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Sample records for bowel disease activity

  1. Gastric emptying and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Binnewies, Ulrich; Rösch, Marie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric emptying (GE) is delayed in a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have shown before that altered release of gastrointestinal hormones may contribute to GE disturbances, but overall effects of disease activity remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate GE...... in patients with IBD during active disease and following therapy. DESIGN: A total of 20 healthy subjects (HC) and 26 patients with IBD hospitalized because of an acute episode of their disease (Crohn's disease (CD) n = 13, ulcerative colitis (UC) n = 13) underwent a standardized (13) C-octanoic acid GE breath...... pathologically delayed GE half-time (T½ > 150 min) (P = 0·028 vs. HC). Moreover, T½ was significantly longer in the total group of patients with IBD than in HC (129 ± 12 min vs. 96 ± 7, P = 0·030). Postprandial GLP-1 responses were elevated in IBD (P = 0·002 vs. HC) and correlated with T½ (P = 0·05). Following...

  2. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder...... warranted to identify and assess the clinical importance and applicability of new laboratory markers for the diagnosis or the disease activity of IBD....

  3. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion......Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  4. Disaccharidase activity in children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecek, Sabina; Wos, Halina; Radziewicz Winnicki, Igor; Komraus, Marzena; Grzybowska Chlebowczyk, Urszula

    2014-04-01

    The etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial and not well explained. Environmental, genetic, and dietary factors play an important role. The aim of the study was the evaluation of lactase, saccharase, and maltase activity in patients with IBD. The study comprised 65 children, aged 3-18 years. During a routine endoscopy, we took biopsies from the descending part of the duodenum. In these biopsies, we determined disaccharidase activity using Dahlquist's method. Decreased lactase activity in the biopsies taken from the small intestine mucosa was most frequently observed in patients with Crohn's disease (5/15-33%) and least frequently seen in children with lymphocytic colitis (in 1/10-10%). The lowest mean values of lactase activity were found in the children with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (1.7-2.5 U/1 g). Decreased saccharase activity in the biopsies obtained from the small intestine mucosa was most frequently observed in patients with lymphocytic colitis (in 5/10-50%) and ulcerative colitis (9/20-45%) and least frequently seen in children with non-specific undetermined colitis (in 7/20-35%). Decreased maltase activity in the small bowel mucosa was the most frequently observed in patients with Crohn's disease (in 5/15-33%) and least frequently seen in children with ulcerative colitis (in 3/20-15%). The lowest mean values of maltase activity were found in the children with Crohn's disease (5.4 U/1 g). Therefore, it seems reasonable to perform diagnostic examinations aimed at lactose, saccharose, and maltose intolerance and to initiate a dietary regimen in children with IBD.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity

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    Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Loggitsi, Dimitra; Economopoulos, Nikos; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Kelekis, Nikolaos L. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, General University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Roma, Eleftheria; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Pahoula, Ioanna [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aghia Sofia Children' s Hospital, First Department of Paediatrics, Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an MR imaging protocol without the need for fluoroscopic insertion of an enteral tube and to assess the disease activity in children with IBD. Included in the study were 37 children (22 girls and 15 boys; age range 7-15 years, mean 11.67 years) with IBD who underwent MR imaging of the small bowel. Of these 37 children, 32 had Crohn disease and 5 had indeterminate colitis. A water solution containing herbal fibres was administered orally or through a nasogastric tube. Patients were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner with T1-weighted and {tau}2-weighted sequences followed by a dynamic study using 3-D T1-W images after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The percentage enhancement of the bowel wall was significantly increased in patients with abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared to patients with CRP values in the normal range (P<0.001). A relatively weak but significant correlation between percentage enhancement of the bowel wall and CRP values was noted during all phases of enhancement. This MR imaging protocol is a safe and well-tolerated method for evaluating disease activity and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in children. (orig.)

  6. Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the bowel wall can predict disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Romanini, Laura, E-mail: laura.romanini@libero.it [Department of Radiology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Passamonti, Matteo, E-mail: matteopassamonti@gmail.com [Department of Radiology-AO Provincia di Lodi, Via Fissiraga, 15, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Navarria, Mario, E-mail: navarria.mario@tiscali.it [Department of Radiology-ASL Vallecamonica-Sebino, Via Manzoni 142, 25040 Esine, BS (Italy); Lanzarotto, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.lanzarotto@spedalicivili.brescia.it [Department of Gastroenterology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Villanacci, Vincenzo, E-mail: villanac@alice.it [Department of Pathology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Grazioli, Luigi, E-mail: radiologia1@spedalicivili.brescia.it [Department of Radiology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.calliada@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Pavia, Viale Camillo Golgi 19, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Maroldi, Roberto, E-mail: rmaroldi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of quantitative analysis of bowel wall enhancement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) by comparing the results with vascular density in a biopsy sample from the same area of the intestinal tract, and to determine the usefulness of this analysis for the prediction of disease activity. Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institute's ethics committee and all patients gave written informed consent. We enrolled 33 consecutive adult patients undergoing colonoscopy and biopsy for IBD. All patients underwent CEUS and the results were quantitatively analyzed. Vessel count per high-power field on biopsy specimens was compared with colonoscopy, baseline ultrasonography, and CEUS findings, and with analysis of peak intensity, time to peak, regional blood volume, mean transit time, and regional blood flow. Results in patients with high and low vascular density were compared using Fisher's test, t-test, Pearson's correlation test, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Cutoff values were determined using ROC analysis, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: High vascular density (>265 vessels per field) on histological examination was significantly correlated with active disease on colonoscopy, baseline ultrasonography, and CEUS (p < .0001). Quantitative analysis showed a higher enhancement peak, a shorter time to peak enhancement, a higher regional blood flow and regional blood volume in patients with high vascular density than in those with low vascular density. Cutoff values to distinguish between active and inactive disease were identified for peak enhancement (>40.5%), and regional blood flow (>54.8 ml/min). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of CEUS data correlates with disease activity as determined by vascular density. Quantitative parameters of CEUS can be used to predict active disease with high sensitivity and

  7. [Evaluation of the concordance between biological markers and clinical activity in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda García, Pablo; Chaparro, María; Gisbert, Javier P

    2015-01-06

    Endoscopy is the gold standard to assess disease severity in inflammatory bowel disease, although it is an invasive procedure. Clinical activity and biological markers have been routinely used to determine disease activity in a non-invasive manner. The aim of this study was to determine concordance between common biological markers (C reactive protein, orosomucoid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils and haemoglobin) and clinical activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Consecutive patients with inflammatory bowel disease were included. Clinical activity was evaluated according to the Harvey-Bradshaw index in Crohn's disease and to the partial Mayo score in ulcerative colitis. Serum concentrations of the different biomarkers were analysed. Concordance between clinical activity and elevation of the serological biomarkers was determined using the kappa statistic. In total, 350 patients were included (median age 46 years, Crohn's disease 59%). Eleven percent of patients had clinical activity. Crohn's disease patients had mild clinical activity in 44% of cases, moderate disease in 44% and only 12% of patients had severe clinical activity. In ulcerative colitis, patients had mild, moderate and severe clinical activity in 50, 42 and 8% of cases, respectively. None of the biomarkers included had an acceptable concordance with clinical activity (kappa statistic ≤ 0.30). Concordance between serological biomarkers and clinical activity in inflammatory bowel disease is remarkably low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with functional bowel disease were given fructose, sorbitol, fructose-sorbitol mixtures, and sucrose. The occurrence of malabsorption was evaluated by means of hydrogen breath tests and the gastrointestinal symptoms, if any, were recorded. One patient could not be evaluated...... with functional bowel disease. The findings may have direct influence on the dietary guidance given to a major group of patients with functional bowel disease and may make it possible to define separate entities in this disease complex....

  9. [Quality of life and physical activity of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agata; Kucio, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and comparison these results with control group. A group of 16 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and 13 healthy persons as a control group. In orderto estimate the quality of life, polish version of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) was used. The Second questionnaire that was used is WHOQOL-BREF (The World Health Organization Quality of Life). To assess the level of physical activity was applied the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPAQ). All the results have been correlated to answer the question if there is any relationship between the quality of life and physical activity and if level of these parameters is different in control group. In the group of patients the lowest level of functioning were stated on bowel ailments field and emotional field. The most important roles in patients life are social relationship and sanity. The higher level of the caloric consumption was stated in the group of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases in comparison to control group. There was no significant difference in caloric consumption related with the recreation and house works. Because of the fact that all of the patients were in the remission period, it was impossible to verify if there is any relationship between quality of life and the stage of disease. The results of researches have not proved relationship between the level of physical activity and the quality of life among the patients as well as in the control group.

  10. Bowel Diseases and Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Dorofeiev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review of contemporary publications analyzes the prevalence of combinations of bowel and renal diseases. Special attention is paid to the problem of correlation between bowel diseases and urolithiasis. We consider the possible pathogenic mechanisms of lesions, such as genetically determined violations of intestinal absorption and secretion, changes in the intestinal microbiota, systemic inflammatory response, water and electrolyte disturbances.

  11. Cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with worsening of intestinal inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Alexandre Medeiros; Santos, Fabiana Maria; Ortiz-Agostinho, Carmen Lucia; Nishitokukado, Iêda; Frota, Cintia S; Gomes, Flavia Ubeda; Leite, André Zonetti de Arruda; Pannuti, Claudio Sérgio; Boas, Lucy Santos Vilas; Teixeira, Magaly Gemio; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent virus and usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. The pathophysiology and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease often induce a state of immunosuppression. Because this, there are still doubts and controversies about the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and cytomegalovirus. Evaluate the frequency of cytomegalovirus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and identify correlations. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease underwent an interview, review of records and collection of blood and fecal samples. The search for cytomegalovirus was performed by IgG and IgM blood serology, by real-time PCR in the blood and by qualitative PCR in feces. Results were correlated with red blood cell levels, C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and fecal calprotectin levels for each patient. Among the 400 eligible patients, 249 had Crohn's disease, and 151 had ulcerative colitis. In the group of Crohn's disease, 67 of the patients had moderate or severe disease, but 126 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. In patients with ulcerative colitis, only 21 patients had moderate disease, but 76 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. A large majority of patients had positive CMV IgG. Overall, 10 patients had positive CMV IgM, and 9 patients had a positive qualitative detection of CMV DNA by PCR in the feces. All 400 patients returned negative results after the quantitative detection of CMV DNA in blood by real-time PCR. Analyzing the 19 patients with active infections, we only found that such an association occurred with the use of combined therapy (anti-TNF-alpha + azathioprine). The findings show that latent cytomegalovirus infections are frequent and active cytomegalovirus infection is rare. We did not find any association between an active infection of CMV and inflammatory bowel disease activity.

  12. Cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with worsening of intestinal inflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Medeiros do Carmo

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent virus and usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. The pathophysiology and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease often induce a state of immunosuppression. Because this, there are still doubts and controversies about the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and cytomegalovirus.Evaluate the frequency of cytomegalovirus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and identify correlations.Patients with inflammatory bowel disease underwent an interview, review of records and collection of blood and fecal samples. The search for cytomegalovirus was performed by IgG and IgM blood serology, by real-time PCR in the blood and by qualitative PCR in feces. Results were correlated with red blood cell levels, C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and fecal calprotectin levels for each patient.Among the 400 eligible patients, 249 had Crohn's disease, and 151 had ulcerative colitis. In the group of Crohn's disease, 67 of the patients had moderate or severe disease, but 126 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. In patients with ulcerative colitis, only 21 patients had moderate disease, but 76 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. A large majority of patients had positive CMV IgG. Overall, 10 patients had positive CMV IgM, and 9 patients had a positive qualitative detection of CMV DNA by PCR in the feces. All 400 patients returned negative results after the quantitative detection of CMV DNA in blood by real-time PCR. Analyzing the 19 patients with active infections, we only found that such an association occurred with the use of combined therapy (anti-TNF-alpha + azathioprine.The findings show that latent cytomegalovirus infections are frequent and active cytomegalovirus infection is rare. We did not find any association between an active infection of CMV and inflammatory bowel

  13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (For Teens)

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    ... Protecting Your Online Identity and Reputation ADHD Medicines Inflammatory Bowel Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Inflammatory Bowel Disease Print A ... en español Enfermedad inflamatoria del intestino What Is Inflammatory Bowel Disease? Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a condition that ...

  14. Cutaneous Manifestations in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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    Simona Roxana Georgescu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases have a high frequency in Europe. They are chronic disorders that evolve with relapses and remissions. Clinical features include the signs of underlying inflammatory bowel disease and also signs of extraintestinal manifestations. Cutaneous disorders are the most common extraintestinal manifestations associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, which can be dependent on or independent of gastrointestinal disease activity. The main cutaneous disorders are erythema nodosum and pyodermagangrenosum. The pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood but it seems that related mechanisms are involved in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases and extraintestinal manifestations. Treatment should be aimed at both the cutaneous manifestations and the bowel inflammation

  15. An Evaluation of the Correlation between Hepcidin Serum Levels and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Zehra Betül Paköz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. While there are many well-defined serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there is limited evidence that they positively affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between hepcidin serum levels and disease activity in IBD. Materials and Methods. Eighty-five consecutive IBD patients were enrolled in the study. Hepcidin serum levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and were compared with disease activity as well as the interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results. The mean hepcidin serum levels in Crohn’s disease (CD patients in remission and in the active phase were 3837±1436 and 3752±1274 pg/mL, respectively P=0.613. The mean hepcidin serum levels in ulcerative colitis (UC patients in remission and in the active phase were 4285±8623 and 3727±1176 pg/mL, respectively P=0.241. Correlation analysis between inflammatory markers and hepcidin serum levels indicated that there was no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 P=0.582 or CRP P=0.783. Conclusion. As an acute-phase protein, hepcidin seems to have a lower efficacy than other parameters in the detection of activation in IBD.

  16. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (For Children)

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    ... Bowel Disease Print A A A en español Enfermedad inflamatoria del intestino What Is Inflammatory Bowel Disease? ... of IBD? There are two kinds of IBD: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (say: UL-sur-uh- ...

  17. Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Differences Between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

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    Lazaridis, Lazaros-Dimitrios; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Georgitsi, Marianna; Damoraki, Georgia; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2017-09-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimolecular cytosol complex that, when activated, contributes to the cleavage of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β to IL-1β. To investigate NLRP3 inflammasome activation in inflammatory bowel disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and controls were stimulated with LPS in the absence or presence of MSU. After incubation, concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα were measured in cell supernatants and concentration of pro-IL-1β was measured in cell lysates. NLRP3 activation was defined as more than 30% increase in IL-1β production after MSU addition. In separate experiments, PBMCs were lysed for RNA isolation transcripts of IL-1β, TNFα, NLRP3, and CASP1 were measured by RT-PCR. DNA was isolated from CD patients for ATG16L1 gene genotyping. NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in 60% of CD patients compared to 28.6% of controls (p = 0.042); no significant difference was detected between UC and controls. Among UC patients, NLRP3 activation was associated (p = 0.008) with long-standing disease (>1.5 years). IL-1β levels were significantly higher in CD patents in comparison with controls (p = 0.032). No difference was detected in the levels of IL-6, TNFα, pro-IL-1β and in the numbers IL-1β, TNFα, NLRP3, and CASP1 transcripts among groups. IL-1β production was similar between carriers of wild-type and of SNP alleles of the rs2241880. NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in CD patients and in UC patients with long-standing disease.

  18. Quantification of disease activity in patients undergoing leucocyte scintigraphy for suspected inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheow, Heok K.; Voutnis, Demetrius D.; Evans, John W.; Szczepura, Katy R.; Swift, E. Anna; Bird, Nicholas J.; Ruparelia, Prina; Solanki, Chandra K.; Ballinger, James R.; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Peters, A. Michael [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Middleton, Stephen J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    Whole-body gamma camera counting is an alternative to faecal {sup 111}In collection for quantifying disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but requires administration of imaging activities of {sup 111}In. The aim of this study was to explore a dedicated whole-body counter which requires 20-fold less activity than gamma camera counting. Thirty patients with known or suspected IBD received {sup 99m}Tc-granulocytes ({proportional_to}200 MBq) and {sup 111}In-granulocytes ({proportional_to}0.5 MBq). The {sup 99m}Tc-cells were injected 45 min after the {sup 111}In-cells and immediately after a baseline {sup 111}In whole-body count. The decay-corrected count at 120 h was expressed as a fraction of baseline to give whole-body {sup 111}In retention (WBR). One patient was excluded as the injected cells were non-viable. Median 45-min intravascular {sup 111}In recovery was 35% in patients compared with 43% in six normal volunteers (p<0.05). WBR in normals ranged from 91% to 93% and in 11 patients with negative {sup 99m}Tc imaging from 87% to 96%. Only one of 11 patients with negative imaging had WBR <90% while 11/12 patients with WBR <90% had abnormal imaging. Ten of 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) had abnormal imaging. The lowest WBR in these ten was 77% and six had values of >90%. There was a significant association between WBR and {sup 99m}Tc image grade (R{sub s}=0.73, p<0.002) in 16 patients without CD, but not in 13 patients with CD (R{sub s}=0.54, p>0.05). Dedicated whole-body counting is able to quantify disease activity in IBD but may give normal values in active CD. (orig.)

  19. Preterm birth in women with inflammatory bowel disease - the association with disease activity and drug treatment.

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    Bröms, Gabriella; Granath, Fredrik; Stephansson, Olof; Kieler, Helle

    2016-12-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. We identified all 246 singleton preterm births among women with IBD between July 2006 and December 2010 as cases and an equal number of controls with IBD from the Swedish national health registers, matched by maternal age, parity and IBD diagnosis (CD/UC). From register data and medical charts, we obtained information on reproductive history, comorbidity, disease activity and drug treatment (corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates, sulfasalazine, thiopurines and anti-TNF) as risk factors for preterm birth. Associations were estimated using conditional logistic regression and results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Previous preterm birth was more common among cases, OR 6.13 (95%CI: 2.51-15.01). Significant activity at any time during pregnancy (OR: 2.20; 95%CI: 1.37-3.53), and in particular both in early and in late pregnancy, was more common for cases (OR: 4.78 95%; CI: 2.10-10.9). The OR for immunosuppressive treatment with thiopurines or anti-TNF was 1.88 (1.04-3.39) without significant activity and 12.78 (95%CI: 3.68-44.72) with. The risk for women who discontinued thiopurines was 6.56 (1.44-29.82). Significant activity and immunosuppressive treatment was associated with preterm birth, particularly in women with both. The existing recommendations to aim at maintaining quiescent disease during pregnancy, even if it means continuing immunosuppressive treatment, are rational.

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Munkholm, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, yet the reasons remain unknown. New therapeutic approaches have been introduced in medical IBD therapy, but their impact on the natural history of IBD remains uncertain. This review will summarize the recent findings...

  1. Nutritional Assessment and Disease Activity for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Thomas E Wasser

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the Harvard/Willett Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (H/WSQFFQ, nutritional information was gathered on patients enrolled in an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD registry. The registry lists 320 patients positive for either ulcerative colitis (n=124 or Crohn’s disease (n=196. The sample was limited to those 19 to 84 years old (mean ± SD 48.57±14.98, and comprised 136 males and 184 females. Using a battery of indices, quality of life, disease activity and general well-being were also assessed. Nutritional intake values from the Harvard-Willett data were compared with recommended dietary allowances (RDA tables by sex and age group (19 to 24 years, 25 to 50, 51 and older to discover any intake deficiencies. Results showed that IBD patients were below RDA guidelines for vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iodine and selenium. Females were below RDA guidelines for iron while men were below for vitamin B6. There were also some deficiencies according to age in males and two nutrient deficiencies were seen by age group in women. There were no deficiencies by sex or age for vitamins A, C, D and niacin. There were no observed nutrient intake differences between ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease groups. Patients receiving vitamin or mineral supplementation showed significant decreases in quality of life, regardless of diagnosis (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis group. The H/WSQFFQ is a useful tool for assessment of the nutritional status of the IBD patient because it not only provides valuable measurement data to the clinician, but also adds to patient awareness about nutritional problems associated with IBD.

  2. The metabolic activity of fecal microbiota from healthy individuals and patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuenen, M.H.M.C. van; Venema, K.; Woude, J.C.J. van der; Kuipers, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis was studied that intestinal microbial metabolites play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. For that purpose, an in vitro model of the colon was inoculated with fresh feces of six healthy individuals and eight inflammatory bowel disease patients. Samples were

  3. Correlation between serological biomarkers and endoscopic activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Miranda-García, Pablo; Chaparro, María; Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopy is the gold standard for assessing disease severity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although it is an invasive procedure. Biological markers have been routinely used as a non-invasive means of determining disease activity. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between common biological markers and endoscopic activity in IBD. Consecutive patients with IBD were included. Serum concentrations of different biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], orosomucoid [ORM], erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], fibrinogen, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils and hemoglobin [Hb]) were measured, and their accuracy in detecting endoscopic activity was determined. Eighty patients were included (mean age 46 years, 53% Crohn's disease), 70% with endoscopic activity. Among Crohn's disease patients, 24% had mild endoscopic activity, 12% moderate activity and 39% severe activity. Among ulcerative colitis patients, 35% had an endoscopic Mayo score of 0-1 points, 30% 2 points and 35% 3 points. None of the biomarkers included had a good correlation with endoscopic activity (Area Under the ROC curve [AUC]Crohn's disease (AUC: 0.80-0.085). A sub-analysis in postoperative Crohn's disease patients found no correlation between endoscopic recurrence and biomarkers (AUCCrohn's disease. ORM, fibrinogen and platelets have the best accuracy to detect endoscopic activity in Crohn's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of the Dudley Inflammatory Bowel Symptom Questionnaire for the assessment of bowel symptoms in axial SpA: prevalence of clinically relevant bowel symptoms and association with disease activity.

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    Stebbings, Simon; Jenks, Katey; Treharne, Gareth J; García, José A; Schultz, Michael; Highton, John; Dudley-Brown, Sharon

    2012-05-01

    To validate the Dudley Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (DISQ) for determining the presence and severity of bowel symptoms in axial SpA. Seventy-seven SpA patients were assessed for disease activity using the BASDAI. All participants, including 32 healthy controls and 29 patients with Crohn's Disease (CD), completed the DISQ and an assessment of stool form and frequency. Validation of the DISQ was undertaken in accordance with OMERACT criteria. Validity of the DISQ for measuring bowel symptoms in SpA was confirmed (Cronbach's α 0.79). Mean DISQ scores (s.d.) were: controls 2.6 (2.6), SpA 8.7 (6.1) and CD 17.1 (10.2). Differences were significant between controls and SpA, and SpA and CD, and correlated with disease activity (ρ 0.27, P = 0.02). In SpA, DISQ scores of those taking NSAIDs (n = 59) did not differ from those not taking NSAIDs (n = 18) (P = 0.31). Stool form and frequency differed significantly between SpA patients and healthy controls (P SpA is 31%, and 7.8% experience bowel symptoms equivalent to active CD. The DISQ is a valid measure of bowel symptoms in SpA. Bowel symptoms are prevalent in SpA and correlate with disease activity. Symptoms do not relate to treatment with NSAIDs. We conclude that bowel symptoms should be included as a domain in the clinical assessment of patients with SpA and that the DISQ has potential as an outcome measure in clinical trials.

  5. Use of thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Pascal; Biedermann, Luc; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    The use of thiopurines as immunosuppression for the treatment of refractory or chronic active inflammatory bowel disease is established for both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, many questions remain concerning the optimal treatment regimens of azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine...

  6. Validation of the Lewis score for the evaluation of small-bowel Crohn's disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, José; Dias de Castro, Francisca; Magalhães, Joana; Moreira, Maria João; Rosa, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The Lewis score was developed to measure mucosal inflammatory activity as detected by small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). The aim of the current study was to validate the Lewis score by assessing interobserver correlation and level of agreement in a clinical setting. This was a retrospective, single-center, double-blind study including patients with isolated small-bowel Crohn's disease who underwent SBCE. The Lewis score was calculated using a software application, based on the characteristics of villous edema, ulcers, and stenoses. The Lewis score was independently calculated by one of three investigators and by a central reader (gold standard). Interobserver agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficient and Bland - Altman plots. A total of 70 patients were consecutively included (mean age 33.9 ± 11.7 years). The mean Lewis score was 1265 and 1320 for investigators and the central reader, respectively. There was a high correlation, both for scores obtained for each tertile (first tertile r = 0.659 - 0.950, second tertile r = 0.756 - 0.906, third tertile r = 0.750 - 0.939), and for the global score (r = 0.745 - 0.928) (P reader (first tertile ICC = 0.788 - 0.971, second tertile ICC = 0.824 - 0.943, third tertile ICC = 0.857 - 0.968, global score ICC = 0.852 - 0.960; P < 0.0001). The inflammatory activity was classified as normal (score < 135) in 2.9 % vs. 2.9 %, mild (score ≥ 135 - < 790) in 51.4 % vs. 55.7 %, and moderate to severe (score ≥ 790) in 45.8 % vs. 41.4 % of patients, respectively (P < 0.001). A strong interobserver agreement was demonstrated for the determination of the Lewis score in a practical clinical setting, validating this score for the reporting of small-bowel inflammatory activity. The Lewis score might be used for diagnosing, staging, follow-up, and therapeutic assessment of patients with isolated

  7. Different Activation of TRAF4 and TRAF6 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, interests combining the exploration of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4 and TRAF6 in immune cells and transgenic mice are emerging. Although it has been found that TRAF4 and TRAF6 share the same TRAF binding sites, comprehensive study of TRAF4 and TRAF6 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is still lacking. This paper shows similar and different expression patterns of TRAF4 and TRAF6 in patients with IBD. The results indicate that TRAF4 and TRAF6 are overexpressed in IBD. TRAF4 and TRAF6 play different roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. Moreover, TRAF4 may be an indicator of endoscopic disease activity of UC and TRAF6 preactivation can be detected in noninflamed colonic segments.

  8. Musculoskeletal Manifestations in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fornaciari

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscoloskeletal manifestations are the most common extraintestinal complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Wide ranges in prevalence have been reported, depending on the criteria used to define spondylarthropathy. In 1991, the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group developed classification criteria that included previously neglected cases of undifferentiated spondylarthropathies, which had been ignored in most of the oldest epidemiological studies on inflammatory bowel disease. The spectrum of muscoloskeletal manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease patients includes all of the clinical features of spondylarthropathies: peripheral arthritis, inflammatory spinal pain, dactylitis, enthesitis (Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis, buttock pain and anterior chest wall pain. Radiological evidence of sacroiliitis is common but not obligatory. The articular manifestations begin either concomitantly or subsequent to the bowel disease; however, the onset of spinal disease often precedes the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. The prevalence of the different muscoloskeletal manifestations is similar in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Symptoms usually disappear after proctocolectomy. The pathogenetic mechanisms that produce the muscoloskeletal manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease are unclear. Several arguments favour an important role of the intestinal mucosa in the development of spondylarthropathy. The natural history is characterized by periods of flares and remission; therefore, the efficacy of treatment is difficult to establish. Most patients respond to rest, physical therapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but these drugs may activate bowel disease. Sulphasalazine may be recommended in some patients. There is no indication for the systemic use of steroids.

  9. Leven met Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk J. van, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Leven met Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is de verzamelnaam voor Colitis ulcerosa en de ziekte van Crohn. Het zijn chronische darmontstekingen, waarvan de ziekteactiviteit wisselt en zich niet laat voorspellen. Door de lichamelijke klachten en het onvoorspelbare karakter

  10. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Joachim Høg; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2017-01-01

    patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers. The ECM......Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM) in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may...

  11. Serum YKL-40, a potential new marker of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ida; Johansen, J S; Price, P A

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages and neutrophils and is a growth factor for vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL-40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to seek...... were used to assess disease activity. Serum YKL-40 (determined by ELISA) was related to C-reactive protein (CRP) and disease activity. RESULTS: In patients with UC, the median serum YKL-40 rose with increasing disease activity, and patients with severe active disease had higher serum YKL-40 (median 59...

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease: pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Li, Yong-Yu

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. It has been a worldwide health-care problem with a continually increasing incidence. It is thought that IBD results from an aberrant and continuing immune response to the microbes in the gut, catalyzed by the genetic susceptibility of the individual. Although the etiology of IBD remains largely unknown, it involves a complex interaction between the genetic, environmental or microbial factors and the immune responses. Of the four components of IBD pathogenesis, most rapid progress has been made in the genetic study of gut inflammation. The latest internationally collaborative studies have ascertained 163 susceptibility gene loci for IBD. The genes implicated in childhood-onset and adult-onset IBD overlap, suggesting similar genetic predispositions. However, the fact that genetic factors account for only a portion of overall disease variance indicates that microbial and environmental factors may interact with genetic elements in the pathogenesis of IBD. Meanwhile, the adaptive immune response has been classically considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of IBD, as new studies in immunology and genetics have clarified that the innate immune response maintains the same importance in inducing gut inflammation. Recent progress in understanding IBD pathogenesis sheds lights on relevant disease mechanisms, including the innate and adaptive immunity, and the interactions between genetic factors and microbial and environmental cues. In this review, we provide an update on the major advances that have occurred in above areas.

  13. Blockade of NF-kappa B activation and donation of nitric oxide : New treatment options in inflammatory bowel disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, G; Moshage, H; Jansen, PLM

    2002-01-01

    Background: Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation has been suggested as an anti-inflammatory treatment strategy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, NF-kappaB regulated genes like inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are also involved in cell survival mechanisms. Methods: Review of the

  14. Immunosuppression after liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis influences activity of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristin Kaasen; Lindström, Lina; Cvancarova, Milada

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after liver transplantation in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We studied the progression of IBD in patients with PSC who have undergone liver transplantation. We also...

  15. [Pregnancy and inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walldorf, J; Zwirnmann, K; Seufferlein, T

    2011-01-01

    Medical advice regarding the desire to have children and pregnancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often requested. The influence of IBD on pregnancy and--vice versa--of pregnancy on the activity of IBD is discussed. Based on three clinical cases the chances and limitations of medical treatment of CED during pregnancy are reviewed. Generally it is important to balance the therapy between the patients desire to be treated most effectively and to deliver a healthy child after an uncomplicated pregnancy. An interdisciplinary treatment is always advisable in patients with IBD and a desire to have children.

  16. [Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, A I

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pregnant women in their characteristics do not differ from general population, unless they had operations on the pelvic organs. Women with a first pregnancy, regardless of the activity of IBD have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy and high risk births. Most treatment methods are compatible with pregnancy and breastfeeding. Women affected by IBD should discuss their plans for pregnancy with the doctor first in order to know the possible dangers. Every patient in the IBD during pregnancy must be observed by a gastroenterologist, accoucheur and pediatrician to ensure peace of mother and child.

  17. Activated eosinophils in association with enteric nerves in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Smyth

    Full Text Available Enteric neural dysfunction leads to increased mucous production and dysmotility in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Prior studies have shown that tissue eosinophilia is related to disease activity. We hypothesized that interactions between eosinophils and nerves contribute to neural dysfunction in IBD. Tissue from patients with intractable IBD, endoscopic biopsies from patients with steroid responsive IBD, both when active and quiescent, and control tissue were studied. Immunohistochemical studies showed that eosinophils localize to nerves in the mucosal layer of patients with Crohn's disease (CD (p<0.001 and ulcerative colitis (UC, (p<0.01. Eosinophils localized to substance P and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT immunostained nerves. Real time PCR of laser capture micro-dissected enteric ganglia demonstrated Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1 mRNA was increased 7-fold in UC (n = 4, (p = 0.03, and 10-fold in CD (n = 3, (p = 0.05. Compared with controls, eotaxin-3 (CCL-26 mRNA was increased 9-fold in UC (p = 0.04 and 15-fold in CD (p = 0.06. Eosinophil numbers correlated with disease activity, while deposition of major basic protein (MBP and eosinophil Transforming Growth Factor β-1 (TGFβ-1 expression were seen in therapeutically responsive disease. These data indicate a significant localization of eosinophils to nerves in IBD, mediated through neurally expressed ICAM-1 and eotaxin-3. This cell/neural interaction may influence the function of nerves and contribute to symptoms in IBD.

  18. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR activation and FXR genetic variation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian M Nijmeijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that activation of the bile salt nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR protects against intestinal inflammation in mice. Reciprocally, these inflammatory mediators may decrease FXR activation. We investigated whether FXR activation is repressed in the ileum and colon of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients in remission. Additionally, we evaluated whether genetic variation in FXR is associated with IBD. METHODS: mRNA expression of FXR and FXR target gene SHP was determined in ileal and colonic biopsies of patients with Crohn's colitis (n = 15 and ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 12, all in clinical remission, and healthy controls (n = 17. Seven common tagging SNPs and two functional SNPs in FXR were genotyped in 2355 Dutch IBD patients (1162 Crohn's disease (CD and 1193 UC and in 853 healthy controls. RESULTS: mRNA expression of SHP in the ileum is reduced in patients with Crohn's colitis but not in patients with UC compared to controls. mRNA expression of villus marker Villin was correlated with FXR and SHP in healthy controls, a correlation that was weaker in UC patients and absent in CD patients. None of the SNPs was associated with IBD, UC or CD, nor with clinical subgroups of CD. CONCLUSIONS: FXR activation in the ileum is decreased in patients with Crohn's colitis. This may be secondary to altered enterohepatic circulation of bile salts or transrepression by inflammatory signals but does not seem to be caused by the studied SNPs in FXR. Increasing FXR activity by synthetic FXR agonists may have benefit in CD patients.

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewska, Anna Małgorzata; Warska, Aleksandra; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Włodzimierz

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprising Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) may appear at any age. As such, IBD commonly affects young patients in their reproductive age. Rate of voluntary childlessness among women with IBD far exceed that of the general population, as patients with IBD fear not only the effect of pregnancy on the course of inflammatory bowel disease, but also the increased risk of the offspring developing the disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, the effect IBD treatment may have on the health and development of the infant or the risk of relapse during pregnancy and the influence of lactation on child development and disease course. This article aims at improving pre-conception counseling of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  20. Meta-analysis: the impact of disease activity at conception on disease activity during pregnancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, A; Ham, M; Moss, A C

    2013-09-01

    The rate of exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during pregnancy varies in the published literature. We sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of disease activity at conception on disease course during pregnancy in women with IBD. Published studies and abstracts from standard sources were screened for appropriate studies. Data were pooled and analysed using funnel and forest plots. Quality assessment scores were given using GRADE criteria. Fourteen studies were eligible for inclusion; ten studies contained patients with UC (N = 1130), and six studies contained patients with CD (N = 590). In patients with UC there was a significantly higher risk ratio of active disease during pregnancy in patients who commenced pregnancy with active disease (55%), when compared with those in remission at conception (36%) (RR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5-3, P disease is active are more likely to have active disease during pregnancy than those who conceive when in remission. All studies used in this analysis had a high risk of bias therefore further studies are required. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Serum YKL-40, a potential new marker of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ida; Johansen, J S; Price, P A

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages and neutrophils and is a growth factor for vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL-40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to seek ass...... were found between serum YKL-40 and CRP, albumin and leucocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Serum YKL-40 is elevated in patients with active IBD and may be complementary to inflammatory markers and clinical characteristics in the assessment of disease activity....

  2. Serum YKL-40, a potential new marker of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ida; Johansen, J S; Price, P A

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages and neutrophils and is a growth factor for vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL-40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to seek...... were found between serum YKL-40 and CRP, albumin and leucocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Serum YKL-40 is elevated in patients with active IBD and may be complementary to inflammatory markers and clinical characteristics in the assessment of disease activity....

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) vs. MRI of the small bowel in the evaluation of Crohn's disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagò, R; D'Onofrio, M; Mantovani, W; D'Alpaos, G; Foti, G; Pezzato, A; Caliari, G; Cusumano, D; Benini, L; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2012-03-01

    The presence of disease activity in Crohn's disease (CD) is one of the main parameters used to establish whether optimal therapy should be drug therapy or surgery. However, a major problem in monitoring CD is the common mismatch between the patient's symptoms and imaging objective signs of disease activity. Bowel ultrasonography (US) has emerged as a low-cost, noninvasive technique in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with CD. Accordingly, the use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) has made possible an evaluation of the vascular enhancement pattern, similar to the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of CEUS in comparison with small-bowel MRI for assessing Crohn's disease activity. We prospectively enrolled 30 consecutive patients with known CD. Clinical and laboratory data were compared with imaging findings obtained from MRI and CEUS of the small bowel. MRI was performed with a 1.5-T system using phased-array coils and biphasic orally administered contrast agent prior to and after gadolinium chelate administration. We performed US with a 7.5-MHz linear-array probe and a second-generation contrast agent. The parameters analysed in both techniques were the following: lesion length, wall thickness, layered wall appearance, comb sign, fibroadipose proliferation, presence of enlarged lymph nodes and stenosis. We classified parietal enhancement curves into two types in relation to the contrast pattern obtained with the time-intensity curves at MRI and CEUS: (1) quick washin, quick washout, (2) slow washin, plateau with a slow washout. Comparison between Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and MRI showed a low correlation, with an rho=0.398; correlation between CDAI-laboratory data and CEUS activity was low, with rho=0.354; correlation between MRI activity and CEUS activity was good, with rho = 0.791; high correlation was found between CEUS and MRI of the small bowel when assessing wall-thickness, lymph nodes and

  4. Sports Participation in Youth With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: The Role of Disease Activity and Subjective Physical Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, Rachel Neff; Naftaly, Jessica P; Walker, Rachel J; Kappelman, Michael D; Martin, Christopher F; Schneider, Kristin L

    2018-01-18

    Physical activity is important for youth with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and sports participation is a common way in which youth are physically active. Yet, studies examining sports participation in youth with IBD and barriers to sports participation are lacking. This study examined the role of disease complications, body mass index (BMI), subjective physical health, and psychosocial functioning in influencing sports participation in a large sample of youth with IBD participating in the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America Partners (CCFA Partners) Kids and Teens Registry. CCFA Partners Kids and Teens is an internet-based cohort study in which participants and their parents self-report demographics, disease characteristics, anthropometrics, and validated assessments of physical health, psychosocial functioning, and perceived impairment in sports participation. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 450 cohort participants, age 12-17 years. Nearly two-thirds of the sample reported that their IBD resulted in some impairment in sports participation. IBD disease activity was associated with perceived impairment in sports participation. In a forward regression analysis controlling for disease activity, fatigue, pain, and past IBD-related surgery emerged as the most salient correlates of impairment in sports participation. Disease activity and subjective physical health symptoms were the most salient correlates of impairment in sports participation. Whether these barriers interfere with physical activity more generally deserves further study, as does replication of these findings longitudinally. Ultimately, a greater understanding of potential barriers to sports participation may be useful for generating targeted physical activity recommendations for youth with IBD.

  5. Care of the Pregnant Patient With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Uma; Matro, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease affects women in their peak reproductive years. Patients and physicians often have questions regarding the effect of inflammatory bowel disease on a woman's ability to conceive and to carry a pregnancy safely to term as well as the effect of inflammatory bowel disease and the medications used to treat it on pregnancy outcomes. Women with inflammatory bowel disease have the same rates of fertility as women without inflammatory bowel disease unless they have had prior surgery in the pelvis or active disease. However, women with inflammatory bowel disease do have higher rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A multidisciplinary approach involving gastroenterologists, obstetricians, and maternal-fetal medicine physicians should focus on preconception planning and disease optimization before pregnancy. Women with inflammatory bowel disease should be followed as high-risk obstetric patients. Most medications used to treat inflammatory bowel disease can be continued safely during pregnancy and lactation. The greatest risk to the pregnancy is active disease, which can be precipitated by discontinuation of effective maintenance medications. Preconception counseling should include education regarding the low risk of most inflammatory bowel disease medications during pregnancy and lactation and the high risk of a significant disease flare during pregnancy. This review outlines important considerations for obstetricians caring for women with inflammatory bowel disease before and during pregnancy and in the postpartum period.

  6. Pregnancy and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashash, Jana G; Kane, Sunanda

    2015-02-01

    Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whether Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, are of reproductive age. Young women with IBD are usually very worried about their fertility, the activity of their disease during pregnancy, the heritability of the disease to their unborn child, and the effect of their underlying IBD on the pregnancy itself. Additionally, patients express concerns about using IBD medications during pregnancy, fearing that the medications may negatively affect the fetus. For this reason, it is of the utmost importance that gastroenterologists and patients with IBD be aware of the effect of IBD on pregnancy, the effect of pregnancy on IBD, and the effect of IBD medications on the fetus and on pregnancy outcomes. Increasing the awareness of patients with IBD about the importance of maintaining disease remission at the time of conception and throughout pregnancy is key to improving the outcomes of both mothers and fetuses. This article addresses the fertility of patients with IBD, the effect of pregnancy on disease activity, and the effect of IBD on pregnancy. Also discussed are which IBD medications can be used during conception and pregnancy and which medications must be avoided.

  7. Increased Tryptophan Metabolism Is Associated With Activity of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, Susanna; Schulte, Berenice; Al-Massad, Natalie; Thieme, Florian; Schulte, Dominik M; Bethge, Johannes; Rehman, Ateequr; Tran, Florian; Aden, Konrad; Häsler, Robert; Moll, Natalie; Schütze, Gregor; Schwarz, Markus J; Waetzig, Georg H; Rosenstiel, Philip; Krawczak, Michael; Szymczak, Silke; Schreiber, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Administration of tryptophan and some of its metabolites reduces the severity of colitis in mice, whereas removing tryptophan from the diet increases susceptibility to colitis. Transfer of the intestinal microbiome transfers the colitogenic phenotype from tryptophan starved animals to normally nourished mice. We aimed to systematically evaluate serum levels of tryptophan and its metabolites in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and study their association with clinical and serologic features. We studied 535 consecutive patients with IBD (211 with ulcerative colitis [UC], 234 with Crohn's disease [CD]; 236 male), enrolled in Germany from August 2013 through April 2014 and followed until July 2016. Serum samples were collected from patients and 291 matched individuals without IBD (controls); levels of tryptophan were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Metabolites of tryptophan were measured in serum from 148 patients and 100 controls by mass spectrometry. We measured levels of interleukin 22 in serum from 28 patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paired stool and serum samples were collected from a subset of patients with active UC (n = 10) or CD (n = 8) to investigate associations between serum levels of tryptophan and composition of the fecal microbiota, analyzed by 16S ribosomal DNA amplicon sequencing. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure levels of messenger RNAs in colonic biopsies from 60 patients with UC, 50 with CD, and 30 controls. We collected information on patients' disease activity scores, medications, laboratory assessments, and clinical examinations during recruitment and follow-up visits. Serum levels of tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with IBD than in controls (P = 5.3 × 10-6) with a stronger reduction in patients with CD (vs control; P = 1.1 × 10-10) than UC (vs control; P = 2.8 × 10-3). We found a negative correlation between serum levels of tryptophan and

  8. Beyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit.

  9. Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song YanXia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR in dendritic cells (DCs and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. This may regulate aberrant intestinal inflammation in humans with helminthes and may thus help alleviate inflammation associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. Fine control of inflammation in the TLR pathway is highly desirable for effective host defense. Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products should be considered for the treatment of IBD.

  10. Inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dawn B; Kane, Sunanda

    2011-06-14

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis affect women in their child-bearing years. Family planning has come to be a common discussion between the gastroenterologist and the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient. Disease control prior to desired conception and throughout pregnancy is the most important thing to keep in mind when caring for the IBD patient. Continued medical management during pregnancy is crucial in optimizing outcomes. Studies indicate that quiescent disease prior to conception infer the best pregnancy outcomes, similar to those in the general population. Active disease prior to and during pregnancy, can lead to complications such as pre-term labor, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. Although there are no definitive long term effects of pregnancy on IBD, there are some limited studies that suggest that it may alter the disease course. Understanding the literature and its limitations is important in the modern era of IBD care. Educating the patient and taking a team approach with the obstetrician will help achieve successful outcomes for mother and baby.

  11. The Pathogenic Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of Both Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Dong, Ying; Ye, Mei; Jin, Shi; Yang, Jianbo; Joosse, Maria E; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Jennifer; Lazarev, Mark; Brant, Steven R; Safar, Bashar; Marohn, Michael; Mezey, Esteban; Li, Xuhang

    2017-06-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome is known to be involved in inflammatory bowel diseases. However, it is controversial whether it is pathogenic or beneficial. This study evaluated the roles of NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease in IL-10-/- mice and humans. NLRP3 inflammasome in colonic mucosa, macrophages, and colonic epithelial cells were analysed by western blotting. The NLRP3 inflammasome components were studied by sucrose density gradient fractionation, chemical cross-linking, and co-immunoprecipitation. The role of NLPR3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of colitis was extensively evaluated in IL-10-/- mice, using a specific NLPR3 inflammasome inhibitor glyburide. NLRP3 inflammasome was upregulated in colonic mucosa of both IL-10-/- mice and Crohn's patients. NLRP3 inflammasome activity in IL-10-/- mice was elevated prior to colitis onset; it progressively increased as disease worsened and peaked as macroscopic disease emerged. NLRP3 inflammasome was found in both intestinal epithelial cells and colonic macrophages, as a large complex with a molecular weight of ≥ 360 kDa in size. In the absence of IL-10, NLRP3 inflammasome was spontaneously active and more robustly responsive when activated by LPS and nigericin. Glyburide markedly suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome expression/activation in IL-10-/- mice, leading to not only alleviation of ongoing colitis but also prevention/delay of disease onset. Glyburide also effectively inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines by mucosal explants from Crohn's patients. Abnormal activation of NLRP3 inflammasome plays a major pathogenic role in the development of chronic colitis in IL-10-/- mice and humans. Glyburide, an FDA-approved drug, may have great potential in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Lucio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI, Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI, and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000. Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000, with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010, CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000, and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000. Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.

  13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to inflammatory bowel disease may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  14. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R B; Lichtenstein, G R; Rombeau, J L

    1999-09-01

    Clinical and basic research continues to expand our understanding of the complex pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. The potential roles played by fatty acid intake, serum leptin, and nitric oxide in the promotion of intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis will be reviewed. In addition, important advances in the areas of bone disease, vitamin deficiency, growth failure, and home parenteral nutrition will be discussed.

  15. Selenium and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudva, Avinash K; Shay, Ashley E; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2015-07-15

    Dietary intake of the micronutrient selenium is essential for normal immune functions. Selenium is cotranslationally incorporated as the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, into selenoproteins that function to modulate pathways involved in inflammation. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between selenium levels and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that can potentially progress to colon cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we summarize the current literature on the pathophysiology of IBD, which is multifactorial in origin with unknown etiology. We have focused on a few selenoproteins that mediate gastrointestinal inflammation and activate the host immune response, wherein macrophages play a pivotal role. Changes in cellular oxidative state coupled with altered expression of selenoproteins in macrophages drive the switch from a proinflammatory phenotype to an anti-inflammatory phenotype to efficiently resolve inflammation in the gut and restore epithelial barrier integrity. Such a phenotypic plasticity is accompanied by changes in cytokines, chemokines, and bioactive metabolites, including eicosanoids that not only mitigate inflammation but also partake in restoring gut homeostasis through diverse pathways involving differential regulation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. The role of the intestinal microbiome in modulating inflammation and aiding in selenium-dependent resolution of gut injury is highlighted to provide novel insights into the beneficial effects of selenium in IBD. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Prognosis after first-time myocardial infarction in patients with inflammatory bowel disease according to disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    -cause mortality, and a composite of recurrent MI, cardiovascular death, and stroke were estimated by Cox regression-models. Odds ratio of death during hospitalization or within 30 days of discharge (n=13 339) corresponded to 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.98-5.45) for patients in IBD flares, 1.62 (95% CI......BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of active IBD on major adverse cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In nationwide registries, we identified 86 790 patients with first-time......, 0.95-2.77) for persistent activity, and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.78-1.19) for remission when compared with the non-IBD group. Among 73 451 patients, including 863 with IBD, alive 30 days after discharge, IBD was associated with hazard ratios of 1.21 (95% CI, 0.99-1.49) for recurrent MI, 1.14 (95% CI, 1...

  17. Immunopathology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Kori L; Zheng, Li-Bo; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Shih, David Q

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system. The host microbiome, as well as viruses and fungi, play important roles in the development of IBD either by causing inflammation directly or indirectly through an altered immune system. New technologies have allowed researchers to be able to quantify the various components of the microbiome, which will allow for future developments in the etiology of IBD. Various components of the mucosal immune system are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD and include intestinal epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, cells of the innate (macrophages/monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells) and adaptive (T-cells and B-cells) immune system, and their secreted mediators (cytokines and chemokines). Either a mucosal susceptibility or defect in sampling of gut luminal antigen, possibly through the process of autophagy, leads to activation of innate immune response that may be mediated by enhanced toll-like receptor activity. The antigen presenting cells then mediate the differentiation of naïve T-cells into effector T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17, which alter gut homeostasis and lead to IBD. In this review, the effects of these components in the immunopathogenesis of IBD will be discussed.

  18. The role of nuclear medicine in inflammatory bowel disease. A review with experiences of aspecific bowel activity using immunoscintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc anti-granulocyte antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyoerke, Tamas E-mail: gyorke@radi.sote.hu; Duffek, Laszlo; Bartfai, Katalin; Mako, Erno; Karlinger, Kinga; Mester, Adam; Tarjan, Zsolt

    2000-09-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) needs a complex diagnostic work-up. Beside verifying the disease itself, it is fundamental to assess disease extent and activity and to detect associated complications, to find the most effective treatment and for follow up. Scintigraphy with radiolabelled leukocytes is able to provide a complete survey of the whole intestinal tract, both the small and large bowel, and detects septic complications successfully with negligible risk. Radionuclide procedures are useful in establishing or ruling out IBD in patients with intestinal complaints, in assessing disease severity, and in the evaluation of extraintestinal septic complications. Widely available radionuclide procedures are discussed, i.e. scintigraphy by {sup 111}Indium oxime or {sup 99m}Technetium HMPAO labelled white blood cells and immunoscintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc anti-granulocyte antibodies. Advantages and disadvantages of all three methods are stressed out. Patients and methods: The immunoscintigraphies with {sup 99m}Tc anti-granulocyte antibodies (ANTI-GRANULOCYTE[reg] BW 250/183) of 27 patients with suspicion of IBD were retrospectively analysed. Planar anterior and posterior images were obtained 4 and 24 h postinjection, respectively. The bowel was divided into six segments and the activity was visually graded with reference to bone marrow in each segments. The scans were compared with the results of radiological and endoscopical investigations. The diagnosis of IBD was proved or ruled out by means of enteroclysis, large bowel enema or endoscopy. Results: In the 27 patients, 74 bowel segments with increased activity were detected. In the case of 30 segments in 16 patients, bowel inflammation was revealed by the other methods (true positives). In the case of 44 bowel segments, no underlying bowel inflammation could be verified, and these activities were regarded as aspecific activity. We could not differentiate between true positive and aspecific

  19. Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue; Birkelund, Svend; Stensballe, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Unambiguous diagnosis of the two main forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD): Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), represents a challenge in the early stages of the diseases. The diagnosis may be established several years after the debut of symptoms. Hence, protein biomarkers...... for early and accurate diagnostic could help clinicians improve treatment of the individual patients. Moreover, the biomarkers could aid physicians to predict disease courses and in this way, identify patients in need of intensive treatment. Patients with low risk of disease flares may avoid treatment...... with medications with the concomitant risk of adverse events. In addition, identification of disease and course specific biomarker profiles can be used to identify biological pathways involved in the disease development and treatment. Knowledge of disease mechanisms in general can lead to improved future...

  20. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Taking medication Counseling and stress relief Changing your diet Foods do not cause IBS, but eating certain ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression HIV and AIDS Menstruation Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Pregnancy Thyroid disease All A-Z health ...

  1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is most often a polygenic disorder with contributions from the intestinal microbiome, defects in barrier function, and dysregulated host responses to microbial stimulation. There is, however, increasing recognition of single gene defects that underlie a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly those with early-onset disease, and this review focuses on the primary immunodeficiencies associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. The advent of next-generation sequencing has led to an improved recognition of single gene defects underlying some cases of inflammatory bowel disease. Among single gene defects, immune response genes are the most frequent category identified. This is also true of common genetic variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease, supporting a pivotal role for host responses in the pathogenesis. This review focuses on practical aspects related to diagnosis and management of children with inflammatory bowel disease who have underlying primary immunodeficiencies.

  2. Nutrigenomics and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2010-07-01

    The field of nutrigenomics recognizes gene-diet interactions, with regard to both the impact of genetic variation on nutrient requirements, and conversely nutrient regulation of the expression of genes. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases for which twin studies reveal genetic susceptibility that is impacted by diet and environment. Apparently contradictory data on the role of diet in inflammatory bowel disease would be entirely explainable if genetic variability determined dietary requirements and intolerances. Considering Crohn's disease, we recognize three major classes of genes. The first of these involves bacterial recognition through pattern recognition receptors and autophagy genes, while the second act through secondary immune response, and the third concern epithelial barrier integrity. Despite genetic overlap with CD, the first two groups of genes appear to be less important in ulcerative colitis, while other genes, particularly those involved in barrier function, gain prominence. Case-control studies suggest that these different genetic groups reflect distinct dietary requirements. Such studies suggest nutrigenomic approaches to maintaining disease remission at present, and preventing disease development in the future.

  3. The Effect of Disease Activity on Birth Outcomes in a Nationwide Cohort of Women with Moderate to Severe Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammerlander, Heidi; Nielsen, Jan; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Background: Active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during conception and pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. Former studies have examined heterogeneous groups of women with varying degrees of IBD severity. We aimed to examine the effect of active IBD on birth outcomes...... in a more homogeneous group of women with a moderate to severe disease course. Since in Denmark, moderate to severe IBD is an indication for use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy, we examined all women who used anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy during pregnancy. Methods: We identified a nationwide...... cohort of 219 singleton pregnancies in women treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy during pregnancy (2005-2014). Pregnancies with clinical disease activity (65.8%) constituted the exposed cohort and pregnancies without disease activity constituted the unexposed (34.2%). Disease activity...

  4. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, D.A.; Jones, H.H.

    1982-12-01

    The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain.

  5. Heritability in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Hannah; Trier Moller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    estimation regard genetic and environmental variance as separate entities, although it is now understood that there is a complex multidirectional interplay between genetic are environmental factors mediated by the microbiota, the epigenome, and the innate and acquired immune systems. Due to the limitations...... of heritability estimates, it is unlikely that a true value for heritability will be reached. Further work aimed at quantifying the variance explained across GWAS, epigenome-wide, and microbiota-wide association studies will help to define factors leading to inflammatory bowel disease....

