with cherubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirani, Sonia; Kadlub, Natacha; Delord, Vincent; Picard, Arnaud; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2013-09-01

    A 4-year old boy presented severe obstructive sleep apnoea due to complete nasal obstruction secondary to cherubism. Because of anticipatory anxiety due to numerous surgical interventions, medical hypnosis was proposed to facilitate non-invasive continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPAP) acceptance. CPAP by means of an oral interface was completely accepted after three hypnosis sessions and resulted in the correction of his obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. This report highlights the benefit of medical hypnosis in facilitating CPAP acceptance as well as the efficacy of mouthpiece ventilation in a severe form of cherubism with complete nasal obstruction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies......, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability....

  3. Radiological aspects of diagnosis and staging of small bowel lymphoma - a case report; Aspectos radiologicos no diagnostico e estadiamento do linfoma de intestino delgado - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Luciano Magrini; Medeiros, Sergio Cainelli; Fraga, Rafael [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Friedrich, Mariangela Gheller; Todeschini, Luiz Alberto; Furtado, Alvaro Porto Alegre [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1999-12-01

    The authors report a case of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the small bowel, presenting with ulcerative lesions on radiological studies. primary intestinal lymphoma is considered a rare entity and its diagnosis criteria are quiet strict. The secondary form of the disease - involvement of the small bowel by systemic lymphoma - constitutes an infrequent clinical presentation of these neoplasms and must be considered when the criteria for primary disease are not fulfilled. Diagnosis is based on small bowel series studies and/or computed tomography findings, but the definitive diagnosis is established by biopsy. (author)

  4. Disturbances in small bowel motility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

  5. Infections in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez de Santiago, Enrique; Albillos Martínez, Agustín; López-Sanromán, Antonio

    2017-05-10

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease constitute a population with a special predisposition to develop bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Iatrogenic immunosuppression, frequent contact with healthcare facilities and surgical interventions are some of the risk factors that explain why these infections are one of the main causes of morbi-mortality in this disease. Some of these infections follow a subtle and paucisymptomatic evolution; their diagnosis and management may become a real challenge for the attending physician if their screening is not systematized or they are not considered in the differential diagnosis. The objective of this review is to provide an update from a practical and concise perspective on the knowledge regarding the epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the most common infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  7. Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue; Birkelund, Svend; Stensballe, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Unambiguous diagnosis of the two main forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD): Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), represents a challenge in the early stages of the diseases. The diagnosis may be established several years after the debut of symptoms. Hence, protein biomarkers...... for early and accurate diagnostic could help clinicians improve treatment of the individual patients. Moreover, the biomarkers could aid physicians to predict disease courses and in this way, identify patients in need of intensive treatment. Patients with low risk of disease flares may avoid treatment...... with medications with the concomitant risk of adverse events. In addition, identification of disease and course specific biomarker profiles can be used to identify biological pathways involved in the disease development and treatment. Knowledge of disease mechanisms in general can lead to improved future...

  8. Delayed colonic perforation following stent placement for colorectal obstruction: a description of two cases with stent palliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Vahedian Ardakani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bowel stent insertion has a variety of complications one major of which is colonic perforation. The purpose of this article is to reveal two cases with delayed colonic perforation after stent placement to relieve bowel obstruction caused by rectal cancer. The first patient was a 55 year-old man who was a candidate for stent placement to avoid palliative surgery and relieve his bowel obstruction. Although the procedure resulted in complete relief of patient symptoms, but he returned with signs of peritonitis 10 days after the stent placement. A perforation was found at rectosigmoid junction on laparotomy. The second patient was a 60 year-old man who underwent a successful stent placement and returned 3 months later with a complaint of abdominal pain that showed up to be due to a rectal perforation on investigations. In conclusion, bowel perforation following stent placement can be a major complication, so close follow-up is necessary to detect it as soon as possible and prevent it from becoming an irreparable complication.

  9. Thalidomide for inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramuzzo, Matteo; Ventura, Alessandro; Martelossi, Stefano; Lazzerini, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug used in the experimental treatment of refractory Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. We aimed to review the existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of thalidomide in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, LILACS, POPLINE, CINHAL, and Web of Science were searched in March 2016. Manual search included conference and reference lists. All types of studies, except single case reports, were included. Outcomes evaluated were: induction of remission; maintenance of remission; steroid reduction; effect on penetrating Crohn disease; endoscopic remission; adverse events. Results: The research strategies retrieved 722 papers. Two randomized controlled trials and 29 uncontrolled studies for a total of 489 patients matched the inclusion criteria. Thalidomide induced a clinical response in 296/427 (69.3%) patients. Clinical remission was achieved in 220/427 (51.5%) cases. Maintenance of remission was reported in 128/160 (80.0%) patients at 6 months and in 96/133 (72.2%) at 12 months. Reduction in steroid dosage was reported in 109/152 (71.7%) patients. Fistulas improved in 49/81 (60.5%) cases and closed in 28/81 (34.6%). Endoscopic improvement was observed in 46/66 (69.7%) and complete mucosal healing in 35/66 (53.0%) patients. Cumulative incidence of total adverse events and of those leading to drug suspension was 75.6 and 19.7/1000 patient-months, respectively. Neurological disturbances accounted for 341/530 (64.3%) adverse events and were the most frequent cause of drug withdrawal. Conclusion: Existing evidence suggests that thalidomide may be a valid treatment option for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases refractory to other first- and second-line treatments. PMID:27472695

  10. Bronchiolitis with airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epler, G R

    1995-03-01

    Bronchiolar lesions are becoming increasingly recognized as an important cause of airflow obstruction. For this reason, it is helpful to have an update of the current clinical, radiographic, and immunologic perspective. Among the bronchiolar airflow disorders, diffuse panbronchiolitis is related to HLA antigen Bw54, and low-dose, long-term erythromycin appears to be effective therapy. Bronchiolitis obliterans can be classified histologically as constrictive bronchiolitis and as proliferative bronchiolitis obliterans. Idiopathic, postfume, postinfectious, and connective tissue disease bronchiolitis obliterans continue to be rare and often have a poor prognosis. Bronchiolitis obliterans associated with lung transplantation is undergoing intensive investigation with regard to pathogenesis, immunologic study, early detection, and treatment. The lesion appears to be a form of chronic organ rejection. The recognition of the distinctive differences among the bronchiolar airflow disorders by clinicians and clinical investigators is essential for improved patient care, for a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of the disorder, and for development of new therapeutic advances.

