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Sample records for bovine viral diarrhea

  1. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkady, A.A.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  2. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, S.G.; Cho, H.J.; Masri, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32 P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  3. Comparison of reproductive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus provided by multivalent viral vaccines containing inactivated fractions of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare reproductive protection in cattle against the impacts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) provided by three different multivalent vaccines containing inactivated BVDV. Beef heifers and cows (n=122), seronegative and virus negative for BVDV, were randomly ...

  4. Evaluation of bovine viral diarrhea virus in New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Philip A; Belknap, Ellen B; Brock, Kenneth V; Collins, James K; Pugh, David G

    2003-07-15

    To determine the effect of experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) on llamas and their fetuses, evaluate seroprevalence of BVDV in llamas and alpacas, and genetically characterize BVDV isolates from llamas. Prospective study. 4 pregnant llamas for the experimental infection study and 223 llamas and alpacas for the seroprevalence study. Llamas (seronegative to BVDV) were experimentally infected with a llama isolate of BVDV via nasal aerosolization. After inoculation, blood samples were collected every other day for 2 weeks; blood samples were obtained from crias at birth and monthly thereafter. For the seroprevalence study, blood was collected from a convenience sample of 223 camelids. Isolates of BVDV were characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Viremia and BVDV-specific antibody response were detected in the experimentally infected llamas, but no signs of disease were observed. No virus was detected in the crias or aborted fetus, although antibodies were evident in crias after colostrum consumption. Seroprevalence to BVDV was 0.9% in llamas and alpacas. Sequences of the llama BVDV isolates were comparable to known bovine isolates. Findings suggest that llamas may be infected with BVDV but have few or no clinical signs. Inoculation of llamas during gestation did not result in fetal infection or persistent BVDV infection of crias. Seroprevalence to BVDV in llamas and alpacas is apparently low. The most likely source for BVDV infection in camelids may be cattle.

  5. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD: A review emphasizing on Iran perspective

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    Mohammad Khezri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD is one of the most important diseases of cattle responsible for major economic losses in dairy industries of Iran. So far, no nationwide program has been taken in Iran to control and eradicate the disease. Moreover, until now, no vaccination program has been practiced against BVD in Iran, although the disease is prevailing in the country. For effective controlling of BVD, it is necessary to cull the affected animals, and new entry of BVD in the farm should be prevented. Focusing on biosecurity in systematic control programs of BVD can also reduce the risks of introduction and spread of other epizootic and zoonotic diseases, thereby improving both cattle health and welfare in general. In this review paper, an overview on BVD emphasizing on Iran perspective has been discussed focusing on clinical manifestations of BVD, routes of transmission of BVD virus (BVDV, its diagnostic methods and possible prevention strategies. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 240-251

  7. Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b fetal infection with extensive hemorrhages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subtype 1b was isolated from tissues of a term bovine fetus with hemorrhages in multiple tissues. At autopsy, multiple petechial hemorrhages were observed at gross examination throughout the body and placenta. Lung, kidney, thymus, and liver fresh tissues were exam...

  8. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1,PARAINFLUENZA-3,BOVINE ROTAVIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, BOVINE ADENOVIRUS-7,BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS AND BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    SUZAN, Victor M.; ONUMA, Misao; AGUILAR, Romero E.; MURAKAMI, Yosuke

    1983-01-01

    Sera were collected from dairy and beef cattle in 19 different states of Mexico. These sera were tested for bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV-3), bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seropositive rates for each virus for dairy cattle tested were 158/277(57.0%) for BHV-1,217/286(75.0%) for PIV-3,541/1498(36.1%) for BLV, 134/144(93.1%) for BRV, 39/90(43.3%) for BTV,...

  9. Improved detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Bovine lymphoid cell lines using PrimeFlow RNA assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections, whether as acute, persistent or contributing to co-infections, result in significant losses for cattle producers. BVDV can be identified by real-time PCR and ELISA, detection and quantification of viral infection at the single cell level is extremely di...

  10. Studies on genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea viruses in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Abdou; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2014-01-01

    Scandinavian countries have successfully pursued bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) eradication without the use of vaccines. In Denmark, control and eradication of BVDV were achieved during the last two decades, but occasionally new BVDV infections are detected in some Danish cattle herds. The aim...

  11. Circulating microRNAs in serum from cattle challenged with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that is often associated with respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs in cattle that had been challenged with a non-cytopat...

  12. Knowledge Gaps Impacting the Development of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Control Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper identifies knowledge gaps that impact on the design of programs to control and or eradicate bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in the United States. Currently there are several voluntary regional BVDV control programs in place. These control programs are aimed at the removal of animals ...

  13. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  14. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)1 or 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. ...

  15. Identification and Characterization of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Indonesian Cattle (IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI VIRUS BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA DARI SAPI INDONESIA

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    Muharam Saepulloh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an important viral disease, which a ubiquitous pathogen ofcattle with worldwide economic importance and due to its misdiagnose with other viruses. The goal of thecurrent study was to identify and characterize of BVDV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR and followed by sequence genome analyses. Blood, feces, and semen samples werecollected from 588 selected cattle from animals suffering from diarrhea and respiratory manifestation. RTPCRresults showed that the 69 (11.74% samples were positive to BVDV. Further molecularcharacterization was conducted only with 17 PCR positive samples. The results indicated the 17 IndonesianBVD virus isolates were belonging to the genotype-1 of BVDV (BVDV-1 based on sequence analysis anda phylogenetic relationship between Indonesian BVDV isolates and BVDV in the world. This finding is thefirst report of BVD-1 circulated in Indonesian cattle.

  16. Comparison of reproductive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus provided by multivalent viral vaccines containing inactivated fractions of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Paul H; Riddell, Kay P; Newcomer, Benjamin W; Neill, John D; Falkenberg, Shollie M; Cortese, Victor S; Scruggs, Daniel W; Short, Thomas H

    2018-04-23

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important viral cause of reproductive disease, immune suppression and clinical disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive protection in cattle against the impacts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) provided by three different multivalent vaccines containing inactivated BVDV. BVDV negative beef heifers and cows (n = 122) were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Groups A-C (n = 34/group) received two pre-breeding doses of one of three commercially available multivalent vaccines containing inactivated fractions of BVDV 1 and BVDV 2, and Group D (n = 20) served as negative control and received two doses of saline prior to breeding. Animals were bred, and following pregnancy diagnosis, 110 cattle [Group A (n = 31); Group B (n = 32); Group C (n = 31); Group D (n = 16)] were subjected to a 28-day exposure to cattle persistently infected (PI) with BVDV (1a, 1b and 2a). Of the 110 pregnancies, 6 pregnancies resulted in fetal resorption with no material for testing. From the resultant 104 pregnancies, BVDV transplacental infections were demonstrated in 73 pregnancies. The BVDV fetal infection rate (FI) was calculated at 13/30 (43%) for Group A cows, 27/29 (93%) for Group B cows, 18/30 (60%) for Group C cows, and 15/15 (100%) for Group D cows. Statistical differences were observed between groups with respect to post-vaccination antibody titers, presence and duration of viremia in pregnant cattle, and fetal infection rates in offspring from BVDV-exposed cows. Group A vaccination resulted in significant protection against BVDV infection as compared to all other groups based upon outcome measurements, while Group B vaccination did not differ in protection against BVDV infection from control Group D. Ability of inactivated BVDV vaccines to provide protection against BVDV fetal infection varies significantly among commercially available products; however, in this challenge

  17. Stochastic simulation modeling to determine time to detect Bovine Viral Diarrhea antibodies in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction ofBovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk(BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after afixed threshold prevalence of seroco......A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction ofBovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk(BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after afixed threshold prevalence......, which was the most efficient ELISA, could detect antibodiesin the BTM of a large herd 280 days (95% prediction interval: 218; 568) after a transientlyinfected (TI) milking cow has been introduced into the herd. The estimated time to detectionafter introduction of one PI calf was 111 days (44; 605...

  18. Short communication. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Izedin Goga; Kristaq Berxholi; Beqe Hulaj; Driton Sylejmani; Boris Yakobson; Yehuda Stram

    2014-01-01

    Three serum samples positive in Antigen ELISA BVDV have been tested to characterise genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Kosovo. Samples were obtained in 2011 from heifers and were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and analysed by computer-assisted phylogenetic analysis. Amplified products and nucleotide sequence showed that all 3 isolates belonged to BVDV 1 genotype and 1b sub genotype. These results enrich the extant knowledge of B...

  19. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yugang; Wang, Shijie; Du, Rui; Wang, Quankai; Sun, Changjiang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Pengju; Zhang, Lianxue

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical...

  20. Characterization of thymus-associated lymphoid depletion in bovine calves acutely or persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea 2 or HoBi-like pestivirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses from recognized pestivirus species bovine viral diarrhea 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2 and the proposed pestivirus species HoBi-like virus infect primarily cattle. Exposure of cattle to these viruses can lead to either acute or persistent infections depending on the timing and status of the animal ...

  1. Short communication. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV isolates in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izedin Goga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three serum samples positive in Antigen ELISA BVDV have been tested to characterise genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in Kosovo. Samples were obtained in 2011 from heifers and were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and analysed by computer-assisted phylogenetic analysis. Amplified products and nucleotide sequence showed that all 3 isolates belonged to BVDV 1 genotype and 1b sub genotype. These results enrich the extant knowledge of BVDV and represent the first documented data about Kosovo BVDV isolates.

  2. Innate immune responses of calves during transient infection with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Doblies, D.; Arquint, A.; Schaller, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, six immunocompetent calves were experimentally infected with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and the effects of the viral infection on parameters of the innate immune response of the host were analyzed. Clinical and virological data were compared...

  3. Generation of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus E0 Protein in Transgenic Astragalus and Its Immunogenicity in Sika Deer

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yugang; Zhao, Xueliang; Zang, Pu; Liu, Qun; Wei, Gongqing; Zhang, Lianxue

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in tr...

  4. Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses doomed to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhans, Ernst; Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Flaviviridae pestivirus, is arguably one of the most widespread cattle pathogens worldwide. Each of its two genotypes has two biotypes, non-cytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp). Only the ncp biotype of BVDV may establish persistent infection in the fetus when infecting a dam early in gestation, a time point which predates maturity of the adaptive immune system. Such fetuses may develop and be born healthy but remain infected for life. Due to this early initiation of fetal infection and to the expression of interferon antagonistic proteins, persistently infected (PI) animals remain immunotolerant to the infecting viral strain. Although only accounting for some 1% of all animals in regions where BVDV is endemic, PI animals ensure the viral persistence in the host population. These animals may, however, develop the fatal mucosal disease, which is characterized by widespread lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Cp BVD virus, in addition to the persisting ncp biotype, can be isolated from such animals. The cp viruses are characterized by unrestrained genome replication, and their emergence from the persisting ncp ones is due to mutations that are unique in each virus analyzed. They include recombinations with host cell mRNA, gene translocations and duplications, and point mutations. Cytopathic BVD viruses fail to establish chains of infection and are unable to cause persistent infection. Hence, these viruses illustrate a case of "viral emergence to extinction" - irrelevant for BVDV evolution, but fatal for the PI host. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  5. Differential expression of miRNA-423-5p in serum from cattle challenged with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that causes respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. However, microRNA profiles in cattle exposed to BVDV are currently nonexistent and few studies have been reported; therefore,...

  6. Clinical report: Detection and management of bovine viral diarrhea virus Type 1b in a large dairy herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case Description: 1,081 newborn calves from a commercial dairy were tested for bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by pooled RT-PCR as part of a screening program. Ear tissue from twenty six calves initially tested positive and 14 confirmed positive with antigen capture ELISA two weeks later (1.3...

  7. It takes a combination of biosecurity, testing, and vaccination to keep bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) under control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the third installment of a 3 part series on bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), written for a lay publication whose core audience in dairy producers. Control of BVD in any dairy operation must rely on the implementation of an organized strategy combining biosecurity, surveillance and increased herd...

  8. Herd-level risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea infection in cattle of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Subbiah Krishna; Palanivel, K M; Sukumar, K; Ronald, B Samuel Masilamoni; Selvaraju, G; Ponnudurai, G

    2018-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 62 randomly selected dairy herds which were tested for BVD serum antibodies by using an indirect ELISA kit (IDEXX). Results from the chi-square test analysis were interpreted by analyzing by chi-square test. A sum of 500 sera samples were screened and 66 animals (13.20%) showed positive for BVDV antibody. Within herd, BVD seroprevalence was 12-65%. This study concluded that epidemiological risk factors like location, herd size, housing patterns like, tail to tail system, roofing pattern, distance between the manure pit and farm, and distance between farms were significantly associated with BVDV serological status (P < 0.05).

  9. Effects of interferon-tau on cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Junko; Nishikura, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Tajima, Motoshi; Onuma, Misao

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the antiviral effects of bovine interferon-tau (boIFN-tau) on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were examined in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiments, the replication of cytopathic and non-cytopathic BVDV was inhibited in the bovine cells treated with boIFN-tau. The replication of BVDV was completely suppressed by boIFN-tau at a concentration higher than 10(2) U/ml. In order to examine the effect of boIFN-tau on virus propagation in cattle persistently infected (PI) with non-cytopathic BVDV, boIFN-tau was subcutaneously administered to PI cattle at 10(5) U/kg or 10(6) U/kg body weight 5 times per week for 2 weeks. No physical abnormality such as depression was observed in the cattle during the experiment. The mean BVDV titers in the serum of the PI cattle decreased slightly during the boIFN-tau administration period with the dose of 10(6) U/kg. However, the BVDV titers in the serum returned to the pre-administration level after the final boIFN-tau administration. These results suggest that boIFN-tau demonstrates an anti-BVDV effect, reducing the BVDV level in serum transiently when injected into PI cattle.

  10. Retention and topology of the bovine viral diarrhea virus glycoprotein E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Christina; Tews, Birke Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Pestiviruses are enveloped viruses that bud intracellularly. They have three envelope glycoproteins, E rns , E1, and E2. E2 is the receptor binding protein and the main target for neutralizing antibodies. Both E rns and E2 are retained intracellularly. Here, E2 of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain CP7 was used to study the membrane topology and intracellular localization of the protein. E2 is localized in the ER and there was no difference between E2 expressed alone or in the context of the viral polyprotein. The mature E2 protein was found to possess a single span transmembrane anchor. For the mapping of a retention signal CD72-E2 fusion proteins, as well as E2 alone were analysed. This confirmed the importance of the transmembrane domain and arginine 355 for intracellular retention, but also revealed a modulating effect on retention through the cytoplasmic tail of the E2 protein, especially through glutamine 370. Mutants with a strong impact on retention were tested in the viral context and we were able to rescue BVDV with certain mutations that in E2 alone impaired intracellular retention and lead to export of E2 to the cells surface.

  11. Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Perusina, M; Alfonso, V; Wagner, M L; Suriano, M; Vicente, C; Campos, R; Cavallaro, L

    2002-07-01

    Natural products are a relevant source of antiviral drugs. Five medicinal plants used in Argentina have been assayed to detect inhibition of viral growth. Antiviral activity of the infusions and methanolic extracts of Aristolochia macroura, Celtis spinosa, Plantago major, Schinus areira, Petiveria alliacea and four extracts obtained from the leaves and stems of the last plant were evaluated by the plaque assay. P. alliacea, unlike A. macroura, C. spinosa, P. major and S. areira, inhibited bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) replication. Neither P. alliacea nor the assays of the other plants were active against herpes simplex virus type 1, poliovirus type 1, adenovirus serotype 7 and vesicular stomatitis virus type 1. Four extracts of P. alliacea were assayed to detect anti-BVDV activity. Ethyl acetate (EC(50) of 25 microg/ml) and dichloromethane (EC(50) of 43 microg/ml) extracts were active; moreover, promising SI (IC(50)/EC(50)) values were obtained. BVDV is highly prevalent in the cattle population, there are no antiviral compounds available; additionally, it is a viral model of the hepatitis C virus. For these reasons and in view of the results obtained, the isolation and characterization of the antiviral components present in the P. alliacea extracts is worth carrying out in the future. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Conncomitant bovine viral diarrhea, mycotoxicosis, and seneciosis in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil

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    Selwyn Arligton Headley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the causes of mortality in cattle from northern Paraná, southern Brazil, during which 9.5% (23/242 of Nellore cows died after clinical manifestations of uncoordinated gait, fever, transient bloody diarrhea, dyspnea, and lateral decumbency. All cattle were maintained on poor pastures, and ingested moldy silage and sprouts of Senecio brasiliensis. Serum samples (n=17 were collected for virus neutralizing (VN antibodies assays against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1. Three cows were necropsied; fragment of tissue samples collected during necropsy from two cows were used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse transcription- PCR assays to identify BoHV-1 and BVDV; blood samples (n=6 were obtained for hematological and biochemical analyses. Significant gross findings of all cows included increased liver consistency, intestinal bleeding, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Histopathology revealed hepatic fibrosis, hemorrhagic enteritis, renal tubular necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and widespread vasculitis. All serum samples contained VN antibodies against BoHV-1, but only four of these reacted positively to BVDV. The RTPCR assays amplified specific amplicons of the untranslated region of BVDV from tissues samples of both animals; direct sequencing and sequence analyses demonstrated that these sequences clustered within the BVDV subgenotype 1d; all PCRs were negative for BoHV-1. Toxicological analyses of the moldy silage demonstrated elevated concentrations of ochratoxin (75.94 ?g/kg. Laboratory evaluations revealed renal and hepatic dysfunctions. These findings confirmed the combined actions of BVDV-1d infection and toxicosis by mycotoxin and S. brasiliensis in cattle mortality at this farm.

  14. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with 32 P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus

  15. Thiopurines inhibit bovine viral diarrhea virus production in a thiopurine methyltransferase-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Spencer; Striker, Rob

    2008-04-01

    The family Flaviviridae comprises positive-strand RNA viral pathogens of humans and livestock with few treatment options. We have previously shown that azathioprine (AZA) has in vitro activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). While the mechanism of inhibition is unknown, AZA and related thiopurine nucleoside analogues have been used as immunosuppressants for decades and both AZA metabolites and cellular genes involved in AZA metabolism have been extensively characterized. Here, we show that only certain riboside metabolites have antiviral activity and identify the most potent known antiviral AZA metabolite as 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr). The antiviral activity of 6MMPr is antagonized by adenosine, and is specific to BVDV and not to the related yellow fever virus. An essential step in the conversion of AZA to 6MMPr is the addition of a methyl group onto the sulfur atom attached to position six of the purine ring. Intracellularly, the methyl group is added by thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT), an S-adenosyl methionine-dependent methyltransferase. Either chemically bypassing or inhibiting TPMT modulates antiviral activity of AZA metabolites. TPMT exists in several variants with varying levels of activity and since 6MMPr is a potent antiviral, the antiviral activity of AZA may be modulated by host genetics.

  16. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genetic diversity in Spain: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diéguez, F.J.; Cerviño, M.; Yus, E.

    2017-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae, causes significant losses in cattle farming worldwide because of reduced milk production, increased mortality of young animals and reproductive, respiratory and intestinal problems. The virus is characterized by an important genetic, and consequently antigenic and pathogenic diversity. Knowing the variability of viral strains present in a population provides valuable information, particularly relevant for control programs development, vaccination recommendations and even identification of likely infection sources. Such information is therefore important at both local and regional levels. This review focuses on the genetic diversity of BVDV isolates infecting cattle in Spain over the last years. According to the published data, the most prevalent BVDV group in Spain was 1b, and to a lesser extent 1d, 1e and 1f. Besides, BVDV-2 has also been found in Spain with several ratified isolates. The studies carried out in Spain also showed increased genetic heterogeneity of BVDV strains, possibly due to a more intensive use of analytical tools available, presenting studies with increasingly greater sample sizes.

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV genetic diversity in Spain: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Diéguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a member of the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae, causes significant losses in cattle farming worldwide because of reduced milk production, increased mortality of young animals and reproductive, respiratory and intestinal problems. The virus is characterized by an important genetic, and consequently antigenic and pathogenic diversity. Knowing the variability of viral strains present in a population provides valuable information, particularly relevant for control programs development, vaccination recommendations and even identification of likely infection sources. Such information is therefore important at both local and regional levels. This review focuses on the genetic diversity of BVDV isolates infecting cattle in Spain over the last years. According to the published data, the most prevalent BVDV group in Spain was 1b, and to a lesser extent 1d, 1e and 1f. Besides, BVDV-2 has also been found in Spain with several ratified isolates. The studies carried out in Spain also showed increased genetic heterogeneity of BVDV strains, possibly due to a more intensive use of analytical tools available, presenting studies with increasingly greater sample sizes.

  18. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genetic diversity in Spain: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diéguez, F.J.; Cerviño, M.; Yus, E.

    2017-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae, causes significant losses in cattle farming worldwide because of reduced milk production, increased mortality of young animals and reproductive, respiratory and intestinal problems. The virus is characterized by an important genetic, and consequently antigenic and pathogenic diversity. Knowing the variability of viral strains present in a population provides valuable information, particularly relevant for control programs development, vaccination recommendations and even identification of likely infection sources. Such information is therefore important at both local and regional levels. This review focuses on the genetic diversity of BVDV isolates infecting cattle in Spain over the last years. According to the published data, the most prevalent BVDV group in Spain was 1b, and to a lesser extent 1d, 1e and 1f. Besides, BVDV-2 has also been found in Spain with several ratified isolates. The studies carried out in Spain also showed increased genetic heterogeneity of BVDV strains, possibly due to a more intensive use of analytical tools available, presenting studies with increasingly greater sample sizes.

  19. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

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    Nathalie Callens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family.

  20. What variables are important in predicting bovine viral diarrhea virus? A random forest approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gustavo; Mendoza, Mariana Recamonde; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo

    2015-07-24

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle, and the virus is found worldwide. A better understanding of the disease associated factors is a crucial step towards the definition of strategies for control and eradication. In this study we trained a random forest (RF) prediction model and performed variable importance analysis to identify factors associated with BVDV occurrence. In addition, we assessed the influence of features selection on RF performance and evaluated its predictive power relative to other popular classifiers and to logistic regression. We found that RF classification model resulted in an average error rate of 32.03% for the negative class (negative for BVDV) and 36.78% for the positive class (positive for BVDV).The RF model presented area under the ROC curve equal to 0.702. Variable importance analysis revealed that important predictors of BVDV occurrence were: a) who inseminates the animals, b) number of neighboring farms that have cattle and c) rectal palpation performed routinely. Our results suggest that the use of machine learning algorithms, especially RF, is a promising methodology for the analysis of cross-sectional studies, presenting a satisfactory predictive power and the ability to identify predictors that represent potential risk factors for BVDV investigation. We examined classical predictors and found some new and hard to control practices that may lead to the spread of this disease within and among farms, mainly regarding poor or neglected reproduction management, which should be considered for disease control and eradication.

  1. Proteins of bovine viral diarrhea virus: characterization, biotype-specific differences, and immunological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donis, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Virus-specific polypeptides in bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) virus-infected bovine cells were studied by radiolabeling. A total of 12 polypeptides with apparent Mr of 165, 135, 118, 80, 75, 62, 56-58, 48, 37, 32, 25 and 19 kilodaltons (k) were identified in infected cells. Five glycoproteins were detected in infected cells. Two abundant species had apparent Mr of 48 k and 56-58 k while the minor species had masses of 118, 75 and 65 k. When cells were radiolabeled with L-[ 35 S]-methionine in the presence of tunicamycin the 56-58 k migrated with apparent masses of 54 k and 48-50 K in PAGE. Endoglycosidase F digestion of virus-induced polypeptides caused a 4-6 K reduction in the apparent molecular mass of the 56-58 k yielding a 52 k digested product. Tunicamycin caused a drastic reduction in the yield of infectious virus indicating that the carbohydrate moieties serve a vital role in the infection cycle of BVD virus. The noncytopathic biotype BVD (NCB-BVD) virus isolates can be consistently differentiated from cytopathic biotype BVD (CB-BVD) isolates on the basis of unique polypeptide profiles they induce in the infected cell: the most abundant polypeptide in CB-BVD infected cells is the 80 kD polypeptide while NCB-BVD lack this polypeptide and induce a predominant 118 k polypeptide. A panel of 25 murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the two major glycoproteins of BVD virus was produced. Based on their viral polypeptide specificity and on their ability to neutralize viral infectivity the Mabs in the panel were divided into 3 classes: Class 1 Mabs reacted with the 56-58 k glycoprotein and neutralized the virus, Class 2 Mabs recognized the 56-58 k glycoprotein but were not neutralizing and Class 3 Mabs reacted with the 48 k glycoprotein and did not neutralize the virus. These results identify the 56-58 k as one of the envelope glycoproteins of BVD virus

  2. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

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    Bedeković Tomislav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.

  3. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yugang; Wang, Shijie; Du, Rui; Wang, Quankai; Sun, Changjiang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Pengju; Zhang, Lianxue

    2011-02-25

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China) using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE), indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX) and electron microscopy(EM). The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV) in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

  4. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

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    Wang Nan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

  5. Circulating MicroRNAs in Serum from Cattle Challenged with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus‡

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    Tasia M. Taxis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an RNA virus that is often associated with respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs in cattle that had been challenged with a non-cytopathic field strain of BVDV. Five colostrum deprived neonate Holstein calves were inoculated with BVDV (challenged and 4 were mock challenged (control. Serum from all calves was collected at four different times: prior to challenge (day 0 and at 4, 9, and 16 days post-challenge. RNA was extracted from sera, and expression, via read counts, of small non-coding RNAs were obtained using next-generation sequencing. A total of 905,861 sequences identified 427 microRNAs. Sixty-two microRNAs had >1,000 total reads across all samples. Bta-miR-339a, bta-miR-185, bta-miR-486, Bta-miR-92a, bta-miR-30e-5p, bta-let-7c, and bta-miR-2284x were significantly different (P < 0.05 across time regardless of challenge status. Bta-miR-423-5p (P = 0.008 and bta-miR-151-3p (P = 0.005 were significantly different between challenged and control animals across time. In challenged animals, bta-miR-423-5p peaked in number of reads by day 4 and steadily declined from day 4 to day 16. In control animals, bta-miR-423-5p declined from day 0 to day 9 and increased in number by day 16. By day 16, both challenged and control animals had similar levels of bta-miR-423-5p, and these levels were similar to day 0 levels. Bta-miR-151-3p peaked at day 9 in challenged animals, while control animals decreased across time. By day 16, the number of reads of bta-miR-151-3p were similar between challenged and control animals. The level in challenged animals had returned to day 0 levels by day 16, whereas the levels for control animals was significantly lower (P = 0.006 than day 0. Further studies are needed to establish if bta-miR-423-5p or bta-miR-151-3p could be used as a biomarker for exposure to

  6. Seroprevalence and factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle in three milksheds in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Kassaye; Sibhat, Berhanu; Ayelet, Gelagay; Skjerve, Eystein; Gebremedhin, Endrias Z; Asmare, Kassahun

    2018-05-31

    This work was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence, to identify potential factors that influence seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and to investigate the association between BVDV serostatus and occurrence of reproductive disorders in dairy cattle in three milksheds in Ethiopia. A total of 1379 serum samples were obtained from cattle randomly selected from 149 herds from three milksheds representing central, southern, and western Ethiopia. Sera samples were examined for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies using commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate associations between risk factors and the risk of BVDV seroprevalence, and BVDV serostatus and reproductive disorders. Seroreaction to BVDV antigens was detected in 32.6% of the 1379 cattle and 69.8% of the 149 herds sampled. Factors associated with BVDV seroplevalence were age, breed, and herd size (P  0.05). Risk of reproductive disorders was not affected by BVDV serostatus, except for repeat breeding (P > 0.05). The present study demonstrated that BVDV has wide distribution in the country being detected in all the 15 conurbations and 69.8% of herds involved in the study.

  7. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feed intake and weight changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus crossbred steers following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b challenge under production conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenge...

  9. Preliminary mapping of non-conserved epitopes on envelope glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, H.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs together with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV) to the genus Pestivirus in the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has been subdivided into two different species, BVDV1 and BVDV2 based on phylogenetic analysis. Subsequent

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 impairs macrophage responsiveness to toll-like receptor ligation with the exception of toll-like receptor 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviradae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. In addition, BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2...

  11. HoBi-like virus challenge of pregnant cows that had previously given birth to calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to establish persistent infection (PI) following fetal infection is central to keeping these viruses circulating. Similarly, an emerging species of pestivirus, HoBi-like viruses, is also able to establish PIs. Dams that are not PI, but carrying PI ...

  12. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

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    Danielle Darracq Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a Pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus.

  13. Generation of the bovine viral diarrhea virus e0 protein in transgenic astragalus and its immunogenicity in sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yugang; Zhao, Xueliang; Zang, Pu; Liu, Qun; Wei, Gongqing; Zhang, Lianxue

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in transgenic Astragalus was detected in deer. The presence of pBI121-E0 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcription was verified by reverse transcription- (RT-) PCR, and recombinant protein expression was confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Deer that were immunized subcutaneously with the transgenic plant vaccine developed specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against BVDV. This study provides a new method for a protein with weak immunogenicity to be used as part of a transgenic plant vaccine.

  14. Generation of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus E0 Protein in Transgenic Astragalus and Its Immunogenicity in Sika Deer

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    Yugang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in transgenic Astragalus was detected in deer. The presence of pBI121-E0 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, transcription was verified by reverse transcription- (RT- PCR, and recombinant protein expression was confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Deer that were immunized subcutaneously with the transgenic plant vaccine developed specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against BVDV. This study provides a new method for a protein with weak immunogenicity to be used as part of a transgenic plant vaccine.

  15. Clinical and virological characteristics of calves experimentally infected with a Brazilian isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a

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    Luana Marchi Quadros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To study the pathogenicity of the Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV type 1a 241.10 isolate, four calves were intranasally inoculated with a viral suspension containing 107.2 TCID50 mL-1. One calf was left uninoculated and kept in contact with the other calves to investigate viral transmissibility. After inoculation, the animals were monitored daily for clinical signs of infection. The presence of the virus in the blood and nasal secretions was confirmed by virus isolation in cell culture. White blood cells were quantified prior to and every 3 days after infection, and the presence of antibodies was checked every 7 days, starting at day 0 until day 42 post-inoculation (pi. After infection, nasal and ocular serous secretions were observed between days 1 and 5 pi, along with a mild cough from days 2 to 4 pi; however, no severe clinical signs were present. Body temperature was slightly elevated between days 4 and 6 pi. The control calf did not develop any of the signs observed in the infected animals. Cell culture-mediated virus isolation confirmed viremia between days 4 and 8 pi and the presence of the virus in the nasal secretions between days 1 and 10 pi. All infected animals showed a decrease in white blood cell count. Antibodies could be detected from day 14 pi, and these levels remained high until day 35 pi. The control calf had no viremia, viral presence in nasal secretions, or positive serology, indicating the absence of viral transmission. Thus, isolate BVDV 1a 241.10 has low pathogenicity and transmissibility but retains immunosuppressive capacity.

  16. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  17. Two doses of bovine viral diarrhea virus DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation induce long-term protective immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Lawman, Zoe; Snider, Marlene; Wilson, Don; van den Hurk, Jan V; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew

    2013-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of major importance in cattle, so there is a need for new effective vaccines. DNA vaccines induce balanced immune responses and are relatively inexpensive and thus promising for both human and veterinary applications. In this study, newborn calves with maternal antibodies were vaccinated intramuscularly (i.m.) with a BVDV E2 DNA vaccine with the TriGrid Delivery System for i.m. delivery (TDS-IM). Two doses of this vaccine spaced 6 or 12 weeks apart were sufficient to induce significant virus-neutralizing antibody titers, numbers of activated T cells, and reduction in viral shedding and clinical presentations after BVDV-2 challenge. In contrast to the placebo-treated animals, the vaccinated calves did not lose any weight, which is an excellent indicator of the well-being of an animal and has a significant economic impact. Furthermore, the interval between the two vaccinations did not influence the magnitude of the immune responses or degree of clinical protection, and a third immunization was not necessary or beneficial. Since electroporation may enhance not only the magnitude but also the duration of immunity after DNA immunization, the interval between vaccination and challenge was extended in a second trial, which showed that two doses of this E2 DNA vaccine again significantly reduced clinical disease against BVDV for several months. These results are promising and support this technology for use against infectious diseases in cattle and large species, including humans, in general.

  18. Discovery of Novel Bovine Viral Diarrhea Inhibitors Using Structure-Based Virtual Screening on the Envelope Protein E2

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    Mariela Bollini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. BVDV causes both acute and persistent infections in cattle, leading to substantial financial losses to the livestock industry each year. The global prevalence of persistent BVDV infection and the lack of a highly effective antiviral therapy have spurred intensive efforts to discover and develop novel anti-BVDV therapies in the pharmaceutical industry. Antiviral targeting of virus envelope proteins is an effective strategy for therapeutic intervention of viral infections. We performed prospective small-molecule high-throughput docking to identify molecules that likely bind to the region delimited by domains I and II of the envelope protein E2 of BVDV. Several structurally different compounds were purchased or synthesized, and assayed for antiviral activity against BVDV. Five of the selected compounds were active displaying IC50 values in the low- to mid-micromolar range. For these compounds, their possible binding determinants were characterized by molecular dynamics simulations. A common pattern of interactions between active molecules and aminoacid residues in the binding site in E2 was observed. These findings could offer a better understanding of the interaction of BVDV E2 with these inhibitors, as well as benefit the discovery of novel and more potent BVDV antivirals.

  19. Discovery of novel bovine viral diarrhea inhibitors using structure-based virtual screening on the envelope protein E2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollini, Mariela; Leal, Emilse S.; Adler, Natalia S.; Aucar, María G.; Fernández, Gabriela A.; Pascual, María J.; Merwaiss, Fernando; Alvarez, Diego E.; Cavasotto, Claudio N.

    2018-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. BVDV causes both acute and persistent infections in cattle, leading to substantial financial losses to the livestock industry each year. The global prevalence of persistent BVDV infection and the lack of a highly effective antiviral therapy have spurred intensive efforts to discover and develop novel anti-BVDV therapies in the pharmaceutical industry. Antiviral targeting of virus envelope proteins is an effective strategy for therapeutic intervention of viral infections. We performed prospective small-molecule high-throughput docking to identify molecules that likely bind to the region delimited by domains I and II of the envelope protein E2 of BVDV. Several structurally different compounds were purchased or synthesized, and assayed for antiviral activity against BVDV. Five of the selected compounds were active displaying IC50 values in the low- to mid-micromolar range. For these compounds, their possible binding determinants were characterized by molecular dynamics simulations. A common pattern of interactions between active molecules and aminoacid residues in the binding site in E2 was observed. These findings could offer a better understanding of the interaction of BVDV E2 with these inhibitors, as well as benefit the discovery of novel and more potent BVDV antivirals.

  20. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in four bovine species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Deng

    Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  1. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in four bovine species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingliang; Ji, Sukun; Fei, Wentao; Raza, Sohail; He, Chenfei; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Huanchun; Guo, Aizhen

    2015-01-01

    To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens), and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab) and antigen (Ag) detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379), 1.39% (14/1010), and 22.64% (146/645), respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333), 63.27% (248/392), 45.38% (236/520), and 14.18% (19/134), respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116), 0.77% (3/392), 0.82% (3/368), and 5.97% (8/134), respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131), 13.00% (26/200), 28.89% (52/180), and 19.40% (26/134), respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%), BVDV-1m (49.19%), or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%). Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  2. Inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA synthesis by thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eliana F; Fabian, Lucas E; Caputto, María E; Gagey, Dolores; Finkielsztein, Liliana M; Moltrasio, Graciela Y; Moglioni, Albertina G; Campos, Rodolfo H; Cavallaro, Lucía V

    2011-06-01

    In the present work, we described the activity of the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC), which we previously characterized as a new compound that inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. We showed that TSC acts at a point of time that coincides with the onset of viral RNA synthesis and that it inhibits the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Moreover, we have selected five BVDV mutants that turned out to be highly resistant to TSC but still susceptible to ribavirin (RBV). Four of these resistant mutants carried an N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The remaining mutant showed an A392E mutation within the same protein. Some of these mutants replicated slower than the wild-type (wt) virus in the absence of TSC, whereas others showed a partial reversion to the wt phenotype over several passages in the absence of the compound. The docking of TSC in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed a close contact between the indane ring of the compound and several residues within the fingers domain of the enzyme, some hydrophobic contacts, and hydrogen bonds with the thiosemicarbazone group. Finally, in the mutated RdRp from resistant BVDV, these interactions with TSC could not be achieved. Interestingly, TSC inhibited BVDV replication in cell culture synergistically with RBV. In conclusion, TSC emerges as a new nonnucleoside inhibitor of BVDV RdRp that is synergistic with RBV, a feature that turns it into a potential compound to be evaluated against hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  3. Inhibition of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus RNA Synthesis by Thiosemicarbazone Derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-Indanone▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eliana F.; Fabian, Lucas E.; Caputto, María E.; Gagey, Dolores; Finkielsztein, Liliana M.; Moltrasio, Graciela Y.; Moglioni, Albertina G.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we described the activity of the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC), which we previously characterized as a new compound that inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. We showed that TSC acts at a point of time that coincides with the onset of viral RNA synthesis and that it inhibits the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Moreover, we have selected five BVDV mutants that turned out to be highly resistant to TSC but still susceptible to ribavirin (RBV). Four of these resistant mutants carried an N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The remaining mutant showed an A392E mutation within the same protein. Some of these mutants replicated slower than the wild-type (wt) virus in the absence of TSC, whereas others showed a partial reversion to the wt phenotype over several passages in the absence of the compound. The docking of TSC in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed a close contact between the indane ring of the compound and several residues within the fingers domain of the enzyme, some hydrophobic contacts, and hydrogen bonds with the thiosemicarbazone group. Finally, in the mutated RdRp from resistant BVDV, these interactions with TSC could not be achieved. Interestingly, TSC inhibited BVDV replication in cell culture synergistically with RBV. In conclusion, TSC emerges as a new nonnucleoside inhibitor of BVDV RdRp that is synergistic with RBV, a feature that turns it into a potential compound to be evaluated against hepatitis C virus (HCV). PMID:21430053

  4. Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Germany-Diversity of subtypes and detection of live-vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Schirrmeier, Horst; Strebelow, Heinz-Günter; Beer, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) causes high economic losses in the cattle population worldwide. In Germany, an obligatory control program with detection and removal of persistently infected animals is in force since 2011. For molecular tracing of virus transmission, a comprehensive sequence data base of the currently circulating BVD viruses was established. Partial sequences of 1007 samples collected between 2008 and 2016 were generated. As dominant viruses, subtypes 1b (47.0%) and 1d (26.5%) could be identified with no marked geographic or sampling year effect, a much higher amount of BVDV-2c was detected in 2013 compared to other years, predominantly in Western Germany. In addition, subtypes 1a, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1g, 1k, and 2a were found. Interestingly, besides field-viruses, two different live-vaccine viruses were detected in tissue samples of newborn calves (n=37) whose mothers were immunized during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Competitive virus assay method for titration of noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (END⁺ and END⁻ viruses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Mahmod; Ohi, Kota; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Fukusho, Akio

    2013-03-01

    A new, reliable and secure virus assay method, named the competitive virus assay (CVA) method, has been established for the titration of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) that either show the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon or heterologous interference phenomenon (but not the END phenomenon). This method is based on the principle of (1) homologous interference between BVDVs, by using BVDV RK13/E(-) or BVDV RK13/E(+) strains as competitor virus, and (2) END phenomenon and heterologous interference, by using attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) TCND strain as challenge virus. In titration of BVDV END(+) and BVDV END(-) viruses, no significant difference in estimated virus titer was observed between CVA and conventional methods. CVA method demonstrated comparable levels of sensitivity and accuracy as conventional END and interference methods, which require the use of a velogenic Miyadera strain of NDV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), both of which are agents of high-risk diseases. As such, the CVA method is a safer alternative, with increased bio-safety and bio-containment, through avoidance of virulent strains that are commonly employed with conventional methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel systems pharmacology platform to dissect action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicines for bovine viral diarrhea disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunli; Pei, Tianli; Huang, Chao; Chen, Xuetong; Bai, Yaofei; Xue, Jun; Wu, Ziyin; Mu, Jiexin; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-10-30

    Due to the large direct and indirect productivity losses in the livestock industry caused by bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and the lack of effective pharmacological therapies, developing an efficient treatment is extremely urgent. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) that simultaneously address multiple targets have been proven to be effective therapies for BVD. However, the potential molecular action mechanisms of TCMs have not yet been systematically explored. In this work, take the example of a herbal remedy Huangqin Zhizi (HQZZ) for BVD treatment in China, a systems pharmacology approach combining with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics evaluation was developed to screen out the active ingredients, predict the targets and analyze the networks and pathways. Results show that 212 active compounds were identified. Utilizing these lead compounds as probes, we predicted 122 BVD related-targets. And in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the reliability of some vital active compounds and targets. Network and pathway analysis displayed that HQZZ was effective in the treatment of BVD by inhibiting inflammation, enhancing immune responses in hosts toward virus infection. In summary, the analysis of the complete profile of the pharmacological activities, as well as the elucidation of targets, networks and pathways can further elucidate the underlying anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune regulation mechanisms of HQZZ against BVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Aiello Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection.