  6. Evaluation and comparison of capsule endoscopy scores for assessment of inflammatory activity of small-bowel in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Ana; Pinho, Rolando; Rodrigues, Adélia; Silva, Joana; Rodrigues, Jaime; Sousa, Mafalda; Carvalho, João

    2017-12-14

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has the highest sensitivity in the evaluation of small-bowel mucosa in Crohn's disease (CD). Recent guidelines recommend the use of validated CE scores to assess small-bowel inflammatory activity in CD. Lewis score (LS) and Capsule Endoscopy Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CECDAI) are the currently available validated scores, but comparative studies are scarce. Moreover, correlation of these endoscopic scores with biomarkers and clinical activity is lacking. This study aims to compare LS with CECDAI, to determine cutoff values for CECDAI similar to those of LS (135-790), and to correlate LS and CECDAI with biomarkers and symptoms. All patients with CD who underwent CE between March/2010 and February/2016 were included. LS and CECDAI were determined after analysis of each CE. In patients with small-bowel CD, C-reactive protein (CRP) and Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) were evaluated. descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. p<0.05. Fifty-three patients were included and the mean values obtained for LS were 1147±1453, CECDAI 11.3±6.9, CRP 0.92±1.5mg/dL and HBI 2.4±2.8. There was a very strong correlation between LS and CECDAI (rs=0.878; p<0.0001) and thresholds values of 135-790 in LS corresponded to 7.7-10.3 cutoff values in CECDAI, respectively. Neither CRP correlated with LS (rs=0.068; p=0.72) or CECDAI (rs=-0.004; p=0.98), nor HBI with LS (rs=-0.15; p=0.40) or CECDAI (rs=-0.10; p=0.23). Correlation between the two CE activity scores was very strong, with LS thresholds of 135-790 corresponding to CECDAI values of 7.7-10.3. HBI and CRP had no correlation with CECDAI and LS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Pregnancy outcome in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortoli, A; Pedersen, N; Duricova, D

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently affects women during their reproductive years. Pregnancy outcome in women with IBD is well described, particularly in retrospective studies.......Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently affects women during their reproductive years. Pregnancy outcome in women with IBD is well described, particularly in retrospective studies....

  8. Surgical perspectives on inflammatory bowel disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VikasC

    J. Inflammatory bowel disease in Towsend: Sabiston. Textbook of Surgery. ... 1998; 44:28991. 19. Xie J, Itzkowitz SH. Cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14:37889. 20. Roses RE, Rombeau JL. Recent trends in the surgical ... dyselectrolytemia, anemia, and malnutrition are commonly present.

  9. Childhood Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Libya: Epidemiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background & Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease is thought to be rare in Libya. The aim is to determine the prevalence of juvenile onset inflammatory bowel disease in Libya. Setting: Al-Fateh childrens' hospital, Benghazi, Libya. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all cases diagnosed over 10 years (1997-2006) with ...

  10. Infections in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez de Santiago, Enrique; Albillos Martínez, Agustín; López-Sanromán, Antonio

    2017-05-10

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease constitute a population with a special predisposition to develop bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Iatrogenic immunosuppression, frequent contact with healthcare facilities and surgical interventions are some of the risk factors that explain why these infections are one of the main causes of morbi-mortality in this disease. Some of these infections follow a subtle and paucisymptomatic evolution; their diagnosis and management may become a real challenge for the attending physician if their screening is not systematized or they are not considered in the differential diagnosis. The objective of this review is to provide an update from a practical and concise perspective on the knowledge regarding the epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the most common infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Thalidomide for inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramuzzo, Matteo; Ventura, Alessandro; Martelossi, Stefano; Lazzerini, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug used in the experimental treatment of refractory Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. We aimed to review the existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of thalidomide in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, LILACS, POPLINE, CINHAL, and Web of Science were searched in March 2016. Manual search included conference and reference lists. All types of studies, except single case reports, were included. Outcomes evaluated were: induction of remission; maintenance of remission; steroid reduction; effect on penetrating Crohn disease; endoscopic remission; adverse events. Results: The research strategies retrieved 722 papers. Two randomized controlled trials and 29 uncontrolled studies for a total of 489 patients matched the inclusion criteria. Thalidomide induced a clinical response in 296/427 (69.3%) patients. Clinical remission was achieved in 220/427 (51.5%) cases. Maintenance of remission was reported in 128/160 (80.0%) patients at 6 months and in 96/133 (72.2%) at 12 months. Reduction in steroid dosage was reported in 109/152 (71.7%) patients. Fistulas improved in 49/81 (60.5%) cases and closed in 28/81 (34.6%). Endoscopic improvement was observed in 46/66 (69.7%) and complete mucosal healing in 35/66 (53.0%) patients. Cumulative incidence of total adverse events and of those leading to drug suspension was 75.6 and 19.7/1000 patient-months, respectively. Neurological disturbances accounted for 341/530 (64.3%) adverse events and were the most frequent cause of drug withdrawal. Conclusion: Existing evidence suggests that thalidomide may be a valid treatment option for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases refractory to other first- and second-line treatments. PMID:27472695

  12. Nutritional status in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence of malnutrition and methods for routine nutritional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijac, Dragana D; Janković, Goran L J; Jorga, Jagoda; Krstić, Miodrag N

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are numerous methods for the assessment of nutritional status, but the gold standard has not yet been established. The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition and to evaluate methods for routine nutritional assessment of active IBD patients. Twenty-three patients with active Crohn disease, 53 patients with active ulcerative colitis and 30 controls were included in the study. The nutritional status was assessed by extensive anthropometric measurements, percentage of weight loss in the past 1-6 months and biochemical markers of nutrition. All investigated nutritional parameters were significantly different in IBD patients compared to control subjects, except MCV, tryglicerides and serum total protein level. Serum albumin level and body mass index (BMI) were the most predictive parameters of malnutrition. According to different assessment methods the prevalence of undernutrition and severe undernutrition in patients with active IBD were 25.0%-69.7% and 1.3%-31.6%, respectively, while in the control subjects no abnormalities have been detected. There was no statistically significant difference of nutritional parameters between UC and CD patients except lower mid-arm muscle circumference in UC group. Malnutrition is common in IBD patients. BMI and serum albumin are simple and convenient methods for the assessment of the nutritional status in IBD patients. Further studies with larger group of patients are necessary to elucidate the prevalence of malnutrition and the most accurate assessment methods in IBD patients.

  13. Role of toll like receptors in irritable bowel syndrome: differential mucosal immune activation according to the disease subtype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Belmonte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder whose pathogenesis is not completely understood. Its high prevalence and the considerable effects on quality of life make IBS a disease with high social cost. Recent studies suggest that low grade mucosal immune activation, increased intestinal permeability and the altered host-microbiota interactions that modulate innate immune response, contribute to the pathophysiology of IBS. However, the understanding of the precise molecular pathophysiology remains largely unknown. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: In this study our objective was to evaluate the TLR expression as a key player in the innate immune response, in the colonic mucosa of IBS patients classified into the three main subtypes (with constipation, with diarrhea or mixed. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression was assessed by real time RT-PCR while TLRs protein expression in intestinal epithelial cells was specifically assessed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Mucosal inflammatory cytokine production was investigated by the multiplex technology. Here we report that the IBS-Mixed subgroup displayed a significant up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the colonic mucosa. Furthermore, these expressions were localized in the epithelial cells, opening new perspectives for a potential role of epithelial cells in host-immune interactions in IBS. In addition, the increased TLR expression in IBS-M patients elicited intracellular signaling pathways resulting in increased expression of the mucosal proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL1β. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first evidence of differential expression of TLR in IBS patients according to the disease subtype. These results offer further support that microflora plays a central role in the complex pathophysiology of IBS providing novel pharmacological targets for this chronic gastrointestinal disorder according to bowel habits.

  14. Over-reaching beyond disease activity: the influence of anxiety and medical economic burden on health-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xia-Peng; Mao, Ren; Chen, Bai-Li; Qiu, Yun; Zhang, Sheng-Hong; He, Yao; Chen, Jie; Zeng, Zhi-Rong; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Chen, Min-Hu

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The influence of psychological and economic factors on HRQOL has not been fully elucidated in IBD. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors of HRQOL in an IBD cohort. This was a cross-sectional cohort study of patients presenting to our tertiary IBD center. HRQOL was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ). Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Perceived stress and perceived social support were also assessed by standardized scales. Demographic, socioeconomic and clinical data were obtained from a prespecified questionnaire and patients' medical records. Univariate analyses and multiple regression analysis were performed to identify predictors of HRQOL. A total of 242 IBD patients were recruited, and the questionnaire return rate was 90.5% (219/242). The prevalence rates of anxiety and depression were 24.7% and 17.4%, respectively. In all, 30.6% of the patients spent over half of their income to cover medical costs. Multivariate analysis revealed that anxiety symptoms (P<0.001), active disease (P<0.001) and higher medical expenditures (P=0.001) were strong and independent predictors of reduced HRQOL. Psychological factors and costs of medical care strongly impair HRQOL in IBD, independent of the disease activity. Psychological counseling and socioeconomic support programs should be considered for integration into the management of IBD patients.

  15. Clostridium difficile and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinelli, Massimo; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Veres, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection is associated with pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in several ways. We sought to investigate C. difficile infection in pediatric patients with IBD in comparison with a group of children with celiac disease and to evaluate IBD disease course...... period, stool specimens for C. difficile toxins analysis were collected from 112 children with celiac disease as controls. RESULTS: Clostridium difficile occurrence was significantly higher in patients with IBD compared with patients with celiac disease (7.5% versus 0.8%; P = 0.008). Clostridium...... difficile was associated with active disease in 71.4% of patients with IBD (P = 0.01). Colonic involvement was found in 85.7% of patients with C. difficile. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, hospitalization, and IBD therapies were not associated with increased C. difficile detection. At 12 months...

  16. Thiopurine Methyltransferase Enzyme Activity Determination before Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Azathioprine: Effect on Cost and Adverse Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana A Sayani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA, used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, is metabolized by thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT. The accumulation of individual metabolites varies because humans display genetic polymorphism for TPMT expression. Deficiencies in TPMT result in accumulation of toxic metabolites, followed by neutropenia and hepatic inflammation. Concern over acute toxicity frequently leads to under dosing and frequent monitoring tests and visits.

  17. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Gómez, María Josefa; Melián Fernández, Cristóbal; Romeo Donlo, María

    2016-07-12

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic pathology that has an outbreaks course that in recent years have seen an increase in incidence, especially at younger ages. Malnutrition is frequently associated with this condition, therefore, it is very important to ensure a right nutritional intervention, especially in pediatric patients, to ensure an optimal growth and also an improvement in the clinic. Our goal will be updated the role of nutrition in this disease and in its treatment based on the published evidence. Malnutrition in these patients is frequent and is influenced by various factors such as, decreased food intake, increased nutrient requirements, increased protein loss and malabsorption of nutrients. Therefore there should be a nutritional monitoring of all of them, in which anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and densitometry were made to establish the needs and sufficient caloric intake tailored to each patient. The use of enteral nutrition as a treatment in Crohn’s disease with mild to moderate outbreak in child population, is amply demonstrated, has even shown to be superior to the use of corticosteroids. Therefore we can conclude by stressing that nutritional intervention is a mainstay in the management of patients with IBD, which aims to prevent and / or control disease-related malnutrition to decrease morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life.

  18. Pregnancy outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease according to the activity of the disease and the medical treatment: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Tamás; Farkas, Klaudia; Nagy, Ferenc; Lakatos, Péter László; Miheller, Pál; Nyári, Tibor; Horváth, Gábor; Szepes, Zoltán; Marik, Anikó; Wittmann, Tibor

    2010-11-01

    There is limited data on pregnancy outcome in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) (Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) from Eastern Europe. The aim of our multicenter study was to compare the pregnancy outcomes and the data of infants in pregnancies before and after the diagnosis of IBD. 97 pregnancies in women with IBD (36 CD and 61 UC) and 70 pregnancies in the same women before the diagnosis of IBD (24 CD and 46 UC) were compared. The influence of disease activity and medical treatment during pregnancy on gestational age at birth, birth weight, health status of the newborns and the frequency of childhood diseases were analyzed. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in IBD compared to those pregnancies delivered before the diagnosis of the disease (p = 0.008, p = 0.048). The occurrence of congenital abnormalities was not influenced by IBD, whereas childhood diseases occurred more frequently in the offspring of mothers with active UC. Disease activity in CD and UC during pregnancy did not predispose to abnormal birth outcome, compared to inactive disease. The type of medical treatment did not affect the pregnancy outcome in IBD. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in IBD. The medical treatment of the active disease during pregnancy did not increase the frequency of abnormal birth outcomes. Medical maintenance treatment should be continued during pregnancy to avoid relapses, although IBD seems to be an independent risk factor for low birth weight and preterm birth.

  19. Role of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, Uri; Seidman, Ernest G

    2014-02-07

    Videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) has revolutionized our ability to visualize the small bowel mucosa. This modality is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure small bowel Crohn's disease (CD), and can also be used for monitoring of disease activity in patients with established small-bowel CD, detection of complications such as obscure bleeding and neoplasms, evaluation of response to anti-inflammatory treatment and postoperative recurrence following small bowel resection. VCE could also be an important tool in the management of patients with unclassified inflammatory bowel disease, potentially resulting in reclassification of these patients as having CD. Reports on postoperative monitoring and evaluation of patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis who have developed pouchitis have recenty been published. Monitoring of colonic inflammatory activity in patients with ulcerative colitis using the recently developed colonic capsule has also been reported. Capsule endoscopy is associated with an excellent safety profile. Although retention risk is increased in patients with small bowel CD, this risk can be significanty decreased by a routine utilization of a dissolvable patency capsule preceding the ingestion of the diagnostic capsule. This paper contains an overview of the current and future clinical applications of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease.

  20. Fibromyalgia in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskila, D; Odes, L R; Neumann, L; Odes, H S

    1999-05-01

    Studies of the rheumatological complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) have focused on peripheral arthritis and spondylitis, and less is known about soft tissue rheumatism, specifically the fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of FM and assess pain thresholds in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Seventy-two patients with UC and 41 with CD attending consecutively at the Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic were assessed for the presence of FM and tenderness thresholds. FM was diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria. Tenderness was measured by manual palpation and with a dolorimeter. One hundred twenty healthy subjects served as controls. FM was documented in 30 of 113 patients with IBD (30%), specifically in 49% of patients with CD and 19% with UC (p = 0.001); in controls the rate was 0%. Subjects with CD exhibited more tenderness and reported more frequent and more severe FM associated symptoms than subjects with UC. Patients with CD had a higher tender point count, 11.3 (+/- 6.5), than those with UC, 6.4 (+/- 5.7) (p = 0.001); in healthy controls, the count was 0.1 (+/- 0.5). Tenderness thresholds (kg) were lower in CD 2.9 (+/- 1.7) than UC 3.9 (+/- 2.0) (p = 0.005) and controls 5.8 (+/- 0.9). FM is common in IBD, particularly Crohn's disease. The lower pain threshold in Crohn's disease may suggest a disease-specific effect. Recognizing FM in patients with IBD will prevent misdiagnosis and ensure correct treatment.

  1. Inflammatory bowel diseases, celiac disease, and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Maria Luisa

    2010-11-01

    The article summarizes the current knowledge on the pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment of bone problems in the major inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) and celiac disease. It presents the physiological relationship between intestine and bone as well as the alterations determined by disease-disrupted intestinal integrity. Two hypotheses about the pathogenetic mechanisms of bone metabolism derangements and bone loss are discussed: the classical one, that indicates calcium malabsorption as the main culprit, and the new one, that emphasizes the role of inflammation. The article summarizes the available epidemiological data about osteopenia/osteoporosis and fragility fractures in these chronic intestinal diseases and presents the state-of-the-art treatment options. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of fecal calprotectin in investigating inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Erbayrak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Invasive and non-invasive tests can be used to evaluate the activity of inflammatory bowel diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of fecal calprotectin in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease activity and the correlation of fecal calprotectin with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein values in inflammatory bowel disease. METHOD: Sixty-five patients affected with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Twenty outpatients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease comprised the control group. RESULTS: In the present study, all patients in the control group had an fecal calprotectin value lower than the cut-off point (50 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, fecal calprotectin was found to be strongly associated with colorectal inflammation indicating organic disease. Fecal calprotectin is a simple and non-invasive method for assessing excretion of macrophages into the gut lumen. Fecal calprotectin values can be used to evaluate the response to treatment, to screen asymptomatic patients, and to predict inflammatory bowel disease relapses.

  3. [Treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomollón, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    In addition to immunosuppressive drugs and anti-TNF, there are a number of new options in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Vedolizumab has been approved by the FDA and EMA and has demonstrated utility both in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), even in anti-TNF refractory patients. Other monoclonal antibodies with different targets such as PF-005447659 (antiMAd-CAM1), ustekinumab (anti-IL23/IL12) or MEDI2070 (anti-IL23) have shown promising results in distinct clinical scenarios. Mongersen (antisense oligonucleotide anti-Smad7) and oznimod (an SP-1 modulator) are new alternatives with proven efficacy in clinical trials in CD and UC, respectively. Some data suggest that faecal microbiota transplantation could be efficacious in individual patients, although controlled data do not show clear differences with placebo. Autologous stem-cell transplantation has shown long-term efficacy in "ultra-refractory" CD. The number of possible treatments is constantly increasing, and future research should focus both on the selection of the most appropriate treatment for any given patient and on comparative trials between options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding Microbial Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Using Click Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0368 TITLE: Understanding Microbial Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Using Click Chemistry PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE with Click Chemistry : : Understanding Microbial Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Click Chemistry Understanding Microbial...Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Click Chemistry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Understanding Microbial Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Using Click

  5. Stem cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvestein, Marjolijn

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and mesenchymal stromal (MSC) cell therapy are currently under investigation as novel therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Hematopoietic stem cells are thought to repopulate the immune system and reset the immunological response to luminal

  6. Psychological wellbeing and physical activity in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Gerber, Markus; Furlano, Raoul I; Legeret, Corinne; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-12-12

    Children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) report impairments in daily activities, social interactions and coping. Findings regarding psychological functioning are inconsistent, while limited information is available on objectively assessed physical activity (PA). The aims of the present study were therefore to compare anthropometric dimensions, blood values, psychological functioning and PA of children and adolescents with IBD with healthy controls. Forty-seven children and adolescents took part in the study. Of these, 23 were diagnosed with IBD (mean age: 13.88 years, 44% females). The IBD group was divided into a medically well adjusted "remission-group" (n = 14; IBD-RE) and a group with an "active state" of disease (n = 8; IBD-AD). Healthy controls (n = 24; HC) were age- and gender-matched. Participants' anthropometric data, blood values and objective PA were assessed. Further, participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic data and psychological functioning. Participants with IBD-AD showed higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) values, haemoglobin, and leukocyte values. IBD-AD had poorer psychological functioning and lower PA (average steps per day) compared to IBD-RE and HC. No mean differences were found between IBD-RE and HC. The pattern of results suggests that effective medical treatment of IBD in children and adolescents is associated with favorable physiological parameters, psychological dimensions and PA. Psychological counselling of children and adolescents in an active state of IBD seem to be advised in addition to standard treatment schedules. NCT NCT02264275 ; Registered 8 October 2014.

  7. Over-reaching beyond disease activity: the influence of anxiety and medical economic burden on health-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo XP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xia-peng Luo,1,* Ren Mao,1,* Bai-li Chen,1 Yun Qiu,1 Sheng-hong Zhang,1 Yao He,1 Jie Chen,1 Zhi-rong Zeng,1 Shomron Ben-Horin,2 Min-hu Chen1 1Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL. The influence of psychological and economic factors on HRQOL has not been fully elucidated in IBD. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors of HRQOL in an IBD cohort. Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of patients presenting to our tertiary IBD center. HRQOL was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Perceived stress and perceived social support were also assessed by standardized scales. Demographic, socioeconomic and clinical data were obtained from a prespecified questionnaire and patients’ medical records. Univariate analyses and multiple regression analysis were performed to identify predictors of HRQOL. Results: A total of 242 IBD patients were recruited, and the questionnaire return rate was 90.5% (219/242. The prevalence rates of anxiety and depression were 24.7% and 17.4%, respectively. In all, 30.6% of the patients spent over half of their income to cover medical costs. Multivariate analysis revealed that anxiety symptoms (P<0.001, active disease (P<0.001 and higher medical expenditures (P=0.001 were strong and independent predictors of reduced HRQOL. Conclusion: Psychological factors and costs of medical care strongly impair HRQOL in IBD, independent of the disease activity. Psychological counseling and socioeconomic

  8. Hirschsprung disease-Bowel function beyond childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Tomas; Granström, Anna Löf

    2017-10-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a developmental defect of the enteric nervous system characterized by lack of enteric neurons in the distal hindgut. There are numerous reports on short-term outcomes indicating that impaired bowel function is common. Recently, several controlled studies show that bowel function outcomes are affected beyond childhood, in adolescents and adults, compared with healthy control subjects. Constipation and fecal incontinence are common. The impaired bowel function appears to have a negative impact on quality of life, although, a majority of patients have adapted to their symptoms. On the other hand, Hirschsprung disease seems to have limited impact on education and occupation in adult life. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge of bowel function outcome beyond childhood in patients with Hirschsprung disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary fortificant iron intake is negatively associated with quality of life in patients with mildly active inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jonathan J; Cook, William B; Hutchinson, Carol; Tolkien, Zoe; Chatfield, Mark; Pereira, Dora Ia; Lomer, Miranda Ce

    2013-01-15

    Iron deficiency anaemia and oral iron supplementation have been associated negatively with quality of life, and with adverse effects, respectively, in subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hence, the risk-benefit ratio of oral iron is not understood in this patient group. The present case-control study investigated whether dietary iron intake impacts on quality of life in IBD patients. Quality of life, habitual dietary iron intakes and iron requirements were assessed in 29 patients with inactive or mildly active IBD as well as in 28 healthy control subjects. As expected, quality of life was worse in IBD patients as a whole in comparison to healthy controls according to EuroQol score and EuroQol VAS percentage (6.9 ± 1.6 vs 5.3 ± 0.6; p< 0.0001 and 77 ± 14% vs 88 ± 12%; p=0.004 respectively). For IBD subjects, 21/29 were iron deplete based upon serum iron responses to oral iron but, overall, were non-anaemic with mean haemoglobin of 13.3 ± 1.5 g/dL, and there was no difference in their quality of life compared to 8/29 iron replete subjects (Hb 14.0 ± 0.8 g/dL). Interestingly, total dietary iron intake was significantly negatively associated with quality of life in IBD patients, specifically for non-haem iron and, more specifically, for fortificant iron. Moreover, for total non-haem iron the negative association disappeared when fortificant iron values were subtracted. Finally, further sub-analysis indicated that the negative association between (fortificant) dietary iron intake and quality of life in IBD patients is driven by findings in patients with mildly active disease rather than in patients with quiescent disease. Iron deficiency per se (i.e. without concomitant anaemia) does not appear to further affect quality of life in IBD patients with inactive or mildly active disease. However, in this preliminary study, dietary iron intake, particularly fortificant iron, appears to be significantly negatively associated with quality of life in patients

  10. Dietary fortificant iron intake is negatively associated with quality of life in patients with mildly active inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anaemia and oral iron supplementation have been associated negatively with quality of life, and with adverse effects, respectively, in subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Hence, the risk-benefit ratio of oral iron is not understood in this patient group. The present case–control study investigated whether dietary iron intake impacts on quality of life in IBD patients. Methods Quality of life, habitual dietary iron intakes and iron requirements were assessed in 29 patients with inactive or mildly active IBD as well as in 28 healthy control subjects. Results As expected, quality of life was worse in IBD patients as a whole in comparison to healthy controls according to EuroQol score and EuroQol VAS percentage (6.9 ± 1.6 vs 5.3 ± 0.6; pvs 88 ± 12%; p=0.004 respectively. For IBD subjects, 21/29 were iron deplete based upon serum iron responses to oral iron but, overall, were non-anaemic with mean haemoglobin of 13.3 ± 1.5 g/dL, and there was no difference in their quality of life compared to 8/29 iron replete subjects (Hb 14.0 ± 0.8 g/dL. Interestingly, total dietary iron intake was significantly negatively associated with quality of life in IBD patients, specifically for non-haem iron and, more specifically, for fortificant iron. Moreover, for total non-haem iron the negative association disappeared when fortificant iron values were subtracted. Finally, further sub-analysis indicated that the negative association between (fortificant dietary iron intake and quality of life in IBD patients is driven by findings in patients with mildly active disease rather than in patients with quiescent disease. Conclusions Iron deficiency per se (i.e. without concomitant anaemia does not appear to further affect quality of life in IBD patients with inactive or mildly active disease. However, in this preliminary study, dietary iron intake, particularly fortificant iron, appears to be significantly negatively

  11. [Inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy and childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závorová, K

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to give basic information about inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during pregnancy, to highlight the importance of treatment in pregnancy and also show our own experience with the issue. Original work - a retrospective study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Hořovice. We provide basic overview information about inheritance, fertility, mutual influence of IBD and pregnancy therapy in pregnancy and childbirth options for patients with IBD. We present also the results of the group of 17 patients with varying degrees of disability IBD (including patients after previous surgeries - bowel resection, hemicolectomy, ileostomy or with a pouch) that gave birth to our workplace. A crucial factor for good results is the degree of inflammation at the time of conception and during pregnancy. If the disease is inactive and nutrition of the diseased sufficient, there is no decrease in fertility, course of pregnancy is seamless, there is no greater risk of deterioration of disease in pregnancy and pregnancy do not differ from the normal population. The opposite situation occurs if there is a pregnancy at the time of disease activity. Then up to 75% pregnancy courses with big problems, fertility is declining, inflammation is also worsening and the risk of exacerbations increases during pregnancy, which aggravates the course of pregnancy and childbirth and has a negative effect on the fetus. Pregnancy is therefore necessary to plan for a longer period of disease stabilization and continue chronic medication and not discontinue drugs for fear of negative impact of medications on fetal development. On the contrary, active inflammation of the mother during pregnancy poses a greater risk to the fetus than adequate treatment. Commonly used drugs-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and biological therapy appears to be safe and well tolerated during pregnancy. Method of delivery is individual and depends on the form and location of the

  12. Caring for Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagins, Linda A; Kane, Sunanda V

    2016-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease are chronic inflammatory diseases with typical onset in early adulthood. These diseases, therefore, can affect a woman throughout the many stages of her life, including menstruation, sexuality, pregnancy, and menopause. Unique health issues face women during these stages and can affect the course of their inflammatory bowel disease as well as treatment strategies and health maintenance. This article covers the non-pregnancy-related issues that are important in caring for women with inflammatory bowel disease. The topics of pregnancy and fertility are covered in a separate review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Articular and extraarticular involvement in inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, A; Tejeda, A; Gallo, J E; Chianello, M

    1993-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease include basically two disorders: ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Both diseases are chronic and of unknown etiology and extraintestinal manifestations are seen in a high number of these patients. We studied 18 patients (7 female, 11 male) with previous diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (14 ulcerative colitis, 2 Crohn's disease, 1 pancolitis, 1 ulcerative proctitis) in order to search for extraintestinal manifestations with emphasis on osteoarticular and ocular involvement. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of the inflammatory bowel disease was 44 years (range 20 to 71 years). Mean time duration of the inflammatory bowel disease was 7 years (range 1 to 24 years) and of the articular manifestations 3.2 years (range 1 to 8 years). The osteoarticular manifestations developed after the diagnosis of the bowel disease in all but one patient (simultaneously) 17/18 patients had artralgias, 7/18 lumbalgia, 3/18 talalgia, 1/18 knee arthritis. (table I) Only six of the 17 patients with orteoarticular involvement has simultaneous activity of the underlying bowel disease. All the 18 patients were taking 2 g/day of sulfasalazine. Radiographic screening in all patients revealed sacroiliitis in 10. (table II) Of the 10 radiographic sacroiliitis 4 were grade I (confirmed by technetium phosphate scans, 2 were grade II and 4 grade III-IV. Three of the ten patients with radiographic sacroiliitis were asymptomatic (table II). Axial computed tomography was performed done in two patients: a) in one case to exclude osteitis condensens ilii, and b) in the other case to exclude septic arthritis. The severity of the sacroiliac damage was related with a longer duration of the inflammatory bowel disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Gil Shitrit, Ariella; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Goldin, Eran

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually affects women during their reproductive years and many concerns arise among these young patients. Pre-pregnancy consultation with a multi-disciplinary team is very important. The team should make patients aware of the critical importance of ensuring that conception occurs during a period of disease remission. Conception during an IBD flare-up results in disease activity or even exacerbates disease in two-thirds of women. Exacerbation of the disease is associated with increased frequency of maternal and fetal complications. Drug therapy constitutes a considerable source of patient anxiety but most drugs used for treating IBD are considered safe. Therefore, continuing pharmacological therapy during pregnancy is necessary to maintain disease control. Optimization of pre-conception nutritional status and smoking cessation are also emphasized. The general guideline for most patients, except for active perianal disease patients, is to aim for vaginal delivery in the absence of obstetric contraindications. Consistent, ongoing follow-up, as detailed in this review, should allay the anxieties and fears surrounding continuing immunosuppressive drugs during pregnancy, allowing each patient to attain the optimal conditions for achieving her goal of holding a healthy baby.

  15. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Medical and psychological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersnagel, Frans; Dijkstra, Gerard

    A review is presented in which the state of the art of behavioural-scientific research on inflammatory bowel disease (BID) is sorted out. After a short introduction on medical aspects of the two diseases that constitute IBD, i.e. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the factors that may have an

  17. INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE: OUTPATIENT TREATMENT PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Miranda dos SANTOS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The incidence and prevalence of both conditions have increased and are progressively increasing. These diseases are frequently recurrent and clinically highly severe. In Brazil, the lack of epidemiological data related to such diseases has left these patients in a vulnerable state and contributed to increased morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe the profiles of patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated in an outpatient service in Brazil. METHODS This descriptive, exploratory, and retrospective documentary study with a quantitative approach was performed in an outpatient treatment service for inflammatory bowel disease, at a university polyclinic located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from May to July 2016. The study included 556 patients and was approved by the research ethics committee of the institution (CAAE no. 55179316.6.0000.5259/2016. RESULTS The data showed a high prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in white female patients. Crohn’s disease was diagnosed in more patients than was ulcerative colitis; the ileocolon was the most commonly affected location in patients with Crohn’s disease. The stenotic phenotype was prevalent in patients with Crohn’s disease. CONCLUSION The prevalence of the stenotic phenotype in Crohn’s disease in relation to others demonstrates the need for further investigations in this field of study in Brazil. In conclusion, the data showed that the epidemiologic profile of the study population is similar to that published in the national and international literature.

  18. Risk factors for low bone mineral density in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: the positive role of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Stefano; Grand, Richard J; Pappa, Helen M

    2018-02-12

    In pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone fractures and the relationship between these are still debated. Our aim was to report data from a cohort of pediatric patients with IBD. Cross-sectional assessment of growth and BMD [(dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)] and retrospective chart review were performed to report the lifetime prevalence of bone fractures and clinical associations with patients' data. We examined 216 patients with IBD, 8-25 years old (median: 14 years). Low BMD was found in 12.5% (spine) and 27% (total body). Multiple regression analysis showed that BMD was predicted by Z-scores for height and weight at DXA. History of menstrual irregularities and nasogastric tube feedings was associated with lower BMD, whereas physical activity and higher Z-score for height at DXA were associated with higher BMD.The prevalence of lifetime fractures was 11.8%. Patients with a history of fractures had lower Z-scores for spine BMD (-1.20 vs. -0.69, P=0.020) and total-body BMD (-1.30 vs. -0.75, P=0.014) compared with those without a history of fractures. Patients with spine BMD Z-score of up to -2 SD score had significantly increased prevalence of fractures compared with those with Z-score more than -2 SD score (28 vs. 10%, P=0.015). This study provides further insight into risk factors for low BMD in pediatric IBD. Novel findings were the association between low BMD and fractures, and the positive relationship between BMD and physical activity.

  19. Role of Magnetic Resonance Enterography in Differentiating between Fibrotic and Active Inflammatory Small Bowel Stenosis in Patients with Crohn′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fornasa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in prospectively differentiating between fibrotic and active inflammatory small bowel stenosis in patients with Crohn′s disease (CD. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 patients with histologically proven CD presenting with clinical and plain radiographic signs of small bowel obstruction underwent coronal and axial MRI scans after oral administration of polyethylene glycol solution. A stenosis was judged present if a small bowel segment had >80% lumen reduction as compared to an adjacent normal loop and mural thickening of >3 mm. At the level of the stenosis, both T2 signal intensity and post-gadolinium T1 enhancement were quantified using a 5-point scale (0: very low; 1: low; 2: moderate; 3: high; and 4: very high. A stenosis was considered fibrotic if the sum of the two values (activity score: AS did not exceed 1. Results: A small bowel stenosis was identified in 48 out of 111 patients. Fibrosis was confirmed at histology in all of the 23 patients with AS of 0 or 1, who underwent surgery within 3 days of the MRI examination. In the remaining 25 patients (AS: 2-8, an active inflammatory stenosis was suspected and remission of the obstructive symptoms was obtained by means of medical treatment. One of these patients (AS: 2, however, underwent surgery after 14 days, due to recurrence. MRI had 95.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 97.9% accuracy in the diagnosis of fibrotic stenosis. Conclusion: MRI is reliable in differentiating fibrotic from inflammatory small bowel stenosis in CD.

  20. Management of inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Séverine; Carbonnel, Franck; Coulie, Pierre G; Geenen, Vincent; Hazes, Johanna M W; Masson, Pierre L; De Keyser, Filip; Louis, Edouard

    2012-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease affecting mainly young people in their reproductive years. IBD therefore has a major impact on patients' family planning decisions. Management of IBD in pregnancy requires a challenging balance between optimal disease control and drug safety considerations. This article aims to provide a framework for clinical decision making in IBD based on review of the literature on pregnancy-related topics. Medline searches with search terms 'IBD', 'Crohn's disease' or 'ulcerative colitis' in combination with keywords for the topics fertility, pregnancy, congenital abnormalities and drugs names of drugs used for treatment of IBD. IBD patients have normal fertility, except for women after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) and men under sulfasalazine treatment. Achieving and maintaining disease remission is a key factor for successful pregnancy outcomes in this population, as active disease at conception carries an increased risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight. Clinicians should discuss the need for drug therapy to maintain remission with their patients in order to ensure therapy compliance. Most IBD drugs are compatible with pregnancy, except for methotrexate and thalidomide. If possible, anti-TNF therapy should be stopped by the end of the second trimester and the choice of delivery route should be discussed with the patient. Disease control prior to conception and throughout pregnancy is the cornerstone of successful pregnancy management in IBD patients. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between the gut microbiota and the inflammatory bowel disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosberg, Michelle V; Bendtsen, Flemming; Vind, Ida

    2016-01-01

    to patients in remission, patients with active IBD had lower abundance of Clostridium coccoides (MD = -0.49, 95% CI: -0.79 to -0.19), Clostridium leptum (MD = -0.44, 95% CI: -0.74 to -0.14), Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (MD = -0.81, 95% CI: -1.23 to -0.39) and Bifidobacterium (MD = -0.37, 95% CI: -0.56 to -0.......17). Subgroup analyses showed a difference in all four bacteria between patients with UC classified as active or in remission. Patients with active CD had fewer C. leptum, F. prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium, but not C. coccoides. CONCLUSION: This systematic review suggests that dysbiosis may be involved...

  2. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  3. [Obstetrical and gynecological relevance of inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálmán, Judit; Bajor, Judit; Gáll, János; Harsányi, László; Horváth, Henrik Csaba; Kerékgyártó, Olga; László, Adám; Novák, János; Salamon, Agnes; Wacha, Judit

    2012-11-18

    Inflammatory bowel disease may show a life long persistence, while female fertility is time-limited. The aim of the authors was to obtain more knowledge about the obstetrical-gynecological aspects of this disorder. The authors evaluated 100 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 100 healthy women with a self-composed questionnaire. Menarche occurred significantly earlier in patients than in controls (p = 0,03). Either the activity of the disease, or the therapy itself may initiate irregularities in the menstrual cycle. Patients used contraceptives less frequently than controls (p = 0,002), and the time from family-planning to conception was longer in patients. Symptoms of bowel disease during pregnancy were not as severe as before and after pregnancy (ppregnancy (p = 0,042) and on the frequency of complications. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more frequent in newborns of patients (p = 0,019). Pregnancy has positive effect on the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease in case gestation occurs in a stable period of the inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Neuropeptide receptor expression in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Willy Pascale ter

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of intestinal motility, chloride secretion and inflammatory response, three processes that are

  5. Familial risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Frederik Trier; Andersen, Vibeke; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Estimates of familial risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC) are needed for counseling of patients and could be used to target future prevention. We aimed to provide comprehensive population-based estimates of familial risk of IBD...

  6. Management of inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Vermeire (Silvio); F. Carbonnel (Franck); P.G. Coulie (Pierre); V. Geenen (Vincent); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); P.L. Masson (Pierre); F. de Keyser (Filip); E. Louis (Edouard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease affecting mainly young people in their reproductive years. IBD therefore has a major impact on patients' family planning decisions. Management of IBD in pregnancy requires a challenging balance between optimal

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease: potential therapeutic strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Bregenholt, S

    1997-01-01

    This review deals with potential and possibly primary therapeutics that, through insight into the inflammatory cascade, result in more rational treatment principles replacing the classical therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These ne...

  8. What do patients with irritable bowel syndrome dream about? A comparison with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Whorwell, P J

    2002-07-01

    It is a common experience for people to dream of events about which they are either anxious or concerned. We therefore hypothesised that the dreams of patients with irritable bowel syndrome may reflect their worries about their problem especially as hospital out-patients with this disorder tend to exhibit some anxiety. In addition, dreaming about, for instance bowels, in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in excess of that observed in other gastrointestinal disorders may be of importance. To establish whether patients with irritable bowel syndrome dream about bowel-related issues more than controls or patients with inflammatory bowel disease. A total of 57 patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 57 patients with inflammatory bowel disease were compared with 60 healthy controls. All subjects completed a structured questionnaire concerning sleeping habits and dream characteristics as well as an assessment of anxiety and depression. There were no differences in the sleeping habits between any of the groups. However, significantly more patients with irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease dreamt about their bowels (22% inflammatory bowel disease patients, 18% irritable bowel syndrome patients vs 3% of controls, p disorders, of both a functional and organic nature, may influence the nature of dreams. In those patients who dream about their symptoms, it would be interesting to know whether this affects the course of their disease, either positively or negatively, in any way.

  9. Coping with Stress in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Its Relationship with Disease Activity, Psychological Disorders, and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Danesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are chronic diseases with significant impact on patients’ well-being. The aim of this study was the determination of stress coping strategies in IBD patients and their correlation with disease activity, psychological health, and quality of life (QOL. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on IBD patients referred to a gastroenterology clinic in Isfahan city (Iran. Disease activity, severity of anxiety and depression symptoms, stress coping strategies, and QOL were assessed using standard questionnaires. Coping strategies in IBD patients were compared to an unaffected control group. Results: 80 patients with mean age of 52.9 years (57.5% female and mean disease duration of 6.5 years were studied. Compared to the controls, IBD patients had higher scores in the maladaptive coping styles (evasive and palliative (P < 0.05. Association between coping strategies and disease activity was not significant. Severity of anxiety and depression was directly correlated with the maladaptive strategies (fatalistic and emotional (r = 0.283 to 0.468 and inversely correlated with the adaptive strategies (confrontive, optimistic, and self-reliant (r = -0.320 to -0.534. In addition, QOL was inversely correlated with the maladaptive strategies (fatalistic and emotional (r = -0.278 to -0.327 and directly correlated with the adaptive strategies (confrontive and optimistic (r = 0.262 to 0.355. Conclusion: Patients with IBD use more maladaptive and less adaptive stress coping strategies which are associated with their psychological health and QOL. Larger and prospective studies on the dynamic and interactive network of biopsychosocial factors in IBD patients are required.

  10. Antibiotics during childhood and inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Four epidemiological studies, including two large cohort studies in children aged 17 years or under, have studied the link between antibiotic therapy and inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of inflammatory bowel disease appeared to be twice as high in children exposed to an antibiotic as in unexposed children. The risk appeared higher following exposure during the first year of life, with beta-lactam antibiotics, and with repeated antibiotic courses. One postulated mechanism is through destruction of the anaerobic intestinal flora by antibiotics. In practice, these data provide yet another reason to avoid unnecessarily exposing children to antibiotics.

  11. Smell and taste in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Silke; Reindl, Wolfgang; Dempfle, Astrid; Schuster, Anna; Wolf, Petra; Hundt, Walter; Huber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the olfactory/gustatory functions of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by smell/taste tests, and to determine if disease activity or medication might influence the olfactory/gustatory functions of patients. In total, 59 IBD patients (37 Crohn's disease (CD) and 22 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients) were studied using "Sniffin' sticks" and "taste strips" for olfactory and gustatory tests, respectively, and compared to healthy controls and published normative data. Among IBD (CD and UC) patients, the values for odor threshold, but not for odor identification or discrimination, were significantly lower than that of the normative data. Further, these patients showed lower values than the normative taste values and the control group for all tastes, except sour; 57.6% of the IBD patients were hyposmic, while 30.5% were hypogeusic. Subjective self-assessments showed that the patients were not aware of their reduced olfactory/gustatory functions. There were no relevant differences in taste and smell abilities between the CD and UC patients. Disease activity and treatment did not influence the olfactory/gustatory functions. IBD (CD and UC) patients exhibited significant reductions in the olfactory and gustatory functions. Therefore, patients should be tested by smell/taste tests, in order to be adequately informed of their olfactory/gustatory functions and provided an understanding of how to overcome their limitations, and thus improve their quality of life.

  12. The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Munkholm, Pia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic relapsing disorders of unknown aetiology. The aim of this review is to present the latest epidemiology data on occurrence, disease course, risk for surgery, as well as mortality...... and cancer risks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gold standard epidemiology data on the disease course and prognosis of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are based on unselected population-based cohort studies. RESULTS: The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) has increased...... IBD patients. CONCLUSION: In recent years, self-management and patient empowerment, combined with evolving eHealth solutions, has utilized epidemiological knowledge on disease patterns and has been improving compliance and the timing of adjusting therapies, thus optimizing efficacy by individualizing...

  13. Familial occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orholm, M; Munkholm, P; Langholz, E

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We assessed the familial occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease in Copenhagen County, where there has been a long-term interest in the epidemiology of such disorders. In 1987 we interviewed 662 patients in whom inflammatory bowel disease had been diagnosed before 1979......, asking whether their first- and second-degree relatives had this disorder. Ninety-six percent of the patients (504 with ulcerative colitis and 133 with Crohn's disease) provided adequate information. RESULTS: As compared with the general population, the first-degree relatives of the 637 patients...... with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease had a 10-fold increase in the risk of having the same disease as the patients, after standardization for age and sex. The risk of having the other of the two diseases was also increased, but less so, and the increase in the risk of having Crohn's disease...

  14. Nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2013-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which are both inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Both types of inflammatory bowel disease have a complex etiology, resulting from a genetically determined susceptibility interacting with environmental factors, including the diet and gut microbiota. Genome Wide Association Studies have implicated more than 160 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in disease susceptibility. Consideration of the different pathways suggested to be involved implies that specific dietary interventions are likely to be appropriate, dependent upon the nature of the genes involved. Epigenetics and the gut microbiota are also responsive to dietary interventions. Nutrigenetics may lead to personalized nutrition for disease prevention and treatment, while nutrigenomics may help to understand the nature of the disease and individual response to nutrients.

  15. Skin Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Huang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a disease that affects the intestinal tract via an inflammatory process. Patients who suffer from IBD often have diseases that affect multiple other organ systems as well. These are called extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs and can be just as, if not more, debilitating than the intestinal inflammation itself. The skin is one of the most commonly affected organ system in patients who suffer from IBD. The scientific literature suggests that a disturbance of the equilibrium between host defense and tolerance, and subsequent over-activity of certain immune pathways, are responsible for the cutaneous disorders seen so frequently in IBD patients. The purpose of this review article is to give an overview of the types of skin diseases that are typically seen with IBD and their respective pathogenesis, proposed mechanisms, and treatments. These cutaneous disorders can manifest as a metastatic lesion, reactive process to the intestinal inflammation, association by genetic linkage and autoimmune processes, complication of IBD itself, as side effects from IBD treatments, and from other mechanisms that will be discussed in this article. Ultimately, it is important for healthcare providers to understand that skin manifestations should always be checked and evaluated for in patients with IBD.

  16. Isotretinoin-induced inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passier, J L M; Srivastava, N; van Puijenbroek, E P

    Three case reports on inflammatory bowel disease associated with use of isotretinoin are described. All three patients were male adolescents, in good health when starting isotretinoin (for acne treatment for about six months). Several weeks after discontinuation of isotretinoin the patients

  17. Future directions in inflammatory bowel disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Haens, Geert R.; Sartor, R. Balfour; Silverberg, Mark S.; Petersson, Joel; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Clinical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), new treatment modalities and the potential impact of personalised medicine remain topics of intense interest as our understanding of the pathophysiology of IBD expands. Potential future strategies for IBD management are discussed, based on

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Ørskov; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Andersson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be complicated by primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We aimed to assess the characteristics of Danish PSC-IBD patients and to compare their prognosis with IBD patients without PSC. METHODS: A retrospective nationwide population...

  19. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammatory bowel diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C. P.; Mjösberg, J. M.; Bernink, J. H.; Spits, H.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by an aberrant immune response to environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. The exact contribution of the adaptive and innate immune system has not been elucidated. However, recent advances in treatments

  20. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: School Nurse Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitto, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Initial symptoms and diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually occur between 10 and 20 years of age, although younger cases are reported. The complicated nature of IBD diagnosis and treatment can interfere with physical and emotional development that normally occurs in school-age children and adolescents. The school nurse should be…

  1. Environmental factors in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tanja Stenbaek; Jess, Tine; Vind, Ida

    2011-01-01

    The role of environmental factors in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to assess a number of formerly suggested environmental factors in a case-control study of an unselected and recently diagnosed group of patients with IBD...

  2. Helping Patients Cope with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Recovery (mastectomy patients) and the Ostomy Association. They consist of people with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Members support one another by sharing...problems 10 unique to single people. Subjects such as dating, social relationships, sexuality , and career planning are discussed. The couples group

  3. PPAR-α Contributes to the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Verbascoside in a Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Esposito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous results suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α, an intracellular transcription factor activated by fatty acids, plays a role in control of inflammation. There is persuasive epidemiological and experimental evidence that dietary polyphenols have anti-inflammatory activity. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that verbascoside (VB functions as intracellular radical scavenger and reduces the microscopic and macroscopic signs of experimental colitis. With the aim to characterize the role of PPAR-α in VB-mediated anti-inflammatory activity, we tested the efficacy of VB in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease induced by dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, comparing mice lacking PPAR-α (PPAR-αKO with wild type (WT mice. Results indicate that VB-mediated anti-inflammatory activity is weakened in PPAR-αKO mice, compared to WT controls, especially in the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration, intestinal permeability and colon injury. These results indicate that PPAR-α can contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of VB in inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease imaging: Current practice and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Aoife; Kaplan, Jess L; Gee, Michael S

    2016-01-21

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of imaging in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including detection of extraluminal complications and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD, assessment of disease activity and treatment response, and discrimination of inflammatory from fibrotic strictures. IBD is a chronic idiopathic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract that is comprised of two separate, but related intestinal disorders; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The paper discusses, in detail the pros and cons of the different IBD imaging modalities that need to be considered in order to optimize the imaging and clinical evaluation of patients with IBD. Historically, IBD evaluation of the bowel has included imaging to assess the portions of the small bowel that are inaccessible to optical endoscopic visualization. This traditionally was performed using barium fluoroscopic techniques; however, cross-sectional imaging techniques (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are being increasingly utilized for IBD evaluation because they can simultaneously assess mural and extramural IBD manifestations. Recent advances in imaging technology, that continue to improve the ability of imaging to noninvasively follow disease activity and treatment response, are also discussed. This review article summarizes the current imaging approach in inflammatory bowel disease as well as the role of emerging imaging modalities.

  5. Outcomes of Bowel Resection in Patients with Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven D; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    There is limited data regarding outcomes of bowel resection in patients with Crohn's disease. We sought to investigate complications of such patients after bowel resection. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases were used to examine the clinical data of Crohn's patients who underwent bowel resection during 2002 to 2012. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate outcomes of such patients. We sampled a total of 443,950 patients admitted with the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Of these, 20.5 per cent had bowel resection. Among patients who had bowel resection, 51 per cent had small bowel Crohn's disease, 19.4 per cent had large bowel Crohn's disease, and 29.6 per cent had both large and small bowel Crohn's disease. Patients with large bowel disease had higher mortality risk compared with small bowel disease [1.8% vs 1%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.42, P Crohn's disease (AOR: 1.90, P Crohn's disease, 20.5 per cent underwent bowel resection during 2002 to 2012. Although colonic disease has a higher mortality risk, small bowel disease has a higher risk of postoperative fistula.

  6. Preventing disability in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patrick B; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Danese, Silvio; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    Disability is a common worldwide health challenge and it has been increasing over the past 3 decades. The treatment paradigm has changed dramatically in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) from control of symptoms towards full control of disease (clinical and endoscopic remission) with the goal of preventing organ damage and disability. These aims are broadly similar to rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Since the 1990s, our attention has focused on quality of life in IBD, which is a subjective measure. However, as an objective end-point in clinical trials and population studies, measures of disability in IBD have been proposed. Disability is defined as '…any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.' Recently, after 10 years of an international collaborative effort with the World Health Organization (WHO), a disability index was developed and validated. This index ideally would assist with the assessment of disease progression in IBD. In this review, we will provide the evidence to support the use of disability in IBD patients, including experience from rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. New treatment strategies, and validation studies that have underpinned the interest and quantification of disability in IBD, will be discussed.

  7. Association between psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Mallbris, L; Warren, R B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis, Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory disorders with overlapping genetic architecture. However, data on the frequency and risk of CD and UC in psoriasis are scarce and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between CD......-associated increased risk of CD and UC, which was higher in severe psoriasis, and an increased risk of psoriasis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Increased focus on gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with psoriasis may be warranted....

  8. Innovative therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesus K

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which clinically present as one of two disorders, Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Mainstays of drug treatments for IBD include aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants such as azathioprine, methotrexate and cyclosporin. Advances in basic research of the pathophysiological process in IBD have been applied to generate a variety of new therapeutics targeting at different le...

  9. Assessment of dynamic contrast enhancement of the small bowel in active Crohn's disease using 3D MR enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuesel, Patrick R.; Kubik, Rahel A.; Crook, David W. [Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, CH-5404 Baden (Switzerland); Eigenmann, Franz [Department of Internal Medicine, Kantonsspital Baden, CH-5404 Baden (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, CH-5404 Baden (Switzerland)], E-mail: froehlich@guerbet.ch

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the dynamic contrast enhancement of the small bowel segments with and without active Crohn's disease at 3D MR enterography (MRE). Materials and methods: Thirteen patients (five men, eight women; mean age 41.2 years; range 29-56) were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner (Sonata, Siemens Medical) with standard MR sequences after having ingested 1000 ml of a 3% mannitol solution. Subsequently, high resolution 3D gradient-echo (volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination = VIBE) data sets were obtained pre-contrast and 20-40 s, 60-80 s, and 120-140 s after i.v. Gd-DOTA administration (0.2 mmol/kg). Signal enhancement was measured on single slices both in normal and histologically confirmed (12/13) inflamed small bowel wall segments as well as in the aorta, the psoas muscle, and the background to calculate signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR). Results: Small bowel wall enhancement was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in inflamed compared to normal segments at 20-40 s (SNR inflamed: 58.7 {+-} 33.8 vs normal: 36.0 {+-} 19.8; p = 0.048; CNR inflamed: 34.8 {+-} 23.4 vs normal: 16.3 {+-} 11.2; p = 0.017) and at 60-80 s (SNR: 60.3 {+-} 25.1 vs 41.9 {+-} 20.0; p = 0.049; CNR: 34.9 {+-} 15.1 vs 19.3 {+-} 13.2; p = 0.01) after i.v. contrast administration, respectively. Even at 120-140 s CNR was still increased in inflamed segments (33.7 {+-} 16.0 vs 18.1 {+-} 13.2; p = 0.04), while differences in SNR did not attain statistical significance (63.0 {+-} 26.2 vs 45.3 {+-} 23.3; p = 0.15). Conclusion: In active Crohn's disease, histologically confirmed inflamed small bowel wall segments demonstrate a significantly increased early uptake of gadolinium on 3D VIBE sequences compared to normal small bowel segments.

  10. Gender differences in inflammatory bowel disease: Explaining body image dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia; Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of body image problems in the context of inflammatory bowel disease and to explore gender differences in these associations. A sample of inflammatory bowel disease patients (60 males and 140 females) was collected. Findings from a multi-group analysis show that inflammatory bowel disease symptomatology may impact on body image in both male and female patients through the effect of body-image-related cognitive fusion. Body image difficulties in the context of inflammatory bowel disease should not be a neglected dimension in research aiming at understanding the psychosocial effects of inflammatory bowel disease and by health professionals working with these patients.

  11. Monitoring of small bowel Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, Uri; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Klang, Eyal; Carter, Dan; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Eliakim, Rami

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, the therapeutic paradigm in Crohn's disease has shifted from a mere symptom-oriented approach, to aiming to healing of the underlying inflammation and prevention of long-term structural complications. Such 'treat-to-target' approach may allow for a more stable disease course with less hospitalizations, lower requirement for surgery and improved quality of life. In Crohn's disease, the small bowel is affected in the majority of patients; frequently, Crohn's involves only the small bowel, which remains inaccessible to conventional ileocolonoscopic techniques. Thus, non-invasive monitoring techniques are crucial for accurate disease assessment. Areas covered: This review addresses the indications and clinical implications of non-invasive small bowel monitoring modalities (magnetic resonance enterography, intestinal ultrasound, capsule endoscopy) in the assessment and management of Crohn's disease. Expert commentary: This review addresses the limitations of the current knowledge and future areas of research, including the possible utilization of transmural healing as an imaging target and the need to establish clear quantitative target values to guide treatment by imaging findings in Crohn's disease.

  12. Ultrasonographic imaging of inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorean, Liliana; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Braden, Barbara; Cui, Xin-Wu; Buchhorn, Reiner; Chang, Jian-Min; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases in pediatric patients. Choosing the optimal imaging modality for the assessment of gastrointestinal disease in pediatric patients can be challenging. The invasiveness and patient acceptance, the radiation exposure and the quality performance of the diagnostic test need to be considered. By reviewing the literature regarding imaging in inflammatory bowel disease the value of ultrasound in the clinical management of pediatric patients is highlighted. Transabdominal ultrasound is a useful, noninvasive method for the initial diagnosis of IBD in children; it also provides guidance for therapeutic decisions and helps to characterize and predict the course of the disease in individual patients. Ultrasound techniques including color Doppler imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound are promising imaging tools to determine disease activity and complications. Comparative studies between different imaging methods are needed. PMID:25954096

  13. Matrix metalloproteases role in bowel inflammation and inflammatory bowel disease: an up to date review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼShea, Nuala R; Smith, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    There has been an explosion of literature in recent years highlighting the pivotal role of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) in the immune response. This review will focus on our current understanding of MMPs in the gastrointestinal tract and in particular the field of inflammatory bowel disease. MMPs are structurally similar proteins that classically degrade extracellular components. In the gastrointestinal tract, they are involved in the physical maintenance and turnover of the intestinal barrier, aid in leukocyte recruitment, regulate the activity of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. During inflammation, numerous MMPs are upregulated in the bowel and play a key role in the resolution of inflammation and wound healing during the normal immune response. In humans, an aberrant expression has been extensively documented in inflammatory bowel disease implicating them in tissue degradation, persistence of the inflammatory state and fibrosis. Animal studies in particular knockout mouse models have provided insight into the importance of individual MMPs in bowel homeostasis and inflammation. Endogenous inhibitors of MMPs such as tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and alpha-2 macroglobulin maintain the balance between extracellular matrix deposition and degradation. An imbalance between MMPs and their inhibitors through genetic variation, gene expression abnormalities, or environmental effects can directly impact on tissue homeostasis resulting in tissue damage and prolonged inflammation. In the future, targeting MMPs or their inhibitors could be a possible therapeutic option. The challenge will be achieving selectivity.