  11. Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in childhood and can result insevere complications if left untreated. It is showing a rising trend in India. A significantassociation with obesity has been observed; however, some children with enlargedtonsils and/or adenoids may even be underweight. The patient usually presents withsnoring and other respiratory problems like mouth breathing, choking and gaspingepisodes in night. Poor school performance and neurocognitive deficits have beenreported. Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are seen in severe cases. Besidesthe history and clinical examination, for definitive diagnosis an overnightpolysomnographic evaluation is the gold standard. In all cases, the specific treatmentranges from simple lifestyle modifications and medications to surgeries likeadenotonsillectomy. Early diagnosis is vital.Key words: Childhood OSA, Obesity, adenotonsillar hypertrophy

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  13. Endoscopic evaluation of surgically altered bowel in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Preetika; Shen, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases often undergo surgical procedures for medically refractory disease or colitis associated dysplasia. Endoscopic evaluation of the surgically altered bowel is often needed to assess for disease recurrence, its severity, and for therapy. It is important to obtain and review the operative report and abdominal imaging before performing the endoscopy. Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can be safely performed in most patients with inflammatory bowel disease with altered bowel anatomy under conscious sedation without fluoroscopy. Carefully planned stricture therapy with balloon dilation or needle knife stricturotomy can be performed for simple, short, and fibrotic strictures. A multidisciplinary approach involving a team of endoscopist, endoscopy nurse, colorectal surgeon, gastrointestinal pathologist, and gastrointestinal radiologist is important for a safe and effective endoscopy. We attempt to review the aspects that need consideration before the endoscopy, the technique of endoscopy, and briefly the therapies that can be performed during endoscopy of the bowel through an ileostomy, a colostomy, in the diverted large bowel or ileal pouch, and small bowel after stricturoplasty and bowel bypass surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

  14. Endoscopic internal biliary drainage in a child with malignant obstructive jaundice caused by neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tadao; Yoshida, Hideo; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kouchi, Katunori; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Ohnuma, Naomi [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Chiba University, School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8677 (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Saisho, Hiromitsu [First Department of Internal Medicine, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    We describe a 13-year-old girl who underwent insertion of a Flexima biliary stent for obstructive jaundice due to compression of the extrahepatic bile duct by an enlarged lymph node secondary to neuroblastoma. This novel endoscopic internal biliary drainage procedure was safe and effective even for a child, and improved her quality of life. We further review other treatment options available for malignant obstructive jaundice in children. (orig.)

  15. Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Common Bile Duct Presenting as Obstructive Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cochrane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer is typically identified in the bones, lymph nodes, lungs and liver. Rarely does metastatic breast cancer involve the common bile duct (CBD without direct extension from liver metastasis into the CBD. We present a woman diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer in the CBD after presenting with obstructive jaundice. Patients with a history of primary breast cancer who present with obstructive jaundice secondary to CBD mass need identification of the mass in order to provide appropriate treatment.

  16. Reversible symptomatic biliary obstruction associated with ceftriaxone pseudolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinberg, J; Chernaik, R; Coman, E; Rosenblatt, R; Brandt, L J

    1991-09-01

    Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, has been associated with the development of sludge or stones in the gallbladders of some patients treated with this medication. Such precipitates, which are usually reversible upon discontinuation of the drug, sometimes cause symptoms, have simulated acute cholecystitis, and have even led to cholecystectomy in some cases. We report the first known instance of biliary obstruction and secondary pancreatitis in association with reversible ceftriaxone-induced pseudolithiasis.

  17. Infantile myofibromatosis: a most unusual cause of gastric outlet obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Kellie; Murphy, Robyn; Thresher, Caroline; Jacir, Nabil; Bergman, Kerry [Morristown Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Morristown, NJ (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Non-bilious vomiting in the newborn is common. Etiologies include both surgical and medical conditions. Gastroesophageal reflux, soy or milk protein allergy, and prostaglandin-induced foveolar hyperplasia are among the medical causes. Surgical entities include gastric antral webs, pre-ampullary duodenal and pyloric atresia, and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We report the unique case of an 8-day-old girl who presented with gastric outlet obstruction secondary to infantile myofibromatosis. (orig.)

  18. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small...... permeability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with CC and chronic diarrhoea participated in the study. Coeliac disease was excluded by small-bowel biopsy and/or serology. Intestinal permeability was assessed as urinary excretion (ratios) 2, 4 and 6 h after ingestion of 14C-labelled mannitol (14C......-intestinal biopsies, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal...

  19. Recent advances in inflammatory bowel disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    analysis comparing capsule endoscopy with small- bowel barium radiology, colonoscopy with ileoscopy, computer tomography ..... Each tablet contains Aspirin 81mg. Reg.No.: 29/2.7/0767. Pharmafrica (Pty) Ltd, 33 Hulbert Road, ...