  8. Use of homologous recombination in yeast to create chimeric bovine viral diarrhea virus cDNA clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arenhart

    Full Text Available Abstract The open reading frame of a Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strain, IBSP4ncp, was recombined with the untranslated regions of the reference NADL strain by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in chimeric full-length cDNA clones of BVDV (chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#2 and chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#3. The recombinant clones were successfully recovered, resulting in viable viruses, having the kinetics of replication, focus size, and morphology similar to those of the parental virus, IBSP4ncp. In addition, the chimeric viruses remained stable for at least 10 passages in cell culture, maintaining their replication efficiency unaltered. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a few point mutations; nevertheless, the phenotype of the rescued viruses was nearly identical to that of the parental virus in all experiments. Thus, genetic stability of the chimeric clones and their phenotypic similarity to the parental virus confirm the ability of the yeast-based homologous recombination to maintain characteristics of the parental virus from which the recombinant viruses were derived. The data also support possible use of the yeast system for the manipulation of the BVDV genome.

  9. Evaluation of temporal surveillance system sensitivity and freedom from bovine viral diarrhea in Danish dairy herds using scenario tree modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Stockmarr, Anders; Boklund, Anette

    2016-06-21

    The temporal sensitivity of the surveillance system (TemSSe) for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Danish dairy herds was evaluated. Currently, the Danish antibody blocking ELISA is used to test quarterly bulk tank milk (BTM). To optimize the surveillance system as an early warning system, we considered the possibility of using the SVANOVIR ELISA, as this test has been shown to detect BVD-positive herds earlier than the blocking ELISA in BTM tests. Information from data (2010) and outputs from two published stochastic models were fed into a stochastic scenario tree to estimate the TemSSe. For that purpose we considered: the risk of BVD introduction into the dairy population, the ELISA used and the high risk period (HRP) from BVD introduction to testing (at 90 or 365 days). The effect of introducing one persistently infected (PI) calf or one transiently infected (TI) milking cow into 1 (or 8) dairy herd(s) was investigated. Additionally we estimated the confidence in low (PLow) herd prevalence (tree methodology, could be applied to optimize early warning surveillance systems of different animal diseases.

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of a Typical and a High Pathogenic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type II Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Amilcar Malacari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-cytopathic (ncp type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-2 is widely prevalent in Argentina causing high mortality rates in cattle herds. In this study, we characterized an Argentinean ncp BVDV-2 field isolate (98-124 compared to a high-virulence reference strain (NY-93, using in silico analysis, in vitro assays, and in vivo infections of colostrum-deprived calves (CDC to compare pathogenic characters and virulence. In vitro infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC with BVDV 98-124 induced necrosis shortly after infection while NY-93 strain increased the apoptotic rate in infected cells. Experimental infection of CDC (n = 4 each with these strains caused an enteric syndrome. High pyrexia was detected in both groups. Viremia and shedding were more prolonged in the CDC infected with the NY-93 strain. In addition, NY-93 infection elicited a severe lymphopenia that lasted for 14 days, whereas 98-124 strain reduced the leukocyte counts for 5 days. All infected animals had a diminished lymphoproliferation activity in response to a mitogen. Neutralizing and anti-NS3 antibodies were detected 3 weeks after infection in all infected calves. Virulence was associated with a more severe clinical score, prolonged immune-suppression, and a greater window for transmission. Studies of apoptosis/necrosis performed after in vitro PBMC infection also revealed differences between both strains that might be correlated to the in vivo pathogenesis. Our results identified 98-124 as a low-virulence strain.

  11. Production of a highly immunogenic subunit ISCOM vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Roensholt, L.; Jensen, M.Holm

    1999-01-01

    by Vaccination of the dam. We describe in this report the production and initial testing of an inactivated subunit vaccine against BVDV. The vaccine is based on production of antigen in primary bovine cell cultures, extraction of antigens from infected cells with detergent, chromatographic purification...

  12. Development and evaluation of a replicon particle vaccine expressing the E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loy John Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating, DIVA compatible, and can induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. This is the first experiment to demonstrate that Alphavirus-based replicon particles can be utilized in a standard prime/boost vaccination strategy in calves against a commercially significant bovine pathogen. Findings Replicon particles that express bovine viral diarrhea virus sub-genotype 1b E2 glycoprotein were generated and expression was confirmed in vitro using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to E2. Vaccine made from particles was generated in Vero cells and administered to BVDV free calves in a prime/boost regimen at two dosage levels. Vaccination resulted in neutralizing antibody titers that cross-neutralized both type 1 and type 2 BVD genotypes following booster vaccination. Additionally, high dose vaccine administration demonstrated some protection from clinical disease and significantly reduced the degree of leukopenia caused by viral infection. Conclusions Replicon particle vaccines administered in a prime/boost regimen expressing BVDV E2 glycoprotein can induce cross-neutralizing titers, reduce leukopenia post challenge, and mitigate clinical disease in calves. This strategy holds promise for a safe and effective vaccine to BVDV.

  13. Primary surveys on molecular epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 infecting goats in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Yang, Leilei; Wang, Jianhui; Cheng, Suping; Wei, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Zhang, Wenwen; Hao, Fei; Ding, Yonglong; Sun, Yinhua; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2016-09-05

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of domestic and wildlife animals worldwide and is associated with several diseases. In China, there are many reports about genotyping of BVDV strains originated from cattle and pigs, and some of them focused on the geographical distributions of BVDV. Currently, the goat industry in Jiangsu province of China is under going a rapid expansion. Most of these goat farms are backyard enterprises and in close proximity to pig and cattle farms. However, there was very limited information about BVDV infections in goats. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of BVDV infections of goats, the relationship of these infections to clinical signs and determine what BVDV genotypes are circulating in Jiangsu province. From 236 goat sera collected from six regions in Jiangsu province between 2011 and 2013, BVDV-1 was identified in 29 samples from the five regions by RT-PCR. The BVDV-1 infections occurred with/without clinical signs. Eight different BVDV-1 strains were identified from these positive samples based on the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequences, and further clustered into four BVDV-1 subtypes on the phylogenetic analysis. Three were BVDV-1b, two BVDV-1m, two BVDV-1o, and one BVDV-1p, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the occurrence of BVDV and the genotypes of BVDV infecting goats in China. The results indicated that BVDV-1 infections were indeed present and the viruses were with genetic variations in Chinese goat herds. The information would be very useful for prevention and control of BVDV-1 infections in China.

  14. Modeling the potential risk factors of bovine viral diarrhea prevalence in Egypt using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV disease in cattle and buffaloes in Egypt, to model the potential risk factors associated with the disease using logistic regression (LR models, and to fit the best predictive model for the current data. Materials and Methods: A total of 740 blood samples were collected within November 2012-March 2013 from animals aged between 6 months and 3 years. The potential risk factors studied were species, age, sex, and herd location. All serum samples were examined with indirect ELIZA test for antibody detection. Data were analyzed with different statistical approaches such as Chi-square test, odds ratios (OR, univariable, and multivariable LR models. Results: Results revealed a non-significant association between being seropositive with BVDV and all risk factors, except for species of animal. Seroprevalence percentages were 40% and 23% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. OR for all categories were close to one with the highest OR for cattle relative to buffaloes, which was 2.237. Likelihood ratio tests showed a significant drop of the -2LL from univariable LR to multivariable LR models. Conclusion: There was an evidence of high seroprevalence of BVDV among cattle as compared with buffaloes with the possibility of infection in different age groups of animals. In addition, multivariable LR model was proved to provide more information for association and prediction purposes relative to univariable LR models and Chi-square tests if we have more than one predictor.

  15. Stability of the resistance to the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-indanone, a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Eliana Florencia; Campos, Rodolfo Hector; Cavallaro, Lucía Vicenta

    2017-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1–5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of...

  16. Contribution of Leptospira, Neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea virus to fetal loss of beef cattle in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; West, D

    2013-10-01

    The profitability of beef breeding farms in New Zealand depends principally on optimal reproductive performance. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of four major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Neospora caninum (N. caninum), Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo (Hardjo), and Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), on rates of fetal loss in commercial beef breeding herds. Farms reporting fetal loss were recruited, and a blood sample from aborting cows (cases) was collected. Controls were normally calving cows from the same farm. At least four controls were selected from each farm contributing cases. Samples were tested using ELISA for detection of antibodies against BVDV and N. caninum, and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for detection of antibody against Hardjo and Pomona. A selection of titer cut-offs was conducted to evaluate the relationship between fetal loss and seropositivity to each pathogen using conditional logistic regression. The cut-off titer with the strongest association with fetal loss was included in the multivariate model. A significant increased risk of fetal loss was found for animals seropositive to N. caninum (odds ratio (OR)=3.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.27-8.89), Hardjo (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.01-3.33), and Pomona in non-vaccinated cows (OR=14.91, 95% CI=1.73-128.84) at the ELISA titer ≥ 30, and MAT titers of ≥ 1:384 and ≥ 1:768 for a positive sample, respectively. A marginally non-significant increased risk of fetal loss was found for animals exposed to BVDV (OR=2.01; 95% CI=0.99-4.11) at the ELISA titer of ≤ 1. Vaccination did not affect ORs for Hardjo or BVDV and no herd vaccinated against N. caninum. Approximately 14.0% of all fetal loss in the beef breeding cattle population in New Zealand may be attributable to BVDV (3.5%), N. caninum (3.0%), Hardjo (4.7%), and Pomona (3.6%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A systematic review of financial and economic assessments of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) prevention and mitigation activities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Trauffler, Martine; Dzieciol, Monika; Hutter, Sabine E; Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Winter, Petra; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2017-02-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in major economic losses either directly through decreased productive performance in cattle herds or indirectly, such as through expenses for control programs. The aim of this systematic review was to review financial and/or economic assessment studies of prevention and/or mitigation activities of BVDV at national, regional and farm level worldwide. Once all predefined criteria had been met, 35 articles were included for this systematic review. Studies were analyzed with particular focus on the type of financially and/or economically-assessed prevention and/or mitigation activities. Due to the wide range of possible prevention and/or mitigation activities, these activities were grouped into five categories: i) control and/or eradication programs, ii) monitoring or surveillance, iii) prevention, iv) vaccination and v) individual culling, control and testing strategies. Additionally, the studies were analyzed according to economically-related variables such as efficiency, costs or benefits of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the applied financial and/or economic and statistical methods, the payers of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the assessed production systems, and the countries for which such evaluations are available. Financial and/or economic assessments performed in Europe were dominated by those from the United Kingdom, which assessed mostly vaccination strategies, and Norway which primarily carried out assessments in the area of control and eradication programs; whereas among non-European countries the United States carried out the majority of financial and/or economic assessments in the area of individual culling, control and testing. More than half of all studies provided an efficiency calculation of prevention and/or mitigation activities and demonstrated whether the inherent costs of implemented activities were or were not justified. The dairy sector was three times more likely to

  18. Evaluation of envelope glycoprotein E(rns) of an atypical bovine pestivirus as antigen in a microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and atypical bovine pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Xia, Hongyan; Harimoorthy, Rajiv; Liu, Lihong; Belák, Sándor

    2012-11-01

    Atypical bovine pestiviruses are related antigenically and phylogenetically to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), and may cause the same clinical manifestations in animals. Glycoprotein E(rns) of an atypical bovine pestivirus Th/04_KhonKaen was produced in a baculovirus expression system and was purified by affinity chromatography. The recombinant E(rns) protein was used as an antigen in a microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against BVDV-1 and atypical bovine pestivirus. The diagnostic performance of the new method was evaluated by testing a total of 596 serum samples, and the assay was compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Based on the negative/positive cut-off median fluorescence intensity (MFI) value of 2800, the microsphere immunoassay had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100% compared to ELISA. The immunoassay was able to detect antibodies against both BVDV-1 and the atypical pestivirus. This novel microsphere immunoassay has the potential to be multiplexed for simultaneous detection of antibodies against different bovine pathogens in a high-throughput and economical way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1, type 2 and HoBi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Viviana; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    HoBi-like pestiviruses are emerging pestiviruses that infect cattle causing clinical forms overlapping to those induced by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 and 2. As a consequence of their widespread distribution reported in recent years, molecular tools for rapid discrimination among pestiviruses infecting cattle are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, based on the TaqMan technology, for the rapid and unambiguous characterisation of all bovine pestiviruses, including the emerging HoBi-like strains. The assay was found to be sensitive, specific and repeatable, ensuring detection of as few as 10(0)-10(1) viral RNA copies. No cross-reactions between different pestiviral species were observed even in samples artificially contaminated with more than one pestivirus. Analysis of field samples tested positive for BVDV-1, BVDV-2 or HoBi-like virus by a nested PCR protocol revealed that the developed TaqMan assay had equal or higher sensitivity and was able to discriminate correctly the viral species in all tested samples, whereas a real-time RT-PCR assay previously developed for HoBi-like pestivirus detection showed cross-reactivity with few high-titre BVDV-2 samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic Variability of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Evidence for a Possible Genetic Bottleneck during Vertical Transmission in Persistently Infected Cattle.

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    Natalie Dow

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. The primary propagators of the virus are immunotolerant persistently infected (PI cattle, which shed large quantities of virus throughout life. Despite the absence of an acquired immunity against BVDV in these PI cattle there are strong indications of viral variability that are of clinical and epidemiological importance. In this study the variability of E2 and NS5B sequences in multiple body compartments of PI cattle were characterized using clonal sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BVDV exists as a quasispecies within PI cattle. Viral variants were clustered by tissue compartment significantly more often than expected by chance alone with the central nervous system appearing to be a particularly important viral reservoir. We also found strong indications for a genetic bottleneck during vertical transmission from PI animals to their offspring. These quasispecies analyses within PI cattle exemplify the role of the PI host in viral propagation and highlight the complex dynamics of BVDV pathogenesis, transmission and evolution.

  1. In vitro neutralization against HoBi-like viruses by antiobodies in serum of cattle immunized with inactivated or modified live vaccines of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses with genetic and antigenic similarities to bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV1 and BVDV2). These viruses have been detected associated with respiratory and/or reproductive disease in cattle in Italy and Brazil. Vaccines for HoBi-like...

  2. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs Evaluación de vacunas experimentales para la diarrea viral bovina en bovinos, ovinos y cobayos

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    F. Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines.El control del virus de la diarrea viral bovina (VDVB se basa en la eliminación de animales persistentemente infectados, y la inmunización de hembras para prevenir infecciones fetales. La eficiencia de estas vacunas es variable por su baja inmunogenicidad. Se evaluó la respuesta inmune humoral contra virus homólogos y heterólogos de 7 vacunas experimentales inactivadas del VDVB en bovinos y en dos modelos experimentales (ovinos y cobayos. Las vacunas conteniendo VDVB Singer, Oregon, NADL y polivalentes indujeron seroconversión en

  3. Synthesis, antiviral evaluation and molecular docking studies of N4-aryl substituted/unsubstituted thiosemicarbazones derived from 1-indanones as potent anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraires Santacruz, María C; Fabiani, Matías; Castro, Eliana F; Cavallaro, Lucía V; Finkielsztein, Liliana M

    2017-08-01

    A series of N 4 -arylsubstituted thiosemicarbazones derived from 1-indanones and a set of compounds lacking such substitution in the N 4 position of the thiosemicarbazone moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) activity. Among these, derivatives 2 and 15 displayed high activity (EC 50 =2.7±0.4 and 0.7±0.1µM, respectively) as inhibitors of BVDV replication. Novel key structural features related to the anti-BVDV activity were identified by structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis. In a previous study, the thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (5,6-TSC) was characterized as a non-nucleoside inhibitor (NNI) of the BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In the present work, cross-resistance assays were performed with the most active compounds. Such studies were carried out on 5,6-TSC resistant BVDV (BVDV-TSC r T1) carrying mutations in the viral polymerase. This BVDV mutant was also resistant to compound 15. Molecular docking studies and MM/PBSA calculations were performed to assess the most active derivatives at the 5,6-TSC viral polymerase binding site. The differences in the interaction pattern and the binding affinity of derivative 15 either to the wild type or BVDV-TSC r T1 polymerase were key factors to define the mode of action of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7.

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    Robert G Schaut

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp or non-cytopathic (ncp effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs. Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp, noncytopathic (ncp, high (hv or low virulence (lv BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections.

  5. Development of an enhanced bovine viral diarrhea virus subunit vaccine based on E2 glycoprotein fused to a single chain antibody which targets to antigen-presenting cells

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    Andrea Pecora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an important cause of economic losses worldwide. E2 is an immunodominant protein and a promising candidate to develop subunit vaccines. To improve its immunogenicity, a truncated E2 (tE2 was fused to a single chain antibody named APCH, which targets to antigen-presenting cells. APCH-tE2 and tE2 proteins were expressed in the baculovirus system and their immunogenicity was firstly compared in guinea pigs. APCH-tE2 vaccine was the best one to evoke a humoral response, and for this reason, it was selected for a cattle vaccination experiment. All the bovines immunized with 1.5 µg of APCH-tE2 developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies against BVDV up to a year post-immunization, demonstrating its significant potential as a subunit vaccine. This novel vaccine is undergoing scale-up and was transferred to the private sector. Nowadays, it is being evaluated for registration as the first Argentinean subunit vaccine for cattle.

  6. Development of an enhanced bovine viral diarrhea virus subunit vaccine based on E2 glycoprotein fused to a single chain antibody which targets to antigen-presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Andrea; Malacari, Darío A; Pérez Aguirreburualde, María S; Bellido, Demian; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María J; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important cause of economic losses worldwide. E2 is an immunodominant protein and a promising candidate to develop subunit vaccines. To improve its immunogenicity, a truncated E2 (tE2) was fused to a single chain antibody named APCH, which targets to antigen-presenting cells. APCH-tE2 and tE2 proteins were expressed in the baculovirus system and their immunogenicity was firstly compared in guinea pigs. APCH-tE2 vaccine was the best one to evoke a humoral response, and for this reason, it was selected for a cattle vaccination experiment. All the bovines immunized with 1.5 μg of APCH-tE2 developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies against BVDV up to a year post-immunization, demonstrating its significant potential as a subunit vaccine. This novel vaccine is undergoing scale-up and was transferred to the private sector. Nowadays, it is being evaluated for registration as the first Argentinean subunit vaccine for cattle. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

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    Peregrine Lee Wolff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection was detected in 2009-10 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N=32 in the bighorns and 100% (N=3 in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, indicated a prevalence of 72% (N=45, 45% (N=51, and 51% (N=342 respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N=96 sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species.

  8. Coinfections of Sudanese dairy cattle with bovine herpes virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bluetongue virus and bovine herpes virus 4 and their relation to reproductive disorders

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    Amira M. Elhassan

    2016-12-01

    Reults: The meta-analysis of the data indicated high seroprevalence of coinfections with various combinations of these agents; only few animals were singly infected. An infection with BHV-1 was observed to be higher than the prevalence of associations between BHV-1 and the other three viral agents. Prevalence of seropositivities to coinfection with BHV-1/BTV; BHV-1/BVD; BHV-1/BTV/BVD were the highest while seropositivities prevalences that involved BHV-4 were much lower. The highest abortion rates were encountered in coinfections with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (31% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (30% while most infertility cases were noticed in coinfection with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (44% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (21%, and coinfections with the four viruses were encountered in most of the death after birth cases (25%. Overall mixed infections with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (34% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (22.5% were involved in the majority of reproductive problems studied. Conclusion: Mixed infections constitutes the vast majority of cases and are involved in the majority of reproductive disorders investigated. The high prevalence of seropositivity to all of the four viruses should call for an intervention strategy to reduce the impact of these viruses. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 332-337

  9. Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions

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    Chase A. Runyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366 that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV, killed, (KV or no vaccine (NON. Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05, and interacted with day (p < 0.001 for ADFI. Although low incidence of clinical signs was observed, there were marked reductions in average daily gain (ADG and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104% and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI (p < 0.001, and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG (p = 0.03 and total feed intake (p = 0.03. This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures.

  10. Stability of the resistance to the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone, a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eliana F; Campos, Rodolfo H; Cavallaro, Lucía V

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1-5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1-5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1-5) remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs.

  11. Stability of the resistance to the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone, a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

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    Eliana F Castro

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1-5 present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1-5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1-5 remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs.

  12. A search for RNA insertions and NS3 gene duplication in the genome of cytopathic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus

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    V.L. Quadros

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Calves born persistently infected with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV frequently develop a fatal gastroenteric illness called mucosal disease. Both the original virus (ncpBVDV and an antigenically identical but cytopathic virus (cpBVDV can be isolated from animals affected by mucosal disease. Cytopathic BVDVs originate from their ncp counterparts by diverse genetic mechanisms, all leading to the expression of the non-structural polypeptide NS3 as a discrete protein. In contrast, ncpBVDVs express only the large precursor polypeptide, NS2-3, which contains the NS3 sequence within its carboxy-terminal half. We report here the investigation of the mechanism leading to NS3 expression in 41 cpBVDV isolates. An RT-PCR strategy was employed to detect RNA insertions within the NS2-3 gene and/or duplication of the NS3 gene, two common mechanisms of NS3 expression. RT-PCR amplification revealed insertions in the NS2-3 gene of three cp isolates, with the inserts being similar in size to that present in the cpBVDV NADL strain. Sequencing of one such insert revealed a 296-nucleotide sequence with a central core of 270 nucleotides coding for an amino acid sequence highly homologous (98% to the NADL insert, a sequence corresponding to part of the cellular J-Domain gene. One cpBVDV isolate contained a duplication of the NS3 gene downstream from the original locus. In contrast, no detectable NS2-3 insertions or NS3 gene duplications were observed in the genome of 37 cp isolates. These results demonstrate that processing of NS2-3 without bulk mRNA insertions or NS3 gene duplications seems to be a frequent mechanism leading to NS3 expression and BVDV cytopathology.

  13. A simulation model to quantify the value of implementing whole-herd Bovine viral diarrhea virus testing strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Jason S; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Renter, David G; Sanderson, Mike W

    2011-03-01

    Although numerous diagnostic tests are available to identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cow-calf herds, data are sparse when evaluating the economic viability of individual tests or diagnostic strategies. Multiple factors influence BVDV testing in determining if testing should be performed and which strategy to use. A stochastic model was constructed to estimate the value of implementing various whole-herd BVDV cow-calf testing protocols. Three common BVDV tests (immunohistochemistry, antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and polymerase chain reaction) performed on skin tissue were evaluated as single- or two-test strategies. The estimated testing value was calculated for each strategy at 3 herd sizes that reflect typical farm sizes in the United States (50, 100, and 500 cows) and 3 probabilities of BVDV-positive herd status (0.077, 0.19, 0.47) based upon the literature. The economic value of testing was the difference in estimated gross revenue between simulated cow-calf herds that either did or did not apply the specific testing strategy. Beneficial economic outcomes were more frequently observed when the probability of a herd being BVDV positive was 0.47. Although the relative value ranking of many testing strategies varied by each scenario, the two-test strategy composed of immunohistochemistry had the highest estimated value in all but one herd size-herd prevalence permutation. These data indicate that the estimated value of applying BVDV whole-herd testing strategies is influenced by the selected strategy, herd size, and the probability of herd BVDV-positive status; therefore, these factors should be considered when designing optimum testing strategies for cow-calf herds.

  14. Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. The internal initiation of translation in bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA depends on the presence of an RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiation codon

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    Moes Lorin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is the prototype representative of the pestivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. It has been shown that the initiation of translation of BVDV RNA occurs by an internal ribosome entry mechanism mediated by the 5' untranslated region of the viral RNA 1. The 5' and 3' boundaries of the IRES of the cytopathic BVDV NADL have been mapped and it has been suggested that the IRES extends into the coding of the BVDV polyprotein 2. A putative pseudoknot structure has been recognized in the BVDV 5'UTR in close proximity to the AUG start codon. A pseudoknot structure is characteristic for flavivirus IRESes and in the case of the closely related classical swine fever virus (CSFV and the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus (HCV pseudoknot function in translation has been demonstrated. Results To characterize the BVDV IRESes in detail, we studied the BVDV translational initiation by transfection of dicistronic expression plasmids into mammalian cells. A region coding for the amino terminus of the BVDV SD-1 polyprotein contributes considerably to efficient initiation of translation. The translation efficiency mediated by the IRES of BVDV strains NADL and SD-1 approximates the poliovirus type I IRES directed translation in BHK cells. Compared to the poliovirus IRES increased expression levels are mediated by the BVDV IRES of strain SD-1 in murine cell lines, while lower levels are observed in human cell lines. Site directed mutagenesis revealed that a RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiator AUG is an important structural element for IRES function. Mutants with impaired ability to base pair in stem I or II lost their translational activity. In mutants with repaired base pairing either in stem 1 or in stem 2 full translational activity was restored. Thus, the BVDV IRES translation is dependent on the pseudoknot integrity. These features of the pestivirus IRES are reminiscent of those of the classical

  16. The internal initiation of translation in bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA depends on the presence of an RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiation codon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, Lorin; Wirth, Manfred

    2007-11-22

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype representative of the pestivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. It has been shown that the initiation of translation of BVDV RNA occurs by an internal ribosome entry mechanism mediated by the 5' untranslated region of the viral RNA 1. The 5' and 3' boundaries of the IRES of the cytopathic BVDV NADL have been mapped and it has been suggested that the IRES extends into the coding of the BVDV polyprotein 2. A putative pseudoknot structure has been recognized in the BVDV 5'UTR in close proximity to the AUG start codon. A pseudoknot structure is characteristic for flavivirus IRESes and in the case of the closely related classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus (HCV) pseudoknot function in translation has been demonstrated. To characterize the BVDV IRESes in detail, we studied the BVDV translational initiation by transfection of dicistronic expression plasmids into mammalian cells. A region coding for the amino terminus of the BVDV SD-1 polyprotein contributes considerably to efficient initiation of translation. The translation efficiency mediated by the IRES of BVDV strains NADL and SD-1 approximates the poliovirus type I IRES directed translation in BHK cells. Compared to the poliovirus IRES increased expression levels are mediated by the BVDV IRES of strain SD-1 in murine cell lines, while lower levels are observed in human cell lines. Site directed mutagenesis revealed that a RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiator AUG is an important structural element for IRES function. Mutants with impaired ability to base pair in stem I or II lost their translational activity. In mutants with repaired base pairing either in stem 1 or in stem 2 full translational activity was restored. Thus, the BVDV IRES translation is dependent on the pseudoknot integrity. These features of the pestivirus IRES are reminiscent of those of the classical swine fever virus, a pestivirus, and the

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in free-ranging wild ruminants in Switzerland: low prevalence of infection despite regular interactions with domestic livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the frame of an eradication program for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Swiss livestock, the question was raised whether free-ranging wildlife could threaten the success of this sanitary measure. Therefore, we conducted serological and virological investigations on BVD virus (BVDV) infections in the four indigenous wild ruminant species (roe deer, red deer, Alpine chamois and Alpine ibex) from 2009 to 2011, and gathered information on interactions between wild and domestic ruminants in an alpine environment by questionnaire survey. Results Thirty-two sera out of 1’877 (1.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.4) were seropositive for BVDV, and a BVDV1 sub genotype h virus was found in a seropositive chamois (0.05%, 95% CI 0.001-0.3). The seropositive animals originated from sub-alpine or alpine regions and significantly more seropositive red deer, chamois and ibex than roe deer were found. There were no statistically significant differences between sampling units, age classes, genders, and sampling years. The obtained prevalences were significantly lower than those documented in livestock, and most positive wild ruminants were found in proximity of domestic outbreaks. Additionally, BVDV seroprevalence in ibex was significantly lower than previously reported from Switzerland. The survey on interspecific interactions revealed that interactions expected to allow BVDV transmission, from physical contacts to non-simultaneous use of the same areas, regularly occur on pastures among all investigated ruminant species. Interactions involving cervids were more often observed with cattle than with small ruminants, chamois were observed with all three domestic species, and ibex interacted mostly with small ruminants. Interactions related to the use of anthropogenic food sources were frequently observed, especially between red deer and cattle in wintertime. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of BVDV RNA isolated from an Alpine chamois

  18. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds.

  19. Caracterização preliminar de amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas no Brasil Preliminary characterization of brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV

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    Sônia A. Botton

    1998-04-01

    ção contra o vírus.This article reports the preliminary characterization of 19 Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV isolates, regarding the biological, antigenic and molecular properties. Eleven viruses were isolated from bovine fetuses, six were obtained from blood of animals from herds with reproductive problems, and two were isolated from clinical cases of gastroenteric disease. The clinical cases affected young animals and were characterized by diarrhea, oronasal and digestive erosions and ulceration, and occasional digestive bleeding and vulvar petechial hemorrhage. Sixteen isolates (84.2%, including those obtained from fetuses and clinical cases, were of the non-cytopathic (ncp biotype. Replication of three isolates (15.8% in tissue culture was characterized by appearance of cellular vacuolation and progressive destruction of the monolayers. Analysis of these isolates after cloning revealed a mixed population of cytopathic (cp and non-cytopathic viruses. Analysis of viral polypeptides by SDS-PAGE followed by "Western immunoblot" revealed the production of the non-structural protein NS3/p80 in cells infected with the cp viruses. In contrast, generation of NS3/p80 was not observed in cells infected with the ncp isolates, which only expressed the precursor polypeptide NS23/p125. Analysis of reactivity with a panel of 15 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs revealed a marked antigenic variability among the isolates, mainly in the envelope glycoprotein E2/gp53. Although one MAb to this glycoprotein recognized 18 isolates (94.7%, the other nine E2/gp53 MAbs recognized zero to 57.9% of the isolates. The marked antigenic diversity observed among the brazilian BVDV isolates may have important implications on diagnosis and immunization strategies.

  20. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Shailja Katoch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p0.01. Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.

  1. [Antiviral activity of different drugs in vitro against viruses of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and bovine diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Sergeev, A A; Belkina, T V; Sergeev, A N

    2004-01-01

    In vitro experiments studied the antiviral activity of 11 different drugs against viruses of bovine infective rhinotracheitis (BIRT) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The 50% inhibiting concentrations of the test agents were determined in the monolayers of MDBK and KCT cell cultures. Only did phosprenyl show a virucidal activity against BIRT virus. All the tested drugs significantly inhibited the reproduction of BIRT virus in the sensitive MDBK cell cultures. Thus, bromuridin, acyclovir, ribavirin and methisazonum inhibited the virus by > or = 100,000 times; liposomal ribavirin, gossypolum, anandinum, polyprenolum, phosprenyl, by 1000-10,000 times; eracond and argovit, by 100 times. In experiments on BVD virus, the cultured KCT cells displayed the antiviral activity of bromuridin, phosprenil, polyprenolum, methisazonum, acyclovir, gossypolum, argovit, and ribavirin (in two variants), which caused a statistically significant (100-10,000-fold) decrease in the productive activity of this virus. Eracond and anandid proved to be ineffective.

  2. Comparison of acute infection of calves exposed to a high-virulence or low-virulence bovine viral diarrhea virus or a HoBi-like virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to compare clinical presentation following acute infection of cattle with either a high virulence (HV) BVDV or a low virulence (LV) BVDV to clinical presentation following infection with a viral strain that belongs to an emerging species of pestivirus. The viral st...

  3. Evaluation of economic effects and the health and performance of the general cattle population after exposure to cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a starter feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessman, Bill E; Fulton, Robert W; Sjeklocha, David B; Murphy, Timothy A; Ridpath, Julia F; Payton, Mark E

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate economic effects and health and performance of the general cattle population after exposure to cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a feedlot. 21,743 high-risk calves from the southeastern United States. PI status was determined by use of an antigen-capture ELISA (ACE) and confirmed by use of a second ACE, reverse transcriptase-PCR assay of sera, immunohistochemical analysis, and virus isolation from sera. Groups with various amounts of exposure to BVDV PI cattle were used. After being placed in the feedlot, identified PI cattle were removed from 1 section, but PI cattle remained in another section of the feedlot. Exposure groups for cattle lots arriving without PI animals were determined by spatial association to cattle lots, with PI animals remaining or removed from the lot. 15,348 cattle maintained their exposure group. Performance outcomes improved slightly among the 5 exposure groups as the risk for exposure to BVDV PI cattle decreased. Health outcomes had an association with exposure risk that depended on the exposure group. Comparing cattle lots with direct exposure with those without direct exposure revealed significant improvements in all performance outcomes and in first relapse percentage and mortality percentage in the health outcomes. Economic analysis revealed that fatalities accounted for losses of $5.26/animal and performance losses were $88.26/animal. This study provided evidence that exposure of the general population of feedlot cattle to BVDV PI animals resulted in substantial costs attributable to negative effects on performance and increased fatalities.

  4. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  5. Genetic characterization of Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates by partial nucleotide sequencing of the 5'-UTR region Caracterização genética de amostras brasileiras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina através do seqüenciamento parcial da Região 5'UTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV from Brazil were genetically characterized through partial nucleotide sequencing and analysis of the 5'UTR region. The isolates were grouped as BVDV-1 (11/19, BVDV-2 (6/19 or "atypical" pestivirus (2/19. Among the BVDV-1, eight isolates were classified as subgenotype BVDV-1a, whereas most (4 out of 6 BVDV-2 belonged to subgenotype 2b. Two isolates from aborted fetuses were not classified into any genetic group, being considered atypical BVDVs. Genetic diversity among Brazilian BVDV isolates may be responsible for vaccination and diag-nostic failure and therefore may influence the control strategies for BVDV infection in the country.Dezenove amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV foram caracterizadas geneticamente através do seqüenciamento parcial de nucleotídeos da Região 5'UTR. As amostras foram agrupadas em BVDV-1 (11/19, BVDV-2 (6/19 e num terceiro grupo de amostras denominadas "atípicas" (2/19. Das onze amostras genotipadas como BVDV-1, oito amostras foram sub-genotipadas como BVDV-1a, enquanto que a maioria (4/6 das amostras de BVDV-2 foi agrupada como BVDV-2b. Duas amostras provenientes de fetos bovinos abortados foram classificadas como atípicas, não BVDV-1 e 2. A presença da diversidade genética de BVDV detectada nas amostras estudadas pode ser responsável por falhas vacinais e de diagnóstico e deve influenciar nas estratégias de controle do BVDV aplicadas nas diferentes regiões brasileiras.

  6. Selection and characterization of specific nanobody against bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV E2 protein.

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    Tiansen Li

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD-MD is caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and results in abortion, stillbirth, and fetal malformation in cows. Here, we constructed the phage display vector pCANTAB 5E-VHH and then transformed it into Escherichia coli TG1-competent cells, to construct an initial anti-BVDV nanobody gene library. We obtained a BVDV-E2 antigen epitope bait protein by prokaryotic expression using the nucleotide sequence of the E2 gene of the BVDV-NADL strain published in GenBank. Phage display was used to screen the anti-BVDV nanobody gene library. We successfully constructed a high quality phage display nanobody library, with an initial library capacity of 4.32×105. After the rescue of helper phage, the titer of the phage display nanobody library was 1.3×1011. The BVDV-E2 protein was then expressed in Escherichia coli (DE3, and a 49.5 kDa band was observed with SDS-PAGE analysis that was consistent with the expected nanobody size. Thus, we were able to isolate one nanobody that exhibits high affinity and specificity against BVDV using phage display techniques. This isolated nanobody was then used in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and qRT-PCR, and ELISA analyses of BVDV infection of MDBK cells indicated that the nanobodies exhibited good antiviral effect.

  7. Selection and characterization of specific nanobody against bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) E2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiansen; Huang, Meiling; Xiao, Hongran; Zhang, Guoqi; Ding, Jinhua; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Hui; Sheng, Jinliang; Chen, Chuangfu

    2017-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD-MD) is caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and results in abortion, stillbirth, and fetal malformation in cows. Here, we constructed the phage display vector pCANTAB 5E-VHH and then transformed it into Escherichia coli TG1-competent cells, to construct an initial anti-BVDV nanobody gene library. We obtained a BVDV-E2 antigen epitope bait protein by prokaryotic expression using the nucleotide sequence of the E2 gene of the BVDV-NADL strain published in GenBank. Phage display was used to screen the anti-BVDV nanobody gene library. We successfully constructed a high quality phage display nanobody library, with an initial library capacity of 4.32×105. After the rescue of helper phage, the titer of the phage display nanobody library was 1.3×1011. The BVDV-E2 protein was then expressed in Escherichia coli (DE3), and a 49.5 kDa band was observed with SDS-PAGE analysis that was consistent with the expected nanobody size. Thus, we were able to isolate one nanobody that exhibits high affinity and specificity against BVDV using phage display techniques. This isolated nanobody was then used in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and qRT-PCR, and ELISA analyses of BVDV infection of MDBK cells indicated that the nanobodies exhibited good antiviral effect.