  14. Leukocyte migration in experimental inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Van Rees

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of leukocytes from the circulation into tissue by transendothelial migration, is mediated subsequently by adhesion molecules such as selectins, chemokines and integrins. This multistep paradigm, with multiple molecular choices at each step, provides a diversity in signals. The influx of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes into inflamed tissue is important in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The importance of each of these groups of adhesion molecules in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, either in human disease or in animal models, will be discussed below. Furthermore, the possibilities of blocking these different steps in the process of leukocyte extravasation in an attempt to prevent further tissue damage, will be taken into account.

  15. Intravenous iron in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; García-Erce, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of anemia across studies on patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is high (30%). Both iron deficiency (ID) and anemia of chronic disease contribute most to the development of anemia in IBD. The prevalence of ID is even higher (45%). Anemia and ID negatively impact the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, together with an adequate control of disease activity, iron replacement therapy should start as soon as anemia or ID is detected to attain a normal hemoglobin (Hb) and iron status. Many patients will respond to oral iron, but compliance may be poor, whereas intravenous (IV) compounds are safe, provide a faster Hb increase and iron store repletion, and presents a lower rate of treatment discontinuation. Absolute indications for IV iron treatment should include severe anemia, intolerance or inappropriate response to oral iron, severe intestinal disease activity, or use of an erythropoietic stimulating agent. Four different products are principally used in clinical practice, which differ in their pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles: iron gluconate and iron sucrose (lower single doses), and iron dextran and ferric carboxymaltose (higher single doses). After the initial resolution of anemia and the repletion of iron stores, the patient’s hematological and iron parameters should be carefully and periodically monitored, and maintenance iron treatment should be provided as required. New IV preparations that allow for giving 1000-1500 mg in a single session, thus facilitating patient management, provide an excellent tool to prevent or treat anemia and ID in this patient population, which in turn avoids allogeneic blood transfusion and improves their quality of life. PMID:19787830

  16. CT enteroclysis in small bowel Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, Marc D. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)], E-mail: dmaglint@iupui.edu

    2009-03-15

    The diagnostic evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease has changed dramatically over the last decade. The introduction of wireless capsule endoscopy, double balloon endoscopy and the introduction of newer therapeutic agents have changed the role of imaging in the small bowel. Additionally, advances in multidetector CT technology have further changed how radiologic investigations are utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel Crohn's disease. This article describes how we perform CT enteroclysis in the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease and discusses the role of CT enteroclysis in the current management of small bowel Crohn's disease.

  17. Neurological Manifestations In Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    youssef HNACH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this retrospective study was to report neurological manifestations noted in patients who were monitored for inflammatory bowel disease, in order to document the pathophysiological, clinical, progressive, and therapeutic characteristics of this entity.Material and methodsWe conducted a retrospective study on patients monitored -in the gastroenterology service in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat, Morocco- for inflammatory bowel disease from 1992 till 2013 and who developed neurological manifestations during its course. Patients with iatrogenic complications were excluded, as well as patients with cerebrovascular risk factors.ResultsThere were 6 patients, 4 of whom have developed peripheral manifestations. Electromyography enabled the diagnosis to be made and the outcome was favorable with disappearance of clinical manifestations and normalization of the electromyography.The other 2 patients, monitored for Crohn’s disease, developed ischemic stroke. Cerebral computed tomography angiography provided positive and topographic diagnosis. Two patients were admitted to specialized facilities.ConclusionNeurological manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease are rarely reported.  Peripheral neuropathies and stroke remain the most common manifestations. The mechanisms of these manifestations are not clearly defined yet. Currently, we hypothesize the interaction of immune mediators.

  18. Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck

    2012-01-01

    dioxide and aluminium silicate). Conclusions: A diet high in protein, particular animal protein, may be associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease and relapses. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may predispose to ulcerative colitis whilst n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid may protect...... on European cohorts, mainly including middle-aged adults, suggest that a diet high in protein from meat and fish is associated with a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid may confer risk of ulcerative colitis, whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty...... acids may be protective. No effect was found of intake of dietary fibres, sugar, macronutrients, total energy, vitamin C, D, E, Carotene, or Retinol (vitamin A) on risk of ulcerative colitis. No prospective data was found on risk related to intake of fruits, vegetables or food microparticles (titanium...

  19. Liver Disorders in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Uko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the hepatobiliary system are relatively common extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. These disorders are sometimes due to a shared pathogenesis with IBD as seen in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC and small-duct primary sclerosing cholangitis (small-duct PSC. There are also hepatobiliary manifestations such as cholelithiasis and portal vein thrombosis that occur due to the effects of chronic inflammation and the severity of bowel disease. Lastly, medications used in IBD such as sulfasalazine, thiopurines, and methotrexate can adversely affect the liver. It is important to be cognizant of these disorders as some do have serious long-term consequences. The management of these disorders often requires the expertise of multidisciplinary teams to achieve the best outcomes.

  20. Intestinal barrier integrity and inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Fredrik Eric Olof; Pedersen, Jannie; Jørgensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of normal barrier function is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, which includes increased epithelial cell death, modified mucus configuration, altered expression and distribution of tight junction-proteins, along with a decreased expression......, novel treatment strategies to accomplish mucosal healing and to re-establish normal barrier integrity in inflammatory bowel disease are warranted, and luminal stem cell-based approaches might have an intriguing potential. Transplantation of in vitro expanded intestinal epithelial stem cells derived...... either directly from mucosal biopsies or from directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells may constitute complementary treatment options for patients with mucosal damage, as intestinal epithelial stem cells are multipotent and may give rise to all epithelial cell types of the intestine...

  1. Vedolizumab in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledder, Oren; Assa, Amit; Levine, Arie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vedolizumab, an anti-integrin antibody, has proven to be effective in adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), but the data in pediatrics are limited. We describe the short-term effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab in a European multi-center pediatric IBD cohort. Method: Retro...... was safe and effective in this cohort of pediatric refractory IBD. These data support previous findings of slow induction rate of vedolizumab in CD and a trend to be less effective compared to patients with UC.......Background: Vedolizumab, an anti-integrin antibody, has proven to be effective in adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), but the data in pediatrics are limited. We describe the short-term effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab in a European multi-center pediatric IBD cohort. Method...

  2. Novel targeted therapies for inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Vermeire, Severine; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2017-01-01

    Our growing understanding of the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has opened new avenues for developing targeted therapies. These advances in treatment options targeting different mechanisms of action offer new hope for personalized management. In this review we highlight...... to intestinal sites of inflammation (e.g., sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators). We also provide an update on the current status in clinical development of these new classes of therapeutics....

  3. Inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Ocepek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in developed countries and Slovenia, and the incidence is still rising. Groups of people with higher risk for colorectal cancer are well defined. Among them are patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk is highest in patients in whom whole large bowel is affected by inflammation, it rises after 8 to 10 years and increases with the duration of the disease. Precancerous lesion is a displastic, chronically inflammed mucosa and not an adenoma as in cases of sporadic colorectal carcinoma.Conclusions: Many studies suggest that the influence of genetic factors differs between sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease related colorectal cancer. Symptomatic patients at the time of diagnosis have a much worse prognosis. The goal of prevention programes is therefore discovering early precancerous lesions. Established screening protocols are based on relatively frequent colonoscopies which are inconvinient for the patient as well as the endoscopist. Use of specific genetic markers, mutations of candidate genes, as a screening method and a prognostic predictor could greatly lighten therapeutic decisions.

  4. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it is thought to arise from an aberrant immune response to a change in colonic environment in a genetically susceptible individual. The intestinal microbiota are located at the complex interface of the epithelial barrier and are sensitive to changes in environmental factors, such as diets, drugs or smoking and signals derived from the intestinal immune system and the gut-brain axis. In patients with IBD, an imbalance in the structural and/or functional configuration of the intestinal microbiota leading to the disruption of the host-microorganism homeostasis (dysbiosis) has been reproducibly reported. As animal models of IBD require gut bacteria to induce inflammation, it is hypothesized that the dysbiosis observed in patients is not only a surrogate of changes at the intestinal barrier but also a potential cause or at least enhancer of the mucosal inflammatory process. That burgeoning notion has stimulated thoughts to modify the intestinal microbiota and rekindled interest in previous work on the efficacy of antibiotics in patients with IBD. The feasibility and tremendous success of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to treat antibiotic resistant Clostridium difficile has finally paved the way to embark into the unchartered territory of IBD using FMT. Different routes and number of administrations, choices of donors, disease status and permitted therapies might have contributed to mixed results, particularly from the so far published randomized controlled trials. However, microbiome analysis suggests that a durable transplantation of donor bacteria to the host appears feasible and might be associated with a higher likelihood of response. On the other hand, this raises the concern of transplanting not only anti-inflammatory active bacteria and their products, but also not-yet-known dispositions for other diseases including cancer. Attempts are being made to better characterize those components of

  5. Hyposplenism in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, F P; Smart, R C; Holdsworth, C D; Preston, F E

    1978-01-01

    Splenic function was assessed in 35 patients with ulcerative colitis and 20 patients with Crohn's disease. Hyposplenism was diagnosed if there were Howell-Jolly bodies in the peripheral blood film or if there was prolongation of clearance from the peripheral blood of injected 51-Cr-labelled heat-damaged red blood cells. Thirteen of the patients with ulcerative colitis had hyposplenism as compared with only one patient with Crohn's disease. Conversely, heat-damaged red cell clearance values faster than the normal range were found in six out of the 20 patients with Crohn's disease. Four patients with hyposplenism and ulcerative colitis developed life-threatening septicaemia in the early postcolectomy period, two of these being further complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation. Images Fig. 2 PMID:624506

  6. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease. We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index risk of nutrition-related problems (modified nutritional risk index nutritional status. Preliminary remnant small bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses. The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P nutritional risk were remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P risk factors affecting the poor nutritional status of patients with Crohn disease after small bowel resection. PMID:27472702

  7. Endoscopic evaluation of surgically altered bowel in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Preetika; Shen, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases often undergo surgical procedures for medically refractory disease or colitis associated dysplasia. Endoscopic evaluation of the surgically altered bowel is often needed to assess for disease recurrence, its severity, and for therapy. It is important to obtain and review the operative report and abdominal imaging before performing the endoscopy. Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can be safely performed in most patients with inflammatory bowel disease with altered bowel anatomy under conscious sedation without fluoroscopy. Carefully planned stricture therapy with balloon dilation or needle knife stricturotomy can be performed for simple, short, and fibrotic strictures. A multidisciplinary approach involving a team of endoscopist, endoscopy nurse, colorectal surgeon, gastrointestinal pathologist, and gastrointestinal radiologist is important for a safe and effective endoscopy. We attempt to review the aspects that need consideration before the endoscopy, the technique of endoscopy, and briefly the therapies that can be performed during endoscopy of the bowel through an ileostomy, a colostomy, in the diverted large bowel or ileal pouch, and small bowel after stricturoplasty and bowel bypass surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

  8. Pregnancy and inflammatory bowel disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    The FDA stratifies drug safety in pregnancy into 5 categories. (see Table 1).15. Aminosalicylates are our mainstay of therapy for colonic disease. Generally these drugs are safe in pregnancy and have an FDA category B rating.15 A wealth of retrospective data has not shown any significant association of these drugs with.

  9. Low-FODMAP diet reduces irritable bowel symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natalia; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a low-FODMAP diet on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This was a randomised controlled open-label trial of patients with IBD in remission or with mild-to-moderate disease and coexisting IBS...

  10. [Fibrogenesis and inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Miquel; Masamunt, M Carmen

    2007-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with Crohn's disease develops intestinal stenosis due to anomalous fiber deposits. These patients frequently require resection of the affected segment. Despite its evident clinical significance, intestinal fibrogenesis has received little attention in comparison with research into hepatic, pulmonary, renal or cutaneous fibrosis. There seems to be a certain genetic predisposition to developing intestinal fibrosis. A meta-analysis has demonstrated that the three main variants of the NOD2/CARD15 gene are associated with this complication. In Crohn's disease, a series of alterations in collagen synthesis, expression of various pro- and anti-fibrogenic factors and intestinal fibroblast function have been described in the last few years. More recently, the development of intestinal fibrosis has been attenuated in several experimental models. Nevertheless, further studies are required to improve our understanding of intestinal fibrogenesis and to develop effective strategies for its prevention and treatment.

  11. ANTI-CYTOKINE THERAPY FOR CHILDREN WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Potapov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the findings of a pilot research devoted to the estimation of the efficiency of a therapy with TNF α inhibitors for children with inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: we carried out the retrospective analysis for a therapy with Infliximab in 15 children with a nonspecific ulcerative colitis and Сrohn's disease. Results: 66% of the children with inflammatory bowel diseases react to the first injection of Infliximab, whereas 13% of the children demonstrate a clinical remission of their diseases. After the third injection, a positive response to the used therapy is shown by 60% of the children with inflammatory bowel diseases, and 33% of the children are diagnosed with a clinical remission. Conclusion: The use of Infliximab allowed the children with a refractory course of nonspecific ulcerative colitis and Сrohn's disease to make their inflammation significantly less active and improve the quality of their life.Key words: nonspecific ulcerative colitis, Сrohn's disease, treatment, TNF α inhibitors, children

  12. The Changing Phenotype of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carthage Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that there have been improvements in patient care and an increased incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD worldwide in recent decades. However, less well known are the phenotypic changes that have occurred; these are discussed in this review. Namely, we discuss the emergence of obesity in patients with IBD, elderly onset disease, mortality rates, colorectal cancer risk, the burden of medications and comorbidities, and the improvement in surgical treatment with a decrease in surgical rates in recent decades.

  13. The Changing Phenotype of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Donal; Shanahan, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    It is widely known that there have been improvements in patient care and an increased incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) worldwide in recent decades. However, less well known are the phenotypic changes that have occurred; these are discussed in this review. Namely, we discuss the emergence of obesity in patients with IBD, elderly onset disease, mortality rates, colorectal cancer risk, the burden of medications and comorbidities, and the improvement in surgical treatment with a decrease in surgical rates in recent decades. PMID:28050166

  14. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C P; Mjösberg, J M; Bernink, J H; Spits, H

    2016-04-01

    It is generally believed that inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by an aberrant immune response to environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. The exact contribution of the adaptive and innate immune system has not been elucidated. However, recent advances in treatments targeting key inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor highlight the crucial role of the innate immune system in IBD. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have recently been identified to play an important role in immune mediated inflammatory diseases. In this review we recapitulate the current knowledge on ILCs in IBD. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cervical Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rungoe, Christine; Simonsen, Jacob; Riis, Lene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We examined the risk of cervical neoplasia (dysplasia or cancer) in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). We also calculated the reverse, the risk for diagnosis with cervical neoplasia before development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We...... with IBD were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) of cervical neoplasia before diagnosis of IBD were calculated by using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Women with CD underwent cervical cancer screening as often as women in the general population (IRR, 0...

  16. Microbiome, Metabolome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD is a multifactorial disorder that conceptually occurs as a result of altered immune responses to commensal and/or pathogenic gut microbes in individuals most susceptible to the disease. During Crohn’s Disease (CD or Ulcerative Colitis (UC, two components of the human IBD, distinct stages define the disease onset, severity, progression and remission. Epigenetic, environmental (microbiome, metabolome and nutritional factors are important in IBD pathogenesis. While the dysbiotic microbiota has been proposed to play a role in disease pathogenesis, the data on IBD and diet are still less convincing. Nonetheless, studies are ongoing to examine the effect of pre/probiotics and/or FODMAP reduced diets on both the gut microbiome and its metabolome in an effort to define the healthy diet in patients with IBD. Knowledge of a unique metabolomic fingerprint in IBD could be useful for diagnosis, treatment and detection of disease pathogenesis.

  17. Indications for Mode of Delivery in Pregnant Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kristin E; Haviland, Miriam J; Hacker, Michele R; Shainker, Scott A; Cheifetz, Adam S

    2017-05-01

    Reasons for the increased incidence of cesarean delivery among women with inflammatory bowel disease remain unclear. We assessed cesarean delivery incidence and factors influencing mode of delivery in women with inflammatory bowel disease. We performed a 10-year retrospective cohort study of nulliparous women who delivered a singleton infant at our institution. We compared the risk of each mode of delivery in women with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis with women without inflammatory bowel disease. We assessed mode of delivery indications for patients with inflammatory bowel disease and whether cesarean deliveries were planned. The overall incidence of cesarean delivery among women with Crohn's disease (24/59; 40.7%) was similar to that among women without inflammatory bowel disease (7868/21,805; 36.1%) (risk ratio 1.1 [95% confidence interval, 0.83, 1.5]; P = 0.46), but was increased in the subgroups with active and inactive perianal disease (risk ratio 2.3; P disease cesarean deliveries were unplanned, with only 1 unplanned delivery performed for active inflammatory bowel disease. Most unplanned deliveries were for arrest of descent/dilation and nonreassuring fetal heart tracings. Seventy-five percent of planned cesarean deliveries were for inflammatory bowel disease-related indications. Women with ulcerative colitis and perianal Crohn's disease have an increased incidence of cesarean delivery. At least half of cesarean deliveries are unplanned.

  18. Correlation between extraintestinal manifestations and clinical parameters with the histologic activity index in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štulić Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract. The aim of this study was to determine a possible correlation between the clinical parameters of the disease activity degree and the presence of extraintestinal manifestations with disease activity histopathological degree, in patients presented with CD and UC. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 patients (67 with CD and UC, respectively treated at the Clinic of Gastroenterology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade. After clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, histopathologic and radiologic diagnostics, the patients were divided into two groups according to their histopathological activity. The group I comprised 79 patients whose values of five-grade histopathological activity were less than 5 (45 with CD and 34 with UC, while the group II consisted of 55 patients with the values higher than 5 (22 with CD and 33 with UC. The CD activity index (CDAI and Truelove and Witts' scale of UC were used for clinical evaluation of the disease activity. Results. CD extraintestinal manifestations were present in 28.9% and 63.6% of the patients in the groups I and II, respectively (p 0.05. Conclusion. In the patients presented with CD, the extraintestinal manifestations with higher CDAI suggested a higher degree of histopathological activity. On the contrary, in the UC patients, Truelove and Witts' scale and extraintestinal manifestations were not valid predictors of the disease histopathological activity.

  19. THE ROLE OF A COLONOSCOPY IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)

    OpenAIRE

    Davorin Dajčman

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal endoscopy provides details of the surface of the gastrointestinal tract, whichhas made it possible to examine it. Despite significant advances in our understanding andtreatment of inflammatory bowel disease, the role of gastrointestinal endoscopy in diagnosis, surveillance and therapy of inflammatory bowel disease patients is still controversal.Of course, endoscopy plays a key role in the management of inflammatory bowel disease.Indication for endoscopy in patie...

  20. Pathophysiology of acute small bowel disease with CT correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwani, N., E-mail: nsarwani@hmc.psu.ed [Department of Radiology, Section of Abdominal Imaging, Penn State Milton Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (United States); Tappouni, R.; Tice, J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Abdominal Imaging, Penn State Milton Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiology of acute small bowel diseases, and to correlate the mechanisms of disease with computed tomography (CT) findings. Disease entities will be classified into the following: immune mediated and infectious causes, vascular causes, mechanical causes, trauma, and others. Having an understanding of acute small bowel pathophysiology is a useful teaching tool, and can lead to imaging clues to the most likely diagnosis of acute small bowel disorders.

  1. Expression of CCL20 and Its Corresponding Receptor CCR6 Is Enhanced in Active Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and TLR3 Mediates CCL20 Expression in Colonic Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kolstad Skovdahl

    Full Text Available The chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 are putative drug targets in inflammatory bowel disease, and CCL20 is a novel IBD predilection gene. Previous findings on the CCL20 response in these diseases are divergent. This study was undertaken to examine CCL20 and CCR6 during active and inactive disease, and mechanisms for CCL20 regulation by the innate immune system. As TLR3 has recently emerged as a possible mediator of CCL20 production, we hypothesised that this TLR plays an important role in enterocytic CCL20 production.A large microarray study on colonic pinch biopsies from active and inactive ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease provided background information. CCL20 and CCR6 were localized and their expression levels assessed in biopsies using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Regulation of CCL20 was studied in the HT29 cell line using a panel of pattern recognition receptor ligands followed by a TLR3 siRNA assay.CCL20 and CCR6 mRNA abundances were increased during active inflammation (CCL20 5.4-fold in ulcerative colitis and 4.2-fold in Crohn's disease; CCR6 1.8 and 2.0, respectively. CCL20 and CCR6 mRNA positive immune cells in lamina propria were more numerous, and CCL20 immunoreactivity increased massively in the epithelial cells during active inflammation for both diseases. TLR3 stimulation potently induced upregulation and release of CCL20 from HT29 cells, and TLR3 silencing reduced CCL20 mRNA and protein levels.The CCL20-CCR6 axis is involved during active inflammation in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The epithelial cells seem particularly involved in the CCL20 response, and results from this study strongly suggest that the innate immune system is important for activation of the epithelium, especially through TLR3.

  2. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and disease distribution in inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, Aoibhlinn

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between site of intestinal inflammation and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) development in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been studied extensively, but may be important in understanding the pathogenesis of PSC. We aimed to determine patterns of disease distribution in IBD patients with and without PSC.

  3. TGF-β1 and granulocyte elastase in the evaluation of activity of inflammatory bowel disease. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim was to assess the usefulness of TGF-β1 and elastase in the evaluation of activity of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD.Material and Methods: 32 patients diagnosed with UC, 31 with CD and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of the disease was confirmed by videocolonoscopy and histopathological evaluation of intestinal biopsies. Disease activity was assessed by use of the Mayo Scoring System for Assessment of Ulcerative Colitis Activity in UC patients and by CDAI in CD patients. hsCRP was determined by the immunonephelometric method, TGF-β1 and elastase plasma concentration by ELISA. The results of the study were analyzed using Statistica and R statistical language.Results: In UC a positive correlation between disease activity and platelet level, hsCRP and TGF-β1 concentration was noted. Elastase concentration in UC patients was significantly higher than in CD, but there was no correlation with the activity of the disease. In CD patients we observed a positive correlation between disease activity and leukocytes, platelet levels and elastase concentration, and a very low correlation with hsCRP and TGF-β1.Discussion: Determination of TGF-β1 can be used for evaluation of inflammatory activity in UC and it is connected with elevated concentrations of CRP and platelets. To a lower extent TGF-β1 can also be used for evaluation of inflammatory activity in CD. Examination of elastase concentration may be useful in the assessment of CD activity. Plasma elastase concentration may be helpful in UC and CD differentiation. The preliminary results of this investigation seem promising; nevertheless, more studies are necessary.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Noor; Direkze, Natalie; Leedham, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); Crohn's and Ulcerative colitis, result from an altered host response to intestinal flora. Recurrent inflammation with ulceration and tissue restitution confers an increased risk of cancer in both UC and Crohns, and genome wide searches have identified a number of disease susceptibility alleles. The carcinogenesis pathway in colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CACRC) is less clearly understood than it's sporadic counterpart. Clonal ordering experiments have indicated the order and timing of chromosomal instability and common genetic mutations. Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modification are thought to play an increasingly important role in inflammation induced carcinogenesis. Clonal expansion of procarcinogenic mutations can lead to large fields of mutant tissue from which colitis associated cancers can arise (field cancerisation). Endoscopic screening is the mainstay of surveillance in high-risk patients although the development of appropriate, clinically applicable biomarkers remains a research priority. Despite the expanding field of biological therapy in inflammatory bowel disease the ASA compounds remain the best-studied and most efficacious chemopreventive agents. Colitis associated CRC appears to have a different aetiology, carcinogenesis pathway and clinical course to its sporadic counterpart. Further research including long-term follow up of patient cohorts taking biological therapies will improve the detection and treatment of these important, inflammation-induced malignancies.

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease and novel endoscopic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Makoto; Hosoe, Naoki; Ogata, Haruhiko

    2014-01-01

    Conventional ileocolonoscopy and barium small bowel follow-through are useful techniques for assessing the extension and severity of disease in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). More recently, novel techniques to enable IBD diagnosis have been developed, such as capsule endoscopy (CE), balloon enteroscopy (BE), computed tomography enterography (CTE) and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE). The advantages of CE and BE are that they enable mucosal assessment directly whereas the usefulness of CTE/MRE is in its ability to enable detection of transmural inflammation, stenosis, and extraintestinal lesions including abscesses and fistulas. In ulcerative colitis (UC), colitis-associated dysplasia/cancer is one of the critical complications in patients with chronic disease. Detection of colitis-associated cancer is difficult in cases with inflammation. Magnification colonoscopy has been used to detect dysplasia in patients with chronic UC. Furthermore, colon CE and endocytoscopy have also developed and these might be used for selected patients in the near future. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  6. Biological therapies for inflammatory bowel disease: controversies and future options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Alfredo; Mocci, Giammarco; Bonizzi, Michele; Felice, Carla; Andrisani, Gianluca; Papa, Gianfranco; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Over the last few years, advances in understanding the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, together with progress in biotechnology, have led to the availability of several biological drugs that have dramatically changed the therapeutic approach to these disorders. Indeed, several molecules targeting crucial inflammatory cytokines, blocking T-cell activation/proliferation or the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the inflamed bowel, have been discovered and commercialized. However, the increasing use of biological agents has raised some concerns regarding their short- and long-term safety. This review offers a critical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of biological agents in the management of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition, promising therapeutic options are discussed.

  7. Proper Use of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Drugs during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis, S L; van der Woude, C J

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic, relapsing conditions. Patients are often diagnosed at a reproductive age, and therefore questions about fertility and reproductions often arise. Preconceptional counseling is the most important aspect in the management of IBD patients with a pregnancy wish. Patients should be counseled on the influence of IBD and IBD drugs on pregnancy. Most drugs are not related to adverse outcome while used during pregnancy. Active disease is related to adverse outcomes; therefore, it is of utmost importance to strive for remission before conception and during pregnancy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Solar radiation is inversely associated with inflammatory bowel disease admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Francisca; Riutort, Maria C; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Hoyos-Bachiloglu, Rodrigo; Camargo, Carlos A; Borzutzky, Arturo

    To explore the associations between latitude and solar radiation with inflammatory bowel disease admission rates in Chile, the country with the largest variation in solar radiation in the world. This is an ecological study, which included data on all hospital-admitted population for inflammatory bowel disease between 2001 and 2012, according to different latitudes and solar radiation exposures in Chile. The data were acquired from the national hospital discharge database from the Department of Health Statistics and Information of the Chilean Ministry of Health. Between 2001 and 2012 there were 12,869 admissions due to inflammatory bowel disease (69% ulcerative colitis, 31% Crohn's disease). Median age was 36 years (IQR: 25-51); 57% were female. The national inflammatory bowel disease admission rate was 6.52 (95% CI: 6.40-6.63) per 100,000 inhabitants with increasing rates over the 12-year period. In terms of latitude, the highest admission rates for pediatric ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, as well as adult ulcerative colitis, were observed in the southernmost region with lowest annual solar radiation. Linear regression analysis showed that regional solar radiation was inversely associated with inflammatory bowel disease admissions in Chile (β: -.44, p = .03). Regional solar radiation was inversely associated with inflammatory bowel disease admission rates in Chile; inflammatory bowel disease admissions were highest in the southernmost region with lowest solar radiation. Our results support the potential role of vitamin D deficiency on inflammatory bowel disease flares.

  9. Intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Lena; Nuding, Sabine; Wehkamp, Jan; Stange, Eduard F

    2014-02-07

    A complex mucosal barrier protects as the first line of defense the surface of the healthy intestinal tract from adhesion and invasion by luminal microorganisms. In this review, we provide an overview about the major components of this protective system as for example an intact epithelium, the synthesis of various antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and the formation of the mucus layer. We highlight the crucial importance of their correct functioning for the maintenance of a proper intestinal function and the prevention of dysbiosis and disease. Barrier disturbances including a defective production of AMPs, alterations in thickness or composition of the intestinal mucus layer, alterations of pattern-recognition receptors, defects in the process of autophagy as well as unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress result in an inadequate host protection and are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  10. Pregnancy and breastfeeding in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Luc; Rogler, Gerhard; Vavricka, Stephan R; Seibold, Frank; Seirafi, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is frequent in women during their peak reproductive years. Accordingly, a significant number of questions and uncertainties arise from this population regarding the risk of transmission of IBD to the offspring, the impact of the disease and therapies on the fertility, the role of the disease on the course of the pregnancy and the mode of delivery, the impact of the therapy on the pregnancy and fetal development as well as breastfeeding. The safety of medical therapy during pregnancy and lactation is a major concern for both pregnant women and their partners as well as for physicians. As a general rule, it can be stated that the benefit of continuing medical therapy in IBD during pregnancy outweighs the potential risks in the vast majority of instances. This article will review recent developments on this topic consistent with the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization guidelines. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Immunological Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca A. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are chronic ailments, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis being the most important. These diseases present an inflammatory profile and they differ according to pathophysiology, the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract, and the depth of the inflammation in the intestinal wall. The immune characteristics of IBD arise from abnormal responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. The number of Th17 cells increases in the peripheral blood of IBD patients, while Treg cells decrease, suggesting that the Th17/Treg proportion plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. The purpose of this review was to determine the current state of knowledge on the immunological basis of IBD. Many studies have shown the need for further explanation of the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process.

  12. Cytokines and inflammatory bowel disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClane, S J; Rombeau, J L

    1999-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains an area under intense investigation. Cytokine secretion, which is important in the regulation of normal gastrointestinal immune responses, appears to be dysregulated in IBD. In Crohn's disease, there appears to be an excessive T(H)1 T-cell response to an antigenic stimulus, leading to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In ulcerative colitis, a T(H)2 T-cell response appears to be the pathological process responsible for the inflammatory disease. New and innovative therapeutic strategies targeting cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, are producing some promising results in animal and human studies. As more is learned about the complex cytokine interactions in IBD, more effective treatments will undoubtedly ensue.

  13. The microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease: current and therapeutic insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane ER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Erin R Lane,1 Timothy L Zisman,2 David L Suskind1 1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Seattle Children’s Hospital, 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease is a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders that result from the interaction of the intestinal immune system with the gut microbiome. Until recently, most investigative efforts and therapeutic breakthroughs were centered on understanding and manipulating the altered mucosal immune response that characterizes these diseases. However, more recent studies have highlighted the important role of environmental factors, and in particular the microbiota, in disease onset and disease exacerbation. Advances in genomic sequencing technology and bioinformatics have facilitated an explosion of investigative inquiries into the composition and function of the intestinal microbiome in health and disease and have advanced our understanding of the interplay between the gut microbiota and the host immune system. The gut microbiome is dynamic and changes with age and in response to diet, antibiotics and other environmental factors, and these alterations in the microbiome contribute to disease onset and exacerbation. Strategies to manipulate the microbiome through diet, probiotics, antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation may potentially be used therapeutically to influence modulate disease activity. This review will characterize the factors involved in the development of the intestinal microbiome and will describe the typical alterations in the microbiota that are characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, this manuscript will summarize the early but promising literature on the role of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease with implications for utilizing this data for diagnostic or therapeutic application in the clinical management of patients with these diseases. Keywords

  14. Correlations between Psoriasis and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Skroza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time the relationship between inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs and psoriasis has been investigated by epidemiological studies. It is only starting from the 1990s that genetic and immunological aspects have been focused on. Psoriasis and IBD are strictly related inflammatory diseases. Skin and bowel represent, at the same time, barrier and connection between the inner and the outer sides of the body. The most important genetic correlations involve the chromosomal loci 6p22, 16q, 1p31, and 5q33 which map several genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity. The genetic background represents the substrate to the common immune processes involved in psoriasis and IBD. In the past, psoriasis and IBD were considered Th1-related disorders. Nowadays the role of new T cells populations has been highlighted. A key role is played by Th17 and T-regs cells as by the balance between these two cells types. New cytokines and T cells populations, as IL-17A, IL-22, and Th22 cells, could play an important pathogenetic role in psoriasis and IBD. The therapeutic overlaps further support the hypothesis of a common pathogenesis.

  15. Surgical treatment of complex small bowel Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelassi, Fabrizio; Sultan, Samuel

    2014-08-01

    The clinical presentations of Crohn disease of the small bowel vary from low to high complexity. Understanding the complexity of Crohn disease of the small bowel is important for the surgeon and the gastroenterologist caring for the patient and may be relevant for clinical research as a way to compare outcomes. Here, we present a categorization of complex small bowel Crohn disease and review its surgical treatment as a potential initial step toward the establishment of a definition of complex disease. The complexity of small bowel Crohn disease can be sorted into several categories: technical challenges, namely, fistulae, abscesses, bowel or ureteral obstruction, hemorrhage, cancer and thickened mesentery; extensive disease; the presence of short gut; a history of prolonged use of medications, particularly steroids, immunomodulators, and biological agents; and a high risk of recurrence. Although the principles of modern surgical treatment of Crohn disease have evolved to bowel conservation such as strictureplasty techniques and limited resection margins, such practices by themselves are often not sufficient for the management of complex small bowel Crohn disease. This manuscript reviews each category of complex small bowel Crohn disease, with special emphasis on appropriate surgical strategy.

  16. Vitamin D, immune regulation, the microbiota, and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantorna, Margherita T; McDaniel, Kaitlin; Bora, Stephanie; Chen, Jing; James, Jamaal

    2014-11-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases are complex diseases caused by environmental, immunological, and genetic factors. Vitamin D status is low in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, and experimental inflammatory bowel diseases are more severe in vitamin D-deficient or vitamin D receptor knockout animals. Vitamin D is beneficial in inflammatory bowel diseases because it regulates multiple checkpoints and processes essential for homeostasis in the gut. Vitamin D inhibits IFN-γ and IL-17 production while inducing regulatory T cells. In addition, vitamin D regulates epithelial cell integrity, innate immune responses, and the composition of the gut microbiota. Overall, vitamin D regulates multiple pathways that maintain gastrointestinal homeostasis. The data support improving vitamin D status in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  17. Potential Human Models of Infammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Hanauer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to animal models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there is no single human model representative of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. An optimal human model awaits etiopathogenetic definitions and further reclassification or depiction of clinicopathological scenarios. Current human models can be classified into models depicting risk of disease; preclinical disease; acute inflammation; and miscellaneous IBD. Family studies are the best means of pursuing patients at risk. Evolving genetic and serological markers may further identify subgroups to assess with permeability probes, leukocyte scans or endoscopy for preclinical disease. Provocation with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may be useful in selected patients because NSAID mucosal damage may induce or mimic IBD. Alternative natural history or interventional studies in patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA-B27 spondylarthropathy may be useful. The disease margin and pouchitis are models within the disease state of ulcerative colitis as are the aphthous ulcer, anastomotic margin and diverted fecal stream for Crohn's disease. Newly defined colitides, such as microscopic and collagenous colitis and diversion colitis, also provide potential comparative models to evaluate mucosal immune, inflammatory, reparative, secretory and absorptive regulation.

  18. Impact of restless legs syndrome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease on sleep, fatigue, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindlbeck, Katharina A; Becker, Janek; Berger, Felix; Mehl, Arne; Rewitzer, Charlotte; Geffe, Sarah; Koch, Peter M; Preiß, Jan C; Siegmund, Britta; Maul, Jochen; Marzinzik, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with neurological symptoms including restless legs syndrome. Here, we investigated the impact of restless legs syndrome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease on sleep, fatigue, mood, cognition, and quality of life. Two groups of inflammatory bowel disease patients, with and without restless legs syndrome, were prospectively evaluated for sleep disorders, fatigue, daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Furthermore, global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and concentration were assessed in both groups. Disease activity and duration of inflammatory bowel disease as well as current medication were assessed by interview. Inflammatory bowel disease patients with and without restless legs syndrome were matched for age, education, severity, and duration of their inflammatory bowel disease. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease and clinically relevant restless leg syndrome suffered significantly more frequent from sleep disturbances including sleep latency and duration, more fatigue, and worse health-related quality of life as compared to inflammatory bowel disease patients without restless legs syndrome. Affect and cognitive function including cognitive flexibility, attention, and concentration showed no significant differences among groups, indicating to be not related to restless legs syndrome. Sleep disorders including longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, and fatigue are characteristic symptoms of restless legs syndrome in inflammatory bowel disease patients, resulting in worse health-related quality of life. Therefore, clinicians treating patients with inflammatory bowel disease should be alert for restless legs syndrome.

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis: where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is presently one of the most investigated human disorders. Expansion of knowledge of its pathophysiology has helped in developing novel medications to combat gut inflammation with a considerably degree of success. Despite this progress, much more remains to be done in regard to gaining a more profound understanding of IBD pathogenesis, detecting inflammation before it clinically manifests, implementing lifestyle modifications, and developing agents that can modify the natural course of the disease. One of the limitations to achieve these goals is the lack of integration of the major components of IBD pathogenesis, that is the exposome, the genome, the gut microbiome, and the immunome. An "IBD integrome" approach that takes advantage of all functional information derived from the detailed investigation of each single pathogenic component through the use of systems biology may offer the solution to understand IBD and cure it. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Environment and the inflammatory bowel diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolkis, Alexandra; Dieleman, Levinus A; Barkema, Herman W; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Fedorak, Richard N; Madsen, Karen; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which consists of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gas-trointestinal tract. In genetically susceptible individuals, the interaction between environmental factors and normal intestinal commensal flora is believed to lead to an inappropriate immune response that results in chronic inflammation. The incidence of IBD have increased in the past century in developed and developing countries. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge of the association between environmental risk factors and IBD. A number of environmental risk factors were investigated including smoking, hygiene, microorganisms, oral contraceptives, antibiotics, diet, breast-feeding, geographical factors, pollution and stress. Inconsistent findings among the studies highlight the complex pathogenesis of IBD. Additional studies are necessary to identify and elucidate the role of environmental factors in IBD etiology. PMID:23516681

  1. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodecky, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  2. Environment and the inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolkis, Alexandra; Dieleman, Levinus A; Barkema, Herman W; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Fedorak, Richard N; Madsen, Karen; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2013-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which consists of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. In genetically susceptible individuals, the interaction between environmental factors and normal intestinal commensal flora is believed to lead to an inappropriate immune response that results in chronic inflammation. The incidence of IBD have increased in the past century in developed and developing countries. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge of the association between environmental risk factors and IBD. A number of environmental risk factors were investigated including smoking, hygiene, microorganisms, oral contraceptives, antibiotics, diet, breastfeeding, geographical factors, pollution and stress. Inconsistent findings among the studies highlight the complex pathogenesis of IBD. Additional studies are necessary to identify and elucidate the role of environmental factors in IBD etiology.

  3. Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping Reveals Differences in the Metabolic Status of Healthy and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD Children in Relation to Growth and Disease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth failure and delayed puberty are well known features of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, in addition to the chronic course of the disease. Urinary metabonomics was applied in order to better understand metabolic changes between healthy and IBD children. Methods: 21 Pediatric patients with IBD (mean age 14.8 years, 8 males were enrolled from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic over two years. Clinical and biological data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. 27 healthy children (mean age 12.9 years, 16 males were assessed at baseline. Urine samples were collected at each visit and subjected to 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Results: Using 1H NMR metabonomics, we determined that urine metabolic profiles of IBD children differ significantly from healthy controls. Metabolic differences include central energy metabolism, amino acid, and gut microbial metabolic pathways. The analysis described that combined urinary urea and phenylacetylglutamine—two readouts of nitrogen metabolism—may be relevant to monitor metabolic status in the course of disease. Conclusion: Non-invasive sampling of urine followed by metabonomic profiling can elucidate and monitor the metabolic status of children in relation to disease status. Further developments of omic-approaches in pediatric research might deliver novel nutritional and metabolic hypotheses.

  4. Nutritional support of surgical patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, I Janelle; Rombeau, John L

    2011-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in need of surgery are often malnourished, which in turn increases the risk for postoperative complications. Malnutrition in IBD patients who must undergo surgery is due to the disordered activity of the diseased intestine, decreased dietary intake, and adverse effects of potent medications. IBD operations predispose patients to both macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies. If the gut can be used safely it is the preferential route for feeding, though preoperative and postoperative parenteral nutrition remains a viable alternative for severely malnourished patients. New nutrient therapies include immunonutrition, fish oils, and probiotics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Practical Non-Extraction Direct Liquid Chromatography Method for Determination of Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Bahrehmand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thiopurine drugs remain pivotal therapies for the wide varieties of diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Here, thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT phenotype, the main metabolizing enzyme of thiopurine-drugs, was studied. This is for the first time that TPMT activity is measured in Iranian IBD patients. We used an improved direct liquid chromatography assay without need for solvent extraction and minimize excess labor handling making it ideal for use in routine referral medical centers. TPMT activity in whole blood was determined by a non-extraction HPLC method. We evaluated 427 individuals including 215 IBD patients and 212 unrelated healthy individuals as control group from Iran’s western population. TPMT phenotyping of this study demonstrated no frequency for deficient, 2.8 % for low and 97.2% for normal activity, which is different with results of other studies. There was a significant negative correlation between TPMT activities as calculated based on nmol/grHb/h and the Hb-levels in IBD and control groups (r= -0.54, P<0.001 and r= -0.27, P<0.001, respectively. Interestingly a significant positive correlation between Hb levels and TPMT-activities were seen when the activity calculated in mU/L in IBD patients and control subjects (r=0.14, P=0.05 and r=0.43, P<0.001, respectively. We strongly suggest the use of international unit (mU/L is more appropriate than nmol6MTG/grHb/h for expressing TPMT-activity in IBD patients. In addition, in comparison with other providers of TPMT test activity and centers around the world the risk of toxicity is much lower after utilizing thiopurine drugs for IBD patients in this region.

  6. Flavonoids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezza, Teresa; Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; Utrilla, Maria Pilar; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that compromises the patients’ life quality and requires sustained pharmacological and surgical treatments. Since their etiology is not completely understood, non-fully-efficient drugs have been developed and those that have shown effectiveness are not devoid of quite important adverse effects that impair their long-term use. In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms the health benefits of flavonoids. Flavonoids are compounds with low molecular weight that are widely distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, including in edible plants. They may be of great utility in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through different mechanisms including protection against oxidative stress, and preservation of epithelial barrier function and immunomodulatory properties in the gut. In this review we have revised the main flavonoid classes that have been assessed in different experimental models of colitis as well as the proposed mechanisms that support their beneficial effects. PMID:27070642

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy: overlapping pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasef, Noha Ahmed; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2012-07-01

    Several studies have reported on the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth. The exact mechanisms of action are unclear; however, several pathways and processes are involved in both IBD and pregnancy that may help explain this. In this review, we discuss the immune system's T helper cells and human leukocyte antigens, inflammation, its function, and the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), and prostaglandins in the inflammatory response. For each of these topics, we consider their involvement in IBD and pregnancy, and we speculate as to how they can lead to preterm birth. Finally, we review briefly corticosteroids, biologic therapies, and immunosuppressants for the treatment of IBD, as well as their safety in use during pregnancy, with special focus on preterm birth. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Flavonoids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Vezza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that compromises the patients’ life quality and requires sustained pharmacological and surgical treatments. Since their etiology is not completely understood, non-fully-efficient drugs have been developed and those that have shown effectiveness are not devoid of quite important adverse effects that impair their long-term use. In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms the health benefits of flavonoids. Flavonoids are compounds with low molecular weight that are widely distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, including in edible plants. They may be of great utility in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through different mechanisms including protection against oxidative stress, and preservation of epithelial barrier function and immunomodulatory properties in the gut. In this review we have revised the main flavonoid classes that have been assessed in different experimental models of colitis as well as the proposed mechanisms that support their beneficial effects.

  9. Paediatric inflammatory bowel disease during a 44-year period in Copenhagen County: occurrence, course and prognosis--a population-based study from the Danish Crohn Colitis Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia

    2009-01-01

    patients below 15 years of age were included. Disease localization was classified according to the Montreal classification for ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and into small bowel, large bowel and small and large bowel combined for Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Disease activity and surgery in the first 2...

  10. Metabolic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease: crosstalk between adipose tissue and bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Pedro; Magro, Fernando; Martel, Fátima

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies show that both the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the proportion of people with obesity and/or obesity-associated metabolic syndrome increased markedly in developed countries during the past half century. Obesity is also associated with the development of more active IBD and requirement for hospitalization and with a decrease in the time span between diagnosis and surgery. Patients with IBD, especially Crohn's disease, present fat-wrapping or "creeping fat," which corresponds to ectopic adipose tissue extending from the mesenteric attachment and covering the majority of the small and large intestinal surface. Mesenteric adipose tissue in patients with IBD presents several morphological and functional alterations, e.g., it is more infiltrated with immune cells such as macrophages and T cells. All these lines of evidence clearly show an association between obesity, adipose tissue, and functional bowel disorders. In this review, we will show that the mesenteric adipose tissue and creeping fat are not innocent by standers but actively contribute to the intestinal and systemic inflammatory responses in patients with IBD. More specifically, we will review evidence showing that adipose tissue in IBD is associated with major alterations in the secretion of cytokines and adipokines involved in inflammatory process, in adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells and adipogenesis, and in the interaction between adipose tissue and other intestinal components (immune, lymphatic, neuroendocrine, and intestinal epithelial systems). Collectively, these studies underline the importance of adipose tissue for the identification of novel therapeutic approaches for IBD.

  11. Nonocclusive ischaemic bowel disease in patients on chronic haemodialysis

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    Engel, A.; Adler, O.B.; Loberant, N.; Rosenberger, A.; Weissman, I.

    1989-06-01

    Six patients with chronic renal failure on longstanding haemodialysis are presented, in whom nonocclusive bowel ischaemia occurred as a rare complication of their underlying disorder. Factors implicated in the development of bowel ischaemia in these patients are chronic constipation resulting in increased intraluminal pressure on the bowel wall, premature and progressive arterial disease and bouts of hypotension accompanying the haemodialysis procedure. Contrast studies of the bowel and computed tomography examination can suggest the diagnosis, but angiography alone provides the exact answer in demonstrating nonocclusive mesenteric ischaemia. In patients with chronic renal failure and longstanding dialysis presenting with abdominal symptoms this diagnosis should be considered. (orig.).

  12. Maternal inflammatory bowel disease and offspring body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Sorensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may influence intrauterine growth and hence size at birth, but the consequences for offspring in later life remain uncertain. This study investigated the growth of children of mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).......Maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may influence intrauterine growth and hence size at birth, but the consequences for offspring in later life remain uncertain. This study investigated the growth of children of mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)....

  13. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina

    2014-09-07

    It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn's disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment.

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease: immunodiagnostics, immunotherapeutics, and ecotherapeutics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Treatment options for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) reflect a continuing shift from empiricism to strategies based on improved understanding of the pathophysiology of disease. In susceptible individuals, IBD appears to be the result of defective regulation of mucosal immune interactions with the enteric microflora. This has prompted research directed at the interface of the traditional disciplines of immunology, microbiology, and epithelial cell biology. Whereas immunodiagnostics have been of limited clinical value in IBD, assessments of mucosal rather than systemic immune function are promising. Therapeutically, there is an increasing trend toward more aggressive and earlier use of immunomodulatory agents, particularly for prevention of relapse, with cytokine manipulation as a bridge therapy to achieve remission in patients with acute severe disease. Although most drug treatments are directed toward altering the host response, the rationale for manipulating the enteric flora appears sound and will be the basis of additional future therapeutic strategies. Notwithstanding the widening range of options for drug therapy in IBD, other outcome modifiers and well-established principles of managing chronic disease are as important as ever.

  15. Identifying decreased peristalsis of abnormal small bowel segments in Crohn's disease using cine MR enterography: the frozen bowel sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Flavius F; Mitchell, Donald G; O'Kane, Patrick L; Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Roth, Christopher G; Burach, Ilene; Burns, Aaron; Dulka, Susan; Parker, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether affected bowel in Crohn's disease patients can be identified by observing decreased peristalsis (frozen bowel sign) using cine balanced steady-state free precession (cine BSSFP) images. 5 radiologists independently reviewed cine BSSFP sequences from randomized MR Enterography (MRE) exams for 30 normal and 30 Crohn's disease patients, graded overall small bowel peristalsis from slowest to fastest, and graded peristalsis for the most abnormal small bowel segment. Sensitivity and specificity of the frozen bowel sign for diagnosing Crohn's disease were calculated. T tests of the peristalsis difference between abnormal segments and overall small bowel were conducted. For 5 readers, the sensitivity and specificity of cine BSSFP of the frozen bowel sign for diagnosing Crohn's disease ranged from 70% to 100% and 87% to 100%, respectively. There were significant differences in peristalsis between abnormal small bowel segments and the overall small bowel for Crohn's patients, but not in the overall small bowel between normal-MRE patients and Crohn's disease patients. Abnormal Crohn's small bowel segments have significantly decreased peristalsis compared to normal small bowel, which can be identified using cine BSSFP sequences as the frozen bowel sign.

  16. Small bowel angiodysplasia and novel disease associations: a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holleran, Grainne

    2013-04-01

    Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias recurrently bleed, accounting for 3-5% of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The advent of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has led to an increased recognition of small bowel angiodysplasias (SBAs) but little is known about their etiology. Previous small cohorts and case reports suggest an equal gender incidence and associations with cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, and coagulopathies.

  17. A low dose of fermented soy germ alleviates gut barrier injury, hyperalgesia and faecal protease activity in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Moussa

    Full Text Available Pro-inflammatory cytokines like macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, IL-1β and TNF-α predominate in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and TNBS colitis. Increased levels of serine proteases activating protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2 are found in the lumen and colonic tissue of IBD patients. PAR-2 activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines impair epithelial barrier, facilitating the uptake of luminal aggressors that perpetuate inflammation and visceral pain. Soy extracts contain phytoestrogens (isoflavones and serine protease inhibitors namely Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBI. Since estrogens exhibit anti-inflammatory and epithelial barrier enhancing properties, and that a BBI concentrate improves ulcerative colitis, we aimed to evaluate if a fermented soy germ extract (FSG with standardized isoflavone profile and stable BBI content exert cumulative or synergistic protection based on protease inhibition and estrogen receptor (ER-ligand activity in colitic rats. Female rats received orally for 15 d either vehicle or FSG with or without an ER antagonist ICI 182.780 before TNBS intracolonic instillation. Macroscopic and microscopic damages, myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine levels, intestinal paracellular permeability, visceral sensitivity, faecal proteolytic activity and PAR-2 expression were assessed 24 h, 3 d and 5 d post-TNBS. FSG treatment improved the severity of colitis, by decreasing the TNBS-induced rise in gut permeability, visceral sensitivity, faecal proteolytic activity and PAR-2 expression at all post-TNBS points. All FSG effects were reversed by the ICI 182.780 except the decrease in faecal proteolytic activity and PAR-2 expression. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory properties of FSG treatment result from two distinct but synergic pathways i.e an ER-ligand and a PAR-2 mediated pathway, providing rationale for potential use as adjuvant therapy in IBD.

  18. Quantitative Metaproteomics and Activity-Based Probe Enrichment Reveals Significant Alterations in Protein Expression from a Mouse Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Michael D; Moon, Clara; Stupp, Gregory S; Su, Andrew I; Wolan, Dennis W

    2017-02-03

    Tandem mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics of distal gut microbiomes is exceedingly difficult due to the inherent complexity and taxonomic diversity of the samples. We introduce two new methodologies to improve metaproteomic studies of microbiome samples. These methods include the stable isotope labeling in mammals to permit protein quantitation across two mouse cohorts as well as the application of activity-based probes to enrich and analyze both host and microbial proteins with specific functionalities. We used these technologies to study the microbiota from the adoptive T cell transfer mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and compare these samples to an isogenic control, thereby limiting genetic and environmental variables that influence microbiome composition. The data generated highlight quantitative alterations in both host and microbial proteins due to intestinal inflammation and corroborates the observed phylogenetic changes in bacteria that accompany IBD in humans and mouse models. The combination of isotope labeling with shotgun proteomics resulted in the total identification of 4434 protein clusters expressed in the microbial proteomic environment, 276 of which demonstrated differential abundance between control and IBD mice. Notably, application of a novel cysteine-reactive probe uncovered several microbial proteases and hydrolases overrepresented in the IBD mice. Implementation of these methods demonstrated that substantial insights into the identity and dysregulation of host and microbial proteins altered in IBD can be accomplished and can be used in the interrogation of other microbiome-related diseases.

  19. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease following a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Chad K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD symptoms often overlap. In some IBS cases there are subtle inflammatory changes similar to the immune-mediated pathophysiology of IBD, and the risk of both increases after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE. Methods To evaluate the effect of IBS and IGE on IBD risk utilizing US Department of Defense medical encounter data, active duty personnel with IBS were matched to subjects without IBS. Medical encounter history was analyzed to assess for incident IBD. IGE was identified from documented medical encounters and by self-report. Relative risks were calculated using Poisson regression models. Results We identified 9,341 incident IBS cases and 18,678 matched non-IBS subjects and found an 8.6-fold higher incidence (p p  Conclusions These data reflect a complex interaction between illness presentation and diagnosis of IBS and IBD and suggest intercurrent IGE may increase IBD risk in IBS patients. Additional studies are needed to determine whether IBS lies on the causal pathway for IBD or whether the two are on a pathophysiological spectrum of the same clinical illness. These data suggest consideration of risk reduction interventions for IGE among IBS patients at high disease risk.

  20. Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis presenting as inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quondamcarlo, C; Valentini, G; Ruggeri, M; Forlini, G; Fenderico, P; Rossi, Z

    2003-10-01

    We report a case of Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis presenting as inflammatory bowel disease in a 19-year old woman. After a useless course of corticosteroids, ceftazidime and metronidazole, she was successfully treated with erythromicin. Campylobacter species represent an important cause of gastroenteritis in children and adults. The rate of Campylobacter isolation is 5-6 per 100,000 persons. This rate, however, grossly understimates the actual number of Campylobacter infections. In most cases, Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease, rarely associated with severe complications. Our case demonstrates the difficulty in distinguishing inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) at onset from atypical infectious colitis. Unfortunately, corticosteroids (necessary for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease) may exacerbate infectious etiologies. Campylobacter jejuni should be ruled out when assessing inflammatory bowel diseases at onset (as during flare-ups), especially if corticosteroids or immunosuppressive therapies are required.