  20. Stem cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvestein, Marjolijn

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and mesenchymal stromal (MSC) cell therapy are currently under investigation as novel therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Hematopoietic stem cells are thought to repopulate the immune system and reset the immunological response to luminal

  1. Use of thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Pascal; Biedermann, Luc; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    The use of thiopurines as immunosuppression for the treatment of refractory or chronic active inflammatory bowel disease is established for both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, many questions remain concerning the optimal treatment regimens of azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine...

  2. Symptoms and Causes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you haven’t finished a bowel movement whitish mucus in your stool Women with IBS often have ... as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of ...

  3. Diverticulosis of the small bowel with Diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barner, L.; Doldt, H.; Strecker, E.P.

    1980-11-01

    Case report of diverticulosis of the small bowel complicated by diverticulitis. Radiography is the method of choice to demonstrate this finding preoperatively. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of right lower quadrant abdominal pecin.

  4. Hirschsprung disease-Bowel function beyond childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Tomas; Granström, Anna Löf

    2017-10-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a developmental defect of the enteric nervous system characterized by lack of enteric neurons in the distal hindgut. There are numerous reports on short-term outcomes indicating that impaired bowel function is common. Recently, several controlled studies show that bowel function outcomes are affected beyond childhood, in adolescents and adults, compared with healthy control subjects. Constipation and fecal incontinence are common. The impaired bowel function appears to have a negative impact on quality of life, although, a majority of patients have adapted to their symptoms. On the other hand, Hirschsprung disease seems to have limited impact on education and occupation in adult life. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge of bowel function outcome beyond childhood in patients with Hirschsprung disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Building a second brain in the bowel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avetisyan, Marina; Schill, Ellen Merrick; Heuckeroth, Robert O

    2015-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is sometimes called the "second brain" because of the diversity of neuronal cell types and complex, integrated circuits that permit the ENS to autonomously regulate many processes in the bowel...

  6. Spontaneous sublingual and intramural small-bowel hematoma in a patient on oral anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moftah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous sublingual hematoma and intramural small bowel hematoma are rare and serious complications of anticoagulant therapy. Though previously reported individually, there has been no previous report of the same two complications occurring in a single patient. A 71-year-old Caucasian man, who was on warfarin for atrial fibrillation, presented with difficulty in swallowing due to a sublingual hematoma. He was observed in our intensive care unit, his warfarin was held and he recovered with conservative management. He represented two months later with a two day history of abdominal pain and distension. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT scan now showed small bowel obstruction due to intramural small bowel hematoma and haemorrhagic ascites. Again, this was treated expectantly with a good outcome. In conclusion, life threatening haemorrhagic complications of oral anticoagulant therapy can recur. Conservative treatment is successful in most cases, but an accurate diagnosis is mandatory to avoid unnecessary surgery. CT scan is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of suspected haemorrhagic complications of over coagulation.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome.

  8. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before...... the rectal surgery to clean the rectum and facilitate the manipulation for the mechanical anastomosis is used for many surgeons. This is analysed separately...

  9. Value of computed tomography in diagnosis of intestinal diseases. CT findings in nontumoral bowel diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Koichi; Yamane, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Miura, Yoshio; Kato, Yoshitaka; Yahata, Noriko; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Katsuta, Shizutomo

    1987-03-01

    CT findings of 46 cases with inflammatory and other nontumoral bowel diseases were retrospectively studied. Patients were given 500 to 1000 ml of lukewarm water orally or rectally to distend the intestinal lumen. In all cases water-soluble iodine contrast media was administered intravenously. The CT findings in Crohn's disease included mural thickening, luminal narrowing, bowel wall enhancement, wall rigidity, serration of intestinal border, dilatation of mesenteric vessels, periintestinal blurring (inflamatory reaction of mesentery), fibrofatty proliferation, effusion, abscess and fistula. Many of these findings suggested the transmural nature of the disease and gave diagnostic clues of the disease. In cases with ulcerative colitis, thickening of bowel wall was insignificant and extraintestinal complications were absent. CT appears to play an important role in distinguishing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Luminal narrowing and mural thickening were also observed in a case with intestinal ischemia, but these mural changes were not accompanied by mesenteric abnormalities to the degree of Crohn's disease. In cases with penetrating peptic ulcer and diverticulitis, CT demonstrated inflammatory reactions of surrounding tissue such as thickening of neighboring fascia, increase in attenuation value of mesenteric fat, effusion and abscess. Even in cases with confusing clinical symptoms, appendicitis was easily diagnosed on CT which showed swelling of appendix and inflammatory changes of surrounding structures. Mechanical obstruction of the intestine could be identified on CT by a notable change of luminal sizes at the site of obstruction. CT appearances of intussusception were distinctive and a soft tissue mass (intussusceptum) and mesenteric fat was seen within a markedly dilated intussuscipiens. CT could also reveal pancreatitis and splenic infarction as the causes of clinically-undiagnosed paralytic ileus. (J.P.N.).

  10. Implementation of the victoria bowel performance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Philippa; Barwich, Doris; Kirk, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    There is a lack of evidence to guide constipation management in patients receiving palliative care. Data collection requires the systematic use of validated assessment tools. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS) as an audit tool. Charts were reviewed before and after the implementation of a program to monitor constipation through repeated use of the Victoria Bowel Scale. The program was initiated at three oncology pain and symptom management clinics, four palliative care units, and four residential hospices. An additional "control" palliative care unit introduced new nursing assessment tools without the new scale. The Victoria BPS was recorded at 86% of 192 postimplementation outpatient clinic visits and was easy to use in this setting. Documentation of bowel performance at comparable visits improved from 44% to 66% (Passessment tool, uniquely incorporating the patient's usual bowel function. Modifications to the scale have been made to improve clarity and allow for the expected drop in bowel activity seen in end-of-life care. Considerable educational effort and appropriate organization of the charts are required for optimal implementation. The proportion of revised BPS scores ranging from -1 to +1 is proposed as an indicator of satisfactory bowel management for clinical, audit, and research purposes. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Obstructive Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to PEG Tube Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Douglas F.; Cho, Ryan; Cho, Allan; Nguyen, Viet; Sunnapwar, Abhijit; Womeldorph, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous gastrostomy is a well-established method of providing enteral nutrition to patients incapable of oral intake, or for whom oral intake is insufficient to meet metabolic needs. In comparison to total parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding is advantageous in that it helps maintain gut mucosal integrity, which decreases the risk of bacterial translocation through the gastrointestinal tract. Complications include bleeding, aspiration, internal organ injury, perforation, periostomal lea...