  8. Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Ralph E.

    1983-01-01

    The four major mechanisms of diarrhea are osmotic forces, secretory forces, exudation from a disrupted intestinal mucosa, and disturbed intestinal motility. In many illnesses, more than one mechanism produces diarrhea. The rotaviruses and the Norwalk viruses have recently been recognized as common causes of viral gastroenteritis. Also, the major cause of antibiotic-associated colitis is now known to be an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile. Campylobacter has also been identified as a common ...

  9. Atividade antiviral do extrato de própolis contra o calicivírus felino, adenovírus canino 2 e vírus da diarréia viral bovina Antiviral activity of propolis extracts against feline calicivirus, canine adenovirus 2, and bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cueto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as propriedades biológicas da própolis, a atividade antimicrobiana tem merecido destacada atenção. Neste artigo, descreve-se a atividade antiviral de dois extratos etanólicos de própolis (EP1 e EP2 frente aos vírus: calicivírus felino (FCV, adenovírus canino tipo 2 (CAV-2 e vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV. Um dos extratos (EP1 foi obtido por extração etanólica de própolis obtida da região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e o segundo (EP2, obtido comercialmente de uma empresa de Minas Gerais. A análise dos extratos de própolis através da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE identificou a presença de flavonóides como: rutina, quercetina e ácido gálico. A atividade antiviral bem como a citotoxicidade dos extratos aos cultivos celulares foram avaliadas através do MTT [3- (4,5 dimetiltiazol-2yl-2-5-difenil-2H tetrazolato de bromo]. Ambos os extratos evidenciaram atividade antiviral frente ao BVDV e CAV-2 quando acrescidos ao cultivo celular anteriormente à inoculação viral. Os extratos foram menos efetivos contra o FCV em comparação aos resultados obtidos com os outros vírus, e a atividade antiviral neste caso foi observada apenas quando a própolis estava presente após a inoculação viral. O extrato obtido no laboratório (EP1 apresentou valores mais altos de índice de seletividade (IS=CC50/ CE50, quando comparado à outra amostra (EP2. Em resumo, a própolis apresentou atividade antiviral frente a três diferentes vírus, o que a torna alvo para o desenvolvimento de novos compostos naturais com atividade antiviral.Propolis is a resinous substance produced by bees for which several biological activities have been attributed. In this article, the antiviral activity of two propolis extracts was tested against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2, and feline calicivirus (FCV. One of the extracts was obtained by ethanolic extraction of propolis from the Santa

  10. Comparison of Detection of Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus Antigen in Various Types of Tissue and Fluid Samples Collected from Persistently Infected Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses are economically important pathogens of cattle. Most new infections are acquired from animals persistently infected with the virus. Surveillance programs rely on skin biopsies for detection of persistently infected cattle. The purpose of this study was to compare ant...

  11. Dembo polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complex infectious agents in potential vectors and reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahpaya, Sayed Samim; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Kishimoto, Mai; Oba, Mami; Katayama, Yukie; Nunomura, Yuka; Kokawa, Saki; Kimura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kirino, Yumi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Nonaka, Nariaki; Mekata, Hirohisa; Aoki, Hiroshi; Shiokawa, Mai; Umetsu, Moeko; Morita, Tatsushi; Hasebe, Ayako; Otsu, Keiko; Asai, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Makino, Shinji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Abi, Ahmad Jan; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2018-05-31

    Bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complexes, caused by infectious agents, result in high and significant economic losses for the cattle industry. These pathogens are likely transmitted by various vectors and reservoirs including insects, birds, and rodents. However, experimental data supporting this possibility are scarce. We collected 117 samples and screened them for 44 bovine abortive, diarrheal, and respiratory disease complex pathogens by using Dembo polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on TaqMan real-time PCR. Fifty-seven samples were positive for at least one pathogen, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine enterovirus, Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium, and Neospora caninum ; some samples were positive for multiple pathogens. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine enterovirus were the most frequently detected pathogens, especially in flies, suggesting an important role of flies in the transmission of these viruses. Additionally, we detected the N. caninum genome from a cockroach sample for the first time. Our data suggest that insects (particularly flies), birds, and rodents are potential vectors and reservoirs of abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory infectious agents, and that they may transmit more than one pathogen at the same time.

  12. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  13. Proteção fetal frente a desafio com o vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV em ovelhas imunizadas com duas amostras de vírus modificadas experimentalmente Fetal protection against challenge with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in pregnant ewes immunized with two strains experimentally attenuated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C.S. Brum

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Duas amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV submetidas a múltiplas passagens em cultivo celular e exposição à radiação ultravioleta (UV a cada passagem foram avaliadas como candidatos a vírus vacinais. As amostras foram testadas quanto à sua atenuação para bezerros e fetos ovinos, reatividade antigênica contra isolados de campo, e capacidade de induzir proteção fetal em ovelhas prenhes. Inoculação intramuscular (IM dos vírus modificados em quatro bezerros produziu apenas uma elevação discreta e passageira da temperatura corporal, seguida de produção de altos títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes. O vírus não foi detectado em secreções nasais ou sangue nos dias seguintes à inoculação. Porém, a inoculação IM desses vírus em quatro ovelhas prenhes foi seguida de transmissão transplacentária e infecção em todos os fetos. Para os testes de proteção fetal, ovelhas prenhes previamente imunizadas com duas doses vacinais, foram inoculadas por via intranasal com amostras de BVDV-1 (SV-126.8, n=6 ou BVDV-2 (SV-260, n=5. No dia do desafio (134 dias após a segunda dose, todos os animais apresentavam altos títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes (256 a >4096 contra os vírus vacinais; além de títulos variados (8 a >4096 contra várias isolados brasileiros de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2. Quinze dias após o desafio, as ovelhas foram sacrificadas e os tecidos fetais foram examinados para a presença de vírus. Todos os fetos das ovelhas controle não-vacinadas apresentaram-se (n=4 positivos para os vírus utilizados no desafio. Em contraste, nenhum feto das ovelhas imunizadas (n=11 foi positivo para vírus, indicando que a resposta imunológica induzida pela vacinação com os vírus modificados foi capaz de prevenir a infecção fetal. Estes resultados indicam que é possível obter-se forte resposta imunológica e proteção fetal contra o BVDV com o uso de vacinas vivas modificadas.Two isolates of bovine viral diarrhea

  14. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  15. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD...

  16. [Diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllhaupt, B

    2002-10-16

    Diarrhea is not a single disease, but only a symptom of different diseases. Diarrhea is characterized by an increase in bowel movements (more than three per day) and an increased liquidity of stools. Acute diarrheas are defined as those that last less than four weeks, whereas chronic diarrheas persist for more than four weeks. The pathophysiological basis of diarrhea is a disturbed enteral water- and electrolyte balance, which can be caused by an increased secretion of osmotically active electrolytes (secretory diarrhea) or the increased ingestion of osmotically active substances (osmotic diarrhea). The stool characteristics allows to distinguish watery, bloody and fatty diarrhea. Acute diarrheas are mostly caused by an infectious agent (viruses, bacteria and parasites), whereas the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea is considerably larger and therefore the diagnostic work-up is more complex.

  17. PREVALÊNCIA DE LEUCOSE ENZOÓTICA BOVINA, DIARRÉIA VIRAL BOVINA RINOTRAQUEÍTE INFECCIOSA BOVINA E NEOSPOROSE BOVINA EM 26 PROPRIEDADES LEITEIRAS DA REGIÃO NORDESTE DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL PREVALENCE OF ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS AND BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN 26 DAIRY CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL , BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Fiori

    2008-12-01

    .936 and sex (p = 0.562. Of the 360 sheep samples, nine (2.5% were reactive. There also was no significant association between the analyzed variables and the seropositiveness for brucellosis: age group (p = 0.522; race (p = 0.576 and sex (p = 0.461. Significant association was observed (p = 0.042 among the studied species and seropositiveness for brucellosis in the investigated animals. The seropositiveness for Brucella abortus in goats and sheep was traced for the first time in the “Sertão” (dry interior region, backlands of Pernambuco, fact that can hinder the success of the National Program of Control and Erradication of Brucellosis, due to the fact that it is common to raise small ruminants with bovines in this area, besides representing risks to Public Health.
     
    KEY WORDS: Brucellosis, ovines, caprines, small ruminants, serodiagnosis.

  18. Application of qPCR assays for diagnosing causes of viral mink diarrhea. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik

    to diarrhea in mink. Rotavirus is poorly described in mink, but has previously been demonstrated in feces from mink pups with and without clinical signs (Jorgensen et al. 1996). The pathogenicity of these viruses could be related to viral load, virulence and the age of the mink. Therefore, there is a need...

  19. Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by replacing lost fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration. Depending on the cause of the problem, you may need medicines to stop the diarrhea or treat an infection. Adults with diarrhea should drink water, fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas without caffeine, and salty ...

  20. Anti-viral effect of herbal medicine Korean traditional Cynanchum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pestiviruses in general, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in particular, present several potential targets for directed antiviral therapy. Material and Methods: The antiviral effect of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag (Dog strangling vine: DS) extract on the bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus was tested. First ...

  1. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V

    2000-07-01

    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote.

  2. Survivability of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in bovine plasma submitted to spray drying processing and held at different time by temperature storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, Joan; Segalés, Joaquim

    2014-12-05

    Bovine plasma was inoculated with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) at an average final titer of 4.2 log10 TCID50/mL to determine the effect of spray drying on viral inactivation. Using a laboratory scale drier, inoculated plasma was spray dried at 200 °C inlet temperature and either 70 or 80 °C throughout substance. Both liquid and dried samples were subjected to three passages on VERO cell monolayers to determine PEDV infectivity. Results indicated liquid samples contained infective virus, but none of the spray dried samples were infectious. Also, survivability of PEDV inoculated on spray dried bovine plasma (SDBP) and stored at 4, 12 or 22 °C was determined for 7, 14 and 21 days. Commercial SDBP powder was inoculated with PEDV to an average final titer of 2.8 log10 TCID50/g. Five samples per time and temperature conditions were subjected to three passages on VERO cell monolayers to determine PEDV infectivity. The virus was non-infectious for all samples stored at 22 °C at 7, 14 and 21 days. PEDV was infective in 1 out of 5 samples stored at 12 °C at 7 days, but none of the samples stored for 14 and 21 days were infectious in cell culture. For samples stored at 4 °C, 4 out of 5 samples were infectious at 7 days, 1 out of 5 samples were infectious at 14 days, but none were infectious at 21 days. In summary, PEDV was not infectious on cell culture within 7 days when stored at room temperature and within 21 days when stored at refrigerated temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Characterisation of viral agents with potential to cause diarrhea in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, J; Kohli, E; Leveque, N; Chomel, J J; Nicand, E; Fouet, C; Haus, R; Depina, J J; Mathecowitsch, P; Dampierre, H

    2007-06-01

    Due to limited laboratory facilities in the tropics, the exact role of enteric viruses in causing diarrhea among adults in the tropics is unknown. The purpose of this report is to describe a multicenter study undertaken in Djibouti to determine the prevalence of a large panel of enteric viruses using immunochromatography; antigenic detection by ELISA, RT-PCR cellular inoculation, sequence analysis; and indirect serology. Study samples were collected from 108 patients presenting acute and sporadic diarrhea. Although they are well known causes of diarrhea in children, rotavirus and adenovirus were identified in only 2 and 5% of adults respectively. In contrast human caliciviruses (HuCVs) and enterovirus were identified in 25 and 42% of adult cases respectively. Uncommon genotypes of HuCVs and recombinant forms (junction pol/l cap) as well as a significant number of sapovirus (30%) were identified. Further study is needed to clarify the role of enterovirus (echovirus) in the etiology of acute diarrhea in adults. No polivirus was identified. These new data from the Horn of Africa increase our knowledge about the epidemiology of acute infectious diarrhea that is a major public health problem and potential danger for travelers.

  4. Rekombinante bovin-humane Parainfluenzaviren Typ 3 als Impfvektoren gegen nicht-virale Antigene

    OpenAIRE

    Schomacker, Henrick

    2008-01-01

    Bei bhPIV3 handelt es sich um ein bovines Parainfluenzavirus Typ 3 (bPIV3), dessen Ober-flächenproteingene gegen jene des humanen Parainfluenzavirus Typ 3 (hPIV3) ausgetauscht wurden. Dieses ursprünglich als experimenteller Impfstoff gegen hPIV3 entwickelte Virus wurde darüber hinaus als Impfvektor zur Expression anderer viraler Antigene verwendet. Im Rahmen der hier vorgestellten Arbeit wurden die ersten bhPIV3-basierten Vektoren für nicht-virale Antigene hergestellt und in einem ersten Vers...

  5. First Results in the Use of Bovine Ear Notch Tag for Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Detection and Genetic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Quinet

    Full Text Available Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth. An antigen-capture ELISA test based on the detection of BVDV Erns protein is used. Ear notch sample may also be used to characterize the genotype of the calf when appropriate elution/dilution buffer is added. Both BVDV antigen-ELISA analysis and animal traceability could be performed.With regards to the reference protocol used in the preparation of ear notch samples, alternative procedures were tested in terms of BVDV analytic sensitivity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, as well as quality and purity of animal DNA.The Allflex DNA Buffer D showed promising results in BVDV diagnosis and genome analyses, opening new perspectives for the livestock industry by the exploitation of the animal genome. Due to the high number of cattle involved in the Belgian official BVDV eradication programme based on ear notch tags sample, a large database on both BVDV status of newborn calves and cattle genome could be created for subsequent different uses (e.g. traceability, determination of parentage, genetic signatures throughout the genome associated with particular traits evolving through a more integrated animal health.

  6. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  7. A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Additional Benefit of a Multistrain Synbiotic (Prodefen® in the Clinical Management of Acute Viral Diarrhea in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia García-Menor MD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This randomized, open-label study evaluated the additional benefits of the synbiotic Prodefen® in the clinical management of acute diarrhea of suspected viral origin in children between 6 months and 12 years of age. Study outcomes included the duration of diarrhea, the recovery from diarrhea, and the tolerability and acceptance of the treatment. The proportion of patients without diarrhea over the study period was greater in the synbiotic group than in the control group at all study time points, showing a statistically significant difference on the fifth day (95% vs 79%, p < 0.001. The duration of diarrhea (median and interquartile range was reduced by 1 day in the synbiotic-treated patients (3 [2-5] vs 4 [3-5], p = 0.377. The tolerability of the treatment regimen, as evaluated by the parents, was significantly better in those receiving the synbiotic than in the control group. Overall, 96% of the parents of children receiving the synbiotic reported being satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment regimen. The results of this study indicate that the addition of the synbiotic Prodefen® is a well-tolerated and well-accepted approach that provides an additional benefit to the standard supportive therapy in the management of acute viral diarrhea in children.

  8. Absolute quantification of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) RNA by the digital PCR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatschart, R. B.; Almeida, D. O.; Heinemann, M. B.; Medeiros, M. N.; Granjeiro, J. M.; Folgueras-Flatschart, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The quality control of cell lines used in research and industry is critical to ensure confidence in experimental results and to guarantee the safety of biopharmaceuticals to consumers. The BVDV is a common adventitious agent in many cell lines. We preliminarly evaluate the use of Digital Droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the detection and enumeration of genome copies of BVDV in cell culture and on FBS. The application of a commercial Real-Time PCR kit with the ddPCR technique was successful on different matrices. The technique allowed the absolute quantification of the genome without the use of calibration standards, suggesting its promising application on the development of reference materials for quantification of nucleic acids.

  9. Steps can be taken to keep bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) out of your herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a review, written for a lay publication whose core audience in dairy producers. Control of BVD in any dairy operation must rely on the implementation of an organized strategy combining biosecurity, surveillance and increased herd resistance. This article discusses the design and implementati...

  10. Quantitative assessment of the risk of introduction of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Boklund, Anette; Stockmarr, Anders

    2014-01-01

    trees were made to evaluate the importance of the various BVDV introductionroutes. With the current surveillance system, the risk of BVDV introduction was estimatedto one or more introductions within a median of nine years (3–59). However, if all importedanimals were tested and hoof trimmers always...... disinfected the tools used abroad, the riskcould be reduced to one or more introductions within 33 years (8–200). Results of thisstudy can be used to improve measures of BVD surveillance and prophylaxis in Danishdairy herds....

  11. Using Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) As Surrogate for Human Hepatitis C Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This test is designed to validate virucidal effectiveness claims for a product to be registered as a virucide. It determines the potential of the test agent to disinfect hard surfaces contaminated with human Hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  12. Optimization of surveillance opf Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro

    dairy herds (e.g. after import of infected cattle) could be more difficult to detect compared to the past, due to the lower prevalence of antibody positive milking cows and the (expected) higher dilution of antibodies in bigger milk containers. Therefore, an evaluation and an eventual optimization...... ELISA (Rønsholt et al., 1997; Bitsch et al., 1997) and the SVANOVIR ELISA (Juntti at al., 1987; Niskanen, 1993) were compared on milk and serum samples. The prevalence of antibody positive milking cows, which can be detected by each of those tests, was estimated by diluting positive individual milk...... ELISA could detect a lower prevalence of antibody positive cows compared to the Danish blocking ELISA (0.78% vs. 50%). Hence, the former could detect newly infected herds shortly after infection when only few milking cows have seroconverted in the herd. In blood, the two tests performed similarly. Thus...

  13. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus 3C-Like Protease-Mediated Nucleocapsid Processing: Possible Link to Viral Cell Culture Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaru-Ampornpan, Peera; Jengarn, Juggragarn; Wanitchang, Asawin; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2017-01-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe diarrhea and high mortality rates in newborn piglets, leading to massive losses to the swine industry worldwide during recent epidemics. Intense research efforts are now focusing on defining viral characteristics that confer a growth advantage, pathogenicity, or cell adaptability in order to better understand the PEDV life cycle and identify suitable targets for antiviral or vaccine development. Here, we report a unique phenomenon of PEDV nucleocapsid (N) cleavage by the PEDV-encoded 3C-like protease (3Cpro) during infection. The identification of the 3Cpro cleavage site at the C terminus of N supported previous observations that PEDV 3Cpro showed a substrate requirement slightly different from that of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3Cpro and revealed a greater flexibility in its substrate recognition site. This cleavage motif is present in the majority of cell culture-adapted PEDV strains but is missing in emerging field isolates. Remarkably, reverse-genetics-derived cell culture-adapted PEDV AVCT12 harboring uncleavable N displayed growth retardation in Vero E6-APN cells compared to the wild-type virus. These observations altogether shed new light on the investigation and characterization of the PEDV nucleocapsid protein and its possible link to cell culture adaptation. Recurrent PEDV outbreaks have resulted in enormous economic losses to swine industries worldwide. To gain the upper hand in combating this disease, it is necessary to understand how this virus replicates and evades host immunity. Characterization of viral proteins provides important clues to mechanisms by which viruses survive and spread. Here, we characterized an intriguing phenomenon in which the nucleocapsids of some PEDV strains are proteolytically processed by the virally encoded main protease. Growth retardation in recombinant PEDV carrying uncleavable N suggests a replication advantage provided by the cleavage

  14. Genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV) in Denmark during a 10-year eradication period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Stadejek, T.; Nylin, B.

    2005-01-01

    A 243 base-pair fragment of the 5'- untranslated region (5'-UTR) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was RT-PCR amplified from tissue samples (after one passage) or from plasma collected from Danish cattle in 1962 (1), 1993 (7), or in 2002-03 (28) when BVD was almost extinct as a result of a 6...... subtype, the samples collected in 2002-2003 belonged to Id (22 samples), 1b (5 samples) and le (I sample) subtypes. In five herds, materials from two animals were obtained for PCR analysis. In four of five herds the sequences of the two viruses were identical, but in one herd the obtained sequences...

  15. Vertical transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus) and spread to domestic cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Høyer, M.J.; Grøndahl, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) 1f from a persistently infected (PI) lesser Malayan mousedeer to two bovine calves. Different contact routes to two calves were analysed: 1) aerosol contact between two adjacent pens without physical contact; 2) indir...... mousedeer BVD virus in the E2 region (420 nucleotides) through 4 generations showed only 7 mutations, which were maintained from mother to offspring....

  16. Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, V; Nebel, L; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Zanoni, R G; Schweizer, M

    2017-01-13

    In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection. In this work the cross-serum neutralisation test (SNT) procedure was adapted to the epidemiological situation in Switzerland by the use of three pestiviruses, i.e., strains representing the subgenotype BVDV-1a, BVDV-1h and BDSwiss-a, for adequate differentiation between BVDV and BDV. Thereby the BDV-seroprevalence in seropositive cattle in Switzerland was determined for the first time. Out of 1,555 seropositive blood samples taken from cattle in the frame of the surveillance program, a total of 104 samples (6.7%) reacted with significantly higher titers against BDV than BVDV. These samples originated from 65 farms and encompassed 15 different cantons with the highest BDV-seroprevalence found in Central Switzerland. On the base of epidemiological information collected by questionnaire in case- and control farms, common housing of cattle and sheep was identified as the most significant risk factor for BDV infection in cattle by logistic regression. This indicates that pestiviruses from sheep should be considered as a source of infection of domestic cattle and might well impede serological BVD surveillance.

  17. HoBi-like viruses – the typical 'atypical bovine pestivirus'

    Science.gov (United States)

    HoBi-like viruses, also referred to as bovine viral diarrhea virus 3 (BVDV-3) and atypical pestivirus, have been proposed as a new putative bovine pestivirus species. These viruses were first identified in the last decade and are currently distributed in at least three continents. Published findings...

  18. Viral diarrhea in Japanese children: results from a one-year epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Gia; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Kuroiwa, Toshimasa; Kaneshi, Kunio; Ueda, Yuichi; Nakaya, Shigekazu; Nishimura, Shuichi; Nishimura, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Atsuko; Okitsu, Shoko; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    A total of 557 fecal specimens from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in five places (Maizuru, Tokyo, Sapporo, Saga and Osaka) in Japan from July 2002 to June 2003 were tested for the presence of diarrheal viruses by RT-PCR, PRHA, RNA-PAGE and latex agglutination methods. Of these, 56.4% (314) were found positive for diarrheal viruses. Among them, group A rotavirus was the most prevalent (43.6%, 137 of 314) followed by norovirus (29.9%, 94 of 314), adenovirus (7.6%, 24 of 314), group C rotavirus (6.4%, 20 of 314), sapovirus (5.1%, 16 of 314) and astrovirus (1.6%, 5 of 314), respectively. A high rate (7.4%, 19 of 314) of viral mixed infections, including one triple infection (adenovirus, norovirus and astrovirus) was demonstrated. Norovirus infection that usually has a peak during November and January in Japan was detected year-round and highest in September in our study. Norovirus was subjected to molecular genetic analysis by sequencing. The results clearly indicated that norovirus group II was a dominant genogroup (94.3%, 100 of 106). It is noteworthy that noroviruses detected in this study were classified into 8 genotypes (GI/1, GI/4, GII/2, GII/3, GII/4, GII/5, GII/6 and GII/12). Of these, NVGII/4 was the predominant genotype, followed by NVGII/6, and these presented 75.6% (80 of 106) and 11.3% (12 of 106), respectively. Another interesting feature in our study was the sudden appearance and disappearance of SaitamaU16-like strains belonging to NVGII/6 in the short period (January 2003 to June 2003). Our findings confirmed the presence of many diarrheal viruses co-circulating among Japanese infants and children and showed the great genetic diversity among norovirus.

  19. Analysis of Pan-European attitudes to the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, C; Misturelli, F; Nielsen, L; Gunn, G J; Yu, J

    2009-02-07

    At present, national-level policies concerning the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) differ widely across Europe. Some Scandinavian countries have enacted strong regulatory frameworks to eradicate the disease, whereas other countries have few formal policies. To examine these differences, the attitudes of stakeholders and policy makers in 17 European countries were investigated. A web-based questionnaire was sent to policy makers, government and private sector veterinarians, and representatives of farmers' organisations. In total, 131 individuals responded to the questionnaire and their responses were analysed by applying a method used in sociolinguistics: frame analysis. The results showed that the different attitudes of countries that applied compulsory or voluntary frameworks were associated with different views about the attribution or blame for BVD and the roles ascribed to farmers and other stakeholders in its eradication and control.

  20. The role of viral population diversity in adaptation of bovine coronavirus to new host environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica K Borucki

    Full Text Available The high mutation rate of RNA viruses enables a diverse genetic population of viral genotypes to exist within a single infected host. In-host genetic diversity could better position the virus population to respond and adapt to a diverse array of selective pressures such as host-switching events. Multiple new coronaviruses, including SARS, have been identified in human samples just within the last ten years, demonstrating the potential of coronaviruses as emergent human pathogens. Deep sequencing was used to characterize genomic changes in coronavirus quasispecies during simulated host-switching. Three bovine nasal samples infected with bovine coronavirus were used to infect human and bovine macrophage and lung cell lines. The virus reproduced relatively well in macrophages, but the lung cell lines were not infected efficiently enough to allow passage of non lab-adapted samples. Approximately 12 kb of the genome was amplified before and after passage and sequenced at average coverages of nearly 950×(454 sequencing and 38,000×(Illumina. The consensus sequence of many of the passaged samples had a 12 nucleotide insert in the consensus sequence of the spike gene, and multiple point mutations were associated with the presence of the insert. Deep sequencing revealed that the insert was present but very rare in the unpassaged samples and could quickly shift to dominate the population when placed in a different environment. The insert coded for three arginine residues, occurred in a region associated with fusion entry into host cells, and may allow infection of new cell types via heparin sulfate binding. Analysis of the deep sequencing data indicated that two distinct genotypes circulated at different frequency levels in each sample, and support the hypothesis that the mutations present in passaged strains were "selected" from a pre-existing pool rather than through de novo mutation and subsequent population fixation.

  1. In Vivo Characterisation of Five Strains of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus 1 (Subgenotype 1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Ambrose

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1 is strongly associated with several important diseases of cattle, such as bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and haemoragic lesions. To date many subgenotypes have been reported for BVDV-1, currently ranging from subgenotype 1a to subgenotype 1u. While BVDV-1 has a world-wide distribution, the subgenotypes have a more restricted geographical distribution. As an example, BVDV-1 subgenotypes 1a and 1b are frequently detected in North America and Europe, while the subgenotype 1c is rarely detected. In contrast, BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c is by far the most commonly reported in Australia. Despite this, uneven distribution of the biological importance of the subgenotypes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterise the in vivo properties of five strains of BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c in cattle infection studies. No overt respiratory signs were reported in any of the infected cattle regardless of strain. Consistent with other subgenotypes, transient pyrexia and leukopenia were commonly identified, while thrombocytopenia was not. The quantity of virus detected in the nasal secretions of transiently infected animals suggested the likelihood of horizontal transmission was very low. Further studies are required to fully understand the variability and importance of the BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c.

  2. Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oma, Veslemøy Sunniva; Tråvén, Madeleine; Alenius, Stefan; Myrmel, Mette; Stokstad, Maria

    2016-06-13

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Prevention of virus spread is impeded by a lack of basic knowledge concerning viral shedding and transmission potential in individual animals. The aims of the study were to investigate the duration and quantity of BCoV shedding in feces and nasal secretions related to clinical signs, the presence of virus in blood and tissues and to test the hypothesis that seropositive calves are not infectious to naïve in-contact calves three weeks after BCoV infection. A live animal experiment was conducted, with direct contact between animal groups for 24 h as challenge procedure. Four naïve calves were commingled with a group of six naturally infected calves and sequentially euthanized. Two naïve sentinel calves were commingled with the experimentally exposed group three weeks after exposure. Nasal swabs, feces, blood and tissue samples were analyzed for viral RNA by RT-qPCR, and virus isolation was performed on nasal swabs. Serum was analyzed for BCoV antibodies. The calves showed mild general signs, and the most prominent signs were from the respiratory system. The overall clinical score corresponded well with the shedding of viral RNA the first three weeks after challenge. General depression and cough were the signs that correlated best with shedding of BCoV RNA, while peak respiratory rate and peak rectal temperature appeared more than a week later than the peak shedding. Nasal shedding preceded fecal shedding, and the calves had detectable amounts of viral RNA intermittently in feces through day 35 and in nasal secretions through day 28, however virus isolation was unsuccessful from day six and day 18 from the two calves investigated. Viral RNA was not detected in blood, but was found in lymphatic tissue through day 42 after challenge. Although the calves were shedding BCoV RNA 21 days after infection the sentinel animals were not infected

  3. B23/nucleophosmin interacts with bovine immunodeficiency virus Rev protein and facilitates viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Marchand, Claude; Archambault, Denis

    2018-02-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Rev shuttling protein contains nuclear/nucleolar localization signals and nuclear import/export mechanisms that are novel among lentivirus Rev proteins. Several viral proteins localize to the nucleolus, which may play a role in processes that are essential to the outcome of viral replication. Although BIV Rev localizes to the nucleoli of transfected/infected cells and colocalizes with one of its major proteins, nucleophosmin (NPM1, also known as B23), the role of the nucleolus and B23 in BIV replication remains to be determined. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that BIV Rev interacts with nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 in cells. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology, we show that depletion of B23 expression inhibits virus production by BIV-infected cells, indicating that B23 plays an important role in BIV replication. The interaction between Rev and B23 may represent a potential new target for the development of antiviral drugs against lentiviruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of thymus-associated lymphoid depletion in bovine calves acutely or persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 or HoBi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Shollie M; Bauermann, Fernando V; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-11-01

    Naïve pregnant cattle exposed to pestiviruses between 40-125 days of gestation can give birth to persistently infected (PI) calves. Clinical presentation and survivability, in PI cattle, is highly variable even with the same pestivirus strain whereas the clinical presentation in acute infections is more uniform with severity of symptoms being primarily a function of virulence of the infecting virus. The aim of this study was to compare thymic depletion, as measured by comparing the area of the thymic cortex to the medulla (corticomedullary ratio), in acute and persistent infections of the same pestivirus isolate. The same general trends were observed with each pestivirus isolate. Thymic depletion was observed in both acutely and persistently infected calves. The average thymic depletion observed in acutely infected calves was greater than that in age matched PI calves. PI calves, regardless of infecting virus, revealed a greater variability in amount of depletion compared to acutely infected calves. A trend was observed between survivability and depletion of the thymus, with PI calves surviving less than 5 weeks having lower corticomedullary ratios and greater depletion. This is the first study to compare PI and acutely infected calves with the same isolates as well as to evaluate PI calves based on survivability. Further, this study identified a quantifiable phenotype associated with potential survivability.

  5. Distribution of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antigen in persistently infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passler, T; Walz, H L; Ditchkoff, S S; van Santen, E; Brock, K V; Walz, P H

    2012-11-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), analogous to that occurring in cattle, is reported rarely in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This study evaluated the distribution of BVDV antigen in persistently infected (PI) white-tailed deer and compared the findings with those from PI cattle. Six PI fawns (four live-born and two stillborn) from does exposed experimentally to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 were evaluated. Distribution and intensity of antigen expression in tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed in binary fashion with a proportional odds model. Viral antigen was distributed widely and was present in all 11 organ systems. Hepatobiliary, integumentary and reproductive systems were respectively 11.8, 15.4 and 21.6 times more likely to have higher antigen scores than the musculoskeletal system. Pronounced labelling occurred in epithelial tissues, which were 1.9-3.0 times likelier than other tissues to contain BVDV antigen. Antigen was present in >90% of samples of liver and skin, suggesting that skin biopsy samples are appropriate for BVDV diagnosis. Moderate to severe lymphoid depletion was detected and may hamper reliable detection of BVDV in lymphoid organs. Muscle tissue contained little antigen, except for in the cardiovascular system. Antigen was present infrequently in connective tissues. In nervous tissues, antigen expression frequency was 0.3-0.67. In the central nervous system (CNS), antigen was present in neurons and non-neuronal cells, including microglia, emphasizing that the CNS is a primary target for fetal BVDV infection. BVDV antigen distribution in PI white-tailed deer is similar to that in PI cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of Bovine Adenovirus-3 33K protein in viral replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshreshtha, Vikas; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Tikoo, Suresh K.

    2004-01-01

    The L6 region of bovine adenovirus type (BAdV)-3 encodes a nonstructural protein named 33K. To identify and characterize the 33K protein, rabbit polyclonal antiserum was raised against a 33K-GST fusion protein expressed in bacteria. Anti-33K serum immunoprecipitated a protein of 42 kDa in in vitro translated and transcribed mRNA of 33K. However, three proteins of 42, 38, and 33 kDa were detected in BAdV-3 infected cells. To determine the role of this protein in virus replication, a recombinant BAV-33S1 containing insertional inactivation of 33K (a stop codon created at the seventh amino acid of 33K ORF) was constructed. Although BAV-33S1 could be isolated, the mutant showed a severe defect in the production of progeny virus. Inactivation of the 33K gene showed no effect on early and late viral gene expression in cells infected with BAV-33S1. However, formation of mature virions was significantly reduced in cells infected with BAV-33S1. Surprisingly, insertional inactivation of 33K at amino acid 97 (pFBAV-33.KS2) proved lethal for virus production. Although expression of early or late genes was not affected, no capsid formation could be observed in mutant DNA-transfected cells. These results suggest that 33K is required for capsid assembly and efficient DNA capsid interaction

  7. Engaging veterinarians and farmers in eradicating bovine viral diarrhoea: a systematic review of economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnall, Matt J; Thrusfield, Michael V

    2017-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a significant drain on efficient and successful cattle production in both dairy and beef systems around the world. Several countries have achieved eradication of this disease, but always through the motivation of stakeholders who accept the benefits of eradication. These include increased cattle welfare and fitness of cattle to withstand other diseases, and decreased costs of production, the latter resulting from both decreased costs spent on managing the disease and decreased losses. This paper provides a systematic review of 31 papers, published between 1991 and 2015, that address the economic impact of BVD. Each paper takes a different approach, in either beef or dairy production or both. However with the breadth of work collated, a stakeholder engaged in BVD eradication should find an economic figure of most relevance to them. The reported economic impact ranges from £0 to £552 per cow per year (£2370 including outliers). This range represents endemic or subclinical disease situations seen in herds with stable BVD virus infection, and epidemic or severe acute situations, most often seen in naïve herds. The outcome of infection is therefore dependent on the immune status of the animal and severity of the strain. The variations in figures for the economic impact of BVD relate to these immune and pathogenicity factors, along with the variety of impacts monitored. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Morphological changes in cultured bovine lymphoid cell lines associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) single and dual infections with bovine leukemia virus (BLV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) makes available two cell lines derived from the same lymphoblast-like suspension cell that have been confirmed by next-generation sequencing and RT-PCR to have either a single contaminate of BVDV2a (CRL-8037) or dual contaminates of both BVDV and BL...

  9. Repertoire of bovine miRNA and miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs expressed upon viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A Glazov

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA and other types of small regulatory RNAs play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Several distinct classes of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered in recent years. To extend the repertoire of small RNAs characterized in mammals and to examine relationship between host miRNA expression and viral infection we used Illumina's ultrahigh throughput sequencing approach. We sequenced three small RNA libraries prepared from cell line derived from the adult bovine kidney under normal conditions and upon infection of the cell line with Bovine herpesvirus 1. We used a bioinformatics approach to distinguish authentic mature miRNA sequences from other classes of small RNAs and short RNA fragments represented in the sequencing data. Using this approach we detected 219 out of 356 known bovine miRNAs and 115 respective miRNA* sequences. In addition we identified five new bovine orthologs of known mammalian miRNAs and discovered 268 new cow miRNAs many of which are not identifiable in other mammalian genomes and thus might be specific to the ruminant lineage. In addition we found seven new bovine mirtron candidates. We also discovered 10 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA loci that give rise to small RNA with possible miRNA-like function. Results presented in this study extend our knowledge of the biology and evolution of small regulatory RNAs in mammals and illuminate mechanisms of small RNA biogenesis and function. New miRNA sequences and the original sequencing data have been submitted to miRNA repository (miRBase and NCBI GEO archive respectively. We envisage that these resources will facilitate functional annotation of the bovine genome and promote further functional and comparative genomics studies of small regulatory RNA in mammals.

  10. Quantifying the risk of spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) between contiguous herds in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D A; Clegg, T A; Thulke, H-H; O'Sullivan, P; McGrath, G; More, S J

    2016-04-01

    The control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) mainly focuses on the identification and restriction of persistently infected (PI) animals. However, other transmission pathways can also result in new breakdowns, including the movement of animals pregnant with PI calves (Trojan animals) and the spread of infection between contiguous farms. Contiguous spread is likely an important problem in the BVD eradication programme in Ireland, given the spatial distribution of residual infection, and the highly fragmented nature of land holdings on many Irish farms. In this study, we seek to quantify the risk of BVD spread between contiguous herds in Ireland. Multivariable logistic models were used to estimate the risk of a herd having BVD positive calves in January to June 2014 (the study period) when contiguous to a herd that had at least one BVD positive calf born in 2013. The models included risk factors relating to the study herd and to neighbouring herds. Separate multivariable models were built for each of four "PI-neighbour" factors relating to the presence of BVD+ animals and/or the presence of offspring of PI breeding animals. In total, 58,483 study herds were enrolled. The final model contained the province, the log of the number of calf births born during the study period, the number of cattle purchased between January 2013 and January 2014, and with a two-way interaction between the number of animals of unknown BVD status in the study herd and the PI-neighbour risk factor. When the number of PI-neighbour herds was used as the PI-neighbour risk factor, the odds ratio (OR) associated with the number of PI-neighbour herds ranged from 1.07 to 3.02, depending on the number of unknown animals present. To further explore the risk associated with PI-neighbour factors, the models were repeated using a subset of the study herds (n=7440) that contained no animals of unknown status. The best fitting model including "any PI-neighbour" as the PI-neighbour factor and also

  11. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  12. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-05-15

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.

  13. Evaluation of temporal surveillance system sensitivity and freedom from bovine viral diarrhea in Danish dairy herds using scenario tree modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Stockmarr, Anders; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    SSe. For that purpose we considered: the risk of BVD introduction into the dairy population, the ELISA used and the high risk period (HRP) from BVD introduction to testing (at 90 or 365 days). The effect of introducing one persistently infected (PI) calf or one transiently infected (TI) milking cow into 1 (or 8) dairy...

  14. Antigenic differences between bovine viral diarrhea viruses and HoBi virus: Possible impacts on diagnosis and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare antigenic differences between HoBi virus and BVDV strains that might impact on diagnostics and control. Eighteen non-cytopathic isolates of pestiviruses including the 5 genotypic groups (BVDV1a-c, BVDV2, BDV) and HoBi virus, were tested using antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...

  15. Genetic diversity of Brazilian bovine pestiviruses detected between 1995 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestivirus infections in ruminants result in significant economic losses worldwide. The etiological agents are three species from the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, including Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, Border Disease Virus (BDV), and an atypical pestivirus named HoB...