  1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Progress Towards a Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A van Heel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD is still unknown, but the importance of genetic susceptibility has been clearly shown by epidemiological data from family and twin studies. Linkage studies have identified two susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD on chromosomes 12 and 16. Importantly, these linkages have been replicated by independent investigators, and studies of positional candidates within these regions continue, together with fine mapping strategies. Regions of ’suggestive’ linkage on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 22 and X have also been reported in individual studies. Other important candidate genes investigated include the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, MUC3 and genes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA system. The apparently conflicting data in different studies from around the world may be explained by ethnic differences, case mix and genetic heterogeneity. Replicated class II HLA associations include HLA DRB1*0103 and DR2 (DRB1*1502, involved in UC susceptibility, and HLA DRB1*03 and DR4 as resistance alleles for CD and UC respectively. Animal studies have provided insights from targeted mutations and quantitative trait locus analysis. The goals of continuing research include narrowing the regions of linkages and analysis of candidate genes, and possibly the application of newly developed methods using single nucleotide polymorphisms. Advances in IBD genetics hold the potential to provide knowledge about the disease pathogenesis at the molecular level, with ensuing benefits for clinical practice.

  2. Psychological adjustment and autonomic disturbances in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Sonia; Dantzer, Cécile; Canini, Fréderic; Mathieu, Nicolas; Bonaz, Bruno

    2010-06-01

    Psychological factors and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to assess, firstly the way IBS and IBD patients cope with their pathology according to their affective adjustment and secondly the possible links between these affective adjustments and ANS reactivity. Patients with Crohn's disease (CD; n=26), ulcerative colitis (UC; n=22), or IBS (n=27) were recruited and compared to 21 healthy subjects based on psychological variables (trait- and state anxiety, depressive symptomatology, negative mood, perceived stress, coping, health locus of control) and sympatho-vagal balance through heart-rate variability monitored at rest. A principal component analysis, performed on all affective variables, isolated a leading factor labelled as "affective adjustment". In each disease, patients were distributed into positive and negative affective adjustment. In all the diseases, a positive affect was associated with problem-focused coping, and a negative affect with emotion-focused coping and external health locus of control. Results show that the sympatho-vagal balance varied according to the disease. In CD presenting positive affectivity, an adapted high sympathetic activity was observed. In UC, a parasympathetic blunt was observed in the presence of negative affectivity and an equilibrated sympatho-vagal balance in the presence of positive affectivity. In contrast, in IBS, an important dysautonomia (with high sympathetic and low parasympathetic tone) was constantly observed whatever the affective adjustment. In conclusion, this study suggests that the equilibrium of the ANS is differentially adapted according to the disease. This equilibrium is conjugated with positive affective and cognitive adjustment in IBD (CD and UC) but not in IBS. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The update of ultrasound techniques in diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Nassef

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Conventional ultrasound is a widely available non-invasive method for imaging the alimentary gastrointestinal tract. This can provide an important contribution for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity. Color Doppler sonography has proved to be a valuable method for the assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Role of fecal calprotectin testing to predict relapse in teenagers with inflammatory bowel disease who report full disease control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teenagers with inflammatory bowel disease undergo regular follow-up visits to watch for symptoms that may indicate relapse. Current disease activity is frequently estimated with the use of the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) and the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity

  5. Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Simon; Prasad, Neeraj; Ryan, Manijeh; Tangri, Sabrena; Silverberg, Mark S; Gordon, Allan; Steinhart, Hillary

    2011-10-01

    Experimental evidence suggests the endogenous cannabinoid system may protect against colonic inflammation, leading to the possibility that activation of this system may have a therapeutic role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medicinal use of cannabis for chronic pain and other symptoms has been reported in a number of medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate cannabis use in patients with IBD. One hundred patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 191 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) attending a tertiary-care outpatient clinic completed a questionnaire regarding current and previous cannabis use, socioeconomic factors, disease history and medication use, including complimentary alternative medicines. Quality of life was assessed using the short-inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire. A comparable proportion of UC and CD patients reported lifetime [48/95 (51%) UC vs. 91/189 (48%) CD] or current [11/95 (12%) UC vs. 30/189 (16%) CD] cannabis use. Of lifetime users, 14/43 (33%) UC and 40/80 (50%) CD patients have used it to relieve IBD-related symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhoea and reduced appetite. Patients were more likely to use cannabis for symptom relief if they had a history of abdominal surgery [29/48 (60%) vs. 24/74 (32%); P=0.002], chronic analgesic use [29/41 (71%) vs. 25/81 (31%); Pmedicine use [36/66 (55%) vs. 18/56 (32%); P=0.01] and a lower short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire score (45.1±2.1 vs. 50.3±1.5; P=0.03). Patients who had used cannabis [60/139 (43%)] were more likely than nonusers [13/133 (10%); Pcannabis for IBD. Cannabis use is common amongst patients with IBD for symptom relief, particularly amongst those with a history of abdominal surgery, chronic abdominal pain and/or a low quality of life index. The therapeutic benefits of cannabinoid derivatives in IBD may warrant further exploration.

  6. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Lisa; Lichti, Pia; Rath, Eva; Haller, Dirk

    2012-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronically relapsing, immune-mediated disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. A major challenge in the treatment of IBD is the heterogenous nature of these pathologies. Both, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are of multifactorial etiology and feature a complex interaction of host genetic susceptibility and environmental factors such as diet and gut microbiota. Genome-wide association studies identified disease-relevant single-nucleotide polymorphisms in approximately 100 genes, but at the same time twin studies also clearly indicated a strong environmental impact in disease development. However, attempts to link dietary factors to the risk of developing IBD, based on epidemiological observations showed controversial outcomes. Yet, emerging high-throughput technologies implying complete biological systems might allow taking nutrient-gene interactions into account for a better classification of patient subsets in the future. In this context, 2 new scientific fields, "nutrigenetics" and "nutrigenomics" have been established. "Nutrigenetics," studying the effect of genetic variations on nutrient-gene interactions and "Nutrigenomics," describing the impact of nutrition on physiology and health status on the level of gene transcription, protein expression, and metabolism. It is hoped that the integration of both research areas will promote the understanding of the complex gene-environment interaction in IBD etiology and in the long-term will lead to personalized nutrition for disease prevention and treatment. This review briefly summarizes data on the impact of nutrients on intestinal inflammation, highlights nutrient-gene interactions, and addresses the potential of applying "omic" technologies in the context of IBD.

  7. Small bowel villous atrophy: celiac disease and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Branchi, Federica; Sidhu, Reena; Guandalini, Stefano; Assiri, Asaad; Rinawi, Firas; Shamir, Raanan; Das, Prasenjit; Makharia, Govind K

    2017-02-01

    Small bowel villous atrophy can represent a diagnostic challenge for gastroenterologists and pathologists. In Western countries small bowel atrophy and mild non-atrophic alterations are frequently caused by celiac disease. However, other pathology can mimic celiac disease microscopically, widening the differential diagnosis. The several novelties on this topic and the introduction of the device-assisted enteroscopy in the diagnostic flowchart make an update of the literature necessary. Areas covered: In this review, a description of the different clinical scenarios when facing with small bowel mucosal damage, particularly small bowel atrophy, is described. The published literature on this subject has been summarized and reviewed. Expert commentary: When an intestinal mucosal alteration is histologically demonstrated, the pathology report forms part of a more complex workup including serological data, clinical presentation and clinical history. A multidisciplinary team, including pathologists and enteroscopy-devoted endoscopists, is frequently required to manage patients with small bowel alterations, especially in cases of severe malabsorption syndrome.

  8. Visceral hypersensitivity in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome: The role of proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuleers, Hannah; Van Spaendonk, Hanne; Hanning, Nikita; Heirbaut, Jelena; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; De Man, Joris G; De Meester, Ingrid; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2016-12-21

    Proteases, enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, are present at high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. Besides their well-known role in the digestive process, they also function as signaling molecules through the activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Based on their chemical mechanism for catalysis, proteases can be classified into several classes: serine, cysteine, aspartic, metallo- and threonine proteases represent the mammalian protease families. In particular, the class of serine proteases will play a significant role in this review. In the last decades, proteases have been suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, which is a major factor contributing to abdominal pain in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and/or irritable bowel syndrome. So far, only a few preclinical animal studies have investigated the effect of protease inhibitors specifically on visceral sensitivity while their effect on inflammation is described in more detail. In our accompanying review we describe their effect on gastrointestinal permeability. On account of their promising results in the field of visceral hypersensitivity, further research is warranted. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the concept of visceral hypersensitivity as well as on the physiological and pathophysiological functions of proteases herein.

  9. Endoscopic assessment of inflammatory bowel disease: colonoscopy/esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Grace

    2012-06-01

    Endoscopy plays an important role in the initial diagnosis of IBD, including the evaluation of disease severity, activity, and extent. The implications of complete mucosal healing further confirm the function of endoscopy in the follow-up of IBD patients. The use of therapeutic endoscopy, for example stricture dilatation, can avoid the need for bowel resection. Modalities such as capsule endoscopy, EUS, NBI, CE, and other emerging techniques are likely to have an increasing role in the management of IBD, particularly in the area of dysplasia surveillance and treatment.

  10. Exercise in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engels M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Engels,1 Raymond K Cross,1 Millie D Long2 1Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, including both Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, are chronic autoimmune diseases. Both CD and UC have relapsing and remitting courses. Although effective medical treatments exist for these chronic conditions, some patients do not respond to these traditional therapies. Patients are often left frustrated with incomplete resolution of symptoms and seek alternative or complementary forms of therapy. Patients often search for modifiable factors that could improve their symptoms or help them to maintain periods of remission. In this review, we examine both the published evidence on the benefits of exercise clinically and the pathophysiological changes associated with exercise. We then describe data on exercise patterns in patients with IBDs, potential barriers to exercise in IBDs, and the role of exercise in the development and course of IBDs. While some data support physical activity as having a protective role in the development of IBDs, the findings have not been robust. Importantly, studies of exercise in patients with mild-to-moderate IBD activity show no danger of disease or symptom exacerbation. Exercise has theoretical benefits on the immune response, and the limited available data suggest that exercise may improve disease activity, quality of life, bone mineral density, and fatigue levels in patients with IBDs. Overall, exercise is safe and probably beneficial in patients with IBDs. Evidence supporting specific exercise recommendations, including aspects such as duration and heart rate targets, is needed in order to better counsel patients with IBDs. Keywords: inflammatory bowel

  11. Non-perforating small bowel Crohn's disease assessed by MRI enterography: Derivation and histopathological validation of an MR-based activity index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, Michael J., E-mail: mikejsteward@gmail.com [Department of Specialist Imaging, University College Hospital London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Punwani, Shonit, E-mail: shonit.punwani@uclh.nhs.net [Department of Specialist Imaging, University College Hospital London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Centre for Medical Imaging, Division of Medicine, University College London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Proctor, Ian, E-mail: ian.proctor@nhs.net [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Adjei-Gyamfi, Yvette, E-mail: yvette.adjei-gyamfi@uclh.nhs.net [Department of Specialist Imaging, University College Hospital London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Chatterjee, Fiona, E-mail: fiona.chaterjee@uclh.nhs.net [Department of Specialist Imaging, University College Hospital London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Bloom, Stuart, E-mail: stuart.bloom@uclh.nhs.net [Department of Gastroenterology, University College London Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Novelli, Marco, E-mail: marco.novealli@uclh.nhs.net [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve, E-mail: S.halligan@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Specialist Imaging, University College Hospital London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Centre for Medical Imaging, Division of Medicine, University College London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.rodriguez-justo@uclh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-09-15

    Objectives: To develop and validate a qualitative scoring system for enteric Crohn's disease activity using MR enterography (MRE). Methods: MRE was performed in 16 patients (mean age 33, 8 male) undergoing small bowel resection. Mural thickness, T2 signal, contrast enhancement, and perimural oedema were scored qualitatively (0–3) at 44 locations. Transmural histopathological scoring of acute inflammation (AIS) was performed at all locations (score 0–13). MRI parameters best predicting AIS were derived using multivariate analysis. The MRI activity index was applied to 26 Crohn's patients (mean age 32, range 13–69 years, 15 male) and correlated to terminal ileal biopsy scores of acute inflammation (“eAIS” score 1–6). Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated. Results: Mural thickness (coefficient 1.34 (95% CI 0.36, 2.32)], p = 0.007) and T2 signal (coefficient 0.90 (95% CI −0.24, 2.04) p = 0.06) best predicted AIS (AIS = 1.79 + 1.34*mural thickness + 0.94*mural T2 score [R-squared 0.52]). There was a significant correlation between the MRI index and eAIS (Kendall's tau = 0.40, 95% CI 0.11–0.64, p = 0.02). The model achieved a sensitivity of 0.81 (95% CI 0.54–0.96), specificity of 0.70 (0.35–0.93) and AUC 0.77 for predicting acute inflammation (eAIS ≥2). Conclusions: A simple qualitative MRI Crohn's disease activity score appears predictive against a histopathological standard of reference.

  12. Immunological pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory state of the gastrointestinal tract and can be classified into 2 main clinical phenomena: Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. The pathogenesis of IBD, including CD and UC, involves the presence of pathogenic factors such as abnormal gut microbiota, immune response dysregulation, environmental changes, and gene variants. Although many investigations have tried to identify novel pathogenic factors associated with IBD that are related to environmental, genetic, microbial, and immune response factors, a full understanding of IBD pathogenesis is unclear. Thus, IBD treatment is far from optimal, and patient outcomes can be unsatisfactory. As result of massive studying on IBD, T helper 17 (Th17 cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are investigated on their effects on IBD. A recent study of the plasticity of Th17 cells focused primarily on colitis. ILCs also emerging as novel cell family, which play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. IBD immunopathogenesis is key to understanding the causes of IBD and can lead to the development of IBD therapies. The aim of this review is to explain the pathogenesis of IBD, with a focus on immunological factors and therapies.

  13. Familial risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier Møller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke; Jess, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Background The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) – ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) - are caused by complex gene-environment interactions. This study provides updated familial aggregation patterns in a large population-based Danish IBD cohort. Methods: Our cohort study was based.......92(5.28-9.06) 2.62(1.63-4.23) 1.15(0.29-4.62) One CD relative 2.57(2.28-2.90) 1.51(1.22-1.86) 1.47(1.00-2.17) One UC relative 4.09(3.81-4.38) 1.85(1.60-2.13) 1.51(1.07-2.13) Conclusion: This large-scale population-based study provides updated numbers of familial aggregation of IBD. Familial exposure to CD...... in the entire population. Individuals receiving at least 2 diagnoses of IBD during the time period (n=45,780) were identified using the Danish National Registry of Patients. Risk of IBD in family members to individuals with IBD was assessed by Poisson regression analysis. Results: The overall proportion...

  14. ANEMIA IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE MORE THAN AN EXTRAINTESTINAL COMPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeş, Roxana Maria; Pop, Corina Silvia; Calagiu, Dorina; Dobrin, Denisa; Chetroiu, Diana; Jantea, Petruta; Postolache, Paraschiva

    2016-01-01

    The most common hematologic complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)--ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease is anemia. Anemia in patients with IBD may be a result of iron, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency; anemia of chronic disease and hemolytic anemia are other causes in these patients. Factors contributing to the development of anemia include chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, vitamin B12 malabsorption secondary to terminal ileitis, folate deficiency as a result of sulfasalazine therapy. Approximately 30% of patients with IBD have hemoglobin levels below 12 g/dl. The risk of developing anemia relates to disease activity, given that blood loss and inflammatory anemia are triggered by intestinal inflammation. In the management strategy of IBD patients with anemia it is important to distinguish between the different types of anemia in order to decide an appropriate manner of treatment.

  15. Late-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Like Syndrome after Ipilimumab Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Akel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antitumor immunotherapy has become a major player in cancer therapy. Ipilimumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4, an important downregulator of T-cell activation. Ipilimumab has demonstrated tumor regression and improvement in overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Unfortunately, immune activation induced by this drug has been associated with several immune-mediated adverse effects, namely diarrhea and colitis. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 71-year-old male patient diagnosed with BRAF wild-type metastatic melanoma treated with three cycles of ipilimumab, after which he developed grade 3 enteritis. The patient improved on treatment with steroids, and ipilimumab was permanently discontinued at this point. Three years later, the patient’s diarrhea returned and colonoscopy revealed active chronic colitis with ulceration resembling inflammatory bowel disease. He was started on Asacol (mesalamine. The patient did not report extraintestinal symptoms typically associated with inflammatory bowel disease, nor did he have a personal or family history of bowel disorders. Moreover, his presentation was not typical of inflammatory bowel disease in the elderly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a link between ipilimumab-induced grade 3 enteritis and late-onset inflammatory bowel disease-like syndrome. To our knowledge, the case is the first in the literature to report late-onset inflammatory bowel disease-like syndrome years after discontinuation of ipilimumab treatment.

  16. Managing inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Matthew Pinder,1 Katie Lummis,1 Christian P Selinger1,2 1Leeds Gastroenterology Institute, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, 2University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD affects many women of childbearing age. The course of IBD is closely related to pregnancy outcomes with poorly controlled IBD increasing the risk of prematurity, low weight for gestation, and fetal loss. As such, women with IBD face complex decision making weighing the risks of active disease versus those of medical treatments. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of IBD treatments during pregnancy and lactation aiming to provide up-to-date guidance for clinicians. Over 50% of women have poor IBD- and pregnancy-related knowledge, which is associated with views contrary to medical evidence and voluntary childlessness. This review highlights the effects of poor patient knowledge and critically evaluates interventions for improving patient knowledge and outcomes. Keywords: pregnancy, breast feeding, nursing, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis

  17. Biologic therapies for chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Martínez-Montiel

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC make up the so-called chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Advances in the understanding of IBD pathophysiologic mechanisms in the last few years have allowed the development of novel therapies such as biologic therapies, which at least theoretically represent a more specific management of this disease with fewer side effects. Currently, the only effective and widely accepted biologic therapy for the treatment of intraluminal, fistulizing CD, both for remission induction and maintenance, is infliximab. The role of other monoclonal antibodies such as adalimumab is not clearly established. It could be deemed an alternative for patients with allergic reactions to infliximab, and for those with lost response because of anti-infliximab antibody development. However, relevant issues such as dosage and administration regimen remain to be established. Anti-integrin α4 therapies, despite encouraging results in phase-3 studies, are still unavailable, as their marketing authorization was held back in view of a number of reports regarding progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy cases. Immunostimulating therapy may be highly relevant in the near future, as it represents a novel strategy against disease with the inclusion of granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factors. Regarding ulcerative colitis, results from the ACT-1 and ACT-2 studies showed that infliximab is also useful for the management of serious UC flare-ups not responding to standard treatment, which will lead to a revision of therapeutic algorithms, where this drug should be given preference before intravenous cyclosporine. In the next few years, the role of anti-CD3 drugs (vilisilizumab, T-cell inhibiting therapies, and epithelial repair and healing stimulating factors will be established.

  18. Managing inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy: current perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinder, Matthew; Lummis, Katie; Selinger, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    ...: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects many women of childbearing age. The course of IBD is closely related to pregnancy outcomes with poorly controlled IBD increasing the risk of prematurity, low weight for gestation, and fetal loss...

  19. Effects and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Brar, Harvinder; Einarson, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    QUESTION I have several patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are pregnant or planning pregnancies. What information can I give them regarding the possible effects of IBD on pregnancy and the medications used to treat IBD during pregnancy?

  20. Noninvasive Tests for Inflammatory Bowel Disease : A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtman, Gea A; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Reitsma, Johannes B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189853107; Berger, Marjolein Y

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often nonspecific and overlaps with functional gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms, signs, noninvasive tests, and test combinations that can assist the clinician

  1. Noninvasive Tests for Inflammatory Bowel Disease : A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtman, Gea A; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Reitsma, Johannes B; Berger, Marjolein Y

    BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often nonspecific and overlaps with functional gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms, signs, noninvasive tests, and test combinations that can assist the clinician

  2. Steroid allergy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, M

    2007-11-01

    Background: Contact allergy to a steroid enema leading to worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been reported. This study was designed to look for evidence of steroid allergy in patients with IBD.

  3. Childhood inflammatory bowel disease: Parental concerns and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Day, AS; Whitten, KE; Bohane, TD

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To document the concerns and expectations of parents of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) within the context of a multidisciplinary IBD clinic, and to highlight the importance of a holistic approach to the care of these children.

  4. Pulmonary functions in children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Guy; Ben-Tov, Amir; Lahad, Avishai; Soferman, Ruth; Cohen, Shlomi; Tauman, Riva; Sivan, Yakov

    2016-06-01

    To investigate fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) levels in children with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and their correlation to disease activity. Children with CD and UC (aged 8-18 years) and age-matched healthy controls without respiratory symptoms were recruited. Disease activity was assessed using validated scores. All children performed spirometry and FeNO tests and the association between intestinal disease parameters and pulmonary functions was studied. Thirty-five children with CD, nine with UC, and 24 healthy controls were enrolled. The mean FeNO level was higher in children with CD compared with the controls. Increased FeNO levels (>23 parts per billion) were more common among CD and UC compared with healthy children (46, 33, and 0%, respectively, P<0.05). Nevertheless, FeNO levels did not correlate with disease activity. There were no significant differences between CD, UC patients, and healthy controls in any of the spirometric variables. FeNO level, a marker of airway inflammation, is elevated in children with inflammatory bowel diseases irrespective of their intestinal disease activity. Increased FeNO levels are not associated with respiratory symptoms, suggesting a latent pulmonary involvement in the systemic disease.

  5. [Nutritional impact of inflammatory bowel diseases on children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Gilton Marques; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; Santana, Genoile Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    To perform a systematic review of the literature about the nutritional impact of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents. A systematic review was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELo databases, with inclusion of articles in Portuguese and in English with original data, that analyzed nutritional aspects of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents. The initial search used the terms "inflammatory bowel diseases" and "children" or "adolescents" and "nutritional evaluation" or "nutrition deficiency". The selection of studies was initially performed by reading the titles and abstracts. Review studies and those without data for pediatric patients were excluded. Subsequently, the full reading of the articles considered relevant was performed. 237 studies were identified, and 12 of them were selected according to the inclusion criteria. None of them was performed in South America. During the analysis of the studies, it was observed that nutritional characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease may be altered; the main reports were related to malnutrition, growth stunting, delayed puberty and vitamin D deficiency. There are nutritional consequences of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents, mainly growth stunting, slower pubertal development, underweight and vitamin deficiencies. Nutritional impairments were more significant in patients with Crohn's disease; overweight and obesity were more common in patients with ulcerative rectocolitis. A detailed nutritional assessment should be performed periodically in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional impact of inflammatory bowel diseases on children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilton Marques dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a sistematiy review of the literature about the nutritional impact of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents.DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, with inclusion of articles in Portuguese and in English with original data, that analyzed nutritional aspects of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents. The initial search used the terms "inflammatory bowel diseases" and "children" or "adolescents" and "nutritional evaluation" or "nutrition deficiency". The selection of studies was initially performed by reading the titles and abstracts. Review studies and those withouth data for pediatric patients were excluded. Subsequently, the full reading of the articles considered relevant was performed.RESULTS: 237 studies were identified, and 12 of them were selected according to the inclusion criteria. None of them was performed in South America. During the analysis of the studies, it was observed that nutritional characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease may be altered; the main reports were related to malnutrition, growth stunting, delayed puberty and vitamin D deficiency.CONCLUSION: There are nutritional consequences of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents, mainly growth stunting, slower pubertal development, underweight and vitamin deficiencies. Nutritional impairments were more significant in patients with Crohn's disease; overweight and obesity were more common in patients with ulcerative rectocolitis. A detailed nutritional assessment should be performed periodically in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. A family study of asymptomatic small bowel Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancone, Livia; Calabrese, Emma; Petruzziello, Carmelina; Capanna, Alessandra; Zorzi, Francesca; Onali, Sara; Condino, Giovanna; Lolli, Elisabetta; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Borgiani, Paola; Pallone, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Discrepancies between severity of lesions and symptoms may be observed in Crohn's disease. We prospectively assessed whether Crohn's disease may be diagnosed among asymptomatic relatives of patients, using Small Bowel Contrast Ultrasonography. Diagnosis of asymptomatic Crohn's disease relatives was defined ultrasonographically as: bowel wall thickness >3mm, bowel dilation/stricture, lumen diameter >2.5 cm. Diagnosis was confirmed by ileocolonoscopy. Subjects were also screened for the Leu3020insC mutation. Consent was given by 35 asymptomatic first-degree relatives of 18 Crohn's disease patients. Ultrasonography indicated increased bowel wall thickness (5mm) compatible with ileal Crohn's disease in 1 relative (2.8%), a 42 year-old male. Ileocolonoscopy, histology, and radiology confirmed the diagnosis of stricturing ileal Crohn's disease. Gallbladder stones were detected in 7/35 (20%) relatives and Leu3020insC mutation in 3/35 (8.5%). Small Bowel Contrast Ultrasonography may be a useful tool to diagnose asymptomatic small bowel Crohn's disease among first-degree relatives of patients. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Genetics, Epigenetics and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italia eLoddo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs are complex, multifactorial disorders characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. Although aetiology remains largely unknown, recent research has suggested that genetic factors, environment, microbiota and immune response are involved in the pathogenesis.Epidemiological evidence for a genetic contribution is defined: 15% of patients with Crohn’s Disease (CD have an affected family member with IBD, and twin studies for CD have shown 50% concordance in monozygotic twins compared to less than 10% in dizygotics. The most recent and largest genetic association studies, which employed genome-wide association data for over 75,000 patients and controls, identified 163 susceptibility loci for IBD. More recently, a trans-ethnic analysis, including over 20,000 individuals, identified an additional 38 new IBD loci.Although most cases are correlated with polygenic contribution toward genetic susceptibility, there is a spectrum of rare genetic disorders that can contribute to early onset IBD (before 5 years or very early IBD (before 2 years. Genetic variants that cause these disorders have a wide effect on gene function. These variants are so rare in allele frequency that the genetic signals are not detected in genome-wide association studies of patients with IBD. With recent advances in sequencing techniques, approximately 50 genetic disorders have been identified and associated with IBD-like immunopathology. Monogenic defects have been found to alter intestinal immune homeostasis through many mechanisms. Candidate gene resequencing should be carried out in early-onset patients in clinical practice.The evidence that genetic factors contribute in small part to disease pathogenesis confirms the important role of microbial and environmental factors. Epigenetic factors can mediate interactions between environment and genome. Epigenetic mechanisms could affect development and progression of IBD. Epigenomics is

  9. T Cell Repertoire and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Croitoru

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the T cell receptor repertoire is generated through rearrangement of the variable, junctional and constant region genes. Selection processes in the thymus and periphery serve to eliminate self-reacting T cells, thereby preventing autoimmune disease. The possibility that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is an autoimmune disease has led to the search for an auto-antigen. In addition, studies are exploring the T cell receptor repertoire in IBD patients for changes that may provide clues regarding etiopathogenesis. Using monoclonal antibodies to T cell receptor variable-gene products or polymerase chain reaction analysis of variable-gene mRNA expression, the mucosal T cell repertoire has been examined in humans. The intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes show a significant degree of oligoclonal expansion that may represent local antigen exposure or unique selection processes. This is in keeping with studies that show that murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes undergo positive and possibly negative selection independent of the thymus. In the inflamed human gut, shifts in the T cell receptor repertoire may also reflect recruitment of peripheral T cells to the gut. In one study, a subset of Crohn’s disease patients was shown to have an increase in the proportion of variable β8 peripheral blood lymphocyte and mesenteric lymph node cells, suggesting a superantigen effect. The authors hypothesized that changes in the functional T cell receptor repertoire can also occur which might be independent of changes in the distribution of T cells expressing variable β T cell receptors. In fact, the authors have shown there is a selective decrease in the cytotoxic function of peripheral variable β8 T cells in Crohn’s disease. Furthermore, stimulation with the variable β8 selective bacterial enterotoxin staphylococcal enterotoxin E failed to increase the cytotoxic function in this subset of Crohn’s disease patients compared with

  10. Intestinal Endometriosis: Mimicker of Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagno, Antonio; Grillo, Federica; Vellone, Valerio Gaetano; Ferrero, Simone; Fasoli, Alberto; Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis of the intestinal tract (IE) is thought to mimic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) both clinically and pathologically but robust data on a large unselected series are missing. Diagnostic problems arise both at colonoscopy as well as on resection specimens for IE when IBD-like features are encountered. The aim was to establish the frequency of IBD-like histology in IE and which type of histological lesions are shared by these two entities. One hundred consecutive, unselected cases of surgically resected IE were collected and clinical features and histopathology reviewed and reevaluated. Seventy-five surgical specimens showed no histological alterations except for endometriosis foci. Twenty-two cases showed focal architectural alterations in the absence of significant inflammation. Three cases showed marked inflammatory and architectural mucosal changes making a differential diagnosis with IBD particularly challenging. On follow-up, however, these patients remained symptom-free and with no need for anti-inflammatory therapy after surgical resection of IE. Diagnostic problems may arise in women who have IBD-like symptoms and histology at colonoscopy but who lack a known diagnosis of endometriosis. Clinicians must be aware that the diagnosis of IBD in patients with IE should be reevaluated over time. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Microbiota Small RNAs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Anca T; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Marian, Catalin; Anghel, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    MiRNAs are a class of potential gene regulators of critical importance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). This review aims to present the connection between gut microbiota, probiotics administration and microRNA (miRNA) expression in IBD. It also brings into question cross-kingdom RNAi (RNA interference). Not only that gut host cells garden the intestinal microbiome via miRNA, but also strong evidence supports the idea that different species of bacteria have an impact on the intestinal immune response by modulating miRNA expression. Cross-kingdom RNAi refers to RNA silencing signals that travel between two unrelated, interacting organisms. RNAs communication between prokaryotes and eukaryotes (bacteria and nematodes) via RNAs transfer has been proved. Some authors also support the idea that non-coding RNAs are being transferred by bacterial pathogens to the host cells as part of the intracellular infection process. Further studies are required in order to clarify whether the mechanism by which bacteria modulate miRNA expression concerns RNAs transfer. These findings may lead to a different approach to IBD therapy in the future.

  12. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent advances in inflammatory bowel disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    analysis comparing capsule endoscopy with small- bowel barium radiology, colonoscopy with ileoscopy, computer tomography ..... Each tablet contains Aspirin 81mg. Reg.No.: 29/2.7/0767. Pharmafrica (Pty) Ltd, 33 Hulbert Road, ...

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease and mutations affecting the interleukin-10 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Erik-Oliver; Kotlarz, Daniel; Boztug, Kaan; Gertz, E Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Noyan, Fatih; Perro, Mario; Diestelhorst, Jana; Allroth, Anna; Murugan, Dhaarini; Hätscher, Nadine; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Sauer, Martin; Kreipe, Hans; Lacher, Martin; Nustede, Rainer; Woellner, Cristina; Baumann, Ulrich; Salzer, Ulrich; Koletzko, Sibylle; Shah, Neil; Segal, Anthony W; Sauerbrey, Axel; Buderus, Stephan; Snapper, Scott B; Grimbacher, Bodo; Klein, Christoph

    2009-11-19

    The molecular cause of inflammatory bowel disease is largely unknown. We performed genetic-linkage analysis and candidate-gene sequencing on samples from two unrelated consanguineous families with children who were affected by early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. We screened six additional patients with early-onset colitis for mutations in two candidate genes and carried out functional assays in patients' peripheral-blood mononuclear cells. We performed an allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in one patient. In four of nine patients with early-onset colitis, we identified three distinct homozygous mutations in genes IL10RA and IL10RB, encoding the IL10R1 and IL10R2 proteins, respectively, which form a heterotetramer to make up the interleukin-10 receptor. The mutations abrogate interleukin-10-induced signaling, as shown by deficient STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) phosphorylation on stimulation with interleukin-10. Consistent with this observation was the increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines from peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from patients who were deficient in IL10R subunit proteins, suggesting that interleukin-10-dependent "negative feedback" regulation is disrupted in these cells. The allogeneic stem-cell transplantation performed in one patient was successful. Mutations in genes encoding the IL10R subunit proteins were found in patients with early-onset enterocolitis, involving hyperinflammatory immune responses in the intestine. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation resulted in disease remission in one patient. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  15. MR Enterography of Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Endoscopic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Pankaj; Somwaru, Alexander S; Charabaty, Aline; Levy, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two main forms of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is a transmural chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in a discontinuous distribution. UC is a mucosal and submucosal chronic inflammatory disease that typically originates in the rectum and may extend proximally in a continuous manner. In treating patients with CD and UC, clinicians rely heavily on accurate diagnoses and disease staging. Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography used in conjunction with endoscopy and histopathologic analysis can help accurately diagnose and manage disease in the majority of patients. Endoscopy is more sensitive for detection of the early-manifesting mucosal abnormalities seen with IBD and enables histopathologic sampling. MR enterography yields more insightful information about the pathologic changes seen deep to the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract wall and to those portions of the small bowel that are not accessible endoscopically. CD can be classified into active inflammatory, fistulizing and perforating, fibrostenotic, and reparative and regenerative phases of disease. Although CD has a progressive course, there is no stepwise progression between these disease phases, and various phases may exist at the same time. The endoscopic and MR enterographic features of UC can be broadly divided into two categories: acute phase and subacute-chronic phase. Understanding the endoscopic features of IBD and the pathologic processes that cause the MR enterographic findings of IBD can help improve the accuracy of disease characterization and thus optimize the medication and surgical therapies for these patients. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  16. Treatment of the Pregnant Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Rachel; Nørgård, Bente M; Friedman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    and on the rates of pregnancy loss and ectopic pregnancies. We do not know how to reliably measure disease activity during pregnancy or the effect of pregnancy on the microbiome. Although immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor medications are relatively safe during pregnancy, the long-term effects......Research regarding fertility, medication safety, and pregnancy outcomes is increasing, but there are still many knowledge gaps in these areas. Women with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may have decreased fertility because of voluntary childlessness and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD...... of these medications on the child are unknown. The recommended mode of delivery is still debated, especially for women after ileoanal pouch anastomosis. There are multiple studies on the relative safety of immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor medications during pregnancy, and we know how to safely treat...

  17. The clinical implications of thalidomide in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, Antonella; Capriati, Teresa; Papadatou, Bronislava; Knafelz, Daniela; Bracci, Fiammetta; Corsetti, Tiziana; Elia, Domenica; Torre, Giuliano

    2015-06-01

    Thalidomide has anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenetic activity that makes it suitable for treating inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The recent guidelines from the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization/European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition conclude that thalidomide cannot be recommended in refractory pediatric Crohn's disease but that it may be considered in selected cohorts of patients who are not anti-TNFα agent responders. The main adverse effect is the potential teratogenicity that renders the long-term use of thalidomide problematic in young adults due to the strict need for contraceptive use. In short-term use it is relatively safe; the most likely adverse effect is the neuropathy, which is highly reversible in children. So far the use of thalidomide is reported in 223 adult and pediatric IBD patients (206 with Crohn's disease). In the following sections, the authors will discuss efficacy and safety of thalidomide, in the short-term treatment of IBD.

  18. Mesalazine in inflammatory bowel disease: A trendy topic once again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacucci, Marietta; de Silva, Shanika; Ghosh, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) preparations (eg, mesalazine, mesalamine) are well-established preparations used in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. These drugs are most useful for the treatment of mild to moderate flares of ulcerative colitis and, especially, for maintenance of remission. Although most gastroenterologists are very familiar with these drugs, the interest in these drugs has undergone a resurgence, with new preparations offering convenience and high dosage, while preserving their customary safety. New dosage regimens are likely to become standard practice in the near future. There is also considerable interest in chemoprevention of colorectal cancer in the context of inflammatory bowel disease, and the role of long-term maintenance therapy with 5-ASAs in achieving such chemoprevention. A mechanism of action for such chemoprevention has been provided by the agonism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by 5-ASA, which unifies its efficacy as an anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agent. In the future, even more effective agents based on 5-ASA are expected, based on more powerful agonism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma; 5-ASA preparations have become ‘trendy’ again. PMID:20151072

  19. Globalisation of inflammatory bowel disease: perspectives from the evolution of inflammatory bowel disease in the UK and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gilaad G; Ng, Siew C

    2016-12-01

    The UK and China provide unique historical perspectives on the evolution of the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, which might provide insight into its pathogenesis. Historical records from the UK document the emergence of ulcerative colitis during the mid-1800s, which was later followed by the recognition of Crohn's disease in 1932. During the second half of the 20th century, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease rose dramatically in high-income countries. Globalisation at the turn of the 21st century led to rapid economic development of newly industrialised countries such as China. In China, the modernisation of society was accompanied by the recognition of a sharp rise in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease is expected to continue to rise in high-income countries and is also likely to accelerate in the developing world. An understanding of the shared and different environmental determinants underpinning the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease in western and eastern countries is essential to implement interventions that will blunt the rising global burden of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution of osteopenia in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, M; Fries, W; Luisetto, G; Peccolo, F; Bottega, F; Leone, L; Naccarato, R; Martin, A

    1999-05-01

    Our aim was the assessment of frequency and evolution of osteopenia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and identification of related factors. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was measured in 54 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and in 49 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and was repeated after a mean observation period of 21 (range, 8-50) months in 30 CD and 14 UC patients. Eighteen age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Serum biochemistry (parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, insulin-like growth factor 1, minerals, and markers of inflammation) was assessed at the time of the second BMD measurement. Reduced BMD values were found in 48% of CD, and in 38% of UC patients. Compared with control subjects, the mean BMD was significantly lower in CD (p < 0.003) and UC (p < 0.0001) patients. BMD was positively correlated with the body mass index (p < 0.05) and inversely correlated with the lifetime steroid dose (p < 0.03). After 21 months the BMD of CD patients was virtually unchanged, with an annual variation (%deltaBMD/yr) of -0.31 +/- 0.49, whether treated with steroids or not, whereas in UC patients the BMD decreased significantly (p < 0.02) with a %deltaBMD/yr of -2.47 +/- 0.82 (p < 0.02 vis CD). This decrease can be attributed to steroid treatment. No biochemical alterations were detected in patients with rapid bone loss, compared with those with stable BMD. Low bone density is frequent in both CD and UC, but apparently stable in CD. The evolution of BMD suggests that low bone density is associated with the pathogenesis of CD, whereas in UC it seems to be correlated with the side effects of corticosteroid treatment.

  1. Joint involvement associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, M

    2009-01-01

    Joint involvement associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) belongs to the concept of spondyloarthritis (SpA) and includes two types of arthritis: a peripheral arthritis characterized by the presence of pauciarticular asymmetrical arthritis affecting preferentially joints of lower extremities and an axial arthropathy including inflammatory back pain, sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Treatment of arthritis includes a short-term use of NSAIDs associated with optimized treatment of gut inflammation. Safety concerns mean that long-term treatment with NSAIDs is best avoided if possible. Salazopyrine can be recommended for treatment of peripheral arthritis. Methotrexate and azathioprine are generally ineffective. Finally, efficacy of anti-TNF therapy (infliximab and adalimumab) is well established. However, use of etanercept is not recommended because of the increased risk for intestinal disease relapse. Pathogenesis of gut-joint iteropathy is not elucidated. Both inflammations are tightly related as suggested by human evidence of gut inflammation in patients with other forms of SpA and animal evidence of gut and joint inflammation in HLA-B27/human beta(2)-microglobulin transgenic rat model and TNF(DeltaARE) mice. Several clues for the linkage between gut and joint inflammation have been put forward including an altered recognition and handling of bacterial antigens, an aberrant trafficking of CD8+ T cells with an impaired T-helper type 1 cytokine profile and expression of aEb7 integrin, an altered trafficking of macrophages expressing CD163 and evidence of an increased angiogenesis. A transcriptome analysis of mucosal biopsies identified a set of 95 genes that are differentially expressed in both CD and SpA as compared with healthy controls suggesting common pathways. TNF plays a key role in the pathogenesis of various arthritic diseases and IBD. Mesenchymal/myofibroblast-like cells may represent the local primary targets of TNF in the induction of

  2. Clinical significance of the glucose breath test in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Min; Lee, Kang-Moon; Chung, Yoon Yung; Lee, Yang Woon; Kim, Dae Bum; Sung, Hea Jung; Chung, Woo Chul; Paik, Chang-Nyol

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth which has recently been diagnosed with the glucose breath test is characterized by excessive colonic bacteria in the small bowel, and results in gastrointestinal symptoms that mimic symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to estimate the positivity of the glucose breath test and investigate its clinical role in inflammatory bowel disease. Patients aged > 18 years with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. All patients completed symptom questionnaires. Fecal calprotectin level was measured to evaluate the disease activity. Thirty historical healthy controls were used to determine normal glucose breath test values. A total of 107 patients, 64 with ulcerative colitis and 43 with Crohn's disease, were included. Twenty-two patients (20.6%) were positive for the glucose breath test (30.2%, Crohn's disease; 14.1%, ulcerative colitis). Positive rate of the glucose breath test was significantly higher in patients with Crohn's disease than in healthy controls (30.2% vs 6.7%, P=0.014). Bloating, flatus, and satiety were higher in glucose breath test-positive patients than glucose breath test-negative patients (P=0.021, 0.014, and 0.049, respectively). The positivity was not correlated with the fecal calprotectin level. The positive rate of the glucose breath test was higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially Crohn's disease than in healthy controls; gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with inflammatory bowel disease were correlated with this positivity. Glucose breath test can be used to manage intestinal symptoms of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Rectal gel application of Withania somnifera root extract expounds anti-inflammatory and muco-restorative activity in TNBS-induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagtap Suresh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD is marked with chronic inflammation of intestinal epithelium driven by oxidative stress. Traditional treatments with plant extracts gained renewed interest due to their ability to ameliorate the multi factorial conditions like inflammation. We investigated the beneficial effects of Withania somnifera in Trinitro Benzyl Sulfonic Acid (TNBS induced experimental IBD through a rectally applicable formulation. Methods The study included (i preparation of gel formulation from aqueous Withania somnifera root extract (WSRE, (ii biochemical assays to determine its performance potential, (iii testing of formulation efficacy in TNBS-induced IBD rat model, and (iv histo-patholgical studies to assess its healing and muco-regenerative effect in IBD-induced rats. For this purpose, concentration dependant antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using biochemical assays like (a inhibition of lipid peroxidation, (b NO scavenging, (c H2O2 scavenging, and (d ferric reducing power assay. Results The extract, at 500 μg/ml, the highest concentration tested, showed 95.6% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, 14.8% NO scavenging, 81.79% H2O2 scavenging and a reducing capacity of 0.80. The results were comparable with standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid and curcumin. WSRE treatment positively scored on histopathological parameters like necrosis, edema, neutrophil infiltration. The post treatment intestinal features showed restoration at par with the healthy intestine. In view of these results, gel formulation containing an aqueous extract of W. somnifera, prepared for rectal application was tested for its anti-inflammatory activity in TNBS-induced rat models for IBD. Commercially available anti-inflammatory drug Mesalamine was used as the standard in this assay. Conclusions Dose of the rectal gel applied at 1000 mg of WSRE per kg rat weight showed significant muco-restorative efficacy in the IBD-induced rats

  4. Effects of inflammatory bowel disease on students' adjustment to college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadani, S Bashar; Adler, Jeremy; Browning, Jeff; Green, Elan H; Helvie, Karla; Rizk, Rafat S; Zimmermann, Ellen M

    2014-12-01

    Successful adjustment to college is required for academic success. We investigated whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity affects this adjustment process. We created an online survey that included a Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ), a general quality of life survey (SF-12), a disease-specific short IBD quality of life survey (SIBDQ), and disease activity indices. Undergraduate students across the United States were recruited via social media. Surveys were completed by 65 students with Crohn's disease (CD), 28 with ulcerative colitis, and 214 healthy students (controls). Disease-specific quality of life (SIBDQ results) correlated with IBD disease activity (rho = -0.79; P academic work (P academic challenges (P academically successful (P academics-especially among students with CD. Successful adjustment is important for academic success, affecting graduation rates and future economic success. Strategies to increase disease control and provide social and emotional support during college could improve adjustment to college and academic performance, and increase patients' potential. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproductive Planning and Contraception for Women with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Lori M; Sanders, Jessica; Steele, Katelyn P; Flynn, Ann D

    2016-02-01

    Women with chronic medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcomes for these conditions are best during stable disease remission. Unfortunately, women with inflammatory bowel disease are equally as likely as the general population to have unintended pregnancies. Patients look to their gastroenterologist for contraceptive counseling; however, the current standards for disease management do not prioritize this topic. Guidelines based on available evidence and expert opinion, such as the Centers for Disease Control U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, exist to help practitioners provide safe and effective contraception to women with chronic medical conditions. If health care providers were to educate themselves and screen women with inflammatory bowel disease for risk of unintended pregnancy, there would be a reduction in the number of unintended pregnancies and subsequent adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes.

  6. Predictive factors of small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Albuquerque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patency capsule was developed to avoid small bowel video capsule endoscopy retention, namely in patients with Crohn's disease. Aims: To evaluate the predictive factors of small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis including 151 Crohn's disease patients submitted to patency capsule (Agile® Patency Capsule from 2011 to 2012. Patients that excreted the intact patency capsule were classified as having a patent small bowel (without patency capsule retention, other patients were considered to have negative patency of the small bowel (patency capsule retention. Results: Patients had a mean age of 41±14 years, 54% were female and 25% had been previously submitted to surgery. Stricturing disease was seen in 20% of cases and penetrating disease in 16% of cases. Left-sided colonic lesions and ileal strictures were observed at colonoscopy in 13% and 9% of patients, respectively. In our sample, 28% of patients had negative patency of the small bowel (patency capsule retention. In multivariate analysis, independent factors that were associated with negative patency of the small bowel in Crohn's disease patients were stricturing (OR 10.16, p < 0.001 and penetrating phenotypes (OR 11.73, p = 0.001, left-sided colonic lesions (OR 3.77, p = 0.038, ileal stricture (OR 9.76, p = 0.003; previous intestinal surgery was found to be protective (OR 0.16, p = 0.006. Conclusions: Stricturing or penetrating disease, ileal strictures, no previous surgery and left-sided colonic lesions were the factors associated with negative small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients.

  7. Cell Death and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Autophagy in the Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell death mechanisms have been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and mice. Recent studies suggested that a complex crosstalk between autophagy/apoptosis, microbe sensing, and enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress in the epithelium could play a critical role in these diseases. In addition, necroptosis, a relatively novel programmed necrosis-like pathway associated with TNF receptor activation, seems to be also present in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease and in specific animal models for intestinal inflammation. This review attempts to cover new data related to cell death mechanisms and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  8. The protective effect of piperine on dextran sulfate sodium induced inflammatory bowel disease and its relation with pregnane X receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Donghua; Wang, Yuguang; Chen, Zhiwu; Ma, Zengchun; You, Qing; Zhang, Xianxie; Liang, Qiande; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Tang, Xianglin; Gao, Yue

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract. Piperine (1-peperoylpiperidine), the primary lipophilic component in black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), has been reported to be effective for anti-inflammatory. Rencently, several ethnopharmacological purity compounds, such as baicalin and artemisinin, are reported to have potentially therapeutic role in treating IBD. In the present study, the effects of piperine on pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A expression and its therapeutic role in IBD were investigated. LS174T cells and C57BL/6J mice were treated by the piperine. Gene expressions were analyzed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, transient transfections assay and histological analysis. Data indicated that treatment of LS174T cells with piperine markedly increased both CYP3A4 and PXR mRNA and protein. Transient transfection experiments indicated that transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene via piperine was PXR-dependent. Data show that pre-administration of piperine decreased clinical hallmarks of colitis in DSS-treated PXR mice as measured by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, rectal bleeding, colon length, and histology. Inflammatory mediators (CCR2, ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, iNOS, MCP-1, and TNFα) after DSS treatment were significantly decreased in mice pretreated with piperine but corresponding conditions did not occur in mice with down-regulation of PXR by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Piperine is a potential agonist of PXR and an inducer of PXR, which may induce CYP3A4 gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels. These results establish that piperine may contribute to prevention or reduction of colonic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toll-like Receptors and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is one relapsing and lifelong disease that affects millions of patients worldwide. Increasing evidence has recently highlighted immune-system dysfunction, especially toll-like receptors (TLRs-mediated innate immune dysfunction, as central players in the pathogenesis of IBD. TLRs and TLR-activated signaling pathways are involved not only in the pathogenesis but also in the efficacy of treatment of IBD. By understanding these molecular mechanisms, we might develop a strategy for relieving the experience of long-lasting suffering of those patients and improving their quality of life. The purpose of this review article is to summarize the potential mechanisms of TLR signaling pathways in IBD and the novel potential therapeutic strategies against IBD.

  10. Managing inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Matthew; Lummis, Katie; Selinger, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects many women of childbearing age. The course of IBD is closely related to pregnancy outcomes with poorly controlled IBD increasing the risk of prematurity, low weight for gestation, and fetal loss. As such, women with IBD face complex decision making weighing the risks of active disease versus those of medical treatments. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of IBD treatments during pregnancy and lactation aiming to provide up-to-date guidance for clinicians. Over 50% of women have poor IBD- and pregnancy-related knowledge, which is associated with views contrary to medical evidence and voluntary childlessness. This review highlights the effects of poor patient knowledge and critically evaluates interventions for improving patient knowledge and outcomes.

  11. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane O’Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are known to be upregulated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and other inflammatory conditions, but while their involvement is clear, their role in many settings has yet to be determined. Studies of the involvement of MMPs in IBD since 2006 have revealed an array of immune and stromal cells which release the proteases in response to inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Through digestion of the extracellular matrix and cleavage of bioactive proteins, a huge diversity of roles have been revealed for the MMPs in IBD, where they have been shown to regulate epithelial barrier function, immune response, angiogenesis, fibrosis, and wound healing. For this reason, MMPs have been recognised as potential biomarkers for disease activity in IBD and inhibition remains a huge area of interest. This review describes new roles of MMPs in the pathophysiology of IBD and suggests future directions for the development of treatment strategies in this condition.

  12. Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vordenbäumen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are characterized by a chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The etiology and pathogenesis of these disorders such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are incompletely understood. Recently, antimicrobial peptides, which are expressed by leukocytes and epithelia, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. Antimicrobial peptides are pivotal for intestinal defense, shaping the composition of the luminal flora and contributing thereby to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Apart from their antimicrobial activity affecting commensal bacteria, immunomodulatory properties of antimicrobial peptides have been identified, which link innate and adaptive immune response. There is increasing evidence that alterations in mucosal levels of these peptides contribute to IBD pathogenensis.

  13. Complex host genetics influence the microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knights, Dan; Silverberg, Mark S.; Weersma, Rinse K.; Gevers, Dirk; Dijkstra, Gerard; Huang, Hailiang; Tyler, Andrea D.; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Imhann, Floris; Stempak, Joanne M.; Huang, Hu; Vangay, Pajau; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Russell, Caitlin; Sauk, Jenny; Knight, Jo; Daly, Mark J.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human genetics and host-associated microbial communities have been associated independently with a wide range of chronic diseases. One of the strongest associations in each case is inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but disease risk cannot be explained fully by either factor individually.

  14. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: Diagnostics, treatment and psychosocial consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong disease, characterized by chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two main phenotypes of IBD. In this thesis, several aspects of pediatric IBD are evaluated, including

  15. Primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberta E; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic progressive disease, usually associated with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), with a prevalence of 60-80% in western countries. Herein, we review the current knowledge about the association between PSC and IBD in terms of clinical approach and long-term patient management. A PubMed search was conducted for English-language publications from 2000 through 2015 using the following keywords: primary sclerosing cholangitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diagnosis, therapy, follow-up, and epidemiology. In terms of diagnosis, liver function tests and histology are currently used. The medical treatment options for PSC associated with IBD do not differ from the cases of PSC alone, and include ursodeoxycholic acid and immunosuppressive agents. These treatments do not seem to improve survival, even if ursodeoxycholic acid given at low doses may be chemopreventive against colorectal cancer (CRC). Liver transplantation is the only potential curative therapy for PSC with reported survival rates of 85 and 70% at 5 and 10 years after transplant; however, there is a risk for PSC recurrence, worsening of IBD activity, and de-novo IBD occurrence after liver transplantation. PSC-IBD represents an important public health concern, especially in view of the increased risk for malignancy, including CRC. Long-life annual surveillance colonoscopy is usually recommended, although the exact timescale is still unclear. Further studies are required both to clarify whether annual colonoscopy is cost-effective, especially in younger patients, and to identify potential pharmaceutical agents and genetic targets that may retard disease progression and protect against CRC.

  16. Increased Gardnerella vaginalis urogenital biofilm in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Johannes; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Dörffel, Yvonne

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a systemic inflammatory condition that affects the entire organism, not only the bowel. An impaired interaction with microbiota has been shown to be important. We looked for bacterial factors, which may contribute to the well-known higher incidence of poor reproductive outcome in IBD. Urine specimen of patients with Crohn's disease (N=42), ulcerative colitis (N=46), and randomly selected patients attending the General Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic of the Charité for non-IBD related medical conditions (N=49) was analyzed for bacteria adherent to desquamated epithelial cells and diffusely distributed bacteria in the urine using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The urine of IBD patients contained significantly more often Gardnerella vaginalis biofilms (CD 38%, UC 43%) than those of the control group (16%). There was no link between current disease activity, history of and present fistula and G. vaginalis biofilms, but the samples of patients with steroid refractory/dependent disease were significantly more often G. vaginalis biofilm positive. No significant differences in number of epithelial cells and leukocytes, and total bacterial counts were present. There is a significant link between IBD and G. vaginalis biofilm. This observation suggests an epithelial barrier dysfunction of the genital tract. Since G. vaginalis is believed to be one of the reasons responsible for bacterial vaginosis, it may be an important factor in the well-known higher incidence of poor reproductive outcome in IBD. Excessive G. vaginalis biofilms in steroid refractory/dependent disease suggests a need to avoid long-term steroid therapy. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid Organ Transplantation in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD: Analysis of Transplantation Outcome and IBD Activity in a Large Single Center Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Schnitzler

    Full Text Available Currently, limited data of the outcome of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT are available. We aimed to analyze effects of SOT on the IBD course in a large IBD patient cohort.Clinical data from 1537 IBD patients were analyzed for patients who underwent SOT (n = 31 between July 2002 and May 2014. Sub-analyses included SOT outcome parameters, IBD activity before and after SOT, and efficacy of IBD treatment.4.74% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and 0.84% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD underwent SOT (p = 2.69 x 10(-6, UC vs. CD. 77.4% of patients with SOT underwent liver transplantation (LTx with tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy after SOT. All LTx were due to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC or PSC overlap syndromes. Six patients (19.4% required renal transplantation and one patient (3.2% heart transplantation. A survival rate of 83.9% after a median follow-up period of 103 months was observed. Before SOT, 65.0% of patients were in clinical remission and 5 patients received immunosuppressive therapy (16.1%. After SOT, 61.0% of patients were in remission (p = 1.00 vs. before SOT and 29.0% required IBD-specific immunosuppressive or anti-TNF therapy (p = 0.54 vs. before SOT. 42.9% of patients with worsening of IBD after SOT were at higher risk of needing steroid therapy for increased IBD activity (p = 0.03; relative risk (RR: 10.29; 95% CI 1.26-84.06. Four patients (13.0% needed anti-TNF therapy after SOT (response rate 75%.SOT was more common in UC patients due to the higher prevalence of PSC-related liver cirrhosis in UC. Despite mainly tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimens, outcome of SOT and IBD was excellent in this cohort. In this SOT cohort, concomitant immunosuppressive therapy due to IBD was well tolerated.