  12. Failure of Laparoscopy to Relieve Ureteral Obstruction Secondary to Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Yu Chen

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: In women of reproductive age, hydronephrosis and hypertension may be the only symptoms of endometriosis. While laparoscopic treatment is useful in endometriosis, it may fail in the presence of chronic inflammation and severe fibrosis.

  13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Increases Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Aoibhlinn; Nwanne, Ogochukwu; Tomlinson, Tracy

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease may place women at greater risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. To examine the association between inflammatory bowel disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes: preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight, congenital anomalies, and stillbirth. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov for studies published from January 1980 through February 2014 and reference lists of relevant studies. We reviewed 1748 citations and identified studies evaluating outcomes of pregnancies complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. Selected studies evaluated one or more of the outcomes of interest, were in English, and gave sufficient details to perform meta-analysis. Three investigators independently reviewed articles for inclusion; discordant decisions were resolved by team review and consensus. Twenty-three studies that included 15,007 women with inflammatory bowel disease (5449 Crohn's, 6559 ulcerative colitis) and 4,614,271 controls met selection criteria. Random-effects analytical methods were used to generate pooled odds ratios. We found an increased odds of the outcomes studied among women with inflammatory bowel disease compared with non-diseased controls: 1.85 for preterm birth (22 studies; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.67-2.05), 1.36 for SGA birth weight (13 studies; 95 % CI 1.16-1.60), 1.57 for stillbirth (10 studies; 95 % CI 1.03-2.38), and 1.29 for congenital anomalies (11 studies; 95 % CI 1.05-1.58). The latter result, however, may be unreliable secondary to publication bias. Inflammatory bowel disease may increase the odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  14. Intestinal obstruction repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common causes of intestinal obstruction in adults are adhesions, hernias, and colon cancer. Adhesions are scars that form between loops of intestine, usually caused by prior surgery, which causes such scar formation. ...

  15. [Developments in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: 2014 overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomollón, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    The way we treat inflammatory bowel disease is rapidly changing. Biologics have accounted for the biggest change in recent years, and they are being used on a more regular basis, on more indications and at earlier stages. However, primary response failure and, above all, secondary response failure and cost represent serious limitations for their use. Combination immunosuppressant therapy, individualization depending on levels and response, increasing compliance and a more suitable choice of cases can all enhance effectiveness. However in many cases, new alternatives will be necessary. Recently, 2 new antibodies have been approved: golimumab is a new option for ulcerative colitis and with another more selective mechanism of action; vedolizumab could be useful for ulcerative colitis as well as Crohn's disease. Ustekinumab is an alternative treatment option for refractory Crohn's disease. In addition to biologics, autologous bone marrow transplants and, anecdotally, the use of immunoglobulins have been suggested as alternatives in some carefully selected cases. Although effective for Clostridium difficile infection, the potential role of fecal transplants in inflammatory bowel disease is still to be determined, without initially observing very promising results. The use of probiotics has not produced significant positive results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Obstrução do íleo terminal por mucosa gástrica heterotópica Terminal ileum obstruction owing to heterotopic gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Atik

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A mucosa gástrica ectópica localizada no intestino delgado, distal ao ligamento de Treitz é muito rara, excetuando-se a encontrada habitualmente no divertículo de Meckel e na duplicação intestinal. Existem formas congênita e adquirida, sendo esta última secundária à processos inflamatórios intestinais. As diferenças entre estas formas são basicamente histológicas, determinando no entanto aspectos fisiopatológicos distintos. Apresentamos caso de mucosa gástrica ectópica em paciente de 34 anos de idade, manifestada por obstrução do íleo terminal. Submetido a duas enterectomias e anastomoses primárias, apresentou boa evolução pós-operatória. O aspecto histopatológico, típico da forma adquirida com mucosa antral e intensa fibrose, foi provavelmente relacionado à quadro recente de tuberculose intestinal, porém não confirmada histologicamente. O antecedente de tuberculose pulmonar recente na família, aliado à linfoadenomegalia mesentérica encontrada a operação, sustentam tal suspeita. Este é fato inédito na literatura dentre as outras 28 publicações de heterotopia gástrica no jejuno e íleo.Heterotopic gastric mucosa situated in the small bowel distal to the Treitz suspensory ligament is very rare, except in Meckel's diverticulum and in intestinal duplications. There are two forms of this disease, congenital and acquired. The former is secondary to inflammatory bowel disease. The main difference between these forms is histological, although determining diverse physiopathological aspects. A case of a 34 year old man with heterotopic gastric mucosa in the terminal ileum manifested by intestinal obstruction is reported. He was treated surgically by enterectomy of two small bowel segments, both reconstructed by primary suture. His postoperative course was remarkable. The histopathologic study showed a typical pattern of the acquired type because of the presence of antral the antral mucosa and intense fibrosis. That

  17. Low-FODMAP diet reduces irritable bowel symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natalia; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a low-FODMAP diet on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This was a randomised controlled open-label trial of patients with IBD in remission or with mild-to-moderate disease and coexisting IBS...