  16. [Use of polymeric suspensions as a viral sorbent to detect cattle serum antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanishevskiĭ, Ia M; Lobova, T P; Gritskova, I A; Belousova, R V; Prokopov, N I; Tret'iakova, I V; Tkalia, E E

    2006-01-01

    The paper shows it possible to use stained polymeric microspheres, 1.7 microm in diameter, that contain viruses onto the surface, in the latex agglutination test to detect antibodies to the bovine serum viruses of infective rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, viral diarrhea, respiratory syncytial infection, and adenoviral infection.

  17. Sorting out pestiviral phylogeny: A tale of viral swarms, red herrings, and sons of Bs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initially three species, border disease virus (BDV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV), were recognized in the pestivirus genus. These three species were defined by their host of origin, and to a lesser extent by clinical presentation. Subsequently, attempts ...

  18. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle.

  19. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China.

  20. Challenges for bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibody detection in bulk milk by antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays due to changes in milk production levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Stockmarr, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is considered eradicated from Denmark. Currently, very few (if any) Danish cattle herds could be infected with BVD virus (BVDV). The Danish antibody blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been successfully used during the Danish BVD eradica...

  1. Expression, purification and crystallization of the ectodomain of the envelope glycoprotein E2 from Bovine viral diarrhoea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iourin, Oleg; Harlos, Karl; El Omari, Kamel; Lu, Weixian; Kadlec, Jan; Iqbal, Munir; Meier, Christoph; Palmer, Andrew; Jones, Ian; Thomas, Carole; Brownlie, Joe; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Stuart, David I.

    2012-01-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the ectodomain of BVDV E2 are described. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important animal pathogen which is closely related to Hepatitis C virus. Of the structural proteins, the envelope glycoprotein E2 of BVDV is the major antigen which induces neutralizing antibodies; thus, BVDV E2 is considered as an ideal target for use in subunit vaccines. Here, the expression, purification of wild-type and mutant forms of the ectodomain of BVDV E2 and subsequent crystallization and data collection of two crystal forms grown at low and neutral pH are reported. Native and multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) data sets have been collected and structure determination is in progress

  2. A survey of free-ranging deer in Ireland for serological evidence of exposure to bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine herpes virus-1, bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David A; Gallagher, Clare; Carden, Ruth F; Lozano, Jose-Maria; Moriarty, John; O'Neill, Ronan

    2017-01-01

    Deer are an important wildlife species in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland having colonised most regions across the island of Ireland. In comparison to cattle and sheep which represent the main farmed ruminant species on the island, there is a lack of data concerning their exposure, as measured by the presence of antibodies, to important viral pathogens of ruminants. A study was therefore undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of wild deer to four viruses, namely bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and bluetongue virus (BTV). Two panels of sera were assembled; Panel 1 comprised 259 samples (202 collected in the Republic of Ireland and 57 in Northern Ireland) between 2013 and 2015, while Panel 2 comprised 131 samples collected in the Republic of Ireland between 2014 and 2015. Overall sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) were sampled most commonly (54.8%), followed by fallow deer ( Dama dama ) (35.3%), with red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) (4.3%) and hybrid species (0.3%) sampled less frequently, with the species not being recorded for the remaining 5.3% of deer sampled. Age was not recorded for 96 of the 390 deer sampled. 196 of the remainder were adults, while 68 and 30 were yearlings and calves, respectively. Using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, true prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated as 9.9%, (6.8-13.0% CI), SBV; 1.5% (0.1-3.0% CI), BoHV-1; 0.0%, 0-1.7% CI), BVDV; and 0.0%, (0.01-0.10% CI), BTV. The results indicate a very low seroprevalence for both BVDV and BoHV-1 in the wild deer tested within the study and, are consistent with a very low prevalence in Ireland. While serological cross-reaction with cervid herpesviruses cannot be excluded, the results in both cases suggest that the presence of these viruses in deer is not a significant risk to their control and eradication from the cattle population. This is important given the ongoing programme

  3. Survey of farmer knowledge and attitudes to endemic disease management in South Australia, with a focus on bovine viral diarrhoea (bovine pestivirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, S R; Anderson, M L; Reichel, M P

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to establish the attitudes of South Australian cattle farmers towards endemic animal disease prevention and control, with a particular focus on the awareness of and attitudes towards bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD). This cross-sectional postal survey involved mailing a questionnaire to all South Australian cattle owners with 35 or more head of cattle. Worms and lice were the most common animal disease concerns. Less than half of responding farmers were adequately vaccinating their herds against clostridial diseases, but 53.0% stated that they utilised quarantine procedures. Less than 20% of respondents had actively taken part in BVD educational opportunities, or had vaccinated or tested their herd for BVD; less than 20% of respondents were actively involved in any systematic control of Johne's disease. Overall, farmers' actual knowledge of BVD was lower than their perceived understanding, although their interest in BVD and its control was high. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination, quarantine and participation in systematic control schemes were used by a minority of respondents. The results suggest that respondents acknowledge BVD as an important and relevant disease, despite many believing it was not a problem in their herd. Interest in BVD appears to be high and it is likely that an education program would be well received. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. The diagnosis and prevalence of persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in South African feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Meiring

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection is an important viral infection affecting the cattle industry today. The prevalence of this infection in South African feedlots is unknown. Ear notch biopsies were collected from chronic poor doers and animals that appeared unthrifty upon entering feedlots, as well as animals entering the hospital pen with respiratory disease for the first time. A total of 1690 samples were collected: 1074 from the former category and 616 from the latter. A routine immunohistochemistry staining protocol showed that 49 animals tested positive, of which 43 (4% came from the feedlot entry group and six (1% from the hospitalised group. The prevalence of persistently infected cattle from this selected, nonrandom sample entering six large South African feedlots was found to be 2.9%, which is higher than the international rule of thumb that 0.5% of all cattle entering feedlots are persistently infected. There was no clear correlation between persistent infection and respiratory disease. Serum samples were also collected when possible and 10 positive cases were found. Results from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antigen and antibody performed on these sera correlated well with those from the immunohistochemistry staining method in six cases, but in four cases the animals tested falsely positive owing to nonspecific staining. Immunohistochemistry staining on ear notch biopsies is thus a reliable diagnostic method to identify persistently infected animals with BVDV, but the pathologist should be aware of nonspecific positive staining.

  5. The impact of albendazole treatment on the incidence of viral- and bacterial-induced diarrhea in school children in southern Vietnam: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jacqueline M; Hong, Chau Tran Thi; Trung, Nghia Ho Dang; Thi, Hoa Nhu; Minh, Chau Nguyen Ngoc; Thi, Thuy Vu; Hong, Dinh Thanh; Man, Dinh Nguyen Huy; Knowles, Sarah C L; Wolbers, Marcel; Hoang, Nhat Le Thanh; Thwaites, Guy; Graham, Andrea L; Baker, Stephen

    2016-06-06

    Anthelmintics are one of the more commonly available classes of drugs to treat infections by parasitic helminths (especially nematodes) in the human intestinal tract. As a result of their cost-effectiveness, mass school-based deworming programs are becoming routine practice in developing countries. However, experimental and clinical evidence suggests that anthelmintic treatments may increase susceptibility to other gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or protozoa. Hypothesizing that anthelmintics may increase diarrheal infections in treated children, we aim to evaluate the impact of anthelmintics on the incidence of diarrheal disease caused by viral and bacterial pathogens in school children in southern Vietnam. This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of albendazole treatment versus placebo on the incidence of viral- and bacterial-induced diarrhea in 350 helminth-infected and 350 helminth-uninfected Vietnamese school children aged 6-15 years. Four hundred milligrams of albendazole, or placebo treatment will be administered once every 3 months for 12 months. At the end of 12 months, all participants will receive albendazole treatment. The primary endpoint of this study is the incidence of diarrheal disease assessed by 12 months of weekly active and passive case surveillance. Secondary endpoints include the prevalence and intensities of helminth, viral, and bacterial infections, alterations in host immunity and the gut microbiota with helminth and pathogen clearance, changes in mean z scores of body weight indices over time, and the number and severity of adverse events. In order to reduce helminth burdens, anthelmintics are being routinely administered to children in developing countries. However, the effects of anthelmintic treatment on susceptibility to other diseases, including diarrheal pathogens, remain unknown. It is important to monitor for unintended consequences of drug treatments in

  6. Viral booster vaccines improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced protection against bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vordermeier, H Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Cockle, Paul J; McAulay, Martin; Rhodes, Shelley G; Thacker, Tyler; Gilbert, Sarah C; McShane, Helen; Hill, Adrian V S; Xing, Zhou; Hewinson, R Glyn

    2009-08-01

    Previous work with small-animal laboratory models of tuberculosis has shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to prime and modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (Ad85A) expressing the mycobacterial antigen Ag85A to boost may increase the protective efficacy of BCG. Here we report the first efficacy data on using these vaccines in cattle, a natural target species of tuberculous infection. Protection was determined by measuring development of disease as an end point after M. bovis challenge. Either Ad85A or MVA85A boosting resulted in protection superior to that given by BCG alone: boosting BCG with MVA85A or Ad85A induced significant reduction in pathology in four/eight parameters assessed, while BCG vaccination alone did so in only one parameter studied. Protection was particularly evident in the lungs of vaccinated animals (median lung scores for naïve and BCG-, BCG/MVA85A-, and BCG/Ad85A-vaccinated animals were 10.5, 5, 2.5, and 0, respectively). The bacterial loads in lymph node tissues were also reduced after viral boosting of BCG-vaccinated calves compared to those in BCG-only-vaccinated animals. Analysis of vaccine-induced immunity identified memory responses measured by cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assay as well as in vitro interleukin-17 production as predictors of vaccination success, as both responses, measured before challenge, correlated positively with the degree of protection. Therefore, this study provides evidence of improved protection against tuberculosis by viral booster vaccination in a natural target species and has prioritized potential correlates of vaccine efficacy for further evaluation. These findings also have implications for human tuberculosis vaccine development.

  7. Not all cows are epidemiologically equal: quantifying the risks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) transmission through cattle movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M Carolyn; Humphry, Roger W; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-10-17

    Many economically important cattle diseases spread between herds through livestock movements. Traditionally, most transmission models have assumed that all purchased cattle carry the same risk of generating outbreaks in the destination herd. Using data on bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Scotland as a case example, this study provides empirical and theoretical evidence that the risk of disease transmission varies substantially based on the animal and herd demographic characteristics at the time of purchase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that purchasing pregnant heifers and open cows sold with a calf at foot were associated with an increased risk of beef herds being seropositive for BVDV. Based on the results from a dynamic within-herd simulation model, these findings may be partly explained by the age-related probability of animals being persistently infected with BVDV as well as the herd demographic structure at the time of animal introductions. There was also evidence that an epidemiologically important network statistic, "betweenness centrality" (a measure frequently associated with the potential for herds to acquire and transmit disease), was significantly higher for herds that supplied these particular types of replacement beef cattle. The trends for dairy herds were not as clear, although there was some evidence that open heifers and open lactating cows were associated with an increased risk of BVDV. Overall, these findings have important implications for developing simulation models that more accurately reflect the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases.

  8. Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in specimens from cattle in South Africa and possible association with clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kabongo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312 collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n=37 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7 % cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15, followed by diarrhoea (5/15. Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs.

  9. Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros and eland (Taurotragus oryx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P. Scott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the subfamily Bovinae. Little is known about the seroprevalence of BVDV in southern Africa, especially the prevalence in wild ruminant populations such as kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros. A handful of random surveys suggested that seroprevalence ranged between 6% and 70% in southern African wild ruminants. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of BVDV amongst kudu and eland (Taurotragus oryx from Namibia and South Africa. A BVDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 50 serum samples from kudu and eland from South Africa and Namibia. The seroprevalence of BVDV in South African kudu was 71%, identical to that in Namibian kudu. The seroprevalence in Namibian eland was 40%. The kudu and cattle farming (free ranging regions in Namibia predominantly overlap in the central regions, ensuring ample opportunity for cross-species transmission of BVDV. It is therefore important to determine the true prevalence of BVDV in southern Africa in both domesticated and wild animals. In addition, a potential link between BVDV incidence and a devastating rabies epidemic in Namibian kudu was proposed and such a notion could be supported or discredited by comparative prevalence data.

  10. Treatment for bovine pathogenic diseases during the first year of life does not alter antral follicle counts in Angus heifers at a year of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that infections of the mammary gland or the uterus may stimulate immune responses that decrease the number of primordial follicles in the ovary in dairy cows. Beef heifers between 18 and 30 mo of age that were persistently infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) also had ...

  11. Secretory diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, L R

    1999-10-01

    Diarrhea, defined as loose stools, occurs when the intestine does not complete absorption of electrolytes and water from luminal contents. This can happen when a nonabsorbable, osmotically active substance is ingested ("osmotic diarrhea") or when electrolyte absorption is impaired ("secretory diarrhea"). Most cases of acute and chronic diarrhea are due to the latter mechanism. Secretory diarrhea can result from bacterial toxins, reduced absorptive surface area caused by disease or resection, luminal secretagogues (such as bile acids or laxatives), circulating secretagogues (such as various hormones, drugs, and poisons), and medical problems that compromise regulation of intestinal function. Evaluation of patients with secretory diarrhea must be tailored to find the likely causes of this problem. Specific and nonspecific treatment can be valuable.

  12. Diarrhea (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water contaminated with organisms like bacteria and parasites. Medications can also cause diarrhea, especially antibiotics, laxatives containing magnesium, and chemotherapy for cancer treatment.

  13. Engineered Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG expressing IgG-binding domains of protein G: Capture of hyperimmune bovine colostrum antibodies and protection against diarrhea in a mouse pup rotavirus infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydın, Gökçe; Zhang, Ran; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2014-01-16

    Rotavirus-induced diarrhea causes more than 500,000 deaths annually in the world, and although vaccines are being made available, new effective treatment strategies should still be considered. Purified antibodies derived from hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), from cows immunized with rotavirus, were previously used for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children. A combination of HBC antibodies and a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus (L. rhamnosus GG) was also found to be more effective than HBC alone in reducing diarrhea in a mouse model of rotavirus infection. In order to further improve this form of treatment, L. rhamnosus GG was engineered to display surface expressed IgG-binding domains of protein G (GB1, GB2, and GB3) which capture HBC-derived IgG antibodies (HBC-IgG) and thus target rotavirus. The expression of IgG-binding domains on the surface of the bacteria as well as their binding to HBC-IgG and to rotavirus (simian strain RRV) was demonstrated by Western blot, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy. The prophylactic effect of engineered L. rhamnosus GG and anti-rotaviral activity of HBC antibodies was evaluated in a mouse pup model of RRV infection. The combination therapy with engineered L. rhamnosus GG (PG3) and HBC was significantly more effective in reducing the prevalence, severity, and duration of diarrhea in comparison to HBC alone or a combination of wild-type L. rhamnosus GG and HBC. The new therapy reduces the effective dose of HBC between 10 to 100-fold and may thus decrease treatment costs. This antibody capturing platform, tested here for the first time in vivo, could potentially be used to target additional gastrointestinal pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus control strategies in dairy herds in Hokkaido, Japan, using stochastic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, S; Presi, P; Omori, R; Staerk, K; Schuppers, M; Isoda, N; Yoshikawa, Y; Umemura, T; Nakayama, H; Fujii, Y; Sakoda, Y

    2018-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in cattle can result in growth retardation, reduced milk production, reproductive disorders and death. Persistently infected animals are the primary source of infection. In Hokkaido, Japan, all cattle entering shared pastures in summer are vaccinated before movement for disease control. Additionally, these cattle may be tested for BVDV and culled if positive. However, the effectiveness of this control strategy aiming to reduce the number of BVDV-infected animals has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various test-and-cull and/or vaccination strategies on BVDV control in dairy farms in two districts of Hokkaido, Nemuro and Hiyama. A stochastic model was developed to compare the different control strategies over a 10-year period. The model was individual-based and simulated disease dynamics both within and between herds. Parameters included in the model were obtained from the literature, the Hokkaido government and the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Nine different scenarios were compared as follows: no control, test-and-cull strategies based on antigen testing of either calves or only cattle entering common pastures, vaccination of all adult cattle or only cattle entering shared pastures and combinations thereof. The results indicate that current strategies for BVDV control in Hokkaido slightly reduced the number of BVDV-infected animals; however, alternative strategies such as testing all calves and culling any positives or vaccinating all susceptible adult animals dramatically reduced those. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the comparison of the effectiveness between the current strategies in Hokkaido and the alternative strategies for BVDV control measures. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. AIDS-associated diarrhea and wasting in northeast Brazil is associated with subtherapeutic plasma levels of antiretroviral medications and with both bovine and human subtypes of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Brantley

    Full Text Available Advanced HIV infection is frequently complicated by diarrhea, disruption of bowel structure and function, and malnutrition. Resulting malabsorption of or pharmacokinetic changes in antiretroviral agents might lead to subtherapeutic drug dosing and treatment failure in individual patients, and could require dose adjustment and/or dietary supplements during periods of diarrheal illness. We determined the plasma levels of antiretroviral medications in patients that had already been started on medication by their physicians in an urban infectious diseases hospital in northeast Brazil. We also obtained blood samples from patients hospitalized for diarrhea or AIDS-associated wasting, and we found reduced stavudine and didanosine levels in comparison with outpatients without diarrhea or wasting who had been treated at the same hospital clinic. There was a predominance of the protozoal pathogens Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli, typical opportunistic pathogens of AIDS-infected humans, in the stool samples of inpatients with diarrhea. We conclude that severe diarrhea and wasting in this population is associated with both protozoal pathogens and subtherapeutic levels of antiretroviral medications.

  16. [Persistent diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  17. Comparison of the cross-antibody response induced in sheep by inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 and Hobi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Colao, Valeriana; Cavaliere, Nicola; Lovero, Angela; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-06-01

    Hobi-like pestivirus, a new tentative species within genus Pestivirus, was firstly detected in foetal bovine serum batches and later associated to respiratory distress and reproductive failures in cattle. In the present study, the cross-antibody response between bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and the emerging pestivirus was evaluated in the sheep model. Ten sheep were immunised against BVDV-1 or Hobi-like pestivirus using inactivated preparations and the induced antibody responses were evaluated against the homologous and heterologous viruses. The results showed that heterologous antibody titres were significantly lower than the homologous ones, thus suggesting the need to develop specific vaccines against the emerging pestiviral species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Circulation of multiple subtypes of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 with no evidence for HoBi-like pestivirus in cattle herds of southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanave, G; Decaro, N; Lucente, M S; Guercio, A; Cavaliere, N; Purpari, G; Padalino, I; Larocca, V; Antoci, F; Marino, P A; Buonavoglia, C; Elia, G

    2017-06-01

    Pestiviruses of cattle include bovine viral diarrhoea 1 (BVDV-1) and 2 (BVDV-2) plus an emerging group, named HoBi-like pestivirus. In the present paper, the results of an epidemiological survey for pestiviruses circulating in cattle in southern Italy are presented. Molecular assays carried out on a total of 924 bovine samples detected 74 BVDV strains, including 73 BVDV-1 and 1 BVDV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on partial 5'UTR and N pro sequences revealed the presence of 6 different subtypes of BVDV-1 and a single BVDV-2c strain. BVDV-1 displayed a high level of genetic heterogeneity, which can have both prophylactic and diagnostic implications. In addition, the detection of BVDV-2c highlights the need for a continuous surveillance for the emergence of new pestivirus strains in cattle farms in southern Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diarrhea - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to do if you are breastfeeding What danger signs to watch out for Avoid medicines for ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. Silica Vesicle Nanovaccine Formulations Stimulate Long-Term Immune Responses to the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus E2 Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma T Mody

    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV is one of the most serious pathogen, which causes tremendous economic loss to the cattle industry worldwide, meriting the development of improved subunit vaccines. Structural glycoprotein E2 is reported to be a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV virion. We have developed a novel hollow silica vesicles (SV based platform to administer BVDV-1 Escherichia coli-expressed optimised E2 (oE2 antigen as a nanovaccine formulation. The SV-140 vesicles (diameter 50 nm, wall thickness 6 nm, perforated by pores of entrance size 16 nm and total pore volume of 0.934 cm3 g(-1 have proven to be ideal candidates to load oE2 antigen and generate immune response. The current study for the first time demonstrates the ability of freeze-dried (FD as well as non-FD oE2/SV140 nanovaccine formulation to induce long-term balanced antibody and cell mediated memory responses for at least 6 months with a shortened dosing regimen of two doses in small animal model. The in vivo ability of oE2 (100 μg/SV-140 (500 μg and FD oE2 (100 μg/SV-140 (500 μg to induce long-term immunity was compared to immunisation with oE2 (100 μg together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A from the Quillaja saponira (10 μg in mice. The oE2/SV-140 as well as the FD oE2/SV-140 nanovaccine generated oE2-specific antibody and cell mediated responses for up to six months post the final second immunisation. Significantly, the cell-mediated responses were consistently high in mice immunised with oE2/SV-140 (1,500 SFU/million cells at the six-month time point. Histopathology studies showed no morphological changes at the site of injection or in the different organs harvested from the mice immunised with 500 μg SV-140 nanovaccine compared to the unimmunised control. The platform has the potential for developing single dose vaccines without the requirement of cold chain storage for veterinary and human applications.

  1. Quantifying the role of Trojan dams in the between-herd spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDv) in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Fiona; Graham, David A; Clegg, Tracy A; Tratalos, Jamie A; O'Sullivan, Padraig; More, Simon J

    2018-04-01

    A compulsory national programme to eradicate bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDv) began in Ireland on 1 January, 2013. The objective of the current study was to quantify the role of Trojan dams (animal(s) not persistently infected (PI) with BVDv but carrying PI foetus(es) and introduced to the herd while pregnant with the PI foetus(es)) in the farm-to-farm spread of BVDv in Ireland, and to identify herd-level risk factors for producing or introducing a Trojan dam. The study population included all BVD+ calves born in Ireland between 1 January, 2013 and 31 December, 2015, along with their dams. BVD+ calves included all calves on the national programme database with an initial positive or inconclusive virus test, without a confirmatory re-test (status BVDPOS) and those with an initial positive or inconclusive test and a positive confirmatory test (status BVDPI). The Trojan status of dams was determined after considering their history of movement and of potential BVDV exposure, relative to a defined window of susceptibility (WOS; days 30-120 of gestation). During 2013-15, there were 29,422 BVD+ birth events to dams that were not themselves BVD+, including 2526 (8.6%) most-likely attributable to Trojan dams. The percentage of these birth events attributable to Trojan dams was significantly different (P Trojan dam. In 2014 and 2015, the percentages were 11.8% and 13.3%, respectively. In 2013, in 7.8% of herds with one or more BVD+ birth to non-BVD+ dams, all of these births were attributable to Trojan dams. In 2014 and 2015, the percentages were 9.2% and 10.7%, respectively. A logistic GEE regression identified dam parity, herd size and an interaction between herd type and season as significant predictors for the birth of a BVD+ calf to a Trojan dam. Significant predictors for the sale of a Trojan dam from BVD+ herds included those selling more than one pregnant female and those with more than 2 BVD+ animals in the herd. Introduction of pregnant adult females is a

  2. A quantitative risk-analysis for introduction of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus in the Netherlands through cattle imports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Mars, M H; Van Duijn, L; Van den Broek, K W H; Van Schaik, G

    2017-10-01

    Many countries have implemented control programmes aiming to eradicate Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV). After obtaining the free status, a risk of re-introduction of the virus through import may remain. Therefore the risk of introduction of BVDV through cattle imports in the Netherlands was quantified and the effectiveness of subsequent intervention measures was assessed. Data, literature and expert opinion were used to estimate values for input parameters to feed a stochastic simulation model. The probability that BVDV was imported was differentiated into persistently infected (PI) cattle, trojan cows that transmitted the virus vertically resulting in a PI foetus (TR) and transient infected cattle (TI). The import risk was stratified to beef, dairy, small scale, suckler, trade, veal and young stock herds. The intervention scenarios that were evaluated consisted of virus testing, a combination of virus testing and antibody testing in pregnant cows, abolishment of imports from high risk countries (i.e. countries with a BVDV prevalence >15%) and a combination of import restrictions and testing prior to import. Each year, 334 (5th and 95th percentile: 65-902) Dutch cattle herds were estimated to be infected with BVDV through import. Veal herds account for most infections associated with import (87%), whereas in the other herd types, only 9 beef, 6 dairy, 2 small scale, 16 suckler, 10 trade and 2 young stock herds are infected through imports per year. Import of PI cattle is the most important risk for introduction in veal herds, while import of TR cows is the main source of BVDV introduction in dairy, small scale and suckler herds. With the intervention scenarios, the number of BVDV infected herds in the Netherlands could be reduced to 81 and 58 herds per year when respectively virus testing or a combination of virus and antibody testing was applied or to 108 herds when import from high risk countries was abolished. With the scenario in which both import from high

  3. DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN: MAIN CAUSES AND WAYS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bel’mer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses main questions of diagnostics of diarrhea in children. Main cause of acute diarrhea is infection, mainly viral (rotavirus, etc.. Chronic diarrhea frequently has non-infectious origin. The need of multi-aspect diagnostics of diarrhea cause in children is related to the significance of treatment of main disease. Besides, treatment of chronic and acute diarrhea include major component: adsorbents based on smectite. In total treatment of diarrhea has to be complex with the use of dietotherapy and medications: mucocytoprotectors, regulators of motoric, pre- and probiotics.Key words: children, diarrhea, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:135-138

  4. [Chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Teresa; Heuss, Ludwig Theodor

    2014-09-01

    Defined by lasting more than four weeks - is a common but often challenging clinical scenario. It is important to be aware that diarrhoea means different things to different patients. The evaluation of chronic diarrhoea depends on taking an excellent history and careful physical examination as well as planning investigations thoughtfully. Functional diarrhea ist the most common cause of chronic diarrhea in the developed countries and motility disorders are more common than inflammatory, osmotic or secretory causes. In some cases categorizing patients by their stool characteristics can be helpful in directing further evaluation.

  5. A monoclonal antibody to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mweene, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to defeat antibodies to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera. Single sera from 211 cattle and 22 sheep from 7 different farms were tested using ELISA and Serum Neutralisation Test (SNT). 17 Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed against P80, gp48 and gp53 were tested for ability to coat ELISA plates and capture the bovine viral diarrhea antigen. 5 mabs(WB 103, WB, 105, WB 112 against P80 kDa protein, WB 210 and WB 214 directed against gp48 and gp 53 kDa protein. Specific antibody to BVDV was detected by rabbit anti-bovine and anti-ovine IgG antisera. The quantitative correlation between two tests was good

  6. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  7. Travelers' diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Connor, E

    1973-03-01

    On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite questionable value in preventing travelers' diarrhea such precautions may prevent more serious gastrointestinal illness.

  8. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...... viruses under all conditions tested. The implications for disease spread are discussed....

  9. Seroepidemiology of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon and use of the SPOT test to identify herds with PI calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G Handel

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea, caused by the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV in the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most important diseases of cattle world wide causing poor reproductive performance in adult cattle and mucosal disease in calves. In addition it causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infections, the impact of which is uncertain, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where animals are exposed to a much wider range and higher intensity of infections compared to Europe. There are no previous estimates of the seroprevalence of BVDV in cattle in Cameroon. This paper describes the serological screening for antibodies to BVDV and antigen of BVDV in a cattle population in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon in 2000. The estimates of herd-level and within herd seroprevalences adjusted for test imperfections were 92% and 30% respectively and 16.5% of herds were classed as having a persistently infected calf (PI in the herd within the last year based on the "spot" test approach. There was evidence of clustering of herds with PI calves across the north and west of the Region which corresponds with the higher cattle density areas and of self-clearance of infection from herds. A multivariable model was developed for the risk of having a PI calf in the herd; proximity to antelope, owning a goat, mixing with > 10 other herds at grazing and the catchment area of the veterinary centre the herd was registered at were all significant risk factors. Very little is known about BVDV in sub-Saharan Africa and these high seroprevalences suggest that there is a large problem which may be having both direct impacts on fertility and neonate mortality and morbidity and also indirect effects through immunosuppression and susceptibility to other infections. Understanding and accounting for BVDV should be an important component of epidemiological studies of other diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Antibody response of growing German Holstein bulls to a vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is influenced by Fusarium toxin exposure in a non-linear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Winkler, Janine; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Wernike, Kerstin; Beer, Martin; Frahm, Jana

    2018-05-01

    The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of feedstuffs and is supposed to interfere with immune responses. As the relevance for growing bulls is less clear than for other livestock, the trial was designed according to the dose-response principal with a control group fed a diet with background contamination (CON, 0.36 mg DON per kilogram dry matter [DM]) and three groups with increasing concentrations of DON (mg/kg DM); FUS I, 3.01; FUS II, 5.66; FUS III, 8.31. Half of each treatment group was vaccinated against BVDV at days 1 and 21 of the 70 days lasting experiment. Sequential blood samples were collected for determination of antibody titers to BVDV and for hematological and clinical-chemical traits. Antibody response was strongest in group FUS II while group FUS III responded weakest. This group showed the lowest proportion of CD4+ T cells, but also the highest levels of liver lesion indicating enzyme activities in blood. BVDV-vaccination induced a pronounced decrease in red blood count indices, which occurred dose-dependently at a higher level in the FUS-fed groups. The obvious interactions between DON exposure and BVDV-vaccination require further elucidation.

  11. Rapid Genome Detection of Schmallenberg Virus and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus by Use of Isothermal Amplification Methods and High-Speed Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (R...

  12. Complete suppression of viral gene expression is associated with the onset and progression of lymphoid malignancy: observations in Bovine Leukemia Virus-infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burny Arsène

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During malignant progression, tumor cells need to acquire novel characteristics that lead to uncontrolled growth and reduced immunogenicity. In the Bovine Leukemia Virus-induced ovine leukemia model, silencing of viral gene expression has been proposed as a mechanism leading to immune evasion. However, whether proviral expression in tumors is completely suppressed in vivo was not conclusively demonstrated. Therefore, we studied viral expression in two selected experimentally-infected sheep, the virus or the disease of which had features that made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from their nontransformed counterparts. Results In the first animal, we observed the emergence of a genetically modified provirus simultaneously with leukemia onset. We found a Tax-mutated (TaxK303 replication-deficient provirus in the malignant B-cell clone while functional provirus (TaxE303 had been consistently monitored over the 17-month aleukemic period. In the second case, both non-transformed and transformed BLV-infected cells were present at the same time, but at distinct sites. While there was potentially-active provirus in the non-leukemic blood B-cell population, as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture and injection into naïve sheep, virus expression was completely suppressed in the malignant B-cells isolated from the lymphoid tumors despite the absence of genetic alterations in the proviral genome. These observations suggest that silencing of viral genes, including the oncoprotein Tax, is associated with tumor onset. Conclusion Our findings suggest that silencing is critical for tumor progression and identify two distinct mechanisms-genetic and epigenetic-involved in the complete suppression of virus and Tax expression. We demonstrate that, in contrast to systems that require sustained oncogene expression, the major viral transforming protein Tax can be turned-off without reversing the transformed phenotype. We propose that suppression

  13. Rotavirus I in feces of a cat with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Leutenegger, Christian M; Chan, Roxanne; Delwart, Eric

    2017-06-01

    A divergent rotavirus I was detected using viral metagenomics in the feces of a cat with diarrhea. The eleven segments of rotavirus I strain Felis catus encoded non-structural and structural proteins with amino acid identities ranging from 25 to 79% to the only two currently sequenced members of that viral species both derived from canine feces. No other eukaryotic viral sequences nor bacterial and protozoan pathogens were detected in this fecal sample suggesting the involvement of rotavirus I in feline diarrhea.

  14. Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  15. Intrafamilial Transmission of Vaccinia virus during a Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak in Brazil: A New Insight in Viral Transmission Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Oliveira, Graziele; Tavares Silva Fernandes, André; Lopes de Assis, Felipe; Augusto Alves, Pedro; Moreira Franco Luiz, Ana Paula; Barcelos Figueiredo, Leandra; Costa de Almeida, Cláudia Maria; Pires Ferreira Travassos, Carlos Eurico; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Santos Abrahão, Jônatas; Geessien Kroon, Erna

    2014-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is an emerging zoonosis caused by the Vaccinia virus (VACV), genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV), Poxviridae family. In general, human cases are related to direct contact with sick cattle but there is a lack of information about human-to-human transmission of VACV during BV outbreaks. In this study, we epidemiologically and molecularly show a case of VACV transmission between humans in São Francisco de Itabapoana County, Rio de Janeiro state. Our group collected samples from the patients, a 49-year-old patient and his son. Our results showed that patients had developed anti-OPV IgG or IgM antibodies and presented neutralizing antibodies against OPV. The VACV isolates displayed high identity (99.9%) and were grouped in the same phylogenetic tree branch. Our data indicate that human-to-human VACV transmission occurred during a BV outbreak, raising new questions about the risk factors of the VACV transmission chain. PMID:24615135

  16. Acute diarrhea in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  17. Insights for the assessment of the economic impact of endemic diseases: specific adaptation of economic frameworks using the case of bovine viral diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, A W; Gunn, G J

    2017-04-01

    Generic frameworks for the economic analysis of farm animal disease are now well established. The paper, therefore, uses bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) as an example to explore how these frameworks need to be adapted to fit the characteristics of a particular disease and the specific objectives of the analysis. In the case of BVD, given the relative strength of tests available to correctly identify virus-positive animals, thus enabling them to be culled, the emphasis has been on cost-benefit analysis of regional and national certification/eradication schemes. Such analyses in turn raise interesting questions about farmer uptake and maintenance of certification schemes and the equity and cost-effective implementation of these schemes. The complex epidemiology of BVD virus infections and the long-term, widespread and often occult nature of BVD effects make economic analysis of the disease and its control particularly challenging. However, this has resulted in a wider whole-farm perspective that captures the influence of multiple decisions, not just those directly associated with disease prevention and control. There is a need to include management of reproduction, risk and enterprise mix in the research on farmer decision-making, as all these factors impinge on, and are affected by, the spread of BVD.

  18. New parvovirus in child with unexplained diarrhea, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Pothier, Pierre; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

    2014-11-01

    A divergent parvovirus genome was the only eukaryotic viral sequence detected in feces of a Tunisian child with unexplained diarrhea. Tusavirus 1 shared 44% and 39% identity with the nonstructural protein 1 and viral protein 1, respectively, of the closest genome, Kilham rat parvovirus, indicating presence of a new human viral species in the Protoparvovirus genus.

  19. Forsythoside A Inhibits BVDV Replication via TRAF2-Dependent CD28-4-1BB Signaling in Bovine PBMCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Jiang Song

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, is an important pathogen of cattle and other wild animals throughout the world. BVDV infection typically leads to an impaired immune response in cattle. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Forsythoside A (FTA on BVDV infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. We found that Forsythoside A could not only promote proliferation of PBMCs and T cells activation but also inhibit the replication of BVDV as well as apoptosis induced by BVDV. FTA treatment could counteract the BVDV-induced overproduction of IFN-γ to maintain the immune homeostasis in bovine PBMCs. At same time, FTA can enhance the secretion of IL-2. What's more, BVDV promotes the expression of CD28, 4-1BB and TRAF-2, which can be modulated by FTA. Our data suggest that FTA protects PBMCs from BVDV infection possibly via TRAF2-dependent CD28-4-1BB signaling, which may activate PBMCs in response to BVDV infection. Therefore, this aids in the development of an effective adjuvant for vaccines against BVDV and other specific FTA-based therapies for preventing BVDV infection.

  20. Forsythoside A Inhibits BVDV Replication via TRAF2-Dependent CD28–4-1BB Signaling in Bovine PBMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Quan-Jiang; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Cai, Dong-Jie; Zhang, Wang; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), is an important pathogen of cattle and other wild animals throughout the world. BVDV infection typically leads to an impaired immune response in cattle. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Forsythoside A (FTA) on BVDV infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that Forsythoside A could not only promote proliferation of PBMCs and T cells activation but also inhibit the replication of BVDV as well as apoptosis induced by BVDV. FTA treatment could counteract the BVDV-induced overproduction of IFN-γ to maintain the immune homeostasis in bovine PBMCs. At same time, FTA can enhance the secretion of IL-2. What’s more, BVDV promotes the expression of CD28, 4-1BB and TRAF-2, which can be modulated by FTA. Our data suggest that FTA protects PBMCs from BVDV infection possibly via TRAF2-dependent CD28–4-1BB signaling, which may activate PBMCs in response to BVDV infection. Therefore, this aids in the development of an effective adjuvant for vaccines against BVDV and other specific FTA-based therapies for preventing BVDV infection. PMID:27617959

  1. An overview of calf diarrhea - infectious etiology, diagnosis, and intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-il

    2014-01-01

    Calf diarrhea is a commonly reported disease in young animals, and still a major cause of productivity and economic loss to cattle producers worldwide. In the report of the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System for U.S. dairy, half of the deaths among unweaned calves was attributed to diarrhea. Multiple pathogens are known or postulated to cause or contribute to calf diarrhea development. Other factors including both the environment and management practices influence disease severity or outcomes. The multifactorial nature of calf diarrhea makes this disease hard to control effectively in modern cow-calf operations. The purpose of this review is to provide a better understanding of a) the ecology and pathogenesis of well-known and potential bovine enteric pathogens implicated in calf diarrhea, b) describe diagnostic tests used to detect various enteric pathogens along with their pros and cons, and c) propose improved intervention strategies for treating calf diarrhea. PMID:24378583

  2. Use of molecular and milk production information for the cost-effective diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhoea infection in New Zealand dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, F I; Reichel, M P; Tisdall, D J

    2010-04-21

    An increase in veterinary and farmer interest in bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in New Zealand over recent years led to requests for cost-effective identification of BVD virus (BVDV) infected herds and individuals. This study was undertaken to determine if the use of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology and dairy cow production data could identify persistently infected (PI) animals in milking herds. Milk samples were collected from the vats of dairy herds and tested for the presence of BVDV by RT-PCR till four herds were found containing PI animals. Individual serum samples were then collected from every cow in the herd and tested by both RT-PCR and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ACE) to identify the PI animals. Individual animal testing found 1/223, 1/130, 2/800 and 1/275 PI's respectively in the four herds. Based on these results a maximum pool size of 400 cows contributing to the bulk tank milk was selected. After removal of the PI from the herds, further bulk milk samples were shown to be BVDV negative by RT-PCR. All the PI animals identified by this method were found in the lowest producing 10-20% of herd. This approach of targeted testing of dairy herds using PCR technology, in conjunction with animal production information, markedly reduced the cost of diagnostic testing for BVDV in dairy herds in New Zealand. Questionnaire follow-up on 81 BVDV-positive herds (15% of those tested) indicated the stratification approach identified milking PIs successfully over 90% of the time and reduced the number of individual tests to 12% of the milking herd. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Taxonomic and epidemiological aspects of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 species through the observation of the secondary structures in the 5' genomic untranslated region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2 strains demonstrated in cattle, sheep and adventitious contaminants of biological products were evaluated by the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3 in the 5’ untranslated region (UTR, to determine their taxonomic status. Variation in conserved genomic sequences was used as a parameter for the epidemiological evaluation of the species in relation to geographic distribution, animal host and virulence. Four genotypes were identified within the species. Taxonomic segregation corresponded to geographic distribution of genotype variants. Genotype 2a was distributed worldwide and was also the only genotype that was circulating in sheep and cattle. Genotypes 2b, 2c and 2d were restricted to South America. Genotypes 2a and 2d were related to the contamination of biological products. Genetic variation could be related to the spread of BVDV-2 species variants in different geographic areas. Chronologically, the species emerged in North America in 1978 and spread to the United Kingdom and Japan, continental Europe, South America and New Zealand. Correlation between clinical features related with isolation of BVDV-2 strains and genetic variation indicated that subgenotype 1, variant 4 of genotype 2a, was related to a haemorrhagic syndrome. These observations suggest that the evaluation of genomic secondary structures, by identifying markers for expression of virus biological activities and species evolutionary history, may be a useful tool for the epidemiological evaluation of BVDV-2 species and possibly of other species of the genus Pestivirus.