  18. What People with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Need to Know About Osteoporosis What Is Inflammatory Bowel Disease? Crohn’s disease and ... Management Strategies Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  19. Circulating L-selectin levels and endothelial CD34 expression in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, J B; Vainer, B; Horn, T

    1998-01-01

    Soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin) concentrations are positively correlated with disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC) but not in Crohn's disease (CD). This difference in sL-selectin regulation could be due to a disease specific regulation of L-selectin ligands. The aim of this study was to c...... was to compare levels of circulating sL-selectin, expression of the L-selectin ligand CD34 in the affected colon, and inflammatory bowel disease activity....

  20. Telomere dysfunction in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laish, Ido; Katz, Hila; Stein, Assaf; Liberman, Meytal; Naftali, Timna; Kitay-Cohen, Yona; Biron-Shental, Tal; Konikoff, Fred M; Amiel, Aliza

    2015-09-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease are two associated, chronic inflammatory, pre-malignant conditions. We hypothesized that patients with these disorders may harbour telomere dysfunction as a marker of chromosomal instability. The aim of our study was to compare parameters of the telomere-telomerase system in these cohorts. In this prospective study, peripheral blood was withdrawn from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (N=20), inflammatory bowel disease (N=20) and healthy controls (N=20), and lymphocytes were isolated. Telomere length was quantified as a function of the signal intensity and telomere number. Random aneuploidy and telomere capture were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique with specific probes. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease had higher measures of intestinal disease activity than patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Despite this, shorter telomere length and telomere aggregates, especially the fusion of 2-5 telomeres, were observed at significantly higher rate in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis relative to inflammatory bowel disease or healthy controls. Rates of aneuploidy and telomere capture were higher in the two probes in both diseases compared to controls (pprimary sclerosing cholangitis patients more than inflammatory bowel disease and healthy controls patients, which attests to genetic instability and immunosenescence. NCT02247622. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coagulation factor Xa signaling: the link between coagulation and inflammatory bowel disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by activation of the coagulation cascade and it has long been suspected that coagulation is an essential component of this still largely idiopathic group of diseases. The realization that coagulation factors are not only passive mediators in the

  2. Coagulation factor Xa signaling : the link between coagulation and inflammatory bowel disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by activation of the coagulation cascade and it has long been suspected that coagulation is an essential component of this still largely idiopathic group of diseases. The realization that coagulation factors are not only passive mediators in the

  3. Frontiers in Drug Research and Development for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Currò

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is idiopathic, lifelong, immune-mediated diseases, for which curative therapies are not yet available. In the last 15 years, the introduction of monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor necrosis factor-α, a cytokine playing a key role in bowel inflammation, has revolutionized treatment paradigms for IBD. Despite their proven long-term efficacy, however, many patients do not respond or progressively lose response to these drugs. Major advances of knowledge in immunology and pathophysiology of intestinal inflammatory processes have made possible the identification of new molecular targets for drugs, thus opening several new potential therapeutic opportunities for IBD. The abnormal response of intestinal immunity to unknown antigens leads to the activation of T helper lymphocytes and triggers the inflammatory cascade. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonists negatively modulate the egress of lymphocytes, inducted by antigen-presenting cells, from secondary lymphoid tissues to intestinal wall. Leukocyte adhesion inhibitors (both anti-integrin and anti-Mucosal Vascular Addressin Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 interfere with the tissue homing processes. Activated T helper lymphocytes increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 12, 23, and 6, offering several potential pharmacological interventions. The Janus kinases, intracellular enzymes mediating the transduction of several cytokine signals, are other explored targets for treating immune-mediated diseases. Finally, the impact of modulating Smad7 pathway, which is responsible for the down-regulation of the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor-β signaling, is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most promising molecules in late-stage clinical development, with a special emphasis on pharmacological properties.

  4. MR Enterography Assessment of Bowel Inflammation Severity in Crohn Disease Using the MR Index of Activity Score: Modifying Roles of DWI and Effects of Contrast Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Sil; Jang, Hye Young; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Han, Kyunghwa; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Park, Sang Hyoung; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to appraise the use of the MR index of activity (MaRIA) score in evaluating Crohn disease (CD) on present-day MR enterography images, with an emphasis on determining the modifying roles of DWI and the effects of different contrast enhancement phases. Fifty patients prospectively underwent MR enterography, including DWI and enteric and portal phase scans, and ileocolonoscopy with segmental CD endoscopic index of severity (CDEIS) scoring within a week. Thirty-nine terminal ilea and 40 right-sided colons (mean [± SD] segmental CDEIS score, 14.3 ± 12.1) from 42 patients with CD (mean age, 27 ± 6.2 years) were finally analyzed by three independent readers. Original and modified (ulcer replaced with DWI grade) MaRIA scores were compared regarding their correlation with segmental CDEIS score, accuracy in diagnosing active (segmental CDEIS score ≥ 3) and severe (segmental CDEIS score ≥ 12) inflammation, and interobserver reproducibility. The primary analysis used portal phase data, and the agreement between portal and enteric phase scores was analyzed. MaRIA and modified MaRIA scores correlated similarly with CDEIS scores (r = 0.737 and 0.742; p = 0.387) and did not significantly differ in terms of AUC values for the diagnosis of active (0.909 and 0.903; p = 0.571) or severe (0.907 and 0.892; p = 0.443) inflammation. The intraclass correlation coefficient was significantly higher for modified MaRIA than for MaRIA (0.845 and 0.701; p < 0.001). The mean difference between portal and enteric phase scores (i.e., portal minus enteric) was 0.33-0.36 score points for individual readers, and the Bland-Altman repeatability coefficient was 0.9-1.42 score points. Interobserver reproducibility in evaluating the severity of bowel inflammation in CD using the MaRIA score can be improved by modification with DWI. MaRIA scoring provides steady results across enteric and portal phases.

  5. Bone mineral density and inflammatory bowel disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, the association between disease severity and BMD in patients with IBD was evaluated. Associations between BMD and the Montreal classification, disease activity and drug therapy were also tested. A cross-sectional prevalence study with a comparison group was conducted. One hundred and twenty-eight patients were evaluated: 68 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC, and 60 with Crohn's disease (CD. The control group consisted of 67 healthy subjects. All patients and controls had BMD measured and in IBD patients, current medications, hospitalization, and disease location, extent and phenotype, according to the Montreal classification, were recorded. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to evaluate categorical variables. In the CD group, most patients were diagnosed between 17–40 years of age. Ileocolonic and non-stricturing non-penetrating disease were the most frequent disease location and behavior, respectively. In UC patients, extensive colitis was the most frequent disease location. UC and CD patients were more likely to have osteopenia than controls (OR=14.93/OR=24.38, respectively. In the CD group, male patients, perianal disease, penetrating behavior and age at diagnosis >40 years were associated with low BMD. Taking azathioprine and infliximab also seemed to be associated with osteopenia. In the UC group, we observed an association between low BMD and male patients, left colitis, corticosteroid use and hospitalization. Disease activity was not associated with osteopenia or osteoporosis in CD and UC patients. Disease severity seems to be associated with osteopenia in IBD patients.

  6. Drug Safety and Risk of Adverse Outcomes for Pregnant Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Uma; McConnell, Ryan A; Chambers, Christina D

    2017-02-01

    The management of the pregnant patient with inflammatory bowel disease is complicated by multiple providers, misinformation, and a disease entity that, particularly when active, can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. This article seeks to frame the debate on medication safety in pregnancy and lactation using the US Food and Drug Administration's new Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule and the most up-to-date safety information to discuss the risks and benefits of using each class of inflammatory bowel disease medication. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease exacerbation associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulia, Evangelia; Pitiriga, Vassiliki C; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theophano; Spanakis, Nicholas E; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but its role as a pathogenetic or exacerbating factor remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Epstein-Barr virus infection and inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in regard to exacerbation of disease activity. This was a nonrandomized crosssectional study in subgroups of patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared with a control group with noninflammatory disease. Participants were patients treated for ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease and individuals undergoing evaluation for noninflammatory disease recruited from 2 urban adult gastrointestinal referral centers in Greece. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease was based on standard clinical and endoscopic criteria. Demographic and clinical characteristics of all participants were recorded. Whole blood samples and fresh tissue samples from biopsy of intestinal sites were obtained from each participant. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus was determined by amplifying the LMP1 gene of the virus in blood and intestinal tissue samples. The study comprised 94 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (63 with ulcerative colitis and 31 with Crohn's disease) and 45 controls with noninflammatory disease. Of the 94 patients, 67 (71.3%) had disease exacerbation and 27 (28.7%) were in remission. The prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus genome was significantly higher in patients than in controls for intestinal tissue (44 patients, 46.8% vs 6 controls, 13.3%; p = 0.001), but not for whole blood (24 patients, 25.5% vs 9 controls, 20%; p = 0.3). The viral genome was found significantly more frequently in intestinal samples from patients with disease exacerbation compared with patients in remission (38 patients with exacerbation, 56.7% vs 6 patients in remission, 22.2%; p = 0.001), but no significant difference was found for whole blood (18 patients with exacerbation, 26.8% vs 6 patients in remission, 22

  8. Review article: use of antitumour necrosis factor therapy in inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy and conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, S; O'Morain, C

    2008-05-01

    One of the most frequently asked questions during consultation with those affected by inflammatory bowel disease is what are its effects on pregnancy, and how the treatment will impact on conception and pregnancy outcomes. To review available data regarding the safety of biological therapies during pregnancy, primarily in woman with inflammatory bowel disease. A Medline search was performed and available original research and review articles relating to the use of biological (antitumour necrosis factor-alpha) therapies in inflammatory bowel disease were reviewed. Where information regarding the use of a drug in inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy was limited, articles referring to its use for other indications, such as rheumatoid arthritis, were reviewed. Based on available data, biological therapies appear to be safe in pregnancy. Most studies looking at the effects of any one medication on pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease are confounded by the fact that most patients are on multiple medications and have varying levels of disease activity. Stopping therapy in the third trimester should be considered. Large registries with longer follow-up periods will be necessary before firm conclusions about the safety of antitumour necrosis factor-alpha therapies during conception and pregnancy can be drawn.

  9. Small bowel ultrasound in patients with celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartusek, D. [Department of Radiology, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: dbartusek@fnbrno.cz; Valek, V. [Department of Radiology, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: v.valek@fnbrno.cz; Husty, J. [Department of Radiology, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: jhusty@fnbrno.cz; Uteseny, J. [Department of Pediatric Internal Medicine, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: juteseny@fnbrno.cz

    2007-08-15

    Objective: Celiac disease (CD) is a common, lifelong disease with small bowel malabsorption based on genetically conditioned gluten intolerance. The clinical manifestation could be very heterogeneous. The proof of celiac disease is now based mainly on clinical and laboratory (antibodies and enterobiopsy) signs, which are in some cases problematic and inconvenient. Materials and methods: In our study we have examined 250 patients with suspection or with proven celiac disease and we evaluated specific ultrasound small bowel changes in this group. In the next step, we chose 59 patients with laboratory proved celiac disease and we statistically compared ultrasound, other laboratory and clinical findings in different forms and stages of the disease. Results: Specific small bowel pathologies in patients with celiac disease (like changes of intestinal villi in different parts of small bowel, abnormal peristalsis and mesenterial lymphadenopathy) can be well visualized by ultrasound and in combination with clinical and laboratory signs ultrasound examination could have an important role in screening, determination of diagnosis and monitoring of patients with different forms of celiac disease.

  10. Clinical Predictors of Future Nonadherence in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severs, M.; Mangen, M.J.; Fidder, H.H.; Valk, M.E. van der; Have, M. van der; Bodegraven, A.A. van; Clemens, C.H.; Dijkstra, G.; Jansen, J.M.; Jong, D.J. de; Mahmmod, N.; Meeberg, P.C. van de; Jong, A E F de; Pierik, M.; Ponsioen, C.Y.; Romberg-Camps, M.J.; Siersema, P.D.; Jharap, B.; Woude, J.C. van der; Zuithoff, N.P.; Oldenburg, B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to medical therapy is frequently encountered in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to identify predictors for future (non)adherence in IBD. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study with adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and

  11. Interleukin-10-based therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, Henri; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Hommes, Daan W.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially Crohn's disease (CD), is caused by a loss of tolerance against the autologous bacterial flora of the intestine. Tolerance against the indigenous flora requires optimal recognition of antigens by pattern

  12. New strategies for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), of which ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are the two most prevailing entities, is unknown. However, IBD is characterized by an imbalanced synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators of the inflamed intestine, and for more than a decade...

  13. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: from a translational perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Damen (Gerard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCrohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main subtypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that have a peak age of onset in the second decade of life in children. There is strong evidence to

  14. Recent advances using immunomodulators for inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Herfarth, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Use of the immunomodulators thiopurines and methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), is considered to be good clinical practice. However, despite being administered to a considerable number of IBD patients over...

  15. Medicinal potions used against infectious bowel diseases in Mayan traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Ku, Marina; Méndez-González, Martha; Moo-Puc, Rosa; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Simá-Polanco, Paulino; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Peraza-Sánchez, Sergio R

    2010-10-28

    Since one of the main health problems of the indigenous population are infectious bowel diseases, we decided to test Mayan medicinal potions used to treat these conditions against some of the causal agents. Thirty-one herbal formulations used for the treatment of infectious bowel diseases were prepared according to the collected ethnobotanical data. Their activities were tested against some of the causal agents of diarrheic symptoms, such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri. Nine formulations were active against bacteria (MIC=0.5 mg/ml), four on Entamoeba histolytica, and seven on Giardia lamblia (IC(50)≤20 μg/ml). This work supports the use of the traditional Mayan formulations against some infectious bowel diseases, and it is the first step towards their study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Dual Role of Neutrophils in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Wéra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are characterised by aberrant immunological responses leading to chronic inflammation without tissue regeneration. These two diseases are considered distinct entities, and there is some evidence that neutrophil behaviour, above all other aspects of immunity, clearly separate them. Neutrophils are the first immune cells recruited to the site of inflammation, and their action is crucial to limit invasion by microorganisms. Furthermore, they play an essential role in proper resolution of inflammation. When these processes are not tightly regulated, they can trigger positive feedback amplification loops that promote neutrophil activation, leading to significant tissue damage and evolution toward chronic disease. Defective chemotaxis, as observed in Crohn’s disease, can also contribute to the disease through impaired microbe elimination. In addition, through NET production, neutrophils may be involved in thrombo-embolic events frequently observed in IBD patients. While the role of neutrophils has been studied in different animal models of IBD for many years, their contribution to the pathogenesis of IBD remains poorly understood, and no molecules targeting neutrophils are used and validated for the treatment of these pathologies. Therefore, it is crucial to improve our understanding of their mode of action in these particular conditions in order to provide new therapeutic avenues for IBD.

  17. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Risk of Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J Claire; Furlano, Raoul I; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2016-02-01

    An increased risk of autoimmune disease has been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink [CPRD], this study set out to further examine this relationship. Patients with a first-time IBD diagnosis were randomly matched to an equal-sized IBD-free comparison group. Incidence rates for new-onset autoimmune diseases were estimated. A nested case-control analysis comprising IBD patients was conducted, using conditional logistic regression to assess whether IBD severity, duration, or treatment influences the risk of developing autoimmune diseases. During follow-up, 1069 IBD and 585 IBD-free patients developed an incident autoimmune disease. An increased incidence of autoimmune disease was observed in IBD patients (incidence rate [IR] 9.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.09-10.24) compared with the non-IBD comparison group [IR 5.22, 95% CI 4.82-5.66]. In IBD patients, increased disease severity was associated with an increased risk of autoimmune disease development (odds ratio [OR] 1.62, 95% CI 1.28-2.05). Current antibiotic use was also associated with an increased risk [adjusted OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.07-2.78]. A reduced risk of incident autoimmune diseases was observed for current long-term users of aminosalicylates [adjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.91]. Individuals with IBD had an increased risk of developing an autoimmune disease. Increased disease severity and current antibiotic use were associated with an increased relative risk of developing additional autoimmune diseases in IBD patients. Long-term current aminosalicylate use was associated with a reduced risk. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Multifaceted Role of the Inflammasome in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Lissner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that coordinate the maturation of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18 in response to pathogens and metabolic danger. Both cytokines have been linked to intestinal inflammation. However, recently evolving concepts ascribe a major role to the inflammasome in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. This review recapitulates its position in the development of inflammatory bowel disease, thereby outlining a model in which hypo- as well as hyperfunctionality can lead to an imbalance of the system, depending on the specific cell population affected. In the epithelium, the inflammasome is essential for regulation of permeability and epithelial regeneration through sensing of commensal microbes, while excessive inflammasome activation within the lamina propria contributes to severe intestinal inflammation.

  19. Food avoidance in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: What, when and who?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Fanny; Bouin, Mickael; D'Aoust, Louise; Lemoyne, Michel; Presse, Nancy

    2017-03-15

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases avoid a variety of foods. However, it remains unclear how this behavior varies across patients. This cross-sectional study investigated how the food avoidance pattern in inflammatory bowel disease varies according to disease's activity, disease's subtype, Crohn's location, and prior history of bowel resection, strictures, and fistulae. Outpatients with Crohn's disease (n = 173) and ulcerative colitis (n = 72) reported which food they avoid when they perceive they are in remission or in active disease using a list of 82 food items classified in 10 categories. Medical charts were reviewed for patients' characteristics. Linear regression analyses were used to compare food exclusion rates between patients' subgroups and food categories. During remission, food exclusion rates varied from 1 to 39%. Most avoided foods were those with capsaicin, meat alternatives, and raw vegetables. Overall, food exclusion rates were 38% higher in Crohn's disease than ulcerative colitis (P < 0.001), and 50% higher in stricturing than non-stricturing Crohn's disease (P < 0.001). During active disease, food exclusion rates were 69% higher than in remission (P < 0.001). Similar differences between subgroups were again observed during active disease though less noticeable than in remission. No association was found with other disease characteristics. Avoided foods were very similar across patients except for alcoholic beverages and foods rich in dietary fibers/residue, which were avoided more specifically during active disease and in Crohn's disease, respectively. Food avoidance is common among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, and most particularly in those with stricturing Crohn's disease. Specificities in avoidance pattern suggest that the clinical response to dietary restrictions may differ according to the disease's characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All

  20. Intestinal homeostasis and its breakdown in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, Kevin J; Powrie, Fiona

    2011-06-15

    Intestinal homeostasis depends on complex interactions between the microbiota, the intestinal epithelium and the host immune system. Diverse regulatory mechanisms cooperate to maintain intestinal homeostasis, and a breakdown in these pathways may precipitate the chronic inflammatory pathology found in inflammatory bowel disease. It is now evident that immune effector modules that drive intestinal inflammation are conserved across innate and adaptive leukocytes and can be controlled by host regulatory cells. Recent evidence suggests that several factors may tip the balance between homeostasis and intestinal inflammation, presenting future challenges for the development of new therapies for inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Proteomics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Approach Using Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Fadi H; Yau, Yunki; Wasinger, Valerie C; Leong, Rupert W

    2017-09-01

    Recently, proteomics studies have provided important information on the role of proteins in health and disease. In the domain of inflammatory bowel disease, proteomics has shed important light on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of inflammation and has contributed to the discovery of some putative clinical biomarkers of disease activity. By being able to obtain a large number of specimens from multiple sites and control for confounding environmental, genetic, and metabolic factors, proteomics studies using animal models of colitis offered an alternative approach to human studies. Our aim is to review the information and lessons acquired so far from the use of proteomics in animal models of colitis. These studies helped understand the importance of different proteins at different stages of the disease and unraveled the different pathways that are activated or inhibited during the inflammatory process. Expressed proteins related to inflammation, cellular structure, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and energy depletion advanced the knowledge about the reaction of intestinal cells to inflammation and repair. The role of mesenteric lymphocytes, exosomes, and the intestinal mucosal barrier was emphasized in the inflammatory process. In addition, studies in animal models revealed mechanisms of the beneficial effects of some therapeutic interventions and foods or food components on intestinal inflammation by monitoring changes in protein expression and paved the way for some new possible inflammatory pathways to target in the future. Advances in proteomics technology will further clarify the interaction between intestinal microbiota and IBD pathogenesis and investigate the gene-environmental axis of IBD etiology.

  2. Comparison of three commercial fecal calprotectin ELISA test kits used in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Bachmann Holmetoft, Ulla; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fecal calprotectin is a noninvasive marker of intestinal inflammation used to distinguish between functional and organic bowel diseases and to evaluate disease activity among patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The goal of this study was to compare three different ELISA tests...... and 18 to 67 years, respectively. Disease activity in the patients was established using the following clinical activity indices: the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI), the Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI) and the Modified Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (MPDAI). Three ELISA calprotectin tests...... (EK-CAL, CALPRO and HK325) were performed on fecal specimens and results compared. RESULTS: The CALPRO calprotectin ELISA test was shown to have the best specificity of 96% compared to the HK325 and the EK-CAL calprotectin ELISA tests with 28% specificity and 74% specificity, respectively...

  3. Nitric oxide as a potential biomarker in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesina Avdagić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate changes in serum nitric oxide (NO concentration in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD patients and its use as potential biomarker in differential diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD and in disease activity assessment. In 60 patients of both genders - 30 with ulcerative colitis and 30 with Crohn's disease - and 30 controls serum nitric oxide concentration was determined by measuring nitrite concentration, a stable metabolic product of NO with oxygen. Conversion of nitrates (NO3- to nitrites (NO2- was done with elementary zinc. The nitrite concentration was determined by classic colorimetrical Griess reaction. Median serum NO concentration was statistically different (p=0,0005 between UC patients (15.25 µmol/L; 13.47 - 19.88 µmol/L, CD patients (14.54 µmol/L; 13.03 -16.32 µmol/L and healthy controls (13.29 µmol/L; 12.40 - 13.92 µmol/L. When active UC and CD patients were compared with inactive UC and CD patients respectively a significant difference in serum NO level was found (p=0.0005. With a cut-off level of 17.39 µmol/L NO had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% in discriminating between active and inactive UC patients. With cut-off value of 14.01 µmol/L serum NO level had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 69% in distinguishing between patients with active CD and inactive CD. Serum NO concentration is a minimally invasive and rapid tool for discriminating between active and inactive IBD patients and could be used as useful biomarker in monitoring of disease activity in IBD patients.

  4. MRI for chronic inflammatory bowel disease; MRT chronisch entzuendlicher Darmerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, H.J.; Hess, T.; Hahmann, M.; Erb, G.; Richter, G.M.; Duex, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik; Elsing, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. IV - Gastroenterologie

    2001-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is diagnosed and monitored by the combination of colonoscopy and small bowel enteroklysis. Magnetic resonance imaging has become the gold standard for the imaging of perirectal and pelvic fistulas. With the advent of ultrafast MRI small and large bowel imaging has become highly attractive and is being advocated more and more in the diagnostic work up of inflammatory bowel disease. Imaging protocols include fast T{sub 1}-weighted gradient echo and T{sub 2}-weighted TSE sequences and oral or rectal bowel distension. Furthermore, dedicated imaging protocols are based on breath-hold imaging under pharmacological bowel paralysis and gastrointestinal MR contrast agents (Hydro-MRI). High diagnostic accuracy can be achieved in Crohn's disease with special reference to the pattern of disease, depth of inflammation, mesenteric reaction, sinus tract depiction and formation of abscess. In ulcerative colitis, the mucosa-related inflammation causes significantly less bowel wall thickening compared to Crohn's disease. Therefore with MRI, the extent of inflammatory changes is always underestimated compared to colonoscopy. According to our experience in more than 200 patients as well as the results in other centers, Hydro-MRI possesses the potential to replace enteroklysis in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and most of the follow-up colonoscopies in Crohn's disease. Further technical improvements in 3D imaging will allow interactive postprocessing of the MR data. (orig.) [German] Zusammenfassung: Die Standardverfahren in der Diagnostik und der Verlaufskontrolle chronisch entzuendlicher Darmerkrankungen, speziell des Morbus Crohn und der Colitis ulcerosa, sind die Koloskopie und das Enteroklysma. Die MRT hat sich dazu ihren festen Platz in der Diagnostik perirektaler Fisteln erobert. Mit schnellen, T{sub 1}-gewichteten Gradienten-Echo-Sequenzen und T{sub 2}-gewichteten Turbo-Spin-Echo-Sequenzen koennen auch Duenn

  5. Strongyloides Colitis as a Harmful Mimicker of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Poveda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoinfection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis frequently becomes a life-long disease unless it is effectively treated. There is overlapping histomorphology between Strongyloides colitis and inflammatory bowel disease; a low index of suspicion can lead to misdiagnosis and fatal consequences. We present a case of Strongyloides colitis mimicking the clinical and pathologic features of inflammatory bowel disease. A 64-year-old female presented to the emergency department with a four-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hematochezia. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse inflammation suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease, which led to initiation of 5-aminosalicylic acid and intravenous methylprednisolone. Biopsies of the colon revealed increased lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate of the lamina propria with eosinophilic microabscesses and presence of larvae, consistent with Strongyloides stercoralis. Immunosuppressive medication was halted. The patient ultimately died a few days later. This case emphasizes the importance of identifying the overlapping clinical and pathologic features of Strongyloides colitis and inflammatory bowel disease. A high index of suspicion and recognition of particular histological findings, including eosinophilic microabscesses, aid in the correct diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis is crucial as each disease carries distinct therapeutic implications and outcome.

  6. Biologic therapy in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Fallingborg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In luminal Crohn's disease with moderate to severe inflammatory activity, infliximab and adalimumab can be used in the case of treatment failure with conventional therapies, such as systemic steroids and immunosuppressive therapy or if this treatment is not tolerated. Further treatment strategy...... depends on the primary response to induction therapy. Effect of maintenance therapy should be evaluated clinically and paraclinically at least every 26-52 weeks, and maybe supplemented by endoscopy or MRI scan. Decision of treatment discontinuation is based on disease manifestation, treatment response...... and paraclinical parameters. In fistulising Crohn's disease, treatment with infliximab or adalimumab can be initiated in simple fistula with rectal inflammation or complex fistula when the initial treatment has insufficient effect. Further treatment strategy depends on the primary response to induction therapy...

  7. MR enterography for assessment and management of small bowel Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian C; Leyendecker, John R

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) utilization has increased for the evaluation of small bowel diseases over the last several years. In addition to performing similarly to computed tomography enterography (CTE) in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease, MRE lacks ionizing radiation, can image the small bowel dynamically, and provides excellent soft tissue contrast resolution. This article reviews imaging protocols for MRE, normal MR imaging appearance of small bowel, and the imaging findings of small bowel Crohn disease. The importance of imaging findings for directing management in patients with small bowel Crohn disease is emphasized throughout. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Probiotics as a promising treatment for inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikov Momir M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is difficult due to the ambiguity surrounding their precise etiology. Complex interaction of genetic, microbial and environmental factors leads to sustained activation of the mucosal immune system resulting in active inflammation. Despite the efficacy of conventional therapy, significant side effects can occur, highlighting the need for novel treatment approaches to IBD. Since gut microflora appears to play a significant role in IBD, manipulation of its composition and activity by administering beneficial bacteria - probiotics, has been identified as a potential therapeutic option. Probiotic bacteria are able to modify and improve the intestinal environment and subsequently reduce the severity of intestinal inflammation associated with IBD. Clinical evidence suggest that probiotics can maintain remission in Ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD but there are no convincing reports on the effectiveness in patients with more severe active forms of IBD. This review will explore various mechanisms how probiotics may affect IBD and summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of probiotics in IBD.

  9. [New advances in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, María

    2013-10-01

    Several studies on conventional drugs and new treatments in inflammatory bowel disease were presented in Digestive Disease Week 2013. Various studies have compared infliximab and cyclosporin in corticosteroid-refractory ulcerative colitis in clinical practice, providing complementary information to the CYSIF clinical trial. For the first time, a clinical trial has evaluated the efficacy of adalimumab in preventing recurrence of Crohn's disease after surgery. The results of some studies suggest that thiopurines improve response to infliximab, in both Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Finally, several studies were presented on new drugs with new therapeutic targets, such as vedolizumab, in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. The preliminary results of the ASTIC trial were reported, which evaluated the safety and efficacy of bone marrow transplantation in Crohn's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges for epigenetic research in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermayer, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The human epigenome may link environmental exposures and commensal microbiota changes to host pathology in respect to the developmental origins of inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis [UC] and Crohn's disease [more appropriately Crohn disease, CD]). Genetic predisposition - prenatal, perinatal and pediatric environmental influences - microbiome aberration (dysbiosis) and immune dysregulation appear to be important elements in disease development, progression and maintenance. The prevalence of combined genetic and epigenetic susceptibility toward UC and CD is calculated herein to be as high as 2%, and approximately 1% for UC and CD in highly developed countries, respectively. This review emphasizes the significant challenges for epigenetic research in inflammatory bowel diseases. Overcoming these challenges, however, could reveal unique opportunities for disease prevention, treatment and possible cure.

  11. News and controversy in inflammatory bowel disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Straforini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of Inflammatory bowel disease comes from many years of esperience, clinical trials and mistakes. Discussion: In patients with active Crohn disease steroids are considerated the first choice, but recently, the introduction of anti-TNF alfa agents (infliximab and adalimumab has changed the protocols. Anti-TNF are also used for closing fistula after surgical curettage. An efficently preventive treatment of Crohn disease still has not been found but hight dose of oral salicylates, azatioprine or 6-MP and antibiotics might be useful. In severe attacks of ulcerative colitis, high dose iv treatment of steroids are required for a few days. Later on, a further treatment with anti- TNF might delay the need of surgery. In patients with mild to moderate attacks of ulcerative colitis, topical treatment is preferred, it consists of enemas, suppositories or foams containing 5-aminosalycilic acid, traditional steroids, topical active steroids. Topical treatment can be associated with oral steroids or oral salicylates. Oral salicylates or azatioprine are used for prevention of relaps.

  12. Dysbiosis in the Pathogenesis of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Donatella Comito; Claudio Romano

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract that occur in genetically susceptible individuals. Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two major types of IBD. In about 20–25% of patients, disease onset is during childhood and pediatric IBD can be considered the best model for studying immunopathogentic mechanisms. The fundamentals of IBD pathogenesis are considered a defective innate immunity and bacterial killing with over...

  13. Role of Rho kinase signal pathway in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yuan; Xiao, Shiyu; Jiang, Quanhang

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is nonspecific inflammation in the intestinal track, including Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). The incidence of IBD has increased significantly, with its numerous rising up to five million globally, more than 1,700,000 in China. Pathological character of IBD is the inflammation of intestinal mucosa and intestinal fibrosis. Although the pathogenesis of the disease has not yet been fully clarified, some evidence suggests that excessive intestin...

  14. Psychological Issues in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sajadinejad, M. S.; Asgari, K.; H Molavi; Kalantari, M.; P ADIBI

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and disabling disease with unknown etiology. There have been some controversies regarding the role of psychological factors in the course of IBD. The purpose of this paper is to review that role. First the evidence on role of stress is reviewed focusing on perceived stress and patients’ beliefs about it in triggering or exacerbating the course of IBD. The possible mechanisms by which stres...

  15. Biologic therapy in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Fallingborg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . Maintenance therapy is often necessary in complex fistulas. Treatment efficacy and possible discontinuation of treatment is evaluated at least every 26-52 weeks - if possibly with diagnostic imaging. In acute severe ulcerative colitis, treatment with infliximab can be used in patients with partial response......In luminal Crohn's disease with moderate to severe inflammatory activity, infliximab and adalimumab can be used in the case of treatment failure with conventional therapies, such as systemic steroids and immunosuppressive therapy or if this treatment is not tolerated. Further treatment strategy...... depends on the primary response to induction therapy. Effect of maintenance therapy should be evaluated clinically and paraclinically at least every 26-52 weeks, and maybe supplemented by endoscopy or MRI scan. Decision of treatment discontinuation is based on disease manifestation, treatment response...

  16. Faecal Calprotectin in Suspected Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degraeuwe, Pieter L. J.; Beld, Monique P. A.; Ashorn, Merja; Canani, Roberto Berni; Day, Andrew S.; Diamanti, Antonella; Fagerberg, Ulrika L.; Henderson, Paul; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Van de Vijver, Els; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Wilson, David C.; Kessels, Alfons G. H.

    Objectives: The diagnostic accuracy of faecal calprotectin (FC) concentration for paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well described at the population level, but not at the individual level. We reassessed the diagnostic accuracy of FC in children with suspected IBD and developed an

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease Cape Town, 1975-1980

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-12

    Feb 12, 1983 ... SA MEDIESE TYDSKRIF DEEL 63 12 FEBRUARIE 1983. 3. Tobias R, Wright JP, Konler RE et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis asso- ciated with inflammatory bowel disease in Cape Town, 197;"'1981. S. Afr Med] 1983; 63: 229-235. 4. Edwards Fe, Truelove Se. The course and prognosis ofulcerative colitis ...

  18. The microbiome and its therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, N.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    While the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) remains unclear, there is substantial evidence for the link between the microbiota and the pathogenesis of IBD. Interest for the application of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) increases, especially now the insight in the intestinal

  19. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in childhood: Best available evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, Johanna C.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Büller, Hans A.; Grand, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    The physician treating children with inflammatory bowel disease is confronted with a number of specific problems, one of them being the lack of randomized, controlled drug trials in children. In this review, the role of nutritional therapy is discussed with a focus on primary treatment, especially

  20. Safety of Tioguanine During Pregnancy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, S.A. van den; Boer, M. de; Meulen-Jong, A.E. van der; Jansen, J.M.; Hoentjen, F.; Russel, M.G.; Mahmmod, N.; Bodegraven, A.A. van; Woude, C.J. van der; Mulder, C.J.; Boer, N.K. de

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Conventional thiopurine [azathioprine and mercaptopurine] treatment during pregnancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is considered to be safe; however data on the safety and teratogenicity of the non-conventional thiopurine tioguanine [TG] in pregnant IBD

  1. Optimizing Care for Pregnant Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Lima (Alison)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis, several important aspects of fertility and pregnancy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients are investigated in a prospective setting. Treating pregnant women with IBD remains challenging, because the optimal balance between optimal maternal care and fetal

  2. Characteristics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Three Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to two chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract which is generally believed to be rare in most African countries. The objectives of the current study were to present the experience of three tertiary gastroenterology centers in southern part of Nigeria on ...

  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Child with Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Alqoaer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia (SCA is a chronic haemoglobinopathy that can affect many organs in the body including gastrointestinal tract. However, colonic involvement is very rare and usually in the form of ischemic colitis. We are reporting an 11-year-old Saudi girl with SCA who presented with persistent diarrhea and was found to have inflammaftory bowel disease.

  4. Neuroimmune regulation of inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnierse, Anneke

    2006-01-01

    The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is used to describe chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. Patients suffer from abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding and a substantial personal burden. The etiology of IBD is gradually being unraveled but remains a complex

  5. Perceptions of medication safety among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Garret

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards and knowledge of medication safety in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD patients frequently require long-term treatment with potentially toxic medications. Techniques are employed to improve patient awareness of medication safety, but there are sparse data on their effectiveness.

  6. Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis of obstructive bowel disease: A retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Heydanus (Rogier); M.C. Spaargaren; J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractFetal obstructive bowel disease was diagnosed in 29 patients at 22–37 weeks (median 32 weeks) of gestation, seven (24 per cent) of whom also displayed other anomalies. Polyhydramnios was present in 20/29 cases (69 per cent). An abnormal karyotype existed in 7/29 cases (24 per cent), of

  7. Drug Repositioning in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Based on Genetic Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collij, Valerie; Festen, Eleonora A. M.; Alberts, Rudi; Weersma, Rinse K.

    2016-01-01

    Background:Currently, 200 genetic risk loci have been identified for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although these findings have significantly advanced our insight into IBD biology, there has been little progress in translating this knowledge toward clinical practice, like more cost-efficient

  8. High frequency of early colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M. W. M. D.; Vleggaar, F. P.; Schipper, M. E. I.; Stokkers, P. C. F.; van der Woude, C. J.; Hommes, D. W.; de Jong, D. J.; Dijkstra, G.; van Bodegraven, A. A.; Oldenburg, B.; Samsom, M.

    Background and aim: To detect precancerous dysplasia or asymptomatic cancer, patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease often undergo colonoscopic surveillance based on American or British guidelines. It is recommended that surveillance is initiated after 8-10 years of extensive colitis, or

  9. Projective personality tests of children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, V; Szajnberg, N M; Hyams, J S; Treem, W P; Davis, P

    1995-06-01

    15 children with inflammatory bowel disease were given projective tests after initial diagnosis. Analysis of responses suggested affective constriction, abandonment anxiety, and depression. The children were of good intelligence with good object relationships and psychosexual differentiation for their ages. Severe psychopathology and bizarre slippage were absent.

  10. Faecal and serum metabolomics in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolho, K.L.; Pessia, Alberto; Jaakkola, T.; Vos, de W.M.; Velagapudi, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Background:

    Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is considered to result from the interplay between host and intestinal microbiota but its pathogenesis is incompletely understood. While IBD in adults has shown to be associated with marked changes in body fluid metabolomics, there are only few

  11. Thrombospondin-1 and VEGF in inflammatory bowel disease | Alkim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and aim: Angiogenesis is an important process in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. We aimed to study the angiogeneic balance in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by evaluating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) on colonic epithelial cells, ...

  12. Antidepressants in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macer, Benjamin J D; Prady, Stephanie L; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina

    2017-04-01

    Antidepressants are commonly used to treat symptoms of anxiety and depression in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies suggest a link between IBD activity and an individual's emotional state which raises the possibility that antidepressants may potentially modify the disease course of IBD. This systematic review thus primarily aims to evaluate the efficacy of antidepressants on IBD activity, and secondarily, on anxiety and depression. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane (IBD Group), CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, and OpenGrey were searched from 1990 onward with no restrictions on study design. A quality appraisal was conducted using several scales as appropriate for each study design. A narrative synthesis was also conducted. Fifteen eligible studies included in the review (1 randomized controlled trial, 2 cohorts, 1 case-control, 1 cross-sectional survey, 1 qualitative, 2 audits, 1 case series, and 6 case reports) examined a range of antidepressants. Twelve studies suggested that antidepressants have a positive impact on IBD course. Nine studies reported anxiety and depression as an outcome, of these 8 reported beneficial effects of antidepressants. Most of the studies were deemed to be at low risk of bias, apart from the case reports, which were at high risk of bias. This research indicates that antidepressants may have a beneficial effect on IBD course. However, it is currently not possible to determine their efficacy for certain because of the lack of randomized trials. Further trials using objective measures of IBD activity, longer follow-up periods, and larger sample sizes are needed.

  13. Job Strain and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Madsen, Ida E H; Nyberg, Solja T

    2014-01-01

    -Work Consortium. Work-related psychosocial stress was operationalised as job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) and was self-reported at baseline. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were ascertained from national hospitalisation and drug reimbursement registers. The associations...... between job strain and inflammatory bowel disease outcomes were modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. The study-specific results were combined in random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of the 95,379 participants who were free of inflammatory bowel disease at baseline, 111 men and women...... developed Crohn's disease and 414 developed ulcerative colitis during follow-up. Job strain at baseline was not associated with incident Crohn's disease (multivariable-adjusted random effects hazard ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.43) or ulcerative colitis (hazard ratio: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.76, 1...

  14. Thromboembolism as an important complication of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Lize; Vande Casteele, Niels; Ballet, Vera; van Assche, Gert; Ferrante, Marc; Vermeire, Séverine; Gils, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher risk of developing thromboembolic events (TE) compared with the healthy population. This study aimed to describe a cohort of IBD patients with a history of TE focusing on recurrence of TE, disease activity and IBD medication at the time of TE and surgery before TE. In a retrospective monocentric cohort study, we included IBD patients in whom an arterial and/or venous TE occurred. Eighty-four IBD patients with a history of TE (63% Crohn's disease, 44% men) and a mean age of 45±15 years were included; 25/84 patients (30%) were identified to have recurrent TE. Seventy out of 84 (83%) developed a venous TE, with a deep vein thrombosis as the major manifestation (28/70, 40%), followed by a pulmonary embolism (16/70, 23%). At the time of TE, 60/84 (71%) patients were diagnosed with active disease. In all, 23% patients were on 5-aminosalicylic acids, 36% on steroids, 18% on azathioprine, 5% on methotrexate, 12% on biologicals and 23% were not receiving specific IBD treatment. Moreover, within a 6-month period preceding the TE, 28/84 (33%) patients underwent surgery, of whom 17% received thromboprophylaxis at hospital discharge. We confirm the association between disease activity and the occurrence of TE. A substantial number of patients had additional risk factors such as recurrence of TE. In all, 36% received steroids at the time of TE and 33% underwent recent surgery, of whom only a minority received thromboprophylaxis at hospital discharge. Further efforts are required to increase thromboprophylaxis in at-risk patients.

  15. Treatment of the Pregnant Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Rachel; Nørgård, Bente M; Friedman, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Research regarding fertility, medication safety, and pregnancy outcomes is increasing, but there are still many knowledge gaps in these areas. Women with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may have decreased fertility because of voluntary childlessness and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) surgery, and women with Crohn's disease may also have decreased ovarian reserve. Initial studies show that in vitro fertilization is a viable option, and laparoscopic ileoanal pouch anastomosis surgery improves fertility rates. Additional research is needed on the effect of disease activity on fertility and on the rates of pregnancy loss and ectopic pregnancies. We do not know how to reliably measure disease activity during pregnancy or the effect of pregnancy on the microbiome. Although immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor medications are relatively safe during pregnancy, the long-term effects of these medications on the child are unknown. The recommended mode of delivery is still debated, especially for women after ileoanal pouch anastomosis. There are multiple studies on the relative safety of immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor medications during pregnancy, and we know how to safely treat a pregnant patient with a disease flare. The best way to manage women with IBD who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy is a multidisciplinary approach. Team members often include a gastroenterologist, a high-risk obstetrician, an infertility specialist, a colorectal surgeon, and a pediatrician with experience in caring for children of mothers with IBD. By integrating expertise from these disciplines, women with even very complex IBD should be able to have a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

  16. Outcomes after laparoscopic surgery in children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Ivan R; Gerstle, J Ted; Kim, Peter C W; Langer, Jacob C

    2010-11-01

    The utility and efficacy of the laparoscopic approach to the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children are not clearly known. We conducted a retrospective descriptive cohort study of children with a diagnosis of IBD who underwent a laparoscopic or laparoscopy-assisted procedure at a quaternary pediatric referral center between 1999 and 2007. One-hundred thirty-six children underwent 154 operations (85 small bowel/ileocolic and 69 colorectal) over the 8 years of the study. Median age was 14.8 years (range = 1.8-18.8). The diagnosis was Crohn's disease in 83, ulcerative colitis in 50, and indeterminate colitis in 3. Median time to regular diet was 5 days (range = 1-19), and median postoperative stay was 7 days (range = 1-70). Seven patients undergoing a small bowel/ileocolic resection (8.2%) were converted to an open procedure. Overall morbidity for the small bowel/ileocolic procedures was 27.1%. The conversion rate during subtotal colectomy (STC) was 7.1% (3/42), and it was 0% for the 22 patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedures. Overall morbidity associated with STC was 62.8%, and following IPAA it was 63.6%. Sixteen percent (7/69) of those who underwent a colorectal procedure developed a late postoperative bowel obstruction with three patients requiring operative intervention. A laparoscopic approach is feasible with a low conversion rate in most children with IBD. Despite superior cosmesis, perioperative morbidity is similar to that seen with open procedures. Laparoscopic colorectal IBD procedures are associated with an unexpectedly high incidence of postoperative bowel obstruction, although the rates are comparable to those seen with open surgery.

  17. Small Bowel Ultrasound beyond Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Review of the Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcoli, Federica; Zilli, Alessandra; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2017-09-01

    The use of bowel ultrasonography (US) for the evaluation of gut diseases has increased in recent years and has been proven to provide a widely available, non-invasive and inexpensive method for the initial work-up and follow-up of different intestinal diseases, limited mostly by technical challenges posed by the patient's anatomy. The present review aims to provide an extensive overview of the main pathologic features at US examination of intestinal diseases other than inflammatory bowel disease, both acute (e.g., acute appendicitis, colonic diverticulitis, infectious diseases and ischemic conditions) and chronic (e.g., celiac disease, cystic fibrosis and other enterocolites). The identification of typical US features may help in the diagnostic process and guide the treatment approach. Therefore, the application of knowledge of the US appearance of gastrointestinal diseases is of relevance in enabling greater diagnostic performance and better patient management. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Amino Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Wang, Xiuying; Hu, Chien-An Andy

    2017-08-23

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and is difficult to treat. The pathophysiology of IBD is multifactorial and not completely understood, but genetic components, dysregulated immune responses, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators are known to be involved. Animal models of IBD can be chemically induced, and are used to study etiology and to evaluate potential treatments of IBD. Currently available IBD treatments can decrease the duration of active disease but because of their adverse effects, the search for novel therapeutic strategies that can restore intestinal homeostasis continues. This review summarizes and discusses what is currently known of the effects of amino acids on the reduction of inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death in the gut when IBD is present. Recent studies in animal models have identified dietary amino acids that improve IBD, but amino acid supplementation may not be adequate to replace conventional therapy. The animal models used in dietary amino acid research in IBD are described.

  19. Self-medication with steroids in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe, Virginie; Allen, Patrick B; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The self-prescribing rates of corticosteroids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients treated with biologicals are unknown. To investigate the frequency and modalities of self-medication with steroids in adult IBD patients. Patients with IBD who attended Nancy University Hospital between November 2012 and May 2013 were included in the study. Patients were interviewed using an 11 item questionnaire. 100 patients participated in the survey. In total 15 patients (15%) had already used corticosteroids without medical prescription since their IBD diagnosis and 4 patients of them (27%) used steroids as self-medication while on anti-TNF treatment. The mean total duration of corticosteroid treatment was 24 days (range 1.5-105). In total 4 patients (27%) used corticosteroids more than 10 times without medical prescription (range 1-20). The two main reasons were the need for quick relief of symptoms (n=6) and the unwillingness to consult a physician (n=3). A relatively high proportion of patients with IBD use corticosteroids without medical prescription. Due to their side effects, self-medication may include 'steroid dependency' as it may reflect uncontrolled disease. As steroids have significant side effects and patients may have active disease it is important to counsel patients and to monitor their self-prescribing patterns in IBD patients. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Physical Exercise in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bilski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed and analyzed the relationship between physical exercise and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD which covers a group of chronic, relapsing, and remitting intestinal disorders including Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis. The etiology of IBD likely involves a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors. Physical training has been suggested to be protective against the onset of IBD, but there are inconsistencies in the findings of the published literature. Hypertrophy of the mesenteric white adipose tissue (mWAT is recognized as a characteristic feature of CD, but its importance for the perpetuation of onset of this intestinal disease is unknown. Adipocytes synthesize proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Hypertrophy of mWAT could play a role as a barrier to the inflammatory process, but recent data suggest that deregulation of adipokine secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of CD. Adipocytokines and macrophage mediators perpetuate the intestinal inflammatory process, leading to mucosal ulcerations along the mesenteric border, a typical feature of CD. Contracting skeletal muscles release biologically active myokines, known to exert the direct anti-inflammatory effects, and inhibit the release of proinflammatory mediators from visceral fat. Further research is required to confirm these observations and establish exercise regimes for IBD patients.

  1. Marijuana use patterns among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikoff Allegretti, Jessica; Courtwright, Andrew; Lucci, Matthew; Korzenik, Joshua R; Levine, Jonathan

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence and perceived effectiveness of marijuana use has not been well studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) despite increasing legal permission for its use in Crohn's disease. Health care providers have little guidance about the IBD symptoms that may improve with marijuana use. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, sociodemographic characteristics, and perceived benefits of marijuana use among patients with IBD. Prospective cohort survey study of marijuana use patterns in patients with IBD at an academic medical center. A total of 292 patients completed the survey (response rate = 94%); 12.3% of patients were active marijuana users, 39.0% were past users, and 48.6% were never users. Among current and past users, 16.4% of patients used marijuana for disease symptoms, the majority of whom felt that marijuana was "very helpful" for relief of abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. On multivariate analysis, age and chronic abdominal pain were associated with current marijuana use (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-0.97; P marijuana (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.97; P marijuana for abdominal pain, were it legally available. A significant number of patients with IBD currently use marijuana. Most patients find it very helpful for symptom control, including patients with ulcerative colitis, who are currently excluded from medical marijuana laws. Clinical trials are needed to determine marijuana's potential as an IBD therapy and to guide prescribing decisions.

  2. Role of interleukin-22 in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Jing; Gong, Chen; Zhao, Mei-Hua; Feng, Bai-Sui

    2014-12-28

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease thought to be mediated by the microbiota of the intestinal lumen and inappropriate immune responses. Aberrant immune responses can cause secretion of harmful cytokines that destroy the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to further inflammation. Interleukin (IL)-22 is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines that was recently discovered to be mainly produced by both adaptive and innate immune cells. Several cytokines and many of the transcriptional factors and T regulatory cells are known to regulate IL-22 expression through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling cascades. This cytokine induces antimicrobial molecules and proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, which help prevent tissue damage and aid in its repair. All of these processes play a beneficial role in IBD by enhancing intestinal barrier integrity and epithelial innate immunity. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the involvement of IL-22 in the pathogenesis of IBD, as well as its therapeutic potential.

  3. Bioactive dietary peptides and amino acids in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Hu, Chien-An A; Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Mine, Yoshinori

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), most commonly ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients affected with IBD experience symptoms including abdominal pain, persistent diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. There is no cure for IBD; thus treatments typically focus on preventing complications, inducing and maintaining remission, and improving quality of life. During IBD, dysregulation of the intestinal immune system leads to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, and recruitment of activated immune cells to the intestine, causing tissue damage and perpetuating the inflammatory response. Recent biological therapies targeting specific inflammatory cytokines or pathways, in particular TNF-α, have shown promise, but not all patients respond to treatment, and some individuals become intolerant to treatment over time. Dietary peptides and amino acids (AAs) have been shown to modulate intestinal immune functions and influence inflammatory responses, and may be useful as alternative or ancillary treatments in IBD. This review focuses on dietary interventions for IBD treatment, in particular the role of dietary peptides and AAs in reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the gut, as well as recent advances in the cellular mechanisms responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Epidemiology of hidradenitis suppurativa and inflammatory bowel disease: are these two disease associated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Boquete, L; Romaní, J; Carrión, L; Marín-Jiménez, I

    2016-09-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa and inflammatory bowel disease are chronic inflammatory diseases mainly affecting young people. Their aetiology is complex and multifactorial and numerous case series have shown that the two diseases can manifest concurrently, although the strength of this association varies widely among distinct reports. An additional problem is the difficulty of distinguishing between cutaneous Crohn disease and hidradenitis. In the last few years, epidemiological cohort studies have revealed that 1.2%-23% of inflammatory bowel disease patients also have hidradenitis suppurativa. This wide variability is influenced by geographical variables and the biases inherent in the distinct data collection methods, among other factors. There is a clear predominance of Crohn disease over ulcerative colitis. When hidradenitis suppurativa and inflammatory bowel disease manifest concurrently, the bowel disease is more severe and shows a predominance of colon involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Extraintestinal manifestations occur rather frequently in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), e.g. ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The present paper provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, and management of rheumatic......, metabolic, dermatologic (mucocutaneous), ophthalmologic, hepatobiliary, hematologic, thromboembolic, urinary tract, pulmonary, and pancreatic extraintestinal manifestations related to IBD. Articles were identified through search of the PubMed and Embase databases, the Cochrane Library, and the web sites...... of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (cut-off date October 2009). The search terms 'Crohn's disease', 'inflammatory bowel disease', or 'ulcerative colitis' were combined with the terms 'adalimumab', 'anemia', 'arthritis...

  6. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passes through the large intestine too slowly. Bowel incontinence is a problem controlling your bowel movements. Other abnormalities with bowel movements may be a sign of a digestive problem. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  7. Venous thrombosis and prothrombotic factors in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Fernando; Soares, João-Bruno; Fernandes, Dália

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may have an increased risk of venous thrombosis (VTE). PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus were searched to identify studies investigating the risk of VTE and the prevalence of acquired and genetic VTE risk factors and prothrombotic abnormalities in IBD. Overall, IBD patients have a two- to fourfold increased risk of VTE compared with healthy controls, with an overall incidence rate of 1%-8%. The majority of studies did not show significant differences in the risk of VTE between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Several acquired factors are responsible for the increased risk of VTE in IBD: inflammatory activity, hospitalisation, surgery, pregnancy, disease phenotype (e.g., fistulising disease, colonic involvement and extensive involvement) and drug therapy (mainly steroids). There is also convincing evidence from basic science and from clinical and epidemiological studies that IBD is associated with several prothrombotic abnormalities, including initiation of the coagulation system, downregulation of natural anticoagulant mechanisms, impairment of fibrinolysis, increased platelet count and reactivity and dysfunction of the endothelium. Classical genetic alterations are not generally found more often in IBD patients than in non-IBD patients, suggesting that genetics does not explain the greater risk of VTE in these patients. IBD VTE may have clinical specificities, namely an earlier first episode of VTE in life, high recurrence rate, decreased efficacy of some drugs in preventing further episodes and poor prognosis. Clinicians should be aware of these risks, and adequate prophylactic actions should be taken in patients who have disease activity, are hospitalised, are submitted to surgery or are undergoing treatment. PMID:24803797

  8. [Follow-up of patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Santiago

    2013-10-01

    Multiple data were presented on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Digestive Disease Week (DDW). Of particular interest to gastroenterologists were those on novel treatments and information on safety. Other data, such as those relating to disease "follow-up", were possibly of lesser interest. However, the information reported this year was, in my opinion, highly important, because it could lead to significant changes in clinical practice. Thus, results presented strongly suggest that patients with asymptomatic IBD, specifically Crohn's disease (CD), often develop complications during their clinical course. Moreover, this is especially true in patients with CD and biological signs of inflammation, despite being asymptomatic. In addition, it seems clear that the absence of symptoms does not imply an absence of inflammation. These observations indicate a dual practical message: patients should be followed-up and objectively evaluated. Multiple data were presented on how to objectively evaluate disease activity in IBD. The prognostic value and objectivity of endoscopy has been reaffirmed, specifically with new data on the only validated index, the UCEIS, in ulcerative colitis. Together with endoscopy, the role of less invasive techniques such as imaging tests (magnetic resonance enterography, computed tomography enterography and even echography, with and without contrast agent) and fecal markers has been reaffirmed in several conditions and these techniques have a certain predictive value. Finally, many studies were reported that confirm the therapeutic activity of levels of anti-TNF and its antibodies in certain conditions and with some limitations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Epigenetics and the Developmental Origins of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kellermayer, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The gut microbiota, the intestinal mucosa and the host immune system are among the large biological networks involved in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Host genetics and environmental factors can significantly modulate the interactive relationships among these biological systems and influence predilection toward IBD. High monozygotic twin discordance rates and the rapid rise in the prevalence of IBD indicate ...