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease of primary sclerosing cholangitis: a distinct entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Sano, Hitoshi; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Shimizu, Shuya; Joh, Takashi

    2014-03-28

    This is a review of the characteristic findings of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and their usefulness in the diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis. PSC is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by idiopathic fibrous obstruction and is frequently associated with IBD. IBD-associated with PSC (PSC-IBD) shows an increased incidence of pancolitis, mild symptoms, and colorectal malignancy. Although an increased incidence of pancolitis is a characteristic finding, some cases are endoscopically diagnosed as right-sided ulcerative colitis. Pathological studies have revealed that inflammation occurs more frequently in the right colon than the left colon. The frequency of rectal sparing and backwash ileitis should be investigated in a future study based on the same definition. The cholangiographic findings of immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) are similar to those of PSC. The rare association between IBD and IgG4-SC and the unique characteristics of PSC-IBD are useful findings for distinguishing PSC from IgG4-SC.

  19. Self-Management for People with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Saibil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In North America and the United Kingdom, we are in the age of self-management. Many patients with chronic diseases are ready to participate in the therapeutic decision-making process, and join their physicians in a co-management model. It is particularly useful to consider this concept at a time when physician shortages and waiting times are on the front page every day, with no immediate prospect of relief. Conditions such as diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, recurrent urinary tract infections and others lend themselves to this paradigm of medical care for the informed patient. The present paper reviews some of the literature on self-management for the patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, and provides a framework for the use of self-management in the IBD population, with emphasis on the concept of a patient passport, and the use of e-mail, supported by an e-mail contract, as proposed by the Canadian Medical Protective Association. Examples of specific management strategies are provided for several different IBD scenarios. Eliminating the need for some office visits has clear environmental and economical benefits. Potential negative consequences of this form of patient care are also discussed.

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Brass

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual’s risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

  1. HYPERTROPHIC OBSTRUCTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Osiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP is a relatively common disease with genetic predisposition, that is widely spread irrespective of gender, race or ethnicity. The cause of this pathology are mutations of genes encoding synthesis of contracting proteins. Degree and type of mutations define clinical manifestation of the disease and its prognosis. HCMP is classified according to four main criteria: depending on morphology, presence of left ventricular outlet obstruction, pressure gradient and hemodynamic parameters. Its prevalence amounts to 1:500, and in the recent years mortality has decreased significantly to 1%. Main symptoms of HCMP include dyspnoea, dizziness, syncope, angina, and heart arrhythmias. HCMP does not manifest obligatorily with all above mentioned signs and symptoms. Presence and severity of any symptoms depend on morphological particulars of the disease. Particular attention should be paid to arrhythmias, with atrial fibrillation among them, that may cause hazardous and occasionally lethal complications. Electrocardiography and echocardiography are recognized as the “golden standard” of HCMP diagnostics, while in the recent years, magnetic resonance imaging has become a highly informative diagnostic tool. Radionuclide diagnostics is used less frequently, while physical examination and assessments have been moving backwards. At present, main strategies in HCMP include medical treatment with β-blockers, calcium antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and anti-arrhythmics. There are two techniques for surgical treatment, i.e. myectomy by Morrow and alcohol septal ablation that is becoming increasingly popular. The article reviews literature on state-of-the-art diagnostics and treatment of HCMP patients.

  2. Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Robin C.

    2003-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely common cause of consultation, and at present is diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and a few simple exclusion tests. Exclusion diets can be successful, but many patients have already attempted and failed such treatments before consulting. Anxiety and somatization may be an important driver of consultation. Patients' concerns should be understood and addressed. Those with prominent psychiatric disease may benefit from psychotherapy. Hypnotherapy benefits symptoms in those without psychologic disturbance, but its availability is limited. Antidepressants are effective in improving both mood and IBS symptoms globally, and the evidence is particularly good for tricyclic antidepressants. Although antispasmodics are currently the most commonly prescribed drugs, most responses (75%) are due to the placebo effect and not specific to the drug. Bulk laxatives such as ispaghula can increase stool frequency and help pain, but bloating may be aggravated. Loperamide is effective treatment for urgency and loose stools, but less effective for bloating and pain. 5-HT(3) antagonists such as alosetron improve urgency, stool consistency, and pain in diarrhea-predominant-IBS. The 5-HT(4) agonist tegaserod shows modest benefit in constipation-predominant IBS, improving stool frequency, consistency, and bloating as well as global improvement. There are many new drugs, such as cholecystokinin, neurokinin, and corticotropin receptor antagonists, in development.

  3. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Gómez, María Josefa; Melián Fernández, Cristóbal; Romeo Donlo, María

    2016-07-12

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic pathology that has an outbreaks course that in recent years have seen an increase in incidence, especially at younger ages. Malnutrition is frequently associated with this condition, therefore, it is very important to ensure a right nutritional intervention, especially in pediatric patients, to ensure an optimal growth and also an improvement in the clinic. Our goal will be updated the role of nutrition in this disease and in its treatment based on the published evidence. Malnutrition in these patients is frequent and is influenced by various factors such as, decreased food intake, increased nutrient requirements, increased protein loss and malabsorption of nutrients. Therefore there should be a nutritional monitoring of all of them, in which anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and densitometry were made to establish the needs and sufficient caloric intake tailored to each patient. The use of enteral nutrition as a treatment in Crohn’s disease with mild to moderate outbreak in child population, is amply demonstrated, has even shown to be superior to the use of corticosteroids. Therefore we can conclude by stressing that nutritional intervention is a mainstay in the management of patients with IBD, which aims to prevent and / or control disease-related malnutrition to decrease morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life.