  4. Drug-induced diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain and arthritis, such as ibuprofen and naproxen. Metformin used to treat diabetes. Some herbal teas contain senna or other "natural" laxatives that can cause diarrhea. Other vitamins, minerals, or supplements may also cause diarrhea.

  5. Evaluation of chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory; Trivedi, Rupal

    2011-11-15

    Chronic diarrhea, defined as a decrease in stool consistency for more than four weeks, is a common but challenging clinical scenario. It can be divided into three basic categories: watery, fatty (malabsorption), and inflammatory. Watery diarrhea may be subdivided into osmotic, secretory, and functional types. Watery diarrhea includes irritable bowel syndrome, which is the most common cause of functional diarrhea. Another example of watery diarrhea is microscopic colitis, which is a secretory diarrhea affecting older persons. Laxative-induced diarrhea is often osmotic. Malabsorptive diarrhea is characterized by excess gas, steatorrhea, or weight loss; giardiasis is a classic infectious example. Celiac disease (gluten-sensitive enteropathy) is also malabsorptive, and typically results in weight loss and iron deficiency anemia. Inflammatory diarrhea, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease, is characterized by blood and pus in the stool and an elevated fecal calprotectin level. Invasive bacteria and parasites also produce inflammation. Infections caused by Clostridium difficile subsequent to antibiotic use have become increasingly common and virulent. Not all chronic diarrhea is strictly watery, malabsorptive, or inflammatory, because some categories overlap. Still, the most practical diagnostic approach is to attempt to categorize the diarrhea by type before testing and treating. This narrows the list of diagnostic possibilities and reduces unnecessary testing. Empiric therapy is justified when a specific diagnosis is strongly suspected and follow-up is available.

  6. Clinical approach to diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Barbara, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Paola; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    Diarrhea is defined as reduced stool consistency, increased water content and number of evacuations per day. A wide array of causes and pathophysiological mechanisms underlie acute and chronic forms of diarrhea. This review focuses on the major clinical aspects which should aid clinicians to diagnose chronic diarrhea. Clinical history, physical examination and stool evaluation and the predominant stool characteristic, i.e., bloody, watery, and fatty diarrhea, may narrow the differential diagnosis. Although mainly involved in acute diarrhea, many different infectious agents, including bacteria, viruses and protozoa, can be identified in chronic bloody/inflammatory diarrhea by appropriate microbiological tests and colonoscopic biopsy analysis. Osmotic diarrhea can be the result of malabsorption or maldigestion, with a subsequent passage of fat in the stool leading to steatorrhea. Secretory diarrhea is due to an increase of fluid secretion in the small bowel lumen, a mechanism often identified in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The evaluation of the fecal osmotic gap may help to characterize whether a chronic diarrhea is osmotic or secretory. Fatty diarrhea (steatorrhea) occurs if fecal fat output exceeds the absorptive/digestive capacity of the intestine. Steatorrhea results from malabsorption or maldigestion states and tests should differentiate between these two conditions. Individualized diagnostic work ups tailored on pathophysiological and clinical features are expected to reduce costs for patients with chronic diarrhea.

  7. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhoea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Grant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eradication of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where eradication started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common.Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analysed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, approximately 260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and approximately 130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies.These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been

  8. Increase of cells expressing PD-L1 in bovine leukemia virus infection and enhancement of anti-viral immune responses in vitro via PD-L1 blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikebuchi Ryoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1 and its ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 are involved in immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway restores anti-virus immune responses, with concomitant reduction in viral load. In a previous report, we showed that, in bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection, the expression of bovine PD-1 is closely associated with disease progression. However, the functions of bovine PD-L1 are still unknown. To investigate the role of PD-L1 in BLV infection, we identified the bovine PD-L1 gene, and examined PD-L1 expression in BLV-infected cattle in comparison with uninfected cattle. The deduced amino acid sequence of bovine PD-L1 shows high homology to the human and mouse PD-L1. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells, especially among B cells, was upregulated in cattle with the late stage of the disease compared to cattle at the aleukemic infection stage or uninfected cattle. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells correlated positively with prediction markers for the progression of the disease such as leukocyte number, virus load and virus titer whilst on the contrary, it inversely correlated with the degree of interferon-gamma expression. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in vitro by PD-L1-specific antibody upregulated the production of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma, and correspondingly, downregulated the BLV provirus load and the proportion of BLV-gp51 expressing cells. These data suggest that PD-L1 induces immunoinhibition in disease progressed cattle during chronic BLV infection. Therefore, PD-L1 would be a potential target for developing immunotherapies against BLV infection.

  9. Testing for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, M

    Chronic diarrhea is a frequently encountered symptom in clinical practice. The etiologies for chronic diarrhea are diverse and broad with varying clinical implications. A useful method of categorizing chronic diarrhea to guide a diagnostic work-up is a pathophysiology-based framework. Chronic diarrhea may be categorized as malabsorptive, secretory, osmotic, and inflammatory or motility related. Frequently, overlap between categories may exist for any given diarrhea etiology and diagnostic testing must occur with an understanding of the differential diagnosis. Investigations to achieve a diagnosis for chronic diarrhea range from screening blood and stool tests to more directed testing such as diagnostic imaging, and endoscopic and histological evaluation. The pathophysiology-based framework proposed in this chapter will allow the clinician to select screening tests followed by targeted tests to minimize cost and complications to the patient, while providing a highly effective method to achieve an accurate diagnosis. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River Watershed: hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, M. A.; Spencer, S. K.; Hughes, Peter E.; Baldwin, Austin K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  11. Evaluation of commercial ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against bovine atypical pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Uttenthal, Åse

    A group of emerging bovine pestiviruses becomes a possible threat to Bovine Viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) control and eradication programs in the countries of their origin and in the new continents due to the lack of validated detection methods. The use of ELISA kits may be acheaper, time saving...... and less laborious option allowing screening for antibodies in large populations. Since test specific for emerging and new BVDV strains are still under preparation, the purpose of this work was to evaluate available BVDV antibody ELISA assays for their ability to detect antibodies against Hobi-like viruses....... Analysis of a panel of sera obtained from calves experimentally inoculated with Hobi-like virus (isolated from a calf from Thailand) and BVDV type 1 strain using five different ELISA kits in comparison to neutralization test was performed. The specificity and sensitivity of the tests depended greatly...

  12. [Drug induced diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, Isabelle; Hadengue, Antoine

    2008-09-03

    Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event involving the most frequently antibiotics, laxatives and NSAI. Drug induced diarrhea may be acute or chronic. It may be due to expected, dose dependant properties of the drug, to immuno-allergic or bio-genomic mechanisms. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described resulting in osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhea, shortened transit time, or malabsorption. Histopathological lesions sometimes associated with drug induced diarrhea are usually non specific and include ulcerations, inflammatory or ischemic lesions, fibrous diaphragms, microscopic colitis and apoptosis. The diagnosis of drug induced diarrhea, sometimes difficult to assess, relies on the absence of other obvious causes and on the rapid disappearance of the symptoms after withdrawal of the suspected drug.

  13. The pathophysiology of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, J H

    2001-01-01

    Diarrhea is a very common event after transplantation, but its cause may be difficult to identify. The first step in determining the cause in any particular case is an understanding of the etiology of diarrhea in general. Although diarrhea often is categorized into such types as secretory versus osmotic, or electrolyte transport-related versus motility-related, a thorough understanding of the problem requires knowledge of how the paracrine, immune, nervous and endocrine systems react to each other as well as to infection, drugs or other stimuli.

  14. Evaluation of Fast Technology Analysis (FTA) Cards as an improved method for specimen collection and shipment targeting viruses associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Chigerwe, Munashe; Hietala, Sharon K; Crossley, Beate M

    2014-06-01

    In order to improve the analytic quality of respiratory specimens collected from cattle for nucleic acid-based diagnosis, a study was undertaken to verify realtime PCR efficiency of specimens collected and stabilized on FTA Cards™, filter paper which is treated chemically. Nucleic acids collected using FTA Cards without the need for a cold-chain or special liquid media handling provided realtime PCR results consistent (96.8% agreement, kappa 0.923 [95% CI=0.89-0.96]) with the same specimens collected using traditional viral transport media and shipped on ice using the U.S. Department of Transportation mandated liquid handling requirements. Nucleic acid stabilization on FTA Cards was evaluated over a temperature range (-27 °C to +46 °C) for up to 14 days to mimic environmental conditions for diagnostic sample handling between collection and processing in a routine veterinary laboratory. No significant difference (P≥0.05) was observed in realtime PCR cycle threshold values over the temperature range and time storage conditions for Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus, Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus, Bovine Coronavirus, and Bovine Herpesvirus I. The four viruses evaluated in the study are associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex where improvements in ease and reliability of specimen collection and shipping would enhance the diagnostic quality of specimens collected in the field, and ultimately improve diagnostic efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rare diseases such as cystic fibrosis . Diarrhea Causes Dehydration Infants and young children under age 3 can ... as: Apple juice Milk Fried foods Full-strength fruit juice Preventing Diaper Rash Your baby might get ...

  16. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parasite, Cryptosporidium , is a common culprit behind diarrhea epidemics in childcare centers and other public places. Cryptosporidium ... take prescription antibiotics to prevent the infection from spreading throughout the body. What Can I Do to ...

  17. Review of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri)--a South American tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the pharmacologic evidence that may or may not support clinical and ethnomedical uses of the sap of sangre de drago (dragon's blood; Croton lechleri Müll. Arg.). Data sources used were BIOSIS, EMBASE, PubMed, TOXLIT, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, manual searches, papers on file from peer-reviewed journals, textbooks available at Armana Research, Inc., and researchers in the field of South American botanical medicine. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies largely support the majority of ethnomedical uses of sangre de drago including the treatment of diarrhea, wounds, tumors, stomach ulcers, herpes infection, the itching, pain and swelling of insect bites, and other conditions. Clinical studies of sangre de drago products have reported positive results in the treatment of traveler's and watery diarrhea and the symptoms of insect bites. Because the sap has shown low toxicity and preparations used in clinical studies were well tolerated, further clinical and pharmacologic studies are anticipated. Acknowledgment of the diversity in the chemical makeup of the sap from one geographic area to another and the recent characterization of alkaloid chemotypes of sangre de drago will require that materials developed for clinical use are standardized.

  18. Study on the Surface Displayed Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viral(PEDV) S1 on Lactic Acid Bacteria%乳酸菌表面表达PEDV S1蛋白的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丽芸; 赵志刚; 侯喜林; 曹宏伟; 王桂华

    2008-01-01

    猪流行性腹泻病毒(Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus,PEDV)可引起猪的急性腹泻和脱水,具有较高的致死率.为了研究基因工程疫苗来预防此病,从pQE-S质粒为模板,PCR扩增了PEDV抗原决定簇基因片段sl基因,并将其克隆到大肠杆菌中.克隆质粒鉴定后,将其连接到pLA载体上,并转化到干酪乳杆菌中,用SDS-PAGE和Western blot方法进行了鉴定.实验结果显示,S1蛋白可在干酪乳杆菌中正确表达,并为PEDV抗血清所识别.

  19. Inactivation of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in the process of chemical treatment and gamma irradiation of bovine-derived grafting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Il; Lee, Jung-Soo; Jung, Hong-Hee; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Shim, Young-Bock; Jang, Ju-Woong

    2012-01-01

    Xenografts, unlike other grafting products, cannot be commercialized unless they conform to stringent safety regulations. Particularly with bovine-derived materials, it is essential to remove viruses and inactivate infectious factors because of the possibility that raw materials are imbrued with infectious viruses. The removal of the characteristics of infectious viruses from the bovine bone grafting materials need to be proved and inactivation process should satisfy the management provision of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To date, while most virus inactivation studies were performed in human allograft tissues, there have been almost no studies on bovine bone. To evaluate the efficacy of virus inactivation after treatment of bovine bone with 70% ethanol, 4% sodium hydroxide, and gamma irradiation, we selected a variety of experimental model viruses that are known to be associated with bone pathogenesis, including bovine parvovirus (BPV), bovine herpes virus (BHV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3). The cumulative virus log clearance factor or cumulative virus log reduction factor for the manufacturing process was obtained by calculating the sum of the individual virus log clearance factors or log reduction factors determined for individual process steps with different physicochemical methods. The cumulative log clearance factors achieved by three different virus inactivation processes were as follows: BPV ≥ 17.73, BHV ≥ 20.53, BVDV ≥ 19.00, and BPIV-3 ≥ 16.27. On the other hand, the cumulative log reduction factors achieved were as follows: BPV ≥ 16.95, BHV ≥ 20.22, BVDV ≥ 19.27, and BPIV-3 ≥ 15.58. Treatment with 70% ethanol, 4% sodium hydroxide, or gamma irradiation was found to be very effective in virus inactivation, since all viruses were at undetectable levels during each process. We have no doubt that application of this established process to bovine bone graft manufacture will be

  20. Bovine leukemia virus reduces anti-viral cytokine activities and NK cytotoxicity by inducing TGF-β secretion from regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Kosuke; Nakahara, Ayako; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Kohara, Junko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-03-01

    CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) T cells suppress excess immune responses that lead to autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases, and maintain host immune homeostasis. However, CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) T cells reportedly contribute to disease progression by over suppressing immune responses in some chronic infections. In this study, kinetic and functional analyses of CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) T cells were performed in cattle with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infections, which have reported immunosuppressive characteristics. In initial experiments, production of the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α was reduced in BLV-infected cattle compared with uninfected cattle, and numbers of IFN-γ or TNF-α producing CD4(+) T cells decreased with disease progression. In contrast, IFN-γ production by NK cells was inversely correlated with BLV proviral loads in infected cattle. Additionally, during persistent lymphocytosis disease stages, NK cytotoxicity was depressed as indicated by low expression of the cytolytic protein perforin. Concomitantly, total CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) T cell numbers and percentages of TGF-β(+) cells were increased, suggesting that TGF-β plays a role in the functional declines of CD4(+) T cells and NK cells. In further experiments, recombinant bovine TGF-β suppressed IFN-γ and TNF-α production by CD4(+) T cells and NK cytotoxicity in cultured cells. These data suggest that TGF-β from CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) T cells is immunosuppressive and contributes to disease progression and the development of opportunistic infections during BLV infection.

  1. Sensitivity and Specificity of Procalcitonin to Determine Etiology of Diarrhea in Children Younger Than 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Mujë; Azemi, Mehmedali; Spahiu, Shqipe; Hoxha, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Lidvana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin to determine bacterial etiology of diarrhea. The examinees and methods: For this purpose we conducted the study comprising 115 children aged 1 to 60 months admitted at the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Clinic, divided in three groups based on etiology of the diarrhea that has been confirmed with respective tests during the hospitalization. Each group has equal number of patients – 35. The first group was confirmed to have bacterial diarrhea, the second viral diarrhea and the third extra intestinal diarrhea. The determination of procalcitonin has been established with the ELFA methods of producer B.R.A.H.M.S Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, (Germany). Results: From the total number of 1130 patient with acute diarrhea procalcitonin was assessed in 105. 67 (63.8%) of these patient were male. More than one third (38.14%) of the children in our study were younger then 12 months. Approximately the same was the number of children 13-24 months (33 patients or 31.43%) and 25-60 months (32 patients or 30.43%). The mean value of PRC in children with viral diarrhea was 0.13±0.5 ng/mL in children with bacterial diarrhea was 5.3±4.9 ng/m Land in children with extra intestinal diarrhea was 1.7±2.8 ng/mL. When measured using ANOVA and Turkey HSD tests, results have shown the statistical significance when comparing viral with bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea but were statistically insignificant when comparing bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea. Conclusion: Procalcitonin is an important but not conclusive marker of bacterial etiology of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years. PMID:24944526

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin to determine etiology of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Mujë; Azemi, Mehmedali; Spahiu, Shqipe; Hoxha, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Lidvana

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin to determine bacterial etiology of diarrhea. For this purpose we conducted the study comprising 115 children aged 1 to 60 months admitted at the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Clinic, divided in three groups based on etiology of the diarrhea that has been confirmed with respective tests during the hospitalization. Each group has equal number of patients - 35. The first group was confirmed to have bacterial diarrhea, the second viral diarrhea and the third extra intestinal diarrhea. The determination of procalcitonin has been established with the ELFA methods of producer B.R.A.H.M.S Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, (Germany). From the total number of 1130 patient with acute diarrhea procalcitonin was assessed in 105. 67 (63.8%) of these patient were male. More than one third (38.14%) of the children in our study were younger then 12 months. Approximately the same was the number of children 13-24 months (33 patients or 31.43%) and 25-60 months (32 patients or 30.43%). The mean value of PRC in children with viral diarrhea was 0.13±0.5 ng/mL in children with bacterial diarrhea was 5.3±4.9 ng/m Land in children with extra intestinal diarrhea was 1.7±2.8 ng/mL. When measured using ANOVA and Turkey HSD tests, results have shown the statistical significance when comparing viral with bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea but were statistically insignificant when comparing bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea. Procalcitonin is an important but not conclusive marker of bacterial etiology of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years.

  3. Genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV from Peru and Chile Diversidade genética de vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV do Peru e Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ståhl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five BVDV strains, detected in serum from persistently infected cattle from Peru (n=15 and Chile (n=10 were genetically characterized. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 5' UTR showed that all 25 strains belonged to genotype 1. Twenty-three of the strains could further be subdivided into subtype 1b, and two out of ten Chilean strains into subtype 1a. In conclusion, in total 23 out of 25 strains analyzed were of genotype 1, subtype 1b. This is the predominant BVDV subtype in many countries all over the world, including USA. The close homology with previously described strains reflects the influence of livestock trade on the diversity of BVDV circulating within and between countries and continents. Peru and Chile have imported large numbers of cattle from USA and Europe, mostly with insufficient or lacking health documentation.Um total de 25 isolados do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV, sendo 15 originarias do Peru e 10 do Chile foram sujeitas a caracterização genética. A árvore filogenética baseada na análise da região proximal não-codificante (5'UTR do genoma viral demonstrou que as 25 estirpes pertencem ao genótipo 1 do vírus BVD. Vinte e três destas estirpes puderam adicionalmente ser subdivididas no subtipo 1b, enquanto duas das 10 estirpes isolados provenientes do Chile foram identificadas como pertencentes ao subtipo 1a. Em conclusão, 23 de um total de 25 isolados analisados pertencem ao genótipo 1, subtipo 1b. Este é o subtipo de BVDV predominante em muitos países do mundo, incluindo os EUA. A elevada similaridade genética com isolados descritos anteriormente em outras regiões do mundo realça o papel do comércio internacional de gado no estabelecimento de diversidade genética do vírus BVD. Tanto o Peru como o Chile têm historia de importação de grandes quantidades de gado dos Estados Unidos e da Europa, no entanto sem suficiente documentação comprovativa do estado sanitário no que concerne a esta

  4. Post-irradiation diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerwaldt, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In radiotherapy of pelvic cancers, the X-ray dose to be delivered to the tumour is limited by the tolerance of healthy surrounding tissue. In recent years, a number of serious complications of irradiation of pelvic organs were encountered. Modern radiotherapy necessitates the acceptance of a calculated risk of complications in order to achieve a better cure rate. To calculate these risks, one has to know the radiation dose-effect relationship of normal tissues. Of the normal tissues most at risk when treating pelvic tumours only the bowel is studied. In the literature regarding post-irradiation bowel complications, severe and mild complications are often mixed. In the present investigation the author concentrated on the group of patients with relatively mild symptoms. He studied the incidence and course of post-irradiation diarrhea in 196 patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium. The aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the incidence, course and prognostic significance of post-irradiation diarrhea; 2) to assess the influence of radiotherapy factors; 3) to study the relation of bile acid metabolism to post-irradiation diarrhea; 4) to investigate whether local factors (reservoir function) were primarily responsible. (Auth.)

  5. Update on traveler's diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, W B

    1988-07-01

    Traveler's diarrhea affects a substantial number of travelers to high-risk areas of the world. The key to controlling this troublesome disease is prevention. The most important preventive measures depend on educating patients to consume only safe foods and pure water. Physicians cannot overemphasize the importance of avoiding high-risk foods and of boiling water if a safe water supply is not available. Prophylactic medications are a secondary consideration and should be prescribed with discretion. In most cases, diarrhea is mild and self-limited, requiring only fluid and electrolyte replacement and perhaps an antidiarrheal agent. In moderate to severe cases, the addition of an antimicrobial agent may be of benefit. Until an efficacious polyvalent vaccine is developed, caution and common sense, together with discretionary dietary and hygienic practices, are the best defenses against traveler's diarrhea. The ultimate solution is greatly improved sanitation and personal hygiene, especially in high-risk countries. However, only dreamers will consider waiting for this transformation to occur.

  6. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, S.R., E-mail: srcorsi@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2615 Yellowstone Dr., Marshfield, WI 54449 (United States); Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  7. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, S.R.; Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K.; Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  8. Virus detection by PCR following vaccination of naive calves with intranasal or injectable multivalent modified-live viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Paul H; Newcomer, Benjamin W; Riddell, Kay P; Scruggs, Daniel W; Cortese, Victor S

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated duration of PCR-positive results following administration of modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines to beef calves. Twenty beef calves were randomly assigned to either group 1 and vaccinated intranasally with a MLV vaccine containing bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), or to group 2 and vaccinated subcutaneously with a MLV vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2), BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3. Deep nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and transtracheal washes (TTW) were collected from all calves, and whole blood was collected from group 2 calves and tested by PCR. In group 1, the proportions of calves that tested PCR-positive to BVDV, BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3 on any sample at any time were 0%, 100%, 100%, and 10%, respectively. In group 1 calves, 100% of calves became PCR-positive for BoHV-1 by day 3 post-vaccination and 100% of calves became PCR-positive for BRSV by day 7 post-vaccination. In group 2, the proportions of calves that tested positive to BVDV, BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3 on any sample at any time were 50%, 40%, 10%, and 0%, respectively. All threshold cycle (Ct) values were >30 in group 2 calves, irrespective of virus; however, Ct values PCR-positive results for BoHV-1 and BRSV. All calves were PCR-negative for all viruses after day 28. Following intranasal MLV viral vaccination, PCR results and Ct values for BRSV and BoHV-1 suggest that attempts to differentiate vaccine virus from natural infection is unreliable.

  9. [Chronic diarrhea with uncommon etiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Borrás, R; Juan Vidal, O; Talavera Encinas, M I; Bixquert Jiménez, M

    2005-03-01

    Chronic diarrhea is a common syndrome. An etiological diagnosis is often reached through clinical history, physical examination and simple tests. In some cases, when the etiology is not found, the syndrome is called functional diarrhea, even though established criteria are often not fulfilled. We present the case of a patient with diarrhea for several months. The most common causes were ruled out through clinical history, physical examination, radiographic studies and laboratory tests, and the patient was diagnosed with functional diarrhea. Three months later, the patient presented a neck mass, and biopsy revealed medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. A review of recommendations for the systematic evaluation of chronic diarrhea is presented. A general approach should include careful history taking characteristics of diarrhea (onset, associated symptoms, epidemiological factors, iatrogenic causes such as laxative ingestion), a thorough physical examination with special attention to the anorectal region, and routine laboratory tests (complete blood count and serum chemistry). In addition, stool analysis including electrolytes (fecal osmotic gap), leukocytes, fecal occult blood, excess stool fat and laxative screening can yield important objective information to classify the diarrhea as: osmotic (osmotic gaps > 125 mOsm/Kg), secretory (osmotic gaps diarrhea described above. A systematic approach to the evaluation of chronic diarrhea is warranted. Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other endocrine syndromes causing chronic diarrhea are very rare. Measurement of serum peptide concentrations should only be performed when clinical presentation and findings in stool or radiographic studies suggest this etiology.

  10. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  11. Diarrhea caused by circulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Elisabeth; Kump, Patrizia; Krejs, Guenter J

    2012-09-01

    Circulating agents cause intestinal secretion or changes in motility with decreased intestinal transit time, resulting in secretory-type diarrhea. Secretory diarrhea as opposed to osmotic diarrhea is characterized by large-volume, watery stools, often more than 1 L per day; by persistence of diarrhea when patients fast; and by the fact that on analysis of stool-water, measured osmolarity is identical to that calculated from the electrolytes present. Although sodium plays the main role in water and electrolyte absorption, chloride is the major ion involved in secretion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diarrhea associated with typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, S. K.; Speelman, P.; Butler, T.; Nath, S.; Rahman, H.; Stoll, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    To study the pathogenesis of diarrhea occurring with typhoid fever, we selected 42 patients with diarrhea and blood cultures positive for Salmonella typhi or Salmonella paratyphi A, but without diarrheal copathogens, for measurement of stool output and examination of fecal composition. The mean

  13. Management of the returning traveler with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saussure, Philippe P H

    2009-11-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) strikes 20-60% of travelers visiting developing countries. It occurs shortly after the return and can be distinguished into two categories: acute and persistent TD. Acute TD, mostly caused by bacterial and viral pathogens, is usually mild and self-limited, and deserves empirical symptomatic and/or antibiotic therapy in selected cases. Fluoroquinolones are progressively superseded in this indication by azithromycin, a well tolerated macrolide active against most bacteria responsible for TD, including the quinolone-resistant species of Campylobacter jejuni that are now pervasive, especially in Southeast Asia and India. Persistent TD in the returning traveler is much rarer than its acute counterpart and may be associated with three types of causes. Persistent infections, among which Giardia and possibly Entamoeba predominate, account for a significant proportion of cases. Postinfectious processes represent a second cause and comprise temporary lactose malabsorption and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, now considered a major cause of persistent TD. Finally, apparently unrelated chronic diseases causing diarrhea are occasionally unmasked by TD and represent a third type of persistent TD, among which the well established case of incident inflammatory bowel disease poses intriguing pathogenesis questions. This review discusses recent advances in the field and provides practical recommendations for the management of TD in adult, immunocompetent returning travelers.

  14. Viral Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better from treatment such as an antiviral medicine. Antibiotics do not help viral infections, so they are not useful in the treatment of viral meningitis. However, antibiotics do fight bacteria, so they are very important ...

  15. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throat is due to a viral infection. The antibiotics will not help. Using them to treat viral infections helps bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. With some sore throats (such as those caused ...

  16. How to Do in Persistent Diarrhea of Children?: Concepts and Treatments of Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kun Song; Kang, Dong Soo; Yu, Jeesuk; Chang, Young Pyo; Park, Woo Sung

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is defined as passing watery stools that lasts for more than 2 weeks. Persistent diarrhea belongs to chronic diarrhea and is a chronic episode of diarrhea of infectious etiology. The etiology of chronic diarrhea is varied. It is important to consider the child's age and clinical manifestations with alarm signals for an application of proper treatments to children with chronic diarrhea. Vicious cycle is present in chronic diarrhea and nutritional rehabilitation can break the v...

  17. Nonreplicative RNA Recombination of an Animal Plus-Strand RNA Virus in the Absence of Efficient Translation of Viral Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine Büning, Maximiliane; Meyer, Denise; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Tillmann; Becher, Paul

    2017-04-01

    RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a nonreplicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region. The emergence of a number of recombinant viruses demonstrated that IRES-mediated translation of viral proteins is dispensable for efficient recombination and suggests that RNA recombination can occur in the absence of viral proteins. Analyses of 58 independently emerged viruses led to the detection of recombinant genomes with duplications, deletions and insertions in the 5' terminal region of the open reading frame, leading to enlarged core fusion proteins detectable by Western blot analysis. This demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of the pestivirus core protein. Further experiments with capped and uncapped genome fragments containing a luciferase gene for monitoring the level of protein translation revealed that even a ∼1,000-fold enhancement of translation of viral proteins did not increase the frequency of RNA recombination. Taken together, this study highlights that nonreplicative RNA recombination does not require translation of viral proteins. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Nonreplicative RNA Recombination of an Animal Plus-Strand RNA Virus in the Absence of Efficient Translation of Viral Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine Büning, Maximiliane; Meyer, Denise; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Tillmann

    2017-01-01

    RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a nonreplicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region. The emergence of a number of recombinant viruses demonstrated that IRES-mediated translation of viral proteins is dispensable for efficient recombination and suggests that RNA recombination can occur in the absence of viral proteins. Analyses of 58 independently emerged viruses led to the detection of recombinant genomes with duplications, deletions and insertions in the 5′ terminal region of the open reading frame, leading to enlarged core fusion proteins detectable by Western blot analysis. This demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of the pestivirus core protein. Further experiments with capped and uncapped genome fragments containing a luciferase gene for monitoring the level of protein translation revealed that even a ∼1,000-fold enhancement of translation of viral proteins did not increase the frequency of RNA recombination. Taken together, this study highlights that nonreplicative RNA recombination does not require translation of viral proteins. PMID:28338950

  19. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed advanced rapid diagnostics that may be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the potential to improve our nation's ability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect animal populations of high economic importance in the United States. Under 2005 DHS funding we have developed multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based PCR assays that combine foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1 or Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitus IBR), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus BPSV, Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). Under 2006 funding we have developed a Multiplexed PCR [MUX] porcine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for VESV and SVD foreign animal diseases in addition to one other domestic vesicular animal disease vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and one domestic animal disease of swine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). We have also developed a MUX bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine foreign animal diseases malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitus virus (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV), and the Parapox

  20. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    absence of cytopathic effect in cultured cells – cytopathic. (cp) and non-cytopathic .... evidence of T-cell proliferation in cattle has been provided earlier (Collen and ..... targets for CD4+ T-cell responses in acutely infected cattle. (Collen and ...

  1. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. To... titrations shall be conducted on a sample of the vaccine virus dilution used. (3) At least once during a...

  2. [Chronic diarrhea: etiologies and diagnostic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, A

    2008-04-30

    Chronic diarrhea is defined as a decrease in fecal consistency lasting for four or more weeks. A myriad of disorders are associated with chronic diarrhea. In developed countries, chronic diarrhea is mostly caused by non-infectious diseases. There are four pathogenic mechanisms leading to chronic diarrhea: osmotic diarrhea, secretory diarrhea, inflammatory diarrhea, and dysmotility. Overlaps between these mechanisms are possible. A 72-hour fecal collection as well as the fasting test are important diagnostic tools to identify the underlying pathomechanism. The identification of the pathomechanism narrows down the possible etiologies of chronic diarrhea and allows therefore a cost-saving diagnostic workup. The endoscopy is well established in the workup of chronic diarrhea. This article gives an overview about the main causes and mechanisms leading to chronic diarrhea and proposes an algorithm for the diagnostic evalution.

  3. Prevalencia y distribución espacial de brucelosis, leucosis bovina, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina a partir del análisis ELISA de estanques prediales en lecherías de la IX Región, Chile Prevalence and space distribution of brucellosis, bovine leukaemia, bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by using bulk milk ELISA test in dairy herds of the IX Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    R Felmer; J Zúñiga; A López; H Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Chile es reconocido internacionalmente por poseer una buena situación sanitaria pues el país ha podido alcanzar y mantener el estado de oficialmente libre de las principales enfermedades de la lista de la OIE. Sin embargo, aún coexisten en nuestros rebaños bovinos una serie de enfermedades, las cuales tienen un directo impacto en la producción, por cuanto disminuyen la fertilidad, producen pérdidas por aborto, alargan el lapso interparto y fundamentalmente constituyen barreras sanitarias para...

  4. Viral Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... still have diarrhea. Most experts do not recommend fasting or following a restricted diet. Clinical Trials The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases ...

  5. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  6. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diarrhea in severely burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Kalpesh; Kien, C Lawrence; Rosenblatt, Judah I; Herndon, David N

    2005-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common problem in critically ill patients. Our patients are fed a high-carbohydrate enteral formula. We hypothesized that diarrhea in our patients may be related to the osmotic effects of unabsorbed carbohydrate in the small intestine and colon. We studied 19 patients, 3 months to 17 years, with burns >40% total body surface area. Each subject was studied weekly for up to 4 weeks postburn. Breath H2 concentration was measured. For the 24-hour period before the breath H2 measurement, the enteral carbohydrate intake, stool volume, and total enteral fluid volume were recorded. At each of several weekly intervals for each subject, the times when stool volume and enteral carbohydrate intake were each maximal were noted. Maximal stool volume ranged from 12 to 69 mL/kg/d. At the time point of maximal carbohydrate intake, diarrhea (stool volume >10 mL/kg/d) occurred in 18 of 19 patients, and maximal stool volume occurred in 10 of 19. Breath H2 concentration (ppm/5% CO2; mean +/- SEM) was 5.5 +/- 3.5 at the time of maximal carbohydrate intake, and was 25 +/- 20 at maximal stool volume. There were no correlations among breath H2 concentration, stool volume, enteral fluid intake, and enteral carbohydrate intake. Almost all the subjects had diarrhea over several weeks postburn. The lack of correlation of either carbohydrate intake or breath H2 with stool volume suggests that diarrhea in these patients may be caused by factors other than carbohydrate malabsorption. These data do not support altering nutrition support because of watery diarrhea.

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and sour cream. You may want to try “lactose-free” ... drinks can make diarrhea worse. ● ● Don’t have beer, wine, and other drinks with alcohol in them. ● ● ...

  9. Chronic Diarrhea: A Concern After Gallbladder Removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic diarrhea: A concern after gallbladder removal? I had my gallbladder removed six months ago, and I'm still having diarrhea. Is this ... mild diarrhea after cholecystectomy is not cause for concern, but speak to your doctor if you are ...

  10. Viroses confundíveis com febre aftosa Viral diseases to be differentiated from foot-and-mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Revisam-se as doenças que devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de febre aftosa. Dentre as doenças vesiculares ou erosivas, descrevem-se os principais aspectos relacionados ao diagnóstico da estomatite vesicular, diarréia viral bovina, febre catarral maligna, infecções por herpesvírus bovino 1 e 5, e uma estomatite ulcerativa associada a parvovírus bovino, que ocorreu no Rio Grande do Sul; língua azul, para a qual tem sido detectados anticorpos em bovinos e ovinos do Rio Grande do Sul; mamilite herpética que ocorre em outros Estados do País;peste bovina, que foi diagnosticada e erradicada no Estado de São Paulo em 1921; estomatite popular; e duas doenças exóticas:exantema vesicular e doença vesicular do suíno.Diseases to be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease are reviewed. The main aspects relating to the diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis, bovine virus diarrhea, malignant catarrhal fever, bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5, andem ulcerative stomatitis associated with bovine parvovirus are described. Bluetongue, that probably occurs in Rio Grande do Sul because antibodies to the virus have been detected in cattle and sheep; is refered. Bovine ulcerative mammilitis, reported in other Brazilian States, rinderpest, reported and eradicated in the State of São Paulo in 1921, and popular stomatitis are also cited, and so are two exotic diseases: vesicular exanthema and swine vesicular disease.

  11. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  12. Survival of viral pathogens in animal feed ingredients under transboundary shipping models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, Fernando V.; Niederwerder, Megan C.; Singrey, Aaron; Clement, Travis; de Lima, Marcelo; Long, Craig; Patterson, Gilbert; Sheahan, Maureen A.; Stoian, Ana M. M.; Petrovan, Vlad; Jones, Cassandra K.; De Jong, Jon; Ji, Ju; Spronk, Gordon D.; Minion, Luke; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Zimmerman, Jeff J.; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Nelson, Eric; Sundberg, Paul; Diel, Diego G.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV). Surrogate viruses with similar genetic and physical properties were used for 6 viruses. Surrogates belonged to the same virus families as target pathogens, and included Senecavirus A (SVA) for FMDV, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) for CSFV, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1) for PRV, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) for NiV, Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV) for SVDV and Feline Calicivirus (FCV) for VESV. For the remaining target viruses, actual pathogens were used. Virus survival was evaluated using Trans-Pacific or Trans-Atlantic transboundary models involving representative feed ingredients, transport times and environmental conditions, with samples tested by PCR, VI and/or swine bioassay. SVA (representing FMDV), FCV (representing VESV), BHV-1 (representing PRV), PRRSV, PSV (representing SVDV), ASFV and PCV2 maintained infectivity during transport, while BVDV (representing CSFV), VSV, CDV (representing NiV) and IAV-S did not. Notably, more viruses survived in conventional soybean meal, lysine hydrochloride, choline chloride, vitamin D and pork sausage casings. These results support published data on transboundary risk of PEDV in feed, demonstrate survival of certain viruses in specific feed ingredients (“high-risk combinations”) under conditions simulating transport between

  13. Detection and genetic identification of pestiviruses in Brazilian lots of fetal bovine serum collected from 2006 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle L. Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study performed a genetic identification of pestiviruses contaminating batches of fetal bovine serum (FBS produced in Brazil from 2006 to 2014. Seventy-three FBS lots were screened by a RT-PCR targeting the 5’untranslated region (UTR of the pestivirus genome. Thirty-nine lots (53.4% were positive for pestivirus RNA and one contained infectious virus. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5’UTR revealed 34 lots (46.6% containing RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1, being 23 BVDV-1a (5’ UTR identity 90.8-98.7%, eight BVDV-1b (93.9-96.7% and three BVDV-1d (96.2- 97.6%. Six lots (8.2% contained BVDV-2 (90.3-100% UTR identity being two BVDV-2a; three BVDV-2b and one undetermined. Four FBS batches (5.5% were found contaminated with HoBi-like virus (98.3 to 100%. Five batches (6.8% contained more than one pestivirus. The high frequency of contamination of FBS with pestivirus RNA reinforce the need for systematic and updated guidelines for monitoring this product to reduce the risk of contamination of biologicals and introduction of contaminating agents into free areas.

  14. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  15. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  16. Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have frequent bowel movements mixed with blood or mucus, and abdominal pain and cramping?YesNoDo your bowel ... this condition have trouble digesting the sugar in milk and other dairy products. Self CareIf you think ...

  17. Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...

  18. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This action will allow interested... importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy...

  19. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro

  20. Diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum in immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study is to search for Cryptosporidium parvum in Sudanese immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients presenting with diarrhea. Methods: Two hundred and thirteen stool specimens were collected from different groups of patients presenting with diarrhea and healthy control ...