  10. Toward an antifibrotic therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a largely unresolved clinical problem. Despite recent advances in anti-inflammatory therapies over the last few decades, the occurrence of intestinal strictures in Crohn’s disease patients has not significantly changed. No antifibrotic therapies are available. This journal supplement will address novel mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis, biomarker and imaging techniques and is intended to provide a roadmap toward antifibrotic therapies in IBD.

  11. Transabdominal ultrasound for standardized measurement of bowel wall thickness in normal children and those with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorean, Liliana; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Braden, Barbara; Cui, XinWu; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2014-12-01

    The intestinal wall can be visualized using high resolution transabdominal ultrasound (TUS). TTUS measurement of the bowel wall thickness has been described in adults but data are lacking in children. The purpose of this prospective study was to sonographically investigate bowel wall thickness in healthy children and children with Crohn's disease. TUS (5-15 MHz) of the intestine was performed in 58 healthy children (age range 3 to 16 years) and in 30 children with Crohn's disease (age range 8 to 17 years). The following regions were assessed and bowel wall thickness measured: terminal ileum, cecum, right flexure, and sigmoid colon. In patients with Crohn's disease, the involved region was additionally assessed regarding length of involved segment and sonographic signs of transmural inflammation and fistula. TUS allowed adequate measurement of bowel wall thickness in all 58 healthy children (100%) and in all 30 Crohn's disease patients (100%). The bowel wall thickness significantly differed between groups. Bowel wall thickness (mean +/- SD) in all segments was less then 2 mm in all healthy children (1.0+/-0.1 mm terminal ileum, 1.1+/-0.1 mm cecum, 1.1+/-0.1 mm right flexure, and 1.3+/-0.1 mm sigmoid colon). In Crohn's disease patients, bowel wall thickness was ≥ 3 mm in the ileocecal region and was significantly increased (5.1+/-1.9 mm) compared to the healthy children. The mean length of involved segment was 15+/-6.5 cm [5 - 30 cm]. Additional findings in Crohn's disease patients were: transmural inflamation (3/30), interenteric fistula (3/30), gastrocolic fistula (1/30) and vesicoenteric fistula (1/30). Similar to adults, normal bowel wall thickness in children is always less than 2 mm. In all patients with Crohn's disease, increased bowel wall thickness could be detected. TUS is a helpful tool in the diagnosis and assessment of activity and complications in Crohn's disease.

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease in relation to contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engkilde, Kåre; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has previously been investigated with relation to allergic conditions; however, diverging results were found and there are only a few small studies focusing on delayed hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether...... number. The patients were patch tested at a dermatology department with a long history of research in CA. By record linking with the Danish National Patient Registry, patients were identified who had either an International Classification of Disease (ICD) code for Crohn's disease (CD) or an ICD code...... be that having either disease result in skewness of the immune system might lead to an inverse disease association....

  13. Detection And Identification Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, J. A.; Ouaret, N.; Gardner, J. W.; Nwokolo, C.; Bardhan, K. D.; Arasaradnam, R. P.

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammation of the lining of the human bowel and a major health issue in Europe. IBD carries with it significant morbidity from toxic treatment, surgery and a risk of developing bowel cancer. Thus there is a need for early identification of the disease using non-invasive tests. Present diagnostic techniques are based around invasive tests (i.e. endoscopy) and laboratory culture; the latter is limited as only 50% of the gut bacteria can be identified. Here we explore the use of an e-nose as a tool to detect and identify two IBDs (i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) & Ulcerative Colitis (UC)) based on headspace analysis from urine samples. We believe that the gut bacterial flora is altered by disease (due to fermentation) that in-turn modulates the gas composition within urine samples. 24 samples (9 CD, 6 UC, 9 controls) were analysed with an in-house e-nose and an Owlstone IMS instrument. Data analysis was performed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA and principal components analysis (PCA). Using the e-nose, LDA separates both disease groups and control, whilst PCA shows a small overlap of classes. The IMS data are more complex but shows some disease/control separation. We are presently collecting further samples for a larger study using more advanced data processing methods.

  14. Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease--therapeutic rationale and role.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2012-02-03

    The intestinal flora has a conditioning effect on intestinal homeostasis, delivering regulatory signals to the epithelium, the mucosal immune system and to the neuromuscular activity of the gut. Beneficial metabolic activities of the enteric flora include nutrient production, metabolism of dietary carcinogens, conversion of prodrugs to active drugs. However, increasing evidence suggests that some components of the enteric flora are essential ingredients in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); this has prompted interest in therapeutic manipulation of the flora with probiotics. Probiotics are biologic control agents-described as live microbial food supplements which confer a health benefit beyond inherent basic nutrition. Multiple potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the probiotic use of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and other non-pathogenic commensals. At present, much of the promise of probiotics remains outside the realm of evidence-based medicine and awaits the results of prospective trials, now underway. No reliable in vitro predictors of in vivo efficacy of putative probiotics have been identified. Rigorous comparisons of probiotic performance have not been performed and the suitability of a given probiotic for different individuals is largely unexplored. Notwithstanding, an improved understanding of the normal commensal flora and host-flora interactions has the potential to open up new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory disorders of the gut.

  15. Self-managed eHealth Disease Monitoring in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Katrine; Jakobsen, Christian; Houen, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of eHealth on disease activity, the need for hospital contacts, and medical adherence in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Furthermore, to assess eHealth's influence on school attendance and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Patients...... with IBD, 10 to 17 years attending a public university hospital, were prospectively randomized to a 2-year open label case-controlled eHealth intervention. The eHealth-group used the web-application young.constant-care.com (YCC) on a monthly basis and in case of flare-ups, and were seen at one annual...... of the patients or parents felt unsafe using the eHealth system. CONCLUSIONS: The use of eHealth in children and adolescents with IBD is feasible, does not lead to impaired disease control, and can be managed by the patients without risk of increased disease activity....

  16. Risk factors for tuberculosis in inflammatory bowel disease: anti-tumor necrosis factor and hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Riestra

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine risk factors for active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: Retrospective, case-control study at 4 referral hospitals in Spain. Cases developed tuberculosis after a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Controls were inflammatory bowel disease patients who did not develop tuberculosis. For each case, we randomly selected 3 controls matched for sex, age (within 5 years and time of inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis (within 3 years. Inflammatory bowel disease characteristics, candidate risk factors for tuberculosis and information about the tuberculosis episode were recorded. Multivariate analysis and a Chi-squared automatic interaction detector were used. Results: Thirty-four cases and 102 controls were included. Nine of the 34 cases developed active tuberculosis between 1989 and 1999, and 25 became ill between 2000 and 2012. Multivariate regression showed an association between active tuberculosis and anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor therapy in the previous 12 months (OR 7.45; 95% CI, 2.39-23.12; p = 0.001; hospitalization in the previous 6 months (OR 4.38; 95% CI, 1.18-16.20; p = 0.027; and albumin levels (OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95; p = 0.001. The median time between the start of biologic therapy and the onset of active tuberculosis was 13 (interquartile range, 1-58 months. Tuberculosis developed after a year of anti-TNF therapy in 53%, and late reactivation occurred in at least 3 of 8 patients. Conclusions: The main risks factors for developing tuberculosis were anti-TNF therapy and hospitalization. Over half the cases related to anti-TNF treatment occurred after a year.

  17. Risk factors for gallstones and kidney stones in a cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagagnini, Stefania; Heinrich, Henriette; Rossel, Jean-Benoît; Biedermann, Luc; Frei, Pascal; Zeitz, Jonas; Spalinger, Marianne; Battegay, Edouard; Zimmerli, Lukas; Vavricka, Stephan R; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael; Misselwitz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Gallstones and kidney stones are known complications of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Risk factors have been insufficiently studied and explanatory studies date back up to 30 years. It remains unclear, whether improved treatment options also influenced risk factors for these complications. Identifying risk factors for gallstones and kidney stones in IBD patients. Using data from the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study we assessed associations of diseases characteristics with gallstones and kidney stones in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Out of 2323 IBD patients, 104 (7.8%) Crohn's disease (CD) and 38 (3.8%) ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed with gallstones. Significant risk factors for gallstones were diagnosis of CD, age at diagnosis, disease activity and duration, NSAID intake, extra-intestinal manifestations and intestinal surgery. Kidney stones were described in 61 (4.6%) CD and 30 (3.0%) UC patients. Male gender, disease activity, intestinal surgery, NSAID usage and reduced physical activity were significant risk factors. Hospitalization was associated with gallstones and kidney stones. The presence of gallstones increased the risk for kidney stones (OR 4.87, p<0.001). The diagnosis of CD, intestinal surgery, prolonged NSAID use, disease activity and duration and bowel stenosis were significantly associated with cholecystonephrolithiasis in IBD.

  18. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Joint Management in Gastroenterology and Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, M A; Garcia-Planella, E; Laiz, A; Puig, L

    2017-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex entity that includes Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. It is characterized by a chronic proinflammatory state of varying intensity that often leads to considerable morbidity. In the last decade, several therapeutic targets have been identified that are susceptible to the use of biological agents, including anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies, which are associated with paradoxical psoriasiform reactions in 5% of patients. Decision-making in the management of these cases requires close collaboration between the dermatologist and gastroenterologist. Inflammatory bowel disease is also associated with various other dermatologic and rheumatologic manifestations, and presents a genetic and pathogenic association with psoriasis that justifies both the interdisciplinary approach to these patients and the present review. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Caloric requirements in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barot, L R; Rombeau, J L; Feurer, I D; Mullen, J L

    1982-01-01

    Measured resting energy expenditure (REE) was compared to predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE) in 35 consecutive patients with nonseptic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 20 healthy volunteers. Patients with IBD were groups greater or less than 90% ideal body weight (IBW). The BEE in kcal/day was found to be equivalent to the measured REE in both patient groups. It is suggested that the BEE be used to determine caloric requirements in nonseptic patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Patients less than 90% IBW had significantly higher measured energy expenditure (26.4 +/- 1.0) per kg body weight than either controls (21.2 +/- 0.7) or patients greater than or equal to 90% IBW (21.2 +/- 0.8), p less than 0.001. It is suggested that this increased expenditure is due to a combined effect of weight loss and intrinsic disease. PMID:7055399

  20. Review article: complementary and alternative therapies for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmead, L; Rampton, D S

    2006-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional western medicine. Despite a lack of scientific data in the form of controlled trials for either efficacy or safety of complementary and alternative medicine, use by patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly of herbal therapies, is widespread and increasing. There is limited controlled evidence indicating efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata and bovine colostrum enemas in ulcerative colitis. Encouraging results have also been reported in small studies of acupuncture for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Contrary to popular belief, natural therapies are not necessarily safe: fatal hepatic and irreversible renal failure have occurred with some preparations and interactions with conventional drugs are potentially dangerous. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of complementary and alternative approaches in inflammatory bowel disease, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  1. Antimicrobial proteins in intestine and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Mogg

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal surface of the intestinal tract is continuously exposed to a large number of microorganisms. To manage the substantial microbial exposure, epithelial surfaces produce a diverse arsenal of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) that directly kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Thus, AMPs are important components of innate immunity in the gut mucosa. They are frequently expressed in response to colonic inflammation and infection. Expression of many AMPs, including human β-defensin 2-4 and cathelicidin, is induced in response to invasion of pathogens or enteric microbiota into the mucosal barrier. In contrast, some AMPs, including human α-defensin 5-6 and human β-defensin 1, are constitutively expressed without microbial contact or invasion. In addition, specific AMPs are reported to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to altered expression of AMPs or development of autoantibodies against AMPs. The advanced knowledge for AMPs expression in IBD can lead to its potential use as biomarkers for disease activity. Although the administration of exogenous AMPs as therapeutic strategies against IBD is still at an early stage of development, augmented induction of endogenous AMPs may be another interesting future research direction for the protective and therapeutic purposes. This review discusses new advances in our understanding of how intestinal AMPs protect against pathogens and contribute to pathophysiology of IBD.

  2. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: From Clostridium difficile to Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Robert J; Moss, Alan C

    2017-04-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved from a case report in the medical literature to the basis of major innovations in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and, potentially, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the clinical setting, FMT was noted to significantly lower the risk of recurrent CDI, likely by increasing microbial diversity and altering the metabolic environment in the intestinal tract of recipients. In parallel, advances in the ability to quantify and characterize microbial communities in fecal samples led to the association of IBD with a state of intestinal dysbiosis. Consequently, a number of case series and randomized, controlled trials have evaluated FMT in treating active ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Unlike in CDI, the efficacy of FMT in the treatment of IBD appears to be influenced by a number of factors, including donor microbial profiles, inflammatory burden, and the microbial diversity of the recipient. The therapeutic potential of the microbiome has led to a number of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies isolating specific strains from healthy stool for use as targeted therapies for IBD in clinical trials. Ongoing studies are likely to determine the missing link between the efficacy of FMT and its impact on microbial communities and mucosal inflammation.

  3. [Pregnancy and inflammatory bowel disease: experience in 17 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara A, María Teresa; Rey G, Paula

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a peak incidence between 15 and 25 years of age, thereby affecting women of reproductive age. Fertility rates with inactive IBD are similar to the general population, and drugs currently used, with the exception of methotrexate and thalidomide, have a good safety and efficacy profile during pregnancy. Starting a pregnancy with inactive IBD significantly reduces the potential maternal and fetal complications. To assess the evolution of pregnancy and the underlying disease in women with IBD. Retrospective and prospective study of female patients with IBD controlled in our hospital who became pregnant from January 1994 to February, 2011. We followed 17 patients with a total of 19 pregnancies. In two patients the onset of IBD occurred during pregnancy and from the remaining, 11 patients became pregnant during remission of IBD. Most of the patients continued the same treatment during pregnancy and the few flares that occurred were treated satisfactorily. Major complications occurred in three patients, all associated with IBD activity. Fifteen patients had full-term deliveries and the majority of the newborns had normal weight and Apgar score. None had malformations. Pregnancies among patients with an inactive IBD, have a good evolution. A multidisciplinary approach and patient education are invaluable to achieve these good results.

  4. Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, N P; Montgomery, S M; Pounder, R E; Wakefield, A J

    1995-04-29

    Measles virus may persist in intestinal tissue, particularly that affected by Crohn's disease, and early exposure to measles may be a risk factor for the development of Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur in the same families and may share a common aetiology. In view of the rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), we examined the impact of measles vaccination upon these conditions. Prevalences of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, coeliac disease, and peptic ulceration were determined in 3545 people who had received live measles vaccine in 1964 as part of a measles vaccine trial. A longitudinal birth cohort of 11,407 subjects was one unvaccinated comparison cohort, and 2541 partners of those vaccinated was another. Compared with the birth cohort, the relative risk of developing Crohn's disease in the vaccinated group was 3.01 (95% CI 1.45-6.23) and of developing ulcerative colitis was 2.53 (1.15-5.58). There was no significant difference between these two groups in coeliac disease prevalence. Increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, but not coeliac disease or peptic ulceration, was found in the vaccinated cohort compared with their partners. These findings suggest that measles virus may play a part in the development not only of Crohn's disease but also of ulcerative colitis.

  5. The gut microbiota in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi eGkouskou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestine and the intestinal immune system have evolved through a symbiotic homeostasis under which a highly diverse microbial flora is maintained in the gastrointestinal tract while pathogenic bacteria are recognized and eliminated. Disruption of the balance between the immune system and the gut microbiota results in the development of multiple pathologies in humans. Inflammatory bowel diseases have been associated with alterations in the composition of intestinal flora but whether these changes are causal or result of inflammation is still under dispute. Various chemical and genetic models of inflammatory bowel diseases have been developed and utilized to elucidate the complex relationship between intestinal epithelium, immune system and the gut microbiota. In this review we describe some of the most commonly used mouse models of colitis and Crohn’s disease and summarize the current knowledge of how changes in microbiota composition may affect intestinal disease pathogenesis. The pursuit of gut-microbiota interactions will no doubt continue to provide invaluable insight into the complex biology of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  6. Cytomegalovirus, inflammatory bowel disease, and anti-TNFα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sara T; Portela, Francisco A; Tomé, Luís

    2017-05-01

    Anti-TNFα agents emerged in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as an effective option in situations that, otherwise, would be refractory to medical therapy. Cytomegalovirus infection may present with a high spectrum of manifestations and lead to high morbidity and mortality. However, its clinical significance in IBD course remains unknown and data on its association with anti-TNFα are limited. This study aims to evaluate cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection/disease in patients with IBD treated with anti-TNFα; if possible, possible risk factors associated with CMV infection/disease in IBD patients under anti-TNFα as well as the influence of CMV infection/disease in IBD course would be determined. During three consecutive years, all IBD patients starting infliximab in our department were included. Cytomegalovirus status before anti-TNFα was evaluated. Data regarding IBD, therapeutic and IBD course after infliximab, were recorded. CMV analysis was performed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood and colonoscopy with biopsies (histopathology/immunohistochemistry). We included 29 patients: female-83%; Crohn's disease-51.8%, ulcerative colitis-44.8%, non-classified colitis-3.4%; 23 cytomegalovirus seropositive. Median follow-up: 19 months (3-36). During follow-up, 14 patients were under combination therapy with azathioprine and 5 did at least 1 cycle of corticosteroids. Twenty-one patients responded to infliximab. We registered 8 exacerbations of IBD. Four patients discontinued infliximab: none had CMV infection. We documented 1 case of intestinal cytomegalovirus infection-detected in biopsies performed per protocol in an asymptomatic UC patient, who responded to valganciclovir without infliximab discontinuation. Infliximab, with/without immunosuppression, does not confer an increased risk of (re)activation of cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus was not responsible neither for significant morbidity nor mortality in IBD.

  7. Pregnancy and the Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Fertility, Treatment, Delivery, and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Ryan A; Mahadevan, Uma

    2016-06-01

    For many women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the illness coincides with their childbearing years. IBD increases the risk of pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The multidisciplinary care team should emphasize the importance of medication adherence to achieve preconception disease control and maintain corticosteroid-free remission throughout pregnancy. Medication adjustments to reduce fetal exposure may be considered on an individualized basis in quiescent disease; however, any benefits of such adjustments remain theoretic and there is risk of worsening disease activity. Mode of delivery is determined by obstetric indications, except for women with active perianal disease who should consider cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Pathophysiology and Current Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Bincy P; Ahmed, Tasneem; Ali, Tauseef

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, most commonly categorized as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are immune mediated chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiopathogenesis is multifactorial with different environmental, genetic, immune mediated, and gut microbial factors playing important role. The current goals of therapy are to improve clinical symptoms, control inflammation, prevent complications, and improve quality of life. Different therapeutic agents, with their indications, mechanisms of action, and side effects are discussed in this chapter. Anti-integrin therapy, a newer therapeutic class, with its potential beneficial role in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is also mentioned. In the end, therapeutic algorithms for both diseases are reviewed.

  9. Inter- and intraobserver agreement in computed tomography enterography in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Natally; Tavares, Camila Carlos; Andrade, Adriana Ribas; Cabral, Julia Campos Simões; Leao-Filho, Hilton Muniz; Caiado, Angela Hissae Motoyama; Ueda, Serli Kiyomi Nakao; Leite, André Zonetti Arruda; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda; Rocha, Manoel Souza

    2016-12-07

    To evaluate intra- and interobserver agreement in imaging features in inflammatory bowel disease and comparison with fecal calprotectin (FC) levels. Our institutional computed tomography enterography (CTE) database was retrospectively queried to identify patients who underwent CTE from January 2014 to June 2015. Patient inclusion criteria were confirmed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and FC collected bowel, colonic, both, or no disease detected); type of IBD (inflammatory, stenosing, fistulizing, > 1 pattern, or normal); and signs of active disease (present or absent). In 42 of 44 patients evaluated, routine CTE reports were made by one of the readers who re-evaluated the CTEs ≥ 6 mo later, to determine the intraobserver agreement. FC was considered a sign of disease activity when it was higher than 250 μg/g. Forty-four patients with IBD (38 with Crohn's disease and 6 with ulcerative colitis) were included. There was a moderate interobserver agreement regarding localization of IBD (κ = 0.540), type of disease (κ = 0.410) and the presence of active signs in CTE (κ = 0.419). There was almost perfect intraobserver agreement regarding localization, type and signs of active disease in IBD. The κ values were 0.902, 0.937 and 0.830, respectively. After a consensus between both radiologists regarding inflammatory activity in CTE, we found that 24 (85.7%) of 28 patients who were classified with active disease had elevated FC, and six (37.5%) of 16 patients without inflammatory activity in CTE had elevated FC (P = 0.003). The correlation between elevated FC and the presence of active disease in CTE was significant (κ = 0.495, P = 0.001). We found almost perfect intraobserver and moderate interobserver agreement in the signs of active disease in CTE with concurrence of high FC levels.

  10. THE POTENTIAL OF RADIOLOGIC PROCEDURES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Dubrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is no "golden standard" of diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Each and every individual case requires a thorough analysis of clinical symptoms in their association with endoscopic, histological, radiological and laboratory data. This review paper analyzes both conventional and novel methods of radiological investigations. Some of them have changed their significance from the "golden standard" to rare and limited application and from promising, then frequent and currently sporadic use of small bowel enema. Traditional ileocolonoscopy maintains its diagnostic potential, especially as a tool for follow up of patients with colonic and ileac disorders. The state-of-the-art non-invasive (ultrasound examination and limitedly non-invasive (computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging procedures are considered to be the most accurate methods for assessment of inflammatory bowel disorders in patient with already confirmed diagnosis and those with suspected cases of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The paper describes preparation of patient for each method, assessment technique, advantages and limitations for use, diagnostic criteria for intestinal wall thickness, accuracy of methods and discusses the perspectives of their use. The main sign of inflammatory bowel disease is thickening of intestinal wall. Usually its mean thickness in Crohn's disease (11 to 13 mm is higher than that in ulcerative colitis (7 to 8 mm. This may provide a diagnostic key during differential diagnosis of an isolated colon disease. The amount of the contrast cumulated by the intestinal wall directly correlates with inflammation activity. Intensive contract cumulation in the intestinal wall after intravenous contrast enhancement is a symptom of active inflammatory process. However, despite progression in the technologies, initial signs of inflammatory bowel diseases are quite superficial and remain hardly visible, being below the resolution

  11. Catechins and Their Therapeutic Benefits to Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fei-Yan; Sang, Li-Xuan; Jiang, Min

    2017-03-19

    Catechins are natural polyphenolic phytochemicals that exist in food and medicinal plants, such as tea, legume and rubiaceae. An increasing number of studies have associated the intake of catechins-rich foods with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Some studies have demonstrated that catechins could significantly inhibit the excessive oxidative stress through direct or indirect antioxidant effects and promote the activation of the antioxidative substances such as glutathione peroxidases (GPO) and glutathione (GSH), reducing the oxidative damages to the colon. In addition, catechins can also regulate the infiltration and proliferation of immune related-cells, such as neutrophils, colonic epithelial cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes, helping reduce the inflammatory relations and provide benefits to IBD. Perhaps catechins can further inhibit the deterioration of intestinal lesions through regulating the cell gap junctions. Furthermore, catechins can exert their significant anti-inflammatory properties by regulating the activation or deactivation of inflammation-related oxidative stress-related cell signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), signal transducer and the activator of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3) pathways. Finally, catechins can also stabilize the structure of the gastrointestinal micro-ecological environment via promoting the proliferation of beneficial intestinal bacteria and regulating the balance of intestinal flora, so as to relieve the IBD. Furthermore, catechins may regulate the tight junctions (TJ) in the epithelium. This paper elaborates the currently known possible molecular mechanisms of catechins in favor of IBD.

  12. Catechins and Their Therapeutic Benefits to Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Yan Fan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Catechins are natural polyphenolic phytochemicals that exist in food and medicinal plants, such as tea, legume and rubiaceae. An increasing number of studies have associated the intake of catechins-rich foods with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Some studies have demonstrated that catechins could significantly inhibit the excessive oxidative stress through direct or indirect antioxidant effects and promote the activation of the antioxidative substances such as glutathione peroxidases (GPO and glutathione (GSH, reducing the oxidative damages to the colon. In addition, catechins can also regulate the infiltration and proliferation of immune related-cells, such as neutrophils, colonic epithelial cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes, helping reduce the inflammatory relations and provide benefits to IBD. Perhaps catechins can further inhibit the deterioration of intestinal lesions through regulating the cell gap junctions. Furthermore, catechins can exert their significant anti-inflammatory properties by regulating the activation or deactivation of inflammation-related oxidative stress-related cell signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs, transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2, signal transducer and the activator of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3 pathways. Finally, catechins can also stabilize the structure of the gastrointestinal micro-ecological environment via promoting the proliferation of beneficial intestinal bacteria and regulating the balance of intestinal flora, so as to relieve the IBD. Furthermore, catechins may regulate the tight junctions (TJ in the epithelium. This paper elaborates the currently known possible molecular mechanisms of catechins in favor of IBD.

  13. Small bowel carcinomas in celiac or Crohn's disease: distinctive histophenotypic, molecular and histogenetic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoli, Alessandro; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Martino, Michele; Klersy, Catherine; Grillo, Federica; Mescoli, Claudia; Nesi, Gabriella; Volta, Umberto; Fornino, Daniele; Luinetti, Ombretta; Fociani, Paolo; Villanacci, Vincenzo; D'Armiento, Francesco P; Cannizzaro, Renato; Latella, Giovanni; Ciacci, Carolina; Biancone, Livia; Paulli, Marco; Sessa, Fausto; Rugge, Massimo; Fiocca, Roberto; Corazza, Gino R; Solcia, Enrico

    2017-10-01

    Non-familial small bowel carcinomas are relatively rare and have a poor prognosis. Two small bowel carcinoma subsets may arise in distinct immune-inflammatory diseases (celiac disease and Crohn's disease) and have been recently suggested to differ in prognosis, celiac disease-associated carcinoma cases showing a better outcome, possibly due to their higher DNA microsatellite instability and tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated the histological structure (glandular vs diffuse/poorly cohesive, mixed or solid), cell phenotype (intestinal vs gastric/pancreatobiliary duct type) and Wnt signaling activation (β-catenin and/or SOX-9 nuclear expression) in a series of 26 celiac disease-associated small bowel carcinoma, 25 Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinoma and 25 sporadic small bowel carcinoma cases, searching for new prognostic parameters. In addition, non-tumor mucosa of celiac and Crohn's disease patients was investigated for epithelial precursor changes (hyperplastic, metaplastic or dysplastic) to help clarify carcinoma histogenesis. When compared with non-glandular structure and non-intestinal phenotype, both glandular structure and intestinal phenotype were associated with a more favorable outcome at univariable or stage- and microsatellite instability/tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte-inclusive multivariable analysis. The prognostic power of histological structure was independent of the clinical groups while the non-intestinal phenotype, associated with poor outcome, was dominant among Crohn's disease-associated carcinoma. Both nuclear β-catenin and SOX-9 were preferably expressed among celiac disease-associated carcinomas; however, they were devoid, per se, of prognostic value. We obtained findings supporting an origin of celiac disease-associated carcinoma in SOX-9-positive immature hyperplastic crypts, partly through flat β-catenin-positive dysplasia, and of Crohn's disease-associated carcinoma in a metaplastic (gastric and

  14. Preconception Care Reduces Relapse of Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Alison; Zelinkova, Zuzana; Mulders, Annemarie G M G J; van der Woude, C Janneke

    2016-09-01

    Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may have incorrect beliefs about their disease and its medication in relation to pregnancy. We studied the effects of preconception care (PCC) on patients' behavior during pregnancy, disease relapse during pregnancy, and birth outcomes. In a prospective study, we followed up all women with IBD seen at the preconception outpatient clinic at Erasmus MC-University Medical Center in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (from 2008 through 2014). We compared patients who received PCC before they became pregnant (PCC group; n = 155) with patients who visited the clinic after they already were pregnant (no-PCC group; n = 162). We collected data on lifestyle, medication adherence, planning of conception, disease activity, and birth outcomes. We compared adherence to medical advice, rates of disease relapse during pregnancy, and birth outcomes. The PCC group was on average younger than the no-PCC group (29.7 vs 31.4 y; P = .001), and a greater proportion were nulliparous (76.1% vs 51.2%; P = .0001). PCC was associated with adherence to IBD medication during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR],5.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.88-17.27), adequate folic acid intake (aOR, 5.26; 95% CI, 2.70-10.26), and smoking cessation (aOR, 4.63; 95% CI, 1.22-17.55). PCC reduced disease relapse during pregnancy independent of parity, disease duration, or disease activity before conception (aOR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28-0.95). The PCC group was less likely to deliver babies of low birth weight (aOR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.48). In a prospective study, we found that preconception care reduces IBD relapse during pregnancy by promoting adherence to medication and smoking cessation. Preconception also reduces risk for babies of low birth weight. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytomegalovirus in inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römkens, Tessa E H; Bulte, Geert J; Nissen, Loes H C; Drenth, Joost P H

    2016-01-21

    To identify definitions of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and intestinal disease, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), to determine the prevalence associated with these definitions. We conducted a systematic review and interrogated PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane for literature on prevalence and diagnostics of CMV infection and intestinal disease in IBD patients. As medical headings we used "cytomegalovirus" OR "CMV" OR "cytomegalo virus" AND "inflammatory bowel disease" OR "IBD" OR "ulcerative colitis" OR "colitis ulcerosa" OR "Crohn's disease". Both MeSH-terms and free searches were performed. We included all types of English-language (clinical) trials concerning diagnostics and prevalence of CMV in IBD. The search strategy identified 924 citations, and 52 articles were eligible for inclusion. We identified 21 different definitions for CMV infection, 8 definitions for CMV intestinal disease and 3 definitions for CMV reactivation. Prevalence numbers depend on used definition, studied population and region. The highest prevalence for CMV infection was found when using positive serum PCR as a definition, whereas for CMV intestinal disease this applies to the use of tissue PCR > 10 copies/mg tissue. Most patients with CMV infection and intestinal disease had steroid refractory disease and came from East Asia. We detected multiple different definitions used for CMV infection and intestinal disease in IBD patients, which has an effect on prevalence numbers and eventually on outcome in different trials.

  16. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases, microscopic colitis, and colorectal cancer in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy El-Salhy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is symptom-based and experts have developed diagnostic criteria for IBS. Distinguishing inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD from IBS, especially with mild disease activity, can be difficult. Another concern is microscopic colitis (MC. MC and IBS have similar symptoms and a normal endoscopic appearance. Our study investigated the prevalence of patients with IBD, MC, and colorectal cancer among 968 patients that fulfill the Rome III criteria for IBS. Among these patients, four were found with IBD (0.4% and seven with MC (0.7%. Among the IBD patients, three suffered from Crohn’s disease, affecting the terminal ileum, and one with ulcerative rectosigmoiditis. Of the seven patients with MC, two had collagenous colitis and five had lymphocytic colitis. Two IBS diarrhea-predominant patients had adenocarcin­oma in the sigmoid colon. These patients were a female aged 58 years and a male aged 56 years. We concluded from our study and earl­ier studies that symptom-based diagnosis of IBS may lead to missing a number of other gastrointestinal disorders that require quite different management than that for IBS.

  17. Vedolizumab Therapy in Severe Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Máire A; Stein, Ronen E; Maxwell, Elizabeth C; Albenberg, Lindsey; Baldassano, Robert N; Dawany, Noor; Grossman, Andrew B; Mamula, Petar; Piccoli, David A; Kelsen, Judith R

    2016-10-01

    Vedolizumab is effective for inducing and maintaining remission in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, there is limited pediatric data. This study aimed to describe the adverse events and clinical response to vedolizumab in refractory pediatric IBD. Disease activity indices, clinical response, concomitant medication use, and adverse events were measured over 22 weeks in an observational prospective cohort study of children with refractory IBD who had failed anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy and subsequently initiated vedolizumab therapy. Twenty-one subjects, 16 with Crohn disease, received vedolizumab. Clinical response was observed in 6/19 (31.6%) of the evaluable subjects at week 6 and in 11/19 (57.9%) by week 22. Before induction, 15/21 (71.4%) participants were treated with systemic corticosteroids, as compared with 7/21 (33.3%) subjects at 22 weeks. Steroid-free remission was seen in 1/20 (5.0%) subjects at 6 weeks, 3/20 (15.0%) at 14 weeks, and 4/20 (20.0%) at 22 weeks. There was statistically significant improvement in serum albumin and hematocrit; however, C-reactive protein increased by week 22 (P < 0.05). There were no infusion reactions. Vedolizumab was discontinued in 2 patients because of severe colitis, requiring surgical intervention. There is limited experience with vedolizumab therapy in pediatric IBD. There seems to be a marked number of subjects with clinical response in the first 6 weeks that increases further by week 22 despite the severity of disease in this cohort. Adverse events may not be directly related to vedolizumab. This study is limited by small sample size, and larger prospective studies are warranted.

  18. Overcoming challenges of treating inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Jill K J; Kane, Sunanda V

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is frequently diagnosed before or during the peak reproductive years. Overall management of inflammatory bowel disease is becoming more complex given the nuances involved with multiple mechanisms of action of the current treatment and need for therapeutic monitoring for safety and efficacy; another layer of complexity is added in the setting of a pregnancy. In this review, we have identified several key challenges that health care providers face when caring for patients with IBD during pregnancy. The goal of this review is to provide the most up-to-date evidence and provide our expert recommendations so that providers can more comfortably address patients' questions about pregnancy in IBD and the associated risks as well as optimize their care to ensure the best outcomes possible.

  19. Mechanisms of tissue remodeling in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Florian; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is highly heterogeneous and often unpredictable, with multiple and serious complications that range from stricture formation to bowel obstruction or perforation, fistula formation and the need for surgery. All these problems are manifestations of tissue remodeling, a secondary but universal response to the insults of chronic inflammation. The factors involved in tissue remodeling are several, including the site and duration of inflammation, soluble molecules, the gut microbiota, and the type of mesenchymal cell response. The prototypical and most common type of tissue remodeling in IBD, and Crohn's disease (CD) in particular, is a fibrotic response, and this review will focus on the factors and mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, and speculate on what is needed for the development of a rational treatment of intestinal fibrosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. High morbidity after laparoscopic emergency colectomy for inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qazi, S.M.; Skovdal, J.; Bisgaard, T.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Only limited data are available on subtotal laparoscopic colectomy (STC) in patients with in inflammatory bowel disease. We present the first Danish experiences with intended laparoscopic STC for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The primary outcome was 30-day morbidity. MATERIAL...... complications were recorded in 47% and 20% of the patients undergoing emergency and elective STC, respectively (p = 0.15). The overall morbidity was 72%. One emergency patient died. Five of eight emergency patients and one of three elective patients underwent conversion and experienced a major complication (p...... = 0.55). The overall conversion rate was 32% (p = 0.15). CONCLUSION: We found high morbidity and conversion rates in patients undergoing SLC for IBD. A prospective national Danish survey on early postoperative outcome is suggested....

  1. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin K deficiency in children with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Jan K.; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Landowski, Piotr; Szaflarska-Poplawska, Anna; Klincewicz, Beata; Adamczak, Daria; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Plawski, Andrzej; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Although vitamin K deficiency has been implicated in adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its prevalence in pediatric IBD remains unknown. We carried out a cross-sectional study in 63 children with Crohn's disease (CD) and 48 with ulcerative colitis (UC) to assess the prevalence of vitamin K deficiency and to search for potential correlation between vitamin K status and pediatric IBD activity. Vitamin K status was assessed using protein induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II; ELISA). Pr...

  2. Probiotics in the management of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Kevin; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2013-03-01

    There is direct evidence that the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves the gastrointestinal microbiota and some evidence that the microbiota might also play a similar role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this article is to review the emerging evidence for the mechanisms and effectiveness of probiotics in the management of these disorders. The composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota is strongly influenced by factors including age, diet and disease. Probiotics may be effective through their impact on the host gastrointestinal microbiota and promotion of mucosal immunoregulation. Probiotics are considered to be well tolerated, although the quality of studies and health claims has been variable. There are many short-term studies demonstrating the effectiveness of probiotics in IBS, although recommendations should be made for specific strains and for specific symptoms. Within IBD, a number of trials have shown the benefits of a range of probiotics in pouchitis and in ulcerative colitis, although current evidence in Crohn's disease is less promising. Clearly, some probiotics have considerable potential in the management of IBS and IBD; however, the benefits are strain specific. High-quality trials of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders as well as laboratory investigations of their mechanism of action are required in order to understand who responds and why.

  3. Diagnostic approach to small bowel involvement in inflammatory bowel disease: view of the endoscopist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic small bowel (SB) techniques have revolutionalized the diagnostic approach of patients with suspected or known inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has become an important diagnostic tool for the evaluation of suspected CD of the SB or in patients with known IBD to rule out SB involvement. The greatest utility of WCE has been observed in cases of suspected CD, where the initial evaluation with traditional radiographic and endoscopic studies has failed to establish the diagnosis. WCE can detect early SB lesions that can be overlooked by traditional radiological studies. The sensitivity of diagnosing SB CD by WCE is superior to other endoscopic or radiological methods such as push enteroscopy, computed tomography or magnetic resonance enteroclysis. The utility of WCE in patients with known CD, IBD unclassified (IBDU) and a select group of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) can better define the diagnosis and extent of the disease and may lead to reclassification of IBD from UC/IBDU to definitive CD. In addition, previously diagnosed patients with CD may be found to have more significant disease burden in the SB. This information may facilitate more targeted and effective therapies and potentially lead to better patient outcomes. A disadvantage of WCE is its low specificity and the risk of being retained in a strictured area of the SB. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy has essentially replaced push enteroscopy, and has been used to treat CD strictures, obtain biopsies from areas of SB involvement and even retrieving a retained capsule.

  4. Bacterial permeation in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Steenfatt, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to establish a method of bacterial permeation through human intestinal gut ex vivo. Assuming that the inflammed epithelial layer exhibits barrier defects in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, we accomplished our research. In the study under consideration, we demonstrated the bacterial permeation in human intestinal gut layer ex vivo for the first time. Concerning the lowely rate of permeation we examine the miscellaneous causes: A modification of...

  5. Optimizing Inflammatory Bowel Disease for Successful In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jason J; Cannon, Mora; Kane, Edward; Konijeti, Gauree

    2016-08-01

    We present a nulliparous woman with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) and multiple failed cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in whom we achieved a successful, viable pregnancy following clinical and endoscopic UC remission. Infertile patients with inflammatory bowel disease who have failed multiple cycles of IVF should try to achieve clinical remission and mucosal healing (absence of erosions or ulcers) prior to reattempting conception. Furthermore, deficiencies in vitamin B12, vitamin D, and iron should be addressed.

  6. Diversity of Intestinal Macrophages in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Britta eSiegmund; Lea Isabell eKredel; Ulrike eErben; Anja eKühl

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages as innate immune cells and fast responders to antigens play a central role in protecting the body from the luminal content at a huge interface. Chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases massively alters the number and the subset diversity of intestinal macrophages. We here address the diversity within the human intestinal macrophage compartment at the level of similarities and differences between homeostasis and chronic intestinal inflammation as well as between UC and C...

  7. Hepatitis B and inflammatory bowel disease: Role of antiviral prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    López-Serrano, Pilar; Pérez-Calle, Jose Lázaro; Sánchez-Tembleque, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a very common infection worldwide. Its reactivation in patients receiving immunosuppression has been widely described as being associated with significant morbidity and mortality unless anti-viral prophylaxis is administered. Treatment in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients has changed in recent years and immunosuppression and biological therapies are now used more frequently than before. Although current studies have reported an incidence of hepatitis B in in...

  8. COPING STRATEGIES OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ye. Baksht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research aim was definition of prevailing coping strategies of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases of in comparison with healthy people. 49 patients with ulcer colitis are surveyed. Coping strategies were defined by means of E.Heim's test. Patients with ulcerative colitis more often than healthy used to maladaptive coping strategies in the emotional and cognitive sphere that can testify to violation of psychological adaptation. 

  9. Microscopic colitis: Is it a spectrum of inflammatory bowel disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Jegadeesan, Ramprasad; Liu, Xiuli; Pagadala, Mangesh R; Gutierrez, Norma; Butt, Mujtaba; Navaneethan, Udayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Lymphocytic and collagenous colitis are forms of microscopic colitis which typically presents in elderly patients as chronic watery diarrhea. The association between microscopic colitis and inflammatory bowel disease is weak and unclear. Lymphocytic colitis progressing to ulcerative colitis has been previously reported; however there is limited data on ulcerative colitis evolving into microscopic (lymphocytic or collagenous) colitis. We report a series of six patients with documented ulcerati...

  10. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced

    OpenAIRE

    Bannaga AS; Selinger CP

    2015-01-01

    Ayman S Bannaga,1 Christian P Selinger2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anx...

  11. Microscopic colitis: is it a spectrum of inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegadeesan, Ramprasad; Liu, Xiuli; Pagadala, Mangesh R; Gutierrez, Norma; Butt, Mujtaba; Navaneethan, Udayakumar

    2013-07-14

    Lymphocytic and collagenous colitis are forms of microscopic colitis which typically presents in elderly patients as chronic watery diarrhea. The association between microscopic colitis and inflammatory bowel disease is weak and unclear. Lymphocytic colitis progressing to ulcerative colitis has been previously reported; however there is limited data on ulcerative colitis evolving into microscopic (lymphocytic or collagenous) colitis. We report a series of six patients with documented ulcerative colitis who subsequently were diagnosed with collagenous colitis or lymphocytic colitis suggesting microscopic colitis could be a part of the spectrum of inflammatory bowel disease. The median duration of ulcerative colitis prior to being diagnosed with microscopic colitis was 15 years. We noted complete histological and/or symptomatic remission in three out of six cases while the other three patients reverted back into ulcerative colitis suggesting lymphocytic or collagenous colitis could present as a continuum of ulcerative colitis. The exact molecular mechanism of this histological transformation or the prognostic implications is still unclear. Till then it might be prudent to follow up these patients to assess for the relapse of inflammatory bowel disease as well as for dysplasia surveillance.

  12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the Oral Contraceptive Pill and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N Allan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes our current knowledge of the role of the oral contraceptive pill in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBO, followed by a review of fertility in women and men. IBD and pregnancy, including the impact on the fetus and the mother with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, is considered. The safety of drug treatment during pregnancy, the outcome of surgical treatment during pregnancy and the problems that may be encountered during pregnancy in patients with an ileostomy or ileo-anal pouch are discussed, followed by a review of the short and long term prognosis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease partition.

  13. Low-Radiation-Dose Modified Small Bowel CT for Evaluation of Recurrent Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Kielar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease affects any part of the GI tract, commonly the terminal ileum. To decrease radiation exposure we developed a low-radiation-dose unenhanced CT (modified small Bowel CT, MBCT to evaluate the small bowel using hyperdense oral contrast. Technique. MBCT was investigated in patients with pathologically proven Crohn's disease presenting with new symptoms from recurrent inflammation or stricture. After ethics board approval, 98 consecutive patients were retrospectively evaluated. Kappa values from two independent reviewers were calculated for presence of obstruction, active inflammation versus chronic stricture, and ancillary findings. Forty-two patients underwent surgery or colonoscopy within 3 months. Results. Kappa was 0.84 for presence of abnormality versus a normal exam and 0.89 for differentiating active inflammation from chronic stricture. Level of agreement for presence of skip areas, abscess formation, and fistula was 0.62, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. In the subset with “gold standard” follow-up, there was 83% agreement. Conclusions. MBCT is a low-radiation technique with good to very good interobserver agreement for determining presence of obstruction and degree of disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. Further investigation is required to refine parameters of disease activity compared to CT enterography and small bowel follow through.

  14. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Updates on Molecular Targets for Biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2017-07-15

    Therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has changed, with several new agents being evaluated. The era of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibody therapy saw remarkable progress in IBD therapy. Some patients, however, do not respond to anti-TNF treatment, or their response decreases over time. This phenomenon highlights the need to identify new molecular targets for therapy in IBD. The targets of new therapeutic molecules in IBD must aim to restore immune dysregulation by the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, and IL-21) and augmentation of the effect of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-11, and transforming growth factor β) and to pursue new anti-inflammatory targets, such as regulatory T-cell therapy, Smad7 antisense, Janus-activated kinase inhibition, Toll-like receptor stimulation, leukocyte adhesion, and blockade of T-cell homing via integrins and mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule-1. In addition, potential molecular targets could restore mucosal barrier function and stimulate mucosal healing. Despite these potential targets, the value and clinical significance of most new molecules remain unclear, and clinical efficacy and safety must be better defined before their implementation in clinical practice. This article aims to review the promising and emerging molecular targets that could be clinically meaningful for novel therapeutic approaches.

  15. INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE WITH A VERY EARLY ONSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kornienko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has a tendency to manifest at earlier age. In childhood (< 6 years of age it has an especially severe course and is characterized by high grade inflammation, predominantly in the colon, by complication and extra-intestinal autoimmune injury. At younger age, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis require more aggressive treatment with frequently poor results. From genetic point of view, monogenic mutations controlling the immune response are characteristic for these diseases with an early onset; therefore, they are frequently associated with primary immunodeficiency. This implies various immunologic deficits, such as breakdown of the epithelial barrier, phagocytic dysfunction and dysfunction of Т and В lymphocytes and regulatory Т cells. Depending on this, a number of primary immunodeficiencies are identified associated with monogenic mutations of more than 50 genes. There some age-related specific features at manifestation. Thus, defects in interleukin 10 and FOXP3 manifest in the first months of life, whereas severe combined immunodeficiencies and phagocytosis defects become evident somewhat later. Virtually all 24 children with very early onset of inflammatory bowel disease, whom we examined, had immunologic defects and one child had a XIAP gene mutation. After identification of a specific immunologic defect, one can understand the mechanism of the disease and suspect one or another genetic defect with subsequent reasonable assessment of mutations in candidate genes. Detection of immunologic and genetic defects in children with a very early onset of inflammatory bowel disease allows for choosing an adequate strategy of non-conventional treatment that may differ depending on the mechanism of the disease.

  16. A Comparison of Self-Perceived Health Status in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients from a Canadian National Population Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda YL Tang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences exist in perceptions of physical health, mental health and stress levels between patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS.

  17. Cytomegalovirus in inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römkens, Tessa EH; Bulte, Geert J; Nissen, Loes HC; Drenth, Joost PH

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify definitions of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and intestinal disease, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), to determine the prevalence associated with these definitions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and interrogated PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane for literature on prevalence and diagnostics of CMV infection and intestinal disease in IBD patients. As medical headings we used “cytomegalovirus” OR “CMV” OR “cytomegalo virus” AND “inflammatory bowel disease” OR “IBD” OR “ulcerative colitis” OR “colitis ulcerosa” OR “Crohn’s disease”. Both MeSH-terms and free searches were performed. We included all types of English-language (clinical) trials concerning diagnostics and prevalence of CMV in IBD. RESULTS: The search strategy identified 924 citations, and 52 articles were eligible for inclusion. We identified 21 different definitions for CMV infection, 8 definitions for CMV intestinal disease and 3 definitions for CMV reactivation. Prevalence numbers depend on used definition, studied population and region. The highest prevalence for CMV infection was found when using positive serum PCR as a definition, whereas for CMV intestinal disease this applies to the use of tissue PCR > 10 copies/mg tissue. Most patients with CMV infection and intestinal disease had steroid refractory disease and came from East Asia. CONCLUSION: We detected multiple different definitions used for CMV infection and intestinal disease in IBD patients, which has an effect on prevalence numbers and eventually on outcome in different trials. PMID:26811669

  18. Psychiatric illnesses in inflammatory bowel diseases - psychiatric comorbidity and biological underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Jarosław; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Dudek, Dominika

    2016-12-23

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of chronic medical conditions comprising Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that involves increased frequency of mental disorders. The most common psychiatric disorders in inflammatory bowel disease are depression and anxiety, however, some epidemiologic and biological evidence suggest that other disorders like bipolar disorder occur more often. Biological mechanisms concerning both inflammatory bowel disease and depression or anxiety explain susceptibility to developing mental disorders in inflammatory bowel disease. Interactions of brain gut-axis, immunological disturbances, oxidative stress and vagus nerve dysfunction play a role in pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and mental disorders as well. Significance of these factors was covered in this paper. Psychiatric comorbidity in IBD may affect course of intestinal disease. It can increase requency and severity of relapses and hinder the treatment so knowledge about relationship between IBD and mental health appears to be vital for proper management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease: etiology, pathogenesis and current therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Joshua K; Auyeung, Kathy K

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) constitute the two major groups of idiopathic disorders in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Environmental factors, genetic factors and immune responses have been considered as the major etiology of IBD. Despite the diversified pathogenesis of the disease, no guaranteed curative therapeutic regimen has been developed so far. This review summarizes the knowledge on the pathophysiology and current treatment approaches of IBD. Since IBD is caused by excessive and tissue- disruptive inflammatory reactions of the gut wall, down-regulation of the immune responses may allow the damaged mucosa to heal and reset the physiological functions of the gut back to normal. Current pharmacotherapy through modulation of neutrophil-derived factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen/nitrogen metabolites has been utterly described. Categories of treatment modalities include corticosteroids, aminosalicylates, immunomodulators, antibiotics, probiotics, and a series of unique novel agents. The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody (Infliximab), recombinant anti-inflammatory cytokines and related gene therapy has been covered. In addition, discussions on dietary supplementation and heparin treatment are also included. The anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory potential of investigational agents such as nicotine and the filtered protective compounds from tobacco smoke, as well as active herbal medicinal compounds were tested in our previous experimental works, whereas promising findings have been presented here. With the discovery of novel target-oriented agents, more effective and relatively harmless approaches of IBD therapy could be established to achieve a curative outcome. Indeed, more experimental and clinical studies are needed to confirm the relevance of these therapies.

  20. Low-FODMAP diet reduces irritable bowel symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Natalia; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria; Wachmann, Henrik; Végh, Zsuzsanna; Molzen, Line; Burisch, Johan; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Munkholm, Pia

    2017-05-14

    To investigate the effect of a low-FODMAP diet on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This was a randomised controlled open-label trial of patients with IBD in remission or with mild-to-moderate disease and coexisting IBS-like symptoms (Rome III) randomly assigned to a Low-FODMAP diet (LFD) or a normal diet (ND) for 6 wk between June 2012 and December 2013. Patients completed the IBS symptom severity system (IBS-SSS) and short IBD quality of life questionnaire (SIBDQ) at weeks 0 and 6. The primary end-point was response rates (at least 50-point reduction) in IBS-SSS at week 6 between groups; secondary end-point was the impact on quality of life. Eighty-nine patients, 67 (75%) women, median age 40, range 20-70 years were randomised: 44 to LFD group and 45 to ND, from which 78 patients completed the study period and were included in the final analysis (37 LFD and 41 ND). There was a significantly larger proportion of responders in the LFD group (n = 30, 81%) than in the ND group (n = 19, 46%); (OR = 5.30; 95%CI: 1.81-15.55, P FODMAP diet reduced IBS-like symptoms and increased quality of life in patients with IBD in remission.

  1. Influence of dietary blueberry and broccoli on cecal microbiota activity and colon morphology in mdr1a(-/-) mice, a model of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Butts, Christine A; Zhu, Shuotun; Roy, Nicole C; McNabb, Warren C; Ansell, Juliet

    2012-03-01

    Enteric microbiota has been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory colonic effects of blueberries and broccoli in mdr1a(-/-) mice (IBD mouse model) through modification of microbiota composition in the gastrointestinal tract. The mdr1a(-/-) mice were fed either a control diet or the control diet supplemented with either 10% blueberry or broccoli for 21 wk. We investigated the influence of these diets on cecal microbiota and organic acids, colon morphology, and bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes. In comparison to mice fed the control diet, blueberry and broccoli supplementation altered cecum microbiota similarly with the exception of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was found to be significantly lower in broccoli-fed mice. High concentrations of butyric acid and low concentrations of succinic acid were observed in the cecum of broccoli-fed mice. Blueberry- and broccoli-supplemented diets increased colon crypt size and the number of goblet cells per crypt. Only the broccoli-supplemented diet significantly lowered colonic inflammation compared to mice fed the control diet. Translocation of total microbes to mesenteric lymph nodes was lower in broccoli-fed mice compared to blueberry and control diet groups. Dietary blueberries and/or broccoli altered the composition and metabolism of the cecal microbiota and colon morphology. Overall, these results warrant further investigation through clinical studies to establish whether the consumption of blueberries and/or broccoli is able to alter the composition and metabolism of large intestine microbiota and promote colon health in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course...

  3. Quantification, validation, and follow-up of small bowel motility in Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Peng, Jennifer Q.; Safdar, Nabile M.; Conklin, Laurie; Sze, Raymond; Linguraru, Marius George

    2015-03-01

    The use of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has become a mainstay in the evaluation, assessment and follow up of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease (CD), thanks to its high image quality and its non-ionizing nature. In particular, the advent of faster MRE sequences less sensitive to image-motion artifacts offers the possibility to obtain visual, structural and functional information of the patient's small bowel. However, the inherent subjectivity of the mere visual inspection of these images often hinders the accurate identification and monitoring of the pathological areas. In this paper, we present a framework that provides quantitative and objective motility information of the small bowel from free-breathing MRE dynamic sequences. After compensating for the breathing motion of the patient, we create personalized peristaltic activity maps via optical flow analysis. The result is the creation of a new set of images providing objective and precise functional information of the small bowel. The accuracy of the new method was also evaluated from two different perspectives: objective accuracy (1.1 ± 0.6 mm/s of error), i.e., the ability of the system to provide quantitative and accurate information about the motility of moving bowel landmarks, and subjective accuracy (avg. difference of 0.7 ± 0.7 in a range of 1 to 5), i.e., the degree of agreement with the subjective evaluation of an expert. Finally, the practical utility of the new method was successfully evaluated in a preliminary study with 32 studies of healthy and CD cases, showing its potential for the fast and accurate assessment and follow up of CD in the small bowel.

  4. Spiral CT colonography in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarjan, Zsolt E-mail: tarjan@radi.sote.hu; Zagoni, Tamas; Gyoerke, Tamas; Mester, Adam; Karlinger, Kinga; Mako, Erno K

    2000-09-01

    Objective: Most of the studies on virtual colonoscopy are dealing with the role of detecting colorectal polyps or neoplasms. We have undertaken this study to evaluate the value of CT colonography in patients with colonic Crohn's disease. Methods and material: Five patients (three males, two females, 23-51 years, mean age 42 years) with known (4) or suspected (1) Crohn's disease of the colon underwent fiberoptic colonoscopy and CT colonography in the same day or during a 1-week period. The images were evaluated with the so called zoomed axial slice movie technique and in some regions intra- and extraluminal surface shaded and volume rendered images were generated on a separate workstation. The results were compared to those of a colonoscopy. Results: The final diagnosis was Crohn's disease in four patients and colitis ulcerosa in one. Total examination was possible by colonoscopy in two cases, and with CT colonography in all five cases. The wall of those segments severely affected by the disease were depicted by the axial CT scans to be thickened. The thick walled, segments with narrow lumen seen on CT colonography corresponded to the regions where colonoscopy was failed to pass. Air filled sinus tracts, thickening of the wall of the terminal ileum, loss of haustration pseudopolyps and deep ulcers were seen in CT colonography. Three dimensional (3D) endoluminal views demonstrated pseudopolyps similar to endoscopic images None of the colonoscopically reported shallow ulcerations or aphtoid ulcerations or granular mucosal surface were observed on 2- or 3D CT colonographic images. Conclusion: CT colonography by depicting colonic wall thickening seems to be a useful tool in the diagnosis of Crohn's colitis, which could be a single examination depicting the intraluminal, and transmural extent of the disease.