  4. Immunopathology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Kori L; Zheng, Li-Bo; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Shih, David Q

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system. The host microbiome, as well as viruses and fungi, play important roles in the development of IBD either by causing inflammation directly or indirectly through an altered immune system. New technologies have allowed researchers to be able to quantify the various components of the microbiome, which will allow for future developments in the etiology of IBD. Various components of the mucosal immune system are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD and include intestinal epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, cells of the innate (macrophages/monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells) and adaptive (T-cells and B-cells) immune system, and their secreted mediators (cytokines and chemokines). Either a mucosal susceptibility or defect in sampling of gut luminal antigen, possibly through the process of autophagy, leads to activation of innate immune response that may be mediated by enhanced toll-like receptor activity. The antigen presenting cells then mediate the differentiation of naïve T-cells into effector T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17, which alter gut homeostasis and lead to IBD. In this review, the effects of these components in the immunopathogenesis of IBD will be discussed.

  5. Selenium and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudva, Avinash K; Shay, Ashley E; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2015-07-15

    Dietary intake of the micronutrient selenium is essential for normal immune functions. Selenium is cotranslationally incorporated as the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, into selenoproteins that function to modulate pathways involved in inflammation. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between selenium levels and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that can potentially progress to colon cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we summarize the current literature on the pathophysiology of IBD, which is multifactorial in origin with unknown etiology. We have focused on a few selenoproteins that mediate gastrointestinal inflammation and activate the host immune response, wherein macrophages play a pivotal role. Changes in cellular oxidative state coupled with altered expression of selenoproteins in macrophages drive the switch from a proinflammatory phenotype to an anti-inflammatory phenotype to efficiently resolve inflammation in the gut and restore epithelial barrier integrity. Such a phenotypic plasticity is accompanied by changes in cytokines, chemokines, and bioactive metabolites, including eicosanoids that not only mitigate inflammation but also partake in restoring gut homeostasis through diverse pathways involving differential regulation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. The role of the intestinal microbiome in modulating inflammation and aiding in selenium-dependent resolution of gut injury is highlighted to provide novel insights into the beneficial effects of selenium in IBD. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Pregnancy and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashash, Jana G; Kane, Sunanda

    2015-02-01

    Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whether Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, are of reproductive age. Young women with IBD are usually very worried about their fertility, the activity of their disease during pregnancy, the heritability of the disease to their unborn child, and the effect of their underlying IBD on the pregnancy itself. Additionally, patients express concerns about using IBD medications during pregnancy, fearing that the medications may negatively affect the fetus. For this reason, it is of the utmost importance that gastroenterologists and patients with IBD be aware of the effect of IBD on pregnancy, the effect of pregnancy on IBD, and the effect of IBD medications on the fetus and on pregnancy outcomes. Increasing the awareness of patients with IBD about the importance of maintaining disease remission at the time of conception and throughout pregnancy is key to improving the outcomes of both mothers and fetuses. This article addresses the fertility of patients with IBD, the effect of pregnancy on disease activity, and the effect of IBD on pregnancy. Also discussed are which IBD medications can be used during conception and pregnancy and which medications must be avoided.

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dawn B; Kane, Sunanda

    2011-06-14

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis affect women in their child-bearing years. Family planning has come to be a common discussion between the gastroenterologist and the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient. Disease control prior to desired conception and throughout pregnancy is the most important thing to keep in mind when caring for the IBD patient. Continued medical management during pregnancy is crucial in optimizing outcomes. Studies indicate that quiescent disease prior to conception infer the best pregnancy outcomes, similar to those in the general population. Active disease prior to and during pregnancy, can lead to complications such as pre-term labor, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. Although there are no definitive long term effects of pregnancy on IBD, there are some limited studies that suggest that it may alter the disease course. Understanding the literature and its limitations is important in the modern era of IBD care. Educating the patient and taking a team approach with the obstetrician will help achieve successful outcomes for mother and baby.

  8. [Treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomollón, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    In addition to immunosuppressive drugs and anti-TNF, there are a number of new options in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Vedolizumab has been approved by the FDA and EMA and has demonstrated utility both in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), even in anti-TNF refractory patients. Other monoclonal antibodies with different targets such as PF-005447659 (antiMAd-CAM1), ustekinumab (anti-IL23/IL12) or MEDI2070 (anti-IL23) have shown promising results in distinct clinical scenarios. Mongersen (antisense oligonucleotide anti-Smad7) and oznimod (an SP-1 modulator) are new alternatives with proven efficacy in clinical trials in CD and UC, respectively. Some data suggest that faecal microbiota transplantation could be efficacious in individual patients, although controlled data do not show clear differences with placebo. Autologous stem-cell transplantation has shown long-term efficacy in "ultra-refractory" CD. The number of possible treatments is constantly increasing, and future research should focus both on the selection of the most appropriate treatment for any given patient and on comparative trials between options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Irritable bowel syndrome in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, N; Villata, L; Santini, B; Fantino, N; Robazza, V; Ciervo, T; Barbera, C; Elia, G; Oderda, G

    1987-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic functional gastroenterological disorder both in adults and in children. In this study we evaluate the different aspects of this syndrome, comparing our observations on 332 children with other studies. Epidemiological data (frequency, sex, age) are examined so as the family histories of gastroenterological disorders. We take in account several pathogenic hypotheses, especially with reference to the alterations of gastrointestinal motility, which could be caused by several factors (psychological, prostaglandins, bile acids, etc.). The clinical picture is very variable, variations depending on the age of children and on the time of onset of IBS. The colic of neonate, caused by retention of air, is the main symptom in the first months of life, followed by chronic diarrhoea, also defined as toddler's diarrhoea, sometime alternating with constipation. In later childhood, recurrent abdominal pain represents a common complaint, in association with diarrhoea or constipation. The principal steps for a proper diagnosis so as the main differential diagnosis are defined. We explain the most important features of management (reassuring parents, free diet), excluding prescription of drugs, that produce only a transitory and symptomatic relief, so as elimination diets, that cause only a failure to thrive without any improvement of symptoms.