  1. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  2. Evaluating the Patient With Diarrhea: A Case-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sweetser, Seth

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the patient with diarrhea can be complex and the treatment challenging. In this article, the definition of diarrhea and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to diarrhea are reviewed. A simplified 5-step approach to the patient with diarrhea is provided and applied in a case-oriented manner applicable to everyday clinical practice. On completion of this article, you should be able to (1) define diarrhea, (2) outline various pathophysiologic mechanisms of diarrhea, and (3...

  3. Bovine herpes virus infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj; Manohar, M; Chauhan, R S

    2009-06-01

    Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is primarily associated with clinical syndromes such as rhinotracheitis, pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis, abortion, infertility, conjunctivitis and encephalitis in bovine species. The main sources of infection are the nasal exudates and the respiratory droplets, genital secretions, semen, fetal fluids and tissues. The BHV-1 virus can become latent following a primary infection with a field isolate or vaccination with an attenuated strain. The viral genomic DNA has been demonstrated in the sensory ganglia of the trigeminal nerve in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and in sacral spinal ganglia in pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis cases. BHV-1 infections can be diagnosed by detection of virus or virus components and antibody by serological tests or by detection of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing. Inactivated vaccines and modified live virus vaccines are used for prevention of BHV-1 infections in cattle; subunit vaccines and marker vaccines are under investigation.

  4. Efficacy of Bacillus clausii and Saccharomyces boulardii in Treatment of Acute Rotaviral Diarrhea in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salloju Vineeth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea disease is considered as major health problem in developing countries. Rotavirus is the most common identifiable viral cause of diarrhea in all children and belongs to Reoviridae family. Rotavirus infection occasionally leads to severe dehydration in infants and children. The objective of the study is to assess the efficacy of Bacillus clausii and Saccharomyces boulardii on the treatment of rotaviral diarrhea, and also to assess its effect on vomiting and fever in pediatric patients. This study conducted at Rainbow Children’s Hospital, Hyderabad, India, from January 2016 until June 2016 and adopts prospective observational parallel study design. From 104 patients enrolled, 80 fulfilled inclusion criteria and 24 were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on the treatment. Group I patients were treated with Bacillus clausii and Group II patients were treated with Saccharomyces boulardii. Total mean duration of diarrhea was significantly shorter in Group II (S. boulardii in comparison with Group I (B. clausii. S. boulardii significantly (p≤0.005 decreased the duration of diarrhea which is 25.2 hours over B. clausii. Both probiotic preparations were equal in efficacy on treating the vomiting and fever (p≥0.005. S. boulardii and B. clausii were well accepted and tolerated by the children and there were no reports of any adverse effects during the study period.

  5. Oral Administration of Astrovirus Capsid Protein Is Sufficient To Induce Acute Diarrhea In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Meliopoulos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1 capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2 capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults. Similarly to that induced by infectious virus, TAstV-2 capsid-induced diarrhea was independent of inflammation or histological changes but was associated with increased intestinal barrier permeability, as well as redistribution of sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of the intestinal epithelium. Unlike other viral enterotoxins that have been identified, astrovirus capsid induces diarrhea after oral administration, reproducing the natural route of infection and demonstrating that ingestion of intact noninfectious capsid protein may be sufficient to provoke acute diarrhea. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the astrovirus capsid acts like an enterotoxin and induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  6. Is there a relationship between low vitamin D and rotaviral diarrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Ibrahim Hakan; Ozturk, Agah Bahadır; Almis, Habip; Cevik, Muhammer Özgür; Tekin, Mehmet; Konca, Çapan; Turgut, Mehmet; Bulbul, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    For children under 5 years of age, 1700 000 000 episodes of diarrhea are seen worldwide, and death occurs in 700 000 of these cases due to diarrhea. Rotavirus is an important cause of diarrhea in this age group, and many studies have shown that vitamin D plays a pivotal role in the immune system, as well as in antimicrobial peptide gene expression. In addition, lower vitamin D has been correlated with higher rates of infectious diseases such as respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, and viral infection. Seventy patients with rotaviral diarrhea and 67 healthy patients were enrolled in this study. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) (25(OH)D(3)), parathormone, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, complete blood count parameters, and C-reactive protein were compared between pre-school children hospitalized due to rotaviral diarrhea and healthy children. Additionally, birthweight, feeding habits in the first 6 months of life, vitamin D and multivitamin supplements, and rotaviral vaccinations were also evaluated in each group. There were no differences between the groups with regard to gender and age, but 25(OH)D(3) was significantly different: 14.6 ± 8.7 ng/mL in the rotaviral diarrhea patients versus 29.06 ± 6.51 ng/mL in the health controls (P vitamin D is associated with rotaviral diarrhea. This is the first study in the literature to show this, and this result needs to be repeated in larger controlled clinical studies. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis

  8. Molecular epidemiology of bovine coronavirus on the basis of comparative analyses of the S gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lihong; Hägglund, Sara; Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil

    2006-01-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), a group 2 member of the genus Coronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, is an important pathogen in cattle worldwide. It causes diarrhea in adult animals (winter dysentery), as well as enteric and respiratory diseases in calves. The annual occurrence of BCoV epidemics...

  9. COMPLEX TREATMENT OF DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Tsimbalova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents modern data on syndrome of acute diarrhea in children, its etiology and mechanisms of development of different types of this disease, its clinical symptoms, differential diagnosis, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnostics. Author gives review of pathogenetic treatment and opportunities of therapy with enterosorbates, taking into account etiology of diarrhea. Another chapter of the article describes opportunities and methods of oral hydration depending of extent of exicosis. Key words: acute diarrhea, children, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, etiotropic therapy, enterosorbates, oral hydration.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:111-1116

  10. Bile acids in radiation-induced diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlow, F.L.; Dekovich, A.A.; Priest, R.J.; Beher, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced bowel disease manifested by debilitating diarrhea is an unfortunate consequence of therapeutic irradiation for pelvic malignancies. Although the mechanism for this diarrhea is not well understood, many believe it is the result of damage to small bowel mucosa and subsequent bile acid malabsorption. Excess amounts of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy components, are known to induce water and electrolyte secretion and increase bowel motility. We have directly measured individual and total bile acids in the stool samples of 11 patients with radiation-induced diarrhea and have found bile acids elevated two to six times normal in eight of them. Our patients with diarrhea and increased bile acids in their stools had prompt improvement when given cholestyramine. They had fewer stools and returned to a more normal life-style

  11. Straight Poop on Kids and Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coma, organ failure, and, in rare circumstances, death. Rehydration “Mild diarrhea is a discomfort, but not dangerous ... a change in diet and treatment with oral rehydration solutions may be necessary. Oral rehydration solutions, also ...

  12. COMPLEX TREATMENT OF DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    E.G. Tsimbalova

    2010-01-01

    The article presents modern data on syndrome of acute diarrhea in children, its etiology and mechanisms of development of different types of this disease, its clinical symptoms, differential diagnosis, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnostics. Author gives review of pathogenetic treatment and opportunities of therapy with enterosorbates, taking into account etiology of diarrhea. Another chapter of the article describes opportunities and methods of oral hydration depending of extent ...

  13. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  14. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  15. THERAPY OF DIARRHEA AND DEHYDRATION IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    E.G. Tsymbalova; R.F. Tepaev

    2011-01-01

    Dehydration is one of the leading causes of mortality in children. The most frequent cause of dehydration in children is diarrhea syndrome. Timely differential diagnostics of etiological causes, assessment of severity, dehydration type are critical conditions of successful therapy of diarrhea syndrome. The article provides modern recommendations on diagnostics and treatment of dehydration depending on the type and severity, on correction of electrolyte abnormalities. The authors also highligh...

  16. Evaluating the Patient With Diarrhea: A Case-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Seth

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the patient with diarrhea can be complex and the treatment challenging. In this article, the definition of diarrhea and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to diarrhea are reviewed. A simplified 5-step approach to the patient with diarrhea is provided and applied in a case-oriented manner applicable to everyday clinical practice. On completion of this article, you should be able to (1) define diarrhea, (2) outline various pathophysiologic mechanisms of diarrhea, and (3) describe a simplified 5-step approach to facilitate the evaluation of diarrhea. PMID:22677080

  17. Probiotics and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawicz, Christina M.

    Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotics. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea in 5-25% of individuals who take them but its occurrence is unpredictable. Diarrhea due to antibiotics is called antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Diarrhea may be mild and resolve when antibiotics are discontinued, or it may be more severe. The most severe form of AAD is caused by overgrowth of Clostridium difficile which can cause severe diarrhea, colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, or even fatal toxic megacolon. Rates of diarrhea vary with the specific antibiotic as well as with the individual susceptibility.

  18. [Diarrhea, from the gastroenterologist's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajor, Judit; Beró, Tamás

    2009-08-30

    Patients seeking help from gastroenterologist have frequent complaints of changes in the quality and quantity of stool as well in the frequency of bowel movements. Definition of diarrhea includes: more than three bowel movements daily, more than 200 grams of the stool daily, and its water content exceeding 75-85%. Diarrhea lowers the quality of life and can be a sign of organic disease. Its course can be acute and chronic. According to the pathomechanism, diarrheas can be divided into four different types: exudative (inflammatory), osmotic, dismotility and secretory. Acute diarrheas are usually infective, and sometimes they result in very serious conditions. Their course runs from a few days to a couple of weeks. If diarrhea persists more than four weeks, it is the chronic variant and it justifies gastroenterological examination. During the evaluation, we have to think of endocrine, autoimmune, allergic, postoperative states and the side effect of medications beside primer gastroenterological causes. To differentiate from a number of wide scale of clinical pictures and to reach the correct diagnosis, we are aided by the characteristics of diarrhea, the accompanying symptoms, laboratory values and invasive examinations. With the present summary, we would like to give a guide to the practicing physicians, mainly with a symptom-oriented approach.

  19. BVDV: Detection, Risk Management and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The terms bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are difficult to define in simple straightforward statements because both are umbrella terms covering a wide range of observations and entities. While diarrhea is in the name, BVD, it is used in reference to a number of ...

  20. How do the rotavirus NSP4 and bacterial enterotoxins lead differently to diarrhea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasseur Monique

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rotavirus is the major cause of infantile gastroenteritis and each year causes 611 000 deaths worldwide. The virus infects the mature enterocytes of the villus tip of the small intestine and induces a watery diarrhea. Diarrhea can occur with no visible tissue damage and, conversely, the histological lesions can be asymptomatic. Rotavirus impairs activities of intestinal disaccharidases and Na+-solute symports coupled with water transport. Maldigestion of carbohydrates and their accumulation in the intestinal lumen as well as malabsorption of nutrients and a concomitant inhibition of water reabsorption can lead to a malabsorption component of diarrhea. Since the discovery of the NSP4 enterotoxin, diverse hypotheses have been proposed in favor of an additional secretion component in the pathogenesis of diarrhea. Rotavirus induces a moderate net chloride secretion at the onset of diarrhea, but the mechanisms appear to be quite different from those used by bacterial enterotoxins that cause pure secretory diarrhea. Rotavirus failed to stimulate Cl- secretion in crypt, whereas it stimulated Cl- reabsorption in villi, questioning, therefore, the origin of net Cl- secretion. A solution to this riddle was that intestinal villi do in fact secrete chloride as a result of rotavirus infection. Also, the overall chloride secretory response is regulated by a phospholipase C-dependent calcium signaling pathway induced by NSP4. However, the overall response is weak, suggesting that NSP4 may exert both secretory and subsequent anti-secretory actions, as did carbachol, hence limiting Cl- secretion. All these characteristics provide the means to make the necessary functional distinction between viral NSP4 and bacterial enterotoxins.

  1. Perspectives on avian and bovine leukemia virus immunological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, T.; Souza, J.M.M. de; Nogueira, Z.M.; Ogata, H.

    1984-01-01

    The avian and bovine RNA virus are studied. The mechanism of replication, the genome, the ultrastructural composition, the immunogens reactivity, the class of determinants and affinity are presented. Purification techniques of viral proteins and immunoassay proceeding are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Effects of gastrointestinal parasites on parasite burden, rectal temperature, and antibody titer responses to vaccination and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, J S; Carroll, J A; Gasbarre, L C; Shelton, T A; Nordstrom, S T; Hutcheson, J P; Van Campen, H; Engle, T E

    2012-06-01

    Thirty-three colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves (initial BW of 131 ± 4 kg) were used to determine the effect of timing of anthelmintic administration relative to vaccination on antibody titer response to vaccine component antigens. When calves were at least 3 mo of age, they were sorted randomly into individual pens and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups, treatments consisted of 1) dewormed 2 wk before vaccination (DPV), 2) dewormed at the time of vaccination (DV), or 3) control, vaccinated but not dewormed (CONT). All calves were inoculated with infective larvae of brown stomach worms (Ostertagia ostertagi) and intestinal worms (Cooperia spp.) on d 1, 7, 10, 14, and 18 for a total dose of 235,710 infective larvae per calf. Calves (DPV and DV) were dewormed on d 21 or 35 with a 10% fenbendazole suspension at 5 mg/kg of BW. On d 35, all calves were vaccinated with a modified-live virus respiratory vaccine containing IBRV (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), BVDV-1 (bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1), BVDV-2 (BVDV genotype 2), PI-3 (parainfluenza-3), and BRSV (bovine respiratory syncytial virus). During the 103-d experiment, weekly fecal egg counts, blood, and rectal temperatures were collected and health status was recorded daily. Blood samples were obtained weekly to determine serum neutralizing (SN) antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 and cytokine levels for IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and IFN-γ (interferon-gamma). There was a tendency (P parasite burden and decreased rectal temperature increase after an IBRV challenge. Deworming strategy had no effect on antibody response to vaccination or IBRV challenge.

  3. Maternal knowledge, attitudes and practice in diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, P; Rajput, V J

    1993-01-01

    In developing countries where diarrhea is a major health problem, mothers are often ignorant about the cause and management of the disease and tend to restrict fluid intake instead of taking steps to prevent dehydration. 300 mothers of children hospitalized in Rewa, India, were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire on their diarrhea knowledge. 74.3% were rural and 80.6% were aged 20-30 years. 70% were illiterate and belonged to the upper lower or lower middle class. Causes of diarrhea cited by the mothers included teething (64.3%), evil eye (46%), contact with another case (36.6%), malnutrition (28.3), worm infestation (22.6%), eating mud (18.6%), mother's food habits (17.6%), eating sweets (17.3%), dirty water (15.3%), hot/cold foods (10.6%), change of food (8.3), and dirty environment (6%). During diarrhea, 266 mothers allowed breast milk, 118 pulses and rice gruel, 104 diluted cow's milk, 57 undiluted cow's milk, 25 boiled pulses water, 23 boiled rice water, 16 banana, 13 oral rehydration solution, 10 a whole diet, 8 tea, and 7 curd. Half of the mothers considered passage of liquid stools 3-5 times a day as diarrhea. Only 3% of the mothers listed dehydration as an important complication of the disease. Of the mothers using oral rehydration therapy, the fluid was often not reconstituted properly, and inadequate amounts were administered. Improved health education for mothers, with information on general hygiene, adequate diet during illness, and the use of oral rehydration solution in diarrhea would reduce diarrhea deaths.

  4. Influenza virus infection among pediatric patients reporting diarrhea and influenza-like illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyeki Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children. While less often reported in adults, gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with influenza in children, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Methods From September 2005 and April 2008, pediatric patients in Indonesia presenting with concurrent diarrhea and influenza-like illness were enrolled in a study to determine the frequency of influenza virus infection in young patients presenting with symptoms less commonly associated with an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Stool specimens and upper respiratory swabs were assayed for the presence of influenza virus. Results Seasonal influenza A or influenza B viral RNA was detected in 85 (11.6% upper respiratory specimens and 21 (2.9% of stool specimens. Viable influenza B virus was isolated from the stool specimen of one case. During the time of this study, human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus were common in the survey area. However, among 733 enrolled subjects, none had evidence of H5N1 virus infection. Conclusions The detection of influenza viral RNA and viable influenza virus from stool suggests that influenza virus may be localized in the gastrointestinal tract of children, may be associated with pediatric diarrhea and may serve as a potential mode of transmission during seasonal and epidemic influenza outbreaks.

  5. Probiotics for Infectious Diarrhea and Traveler's Diarrhea - What Do We Really Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Patricia L.

    Worldwide, diarrhea is the sixth leading cause of premature death (Lopez et al., 2006), accounting for more than two million deaths each year. The majority of the burden is borne in lower and middle income countries, and in children under age 5 (Kosek et al., 2003). Even in the United States where there is easy access to “safe” food and water, there are an estimated 211-375 million episodes of acute diarrhea each year, resulting in 900,000 hospitalizations and 6,000 deaths (Herikstad et al., 2002; Mead et al., 1999). While mortality from diarrhea has decreased over the last 30 years, the incidence and morbidity associated with diarrhea has not improved (Kosek et al., 2003). During the same time period an ever increasing number of enteric pathogens as well as non-infectious conditions have been recognized as causes of acute diarrhea (Guerrant et al., 2001).

  6. BVDV: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a collection of diverse clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive diseases accompanied by immunosuppression. BVD may be caused by one of three different species of bovine pestivirus, bovine viral diarrhea viru...

  7. Syndromic (phenotypic diarrhea in early infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodemer Christine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea (SD, also known as phenotypic diarrhea (PD or tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THE, is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset of severe diarrhea requiring parenteral nutrition (PN. To date, no epidemiological data are available. The estimated prevalence is approximately 1/300,000–400,000 live births in Western Europe. Ethnic origin does not appear to be associated with SD. Infants are born small for gestational age and present with facial dysmorphism including prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism. Hairs are woolly, easily removed and poorly pigmented. Severe and persistent diarrhea starts within the first 6 months of life (≤ 1 month in most cases and is accompanied by severe malabsorption leading to early and relentless protein energy malnutrition with failure to thrive. Liver disease affects about half of patients with extensive fibrosis or cirrhosis. There is currently no specific biochemical profile, though a functional T-cell immune deficiency with defective antibody production was reported. Microscopic analysis of the hair show twisted hair (pili torti, aniso- and poilkilotrichosis, and trichorrhexis nodosa. Histopathological analysis of small intestine biopsy shows non-specific villous atrophy with low or no mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria, and no specific histological abnormalities involving the epithelium. The etiology remains unknown. The frequent association of the disorder with parental consanguinity and/or affected siblings suggests a genetic origin with an autosomal recessive mode of transmission. Early management consists of total PN. Some infants have a rather milder phenotype with partial PN dependency or require only enteral feeding. Prognosis of this syndrome is poor, but most patients now survive, and about half of the patients may be weaned from PN at adolescence, but experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Disease name

  8. Pathogenicity of Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia-associated vaccine-induced alloantibodies correlates with Major Histocompatibility Complex class 1 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, L.; Luteijn, Rutger D.; Otten, H.; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Kooten, van P.J.S.; Wiertz, E.J.H.J.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Koets, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), a fatal bleeding syndrome of neonatal calves, is caused by maternal alloantibodies absorbed from colostrum and is characterized by lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and bone marrow hypoplasia. An inactivated viral vaccine is the likely source of alloantigens

  9. Probiotics in antibiotic associated diarrhea in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Homan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics that disturb the gastrointestinal microbiota is associated with diarrhea, which occurs in up to half of treated children. Symptoms are usually mild and children do not need hospitalization. Probiotics are live microorganisms, which restore intestinal microbiota during antibiotic therapy through different mechanisms such as stimulation of immunity, secretion of anti-inflammatory factors, and production of antimicrobial substances. The use of different strains of probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhea was evaluated in several studies in adults but less frequently in pediatric population. They also confirmed the value of probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children, particularly Lactobacillus strain GG and Saccharomyces boulardii. The use of probiotics in childhood is safe. A proper strain must be introduced at the beginning of antibiotic treatment in a sufficient concentration.

  10. Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank milk against two indirect ELISAs using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftaker, Ingrid; Toft, Nils; Stokstad, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in cattle worldwide. The Norwegian control program against these infections is based on herd-level diagnosis using a new multiplex immunoassay. The objective of this study...... was to estimate sensitivity and specificity across different cut-off values for the MVD-Enferplex BCV/BRSV multiplex, by comparing them to a commercially available ELISA, the SVANOVIR® BCV-Ab and SVANOVIR® BRSV-Ab, respectively. We analyzed bulk tank milk samples from 360 herds in a low- and 360 herds in a high...

  11. Diarrhea in enterally fed patients: blame the diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sue-Joan; Huang, Hsiu-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Diarrhea has great impact on enteral nutrition. The purpose of this review is to identify the factors leading to diarrhea during enteral nutrition and to provide the published updates on diarrhea prevention through nutritional intervention. Diarrhea in enteral fed patients is attributed to multiple factors, including medications (major contributor), infections, bacterial contamination, underlying disease, and enteral feeding. Diet management can alleviate diarrhea in enteral feeding. High content of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in enteral formula is postulated to induce diarrhea and lower FODMAPs formula may reduce the likelihood of diarrhea in enterally fed patients. Fiber-enriched formula can reduce the incidence of diarrhea and produce short-chain fatty acids for colonocytes. Ingesting prebiotics, nonviable probiotics or probiotic derivatives, and human lactoferrin may provide alternatives for reducing/preventing diarrhea. Enteral feeding is not generally considered the primary cause of diarrhea, which is frequently linked to prescribed medications. When diarrhea is apparent, healthcare members should evaluate the possible risk factors and systematically attempt to eliminate the underlying causes of diarrhea before reducing or suspending enteral feeding. Lower FODMAPs formula, prebiotics, probiotic derivatives, and lactoferrin may be used to manage enteral feeding-related diarrhea.

  12. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health ... medicines, vitamins, herbs, or supplements I take cause diarrhea? Should I stop taking any of them? What ...

  13. Mechanism of diarrhea in microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protic, Marijana; Jojic, Njegica; Bojic, Daniela; Milutinovic, Svetlana; Necic, Dusanka; Bojic, Bozidar; Svorcan, Petar; Krstic, Miodrag; Popovic, Obren

    2005-09-21

    To search the pathophysiological mechanism of diarrhea based on daily stool weights, fecal electrolytes, osmotic gap and pH. Seventy-six patients were included: 51 with microscopic colitis (MC) (40 with lymphocytic colitis (LC); 11 with collagenous colitis (CC)); 7 with MC without diarrhea and 18 as a control group (CG). They collected stool for 3 d. Sodium and potassium concentration were determined by flame photometry and chloride concentration by titration method of Schales. Fecal osmotic gap was calculated from the difference of osmolarity of fecal fluid and double sum of sodium and potassium concentration. Fecal fluid sodium concentration was significantly increased in LC 58.11+/-5.38 mmol/L (Pdiarrhea compared to fecal osmotic gap. Seven (13.3%) patients had osmotic diarrhea. Diarrhea in MC mostly belongs to the secretory type. The major pathophysiological mechanism in LC could be explained by a decrease of active sodium absorption. In CC, decreased Cl/HCO3 exchange rate and increased chloride secretion are coexistent pathways.

  14. Diarrhea Management Training in Early Childhood Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)

  15. Rota virus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, M. I.; Khan, K. M. A.; Zia, N.; Kazi, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and clinical features of Rota virus diarrhea in children presenting in a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: A cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from January to June 2007. Methodology: A total of three hundred children of either gender aged 1 month to 5 years, who presented with diarrhea of < 7 days as a primary illness were enrolled. Children with bloody diarrhea or nosocomial gastroenteritis acquired during hospitalization for other disease were not included. Detection of Rota virus in stool was done by enzyme linked immunoassay. Results: Out of 300 children, 188 (63%) tested positive and 112 (37%) tested negative for Rota virus. Positive Rota virus cases in 7 - 12 months of age was (n = 34, 18.08%). Overall, 151 (80.3%) children with Rota virus were less than 3 years old. 182 (60.7%) had fever, 118 (39.3%) had vomiting and 156 (82.9%) children had both fever and vomiting. Conclusion: This study shows that Rota virus is a common organism causing diarrhea in children less than 3 years of age. There is a need to incorporate Rota virus vaccine in the national EPI program to decrease the disease burden as highlighted in this study. (author)

  16. Antidiarrheal Medicines: OTC Relief for Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of OTC medicines treat diarrhea? You can buy over-the-counter (OTC) medicines without a prescription from your doctor. Some OTC ... short for "over-the-counter." OTC drugs are medicines you can buy without a prescription from your doctor. About Support ...

  17. Location of food consumption and travelers' diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoa, W S; DuPont, H L; Sullivan, P; Pickering, L K; Holguin, A H; Olarte, J; Evans, D G; Evans, D J

    1977-07-01

    Daily food histories for one month were obtained in summer, 1975, from students attending a Mexican university to determine the influence of food consumption on the development and etiology of diarrhea. In newly-arrived students from the U.S. who ate half or more of their meals in the school cafeteria and public restaurants there were significant increases in diarrhea (p less than 0.005); shigella infection (p less than 0.05) and toxigenic E. coli infection (p less than 0.025) compared to the students eating a comparable number of meals in private homes. In the summer U.S. students there was also an association of diarrhea and eating from street vendors (p less than 0.05). In full-time U.S. students who had lived in Mexico a year or longer as well as in Latin American students a relationship between location of meals and occurrence of enteric disease was not apparent. High numbers of enteric bacteria were recovered from food from the school's cafeteria, public restaurants, street vendors and small grocery stores. Shigella were isolated from cooked and uncooked hamburger patties from the school cafeteria. Four shigella carriers were found among kitchen personnel at the school. This study demonstrates that food serves as a major vehicle through which travelers' diarrhea occurs.

  18. BIOLOGICAL CLONING OF A BOVINE CORONAVIRUS ISOLATE

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, A; Rodríguez, Edisleidy; Relova, Damarys; Barrera, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    Con el objetivo de obtener un aislado de Coronavirus bovino clonado biológicamente se adaptó el aislado VB73/04 a la multiplicación en la línea celular MDBK. Este aislado indujo la formación de placas, las cuales resultaron homogéneas después del clonaje biológico. La población viral obtenida fue identificada como Coronavirus bovino por RT-PCR y Seroneutralización. In order to obtain a biologically cloned bovine coronavirus isolate, the isolate VB73/04 was adapted to multiplication in MDBK...

  19. Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Muje; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children. Authors reviewed epidemiological and clinical data of the rotavirus diarrhea in Kosovo. Methods: This is a prospective study carried between January 1st and December 31st 2011. All data, comprising demographics, nutrition, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, management and outcome of the rotavirus diarrhea are collected on the...

  20. Clinical characteristics of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized Romanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesanu, Gabriela; Becheanu, Cristina Adriana; Vlad, Raluca Maria; Pacurar, Daniela; Tincu, Iulia Florentina; Smadeanu, Roxana Elena

    2013-01-01

    Clinical characteristics of rotavirus enteritis were evaluated by comparison with acute diarrhea of other etiologies. We reviewed the medical records of children (aged 0-12 months) admitted with acute diarrhea in our hospital between January and December 2011. Of the 839 patients, 49.3% had rotavirus diarrhea. The incidence of severe disease was significantly higher for rotavirus diarrhea (65.2%, P < 0.01) than for other types of diarrheal disease.

  1. Post-infectious sequelae of travelers' diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Bradley A; Riddle, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Travelers' diarrhea (TD) has generally been considered a self-limited disorder which resolves more quickly with expeditious and appropriate antibiotic therapy given bacteria are the most frequently identified cause. However, epidemiological, clinical, and basic science evidence identifying a number of chronic health conditions related to these infections has recently emerged which challenges this current paradigm. These include serious and potentially disabling enteric and extra-intestinal long-term complications. Among these are rheumatologic, neurologic, gastrointestinal, renal, and endocrine disorders. This review aims to examine and summarize the current literature pertaining to three of these post-infectious disorders: reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome and the relationship of these conditions to diarrhea associated with travel as well as to diarrhea associated with gastroenteritis which may not be specifically travel related but relevant by shared microbial pathogens. It is hoped this review will allow clinicians who see travelers to be aware of these post-infectious sequelae thus adding to our body of knowledge in travel medicine. Data for this article were identified by searches of PubMed and MEDLINE, and references from relevant articles using search terms "travelers' diarrhea" "reactive arthritis" "Guillain-Barré syndrome" "Post-Infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome." Abstracts were included when related to previously published work. A review of the published literature reveals that potential consequences of travelers' diarrhea may extend beyond the acute illness and these post-infectious complications may be more common than currently recognized. In addition since TD is such a common occurrence it would be helpful to be able to identify those who might be at greater risk of post-infectious sequelae in order to target more aggressive prophylactic or therapeutic approaches to such individuals. It is

  2. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  3. Human rotavirus genotypes causing acute watery diarrhea among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Rotavirus is a major cause of acute watery diarrhea. Aim: This study aims at characterizing the prevalent rotavirus G-genotypes among under.five children presenting with acute watery diarrhea in Benin City, Nigeria.

  4. Incidence of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients with Standard Enteral Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbu Ahmadi bonakdar

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Evaluation of patients receiving Milatech standard formula showed that diarrhea wasn’t seen in hospitalized patients. Diarrhea was reported by the nurses may refer to other diarrhea genic causes including of long length of stay, entral duration or medical side effects or infections.

  5. Diarrhea: Cancer-Related Causes and How to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soon as your diarrhea starts, switch to a diet of clear liquids, such as water, apple juice, clear broth and ice pops. Avoid milk products, as lactose intolerance may be part of your diarrhea. When you have diarrhea, you ... fiber to your diet, such as bananas, rice, applesauce and toast. Eat ...

  6. Predictors of under-five childhood diarrhea: Mecha District, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify predictors of childhood diarrhea. Results: The prevalence of diarrhea among mothers and under-five children was 8.2% and 18.0%, respectively. Maternal education (AOR=5.6, 95% CI: 1.5 - 19.4), maternal history of recent diarrhea (AOR, 5.5 ...

  7. Genotyping and clinical factors in pediatric diarrhea caused by rotaviruses: one-year surveillance in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmo, Subijanto Marto; Shigemura, Katsumi; Athiyyah, Alpha Fardah; Osawa, Kayo; Wardana, Oktavian Prasetia; Darma, Andy; Ranuh, Reza; Raharjo, Dadik; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Shirakawa, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus infections are a major cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus genetics, patient immunity, and environmental factors are thought to be related to the severity of acute diarrhea due to rotavirus in infants and young children. The objective of this study was to provide a correlation between rotavirus genotypes, clinical factors and degree of severity of acute diarrhea in children under 5 years old in Surabaya, Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 1-60 months with acute diarrhea hospitalized in Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia from April to December 2013. Rotavirus in stool specimens was identified by ELISA and genotyping (G-type and P-type) using multiplex reverse transcription PCR. Severity was measured using the Ruuska and Vesikari scoring system. The clinical factors were investigated included patient's age (months), hydration, antibiotic administration, nutritional state, co-bacterial infection and co-viral infection. A total of 88 children met the criteria; 80.7% were aged 6-24 months, watery diarrhea was the most common type (77.3%) and 73.6% of the subjects were co-infected with bacteria, of which pathogenic Escherichia coli was the most common (42.5%). The predominant VP7 genotyping (G-type) was G2 (31.8%) and that of VP4 genotyping (P-type) was P[4] (31.8%). The predominant rotavirus genotype was G2P[4] (19.3%); G1P[4] and G9P[4] were uncommon with a prevalence of 4.5%. There were significant differences between the common genotype and uncommon genotype with respect to the total severity score of diarrhea (p 10 times a day) (p = 0.045) in univariate analyses, but there was no significant correlation between P typing and severity of diarrhea. For combination genotyping of G and P, G2P[4] was significantly correlated with severe diarrhea in multivariate analyses (p = 0.029). There is a correlation between rotavirus genotype and severity of acute diarrhea in

  8. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  9. Cryo-gamma radiation inactivation of bovine herpesvirus type-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgi, C. Fernández; Smolko, E. E.; Lombardo, J. H.

    1999-07-01

    The radioresistance of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), commonly known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), suspended in free serum Glasgow-MEM medium and frozen at -78°C was studied. The number of surviving virus at a given dose of gamma-radiation was determined by a plaque assay system. D 10 values were calculated before and after removal of cell debris. The D 10 values obtained were 4.72 kGy and 7.31 kGy before and after removal of cell debris, respectively. Our results indicate that the inactivated viral particles could be used for vaccine preparation or diagnostic reagents.

  10. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  11. Viral RNA testing and automation on the bead-based CBNE detection microsystem.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Farrell, Cara M.; Rossito, Paul (University of California at Davis); McClain, Jaime L.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Cullor, James Sterling (University of California at Davis); Rahimian, Kamayar

    2008-09-01

    We developed prototype chemistry for nucleic acid hybridization on our bead-based diagnostics platform and we established an automatable bead handling protocol capable of 50 part-per-billion (ppb) sensitivity. We are working towards a platform capable of parallel, rapid (10 minute), raw sample testing for orthogonal (in this case nucleic acid and immunoassays) identification of biological (and other) threats in a single sensor microsystem. In this LDRD we developed the nucleic acid chemistry required for nucleic acid hybridization. Our goal is to place a non-cell associated RNA virus (Bovine Viral Diarrhea, BVD) on the beads for raw sample testing. This key pre-requisite to showing orthogonality (nucleic acid measurements can be performed in parallel with immunoassay measurements). Orthogonal detection dramatically reduces false positives. We chose BVD because our collaborators (UC-Davis) can supply samples from persistently infected animals; and because proof-of-concept field testing can be performed with modification of the current technology platform at the UC Davis research station. Since BVD is a cattle-prone disease this research dovetails with earlier immunoassay work on Botulinum toxin simulant testing in raw milk samples. Demonstration of BVD RNA detection expands the repertoire of biological macromolecules that can be adapted to our bead-based detection. The resources of this late start LDRD were adequate to partially demonstrate the conjugation of the beads to the nucleic acids. It was never expected to be adequate for a full live virus test but to motivate that additional investment. In addition, we were able to reduce the LOD (Limit of Detection) for the botulinum toxin stimulant to 50 ppb from the earlier LOD of 1 ppm. A low LOD combined with orthogonal detection provides both low false negatives and low false positives. The logical follow-on steps to this LDRD research are to perform live virus identification as well as concurrent nucleic acid and

  12. Looking for evidence that personal hygiene precautions prevent traveler's diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlim, David R

    2005-12-01

    In the 50 years during which traveler's diarrhea has been studied, it has always been assumed that personal hygiene precautions can prevent or reduce the likelihood of developing traveler's diarrhea. However, 7 of 8 studies that specifically addressed this issue showed no correlation between the types of food selected and the risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea. The eighth study showed a correlation between a few dietary mistakes and a decreased risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea. A further increase in the number of dietary mistakes, however, did not continue to increase the risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea. Personal hygiene precautions, when performed under the direct supervision of an expatriate operating his or her own kitchen, can prevent traveler's diarrhea, but poor restaurant hygiene in most developing countries continues to create an insurmountable risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea.

  13. Diarrhea and parasitosis in Salta, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramayo, Cristian F; Gil, José F; Cruz, Mercedes C; Poma, Hugo R; Last, Michael S; Rajal, Verónica B

    2009-03-01

    Salta city is the capital of the province with the same name located in the northwest of Argentina. Its great growth over the last decade was not organized and the population expanded to occupy places where water and sanitation were not yet available. Although the Arenales River, crossing the city, receives the impact of point and non-point source pollution, the water is used for many purposes, including domestic in the poorest areas, industrial, and recreational with children as the main users. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 24% of the global disease burden and 23% of all deaths can be attributed to environmental factors. In particular, an estimated 94% of the diarrheal burden of disease is attributable to environment, and is associated with risk factors such as unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation and hygiene. Chronic diarrhea can be caused by an infection or other etiologies; however, most of the times the etiological agent is not identified. All the cases of diarrhea and parasitosis reported during 2005 in four public health centers of the city of Salta were classified by gender and age, analyzed, and represented geographically to show areas of higher morbidity rates, which were probably related to environmental factors. Water, poor sanitation, and pollution are candidate risk factors. Diarrhea cases showed seasonality, with the highest incidence during late spring and summer, while parasitosis was persistent throughout the year. Our spatial analysis permitted us to detect the regions of higher incidence of diarrhea and parasitosis during 2005 in the area of study.

  14. Genome analysis of an atypical bovine pestivirus from fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-08-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a bovine pestivirus LVRI/cont-1 originated from a commercial batch of fetal bovine serum. Its complete genome consists of 12,282 nucleotides (nt), which contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 11,700 bp flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (383 and 199 bp). The size of the 5'UTR and the individual protein coding region of LVRI/cont-1 are identical to those of the reference virus Th/04_KhonKaen, but it has a deletion of the first 56 nt in the 3'UTR. Alignment of the complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicate that this viral isolate belongs to atypical pestiviruses.