  5. MAP kinases in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Olsen, Jørgen; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is activated by diverse extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and thereby they play an essential role in connecting cell-surface receptors to changes in transcriptional programs. The MAPK signaling pathways regulate a wide range...

  6. Transcutaneous bowel sonography for inflammatory bowel disease is sensitive and specific when performed in a nonexpert low-volume North American center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sey, Michael Sai Lai; Gregor, Jamie; Chande, Nilesh; Ponich, Terry; Bhaduri, Mousumi; Lum, Andrea; Zaleski, Witek; Yan, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Transcutaneous bowel sonography is a nonionizing imaging modality used in inflammatory bowel disease. Although available in Europe, its uptake in North America has been limited. Since the accuracy of bowel sonography is highly operator dependent, low-volume centers in North America may not achieve the same diagnostic accuracy reported in the European literature. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of bowel sonography in a nonexpert low-volume center. All cases of bowel sonography at a single tertiary care center during an 18-month period were reviewed. Bowel sonography was compared with reference standards, including small-bowel follow-through, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, colonoscopy, and surgical findings. A total of 103 cases were included for analysis during the study period. The final diagnoses included Crohn disease (72), ulcerative colitis (8), hemolytic uremic syndrome (1), and normal (22). The sensitivity and specificity of bowel sonography for intestinal wall inflammation were 87.8% and 92.6%, respectively. In the subset of patients who had complications of Crohn disease, the sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 100% for fistulas and 14% and 100% for strictures. One patient had an abscess, which was detected by bowel sonography. Abnormal bowel sonographic findings contributed to the escalation of treatment in 55% of cases. Bowel sonography for inflammatory bowel disease can be performed in low-volume centers and provides diagnostic accuracy for luminal disease comparable with published data, although it is less sensitive for complications of Crohn disease.

  7. The microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Jonathan; Hart, Alisa

    2013-12-01

    The diverse and complex community of microorganisms that has co-evolved with the human gut is vital to intestinal functioning, and disturbances in the microbiota and its relationship with the host immune system have been linked to inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This has suggested several treatment options, including antibiotics, probiotics and faecal transplantation. The human microbiome project has been established to enable comprehensive characterisation of the human microbiota and in the coming years, knowledge in this area is expected to continue to expand.

  8. Lymphocyte homing antagonists in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruta, Masayuki; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-09-01

    Lymphocyte homing antagonists represent promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several critical molecules involved in the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the intestine, including integrins and chemokine receptors, have been successfully targeted for the treatment of IBD. These agents have shown great promise for the induction and maintenance of remission for both Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. This article discusses currently approved prototypic agents for the treatment of IBD (natalizumab, anti-α4 integrin; vedolizumab, anti-α4β7 integrin), and several other agents in the same class currently under development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatobiliary dysfunction in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.N Daryani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A high percent of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD experience non intestinal symptoms. Many studies demonstrated that hepatobiliary disorders are the most common. Corresponding disorders consist of primary sclerosing cholangitis, non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, biliary stones, pericholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, liver amyloidosis, liver abscess, liver granuloma, hepatocellular carcinoma and primary biliary cirrhosis. However most studies concentrate on identifying primary sclerosing cholangitis, the most dreadful complication of IBD, other disorders like NASH and biliary stones are common and because of the similarity of symptoms to the primary disease may be ignored. In this article we review these disorders.

  10. Azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease, a safe alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tanis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Azathioprine and its metabolite 6-mercaptopurine are effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. They are mostly used for reduction of the use of steroids, maintenance therapy after remission induction by cyclosporin and treatment of fistulae in Crohn's disease. Adverse effects occur in about 15% of patients. The main side effects are pancreatitis, allergic reactions, fever and bone marrow suppression. Symptoms, management and prevention are discussed. A blood monitoring schedule is suggested. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine seem to be safe in pregnancy. There may be a slight increased risk for developing a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  11. Fibre intake and the development of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Chan, Simon; Luben, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Background and Aims: Population-based prospective cohort studies investigating fibre intake and development of inflammatory bowel disease are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the association between fibre intake and the development of Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC] in a large...... European population. Methods: In total, 401326 participants, aged 20-80 years, were recruited in eight countries in Europe between 1991 and 1998. At baseline, fibre intake [total fibres, fibres from fruit, vegetables and cereals] was recorded using food frequency questionnaires. The cohort was monitored...

  12. Steroid Exposure, Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Insights into the Inflammatory Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaño, Roderick C.; Basnet, Sandeep; Onandia, Zurine Galvan; Gandhi, Sachin; Tawakol, Ahmed; Min, James K.; Truong, Quynh A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Steroids are anti-inflammatory agents commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of both inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. We examined the relationship between steroid use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. Methods In 177 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (mean age 67, 75% male, 44% Crohn's disease, 56% ulcerative colitis), we performed a 1:2 case-control study matched for age, sex and inflammatory bowel disease type and compared 59 patients with inflammatory bowel disease with acute coronary syndrome to 118 patients with inflammatory bowel disease without acute coronary syndrome. Steroid use was defined as current or prior exposure. Acute coronary syndrome was defined as myocardial infarction or unstable angina, confirmed by cardiac biomarkers and coronary angiography. Results In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, 34% with acute coronary syndrome had exposure to steroids versus 58% without acute coronary syndrome (pinflammatory bowel disease, 77% in Crohn's disease (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.92; adjusted OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.98), and 78% in ulcerative colitis (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.16-1.04; adjusted OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.90). There was no association between other inflammatory bowel disease medications and acute coronary syndrome. Conclusions In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, steroid use significantly reduces the odds of acute coronary syndrome. These findings provide further mechanistic insight into the inflammatory processes involved in inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25446295

  13. Biologic therapy in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Fallingborg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    and paraclinical parameters. In fistulising Crohn's disease, treatment with infliximab or adalimumab can be initiated in simple fistula with rectal inflammation or complex fistula when the initial treatment has insufficient effect. Further treatment strategy depends on the primary response to induction therapy....... Maintenance therapy is often necessary in complex fistulas. Treatment efficacy and possible discontinuation of treatment is evaluated at least every 26-52 weeks - if possibly with diagnostic imaging. In acute severe ulcerative colitis, treatment with infliximab can be used in patients with partial response...

  14. Robust Microbiota-Based Diagnostics for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, A; de Groot, E F J; de Meij, T G J; Welling, M; Savelkoul, P H M; Budding, A E

    2017-06-01

    Strong evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is altered in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), indicating its potential role in noninvasive diagnostics. However, no clinical applications are currently used for routine patient care. The main obstacle to implementing a gut microbiota test for IBD is the lack of standardization, which leads to high interlaboratory variation. We studied the between-hospital and between-platform batch effects and their effects on predictive accuracy for IBD. Fecal samples from 91 pediatric IBD patients and 58 healthy children were collected. IS-pro, a standardized technique designed for routine microbiota profiling in clinical settings, was used for microbiota composition characterization. Additionally, a large synthetic data set was used to simulate various perturbations and study their effects on the accuracy of different classifiers. Perturbations were validated in two replicate data sets, one processed in another laboratory and the other with a different analysis platform. The type of perturbation determined its effect on predictive accuracy. Real-life perturbations induced by between-platform variation were significantly greater than those caused by between-laboratory variation. Random forest was found to be robust to both simulated and observed perturbations, even when these perturbations had a dramatic effect on other classifiers. It achieved high accuracy both when cross-validated within the same data set and when using data sets analyzed in different laboratories. Robust clinical predictions based on the gut microbiota can be performed even when samples are processed in different hospitals. This study contributes to the effort to develop a universal IBD test that would enable simple diagnostics and disease activity monitoring. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Colorectal Cancer Screening in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Neil; Yee, Eric; Feuerstein, Joseph D

    2016-04-01

    Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's colitis are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Given that most cases of CRC are thought to arise from dysplasia, previous guidelines have recommended endoscopic surveillance with random biopsies obtained from all segments of the colon involved by endoscopic or microscopic inflammation. However, recent evidence has suggested that the majority of dysplastic lesions in patients with inflammatory disease (IBD) are visible, and data have been supportive of chromoendoscopy with targeted biopsies of visible lesions versus traditional random biopsies. This review article will discuss the risk of colon cancer in patients with IBD, as well as current recommendations for CRC screening and surveillance in patients with UC or Crohn's colitis.

  16. Biological pathways involved in the development of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemljic, Mateja; Pejkovic, Bozena; Krajnc, Ivan; Lipovsek, Saska

    2014-10-01

    Apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis are three distinct functional types of the mammalian cell death network. All of them are characterized by a number of cell's morphological changes. The inappropriate induction of cell death is involved in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases.Pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) includes an abnormal immunological response to disturbed intestinal microflora. One of the most important reason in pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disease and subsequent multiple organ pathology is a barrier function of the gut, regulating cellular viability. Recent findings have begun to explain the mechanisms by which intestinal epithelial cells are able to survive in such an environment and how loss of normal regulatory processes may lead to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).This review focuses on the regulation of biological pathways in development and homeostasis in IBD. Better understanding of the physiological functions of biological pathways and their influence on inflammation, immunity, and barrier function will simplify our expertice of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract and in upgrading diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Healthcare maintenance in elderly patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manish P; Ruel, Joannie; Taleban, Sasha

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of older patients (age ≥60 years) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) highlights the importance of healthcare maintenance in this vulnerable population. Older IBD patients are more susceptible and have higher rates of many disease- and treatment-related adverse effects. Compared to younger IBD patients, older patients are at increased risk for infection, malignancy, bone disease, eye disease, malnutrition and thrombotic complications. Preventive strategies in the elderly differ from those in younger adults and are imperative. Changes to the immune system with aging can decrease the efficacy of vaccinations. Cancer screening guidelines in older IBD patients have to account for unique considerations, such as life expectancy, functional performance status, multimorbidity, financial status, and patient desires. Additionally, providers need to be vigilant in screening for osteoporosis, ocular disease, depression, and adverse events arising from polypharmacy.

  18. Etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease: today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Heitor S P

    2017-07-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), represent chronic diseases of unknown cause, and they are regarded as prototypical complex diseases. Despite all the recent advances, a complete appreciation of the pathogenesis of IBD is still limited. In this review, we present recent information contributing to a better understanding of mechanisms underlying IBD. Here, we attempt to highlight novel environmental triggers, data on the gut microbiota, its interaction with the host, and the potential influence of diet and food components. We discuss recent findings on defective signaling pathways and the potential effects on the immune response, and we present new data on epigenetic changes, inflammasome, and damage-associated molecular patterns associated with IBD. The continuing identification of several epigenetic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic alterations in patients with IBD reflects the complex nature of the disease and suggests the need for innovative approaches such as systems biology for identifying novel relevant targets in IBD.

  19. Colonic inflammation in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: detection with magnetic resonance enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campari, Alessandro [E. Bassini Hospital - ASST Nord Milano, Radiology Department, Milan (Italy); V. Buzzi Children' s Hospital - ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Pediatric Radiology Department, Milan (Italy); Napolitano, Marcello [V. Buzzi Children' s Hospital - ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Pediatric Radiology Department, Milan (Italy); Zuin, Giovanna [V. Buzzi Children' s Hospital - ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Pediatric Department, Milan (Italy); Maestri, Luciano [V. Buzzi Children' s Hospital - ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Pediatric Surgery Department, Milan (Italy); Di Leo, Giovanni [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Milan (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Colonic involvement in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is common. Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography is considered the best imaging modality for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease evaluation. It is unclear whether the lack of a dedicated large bowel preparation prevents a reliable colonic assessment. To determine the diagnostic performance of standard MR enterography in detecting and grading colonic inflammatory activity. We retrospectively evaluated children who underwent both MR enterography and ileocolonoscopy with biopsies <4 weeks apart. Two radiologists independently reviewed MR examinations and quantified inflammation in each of the five colonic segments using a standardized MR score system. Findings were compared with histological examination of the corresponding segment. Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Jonckheere-Terpstra and Bland-Altman statistics were used. One hundred seventy-five segments from 37 examinations were included. MR enterography diagnostic performance for inflammation was as follows: sensitivity 94% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90-97%), specificity: 64% (95% CI: 57-71%). A significant positive correlation was found between MR score and inflammatory activity histologically graded (P<0.001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test). The interobserver agreement was good (mean difference between MR enterography scores was -0.03; limits of agreement -2.8 to 2.7). Standard MR enterography is sensitive for the detection of actively inflamed colonic segments. MR enterography might provide useful information for guiding biopsies and its role as an alternative to ileocolonoscopy in monitoring colonic disease activity in children should be further investigated. (orig.)

  20. Increased risk of venous thromboembolism and arterial cardiovascular events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This focused review describes the current knowledge of the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and as well as venous thromboembolism this disease shares inflammatory mechanisms with IBD. Patients...

  1. [Developments in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: 2014 overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomollón, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    The way we treat inflammatory bowel disease is rapidly changing. Biologics have accounted for the biggest change in recent years, and they are being used on a more regular basis, on more indications and at earlier stages. However, primary response failure and, above all, secondary response failure and cost represent serious limitations for their use. Combination immunosuppressant therapy, individualization depending on levels and response, increasing compliance and a more suitable choice of cases can all enhance effectiveness. However in many cases, new alternatives will be necessary. Recently, 2 new antibodies have been approved: golimumab is a new option for ulcerative colitis and with another more selective mechanism of action; vedolizumab could be useful for ulcerative colitis as well as Crohn's disease. Ustekinumab is an alternative treatment option for refractory Crohn's disease. In addition to biologics, autologous bone marrow transplants and, anecdotally, the use of immunoglobulins have been suggested as alternatives in some carefully selected cases. Although effective for Clostridium difficile infection, the potential role of fecal transplants in inflammatory bowel disease is still to be determined, without initially observing very promising results. The use of probiotics has not produced significant positive results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannaga AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayman S Bannaga,1 Christian P Selinger2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anxiety disorder (AD in patients with IBD can be challenging. Patients with anxiety may also exhibit symptoms in keeping with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. Evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological therapies for anxiety stems from patients without IBD. Studies in patients with IBD have either been small or shown negative results. In light of this, a combined approach involving IBD physicians to improve disease control and psychologists or psychiatrists to treat anxiety is advised. This review examines the evidence of anxiety issues in IBD with a focus on extent of the problem, risk factors for anxiety, and the effectiveness of interventions. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anxiety

  3. CT enterography: a preliminary experience in the evaluation of small bowel diseases

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    Costa-Silva, Luciana [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Medical School. Dept. of Supplementary Propedeutics; Martins, Tatiana [Ecoar Medicina Diagnostica, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Passos, Maria do Carmo Friche [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Medical School. Dept. of Medical Practice

    2010-09-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at demonstrating the value of computed tomography enterography (CT enterography) and how this imaging method can be useful in the diagnostic elucidation and assessment of patients with small bowel diseases. Materials and methods: retrospective evaluation of 35 patients submitted to CT enterography in a 16-row multidetector CT equipment from May/2008 to March/2009. All the patients received intravenous and neutral oral iodinated contrast agents (polyethylene glycol). Main indications were: Crohn's disease, diarrhea of undetermined origin and suspicion of neoplasia. Results: a good correlation was observed between CT enterography findings and clinical, laboratory and endoscopic data related to the disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. In 15 cases alterations compatible with Crohn's disease were identified, nine of them suggesting disease activity. A diagnosis was achieved in the majority of the patients with diarrhea. Carcinoid tumors were identified in two patients. Conclusion: CT enterography is a simple and effective method in the evaluation of inflammatory/neoplastic small bowel diseases, particularly in cases of Crohn's disease, indicating disease activity. One of the main advantages of this method is the possibility of evaluating associated mesenteric and extraintestinal alterations (author)

  4. A Rare Form of Chronic Granulomatous Disease (Type Iva Presenting as Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Francisco A Sylvester

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil dysfunction syndromes can sometimes mimic the clinical and pathological features of inflammatory bowel disease. The case of a 3.5-year-old boy with chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, poor growth since infancy and microcytic, hypochromic anemia is presented. After an extensive diagnostic evaluation, he was found to have a rare variant (type IVA of chronic granulomatous disease. His gastrointestinal symptoms markedly improved during therapy with gamma-interferon. Chronic granulomatous disease can present initially with a clinical picture suggestive of chronic intestinal inflammation. Therefore it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical inflammatory bowel disease, both in children and young adults.

  5. Anemia y enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal Anemia and inflammatory bowel disease

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    F. de la Morena

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La anemia es una de las complicaciones más comunes de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. La alta frecuencia de valores bajos de hemoglobina en estos enfermos provoca en muchas ocasiones una infravaloración por parte del médico de esta circunstancia, lo que se traduce en la falta de un tratamiento eficaz. Por otro lado, el carácter complejo de los mecanismos de producción de la anemia en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal con frecuencia plantea dudas acerca del tratamiento más adecuado. La identificación correcta de los pacientes con anemia así como la instauración del tratamiento más idóneo serán los dos pilares fundamentales para la mejoría de la calidad de vida de los enfermos. El uso correcto de los suplementos de hierro y las nuevas formulaciones de hierro parenteral, con o sin eritropoyetina asociada, han revolucionado nuestro abordaje de esta complicación evolutiva de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinalAnemia is a most common complication of inflammatory bowel disease. A high frequency of low hemoglobin values in these patients often leads physicians to subestimate this condition, which translates into ineffective treatment. On the other hand, the complex nature of anemia-inducing mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease frequently raises doubt about the most appropriate therapy. A correct identification of patients with anemia, and adequate therapy are the essential pillars for improved quality of life. The right use of iron supplementation, and novel parenteral iron formulations, either with or without associated erythropoietin, have revolutionized our approach of this complication in the course of inflammatory bowel disease

  6. Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases [Retraction

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    Bosani M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosani M, Ardizzone S, Porro GB. Biologics: Targets and Therapy. 2009;3:77–97.This paper has been retracted after we were made aware that it contains a large amount of reused, and uncited material that was not placed within quotation marks.The following statement has been supplied by Dr Sandro Ardizzone:The review entitled "Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease" has been commissioned by this journal and published in 2009 (Matteo Bosani, Sandro Ardizzone, Gabriele Bianchi Porro. Biologics: Targets & Therapy 2009;3:77–97. The paper was written by our young coworker (Dr M Bosani. He has consulted many papers, including our previous reviews published years before. The not perfect knowledge of English language has greatly influenced the writing of the paper itself. So he saved in word file several parts of our previous papers (Ardizzone S, Bianchi Porro G. Inflammatory bowel disease: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment. J Intern Med 2002;252:475–496 – Ardizzone S, Bianchi Porro G. Biologic therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Drugs 2005:2253–2286, and then transferred to the final paper. He was unaware as we are, of the fact that he could not reuse previously published material in other journals. The reuse of this material was made in good faith.Taking our responsibility for what happened, we intend to apologize for this inconvenience to the Editor (Dr Doris Benbrook and Publisher (Dr Tim Hill. Moreover, for the reasons mentioned above, I consider appropriate to retract the paper itself.This retraction relates to this paper.

  7. Inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease with capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Nathan, Torben; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Compared to other modalities, capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high diagnostic yield for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to determine the inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel CD with predefined diagnostic criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS...... was diagnostic of small bowel CD. Three observers with experience in gastrointestinal endoscopy and CE participated in the study. RESULTS: The presence or absence of small bowel CD was determined with complete agreement in 23 patients, nine patients with and 14 without small bowel CD. The inter...

  8. Preliminary evidence supporting a framework of psychological adjustment to inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebles, Jennifer L; Doerfler, Bethany; Keefer, Laurie

    2010-10-01

    Adjustment to chronic disease is a multidimensional construct described as successful adaptation to disease-specific demands, preservation of psychological well-being, functional status, and quality of life. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be particularly challenging due to the unpredictable, relapsing and remitting course of the disease. All participants were patients being treated in an outpatient gastroenterology clinic at a university medical center. Participants completed a survey of questionnaires assessing illness perceptions, stress, emotional functioning, disease acceptance, coping, disease impact, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Adjustment was measured as a composite of perceived disability, psychological functioning, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Participants were 38 adults with a diagnosis of either Crohn's disease (45%) or ulcerative colitis (55%). We observed that our defined adjustment variables were strongly correlated with disease characteristics (r = 0.33-0.80, all P disease acceptance (r = 0.34-0.74, P adjustment was associated with greater bowel and systemic health, increased activities engagement and symptom tolerance, less pain, less perceived stress, and fewer gastroenterologist visits. All adjustment variables were highly correlated (r = 0.40-0.84, P disease management including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral factors beyond the traditional medical and psychological (depression and anxiety) components.

  9. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: what's new in Digestive Disease Week 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, María

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disorder of unknown aetiology that results from a pathologic response from both the innate and acquired immune systems, leading to chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. New drugs have been introduced into the therapeutic armamentarium of inflammatory bowel disease but are not effective in all patients; moreover, among initial responders, there have been reports of loss of response over time. In addition, these drugs sometimes have adverse effects and are often expensive. The present article reviews the studies presented at Digestive Disease Week 2016 that provided new data on the optimisation of currently approved treatments for inflammatory bowel disease, experience with recently approved drugs in clinical practice, and some studies on molecules that are under development for the treatment of these diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Infectious gastroenteritis in relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. Therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliellas, C; Xiol, X; Barenys, M; Saavedra, J; Casanovas, T; Iborra, M; Sesé, E

    1996-06-01

    The incidence and clinical importance of infectious gastroenteritis was studied in 67 consecutive relapses of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A stool culture was done in every case before starting treatment. Stool culture was positive in 6 relapses (8.9%): Four were exacerbations of ulcerative colitis and two of Crohn's disease (8.8% in ulcerative colitis vs 9% in Crohn's disease; NS). The microorganisms isolated were Campylobacter jejuni in three cases, Salmonella enteritidis in two and Staphylococcus aureus in one case. There were not clinical differences between patients with positive and negative stool culture. Treated with antibiotics, stool cultures became negative in all of them but only in three the disease was controlled. The other three had to be treated with corticosteroids to achieve remission. We conclude that stool culture should be practised in all relapses of IBD and in case of positivity, antibiotic therapy should be started. With this approach the use of corticosteroids can be avoided in some patients.

  11. Application of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Preparations in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the comparative characterization of different derivatives of 5-aminosalicylic acid. Researches of the past decades have changed the presentation of the potential use of aminosalicylates in the therapy of various inflammatory bowel diseases. In connection with unknown etiology of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, there is no causal treatment of these diseases. The essence of treatment is reduced to inhibition of inflammatory activity during exacerbations and a course of preventive treatment. Numerous studies over the past 20 years have shown that the basis of basic treatment for nonspecific chronic inflammatory bowel diseases is 5-aminosalicylic acid drugs, or salicylates. When choosing the dosage form, you should take into account the differences between mesalazine preparations depending on the type of the coat. It is shown that in terms of pharmacokinetics, the most effective mesalazine dosage forms for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease with lesions of the colon are enteric coated tablets that provides a pH-dependent gradual release of 5-aminosalicylic acid throughout the entire colon. 5-aminosalicylic acid drugs available today on the pharmaceutical market are able to control the course of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease with lesions of the colon in the majority of patients. The use of 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations is not limited to the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. The drug is widely used in other diseases of the bowel, such as diverticular disease of the colon, colitis banal, radiation damages of the colon, as well as to treat common diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome. The study, which was conducted in the department bowel disease of the State Institution «Institute of Gastroenterology» for 2 years, showed a positive effect of 20-day treatment with Mesacol in uncomplicated diverticular disease. The use of Mesacol at a dose of 1,600 mg

  12. Nutritional and metabolic advances in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A; Lichtenstein, G R; Rombeau, J L

    1998-09-01

    Crude measurements of nutritional status, such as body weight, are inadequate to assess the severity and consequence of malnutrition among inflammatory bowel disease patients. Functional deficiency resulting in osteopenia and muscle weakness have been demonstrated in these patients when compared to controls. Manipulating micronutrient and essential fatty acid intake may affect the degree of inflammation and functional status in these patients. Despite evidence that colonocyte oxidation of butyrate is impaired, pharmacologic doses of butyrate have been disappointing. Much of the general population fails to achieve the recommended daily allowance of lipid, micronutrients and fibre. Even in the absence of specific dietary manipulation, patient education regarding a prudent diet is sorely needed.

  13. Psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease: links and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlachos C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Christoforos Vlachos,1 Georgios Gaitanis,1 Konstantinos H Katsanos,2 Dimitrios K Christodoulou,2 Epameinondas Tsianos,2 Ioannis D Bassukas1 1Department of Skin and Venereal Diseases, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: Psoriasis and the spectrum of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are chronic, inflammatory, organotropic conditions. The epidemiologic coexistence of these diseases is corroborated by findings at the level of disease, biogeography, and intrafamilial and intrapatient coincidence. The identification of shared susceptibility loci and DNA polymorphisms has confirmed this correlation at a genetic level. The pathogenesis of both diseases implicates the innate and adaptive segments of the immune system. Increased permeability of the epidermal barrier in skin and intestine underlies the augmented interaction of allergens and pathogens with inflammatory receptors of immune cells. The immune response between psoriasis and IBD is similar and comprises phagocytic, dendritic, and natural killer cell, along with a milieu of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides that stimulate T-cells. The interplay between dendritic cells and Th17 cells appears to be the core dysregulated immune pathway in all these conditions. The distinct similarities in the pathogenesis are also reflected in the wide overlapping of their therapeutic approaches. Small-molecule pharmacologic immunomodulators have been applied, and more recently, biologic treatments that target proinflammatory interleukins have been introduced or are currently being evaluated. However, the fact that some treatments are quite selective for either skin or gut conditions also highlights their crucial pathophysiologic differences. In the present review, a comprehensive comparison of risk factors, pathogenesis links, and therapeutic strategies for psoriasis and IBD is presented. Specific emphasis is placed on

  14. Relação entre estado nutricional e atividade inflamatória em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal Relationship between nutritional status and inflammatory activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Freitas da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: As doenças inflamatórias intestinais caracterizam-se por diversos sintomas que afetam o aparelho digestório e, consequentemente, podem interferir sobre o estado nutricional. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal em diferentes estágios de atividade inflamatória. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 55 pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal, por meio de dados antropométricos, com aferição de peso, altura, circunferência do braço e prega cutânea do tríceps e tiveram sua composição corporal determinada por impedância bioelétrica. Para determinação de atividade inflamatória da doença foram utilizados os níveis séricos de proteína C reativa e o índice de Harvey e Bradshaw. Para comparação de médias foi usado o teste t não pareado, e para as médias não paramétricas, o teste de Mann-Whitney, considerando nível de significância valor de pBACKGROUND: The inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by multiple digestive tract symptoms and therefore may interfere with nutritional status. AIM: To assess the nutritional status of patients with inflammatory bowel disease in different stages of inflammatory activity. METHODS: Fifty five patients with inflammatory bowel disease were demographically evaluated with weight measurement, height, arm circumference and triceps skinfold and had their body composition determined by bioelectrical impedance. For determination of inflammatory activity of the disease were used serum C-reactive protein and the index of Harvey and Bradshaw. To compare means it was used the unpaired t test, and the average non-parametric, the Mann-Whitney test, level of significance p <0.05. RESULTS: Among the patients, 28 had Crohn's disease and 27 ulcerative colitis, aged between 19 and 63 years and time since diagnosis 1-22 years. There was no difference in anthropometric measurements and body composition of patients whose disease was inflammatory

  15. Evaluation of lactose and milk intolerance, and bone mineral density in Indian patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Makharia, Govind; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Yadav, Raj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A misconception that milk and lactose intolerance increases disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease leads to the exclusion of dietary dairy products, and patients are at an increased risk of low bone mineral density. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (n=45, 19 men and 26 women) and healthy controls were included in this prospective open-label study. As part of exploratory dietary intervention, patients were advised to exclude milk and milk products from diet for the first 7 days and reintroduce at least 250 ml of milk for the next 21 days. Milk and lactose intolerance was assessed in patients and healthy subjects using clinical symptoms and lactose hydrogen breath test, respectively; bone mineral density was assessed in patients using a Hologic QDR 4500A DXA machine. Milk and lactose intolerance was statistically comparable in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (31% and 44%, respectively) and healthy subjects (22% and 27%, respectively). Most of the patients (40%) had excluded dairy products from their diet, and 53% had dietary intake of calcium Milk and lactose intolerance in patients with inflammatory bowel disease was not different from that in healthy subjects. The proportion of patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia was high in this population. Hence, patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission phase may be encouraged to add dairy products in their diet, unless otherwise indicated. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease associated neoplasia: A surgeon’s perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althumairi, Azah A; Lazarev, Mark G; Gearhart, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The risk is known to increase with longer duration of the disease, family history of CRC, and history of primary sclerosing cholangitis. The diagnosis of the neoplastic changes associated with IBD is difficult owing to the heterogeneous endoscopic appearance and inter-observer variability of the pathological diagnosis. Screening and surveillance guidelines have been established which aim for early detection of neoplasia. Several surgical options are available for the treatment of IBD-associated neoplasia. Patients’ morbidities, risk factors for CRC, degree and the extent of neoplasia must be considered in choosing the surgical treatment. A multidisciplinary team including the surgeon, gastroenterologist, pathologist, and the patient who has a clear understanding of the nature of their disease is needed to optimize outcomes. PMID:26811640

  17. Social Media Use in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Reich, Jason; Groshek, Jacob; Farraye, Francis A

    2016-05-01

    Patients with chronic illnesses such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) have been more keen to utilize the Internet and in particular, social media to obtain patient educational information in recent years. It is important for the gastroenterologist to be aware of these modalities and how they might affect information exchange and ultimately, disease management. This article addresses the current prevalence of social media use, advent of mobile health applications, social media usage in patients with chronic conditions, usage amongst providers, and most notably, the usage and preferences in IBD patients. Over the last decade there has been an increasing desire from patients to receive educational material about their disease through social media. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of IBD-related information on social media. Given the disparity of information available on the Internet, we remark on the quality of this information and stress the need for further research to assess the validity of IBD information posted on social media.

  18. [Natural history, complications, safety and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, María

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies were presented in Digestive Disease Week 2015 (DDW 2015) on the natural history, complications, and safety of treatments in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as novel findings on fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. The present article reviews presentations on the natural history of IBD, the risk of complications and their prevention, treatment safety, aspects related to fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, as well as the risk of cancer and its association with IBD and with drugs used in its treatment. In the next few years, more data will become available on treatment safety and the possible complications that can develop in IBD patients due to the disease itself and the drugs employed in its treatment, which will allow measures to be adopted to improve prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Telemedicine in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguas, Mariam; Del Hoyo, Javier; Faubel, Raquel; Valdivieso, Bernardo; Nos, Pilar

    2017-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disorder with significant medical, social and financial impacts. IBD patients require continuous follow-up, and healthcare resource use in this context increases over time. In the last decade, telemedicine has influenced the treatment of chronic diseases like IBD via the application of information and communication technologies to provide healthcare services remotely. Telemedicine and its various applications (telemanagement, teleconsulting and tele-education) enable closer follow-up and provide education resources that promote patient empowerment, encouraging treatment optimisation over the entire course of the disease. We describe the impact of using telemedicine on IBD health outcomes and discuss the limitations of implementing these systems in the real-life management of IBD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Tools for primary care management of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Alice L; Munkholm, Pia; Andrews, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare systems throughout the world continue to face emerging challenges associated with chronic disease management. Due to the likely increase in chronic conditions in the future it is now vital that cooperation and support between specialists, generalists and primary health care physicians...... is conducted. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one such chronic disease. Despite specialist care being essential, much IBD care could and probably should be delivered in primary care with continued collaboration between all stakeholders. Whilst most primary care physicians only have few patients currently...... affected by IBD in their caseload, the proportion of patients with IBD-related healthcare issues cared for in the primary care setting appears to be widespread. Data suggests however, that primary care physician's IBD knowledge and comfort in management is suboptimal. Current treatment guidelines for IBD...

  1. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: A differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    manifestation of LGV is a proctitis, with a clinical presentation and endoscopic findings resembling those of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). LGV is considered new in Scandinavia. This case report focuses on difficulties in differentiating LGV and IBD. Material and methods. This case report used......Abstract Objective. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important...... a systematic search in the literature using PubMed and clinical cases from the Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark (Cases 1-3) and the Section of Surgery, Hamar Hospital, Norway (Case 4). Results. Clinical and endoscopic findings in LGV and IBD resemble...

  2. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2010-01-01

    , metabolic, dermatologic (mucocutaneous), ophthalmologic, hepatobiliary, hematologic, thromboembolic, urinary tract, pulmonary, and pancreatic extraintestinal manifestations related to IBD. Articles were identified through search of the PubMed and Embase databases, the Cochrane Library, and the web sites......Abstract Extraintestinal manifestations occur rather frequently in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), e.g. ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The present paper provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, and management of rheumatic......', 'thromboembolism', and 'treatment'. The search was performed on English-language reviews, practical guidelines, letters, and editorials. Articles were selected based on their relevance, and additional papers were retrieved from their reference lists. Since some of the diseases discussed are uncommon, valid...

  3. Involvement of Reduced Microbial Diversity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study the microbial profiles in inflammatory conditions. A common phenomenon in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is the reduction of the diversity of microbiota, which demonstrates that microbial diversity negatively correlates with disease severity in IBD. Increased microbial diversity is known to occur in disease remission. Species diversity plays an important role in maintaining the stability of the intestinal ecosystem as well as normal ecological function. A reduction in microbial diversity corresponds to a decrease in the stability of the ecosystem and can impair ecological function. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT, probiotics, and prebiotics, which aim to modulate the microbiota and restore its normal diversity, have been shown to be clinically efficacious. In this study, we hypothesized that a reduction in microbial diversity could play a role in the development of IBD.

  4. Patient-reported Outcomes in a French Nationwide Survey of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williet, Nicolas; Sarter, Hélène; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Adrianjafy, Charlotte; Olympie, Alain; Buisson, Anne; Beaugerie, Laurent; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    Patient reported-outcomes [PROs] are a major therapeutic goal in inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Between January and June 2014, patients affiliated with the French national IBD association filled out six self-questionnaires: quality of life 9QoL, according to the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire [SIBDQ] and the Short-Form-36 Questionnaire [SF-36] v2); fatigue (the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue [FACIT-F]); work productivity (the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment [WPAI] questionnaire); disability [the I nflammatory Bowel Disease Disability Index]; and anxiety/depression (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale [HADS]). Associated factors were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Datasets were obtained from 1185 IBD patients. Around half of patients reported poor QoL [SIBDQ 7: 49.4%]. One-third of the patients reported anxiety [HAD-A >7: 30.3%] and/or moderate [22.4%] or severe [11.9%] disability. About half of them reported presenteeism and moderate-to-severe loss of work productivity and loss of activity. Poor QoL, severe fatigue, severe disease-related disability, and/or high WPAI were all associated with female gender, unemployment, and disease activity. Poor QoL, severe fatigue, and high WPAI were also associated with the use of tumour necrosis factor antagonists. A history of surgery was associated with poor QoL, whereas age was associated with severe fatigue. Severe depression was associated with female gender and disease activity. The disease burden is very high in IBD, with poor QoL, fatigue, work impairment, and depression in half of patients. Marked disability and anxiety were reported by one-third of patients. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Pediatric Small Bowel Crohn Disease: Correlation of US and MR Enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Smith, Ethan A; Sanchez, Ramon J; DiPietro, Michael A; DeMatos-Maillard, Vera; Strouse, Peter J; Darge, Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Small bowel Crohn disease is commonly diagnosed during the pediatric period, and recent investigations show that its incidence is increasing in this age group. Diagnosis and follow-up of this condition are commonly based on a combination of patient history and physical examination, disease activity surveys, laboratory assessment, and endoscopy with biopsy, but imaging also plays a central role. Ultrasonography (US) is an underutilized well-tolerated imaging modality for screening and follow-up of small bowel Crohn disease in children and adolescents. US has numerous advantages over computed tomographic (CT) enterography and magnetic resonance (MR) enterography, including low cost and no required use of oral or intravenous contrast material. US also has the potential to provide images with higher spatial resolution than those obtained at CT enterography and MR enterography, allows faster examination than does MR enterography, does not involve ionizing radiation, and does not require sedation or general anesthesia. US accurately depicts small bowel and mesenteric changes related to pediatric Crohn disease, and US findings show a high correlation with MR imaging findings in this patient population. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  6. [Analysis of risk factors for anastomotic infectious complications following bowel resection for Crohn disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wang-yue; Chen, Cheng-long; Chen, Guang-lan; Wu, Cheng-jun; Li, Hong-guang; Luan, Shuang-mei; Zhu, Ya-bi

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the risk factors for anastomotic infectious complications after bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease. Clinical data of 124 patients with Crohn disease undergoing bowel resection between January 1990 and October 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The risk factors were identified by χ(2) test and Logistic regression. Fourteen patients (12.3%, 14/114) developed anastomotic infectious complications in the postoperative period, including anastomotic leak (n=7), intra-abdominal abscess (n=6), and enterocutaneous fistula (n=1). Crohn disease activity index (CDAI)>150 (OR=2.185, 95%CI:1.098-6.256, P=0.040), steroid usage (OR=2.674, 95%CI:1.118-8.786, P=0.027), and the presence of preoperative abscess/fistula (OR=3.447, 95%CI:1.254-10.462, P=0.014) were identified as independent risk factors of anastomotic infectious complications. In the absence of these 3 risk factors, the rate of anastomotic infectious complication was 5.7% (3/53), which increased to 11.4% (4/35) when one risk factor was present, 21.1% (4/19) when two risk factors were present, and 42.9% (3/7) when all the 3 risk factors were present. CDAI>150, steroid usage and preoperative abscess/fistula are associated with higher rates of anastomotic infectious complications following bowel resection for Crohn disease. A prudent management should be carried out if risk factors can not be eliminated preoperatively.

  7. ORAL MUCOSA LESIONS AND ORAL SYMPTOMS IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE PATIENTS

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    Nuno LARANJEIRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease is known for its extra intestinal manifestations, the oral cavity is no exception. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and oral mucosa lesions and symptoms, and complementary to evaluate their possible relation with oral hygiene, smoking habits, drug therapy, duration and activity of the disease. Methods Patients were selected from the Gastroenterology Clinic of a Portuguese tertiary referral hospital. This sample consisted of 113 patients previously diagnosed with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease along with a control group of 58 healthy individuals that were accompanying the study group patients to their appointments. Clinical interviews and clinical examinations were performed for data collection. Results The patients in the study group were more affected by oral symptoms (P=0.011, and showed a trend towards a higher incidence of oral mucosal lesions, even though statistical significance was not reached (8.8% versus 3.4% in the control group; P=0.159. Patients in active phase were the most affected. No differences were detected between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, or concerning smoking habits. The corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy seemed to increase the incidence of oral symptoms (P=0.052. The oral mucosa lesions increased and the oral symptoms decreased over the course of the disease, however without statistical significance. Conclusion Oral mucosa’s lesions and oral symptoms were positively associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, mainly during disease activity periods and conceivably, associated with corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy.

  8. The Short Health Scale: a valid and reliable measure of health related quality of life in English speaking inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Edel

    2013-09-01

    Health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease is influenced both by disease activity as well as by the psychosocial characteristics of the individual patient. The Short Health Scale (SHS) is a four-part visual analogue scale questionnaire using open-ended questions that are designed to assess the impact of inflammatory bowel disease on a health related quality of life. The four dimensions include bowel symptoms, activities of daily life, worry and general wellbeing. It has previously been validated in Swedish and Norwegian speaking patients.

  9. Basal Plasma Levels of Copeptin are Elevated in Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease after Bowel Resection

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    Bodil Ohlsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of interactions between the enteric nervous system, neuropeptides, and the immune system is growing. The aim of this study was to examine basal plasma levels of a variety of peptide precursors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. In two middle-aged cohorts, Malmö Preventive Medicine ( n = 5,415 and Malmö Diet and Cost Study ( n = 6,103, individuals with the diagnosis of IBD were identified. Medical records were scrutinized. Three controls were matched for each patient. Copeptin, midregional fragments of adrenomedullin, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, and proenkephalin A, as well as N-terminal protachykinin A and proneurotensin were analyzed in the plasma. Sixty-two IBD patients were identified. The only difference between patients and controls was higher copeptin levels in the patients compared with controls ( P = 0.006, with higher copeptin levels in resected than unresected patients ( P = 0.020. There was no difference in any precursor levels between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, between different distributions of disease lesions, or between different treatments.

  10. Activation of Epithelial Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 by Interleukin 28 Controls Mucosal Healing in Mice With Colitis and Is Increased in Mucosa of Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Mircea T; Buchen, Barbara; Wandersee, Alexandra; Hundorfean, Gheorghe; Günther, Claudia; Bourjau, Yvonne; Doyle, Sean E; Frey, Benjamin; Ekici, Arif B; Büttner, Christian; Weigmann, Benno; Atreya, Raja; Wirtz, Stefan; Becker, Christoph; Siebler, Jürgen; Neurath, Markus F

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the roles of interleukin 28A (also called IL28A or interferon λ2) in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) activation, studying its effects in mouse models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and intestinal mucosal healing. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6JCrl mice (controls), mice with IEC-specific disruption of Stat1 (Stat1IEC-KO), mice with disruption of the interferon λ receptor 1 gene (Il28ra-/-), and mice with disruption of the interferon regulatory factor 3 gene (Irf3-/-), with or without disruption of Irf7 (Irf7-/-). We used high-resolution mini-endoscopy and in vivo imaging methods to assess colitis progression. We used 3-dimensional small intestine and colon organoids, along with RNA-Seq and gene ontology methods, to characterize the effects of IL28 on primary IECs. We studied the effects of IL28 on the human intestinal cancer cell line Caco-2 in a wound-healing assay, and in mice colon wounds. Colonic biopsies and resected tissue from patients with IBD (n = 62) and patients without colon inflammation (controls, n = 23) were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain rection to measure expression of IL28A, IL28RA, and other related cytokines; biopsy samples were also analyzed by immunofluorescence to identify sources of IL28 production. IECs were isolated from patient tissues and incubated with IL28; signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation was measured by immunoblots and confocal imaging. Lamina propria cells in colon tissues of patients with IBD, and mice with colitis, had increased expression of IL28 compared with controls; levels of IL28R were increased in the colonic epithelium of patients with IBD and mice with colitis. Administration of IL28 induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in primary human and mouse IECs, increasing with dose. Il28ra-/-, Irf3-/-, Irf3-/-Irf7-/-, as well as Stat1IEC-KO mice, developed more severe colitis after administration of dextran sulfate sodium than control mice, with reduced

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases : Review of Known Environmental Protective and Risk Factors Involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, Kimberley W. J.; Amini, Marzyeh; Peters, Vera; Dijkstra, Gerard; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to genetic susceptibility and disturbances of the microbiome, environmental exposures forming the exposome play an important role. Starting at

  12. Leukocyte scintigraphy compared to intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almen, Sven; Granerus, Göran; Ström, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    Background: Leukocyte scintigraphy is a noninvasive investigation to assess inflammation. We evaluated the utility of labeled leukocytes to detect small bowel inflammation and disease complications in Crohn's disease and compared it to whole small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings. Methods...... was compared with the results of enteroscopy and with surgical, histopathologic, and clinical data. Results: In the 8 control patients leukocyte scan, endoscopy, and histopathology were all negative for the small bowel. In patients with Crohn's disease and small bowel inflammation seen at enteroscopy and....../or laparotomy (n = 39) the scan was positive in 33. In 8 patients without macroscopic small bowel inflammation, the scan was positive for the small bowel in 3 patients; at histology, 2 of 3 had inflammation. When combining results for patients and controls, the sensitivity of leukocyte scan for macroscopically...

  13. Is there a role for prophylactic colectomy in Lynch syndrome patients with inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kate L; Aronson, Melyssa D; Cohen, Zane

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome and chronic inflammatory bowel disease are two important risk factors for colorectal cancer. It is unclear whether Lynch syndrome patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at sufficiently increased risk for colorectal cancer to warrant prophylactic colectomy. This study aims to identify all cases of Lynch syndrome and concurrent inflammatory bowel disease in a large familial gastrointestinal cancer registry, define incidence of colorectal cancer, and characterize mismatch repair protein gene mutation status and inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer risk factors. We retrospectively identified and collected clinical data for all cases with confirmed diagnoses of Lynch syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease in the Familial Gastrointestinal Cancer Registry at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Twelve cases of confirmed Lynch syndrome, and concurrent inflammatory bowel disease were identified. Four cases developed colorectal cancer. An additional five cases had colectomy; one was performed for severe colitis, and four were performed for low-grade dysplasia. None of these surgical specimens contained malignancy or high-grade dysplasia. The presentation of Lynch syndrome with inflammatory bowel disease is uncommon and not well described in the literature. This small but important series of twelve cases is the largest reported to date. In this series, patients with Lynch syndrome and concurrent inflammatory bowel disease do not appear to have sufficiently increased risk for colorectal cancer to recommend prophylactic surgery. Therefore, the decision to surgery should continue to be guided by surgical indications for each disease. Further evaluation of this important area will require multi-institutional input.

  14. Tc-99m labeled leukocyte scintigraphy and CT for the evaluation of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Chihoko; Kubo, Kohzoh; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Endoh, Hideho; Odashima, Yae; Saitoh, Eri [Sapporo City General Hospital (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    Seventeen cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were studied to define the intensity and extent of disease by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes scintigraphy (TLLS), and 10 cases underwent CT examination to evaluate the bowel wall, lymph-nodes, and mesenteric surroundings. Serial TLLS were obtained up to 4 hours and CT was carried out within one week before or after TLLS. The sensitivities to early and delayed TLLS were 91% and 100%, respectively. The respective specificities were 100% and 33%. However, it appeared that mild IBD may yield false negative results in early TLLS while nonspecific bowel activity and migration of white cells may cause false positive results in delayed imaging. By setting the diagnostic criteria for labeled leukocyte accumulation on visualization of the small bowel regardless of uptake or activity of the large bowel similar to or greater than lumbar bone marrow, the sensitivity and specificity of delayed TLLS changed to 91% and 83%, respectively. On CT examination, mesenteric lymph-node swelling, periintestinal blurring and dilatation of mesenteric vasa recta were observed in all five patients with active Crohn`s disease, while wall thickening and enhancement were seen in four of them. None of the other three cases of inflammatory disease showed positive findings of dilatation of the mesenteric vasa recta, and they revealed relatively low uptake of labeled leukocytes in TLLS. A `scintigram score` was calculated by comparing uptake of tracer in five bowel segments with lumbar bone marrow activity, and a `CT score` was calculated by adding abnormalities of the intestine and mesenteric surroundings. The scintigram score correlated closely with CT score and clinical disease activity. (K.H.)

  15. Diagnosis of chronic small bowel disease in cats: 100 cases (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Gary D; Scot Estep, J; Kiupel, Matti; Olson, Jennifer C; Gassler, Loren N

    2013-11-15

    To determine whether a diagnosis of chronic small bowel disease could be established in a subset of cats that had clinical signs of chronic vomiting, chronic small bowel diarrhea, weight loss, or a combination of these, combined with ultrasonographically determined thickening of the small bowel. Retrospective case series. 100 client-owned domestic cats. Medical records of cats with clinical signs of chronic vomiting, chronic small bowel diarrhea, weight loss, or a combination of these, combined with ultrasonographically determined small bowel thickening, that underwent laparotomy and multiple small bowel biopsies between 2008 and 2012 were examined. Biopsy specimens were submitted for histologic evaluation, immunohistochemical evaluation, and, when findings were ambiguous, PCR assay for antigen receptor rearrangement. Chronic small bowel disease was diagnosed in 99 of the 100 cats. The most common diagnoses were chronic enteritis and intestinal lymphoma. Results suggested that cats with clinical signs of chronic small bowel disease should undergo detailed diagnostic testing because they are likely to have clinically important, diagnosable, treatable disease. Clinical signs of small bowel disease, especially weight loss and chronic or recurrent vomiting, are extremely common in cats. These signs should not be considered a normal condition and should not be ignored, regardless of common explanations given by owners, and cats with these signs should undergo appropriate diagnostic testing.

  16. The vitamin D status in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Elizabeth Veit

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There is no consensus on the vitamin D status of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. AIM: To determine the vitamin D status of patients with IBD by comparing their serum 25(OHD concentration to that of healthy controls. HYPOTHESIS: Serum 25(OHD concentration will be lower in patients with IBD compared to controls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A case-controlled retrospective study of subjects with IBD (n = 58 of 2-20 years (male n = 31, age 16.38±2.21 years; female n = 27, age 16.56±2.08 years and healthy controls (n = 116; male n = 49, age 13.90±4.59 years; female n = 67, age 15.04±4.12 years. Study subject inclusion criteria: diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD or ulcerative colitis (UC. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OHD of (<20 ng/mL (<50 nmol/L, overweight as BMI of ≥85th but <95th percentile, and obesity as BMI ≥95th percentile. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. RESULTS: Patients with CD, UC, and their controls had mean serum 25(OHD concentrations of 61.69±24.43 nmol/L, 53.26±25.51, and 65.32±27.97 respectively (ANOVA, p = 0.196. The overweight/obese controls had significantly lower 25(OHD concentration compared to the normal-weight controls (p = 0.031; whereas 25(OHD concentration was similar between the normal-weight and overweight/obese IBD patients (p = 0.883. There was no difference in 25(OHD between patients with UC and CD, or between subjects with active IBD and controls. However, IBD subjects with elevated ESR had significantly lower 25(OHD than IBD subjects with normal ESR (p = 0.025, as well as controls (65.3±28.0 nmol/L vs. 49.5±25.23, p = 0.045. CONCLUSION: There is no difference in mean serum 25(OHD concentration between children and adolescents with IBD and controls. However, IBD subjects with elevated ESR have significantly lower 25(OHD than controls. Therefore, IBD subjects with elevated ESR should be monitored for vitamin D

  17. MINERALIZATION DISORDER OF OSSEOUS TISSUE AMONG THE CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Yablokova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate of inflammatory bowel diseases among children actualizes early detection of this pathology form and its aftera effects, including secondary osteoporosis. The research purpose is to study the characteristics of osseous tissue mineralization, disorder of physical growth and sexual maturity of children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. The researchers have examined 116 children, including 33 children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases; 26 children, suffering from persistent colitis; 29 children, suffering from gasatroduodenitis; and 28 children with no GI tract pathologies. The study deals with estimate of level of mineral osseous tissue density, biochemical rates of osseous metabolism, as well as physical growth and sexual maturity. reduction of mineral osseous tissue density was found among 48,5% of children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, 23% of children, suffering from persistent colitis, 31% of children, suffering from chronic gastritis and 18% of almost healthy children, at the same time, it was more apparent among children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. The lowest rates of mineral osseous tissue density were among girls. Calcium phosphoric metabolism did not change apart from calcium creatinine coefficient, if osteopenia was observed. Thus, reduction of mineral osseous tissue density is often observed among children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, especially among adolescent girls. Therefore, it conditions the necessity to include densimetry into the conventional examination plan for children, suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. Authors also find it advisable to monitor physical growth and sexual maturity of children.Key words: children, inflammatory bowel diseases, osteoporosis.

  18. Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Associated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mack

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn’s disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials.

  19. Research Progress of Intestinal Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-shun YE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disseases (IBD are chronic recurrent diseases occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, mainly including ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. At present, the etiological factors and mechanism of IBD are still unclear yet. However, it is widely believed that IBD is caused by immune dysfunction, genetic factors, gut barrier dysfuction and dysbacteriosis, change of dietary structure, use of antibiotics, smoking, and environment. Studies suggest that breaking the accurate balance between host and intestinal microbiota in patients with IBD can trigger immuno-inflammatory responses in genetically susceptible individuals. Therefore, regulating intestinal microbiota disturbance and recovery of intestinal homeostasis between host and intestinal microbiota become a new treatment direction for IBD. This article mainly reviewed research progress of intestinal microbiota in pathogenetic mechanism and treatment of IBD.

  20. Therapy of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Surgeon’s Perspective

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    Zane Cohen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD can be extremely challenging and difficult. IBD patients, however, must be well aware of all therapy options and must be involved in the decision-making process. Both medical and surgical therapies have their own resultant toxicity and morbidity which must be taken into consideration. Gastroenterologists and surgeons must come together in their thinking about IBD patients and continue to undertake trials of both medical and surgical therapies in order to determine the best management for any individual patient. Topics including controversies related to the pelvic pouch procedure, stricturoplasty in the management of Crohn’s disease, assessment of trials using methotrexate and cyclosporine, and toxicity of medications and surgery are highlighted.

  1. Diet, microbiota, and inflammatory bowel disease: lessons from Japanese foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Takanori; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Naganuma, Makoto; Hayashi, Atsushi; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu

    2014-07-01

    The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease are rapidly increasing in Western countries and in developed Asian countries. Although biologic agents targeting the immune system have been effective in patients with IBD, cessation of treatment leads to relapse in the majority of patients, suggesting that intrinsic immune dysregulation is an effect, not a cause, of IBD. Dramatic changes in the environment, resulting in the dysregulated composition of intestinal microbiota or dysbiosis, may be associated with the fundamental causes of IBD. Japan now has upgraded water supply and sewerage systems, as well as dietary habits and antibiotic overuse that are similar to such features found in developed Western countries. The purpose of this review article was to describe the association of diet, particularly Japanese food and microbiota, with IBD.

  2. Phytochemicals and their potential usefulness in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Sahil J; Modi, Ketan P; Majumdar, Anuradha S; Sadarani, Bhakti N

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract with unclear etiology, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Various drug therapies including aminosalicylates and immunomodulators have been approved for use; they have shown to produce diverse side effects. To overcome these limitations of the current therapeutics for IBD, extensive research is underway to identify drugs that are effective and free of undesirable side effects. Recently, various naturally occurring phytochemicals that cover a wide range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, terpeniods, flavonoids, and alkaloids have received attention as alternative candidates for IBD therapy. These phytochemicals act by modulating the immune response, various transcription factors, or reduce cytokine secretion. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on phytochemicals as therapeutic agents in the management of IBD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Association of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Maunoo; Krishnamurthy, Jayasree; Susi, Apryl; Sullivan, Carolyn; Gorman, Gregory H; Hisle-Gorman, Elizabeth; Erdie-Lalena, Christine R; Nylund, Cade M

    2017-11-23

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) both have multifactorial pathogenesis with an increasing number of studies demonstrating gut-brain associations. We aim to examine the association between ASD and IBD using strict classification criteria for IBD. We conducted a retrospective case-cohort study using records from the Military Health System database with IBD defined as having one encounter with an ICD-9-CM diagnostic code for IBD and at least one outpatient prescription dispensed for a medication to treat IBD. Children with ASD were more likely to meet criteria for Crohn's disease (CD) and Ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to controls. This higher prevalence of CD and UC in children with ASD compared to controls confirms the association of ASD with IBD.