  10. ANEMIA IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE MORE THAN AN EXTRAINTESTINAL COMPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeş, Roxana Maria; Pop, Corina Silvia; Calagiu, Dorina; Dobrin, Denisa; Chetroiu, Diana; Jantea, Petruta; Postolache, Paraschiva

    2016-01-01

    The most common hematologic complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)--ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease is anemia. Anemia in patients with IBD may be a result of iron, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency; anemia of chronic disease and hemolytic anemia are other causes in these patients. Factors contributing to the development of anemia include chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, vitamin B12 malabsorption secondary to terminal ileitis, folate deficiency as a result of sulfasalazine therapy. Approximately 30% of patients with IBD have hemoglobin levels below 12 g/dl. The risk of developing anemia relates to disease activity, given that blood loss and inflammatory anemia are triggered by intestinal inflammation. In the management strategy of IBD patients with anemia it is important to distinguish between the different types of anemia in order to decide an appropriate manner of treatment.

  11. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  12. [Therapeutic perspectives in the irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussade, S

    1990-01-01

    Future treatments of functional intestinal disorders (FID) are essentially dependent on the possible pathophysiologic hypotheses. Schematically, symptoms experienced by patients with FID can be attributed to intestinal (small or large intestine) motor disturbances or to visceral sensitivity derangement, which, in turn, may be primary or secondary to an anomalous response to alimentation, liberation of hormones or neuromediators, or to a "stress" situation. New therapeutic agents can be directed against the symptoms experienced by patients (? action on pain or intestinal transit disorders) or against the initial pathophysiologic mechanisms. In the treatment of functional diarrhea, several substances have been proposed recently. Encephalines are peptides with extremely short duration of action which are degraded by two membranous enzymes, encephalinase and carboxypeptidase. Recently, it has been shown that acetorphan, an inhibitor of encephalinase, is efficacious in acute diarrhea. Alpha-2-antagonists are substances which are capable of slowing intestinal transit time and increasing intestinal absorption. Their antidiarrheic action is moderate, and they do not act on abdominal pain. Molecules that do not traverse the neuromeningeal barrier but that act selectively on the digestive tract and are better tolerated are expected. In patients complaining of severe idiopathic constipation substances capable of stimulating colonic motility are useful: substance P or neurotensin analogues might prove interesting. Antagonists of opium receptors such as Naloxone have proved efficacious in the treatment of certain cases of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstructions or severe constipation. The development of orally active substances or with hepatic elimination are a prerequisite. Therapy based on well characterized pathophysiologic abnormalities would be welcome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. [Immunological profile of coeliac disease in a subgroup of patients with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Hela; El Assoued, Youssef; Ghédira, Ibtissem; Ben Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Yacoobi, Mohamed T; Ajmi, Salem

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if authentic cases of irritable bowel syndrome could be secondary in a latent or potential coeliac disease. All new patients who consulted for irritable bowel syndrome fulfilling Rome II criteria between 01/04/2003 and 30/03/2004 were included. All patients had upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsy and colonoscopy or enema. Then they were investigated for celiac disease by analysis of serum IgA antigliadin, IgG antigliadin, and endomysial antibodies. One hundred patients with irritable bowel syndrome were included. They had an average age of 45,5 +/- 0,98 and they were 61 women. Clinical signs were dominated by abdominal pains associated to constipation (69% of the cases). Five patients had positive antigliadin antibody (IgG for 2 patients and IgA for 3 patients). None of them had endomysial antibodies nor abnormal duodenal biopsy. This study didn't provide a relation between celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome when it is associated to constipation.

  14. [Dose constraints to organs at risk for conformational and stereotactic radiotherapy: Small bowel and duodenum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupy, F; Chajon, E; Castelli, J; Le Prisé, É; Duvergé, L; Jaksic, N; Vogin, G; Monpetit, É; Klein, V; de Bosschère, L; Maingon, P

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy of abdominopelvic primary or secondary lesions in conformational or stereotactic techniques is in full development. The small bowel is highly sensitive to irradiation and is the main organ at risk limiting prescription doses. This literature review aims to define the dose constraints to the small bowel and the duodenum in conformational and stereotactic body radiotherapy. The small bowel including the duodenum, jejunum and ileum is delineated on the simulation scanner. The radio-induced intestinal toxicities are acute related to the cellular depopulation of the intestinal mucosa, and late of more complex pathophysiology associating depletion in stem cells, microangiopathy, chronic inflammation and fibrosis. The main predictive factor of intestinal toxicity is the dose-volume ratio. In conformational radiotherapy, the dose constraints to the duodenum are: V25Gyconstraints are for delineation by intestinal loop or peritoneal cavity respectively: V15Gyconstraints depend on fractionation and are defined on a small volume and on a maximum dose at one point. Intestinal toxicity is also dependent on factors intrinsic to the patient and radiosensitizers such as targeted therapies or chemotherapies. With the development of new techniques allowing dose escalation on the tumour and the development of inverse planning, the definition of dose constraints to the small bowel is essential for current practice. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Pseudomembranous colitis presenting as acute colonic obstruction without diarrhea in a patient with gastric Burkitt lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kenichi; Fukumoto, Kohei; Shimizu, Daisuke; Okuda, Takashi; Yoshida, Naohisa; Kamitsuji, Yuri; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Konishi, Hideyuki; Ueda, Yuji; Horiike, Shigeo; Okanoue, Takeshi; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) usually manifests as fever and diarrhea in hospitalized patients treated with systemic antibiotics. We described a case of PMC with intestinal obstruction but without diarrhea. A 60-year-old man was hospitalized for chemotherapy for the treatment of Burkitt lymphoma of the stomach. The patient became febrile and complained of crampy abdominal pain during the post-chemotherapy nadir. Plain abdominal radiography showed some intestinal gas and niveau. Because stool cytotoxin assay for clostridium difficile was positive and colon fiberscopic examination showed a pseudomembrane at the left side of the colon, and a diagnosis of PMC was made. Treatment with intracolonic vancomycin administration by colonoscopy and nasoileus tube was successful. Physicians should take into account the possibility of bowel obstruction due to PMC occurring in patients undergoing chemotherapy and perform emergency colonoscopy examination of suspected cases. PMID:15849835