  15. Management of chemotherapy induced diarrhea (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Diarrhoea is seen with many tumors and following several chemotherapy regimen esp. those containing 5-fluorouracil and high dose folinic acid it causes debility even death, delays cancer treatment, reduces compliance increases cost. It causes dehydration, renal failure volume depletion. Quality of life is worsened and hospitalization may be needed in multifactorial, with secretion; absorption imbalance due to mucosal damage, necrosis or inflammation. Local infection is set up by opportunistic organism and cell necrosis. The large volume of fluid and electrolytes overwhelms colonic absorptive capacity. Agent usually used for treatment is opioids (such as Diphenoxylate / Loperamide]. Bismuth (for inflammatory diarrhea). NSAIDs or alpha 2-agonists. For optimal management, the cause and severity should be assessed and treatment planned. Advice is given about certain dietary restraints and avoidance of some drugs. Fever, infection, dehydration and electrolyte losses are treated, pain relieved. Diphenoxylate / Loperamide (later is more effective; 4 mg, STAT, then 2mg every 4 hours or even 2 hourly) may be used. It is moderately effective in CID. Octreotide is useful in carcinoid. VIPoma, AIDS idiopathic secretary diarrhea, ileostomy, dumping syndrome. It acts directly on epithelial cells to reduce secretin, motilin pancreatic polypeptide. It slows transit time, reduces fluid and electrolyte secretin, increases absorption of electrolytes. It is effective in 5 FU and high dose chemotherapy with a 90% response rates seen after 3 days treatment. High Dose Chemotherapy and total body irradiation - induced diarrhea usually resolves within 72 hours. (author)

  16. Chronic diarrhea. Diagnosis and clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda O, Luis F; Otero R, William; Arbelaez M, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is a syndrome of great clinical complexity, which is frequently encountered by general physicians, internists and gastroenterologists. Differential diagnosis is very broad and sometime finding the precise cause can be difficult, expensive and frustration. Literature published about this topic lack, in general, adequate controlled studies and for this reason recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment are based upon series of cases, experience of the institutions or expert opinion and not on reasonable evidence. On the other hand, many of the classical diagnostic tests that have survived until now were designed over physiologic foundations and have not been validated extensively with the precision of a clinical test. This limits its acceptance, application and standardization in the daily practice. There is not a general agreement about diagnosis and treatment of chronic diarrhea and many of the experts divert recommendation about their recommendations. The purpose of this paper is to define some general guidelines about the clinical evaluation of patients with chronic diarrhea that lead us to a rational approach based upon clinical trials and the appropriate use of the many different tests

  17. High protective efficacy of probiotics and rice bran against human norovirus infection and diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Lei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are the major pathogens causing nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII.3 and GII.4, then the effects of LGG+EcN and rice bran on HuNoV infection and diarrhea were investigated using the gnotobiotic pig model. While LGG+EcN colonization inhibited HuNoV shedding, probiotic cocktail regimens in which rice bran feeding started 7 days prior to or 1 day after viral inoculation in the LGG+EcN colonized gnotobiotic pigs exhibited high protection against HuNoV diarrhea and shedding, characterized by significantly reduced incidence (89% versus 20% and shorter mean duration of diarrhea (2.2 versus 0.2 days, as well as shorter mean duration of virus shedding (3.2 versus 1.0 days. In both probiotic cocktail groups, the diarrhea reduction rates were 78% compared with the control group, and diarrhea severity was reduced as demonstrated by the significantly lower cumulative fecal scores. The high protective efficacy of the probiotic cocktail regimens was attributed to stimulation of IFN-γ+ T cell responses, increased production of intestinal IgA and IgG, and maintenance of healthy intestinal morphology (manifested as longer villi compared with the control group. Therefore, probiotic cocktail regimens containing LGG+EcN and rice bran may represent highly efficacious strategies to prevent and treat HuNoV gastroenteritis, and potentially other human enteric pathogens.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of travelers' diarrhea management among frontline providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Aatif M; Tribble, David R; Sanders, John W; Faix, Dennis J; Shiau, Danny; Armstrong, Adam W; Riddle, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found acute gastrointestinal infections to be among the most likely reason for clinic visits among forward deployed soldiers and are considered a significant contributor to morbidity in this population. This occurs despite the controlled food and water distribution systems under which military populations operate. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that providers often fail to appropriately identify and treat the typical causes of these infections. To adequately address this issue, an assessment of gaps in knowledge, practice, and management of acute diarrhea in deployed troops was conducted. A multiple-choice survey was developed by clinical researchers with expertise in travelers' diarrhea (TD) and provided to a convenience sample of clinical providers with a broad range of training and operational experience. The survey evaluated provider's knowledge of TD along with their ability to identify etiologies of various syndromic categories of acute gastrointestinal infections. Providers were also queried on selection of treatment approaches to a variety of clinical-based scenarios. A total of 117 respondents completed the survey. Most were aware of the standard definition of TD (77%); however, their knowledge about the epidemiology was lower, with less than 24% correctly answering questions on etiology of diarrhea, and 31% believing that a viral pathogen was the primary cause of watery diarrhea during deployment. Evaluation of scenario-based responses showed that 64% of providers chose not to use antibiotics to treat moderate TD. Furthermore, 19% of providers felt that severe inflammatory diarrhea was best treated with hydration only while 25% felt hydration was the therapy of choice for dysentery. Across all provider types, three practitioner characteristics appeared to be related to better scores on responses to the nine management scenarios: having a Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathy degree, greater knowledge of TD epidemiology

  19. Viral aggregating and opsonizing activity in collectin trimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L; White, Mitchell R; Tecle, Tesfaldet

    2010-01-01

    of bovine serum collectin CL-46 induces aggregation of influenza A virus (IAV) and potently increases IAV uptake by neutrophils. CL-46-NCRD showed calcium-dependent and sugar-sensitive binding to both neutrophils and IAV. Replacement of specific residues of the CRD of human SP-D with those found in bovine...... were further increased by cross-linking of hSP-D-NCRD/R343V trimers with mAbs directed against areas of the hSP-D-NCRD not involved in viral binding. Unlike the wild-type human SP-D hSP-D-NCRD, hSP-D-NCRD/R343V also induced viral aggregation. These results indicate that collectins can act as opsonins...

  20. Mobil Viral Pazarlama

    OpenAIRE

    Barutçu, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mobile Viral Marketing, with using mobile phones, is one of the most importantinnovations after Word of Mouth Marketing performed by face to face amongpeople and Viral Marketing performed in the İnternet. The main objective of thisstudy is to call marketing communicators’ and academicians’ attentions whowant to increase the recognition of companies’ products, services and brands tobecome a current issue in the marketplace using Mobile Viral Marketingapplications by reason of techno...

  1. Predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and associated variables in children at the Lambayeque Regional Hospital, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Silva-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the type and frequency of predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and their associated characteristics in children treated at Hospital Regional Lambayeque (HRL - Peru. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in 70 fecal samples between March and May 2015. These samples were studied by coproculture and immunochromatography for the detection of enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses, respectively, while enteroparasites were sought by direct microscopic examination, Kinyoun staining method and ELISA for the detection of coproantigens (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Leukocyte count and chemical tests (Benedict, Thevenon and Sudan III were also performed for the functional study of the diarrheal disease. Results: In 48.6% of the samples, the infectious etiology of diarrhea was detected, prevailing the parasitic cause (25.8%, followed by the bacterial (17.1% and viral (5.8% ones. The most common enteropathogens were G. lamblia (18.6% and Salmonella enteritidis (10.0%. An association between greater than 100 fecal leukocytes per field and the bacterial etiology (p=0.027 was observed, while less than 10 fecal leukocytes per field (p=0.002 and a positive Sudam III test (p=0.003 were associated with the parasitic etiology. Conclusions: In more than half of the samples (51.4% the infectious etiology of diarrhea could not be proven, whereas Giardia lamblia was the most frequent cause of diarrhea in the studied population. However, it is necessary to implement more sensitive and specific techniques for the detection of a greater range of enteropathogens with which to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease

  2. The Role of MicroRNAs in Bovine Infection and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eLawless

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are recognised as critical regulators of immune gene expression during infection. Many immunologically significant human miRNAs have been found to be conserved in agriculturally important species, including cattle. Discovering how bovine miRNAs mediate the immune defence during infection is critical to understanding the aetiology of the most prevalent bovine diseases. Here, we review current knowledge of miRNAs in the bovine genome, and discuss the advances in understanding of miRNAs as regulators of immune cell function, and bovine immune response activation, regulation, and resolution. Finally, we consider the future perspectives on miRNAs in bovine viral disease, their role as potential biomarkers and in therapy.

  3. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  4. Acid-base disorders in calves with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, M; Kupczyński, R; Sobiech, P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze disorders of acid-base balance in calves with chronic diarrhea caused by mixed, viral, bacterial and Cryptosporydium parvum infection. We compared results ob- tained with the classic model (Henderson-Hasselbalch) and strong ion approach (the Steward model). The study included 36 calves aged between 14 and 21 days. The calves were allocated to three groups: I - (control) non-diarrheic calves, group II - animals with compensated acid-base imbalance and group III calves with compensated acid-base disorders and hypoalbuminemia. Plasma concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl-, C12+, Mg2+, P, albumin and lactate were measured. In the classic model, acid-base balance was determined on the basis of blood pH, pCO2, HCO3-, BE and anion gap. In the strong ion model, strong ion difference (SID), effective strong anion difference, total plasma concentration of nonvolatile buffers (A(Tot)) and strong ion gap (SIG) were measured. The control calves and the animals from groups II and III did not differ significantly in terms of their blood pH. The plasma concentration of HCO3-, BE and partial pressure of CO2 in animals from the two groups with chronic diarrhea were significantly higher than those found in the controls. The highest BE (6.03 mmol/l) was documented in calves from group II. The animals from this group presented compensation resulted from activation of metabolic mechanisms. The calves with hypoal- buminemia (group III) showed lower plasma concentrations of albumin (15.37 g/L), Cl (74.94 mmol/L), Mg2+ (0.53 mmol/L), P (1.41 mmol/L) and higher value of anion gap (39.03 mmol/L). This group III presented significantly higher SID3 (71.89 mmol/L), SID7 (72.92 mmol/L) and SIG (43.53 mmol/L) values than animals from the remaining groups (P acid-base disturbance in these cases suggests that classic model have some limitations. This model can not be recommended for use whenever serum albumin or phosphate concentrations are markedly abnormal.

  5. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabre Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la

  6. Bovine herpesvirus 1 interferes with TAP-dependent peptide transport and intracellular trafficking of MHC class I molecules in human cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppers-Lalic, D.; Rychlowski, M.; Leeuwen, D.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Ressing, M.E.; Neefjes, J.J.; Bienkowska-Szewczyk, K.; Wiertz, E.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), the cause of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle, establishes a lifelong infection, despite the presence of antiviral immunity in the host. BoHV-1 has been shown to elude the host immune system, but the viral gene products

  7. Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Management of Chronic Watery Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Sellin, Joseph H.; Barrett, Kim E.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic watery diarrhea poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is often a disabling condition for patients. Although acute diarrhea is likely to be caused by infection, the causes of chronic diarrhea (more than 4 weeks in duration) are more elusive. We review on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic diarrhea. Drawing on recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of intestinal epithelial transport and barrier function, we discuss how diarrhea can result from a decrease in luminal solute absorption, an increase in secretion, or both, as well as derangements in barrier properties. We also describe the various extra-epithelial factors that activate diarrheal mechanisms. Finally, clinical evaluation and tests used in assessment of patients presenting with chronic diarrhea are reviewed, and an algorithm guiding therapeutic decisions and pharmacotherapy is presented. PMID:27773805

  8. Intestinal coccidia in Cuban pediatric patients with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez FA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From May to August 1999, we evaluated 401 patients from a pediatric hospital of Havana City. One group was composed of 113 patients with diarrhea admitted to the Gastroenterology ward and a second consisted of 288 patients without diarrhea, admitted for other reasons, and hospitalized within the same time period. Three stool samples were collected from each child and were examined using three parasitological techniques. When we compared the frequency of parasite species between both groups, we found Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis, only in the group of children with diarrhea (P 0.05. In addition, in those children infected with Cryptosporidium, the diarrhea had a more prolonged duration (P < 0.01, while those infected with Cyclospora, the abdominal cramps or pain, and acute diarrhea were more frequently detected (P < 0.01. Our results showed that emerging intestinal coccidia are pathogens strongly associated in this group of children with diarrhea.

  9. [Lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Min; Jiang, Yi; Hu, Yu-Lian; Yang, Hui; Dong, Tian-Jin

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the development of lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea and its association with diarrhea, and to evaluate the diagnostic values of fecal pH value and urine galactose determination for neonatal lactase deficiency. Seventy hospitalized neonates who developed non-infectious diarrhea between October 2012 and June 2015 were enrolled as the diarrhea group, and 162 hospitalized neonates without non-infectious diarrhea were enrolled as the non-diarrhea group. Test paper was used to determine fecal pH value. The galactose oxidase method was used to detect urine galactose. The neonates with positive galactose oxidase were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, and those with lactase deficiency and diarrhea were diagnosed with lactose intolerance. According to the results of urine galactose detection, 69 neonates in the diarrhea group who underwent urine galactose detection were classified into lactose intolerance group (45 neonates) and lactose tolerance group (24 neonates), and their conditions after treatment were compared between the two groups. The follow-up visits were performed for neonates with diarrhea at 3 months after discharge. Fecal pH value and positive rate of urine galactose (65% vs 54%) showed no significant differences between the diarrhea and non-diarrhea groups (P>0.05). Fecal pH value showed no significant difference between the lactose intolerance and lactose tolerance groups (P>0.05), while the neonates in the lactose intolerance group had a significantly longer time to recovery of defecation than those in the lactose tolerance group (Plactose intolerance tends to occur. Determination of fecal pH value has no significance in the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in neonates with diarrhea.

  10. Caracterização de anticorpos monoclonais contra rotavírus bovino e suas aplicações como ferramenta de diagnóstico Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against bovine rotavirus and their diagnostic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Beck

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Anticorpos monoclonais (AcM para rotavírus bovino foram caracterizados para sua aplicação como ferramenta de diagnóstico, utilizando-se as técnicas de isotipificação, dot-blot, western-blot, imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e ELISA de captura. A caracterização imunoquímica demonstrou que os cinco AcM 1G5, 4F7, 1E12, 4F3 e 3C12 foram do isótipo IgG2a. Pela técnica de dot-blot, os AcM 1G5, 4F7, 1E12, 4F3 detectaram antígenos do rotavírus, em diferentes concentrações, e dois AcM (1E12 e 4F3 reconheceram proteínas virais pela técnica de western-blot. Todos os AcM reagiram positivamente na técnica de IFI em cultivo celular e foram capazes de detectar antígeno viral em amostras fecais bovinas e humanas, pela técnica de ELISA de captura. Identificaram-se dois grupos de AcM, um deles formado pelos AcM 4F7, 1E12 e 1G5, para seu possível uso na detecção de antígeno viral em fezes por meio do ELISA de captura ou dot-blot e outro pelos 4F3 e 3C12, que podem ser usados para detectar antígeno viral em culturas de células por meio de IFI.This work was carried out to characterize and evaluate five bovine rotavirus, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs, as a diagnosis tool, by isotyping, dot-blot, western-blot, indirect immunofluorescence (IFI and ELISA techniques. The immunochemistry characterization showed that all five MAbs (4F7, 4F3, 1G5, 1E12 and 3C12 were IgG2a isotype. The dot-blot immunoassay showed that 1G5, 4F7, 1E12 and 4F3 detected viral antigen in different concentrations and two MAbs (1E12 and 4F3 recognized viral proteins by western-blot. All MAbs detected viral antigen in bovine and human fecal samples by capture ELISA technique and viral antigen in infected MA-104 cell culture by IFI. In conclusion, two groups of Mabs were indetified: one with Mabs 4F7, 1E12 and 1G5 showed the best results to detect rotavirus antigen in fecal samples by capture ELISA or dot-blot techniques assay and other with 4F3 and 3C12 which may be used to

  11. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  12. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  13. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  14. Clinical results of galantase for diarrhea due to gynecological radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Akiteru; Higuchi, Akira.

    1977-01-01

    Galantase, a preparation of lactose-decomposing enzyme, was used for 20 radiotherapeutic patients for prevention and treatment of diarrhea. The results were compared with those of 58 control cases without administration. In the 58 cases, the timing of onset of diarrhea during irradiation was examined, and the mechanism of onset of radioinjury in the digestive tract was discussed. Galantase 6 g/day was administered to 13 of the 20 patients simultaneously with institution of irradiation and to 7 patients simultaneously with the onset of diarrhea during irradiation. As radiotherapy, the patients were given remote cobalt irradiation 5 times a week, each consisting of 200 rad, a total dose of 5,000 rad, in a field of 14 - 16 x 14 - 16 cm by way of 2 ports (anterior and posterior). Diarrhea and soft stool both appeared by irradiation of less than 300 rad, and diarrhea was observed in 84%. Temporal diarrhea occurred in 3 of the 13 patients given galantase simultaneously with irradiation. Diarrhea continued for 6 days in one of the 6 cases in which galantase was administered simultaneously with the onset of diarrhea or watery stool. In the other 5, the stool recovered to be soft or normal 2-3 days after administration. Diarrhea during irradiaion appeared in 21.4% of the cases given galantase and 42.1% of those without it. The clinical value of galantase was recognized. (Chiba, N.)

  15. Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Muje; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children. Authors reviewed epidemiological and clinical data of the rotavirus diarrhea in Kosovo. Methods: This is a prospective study carried between January 1st and December 31st 2011. All data, comprising demographics, nutrition, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, management and outcome of the rotavirus diarrhea are collected on the specially designed form. Results: 116 children with rotavirus diarrhea are included in the study. The majority boys (74.4%) and children aged 0 – 12 months (82.75%). Mean age of children in the study was 16.38 months. Almost every third child in the study was hypotrophic (29.2%). More than half of the infants (55.2%) were on mixed food, somewhat more than every third was breast feeding (36.45%), and every twelfth (8.33%) was on artificial milk (animal or formula). Apart from diarrhea, present in all patients, vomiting (97.41%) and fever (43.96%) were characteristics of the clinical presentation of the diarrhea. Two thirds of the children had mild grade dehydration (70.7%). All patients recovered with no sequels. Conclusion: Rotavirus continues to be responsible for a significant portion of acute diarrhea in Kosovo. Clinical features, epidemiological data and the agglutination test are safe enough to establish the diagnosis. Treated correctly rotavirus diarrhea has a favorable outcome. PMID:25568634

  16. Clinical results of galantase for diarrhea due to gynecological radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, A [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Higuchi, A

    1977-10-01

    Galantase, a preparation of lactose-decomposing enzyme, was used for 20 radiotherapeutic patients for prevention and treatment of diarrhea. The results were compared with those of 58 control cases without administration. In the 58 cases, the timing of onset of diarrhea during irradiation was examined, and the mechanism of onset of radioinjury in the digestive tract was discussed. Galantase 6 g/day was administered to 13 of the 20 patients simultaneously with institution of irradiation and to 7 patients simultaneously with the onset of diarrhea during irradiation. As radiotherapy, the patients were given remote cobalt irradiation 5 times a week, each consisting of 200 rad, a total dose of 5,000 rad, in a field of 14 - 16 x 14 - 16 cm by way of 2 ports (anterior and posterior). Diarrhea and soft stool both appeared by irradiation of less than 300 rad, and diarrhea was observed in 84%. Temporal diarrhea occurred in 3 of the 13 patients given galantase simultaneously with irradiation. Diarrhea continued for 6 days in one of the 6 cases in which galantase was administered simultaneously with the onset of diarrhea or watery stool. In the other 5, the stool recovered to be soft or normal 2-3 days after administration. Diarrhea during irradiaion appeared in 21.4% of the cases given galantase and 42.1% of those without it. The clinical value of galantase was recognized.

  17. Acute viral gastroenteritis in children hospitalized in Iksan, Korea during December 2010 - June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Whoan So

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Viral etiology is common in cases of children with acute diarrhea, and antibiotic therapy is usually not required. Therefore, it is important to determine the distribution of common viruses among children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Methods: We included 186 children who suffered from acute diarrhea and were hospitalized at the Wonkwang University Hospital Pediatric ward from December 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011 in this study. Stool samples were collected and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (multiplex RT-PCR was used to simultaneously determine the viral etiology such as rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, or adenovirus.&lt;br&gt; Results: Causative viruses were detected in 72 of the 186 cases (38.7%. The mean age of the viruspositive cases was 1 year and 9 months (range, 1 month to 11 years. Rotavirus was detected in 50/186 (26.9%; norovirus, in 18/186 (9.7%; and astrovirus, in 3/186 cases (1.6%. Adenovirus was not detected in any of the cases. Proportions of norovirus genogroups I and II were 21.1% and 78.9%, respectively. Four of the 51 rotavirus-positive cases (7.8% had received rotavirus vaccination at least once. The mean duration of diarrhea was 2.8 days (range, 1 to 10 days and vomiting occurred in 39 of the 72 cases (54.2%.&lt;br&gt; Conclusion: Viral etiology was confirmed in about one-third of the children with acute diarrhea, and the most common viral agent was rotavirus, followed by norovirus.

  18. Diarrhea & Child Care: Controlling Diarrhea in Out-of-Home Child Care. NCEDL Spotlights, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Robin B.; Pickering, Larry K.

    This report, the fourth in the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlights" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during a "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses controlling diarrhea in out-of-home child care. The report…

  19. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) And Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses (‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses) were iden...

  20. Proposed revision to the taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Donald B.; Meyers, Gregor; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    to by their original names. The original species would be re-designated as Pestivirus A (original designation Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1), Pestivirus B (Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2), Pestivirus C (Classical swine fever virus) and Pestivirus D (Border disease virus). The seven new species (and example isolates...

  1. Coinfection with Tritrichomonas foetus and Giardia duodenalis in Two Cats with Chronic Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Zanzani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Tritrichomonas foetus and Giardia duodenalis mixed infection was diagnosed in two Maine Coon cats aged six months. One of them presented a history of chronic liquid diarrhea and of several unsuccessful treatments. In both cats, G. duodenalis and trichomonads were detected in fecal smears from freshly voided feces; the presence of T. foetus was confirmed by a real-time PCR assay. The cats completely recovered after treatment with ronidazole. In a refrigerated fecal sample collected from the cat with chronic diarrhea, drop-shaped trichomonad pseudocysts smaller than G. duodenalis cysts were detected. They appeared brownish or light-bluish when stained with Lugol’s solution or with Giemsa stain, respectively, and their morphological features were similar to those expressed by bovine T. foetus pseudocysts in vitro. Existence of pseudocysts even in feline trichomonads is noteworthy as they could represent a form of protozoan resistance due to unfavorable conditions whose detection in refrigerated feces can be a useful clue for clinicians.

  2. Viral Disease Networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  3. A Novel, Highly Selective Inhibitor of Pestivirus Replication That Targets the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeshuyse, Jan; Leyssen, Pieter; Mabery, Eric; Boddeker, Nina; Vrancken, Robert; Froeyen, Matheus; Ansari, Israrul H.; Dutartre, Hélène; Rozenski, Jef; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Letellier, Carine; Lanford, Robert; Canard, Bruno; Koenen, Frank; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Donis, Ruben O.; Herdewijn, Piet; Watson, Julia; De Clercq, Erik; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Neyts, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We report on the highly potent and selective antipestivirus activity of 5-[(4-bromophenyl)methyl]-2-phenyl-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (BPIP). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) for inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-induced cytopathic effect formation was 0.04 ± 0.01 μM. Comparable reduction of viral RNA synthesis (EC50 = 0.12 ± 0.02 μM) and production of infectious virus (EC50 = 0.074 ± 0.003 μM) were observed. The selectivity index (ratio of 50% cytostatic concentration/EC50) of BPIP was ∼2,000. BPIP was inactive against the hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon and yellow fever virus but demonstrated weak activity against GB virus. Drug-resistant mutants were at least 300-fold less susceptible to BPIP than wild-type virus; showed cross-resistance to N-propyl-N-[2-(2H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indol-3-ylthio)ethyl]-1-propanamine (VP32947), and carried the F224S mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). When the F224S mutation was introduced into an infectious clone, the drug-resistant phenotype was obtained. BPIP did not inhibit the in vitro activity of recombinant BVDV RdRp, but did inhibit the activity of replication complexes (RCs). Computational docking revealed that F224 is located at the top of the finger domain of the polymerase. Docking of BPIP in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed aromatic ring stacking, some hydrophobic contacts, and a hydrogen bond. Since two structurally unrelated compounds, i.e., BPIP and VP32947, target the same region of the BVDV RdRp, this position may be expected to be critical in the functioning of the polymerase or assembly of the RC. The potential of BPIP for the treatment of pestivirus and hepacivirus infections is discussed. PMID:16352539

  4. Effectiveness and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii for acute infectious diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Eren, Makbule; Ozen, Metehan; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2012-04-01

    Acute diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of morbidity, hospitalization and mortality worldwide and probiotics have been proposed as a complementary therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhea. Regarding the treatment of acute diarrhea, a few probiotics including Saccharomyces boulardii seem to be promising therapeutic agents. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the use of S. boulardii in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea with relevant studies that searched with the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Library, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews through October 2011. This review describes the effects of S. boulardii on the duration of diarrhea, the risk of diarrhea during the treatment (especially at the third day) and duration of hospitalization in patients with acute infectious diarrhea. This review also focused on the potential effects of S. boulardii for acute infectious diarrhea due to different etiological causes. S. boulardii significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea approximately 24 h and that of hospitalization approximately 20 h. S. boulardii shortened the initial phase of watery stools; mean number of stools started to decrease at day 2; moreover, a significant reduction was reported at days 3 and 4. This systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of S. boulardii in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea show that there is strong evidence that this probiotic has a clinically significant benefit, whatever the cause, including in developing countries. Therefore, with S. boulardii, the shortened duration of diarrhea and the reduction in hospital stay result in social and economic benefits.

  5. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Example non-viral images. Figure 1: Top: Images with high viral scores in our dataset depict internet “celebrity” memes ex. “Grumpy Cat”; Bottom: Images...of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...doing any of our tasks. The test included questions about widely spread Reddit memes and jargon so that anyone familiar with Reddit can easily get a high

  6. Alterations in the colonic microbiota in response to osmotic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Trajanoski, Slave; Lackner, Stefan; Stocker, Gernot; Hinterleitner, Thomas; Gülly, Christian; Högenauer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract are often accompanied by diarrhea with profound alterations in the GI microbiota termed dysbiosis. Whether dysbiosis is due to the disease itself or to the accompanying diarrhea remains elusive. With this study we characterized the net effects of osmotic diarrhea on the composition of the GI microbiota in the absence of disease. We induced osmotic diarrhea in four healthy adults by oral administration of polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG). Stool as well as mucosa specimens were collected before, during and after diarrhea and 16S rDNA-based microbial community profiling was used to assess the microbial community structure. Stool and mucosal microbiotas were strikingly different, with Firmicutes dominating the mucosa and Bacteroidetes the stools. Osmotic diarrhea decreased phylotype richness and showed a strong tendency to equalize the otherwise individualized microbiotas on the mucosa. Moreover, diarrhea led to significant relative shifts in the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to a relative increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria on the mucosa, a phenomenon also noted in several inflammatory and diarrheal GI diseases. Changes in microbial community structure induced by osmotic diarrhea are profound and show similarities to changes observed in other GI diseases including IBD. These effects so must be considered when specimens from diarrheal diseases (i.e. obtained by stratification of samples according to diarrheal status) or conditions wherein bowel preparations like PEG (i.e. specimens obtained during endoscopy) are used.

  7. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Camila A A; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves C; Frota, Priscila B; Figueiredo, Italo L; Aragão, Karoline S; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C; de Carvalho, Cibele B M; Lima, Aldo Ângelo M; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Guerrant, Richard L; Moore, Sean R; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2014-08-05

    WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc's anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Brazil regional diet (RBD) for two weeks, followed by oral gavage with a saturated lactose solution (30 g/kg) in the last 7 days to induce osmotic diarrhea. Animals were checked for diarrhea daily after lactose intake. Blood was drawn in order to measure serum zinc levels by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were euthanized to harvest jejunal tissue for histology and cytokine profiles by ELISA. In a subset of animals, spleen samples were harvested under aseptic conditions to quantify bacterial translocation. Oral zinc supplementation increased serum zinc levels following lactose-induced osmotic diarrhea. In undernourished rats, zinc improved weight gain following osmotic diarrhea and significantly reduced diarrheal scores by the third day of lactose intake (p diarrhea and undernutrition and support the use of zinc to prevent the vicious cycle of malnutrition and diarrhea.

  8. Alterations in the colonic microbiota in response to osmotic diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Gorkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diseases of the human gastrointestinal (GI tract are often accompanied by diarrhea with profound alterations in the GI microbiota termed dysbiosis. Whether dysbiosis is due to the disease itself or to the accompanying diarrhea remains elusive. With this study we characterized the net effects of osmotic diarrhea on the composition of the GI microbiota in the absence of disease. METHODS: We induced osmotic diarrhea in four healthy adults by oral administration of polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG. Stool as well as mucosa specimens were collected before, during and after diarrhea and 16S rDNA-based microbial community profiling was used to assess the microbial community structure. RESULTS: Stool and mucosal microbiotas were strikingly different, with Firmicutes dominating the mucosa and Bacteroidetes the stools. Osmotic diarrhea decreased phylotype richness and showed a strong tendency to equalize the otherwise individualized microbiotas on the mucosa. Moreover, diarrhea led to significant relative shifts in the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to a relative increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria on the mucosa, a phenomenon also noted in several inflammatory and diarrheal GI diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in microbial community structure induced by osmotic diarrhea are profound and show similarities to changes observed in other GI diseases including IBD. These effects so must be considered when specimens from diarrheal diseases (i.e. obtained by stratification of samples according to diarrheal status or conditions wherein bowel preparations like PEG (i.e. specimens obtained during endoscopy are used.

  9. Diarrhea associated with myenteric ganglionitis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, M.D.; Mullaney, T.; Karasek, S.; Yamini, B.

    1988-01-01

    Diarrhea in a Border Terrier was associated with inflammatory lesions of the myenteric plexus. This lesion has been documented rarely in dogs. It is speculated that the myenteric plexus lesions were responsible for an autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which resulted in extreme intestinal hypermotility and subsequent diarrhea. Suggested tests for dogs suspected to have autonomic dysfunction are given

  10. Home Management Of Diarrhea Among Underfives In A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Main outcome measures: Perceived causes of childhood diarrhoea, action taken during diarrhea, fluid intake, recognition of signs of dehydration, feeding during convalescence, adherence to treatment and advice. Results: Majority of the respondents 807(87.1%) reported that their children had suffered from diarrhea within ...

  11. Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 5 years in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rotavirus still remains the major cause of diarrhea in children below 5 years. No data on rotavirus epidemiology is available in the Northern regions of Cameroon. We aimed to determine the prevalence of group A rotavirus (RVA) in children below 5 years with diarrhea in two regions of Northern Cameroon ...

  12. The Anti-Diarrhea Properties Of Zingibier Offcinale | Nwoko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The crude extract of the plant Zingiber officinale has a high folkloric reputation for anti-diarrhea activity. This study investigated the scientific basis of this folkloric claim. Materials and Methods: Diarrhea was induced in albino mice and albino wistar rats using Castor-oil. The animals (mice) were offered the ...

  13. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Human Adenovirus Infections among Hospitalized Children with Acute Diarrhea in Shanghai, China, 2006–2011

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    Lijuan Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human adenovirus (HAdV is considered a significant enteropathogen associated with sporadic diarrhea in children. However, limited data are available regarding the epidemiology of HAdV in hospitalized children with viral diarrhea in Shanghai. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of HAdVs and describe their association with acute diarrhea in hospitalized children. Methods: A total of 674 fecal samples were subjected to PCR or RT-PCR to detect RVA, HuCV, HAstV, and HAdV. Results: HAdV infections were detected in 4.7% (32/674 of specimens, with detection rates of 13.4% (11/82, 4.6% (8/174, 3.2% (4/124, 4.1% (3/74, 2.0% (2/100, and 3.3% (4/120 from 2006 to 2011, respectively. Comprehensive detection of the four viruses revealed the presence of a high percentage (90.6% of coinfections among HAdV-positive samples, where HAdV+RVA was the most prevalent coinfection. Of the 32 HAdV-positive samples, 50.0% (16/32 were classified as HAdV-41, and 18.8% (6/32 were classified as HAdV-3. Almost 94.0% of children infected with HAdV were less than 24 months of age. Conclusions: These results clearly indicated diversity across the HAdV genotypes detected in inpatient children with acute diarrhea in Shanghai and suggested that HAdVs play a role in children with acute diarrhea.

  14. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  15. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  16. Wastewater viral community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the information used to generate the figures in the manuscript. The data describes the viral loss measured at all steps of sample processing,...

  17. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  18. Metabolism goes viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki J; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2014-04-01

    Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. In this issue, Thai et al. (2014) show that adenovirus E4ORF1 activates MYC glycolytic targets to induce a Warburg-like effect that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

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    Victora Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52 and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18. Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life.

  20. Fluid curtailment during childhood diarrhea: a countdown analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Jamie; Carvajal-Velez, Liliana; Carter, Emily; Bryce, Jennifer; Newby, Holly

    2015-06-26

    The foundation of recommended diarrhea management in young children is increased fluids and continued feeding. This increase in fluids is necessary to replace those lost during diarrhea and ultimately prevent dehydration. There may be an opportunity to prevent deaths in children under five by discouraging the practice of reducing or curtailing fluids during diarrhea episodes across different settings worldwide. We quantify and describe the extent of fluid curtailment in children with diarrhea in a selection of countries (Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) with high burden of diarrhea-related mortality with national cross sectional survey data. We examine the practice of fluid curtailment in these countries and its relationship to child and household traits and to characteristics of diarrhea management. The prevalence of fluid curtailment among children under five with diarrhea is strikingly high in these countries: 55 % in Nigeria, 49 % in Ethiopia, 44 % in Uganda, 37 % in Tanzania, 36 % in DR Congo and 32 % in Burkina Faso. Fluid curtailment is associated with giving less food, potentially worsening the impact of this harmful practice. Children who were reported to have had fluids curtailed during diarrhea episodes were also 3.51 (95 % confidence, 2.66 - 4.64) times more likely to be reported to have food withheld (α = 0.05; p water source. Children of poorer or less educated mothers and those living in rural areas are more likely to have curtailed fluids, compared to children of less poor or more educated mothers, or those living in urban areas. The harmful practice of curtailing fluids for a child with diarrhea is highly prevalent, representing an increased risk of dehydration and complications due to diarrhea, including death, especially for children in specific subgroups.

  1. Intractable diarrhea in hyperthyroidism: management with beta-adrenergic blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, L A; Such, F; Loehrke, M E; Kavanaugh, K

    2001-01-01

    To describe a patient with intractable diarrhea and thyrotoxic Graves' disease, for whom b-adrenergic blockade ultimately proved to be effective therapy for the diarrhea, and to review the types of hyperthyroidism-associated diarrhea. We present the clinical course of a young man with a prolonged siege of diarrhea that proved elusive to diagnostic inquiries and resistant to all means of management until its endocrine basis was discovered. Control of such cases with b-adrenergic blockade is discussed, as are the pathophysiologic bases of intestinal hypermotility in hyperthyroidism. A 26-year-old man with Down syndrome, and no prior gastrointestinal disorder, had insidious, chronic, constant diarrhea, which was associated with loss of 14 kg during a 5-month period. Numerous laboratory and imaging studies and endoscopic examinations failed to disclose the cause of the diarrhea. Furthermore, a broad range of antibiotics and other empiric remedies failed to control the problem. No other symptoms of hyperthyroidism were reported, but when the endocrinopathy was suspected and identified, the diarrhea was promptly controlled by treatment with propranolol. In patients with hyperthyroidism, two types of diarrheal disorders have been described-secretory diarrhea and steatorrhea; bile acid malabsorption may have a role in either of these settings. In addition to its capacity for blocking the peripheral effects of thyroid hormone on the heart and central nervous system, b-adrenergic blockade is effective in slowing intestinal transit time and ameliorating the uncommon diarrhea associated with hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormone in excess, among its other possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract, may exert a stimulatory effect by means of intermediary sympathetic activation, as it does with the heart. Thus, sympathetic blockade can mimic the salutary effects on the gastrointestinal tract conventionally brought about by direct antithyroid therapy, and well before the

  2. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic......Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  3. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  4. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lin

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2 epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2--RSAD2 and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15--ubiquitin-like modifier were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo.

  5. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  6. Epidemiology of functional diarrhea and comparison with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a population-based survey in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts on Chinese remain unclear, and there are no data on the comparative epidemiology of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D. This study was to explore the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts, and to identify its distinction from IBS-D. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16078 respondents, who were interviewed under a randomized stratified multi-stage sampling design in five cities of China. All respondents completed the modified Rome II questionnaire, and the 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36 was used for assessing health-related quality of life in 20% of the sample. Overall, 248 respondents (1.54% had functional diarrhea and 277 (1.72% had IBS-D. Functional diarrhea was positively associated with increasing age and body mass index (trend test P<0.05. The three most common symptoms for at least 3 weeks in the past months were loose, mushy or watery stools (n = 203, 81.85%, more than three bowel movements a day (n = 100, 40.32% and having to rush to the toilet to have a bowel movement (n = 72, 29.03%. Meaningful impairment was observed in 5 of the 8 SF-36 domains in respondents with functional diarrhea. The demographics are mostly similar between the respondents with functional diarrhea and IBS-D; however, respondents with IBS-D had more frequent symptoms of diarrhea and even lower scores in SF-36 domains than those with functional diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of functional diarrhea in China is substantially lower than that in Western countries and relatively higher than that in other Asian countries. It impaired health-related quality of life, and respondents with IBS-D have even worse quality of life. Further population-based studies are needed to investigate the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and the differences between functional diarrhea and IBS-D.

  7. Efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii for acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Sahar; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Akbari, Vajihe

    2014-07-01

    The efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii for treatment of childhood diarrhea remains unclear. Our objective was to systematically review data on the effect of S. boulardii on acute childhood diarrhea. Our data sources included Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, and The Cochrane Library up to September 2013 without language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized trials that evaluated effectiveness of S. boulardii for treatment of acute diarrhea in children were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for eligibility and quality and extracted the data. In total, 1248 articles were identified, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Pooling data from trials showed that S. boulardii significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea (mean difference [MD], -19.7 hours; 95% confidence interval [CI], -26.05 to -13.34), stool frequency on day 2 (MD, -0.74; 95% CI, -1.38 to -0.10) and day 3 (MD, -1.24; 95% CI, -2.13 to -0.35), the risk for diarrhea on day 3 (risk ratio [RR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.60) and day 4 (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.59) after intervention compared with control. The studies included in this review were varied in the definition of diarrhea, the termination of diarrhea, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and their methodological quality. This review and meta-analysis show that S. boulardii is safe and has clear beneficial effects in children who have acute diarrhea. However, additional studies using head-to-head comparisons are needed to define the best dosage of S. boulardii for diarrhea with different causes. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Acute diarrhea in West African children: diverse enteric viruses and a novel parvovirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.

  9. CARBOHYDRATE MALABSORPTION SYNDROME IN CHILDREN WITH VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric viruses (mainly rotaviruses are the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in infants. One  of the  pathophysiologic mechanisms in rotaviral gastroenteritis is the  reduction of the  surface  activity of enterocyte disaccharidases  and  osmotic  diarrhea. Aim: To determine the clinical significance of metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota in the formation of the osmotic component of viral diarrhea in children of various ages. Materials and methods: The study involved 139 children aged  from 1 month  to 14 years admitted to the hospital in the first 24 to 72 hours of moderate-degree  viral gastroenteritis.  Rotaviral infection was the most prevalent  (90%. Viral etiology was confirmed  by the  reaction  of indirect hemagglutination and multiplex real-time PCR (in feces. Total carbohydrate content in the feces was measured and fecal microflora was investigated by two methods: bacteriological and gas liquid chromatography with the determination of short-chain fatty acids. Results: The mean carbohydrate content in the feces of children below 1.5 years of age was higher than  that  in older children (p = 0.014. There was an inverse correlation between the concentration of rotaviral antigens  and carbohydrate   contents (r = -0,43, p < 0.05 and the production of acetic and propionic acids (R = -0,35, p < 0.01. The carbohydrate content in acute stage of the disease was linearly associated with time to normalization of the stool (r = +0,47, p < 0.01. Previous acute  respiratory or intestinal  infections within 2 months (odds ratio [OR], 14.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.86–51.53, previous  hospitalizations  (OR = 14.17; 95% CI 2.74–74.32 and  past  history of intestinal dysfunction (OR 5.68; 95% CI 1.67–19.76 were predictive of severe  carbohydrate malabsorption in children below 1.5 years of age. Conclusion: The lack of microbiota functional activity (assessed by production of short

  10. Comparison of viral RNA electrophoresis and indirect ELISA methods in the diagnosis of human rotavirus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avendano, L F; Dubinovsky, S; James, Jr, H D

    1984-01-01

    A total of 177 stool samples from Chilean diarrhea patients under two years of age were tested for rotavirus by two methods - the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect ELISA) and viral RNA electrophoresis in agarose gels (v RNA EPH). Fifty of the specimens came from patients with acute diarrhea and 127 came from patients with protracted diarrhea. The indirect ELISA testing was performed at the National Institutes of Health in the United States: the electrophoretic testing was carried out in Santiago, Chile by the authors. The electrophoretic method detected rotavirus in 36% of the acute samples and 25% of the samples from protracted cases, while the indirect ELISA method detected rotavirus in higher percentages of samples - 46% and 38%, respectively. These results support the conclusion that v RNA EPH is a less sensitive method for detecting rotavirus than the indirect ELISA. Nevertheless, the former method's high specificity, ease of application, and low cost make it a worthwhile alternative to indirect ELISA. Thus, considering the important role played by rotavirus in infant diarrhea and the need for a diagnostic technique that can be incorporated into the routines of medical center laboratories in developing countries, there is good reason to conclude that v RNA EPH is a useful tool for studying rotavirus diarrhea. 18 refs, 3 tabs. Also published in the Bol. Oficina Sanit. Panam. (1984) v. 97(1), p. 1-7 (In Spanish).