  4. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases: epidemiological features in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of registered patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD that is characterized by systemic manifestations and polymorbidal course is increasing nowadays. IBD, which include ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD, represent one of the most serious problems in modern gastroenterology and coloproctology. The purpose of our work was to examine the prevalence and incidence of UC and CD in chronic digestive diseases (CDD structure, their dynamics for the last 2 years (2014–2015 in Ukraine and its individual regions. Materials and methods. The situation in epidemiology of UC and CD was analyzed using the data officially submitted to the medical statistic center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. To assess the epidemiological pattern, we used such indicators: prevalence (absolute and per 100 thousand of population — the number of total registered diseases, and incidence — the number of first ill patients in current year. This study was conducted using the data of appealing to the health care facilities for a 2-year period, from 2014 to 2015, to assess the epidemiological picture in children for a 3-year period. We used the rate of growth/reduction to determine general trends and the nature of changes. Results were processed with the use of Statistics software package, version 6.0, Microsoft Excel, version 7.0. Results. In Ukraine since 2013, in the official statistics for the group of CDD such nosological forms, as UC, CD and irritable bowel syndrome, were recorded separately. That made possible to analyze health indicators for these diseases in the whole Ukraine, and in some regions. However, the current government statistics do not allow obtaining detailed information on the characteristics of the prevalence and incidence of IBD, because does not contain information on the age and gender composition of patients, and, most importantly, does not provide information on the effectiveness of the existing system

  5. Impact of exome sequencing in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Christopher J; Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-01-01

    Approaches to understanding the genetic contribution to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have continuously evolved from family- and population-based epidemiology, to linkage analysis, and most recently, to genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The next stage in this evolution seems to be the sequencing of the exome, that is, the regions of the human genome which encode proteins. The GWAS approach has been very fruitful in identifying at least 163 loci as being associated with IBD, and now, exome sequencing promises to take our genetic understanding to the next level. In this review we will discuss the possible contributions that can be made by an exome sequencing approach both at the individual patient level to aid with disease diagnosis and future therapies, as well as in advancing knowledge of the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:24187447

  6. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannaga, Ayman S; Selinger, Christian P

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anxiety disorder (AD) in patients with IBD can be challenging. Patients with anxiety may also exhibit symptoms in keeping with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological therapies for anxiety stems from patients without IBD. Studies in patients with IBD have either been small or shown negative results. In light of this, a combined approach involving IBD physicians to improve disease control and psychologists or psychiatrists to treat anxiety is advised. This review examines the evidence of anxiety issues in IBD with a focus on extent of the problem, risk factors for anxiety, and the effectiveness of interventions.

  7. Wegener’s granulomatosis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease and presenting with chronic enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahedi K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kamyar Shahedi,1,2 Ramy Magdy Hanna,1,2 Oleg Melamed,1,2 James Wilson2,31Department of Medicine Olive-View UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, 2David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 3UCLA Medical Center-UCLA Stone Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Wegener’s granulomatosis, also known as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis, is a small vessel vasculitis with primarily pulmonary, renal, and sinus disease manifestations. The prevalence of Wegener’s granulomatosis is three cases per 100,000 patients. Cardiovascular, neurologic, cutaneous, and joint manifestations have been reported in many case reports and case series. Gastrointestinal manifestations are less noted in Wegener’s granulomatosis, although they have been previously reported in the form of intestinal perforation and intestinal ischemia. Additionally, there are characteristic findings of vasculitis that are noted with active Wegener’s granulomatosis of the small bowel. We report a case of an elderly patient who presented with weight loss, diarrhea, and hematochezia. His symptoms were chronic and had lasted for more than 1 year before diagnosis. Inflammatory bowel disease or chronic enteritis due to Salmonella arizonae because of reptile exposure originally were suspected as etiologies of his presentation. The findings of proteinuria, renal failure, and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis on renal biopsy, in conjunction with an elevated c-ANCA titer, confirmed the diagnosis of Wegener’s granulomatosis with associated intestinal vasculitis. This case demonstrates an atypical presentation of chronic duodenitis and jejunitis secondary to Wegener’s granulomatosis, which mimicked inflammatory bowel disease.Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis, Wegener’s syndrome, pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, Salmonella arizonae, inflammatory bowel disease

  8. Gut-lung crosstalk in pulmonary involvement with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Jing-Shi; Peng, Shao-Hua; Deng, Xi-Yun; Zhu, De-Mao; Javidiparsijani, Sara; Wang, Gui-Rong; Li, Dai-Qiang; Li, Long-Xuan; Wang, Yi-Chun; Luo, Jun-Ming

    2013-10-28

    Pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction or hyper-reactivity occurs in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) more frequently than previously recognized. Emerging evidence suggests that subtle inflammation exists in the airways among IBD patients even in the absence of any bronchopulmonary symptoms, and with normal pulmonary functions. The pulmonary impairment is more pronounced in IBD patients with active disease than in those in remission. A growing number of case reports show that the IBD patients develop rapidly progressive respiratory symptoms after colectomy, with failure to isolate bacterial pathogens on repeated sputum culture, and often request oral corticosteroid therapy. All the above evidence indicates that the inflammatory changes in both the intestine and lung during IBD. Clinical or subclinical pulmonary inflammation accompanies the main inflammation of the bowel. Although there are clinical and epidemiological reports of chronic inflammation of the pulmonary and intestinal mucosa in IBD, the detailed mechanisms of pulmonary-intestinal crosstalk remain unknown. The lung has no anatomical connection with the main inflammatory site of the bowel. Why does the inflammatory process shift from the gastrointestinal tract to the airways? The clinical and subclinical pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction, or hyper-reactivity among IBD patients need further evaluation. Here, we give an overview of the concordance between chronic inflammatory reactions in the airways and the gastrointestinal tract. A better understanding of the possible mechanism of the crosstalk among the distant organs will be beneficial in identifying therapeutic strategies for mucosal inflammatory diseases such as IBD and allergy.

  9. Environmental factors and risk of developing paediatric inflammatory bowel disease - A population based study 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To identify environmental risk factors for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To identify environmental risk factors for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children...

  10. F-calprotectin and blood markers correlate to Quality of Life in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Katrine; Jakobsen, Christian; Kallemose, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate predictors of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) with respect to changes in disease parameters over time in children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). METHODS: This was a prospective longitudinal study examining the association between HRQoL (IMPACT...... to correlate with disease activity, has now been shown to be associated with disease markers in feces and blood. This emphasizes that objective markers of disease activity indirectly can predict the patient's HRQoL.......OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate predictors of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) with respect to changes in disease parameters over time in children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). METHODS: This was a prospective longitudinal study examining the association between HRQoL (IMPACT...... III) and symptom scores (PCDAI, abbrPUCAI), fecal calprotectin (FC) measures and blood analyses (C-reactive protein [CRP], erythrocyte sedimentation-rate [ESR], orosomucoid [ORM], albumin [ALB], hemoglobin [HB] and vitamin-D [VIT-D]) in a cohort of 10-17 years old IBD patients. Data were collected...

  11. Iron deficiency anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg ND

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neil D Goldberg Emeritus Chief of Gastroenterology, University of Maryland St. Joseph Medical Center, Towson, MD, USA Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia worldwide, caused by poor iron intake, chronic blood loss, or impaired absorption. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are increasingly likely to have iron deficiency anemia, with an estimated prevalence of 36%–76%. Detection of iron deficiency is problematic as outward signs and symptoms are not always present. Iron deficiency can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life, necessitating prompt management and treatment. Effective treatment includes identifying and treating the underlying cause and initiating iron replacement therapy with either oral or intravenous iron. Numerous formulations for oral iron are available, with ferrous fumarate, sulfate, and gluconate being the most commonly prescribed. Available intravenous formulations include iron dextran, iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, and ferumoxytol. Low-molecular weight iron dextran and iron sucrose have been shown to be safe, efficacious, and effective in a host of gastrointestinal disorders. Ferumoxytol is the newest US Food and Drug Administration-approved intravenous iron therapy, indicated for iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease. Ferumoxytol is also being investigated in Phase 3 studies for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients without chronic kidney disease, including subgroups with IBD. A review of the efficacy and safety of iron replacement in IBD, therapeutic considerations, and recommendations for the practicing gastroenterologist are presented. Keywords: anemia, inflammatory bowel disease, intravenous iron, iron deficiency, oral iron, therapy

  12. Ultrasound and MRI predictors of surgical bowel resection in pediatric Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel G; Conrad, Maire A; Biko, David M; Ruchelli, Eduardo D; Kelsen, Judith R; Anupindi, Sudha A

    2017-01-01

    surgical group showed increased mean bowel wall thickness (9.1 mm vs. 7.2 mm for the nonsurgical group; P = 0.02), increased mean T2 ratio (4.6 vs. 3.6 for the nonsurgical group; P = 0.03), different enhancement patterns (P = 0.03), increased mesenteric edema (P = 0.001) and increased stricture formation (OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 1.8-36.4; P = 0.005). Nineteen of 22 ileocecectomy specimens showed severe inflammation and 21/22 showed severe fibrosis, with significant correlation between inflammation and fibrosis scores (ρ = 0.55; P = 0.008); however, correlation with imaging findings was limited by the uniformity of findings on histopathology. Children with terminal ileal Crohn disease requiring surgical bowel resection demonstrate more severe manifestations of imaging features traditionally associated with both active inflammation and chronic fibrosis than those managed medically on US and MRE, findings that are corroborated by histopathology. These features may potentially serve as imaging biomarkers indicating the necessity for surgical intervention.

  13. Ultrasound and MRI predictors of surgical bowel resection in pediatric Crohn disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel G. [NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, Division of Pediatric Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Conrad, Maire A.; Kelsen, Judith R. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Biko, David M.; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ruchelli, Eduardo D. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Anatomic Pathology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    increased mean bowel wall thickness (9.1 mm vs. 7.2 mm for the nonsurgical group; P = 0.02), increased mean T2 ratio (4.6 vs. 3.6 for the nonsurgical group; P = 0.03), different enhancement patterns (P = 0.03), increased mesenteric edema (P = 0.001) and increased stricture formation (OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 1.8-36.4; P = 0.005). Nineteen of 22 ileocecectomy specimens showed severe inflammation and 21/22 showed severe fibrosis, with significant correlation between inflammation and fibrosis scores (ρ = 0.55; P = 0.008); however, correlation with imaging findings was limited by the uniformity of findings on histopathology. Children with terminal ileal Crohn disease requiring surgical bowel resection demonstrate more severe manifestations of imaging features traditionally associated with both active inflammation and chronic fibrosis than those managed medically on US and MRE, findings that are corroborated by histopathology. These features may potentially serve as imaging biomarkers indicating the necessity for surgical intervention. (orig.)

  14. Circulating L-selectin levels and endothelial CD34 expression in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, J B; Vainer, B; Horn, T

    1998-01-01

    was to compare levels of circulating sL-selectin, expression of the L-selectin ligand CD34 in the affected colon, and inflammatory bowel disease activity. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with UC, 16 patients with CD, and 18 control subjects were included in the study. In blood samples concentrations of serum s......L-selectin were determined by an ELISA technique. In colonoscopically obtained biopsies, CD34 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods using monoclonal CD34 antibodies. Disease activity was determined by a clinical semiquantitative scale. RESULTS: sL-selectin levels were found to be significantly...... increased along with increasing disease activity in UC (p 0.05) patients. UC patients with quiescent and severe disease activity had significantly lower (p CD34 expression was found...

  15. Faecal S100A12 as a non-invasive marker distinguishing inflammatory bowel disease from irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, T; Langhorst, J; Wittkowski, H; Becker, K; Friedrich, A W; Rueffer, A; Dobos, G J; Roth, J; Foell, D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: S100A12 is a pro-inflammatory protein that is secreted by granulocytes. S100A12 serum levels increase during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed the first study analysing faecal S100A12 in adults with signs of intestinal inflammation. METHODS: Faecal S100A12 was determined by

  16. The Role of Diet in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Raina; Lewis, James D

    2017-05-01

    Diet may play both a causal and therapeutic role for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Physicians caring for patients with IBD are often asked to make dietary recommendations. However, there are no well-established guidelines on the use of diet as a treatment of IBD. In this review, we describe the evidence supporting diet as a potential cause for IBD, patient-perceived symptoms based on diet, current research on various diets as a treatment for IBD, and areas of future research. New studies in murine models suggest that dietary emulsifiers may trigger the gut inflammatory cascade. New studies of restriction diets in patients have shown a relationship between dietary intake, symptoms, and bowel inflammation. Until several ongoing clinical trials are completed, a reasonable approach to dietary recommendations for patients with IBD is to propose a well-balanced, healthy (low-fat, low-sugar) diet prepared from fresh ingredients, such as the Mediterranean diet, with exclusions of self-identified foods that worsen or trigger IBD-related symptoms.

  17. Anemia in inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence, differential diagnosis and association with clinical and laboratory variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrade Alves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES:Anemia is the most frequent extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to: 1 determine the prevalence of anemia among patients with inflammatory bowel disease; 2 investigate whether routine laboratory markers are useful for diagnosing anemia; and 3 evaluate whether any association exists between anemia and clinical/laboratory variables.DESIGN AND SETTING:Cross-sectional at a federal university.METHODS:44 outpatients with Crohn's disease and 55 with ulcerative colitis were evaluated. Clinical variables (disease activity index, location of disease and pharmacological treatment and laboratory variables (blood count, iron laboratory, vitamin B12 and folic acid were investigated.RESULTS:Anemia and/or iron laboratory disorders were present in 75% of the patients with Crohn's disease and in 78.2% with ulcerative colitis. Anemia was observed in 20.5% of the patients with Crohn's disease and in 23.6% with ulcerative colitis. Iron-deficiency anemia was highly prevalent in patients with Crohn's disease (69.6% and ulcerative colitis (76.7%. Anemia of chronic disease in combination with iron deficiency anemia was present in 3% of the patients with Crohn's disease and in 7% of the patients with ulcerative colitis. There was no association between anemia and disease location. In ulcerative colitis, anemia was associated with the disease activity index.CONCLUSIONS:Most patients present iron laboratory disorders, with or without anemia, mainly due to iron deficiency. The differential diagnosis between the two most prevalent types of anemia was made based on clinical data and routine laboratory tests. In ulcerative colitis, anemia was associated with the disease activity index.

  18. [What useful developments for my inflammatory bowel disease practice have come from Digestive Disease Week 2014?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, María

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize reports presented at Digestive Disease Week 2014 that relate to fertility and pregnancy, inflammatory bowel disease in elderly patients, the risk of cancer and its relationship to treatment and finally, developments regarding psychological aspects that may affect patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Studies were selected at the discretion of the author, mainly considering those with conclusions that can be applied immediately to clinical practice. Using anti-TNF drugs during pregnancy is safe in the short term. This currently seems to be true for the medium and the long term. To limit fetal exposure, the mother can safely stop taking the anti-TNF drugs in the second trimester of the pregnancy if she is in remission. Elderly patients with inflammatory bowel disease require stricter monitoring than younger patients due to the risk of complications, especially infections associated with the disease and treatments. The effect of inflammatory bowel disease and the drugs for its treatment on the risk of development is still not well established, but the magnitude of the effect seems possibly lower than previously described. The causal link between psychological factors and the occurrence of IBD relapse is by no means established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug therapy: dose-response relationship of oral mesalazine in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. J. Mulder

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesalazine is widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Little is known about the doseresponse relationship and about possible dose related side effects. In ulcerative colitis higher dosages of mesalazine (3 g are more effective in maintaining a remission than lower dosages (1.5 g. In mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis, studies also indicate that higher dosages might be more effective in inducing remission. Dose-comparing studies in Crohn's disease are even more sparse, but the available results indicate higher efficacy at higher dose levels.

  20. Lifestyle Issues in Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Benoni

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available During the pa t decade, smoking habit has been identified as a major exogenous factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. It is associated not only with the development of the disease but al o with the clinical course in established disease. IBD combines absolute opposites as smoking is associated with Crohn’s disease and nonsmoking or former smoking with ulcerative colitis. The first reports of a negative association between smoking and ulcerative colitis were based on independent, clinical observations; from those studies a positive association was found between smoking and Crohn’s disease. Epidemiological studies that followed consistently showed that smokers have a reduced risk of ulcerative colitis and an increased risk of Crohn’s disease and that exsmokers have an increased risk of ulcerative colitis. In ulcerative colitis, but not in Crohn’s disease, a dose-response pattern has been demonstrated. Changes in clinical course, in disease severity and extension, and in recurrence rate indicate substantial clinical effects of smoking with a protective effect of smoking in ulcerative colitis and an aggravating effect in Crohn’s disease. There are also indications of smoking’s effects on changes in IBD epidemiology and sex distribution. The biological explanation to the finding is unknown. Smoking may aggravate Crohn’s disease by vascular effects. Theories on the protective effect in ulcerative colitis include effects on immune and inflammatory response, on mucus and on intestinal permeability. Possibly, beneficial effects in ulcerative colitis are exerted by nicotine but further studies are needed. Due to overall negative effects of smoking, IBD patients should not smoke. It seems, however, reasonable to give individual advice in patients with ulcerative colitis who have experienced a beneficial effect of ·making considering both current health status and life situation.

  1. Contrasting Pattern of Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Primary and Autoimmune Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Ingvar; Hayee, Bu; Pavlidis, Polychronis; Kvasnovsky, Charlotte; Scalori, Astrid; Sisson, Guy; Charlesworth, Annika; Shaikh, Hizbullah; Bjornsson, Einar; Heneghan, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (AISC) are related, but distinct chronic liver diseases. PSC is associated with a high prevalence of ulcerative colitis while the intestinal inflammation associated with AISC is less well characterised. To assess and contrast aspects of intestinal inflammation in patients with AISC and PSC and compare the clinical features with those of patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. 23 and 22 patients with AISC and PSC, respectively, underwent review of colonoscopy and biopsy findings, capsule enteroscopy and assessment of clinical and inflammatory (faecal calprotectin) disease activity, which was compared with that of patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (n = 55 each). Five and 6 patients with AISC and PSC, respectively, had normal colonoscopy and faecal calprotectin levels of 34.4 ± 8.3 and 39.7 ± 8.4 μg/g, respectively (normal 0.05) between patients with intestinal inflammation in AISC (588 ± 549 μg/g), PSC (421 ± 351 μg/g), ulcerative colitis (501 ± 656 μg/g) or Crohn's disease (476 ± 571 μg/g). Capsule enteroscopy showed that 7 of 18 (39%) (p < 0.03) of those with AISC had small bowel mucosal breaks whereas no patient with PSC had these findings. Collectively these findings lend support to the suggestion that the chronic inflammatory bowel disease associated with PSC and in particular AISC may represent a distinct nosologic entity different from classic ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

  2. Contrasting Pattern of Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Primary and Autoimmune Sclerosing Cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Bjarnason

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation: Collectively these findings lend support to the suggestion that the chronic inflammatory bowel disease associated with PSC and in particular AISC may represent a distinct nosologic entity different from classic ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

  3. Overlap, common features, and essential differences in pediatric granulomatous inflammatory bowel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, G.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Hoppenreijs, E.P.A.H.; Os, E. van; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Warris, A.; Yntema, J.L.; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.; Escher, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Overlap in the clinical presentation of pediatric granulomatous inflammatory bowel disease may be substantial, depending on the mode of presentation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) may present with granulomatous colitis, perianal abscesses, hepatic abscesses or granulomas, failure to thrive,

  4. Potential Benefits of Dietary Fibre Intervention in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestine Wong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD. Postulated mechanisms include direct interactions with the gut mucosa through immunomodulation, or indirectly through the microbiome. Component species of the microbiome may degrade dietary-fibre polysaccharides and ferment the products to form short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Prebiotic dietary fibres may also act more directly by altering the composition of the microbiome. Longer term benefits in reducing the risk of more aggressive disease or colorectal cancer may require other dietary fibre sources such as wheat bran or psyllium. By critically examining clinical trials that have used dietary fibre supplements or dietary patterns containing specific types or amounts of dietary fibres, it may be possible to assess whether varying the intake of specific dietary fibres may offer an efficient treatment for IBD patients.

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Balding

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available THE mechanisms responsible for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have not been fully elucidated, although the main cause of disease pathology is attributed to up-regulated inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of polymorphisms in genes encoding pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in IBD patients and controls. We determined genotypes of patients with IBD (n=172 and healthy controls (n=389 for polymorphisms in genes encoding various cytokines (interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist. Association of these genotypes to disease incidence and pathophysiology was investigated. No strong association was found with occurrence of IBD. Variation was observed between the ulcerative colitis study group and the control population for the TNF-α-308 polymorphism (p=0.0135. There was also variation in the frequency of IL-6-174 and TNF-α-308 genotypes in the ulcerative colitis group compared with the Crohn's disease group (p=0.01. We concluded that polymorphisms in inflammatory genes are associated with variations in IBD phenotype and disease susceptibility. Whether the polymorphisms are directly involved in regulating cytokine production, and consequently pathophysiology of IBD, or serve merely as markers in linkage disequilibrium with susceptibility genes remains unclear.

  6. Psychological Issues in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadinejad, M. S.; Asgari, K.; Molavi, H.; Kalantari, M.; Adibi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and disabling disease with unknown etiology. There have been some controversies regarding the role of psychological factors in the course of IBD. The purpose of this paper is to review that role. First the evidence on role of stress is reviewed focusing on perceived stress and patients' beliefs about it in triggering or exacerbating the course of IBD. The possible mechanisms by which stress could be translated into IBD symptoms, including changes in motor, sensory and secretory gastrointestinal function, increase intestinal permeability, and changes in the immune system are, then reviewed. The role of patients' concerns about psychological distress and their adjustment to disease, poor coping strategies, and some personality traits that are commonly associated with these diseases are introduced. The prevalence rate, the timing of onset, and the impact of anxiety and depression on health-related quality of life are then reviewed. Finally issues about illness behavior and the necessity of integrating psychological interventions with conventional treatment protocols are explained. PMID:22778720

  7. Psychological Issues in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Sajadinejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD including Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic and disabling disease with unknown etiology. There have been some controversies regarding the role of psychological factors in the course of IBD. The purpose of this paper is to review that role. First the evidence on role of stress is reviewed focusing on perceived stress and patients’ beliefs about it in triggering or exacerbating the course of IBD. The possible mechanisms by which stress could be translated into IBD symptoms, including changes in motor, sensory and secretory gastrointestinal function, increase intestinal permeability, and changes in the immune system are, then reviewed. The role of patients’ concerns about psychological distress and their adjustment to disease, poor coping strategies, and some personality traits that are commonly associated with these diseases are introduced. The prevalence rate, the timing of onset, and the impact of anxiety and depression on health-related quality of life are then reviewed. Finally issues about illness behavior and the necessity of integrating psychological interventions with conventional treatment protocols are explained.

  8. Management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillon, Lieven; Bossuyt, Peter; Vanderstukken, Joke; Moulin, David; Netter, Patrick; Danese, Silvio; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Loeuille, Damien; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    More than half of the patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experience at least one extra-intestinal manifestation (EIM). The most common EIM in patients with IBD is spondyloarthritis (SpA). Microscopic intestinal inflammation is documented in almost 50% of the patients with SpA. Areas covered: We give an overview of the classification, the epidemiology and the diagnosis of IBD and SpA. The treatment goals, the pharmacologic management options and the available treatment guidelines in IBD patients with SpA are discussed. Expert commentary: The coexistence of IBD and SpA generates challenges and opportunities for both the gastroenterologist and the rheumatologist. The potential of drugs with a gut-specific mode of action in the treatment of IBD-related arthritis warrants further exploration.

  9. Management of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark; Coskun, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is the most frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but anemia, mostly due to iron deficiency, has long been neglected in these patients. The aim was to briefly present the pathophysiology, followed by a balanced overview of the different forms of iron replacement...... available, and subsequently, to perform a systematic review of studies performed in the last decade on the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD. Given that intravenous therapies have been introduced in the last decade, a systematic review performed in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library......, and the websites of WHO, FDA, and EMA covered prospective trials investigating the management of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD published since 2004. A total of 632 articles were reviewed, and 13 articles (2906 patients) with unique content were included. In general, oral supplementation in iron-deficiency anemia...

  10. Dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel diseases: the oxygen hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigottier-Gois, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    The healthy intestine is characterized by a low level of oxygen and by the presence of large bacterial communities of obligate anaerobes. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been reported in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), but the mechanisms causing this imbalance remain unknown. Observations have included a decrease in obligate anaerobes of the phylum Firmicutes and an increase in facultative anaerobes, including members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The shift of bacterial communities from obligate to facultative anaerobes strongly suggests a disruption in anaerobiosis and points to a role for oxygen in intestinal dysbiosis. Proposals to evaluate this hypothesis of a role for oxygen in IBD dysbiosis are provided. If this hypothesis is confirmed, decreasing oxygen in the intestine could open novel means to rebalance the microbiota and could provide novel preventative or therapeutic strategies for IBD patients in whom current treatments are ineffective. PMID:23677008

  11. DNA methylation in inflammatory bowel disease and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daren; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a consequence of the complex, dysregulated interplay between genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and microbial composition in the intestine. Despite a great advancement in identifying host-susceptibility genes using genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the majority of IBD cases are still underrepresented. The immediate challenge in post-GWAS era is to identify other causative genetic factors of IBD. DNA methylation has received increasing attention for its mechanistical role in IBD pathogenesis. This stable, yet dynamic DNA modification, can directly affect gene expression that have important implications in IBD development. The alterations in DNA methylation associated with IBD are likely to outset as early as embryogenesis all the way until old-age. In this review, we will discuss the recent advancement in understanding how DNA methylation alterations can contribute to the development of IBD. PMID:23983426

  12. [Biological therapy in women with inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koželuhová, Jana; Balihar, Karel; Janská, Eva; Fremundová, Lucie; Matějovič, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to objective review available research data regarding the safety of biological therapies during pregnancy and breastfeeding in women with inflammatory bowel disease. Biological therapies appear to be safe in pregnancy, as no increased risk of malformations has been demonstrated. Available clinical results suggest that the efficacy of infliximab and adalimumab in achieving clinical response and maintaining remission in pregnant patients might outweigh the theoretical risks of drug exposure to the fetus. If possible, anti-TNF therapy should be stopped by the end of the second trimester due to transplacental transfer and potential risk for the fetus. The use of infliximab and adalimumab is probably compatible with breastfeeding.

  13. Malignancy and mortality in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ridder, Lissy; Turner, Dan; Wilson, David C

    2014-01-01

    working group of ESPGHAN conducted a multinational-based survey of cancer and mortality in pediatric IBD. METHODS: A survey among pediatric gastroenterologists of 20 European countries and Israel on cancer and/or mortality in the pediatric patient population with IBD was undertaken. One representative...... from each country repeatedly contacted all pediatric gastroenterologists from each country for reporting retrospectively cancer and/or mortality of pediatric patients with IBD after IBD onset, during 2006-2011. RESULTS: We identified 18 cases of cancers and/or 31 deaths in 44 children (26 males) who......BACKGROUND: The combination of the severity of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes and the need for intense medical treatment may increase the risk of malignancy and mortality, but evidence regarding the extent of the problem is scarce. Therefore, the Porto Pediatric IBD...

  14. Interleukin-33 and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Lessons from Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 33 is a widely expressed cytokine present in different cell types, such as epithelial, mesenchymal, and inflammatory cells, supporting a predominant role in innate immunity. IL-33 can function as a proinflammatory cytokine inducing Th2 type of immune response being involved with the defense against parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, it has been proposed that IL-33 can act as a signaling molecule alerting the immune system of danger or tissue damage. Recently, in the intestinal mucosa, overexpression of IL-33 has been reported in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. This review highlights the available data regarding IL-33 in human IBD and discusses emerging roles for IL-33 as a key modulator of intestinal inflammation.

  15. Linking immunity, epigenetics, and cancer in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Däbritz, Jan; Menheniott, Trevelyan R

    2014-09-01

    Most of what is known about the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pertains to complex interplay between host genetics, immunity, and environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications play pivotal roles in intestinal immunity and mucosal homeostasis as well as mediating gene-environment interactions. In this article, we provide a historical account of epigenetic research either directly related or pertinent to the pathogenesis and management of IBD. We further collate emerging evidence supporting roles for epigenetic mechanisms in relevant aspects of IBD biology, including deregulated immunity, host-pathogen recognition and mucosal integrity. Finally, we highlight key epigenetic mechanisms that link chronic inflammation to specific IBD comorbidities, including colitis-associated cancer and discuss their potential utility as novel biomarkers or pharmacologic targets in IBD therapy.

  16. Translatability of helminth therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Joel V; Elliott, David E

    2013-03-01

    Modern hygienic lifestyles are associated with the emergence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which now afflicts millions of people in highly-developed countries. Meticulous hygiene interrupts conduits of transmission required for ubiquitous exposure to parasitic worms (helminths). We proposed that loss of exposure to helminths permits development of IBD. Early clinical trials suggested that exposure to helminths such as Trichuris suis or Necator americanus can improve IBD. Over the last several years, processes to "medicinalize"T. suis have been developed and use of this helminth is now being studied in large multi-center clinical trials. Concurrently, we and others have identified some of the immune regulatory mechanisms elicited by helminth exposure that suppress inappropriate intestinal inflammation. These efforts could soon result in new therapies for patients with IBD. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fostering Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Sphingolipid Strategies to Join Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna Abdel Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex sphingolipids are essential structural components of intestinal membranes, providing protection and integrity to the intestinal mucosa and regulating intestinal absorption processes. The role of sphingolipid signaling has been established in numerous cellular events, including intestinal cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. A significant body of knowledge demonstrates that intestinal sphingolipids play a crucial role, as such and through their signaling pathways, in immunity and inflammatory disorders. In this review, we report on and discuss the current knowledge on the metabolism, signaling, and functional implications of sphingolipids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, focusing on the different aspects of sphingolipid actions on inflammatory responses and on the potential of sphingolipid-targeted molecules as anti-IBD therapeutic agents.

  18. The epidemiology and the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlinger, Kinga E-mail: karlking@radi.sote.hu; Gyoerke, Tamas; Makoe, Erno; Mester, Adam; Tarjan, Zsolt

    2000-09-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unknown. However, a satisfactory solution cannot be far away. IBD actually encompasses two diseases, i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerous colitis (UC). These diseases resemble each other so closely that they cannot be distinguished even pathologically, but differ from each other sufficiently to regard them as independent entities. Epidemiological observations may be helpful in identifying the true causative factors of this evasive disease. Geographically, the prevalence of the disease has a slope from North to South and, to a lesser degree, from West to East. The Western-Eastern discrepancy can be attributed to a difference in Western life styles. The incidence of the disease has been increasing world-wide of late, but its spread has been slowing down in highly affected countries. Racial and ethnic relations in different populations and immigration studies offer interesting data which can reflect genetic, inherited, environmental and behavioural factors. The disease seems to have a characteristic racial-ethnic distribution: the Jewish population is highly susceptible everywhere, but its prevalence in that population nears that of the domestic society in which they live. In Hungary, the Roma (Gypsies) have a considerably lower prevalence than the average population. This can be attributed to a genetic or environmental influence. According to age, the onset of the disease occurs more often in the second or the third decade of life, but there also is another peak in the 60s. Regarding sexual distribution, there is a slight preponderance of colitis ulcerosa in men and of Crohn's disease in women. It may correspond to the stronger auto-immune affection in the process of Crohn's disease. Environmental factors and behavioural influences also are investigated. Diet, the role of the early ages, smoking habits and the influence of hormonal status and drugs are viewed as useful contributing factors in

  19. Secretion imbalance between tumour necrosis factor and its inhibitor in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, M; Hiwatashi, N; Liu, Z; Toyota, T

    1998-01-01

    Background—Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α and TNF-β are soluble ligands binding to TNF receptors with similar activities; soluble TNF receptors neutralise TNF activity by acting as inhibitors. Little is known about the cytokine/soluble receptor role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 
Aims—To test the hypothesis that an imbalance in secretion between TNF and TNF inhibitors plays a role in gut inflammation in patients with IBD. 
Methods—The secretion of TNF-α, TNF-β, and...

  20. Food Bioactives and Their Effects on Obesity-Accelerated Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Yi-Siou; Lee, Pei-Sheng; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2018-01-31

    Current views support the concept that obesity is linked to a worsening of the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Gut microbiota and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) are considered key mediators or contributors in obesity-associated intestinal inflammation. Dietary components can have direct or indirect effects on "normal" or "healthy" microbial composition and participate in adiposity and metabolic status with gut inflammation. In this perspective, we highlight food-derived bioactives that have a potential application in the prevention of obesity-exacerbated IBD, targeting energy metabolism, M1 (classical activated)-M2 (alternatively activated) macrophage polarization, and gut microbiota.

  1. Non-pulmonary allergic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease: a qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, David S; Shum, Mili; Hsieh, Jennifer; Blonski, Wojciech; Greenwald, David A

    2014-08-28

    While the etiological underpinnings of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are highly complex, it has been noted that both clinical and pathophysiological similarities exist between IBD and both asthma and non-pulmonary allergic phenomena. In this review, several key points on common biomarkers, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and nutritional and probiotic interventions for both IBD and non-pulmonary allergic diseases are discussed. Histamine and mast cell activity show common behaviors in both IBD and in certain allergic disorders. IgE also represents a key immunoglobulin involved in both IBD and in certain allergic pathologies, though these links require further study. Probiotics remain a critically important intervention for both IBD subtypes as well as multiple allergic phenomena. Linked clinical phenomena, especially sinonasal disease and IBD, are discussed. In addition, nutritional interventions remain an underutilized and promising therapy for modification of both allergic disorders and IBD. Recommending new mothers breastfeed their infants, and increasing the duration of breastfeeding may also help prevent both IBD and allergic diseases, but requires more investigation. While much remains to be discovered, it is clear that non-pulmonary allergic phenomena are connected to IBD in a myriad number of ways and that the discovery of common immunological pathways may usher in an era of vastly improved treatments for patients.

  2. [Follow-up of patients with inflammatory bowel disease: developments presented at Digestive Disease Week 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Santiago

    2014-09-01

    A lot of data were reported about monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease, with varying degrees of practical applicability. Concerning the evaluation of disease activity, it was established that objective assessments are needed. Among the techniques that we use, although endoscopy is undoubtedly the reference standard, a lot of data were presented regarding less invasive techniques. The importance of MRIs, CTs and ultrasounds (with some variations) was thus reiterated. The importance of fecal calprotectin is also reiterated, not only for colon disease, but probably small intestine disease as well. Regarding treatment monitoring, a great deal was reported about anti-TNF therapy, demonstrating again its potential role when properly used. In addition to results with infliximab, results with adalimumab were reported as very consistent. For colon cancer prevention, it seems that the clinical guidelines are achieving their objective. It also seems clear that we must improve conventional endoscopic techniques. Finally, there are other aspects that need to be considered when monitoring our patients, such as adequate sleeping patterns, anxiety or depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Rifaximin - Chitosan Nanoparticles for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jatinder; Newton, Amaldoss M J

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) cannot be controlled easily and the recurrence is the most challenging issue for the physicians. There are various controlled and colon targeted drug delivery systems available for the treatment with limited success rate. Nanoparticles prepared by using the colon targeted polymers such as chitosan may improve the IBD due to their smaller size, unique physico chemical properties and targeting potential. The aim of this investigation was designed to formulate and develop a colon targeted polysaccharide nanoparticles of rifaximin (RFX) by using linear polysaccharide chitosan, for the improvement of rifaximin solubility, overall therapeutic efficacy and colon targeting. The research was focused on developing RFX nanoparticles for the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) by ionic gelation method. Nanoparticles were subjected to various characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR and mean particle size (MPS) by Master Sizer and Zeta Sizer. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), drug entrapment efficiency and zeta potential are also determined for the developed formulations. The efficiency of drug release from prepared formulation was studied in vitro by using a dialysis bag diffusion technique in the buffer condition mimicking stomach, intestine and colonic pH conditions. The prepared nanoparticles demonstrated the size in the nano range. The drug release profile was controlled in the upper GI tract and the maximum amount of drug was released in the colonic conditions. The prepared nanoparticles significantly improved the solubility of rifaximin. The zeta potential of the best chitosan preparation was found to be 37.79, which confirms the stability of prepared nanosuspension. Nanoparticles with small particle size found to have high encapsulation efficiency and relatively high loading capacity and predetermined in vitro release profile. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Measurement of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Symptoms: Reliability of an Abbreviated Approach to Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Maria Paula; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Osterman, Mark T; Aberra, Faten N; Scott, Frank I; Lichtenstein, Gary R; Kraschnewski, Jennifer; Lewis, James D

    2015-10-01

    The Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Mayo score for ulcerative colitis (UC) require symptom recall and/or use of a symptom diary. We examined patients' abilities to recall their symptoms and the day-to-day variability of symptoms. Patients with UC or CD completed a questionnaire including items from the short CDAI (sCDAI) and the 6-point Mayo score. Patients were randomized to receive a follow-up questionnaire testing recall of the bowel symptom items between 1 and 7 days later. In a second study, patients completed a 7-day electronic diary recording their symptoms. sCDAI and 6-point Mayo scores were computed. Analyses estimated daily variability in the indices and misclassification rates when using fewer than 7 days of data. 100%, 82%, and 90% of CD participants recalled the same disease activity status (i.e., active versus remission) as reported on the initial survey when the follow-up questionnaire was administered 1 to 2, 3 to 5, and 6 to 8 days later, respectively. Compared with using 7 days of data, when using only day 7 data, 3.7% of patients with CD were misclassified as active or inactive. Disease activity was misclassified in 2.8%, 4.9%, and 3.3% of patients by using the last 2, 3, or 4 days, respectively. Results were similar for patients with UC. Patients with CD and UC demonstrated good recall of bowel symptoms for up to 8 days. Additionally, bowel symptoms have relatively little variability within a 7-day period allowing for accurate computation of the sCDAI and 6-point Mayo score using 1 to 3 days of data.

  5. The second European evidenced-based consensus on reproduction and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, C J; Ardizzone, S; Bengtson, M B; Fiorino, G; Fraser, G; Katsanos, K; Kolacek, S; Juillerat, P; Mulders, A G M G J; Pedersen, N; Selinger, C; Sebastian, S; Sturm, A; Zelinkova, Z; Magro, F

    2015-02-01

    Trying to conceive and being pregnant is an emotional period for those involved. In the majority of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, maintenance therapy is required during pregnancy to control the disease, and disease control might necessitate introduction of new drugs during a vulnerable period. In this updated consensus on the reproduction and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease reproductive issues including fertility, the safety of drugs during pregnancy and lactation are discussed.

  6. Identification of gut microbiota markers for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in children : Early diagnostic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Nwosu, Felix Chinweije

    2011-01-01

    There are a growing body of evidences that the human gut microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Two mains forms exists, namely Crohn’s disease (CD) and Ulcerative Coilitis (UC). Although these knowledge are so far limited, a better understanding of the gut microbes and variations in health and disease can contribute to inflammatory bowel disease diagnotics. In this current project as reported, was designed to determine correlations between the composi...

  7. The experience of stigma in inflammatory bowel disease: an interpretive (hermeneutic) phenomenological study

    OpenAIRE

    Dibley, Lesley; Norton, Christine; Whitehead, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Aim:\\ud To explore experiences of stigma in people with inflammatory bowel disease\\ud \\ud Background:\\ud Diarrhoea, urgency and incontinence are common symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease. Social rules stipulate full control of bodily functions in adulthood: poor control may lead to stigmatisation, affecting patients’ adjustment to disease. Disease-related stigma is associated with poorer clinical outcomes but qualitative evidence is minimal.\\ud \\ud Design:\\ud An interpretive (hermeneutic)...

  8. Dynamics of the human gut microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfvarson, Jonas; Brislawn, Colin J.; Lamendella, Regina; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Walters, William A.; Bramer, Lisa M.; D' Amato, Mauro; Bonfiglio, Ferdinando; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; McClure, Erin E.; Dunklebarger, Mitchell F.; Knight, Rob; Jansson, Janet K.

    2017-02-13

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by flares of inflammation with periodic need for increased medication and sometimes even surgery. IBD etiology is partly attributed to a deregulated immune response to gut microbiome dysbiosis. Cross-sectional studies have revealed microbial signatures for different IBD diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC), colonic Crohn’s Disease (CCD), and ileal CD (ICD). Although IBD is dynamic, microbiome studies have primarily focused on single timepoints or few individuals. Here we dissect the long-term dynamic behavior of the gut microbiome in IBD and differentiate this from normal variation. Microbiomes of IBD subjects fluctuate more than healthy individuals, based on deviation from a newly-defined healthy plane (HP). ICD subjects deviated most from the HP, especially subjects with surgical resection. Intriguingly, the microbiomes of some IBD subjects periodically visited the HP then deviated away from it. Inflammation was not directly correlated with distance to the healthy plane, but there was some correlation between observed dramatic fluctuations in the gut microbiome and intensified medication due to a flare of the disease. These results help guide therapies that will re-direct the gut microbiome towards a healthy state and maintain remission in IBD.

  9. Current concepts of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Although the cause of inflammatory bowel disease is not known, the pathogenesis involves an immune-mediated tissue damage that is the result of an interaction among genetic predisposing factors, exogenous triggers and endogenous modifying influences. Multiple genes are involved and operate at the level of the immune response and at the target organ. Exogenous triggers include the enteric microflora which might stimulate the mucosal immune system in genetically predisposed individuals. Endogenous modifying factors such as the psychoneuroendocrine system have regulatory effects on the immune system and the inflammatory response, and may influence the course of the disease. While autoimmune phenomena do occur, particularly in ulcerative colitis, there is no evidence that they are directly responsible for the tissue damage. It appears more likely, particularly in Crohn\\'s disease, that tissue injury may occur as an indirect or "bystander" effect of mucosal T-cell hyperactivation, perhaps in response to a normal enteric microbial antigen. Most of the immunologic and histologic features of Crohn\\'s disease can be explained by the effects of T-cell derived and other cytokines on the epithelium, the local immune system, the microvasculature, and the recruitment of auxiliary effector cells such as neutrophils.

  10. Semi-automatic bowel wall thickness measurements on MR enterography in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziroglu, Robiel E; Puylaert, Carl A J; Tielbeek, Jeroen A W; Makanyanga, Jesica; Menys, Alex; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; Hatzakis, Haralambos; Taylor, Stuart A; Stoker, Jaap; van Vliet, Lucas J; Vos, Frans M

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate a semi-automatic method for delineation of the bowel wall and measurement of the wall thickness in patients with Crohn's disease. 53 patients with suspected or proven Crohn's disease were selected. Two radiologists independently supervised the delineation of regions with active Crohn's disease on MRI, yielding manual annotations (Ano1, Ano2). Three observers manually measured the maximal bowel wall thickness of each annotated segment. An active contour segmentation approach semi-automatically delineated the bowel wall. For each active region, two segmentations (Seg1, Seg2) were obtained by independent observers, in which the maximum wall thickness was automatically determined. The overlap between (Seg1, Seg2) was compared with the overlap of (Ano1, Ano2) using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. The corresponding variances were compared using the Brown-Forsythe test. The variance of the semi-automatic thickness measurements was compared with the overall variance of manual measurements through an F-test. Furthermore, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of semi-automatic thickness measurements was compared with the ICC of manual measurements through a likelihood-ratio test. Patient demographics: median age, 30 years; interquartile range, 25-38 years; 33 females. The median overlap of the semi-automatic segmentations (Seg1 vs Seg2: 0.89) was significantly larger than the median overlap of the manual annotations (Ano1 vs Ano2: 0.72); p = 1.4 × 10-5. The variance in overlap of the semi-automatic segmentations was significantly smaller than the variance in overlap of the manual annotations (p = 1.1 × 10-9). The variance of the semi-automated measurements (0.46 mm2) was significantly smaller than the variance of the manual measurements (2.90 mm2, p = 1.1 × 10-7). The ICC of semi-automatic measurement (0.88) was significantly higher than the ICC of manual measurement (0.45); p = 0.005. The semi-automatic technique

  11. Nocardia infections among immunomodulated inflammatory bowel disease patients: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Sarmento, António; Magro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Human nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia spp., an ubiquitous soil-borne bacteria, is a rare granulomatous disease close related to immune dysfunctions. Clinically can occur as an acute life-threatening disease, with lung, brain and skin being commonly affected. The infection was classically diagnosed in HIV infected persons, organ transplanted recipients and long term corticosteroid treated patients. Currently the widespread use of immunomodulators and immunossupressors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases changed this scenario. Our purpose is to review all published cases of nocardiosis in immunomodulated patients due to inflammatory diseases and describe clinical and laboratory findings. We reviewed the literature concerning human cases of nocardiosis published between 1980 and 2014 in peer reviewed journals. Eleven cases of nocardiosis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) prescription (9 related with infliximab and 2 with adalimumab) were identified; 7 patients had inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 4 had rheumatological conditions; nocardia infection presented as cutaneous involvement in 3 patients, lung disease in 4 patients, hepatic in one and disseminated disease in 3 patients. From the 10 cases described in IBD patients 7 were associated with anti-TNF and 3 with steroids and azathioprine. In conclusion, nocardiosis requires high levels of clinical suspicion and experience of laboratory staff, in order to establish a timely diagnosis and by doing so avoid worst outcomes. Treatment for long periods tailored by the susceptibility of the isolated species whenever possible is essential. The safety of restarting immunomodulators or anti-TNF after the disease or the value of prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole is still debated. PMID:26074688

  12. High sensitivity of quick view capsule endoscopy for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Morten Lee; Nathan, Torben; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high sensitivity for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease, but video analysis is time consuming. The quick view (qv) function is an effective tool to reduce time consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of missed small bowel ulcerations with qv...

  13. Fecal calprotectin is equally sensitive in Crohn's disease affecting the small bowel and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Kjeldsen, Jens; Nathan, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The utility of fecal calprotectin (fCal) in small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) remains to be clarified. The primary aim of this study was to determine levels of fCal in CD restricted to the small bowel compared with CD affecting the colon, in patients undergoing their first diagnostic work...

  14. Nutritional Therapy in Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Talya L; Lee, Dale; Giefer, Mathew; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Suskind, David L

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by a dysregulated immune response to the fecal microbiota. Very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) refers to a subgroup of pediatric patients with IBD diagnosed before 6 years of age. This subgroup is often characterized by increased severity, aggressive progression, strong family history of IBD, and often poor response to conventional treatments. Nutritional therapies have been utilized to treat IBD, but their role in VEO-IBD is unclear. Disease behavior in VEO-IBD is often different from disease in adolescents and adults, as it is often restricted to the colon and refractory to standard medical therapies. Up to 25% of VEO-IBD patients have an identified underlying immunodeficiency, which may impact response to therapy. While specific mutations in interleukin 10 (IL-10), the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R), and mutations in NCF2, XIAP, LRBA, and TTC7 have been identified in VEO-IBD, polymorphisms in these genes are also associated with increased risk of developing IBD in adolescence or adulthood. We describe two cases in which infants presenting with VEO-IBD achieved clinical remission using exclusive enteral nutrition, a formula-based diet which has been shown to induce remission in older children with active Crohn's disease.

  15. Chromium 51-ethylenediaminetetraacetate test: a useful test in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Morain, C.A.; Abelow, A.C.; Chervu, L.R.; Fleischner, G.M.; Das, K.M.

    1986-11-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of urinary excretion values in assessing mucosal damage in inflammatory bowel disease after administration of chromium 51-labeled EDTA either orally or rectally. In the oral study, 19 controls, 18 patients with Crohn's disease, and 13 patients with ulcerative colitis were given 100 microCi /sup 51/Cr-EDTA by mouth. The amount of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA in a 24-hour urine collection was expressed as a percentage of the ingested dose. The patients with Crohn's disease of the small bowel excreted 6.3% +/- 4.3%, which was significantly (P less than 0.001) higher than the percentage in patients with ulcerative colitis (1.7% +/- 1.1%) and controls (1.4% +/- 0.6%). In the enema study, 19 patients with ulcerative colitis, two with Crohn's disease, two with radiation colitis, and four controls (spastic colitis, lactose intolerance) were given 100 microCi /sup 51/Cr-EDTA by retention enema. The patients with active colonic inflammation excreted 8.4% +/- 3.9% of the dose given by enema, which was significantly (P less than 0.01) higher than in other controls (1.9% +/- 0.91%) or patients with inactive colitis (2.2% +/- 1.9%). The /sup 51/Cr-EDTA excretion test is a safe, inexpensive test useful in evaluating patients with inflammatory bowel disease. It can be given orally to screen patients with abdominal complaints who are suspected of having Crohn's disease involving the small intestine, and when given by enema it provides additional objective assessment of idiopathic ulcerative colitis or proctitis.

  16. Is Moderate Red Wine Consumption Safe in Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Garth R.; Tieu, Vanessa; Shaikh, Maliha; Forsyth, Chris; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. Additionally, we have recently shown that alcohol consumption is associated with more symptoms in IBD. However, it is not known whether moderate daily alcohol consumption can modify IBD disease activity. To test what effects alcohol may have on patients with IBD, we evaluated the effect of moderate daily red wine for 1 week on two factors associated with recurrent IBD disease activity: intestinal permeability and stool calprotectin. Methods To assess the effects of moderate daily alcohol consumption on intestinal permeability and inflammation, we recruited 21 patients: 8 with inactive ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 with inactive Crohn's disease (CD), and 7 healthy controls. All participants with IBD completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity (Crohn's disease activity index or ulcerative colitis clinical activity index), to confirm they had inactive disease. All subjects then underwent a baseline assessment that included a blood draw, urine collection after sugar challenge, and stool collection. Subjects then consumed 1–3 glasses of red wine a day for 1 week (approx. 0.4 g EtOH/kg), and repeated the three measures. Results No subjects flared during the study. Moderate alcohol consumption did not significantly change either clinical disease activity scores or C-reactive protein. In contrast to healthy subjects, daily consumption of red wine significantly (1) decreased stool calprotectin in IBD subjects from baseline (p = 0.001) and (2) increased intestinal permeability as measured by urinary lactulose/mannitol excretion (marker of small bowel permeability) in CD (p = 0.028) or urinary sucralose secretion (marker of large bowel permeability) in UC (p = 0.012). Conclusions One week of moderate consumption of red wine in inactive IBD was associated with a significant

  17. Impact of ethnicity, geography, and disease on the microbiota in health and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Lani; Kang, Seungha; Wagner, Josef; Buckley, Michael; Mahar, Jackie E; De Cruz, Peter; Wen, Zhonghui; Chen, Liping; Xia, Bing; van Langenberg, Daniel R; Lockett, Trevor; Ng, Siew C; Sung, Joseph J Y; Desmond, Paul; McSweeney, Chris; Morrison, Mark; Kirkwood, Carl D; Kamm, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    The gut microbiota is central to health and disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Differences in microbiota related to geography and ethnicity may hold the key to recent changes in the incidence of microbiota-related disorders. Gut mucosal microbiota was analyzed in 190 samples from 87 Caucasian and Chinese subjects, from Australia and Hong Kong, comprising 22 patients with Crohn's disease, 30 patients with ulcerative colitis, 29 healthy controls, and 6 healthy relatives of patients with Crohn's disease. Bacterial 16S rRNA microarray and 454 pyrosequencing were performed. The microbiota was diverse in health, regardless of ethnicity or geography (operational taxonomic unit number and Shannon diversity index). Ethnicity and geography, however, did affect microbial composition. Crohn's disease resulted in reduced bacterial diversity, regardless of ethnicity or geography, and was the strongest determinant of composition. In ulcerative colitis, diversity was reduced in Chinese subjects only, suggesting that ethnicity is a determinant of bacterial diversity, whereas composition was determined by disease and ethnicity. Specific phylotypes were different between health and disease. Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease more often than healthy Chinese tended to have had a Western diet in childhood, in the East and West. The healthy microbiota is diverse but compositionally affected by geographical and ethnic factors. The microbiota is substantially altered in inflammatory bowel disease, but ethnicity may also play an important role. This may be key to the changing epidemiology in developing countries, and emigrants to the West.

  18. An Examination of Diet for the Maintenance of Remission in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskey, Natasha; Gibson, Deanna L

    2017-03-10

    Diet has been speculated to be a factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and may be an important factor in managing disease symptoms. Patients manipulate their diet in attempt to control symptoms, often leading to the adoption of inappropriately restrictive diets, which places them at risk for nutritional complications. Health professionals struggle to provide evidence-based nutrition guidance to patients due to an overall lack of uniformity or clarity amongst research studies. Well-designed diet studies are urgently needed to create an enhanced understanding of the role diet plays in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the current data available on dietary management of inflammatory bowel disease and to demonstrate that dietary modulation may be an important consideration in managing disease. By addressing the relevance of diet in inflammatory bowel disease, health professionals are able to better support patients and collaborate with dietitians to improve nutrition therapy.

  19. RNA interference-based nanosystems for inflammatory bowel disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Jiang, Xiaojing; Gui, Shuangying

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic, recrudescent disease that invades the gastrointestinal tract, and it requires surgery or lifelong medicinal therapy. The conventional medicinal therapies for IBD, such as anti-inflammatories, glucocorticoids, and immunosuppressants, are limited because of their systemic adverse effects and toxicity during long-term treatment. RNA interference (RNAi) precisely regulates susceptibility genes to decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines related to IBD, which effectively alleviates IBD progression and promotes intestinal mucosa recovery. RNAi molecules generally include short interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). However, naked RNA tends to degrade in vivo as a consequence of endogenous ribonucleases and pH variations. Furthermore, RNAi treatment may cause unintended off-target effects and immunostimulation. Therefore, nanovectors of siRNA and miRNA were introduced to circumvent these obstacles. Herein, we introduce non-viral nanosystems of RNAi molecules and discuss these systems in detail. Additionally, the delivery barriers and challenges associated with RNAi molecules will be discussed from the perspectives of developing efficient delivery systems and potential clinical use.

  20. Diet as a Trigger or Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James D; Abreu, Maria T

    2017-02-01

    The most common question asked by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is, "Doctor, what should I eat?" Findings from epidemiology studies have indicated that diets high in animal fat and low in fruits and vegetables are the most common pattern associated with an increased risk of IBD. Low levels of vitamin D also appear to be a risk factor for IBD. In murine models, diets high in fat, especially saturated animal fats, also increase inflammation, whereas supplementation with omega 3 long-chain fatty acids protect against intestinal inflammation. Unfortunately, omega 3 supplements have not been shown to decrease the risk of relapse in patients with Crohn's disease. Dietary intervention studies have shown that enteral therapy, with defined formula diets, helps children with Crohn's disease and reduces inflammation and dysbiosis. Although fiber supplements have not been shown definitively to benefit patients with IBD, soluble fiber is the best way to generate short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which has anti-inflammatory effects. Addition of vitamin D and curcumin has been shown to increase the efficacy of IBD therapy. There is compelling evidence from animal models that emulsifiers in processed foods increase risk for IBD. We discuss current knowledge about popular diets, including the specific carbohydrate diet and diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols. We present findings from clinical and basic science studies to help gastroenterologists navigate diet as it relates to the management of IBD. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.