  16. Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.; Sofer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4% (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.

  17. Salvage surgery for bladder outlet obstruction after prostatectomy or cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westney, Ouida L

    2008-11-01

    Obstruction of the outlet secondary to a recurrent bladder neck contracture postprostatectomy or cystectomy presents a reconstructive challenge combined with the goal of restoring normal lower urinary tract function. The majority of bladder neck contractures are responsive to urethral dilation or cold knife direct visual internal urethrotomy. Urethral stents and anastomotic urethroplasty have been used with increasing frequency to regain urethral continuity. In the postcystectomy patient, obstruction due to stricture must be differentiated from dysfunctional voiding - unfavorable pouch voiding mechanics, insufficient pouch pressure generation or failure of external sphincter relaxation. Aggressive electrocautery resection with urethral stent placement and anastomotic urethroplasty are viable options for achieving patency after bladder neck obstruction. For those desirous of achieving a continent endpoint, artificial urinary sphincter should be planned as a second stage procedure after stabilization of the bladder neck. Creation of a catheterizable limb remains an option for the unreconstructable urethra. If augmentation cystoplasty is necessary due to storage pressure abnormalities, an appendicovesicostomy or reconfigured ileum segment is a reasonable method to achieve continence. The incidence of recurrent obstruction due to tissue in-growth or stricture is similar between urethral stent placement and anastomotic urethroplasty, respectively. The high incontinence rate after either initial treatment should be expected and factored into the overall treatment plan.

  18. Identifying decreased peristalsis of abnormal small bowel segments in Crohn's disease using cine MR enterography: the frozen bowel sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Flavius F; Mitchell, Donald G; O'Kane, Patrick L; Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Roth, Christopher G; Burach, Ilene; Burns, Aaron; Dulka, Susan; Parker, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether affected bowel in Crohn's disease patients can be identified by observing decreased peristalsis (frozen bowel sign) using cine balanced steady-state free precession (cine BSSFP) images. 5 radiologists independently reviewed cine BSSFP sequences from randomized MR Enterography (MRE) exams for 30 normal and 30 Crohn's disease patients, graded overall small bowel peristalsis from slowest to fastest, and graded peristalsis for the most abnormal small bowel segment. Sensitivity and specificity of the frozen bowel sign for diagnosing Crohn's disease were calculated. T tests of the peristalsis difference between abnormal segments and overall small bowel were conducted. For 5 readers, the sensitivity and specificity of cine BSSFP of the frozen bowel sign for diagnosing Crohn's disease ranged from 70% to 100% and 87% to 100%, respectively. There were significant differences in peristalsis between abnormal small bowel segments and the overall small bowel for Crohn's patients, but not in the overall small bowel between normal-MRE patients and Crohn's disease patients. Abnormal Crohn's small bowel segments have significantly decreased peristalsis compared to normal small bowel, which can be identified using cine BSSFP sequences as the frozen bowel sign.

  19. Fibromyalgia in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskila, D; Odes, L R; Neumann, L; Odes, H S

    1999-05-01

    Studies of the rheumatological complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) have focused on peripheral arthritis and spondylitis, and less is known about soft tissue rheumatism, specifically the fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of FM and assess pain thresholds in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Seventy-two patients with UC and 41 with CD attending consecutively at the Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic were assessed for the presence of FM and tenderness thresholds. FM was diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria. Tenderness was measured by manual palpation and with a dolorimeter. One hundred twenty healthy subjects served as controls. FM was documented in 30 of 113 patients with IBD (30%), specifically in 49% of patients with CD and 19% with UC (p = 0.001); in controls the rate was 0%. Subjects with CD exhibited more tenderness and reported more frequent and more severe FM associated symptoms than subjects with UC. Patients with CD had a higher tender point count, 11.3 (+/- 6.5), than those with UC, 6.4 (+/- 5.7) (p = 0.001); in healthy controls, the count was 0.1 (+/- 0.5). Tenderness thresholds (kg) were lower in CD 2.9 (+/- 1.7) than UC 3.9 (+/- 2.0) (p = 0.005) and controls 5.8 (+/- 0.9). FM is common in IBD, particularly Crohn's disease. The lower pain threshold in Crohn's disease may suggest a disease-specific effect. Recognizing FM in patients with IBD will prevent misdiagnosis and ensure correct treatment.

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantaree Aswanetmane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are common disorders in clinical practice and are associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity. The simultaneous occurrence of OSA and COPD happens frequently and is referred to as an overlap syndrome. These patients often have very poor quality sleep and more nocturnal hypoxemia. This combination may increase the severity of metabolic complications and cardiovascular disease, and these patients have increased mortality when compared to patients with either COPD or OSA alone. The treatment of overlap syndrome should focus on both coexisting diseases and includes continuous positive airway pressure, oxygen supplementation, and medications for chronic lung disease.