  11. Comparison of viral RNA electrophoresis and indirect ELISA methods in the diagnosis of human rotavirus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avendano, L.F.; Dubinovsky, S.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 177 stool samples from Chilean diarrhea patients under two years of age were tested for rotavirus by two methods - the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect ELISA) and viral RNA electrophoresis in agarose gels (v RNA EPH). Fifty of the specimens came from patients with acute diarrhea and 127 came from patients with protracted diarrhea. The indirect ELISA testing was performed at the National Institutes of Health in the United States: the electrophoretic testing was carried out in Santiago, Chile by the authors. The electrophoretic method detected rotavirus in 36% of the acute samples and 25% of the samples from protracted cases, while the indirect ELISA method detected rotavirus in higher percentages of samples - 46% and 38%, respectively. These results support the conclusion that v RNA EPH is a less sensitive method for detecting rotavirus than the indirect ELISA. Nevertheless, the former method's high specificity, ease of application, and low cost make it a worthwhile alternative to indirect ELISA. Thus, considering the important role played by rotavirus in infant diarrhea and the need for a diagnostic technique that can be incorporated into the routines of medical center laboratories in developing countries, there is good reason to conclude that v RNA EPH is a useful tool for studying rotavirus diarrhea. (author)

  12. Acute diarrhea: evidence-based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Galeão Brandt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the current recommendations on the best management of pediatric patients with acute diarrheal disease. Data source: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar. Data summary: There has been little progress in the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS in recent decades, despite being widely reported by international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to improve the effectiveness of ORS. Intravenous hydration with isotonic saline solution, quickly infused, should be given in cases of severe dehydration. Nutrition should be ensured after the dehydration resolution, and is essential for intestinal and immune health. Dietary restrictions are usually not beneficial and may be harmful. Symptomatic medications have limited indication and antibiotics are indicated in specific cases, such as cholera and moderate to severe shigellosis. Conclusions: Hydration and nutrition are the interventions with the greatest impact on the course of acute diarrhea. Resumo: Objetivos: descrever as recomendações atuais sobre a melhor maneira de conduzir o paciente pediátrico com doença diarreica aguda. Fonte dos dados: PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google. Síntese dos dados: Houve pouco avanço na utilização dos sais de reidratação oral (SRO nas últimas décadas apesar de ser amplamente divulgado através de diretrizes internacionais. Vários estudos vêm sendo realizados na tentativa de melhorar a eficácia do SRO. Hidratação venosa com solução salina isotônica, infundida de forma rápida, deve ser indicada em casos de desidratação grave. A nutrição deve ser assegurada logo após a resolução da desidratação, sendo primordial para a saúde intestinal e imunológica. Restrições alimentares usualmente não são benéficas e podem ser prejudiciais. As medicações sintomáticas têm indicação restrita e antibióticos são indicados em casos específicos, cólera e shiguelose moderada a grave. Conclusões: a hidratação e a nutri

  13. Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudleenamjil, Enkhmart; Lin, Chin-Yo; Dredge, Devin; Murray, Byron K; Robison, Richard A; Johnson, F Brent

    2010-12-01

    Entry events of bovine parvovirus (BPV) were studied. Transmission electron micrographs of infected cells showed virus particles in cytoplasmic vesicles. Chemical inhibitors that block certain aspects of the cellular machinery were employed to assess viral dependency upon those cellular processes. Chlorpromazine, ammonium chloride, chloroquine and bafilamicin A1 were used to inhibit acidification of endosomes and clathrin-associated endocytosis. Nystatin was used as an inhibitor of the caveolae pathway. Cytochalasin D and ML-7 were used to inhibit actin and myosin functions, respectively. Nocodazole and colchicine were employed to inhibit microtubule activity. Virus entry was assessed by measuring viral transcription using real-time PCR, synthesis of capsid protein and assembly of infectious progeny virus in the presence of inhibitor blockage. The results indicated that BPV entry into embryonic bovine trachael cells utilizes endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles, is dependent upon acidification, and appears to be associated with actin and microtubule dependency. Evidence for viral entry through caveolae was not obtained. These findings provide a fuller understanding of the early cell-entry events of the replication cycle for members of the genus Bocavirus.

  14. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  15. Oral diosmectite reduces stool output and diarrhea duration in children with acute watery diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Christophe; Foo, Jimmy Lee Kok; Garnier, Philippe; Moore, Nicholas; Mathiex-Fortunet, Hèlène; Salazar-Lindo, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    Diosmectite is a clay used to treat children with acute watery diarrhea. However, its effects on stool output reduction, the key outcome for pediatric antidiarrheal drugs, have not been shown. Two parallel, double-blind studies of diosmectite efficacy on stool reduction were conducted in children 1 to 36 months old in Peru (n = 300) and Malaysia (n = 302). Inclusion criteria included 3 or more watery stools per day for less than 72 hours and weight/height ratios of 0.8 or greater. Exclusion criteria were the need for intravenous rehydration, gross blood in stools, fever higher than 39 degrees C, or current treatment with antidiarrheal or antibiotic medications. Rotavirus status was determined. Diosmectite dosage was 6 g/day (children 1-12 months old) or 12 g/day (children 13-36 months old), given for at least 3 days, followed by half doses until complete recovery. Patients were assigned randomly to groups given diosmectite or placebo, in addition to oral rehydration solution (World Health Organization). Children in each study had comparable average ages and weights. The frequencies of rotavirus infection were 22% in Peru and 12% in Malaysia. Similar amounts of oral rehydration solution were given to children in the diosmectite and placebo groups. Stool output was decreased significantly by diosmectite in both studies, especially among rotavirus-positive children. In pooled data, children had a mean stool output of 94.5 +/- 74.4 g/kg of body weight in the diosmectite group versus 104.1 +/- 94.2 g/kg in the placebo group (P = .002). Diarrhea duration was reduced by diosmectite, which was well tolerated. These results show that diosmectite significantly decreased stool output in children with acute watery diarrhea, especially those who were rotavirus-positive.

  16. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Water Extract Exhibits Antiviral Activity against Porcine Epidermic Diarrhea Virus In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Kyung Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV causes diarrhea of pigs age-independently and death of young piglets, resulting in economic loss of porcine industry. We have screened 333 natural oriental herbal medicines to search for new antiviral candidates against PEDV. We found that two herbal extracts, KIOM 198 and KIOM 124, contain significant anti-PED viral effect. KIOM 198 and KIOM 124 were identified as Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Lonicera japonica Thunberg, respectively. The further plaque and CPE inhibition assay in vitro showed that KIOM 198 has much stronger antiviral activity than KIOM 124. Additionally, KIOM 198 exhibited a similar extent of antiviral effect against other subtypes of Corona virus such as sm98 and TGE viruses. Cytotoxicity results showed that KIOM 198 is nontoxic on the cells and suggest that it can be delivered safely for therapy. Furthermore, when we orally administered KIOM 198 to piglets and then infected them with PEDV, the piglets did not show any disease symptoms like diarrhea and biopsy results showed clean intestine, whereas control pigs without KIOM 198 treatment exhibited PED-related severe symptoms. These results imply that KIOM 198 contains strong antiviral activity and has a potential to be developed as an antiviral phytomedicine to treat PEDV-related diseases in pigs.

  17. Control of radiation-induced diarrhea with cholestyramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusinkveld, R.S.; Manning, M.R.; Aristizabal, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Cholestyramine is a non-absorbable ion-exchange resin which specifically binds bile salts. We have treated seven patients with acute or chronic radiation-induced diarrhea that was refractory to the usual methods of control with cholestyramine. In each case, the diarrhea was controlled with cholestyramine. This observation supports previous experimental work with animals which indicated that bile salts contribute to the genesis of radiation-induced diarrhea. Cholestyramine is well-tolerated, but should not be administered with certain oral medications. The results of this small series are preliminary, but point the way toward a more extensive clinical trial to define the usefulness of cholestyramine in the treatment of refractory acute or chronic radiation-induced diarrhea

  18. Role of octreotide in chemo and radiotherapy induced diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Farooqi, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    An international, quasi-experimental, clinical trial of 'before-and-after type' was conducted to find out the role of octreotide in chemo and radiotherapy-induced diarrhea on thirty patients. Among these 19 patients had advanced cancer and 11 with acute leukemia. All patients were given IV fluids and Loperamide for 5 days. The patients who did not respond during this period were administered with octreotide subcutaneously for another 5 days and response against diarrhea was noted. We found that only 10% patients responded to loperamide therapy whereas in the remaining 90% patients an excellent response was noted as 96.29% of these patients responded to octreotide therapy which stopped their diarrhea (P<0.005) leading us to the conclusion that, octreotide is a safe and effective drug in the management of chemo and radiotherapy-induced diarrhea. (author)

  19. Adenovirus Infection in Children with Diarrhea Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ad40) and type 41(Ad41), can cause acute and severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. This study was conducted to delineate the epidemiological features of adenoviruses identified in children with gastroenteritis in Northwestern Nigeria.

  20. current approach in the management of diarrhea in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Low osmolarity oral rehydration salts – Zinc – Diarrhea – Children. PRISE EN .... three-dimensional configurations stimulating growth in- utero ..... Oral rehydration salts. Production of the new ORS. WHO/FCH/CAH/06.1. 17.

  1. Maternal Education and Diarrhea among Children aged 0-24 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    safe drinking-water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene11. ..... errors were minimized at the time of the study. Also, diarrhea reported for ... future intervention studies which could inform ... sheet with a special focus on human needs and.

  2. What is the Best Way to Treat Diarrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diarrhea. They are extremely helpful for the home management of mild to moderately severe illness. Do not try to prepare these special fluids yourself. Use only commercially available fluids—brand-name and generic brands are equally effective. Your ...

  3. Nausea, Vomiting and Diarrhea: An Unusual Presentation of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Szilagyi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a young woman who presented with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea is outlined; the etiology turned out to be a first attack of multiple sclerosis. Plausible mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats

    OpenAIRE

    de Queiroz, Camila AA; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves C; Frota, Priscila B; Figueiredo, Ítalo L; Aragão, Karoline S; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C; de Carvalho, Cibele BM; Lima, Aldo Ângelo M; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Guerrant, Richard L; Moore, Sean R; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    Background WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc’s anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Methods Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Br...

  5. Digestive Disorders in Children with Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Radutna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The most notable problem of the widespread use of antibiotics is the changes in microbial ecology, imbalance of intestinal biocenosis, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms with pathogenic properties and due to this the pathological changes in the intestine that cause symptoms of digestive disorders in patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Objective. To identify the symptoms of malabsorption in order to improve early diagnosis of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Materials and methods. The object of the study were 116 patients treated with antibiotics, aged 6 months to 18 years. The examination of children included clinical, biochemical, bacteriological, immunoenzyme, immunochromatographic, instrumental, mathematical methods. Results. In the development of diarrhea in patients with negative test on clostridial toxins, such cases were qualified as idiopathic antibiotic-associated diarrhea, with positive — like intestinal Clostridium difficile infection. The study revealed significant differences in scatological indices between the children with acute idiopathic and antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by clostridial infection. During microscopic and biochemical studies of feces, we have revealed symptomatic signs of impaired digestion and absorption of fats and carbohydrates, which manifested by clinical symptoms of malabsorption. All children with antibiotic-associated diarrhea are characterized by increased concentrations of carbohydrates in feces. Signs of digestive disorders with the development of malabsorption of lipids were detected n children with antibiotic-associated diarrhea, primarily caused by Clostridium difficile infection. Conclusions. Maldigestion and lipid and carbohydrate absorption, as well as symptoms of inflammation in the intestines (leukocytes, occult blood, mucus are the markers of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and can be used for its early diagnosis

  6. Traveler’s Diarrhea Market: Evolving market trends and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Deshmukh

    2016-01-01

    Traveler’s Diarrhea Market: Overview Traveler’s diarrhea refers to intestinal and stomach infection and occurs due to unsanitary conditions during handling of food. This disorder is characterized by frequent abdominal cramps resulting in loose stools and is usually caused by consumption of contaminated water or food. Travelling from one place to another where the sanitary conditions, social conditions, climate and other factors are different and hence presents high risk of developin...

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  8. Treating viral hemorrhagic fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Brandjes, D.P.; Gorp, E. van

    2003-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are illnesses associated with a number of geographically restricted, mostly tropical areas. Over recent decades a number of new hemorrhagic fever viruses have emerged. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases have improved our initial supportive

  9. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  10. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  11. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  12. The Prevalence of Norovirus in returning international travelers with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löscher Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high incidence of diarrhea in traveling populations. Norovirus (NV infection is a common cause of diarrhea and is associated with 7% of all diarrhea related deaths in the US. However, data on the overall prevalence of NV infection in traveling populations is limited. Furthermore, the prevalence of NV amongst travelers returning to Europe has not been reported. This study determined the prevalence of NV among international travelers returning to Germany from over 50 destinations in and outside Europe. Methods Stool samples of a total of 104 patients with a recent ( Results In our cohort, NV infection was detected in 15.7% of returning travelers with diarrhea. The closer to the date of return symptoms appeared, the higher the incidence of NV, ranging as high as 21.2% within the first four days after return. Conclusions In our cohort, NV infection was shown to be frequent among returning travelers especially in those with diarrhea, with over 1/5 of diarrhea patients tested positive for NV within the first four days after their return to Germany. Due to this prevalence, routine testing for NV infection and hygienic precautions may be warranted in this group. This is especially applicable to patients at an increased risk of spreading the disease, such as healthcare workers, teachers or food-handlers.

  13. Treatment of acute diarrhea with Saccharomyces boulardii in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Naflesia B O; Penna, Francisco J; Lima, Fátima M L S; Nicoli, Jacques R; Filho, Luciano A P

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether an oral treatment with a commercial pharmaceutical product containing Saccharomyces boulardii would reduce the duration of diarrhea in infants with acute diarrhea. In the present double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 186 infants, 6 to 48 months old and hospitalized within 72 hours after the onset of acute diarrhea in 2 hospitals in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, were randomly assigned to receive twice per day for 5 days 200 mg of a commercial pharmaceutical product containing 4 × 10 viable cells of S boulardii or a placebo. Stool samples were submitted to search for rotavirus. Among the 176 infants who completed the trial, those treated with S boulardii (90) showed a reduction in diarrhea duration (P boulardii was given to children within 72 hours after the onset of acute diarrhea. The present study suggests a complementary treatment of acute diarrhea in infants with daily oral doses of S boulardii.

  14. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  15. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  16. Value of Sharing: Viral Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Aydın; Aşina Gülerarslan; Süleyman Karaçor; Tarık Doğan

    2013-01-01

    Sharing motivations of viral advertisements by consumers and the impacts of these advertisements on the perceptions for brand will be questioned in this study. Three fundamental questions are answered in the study. These are advertisement watching and sharing motivations of individuals, criteria of liking viral advertisement and the impact of individual attitudes for viral advertisement on brand perception respectively. This study will be carried out via a viral advertise...

  17. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  18. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  19. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  20. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  1. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  2. Nucleocapsid-Independent Specific Viral RNA Packaging via Viral Envelope Protein and Viral RNA Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Krishna; Chen, Chun-Jen; Maeda, Junko; Makino, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    For any of the enveloped RNA viruses studied to date, recognition of a specific RNA packaging signal by the virus's nucleocapsid (N) protein is the first step described in the process of viral RNA packaging. In the murine coronavirus a selective interaction between the viral transmembrane envelope protein M and the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, composed of N protein and viral RNA containing a short cis-acting RNA element, the packaging signal, determines the selective RNA packaging into vi...

  3. Novel Atlantic bottlenose dolphin parainfluenza virus TtPIV-1 clusters with bovine PIV-3 genotype B strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100% of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by five years of age. Similarly, in cattle PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine re...

  4. Persistent bovine pestivirus infection localized in the testes of an immuno-competent, non-viraemic bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voges, H.; Horner, G.W.; Rowe, S.; Wellenberg, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    A post-pubertal bull on an artificial insemination station was found to be persistently shedding bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in semen over a period of eleven months, while demonstrating no viraemia. Circulating antibodies to BVDV were consistently high, suggesting that the immune system was

  5. Diarrhea following whole pelvis irradiation in female pelvic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tomoyasu; Moriya, Hiroshi; Hareyama, Masato; Nishio, Masamichi

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were made on the following points which were possible factors in the appearance of diarrhea during irradiation of the whole pelvis for uterine cancer: (a) daily dose of 200 and 180 rads, (b) age, (c) radical operation for uterine cancer, (d) previous history of abdominal operation, (e) disease stage of II or III, and (f) grade of infiltration of the rectum with cancer cells. Results thereby obtained are summarized as follows: 1) A significant difference between the dose of 200 and 180 rads in causing diarrhea was found only in patients receiving radiation therapy alone, without a previous history of abdominal operation. 2) Patients who underwent a radical operation for uterine cancer showed a significantly higher incidence of diarrhea than those without such an operation. 3) The age of patients, previous history of abdominal operation, and grade of infiltration of cancer cells into the rectum had almost no effect on the incidence of diarrhea. 4) There was no significant difference in the frequency of diarrhea between stage II and III, although the higher incidence recorded for the latter group was between a 10 and 20% level of significance. (auth.)

  6. Surveillance of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Prasetyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The diarrhea morbidity in Indonesia has increased, however, all the reports had not been done carefully, so that accurate surveillance are essential for improving quality of morbidity data. To determine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of rotavirus diarrhea and to characterize the circulating rotavirus strains, children below 5 years old who were admitted to Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung because of diarrhea, from January 2006 through March 2007 were enrolled in a surveillance study and had stool specimens tested for the presence of rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. The strains of rotavirus were determined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Rotavirus were detected in 47.8% analyzed samples (87/184, G and P-genotype of rotavirus were G[1] (37.5% and P[6] (53.5%. Most subjects were males (56%, 6–11 months of age (35%. Most common clinical manifestations besides diarrhea were dehydration (72.7% and vomiting (50%. Subjects with positive rotavirus more common had dehydration (72% vs 28% and vomiting (61% vs 39%. In conclusion, vomiting and dehydration are the prominent clinical manifestations of diarrhea with positive rotavirus infection. G1 and P6 are the most common genotype of rotavirus.

  7. A Rare Case of Chronic Diarrhea in an Elderly Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jong Bair

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhea is a common condition in older age groups, and many patients do not seek medical attention unless their diarrhea is associated with other symptoms, such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding or abdominal pain. It is a critical condition in the elderly, especially with systemic disease. We report the case of an elderly patient with chronic diarrhea secondary to intestinal capillariasis. Human intestinal capillariasis is a rare parasitosis of the gastrointestinal tract, which may be a fatal disease if early treatment is not given. The clinical hallmarks of capillariasis include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, borborygmi, marked weight loss, protein and electrolyte loss, and cachexia. Most patients die from electrolyte loss resulting in heart failure and/or septicemia. Taiwan, particularly in Taitung County, is a Capillaria-prevalent area. Thus, parasitosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with debilitating chronic diarrhea, especially in the elderly aboriginal population of Taitung County. A careful dietary and travel history is important in any such case; but even in the absence of clear-cut exposure, a parasitic infection should be considered and carefully investigated.

  8. Identification of short hairpin RNA targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus with transgenic bovine fetal epithelium cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is known that RNA interference (RNAi targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, it has not been previously investigated whether shRNAs targeting FMDV in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against FMDV challenge. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we constructed three recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against VP2 (RNAi-VP2, VP3 (RNAi-VP3, or VP4 (RNAi-VP4 of FMDV, and found that all of them strongly suppressed the transient expression of a FLAG-tagged viral gene fusion protein in 293T cells. In BHK-21 cells, RNAi-VP4 was found to be more potent in inhibition of viral replication than the others with over 98% inhibition of viral replication. Therefore, recombinant lentiviral vector RNAi-VP4 was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells to generate transgenic nuclear donor cells. With subsequent somatic cell cloning, we generated forty transgenic blastocysts, and then transferred them to 20 synchronized recipient cows. Three transgenic bovine fetuses were obtained after pregnant period of 4 months, and integration into chromosome in cloned fetuses was confirmed by Southern hybridization. The primary tongue epithelium cells of transgenic fetuses were isolated and inoculated with 100 TCID(50 of FMDV, and it was observed that shRNA significantly suppressed viral RNA synthesis and inhibited over 91% of viral replication after inoculation of FMDV for 48 h. CONCLUSION: RNAi-VP4 targeting viral VP4 gene appears to prevent primary epithelium cells of transgenic bovine fetus from FMDV infection, and it could be a candidate shRNA used for cultivation of transgenic cattle against FMDV.

  9. Congenital Sodium Diarrhea: A Form of Intractable Diarrhea, With a Link to Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecke, Andreas R; Heinz-Erian, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Congenital diarrheal disorders (CDDs) represent a group of challenging clinical conditions for pediatricians because of the severity of the presentation and the broad range of possible differential diagnoses. CDDs arise from alterations in the transport of nutrients and electrolytes across the intestinal mucosa, from enterocyte and enteroendocrine cell differentiation and/or polarization defects, and from the modulation of the intestinal immune response. Advances were made recently in deciphering the etiology and pathophysiology of one of these disorders, congenital sodium diarrhea (CSD). CSD refers to an intractable diarrhea of intrauterine onset with high fecal sodium loss. CSD is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. A syndromic form of CSD features choanal and intestinal atresias as well as recurrent corneal erosions. Small bowel histology frequently detects an epithelial "tufting" dysplasia. It is autosomal recessively inherited, and caused by SPINT2 mutations. The nonsyndromic form of CSD can be caused by dominant activating mutations in GUCY2C, encoding intestinal receptor guanylate cyclase C (GC-C), and by autosomal recessive SLC9A3 loss-of-function mutations. SLC9A3 encodes Na/H antiporter 3, the major intestinal brush border Na/H exchanger, and a downstream target of GC-C. A number of patients with GUCY2C and SLC9A3 mutations developed inflammatory bowel disease. Both the number of recognized CDD forms as well as the number of underlying disease genes are gradually increasing. Knowledge of these CDD genes enables noninvasive, next-generation gene panel-based testing to facilitate an early diagnosis in CDD. Primary Na/H antiporter 3 and GC-C malfunction is implicated as a predisposition for inflammatory bowel disease in subset of patients.

  10. Localization of Bovine Papillomavirus Nucleic Acid in Equine Sarcoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, A M; Zhu, K W; Dela Cruz, F N; Affolter, V K; Pesavento, P A

    2016-05-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV1/BPV2) have long been associated with equine sarcoids; deciphering their contribution has been difficult due to their ubiquitous presence on skin and in the environment, as well as the lack of decent techniques to interrogate their role in pathogenesis. We have developed and characterized an in situ hybridization (ISH) assay that uses a pool of probes complementary to portions of the E5, E6, and E7 genes. This assay is highly sensitive for direct visualization of viral transcript and nucleic acid in routinely processed histopathologic samples. We demonstrate here the visualization of BPV nucleic acid in 18 of 18 equine sarcoids, whereas no detectable viral DNA was present in 15 of 15 nonsarcoid controls by this technique. In nearly 90% (16/18) of the sarcoids, 50% or more of the fibroblastic cell nuclei distributed throughout the neoplasm had detectable hybridization. In the remaining 2 cases, fewer than half of the fibroblastic cells contained detectable hybridization, but viral nucleic acid was also detected in epithelial cells of the sebaceous glands, hair follicles and epidermis. A sensitive ISH assay is an indispensable addition to the molecular methods used to detect viral nucleic acid in tissue. We have used this technique to determine the specific cellular localization and distribution of BPV in a subset of equine sarcoids. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Kamali; HesamAdin Seifi; Ahmad Reza Movassaghi; Gholam Reza Razmi; Zahra Naseri

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran. In addition, the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination. To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis, data analysis was performed by SAS. Results: N. caninum was detected in 179 (45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR. Among the PCR-positive brain samples, only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination. The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16 (28%) of PCR-positive samples. The risk factors including season, parity of dam, history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd, cow’s milk production, herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection. This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods. In addition, a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth. Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  12. Diagnosis and Management of AIDS-related Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Johanson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of illness associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has been increasing since the initial description in 1981. While virtually all organ systems may be affected, the gastrointestinal tract appears to be a major target. Diarrhea is the most common symptom, affecting up to half of all AIDS patients during the course of their disease. Although diarrhea occurs frequently, its optimal management remains controversial. An extensive evaluation including stool studies and endoscopic biopsies of both the colon and small intestine has been widely recommended to identify all potential pathogenic organisms. An alternative approach is a more limited evaluation consisting of stool and blood cultures followed by symptomatic treatment with antidiarrheal agents if no specific organisms are identified. The clinical presentation of the most common opportunistic pathogens are reviewed, including several recently discovered organisms. Recommendations for treatment are followed by a brief discussion of management strategies used to care for patients with AIDS-related diarrhea.

  13. Existing and emerging therapies for managing constipation and diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E; Wouters, Mira M; Tack, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Functional bowel disorders (i.e., constipation and diarrhea) are characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, distention, and/or bowel habit abnormalities in the absence of obvious anatomic or physiologic abnormalities on routine diagnostic tests. These symptoms are attributable to gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunctions resulting from peripheral and/or central mechanisms. Available drugs target the underlying bowel disturbance (i.e., constipation, diarrhea, or both), supplemented when necessary by management of pain. Osmotic and stimulant laxatives, secretagogues, and serotonin 5-HT 4 receptor agonists are approved for treating constipation. Loperamide, anticholinergic agents, rifaximin, bile-acid binding agents, eluxadoline, and clonidine are used to treat diarrhea. Several exciting new compounds, some of which have been evaluated in humans, are currently under development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Colestipol hydrochloride prophylaxis of diarrhea during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Layser, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-three patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy to receive the bile acid-sequestering resin colestipol hydrochloride, 5 grams qid, during the entire time of their therapy or diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate 2.5-20 mg per day (control) if they experienced diarrhea. The colestipol patients also took diphenoxylate if they had diarrhea. The patients in the colestipol group often experienced nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps and 8 were forced to discontinue the drug. There was no difference in the weekly stool frequency between the colestipol and the control patients but the colestipol patients who took at least 50% of the prescribed dose required fewer diphenoxylate tablets than the controls. The data suggest that colestipol hydrochloride is not of value in preventing radiation-induced diarrhea because of the side effects associated with the drug, but the theory on which the use of bile acid-sequestering agents is based may be correct

  15. Le virus de la leucémie bovine et l’homéostasie du compartiment lymphocytaire périphérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Willems

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus and peripheral blood lymphocytes homeostasis. Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. This retrovirus can also be transmitted experimentally to the ovine species, in which pathology is more rapid and more frequent. In this model, infection leads to an increased cell turnover. This accelerated lymphocyte dynamics might be related to viral expression which induces cellular proliferation and host cell destruction by the immune system.

  16. Role of FODMAP content in enteral nutrition-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmos, Emma P

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea are common complications of enteral nutrition (EN); however, the cause is unclear. Mode of EN delivery that alters digestion and possibly absorption is suggested to contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea; however, enteral formula is frequently blamed. Most research has focused on fiber-supplemented EN, with a meta-analysis showing that fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in non-intensive care unit studies. Other hypotheses include formula osmolality and FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) content. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that exert an osmotic effect. Dietary FODMAPs have been shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, in those with irritable bowel syndrome and, given a high-enough dose, will induce a laxative effect in most people. As FODMAPs are commonly added to enteral formula and EN is frequently used as the main source of nutrition, it is reasonable to hypothesize that EN provides more FODMAPs than usual dietary intake and increases risk for developing diarrhea. This hypothesis was assessed through a retrospective study showing that the standard-use enteral formula Isosource 1.5 had a protective effect of developing diarrhea. The only characteristic unique to Isosource 1.5 was the lower FODMAP content as determined through methodologies previously validated for food analysis. Methodologies for application to enteral formulas are currently undergoing formal validation. Once confirmed for application in enteral formula, future directions include FODMAP analysis of specific ingredients to increase understanding of potential problems associated with enteral formula and a randomized, controlled trial investigating the role of formula FODMAP content. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  18. CD335 (NKp46+ T-Cell Recruitment to the Bovine Upper Respiratory Tract during a Primary Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahwa A. Osman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine natural killer (NK cells were originally defined by the NK activation receptor CD335 [natural killer cell p46-related protein (NKp46], but following the discovery of NKp46 expression on human T-cells, the definition of conventional bovine NK cells was modified to CD335+CD3− cells. Recently, a bovine T-cell population co-expressing CD335 was identified and these non-conventional T-cells were shown to produce interferon (IFN-γ and share functional properties with both conventional NK cells and T-cells. It is not known, however, if CD335+ bovine T-cells are recruited to mucosal surfaces and what chemokines play a role in recruiting this unique T-cell subpopulation. In this study, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1, which is closely related to herpes simplex virus-1, was used to investigate bovine lymphocyte cell populations recruited to the upper respiratory tract following a primary respiratory infection. Immunohistochemical staining with individual monoclonal antibodies revealed significant (P < 0.05 recruitment of CD335+, CD3+, and CD8+ lymphocyte populations to the nasal turbinates on day 5 following primary BHV-1 infection. Dual-color immunofluorescence revealed that cells recruited to nasal turbinates were primarily T-cells that co-expressed both CD335 and CD8. This non-conventional T-cell population represented 77.5% of CD355+ cells and 89.5% of CD8+ cells recruited to nasal turbinates on day 5 post-BHV-1 infection. However, due to diffuse IFN-γ staining of nasal turbinate tissue, it was not possible to directly link increased IFN-γ production following BHV-1 infection with the recruitment of non-conventional T-cells. Transcriptional analysis revealed CCL4, CCL5, and CXCL9 gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05 upregulated in nasal turbinate tissue following BHV-1 infection. Therefore, no single chemokine was associated with recruitment of non-conventional T-cells. In conclusion, the specific recruitment of CD335+ and CD8

  19. The Efficacy of Probiotic in Adults with Acute Infectious Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawin Mahen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality. In developing countries, acute diarrhea is most commonly caused by infectious pathogens. Regardless of the cause, diarrhea is primarily treated by fluid replacement therapy to decrease the risk of dehydration and death, although it does not affect the duration of diarrhea. Probiotics are able to shorten the duration of diarrhea in children, but its efficacy in adults is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of probiotic in reducing the duration of acute diarrhea in adults as compared to placebo. Systematic search was done using four databases: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Embase, without limit on the year of publication. Randomized clinical trials were selected as the appropriate study design to answer the clinical question and two studies were considered relevant for appraisal. In conclusion, probiotics could improve the recovery of acute infectious diarrhea in adults (level of evidence 1b however more studies should be carried out since only very few strains of probiotics have been investigated. Keywords: probiotics, treatment efficacy, acute diarrhea, adults.     Efektivitas Probiotik pada Orang Dewasa dengan Diare:  Sebuah Laporan Kasus Berbasis Bukti   Abstrak Diare merupakan masalah kesehatan global dengan angka morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Di negara berkembang, diare akut biasanya disebabkan oleh infeksi. Terlepas dari penyebabnya, tata laksana utama diare adalah terapi rehidrasi untuk mengurangi dehidrasi dan kematian walaupun hal tersebut tidak memengaruhi durasi diare. Probiotik dapat memperpendek durasi diare pada anak-anak, namun efektivitasnya pada orang dewasa masih belum jelas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi efek probiotik dalam mengurangi durasi diare akut pada orang dewasa dibandingkan plasebo. Pencarian sistematik dilakukan pada empat database: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, dan Embase, tanpa membatasi tahun publikasi

  20. Mortality, diarrhea and respiratory disease in Danish dairy heifer calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiten, M.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    system (conventional/organic), season (summer/winter) and calf mortality risk, diarrhea, signs of respiratory disease and ocular discharge, respectively, for dairy heifer calves aged 0–180 days. Sixty Danish dairy herds, 30 conventional and 30 organic, were visited once during summer and once during......Diarrhea and respiratory disease are major health problems for dairy calves, often causing calf mortality. Previous studies have found calf mortality to be higher in organic dairy herds compared to conventional herds. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between production...... variables and in certain age groups, dependent on production system and season....

  1. Etiology of Diarrhea in Children Younger Than 5 Years Attending the Bengo General Hospital in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparinho, Carolina; Mirante, Maria Clara; Centeno-Lima, Sónia; Istrate, Claudia; Mayer, António Carlos; Tavira, Luis; Nery, Susana Vaz; Brito, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Diarrheal disease is among the leading causes of death in children younger than 5 years, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the most frequent etiological agents of diarrhea and its associated factors in children younger than 5 years attending the Bengo General Hospital in Angola. From September 2012 through December 2013, stool samples were collected from 344 children presenting with diarrhea to investigate the presence of viral, bacterial and parasitic agents. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained from parents and caregivers. An enteric pathogen was detected in 66.6% of stool samples: Cryptosporidium spp. (30.0%), rotavirus (25.1%), Giardia lamblia (21.6%), diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (6.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.1%), adenovirus (3.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (3.5%), astrovirus (2.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.9%), Taenia spp. (0.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica (0.3%). Children younger than 12 months were more frequently infected with Cryptosporidium spp. compared with older children (age: 12-59 months), independently of sex, season, lethargy and wasting [odds ratio (OR): 3.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.0-6.2]. Age (OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 2.6-9.3), vomiting (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8) and type of admission (inpatients, OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) were significantly associated with rotavirus infection. This study demonstrates high rates of infection with an enteric pathogen, particularly in children younger than 12 months, emphasizing the need to address diarrheal disease in this age group.

  2. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VNcontrols (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk enriched in BRV-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent BRV diarrhea. Moreover a strong active ASC immune response is induced in the

  3. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  4. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  5. Bovine coronavirus in naturally andexperimentally exposed calves; viralshedding and the potential for transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Oma, Veslemøy Sunniva; Tråven, Madeleine; Alenius, S.; Myrmel, Mette; Stokstad, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Prevention of virus spread is impeded by a lack of basic knowledge concerning viral shedding and transmission potential in individual animals. The aims of the study were to investigate the duration and quantity of BCoV shedding in feces and nasal secretions related to clinical signs, the presence of virus in blood and tissues and to test the hypothesis t...

  6. Monitoring survivability and infectivity of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv in the infected on-farm earthen manure storages (EMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Min Tun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America's swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradicating this virus. To further understand the survivability and infectivity of PEDv in the infected manure, we performed longitudinal monitoring in two open earthen manure storages (EMSs; previously referred to as lagoon from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to nine months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMSs, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMSs, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMSs. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMSs.

  7. Envelope proteins of bovine herpesvirus 1: immunological and biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Roque, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied immunological and biochemical properties of the bovid herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) envelope proteins in order to understand the pathogenesis of BHV-1 infection and to provide basic information for the production of effective subunit vaccines against BHV-1. Ten glycoproteins MW 180, 150, 130, 115, 97, 77, 74, 64, 55, and 45 kilodaltons (K), and a single non-glycosylated 108 K protein were quantitatively removed from purified BHV-1 virions by detergent treatment. These glycoproteins were present on the virion envelope and on the surface of BHV-1 infected cells. The quantitative removal from virions by treatment with nonionic detergents and their presence on the surface of infected cells indicate that 180/97, 150/77, and 130/74/55 K are major components of the BHV-1 envelope and are also the targets of virus neutralizing humoral immune response. Envelope glycoproteins of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) bind immunoglobulin by the Fc end and it is suggested this may increase pathogenicity of this virus. They searched for a similar function in BVH-1 by measuring the ability of BHV-1 infected cells and viral envelope proteins to bind radiolabelled rabbit and bovine IgG. Binding activity for rabbit IgG or bovine IgG-Fc could not be demonstrated by BHV-1 infected MDBK cells, whereas, MDBK cells infected with HSV-1 bound rabbit IgG and bovine IgG-Fc. None of the three major envelope proteins of BHV-1 bound to rabbit or bovine IgG. The results of this study indicate that BHV-1, unlike some other herpesviruses, lack Fc binding activity

  8. Chronic diarrhea as presenting symptom for a metastasic neuroendocrine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hani A, Albis Cecilia; Garcia A, Jairo Alberto

    2007-01-01

    We describe the clinical case of a 74 years old female patient presenting with a watery diarrhea syndrome, having severe hypokalaemia and liver metastases. In her necropsy a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor was found. We present a literature review about pancreas neuroendocrine tumours, focusing in the VIPoma, which may correspond with the clinical features of this particular patient

  9. Alkaline stabilization of manure slurry inactivates porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) outbreak in North America has substantially impacted swine production since it causes nearly 100% mortality in infected pre-weaned piglets. The PED virus is transmitted via the fecal oral route and manure may remain a source of reinfection; therefore, prop...

  10. molecular identification of rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The study was carried out to determine the molecular characteristics of the rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea among children in Kwara state, Nigeria. A total of 150 stool samples were collected from diarrheic children. The stool samples were screened for rotavirus,using Enzyme linked Immunosorbent ...

  11. Molecular identification of rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the molecular characteristics of the rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea among children in Kwara state, Nigeria. A total of 150 stool samples were collected from diarrheic children. The stool samples were screened for rotavirus,using Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  12. Adenovirus Infection in Children with Diarrhea Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    Adenovirus Infection in Children with Diarrhea Disease in Northwestern. Nigeria. M. Aminu1, A. A. Ahmad1, J. U. Umoh2, M. C. de Beer3, M. D. Esona3, A. D. Steele3. 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria. 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, ...

  13. Frequency of Rotavirus Infection among Children with Diarrhea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rotaviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis and diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Basic epidemiological data concerning rotaviruses among infants and children are necessary for health planners and care providers in Sudan. Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted at Omdurman ...

  14. Predictors of under-five childhood diarrhea: Mecha District, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diarrheal disease is widely recognized as a major cause of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. There exist variations in explanatory variables of diarrhea depending on the context of the study. Objective: To examine the effects of selected ...

  15. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  16. SKIV2L Mutations Cause Syndromic Diarrhea, or Trichohepatoenteric Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Alexandre; Charroux, Bernard; Martinez-Vinson, Christine; Roquelaure, Bertrand; Odul, Egritas; Sayar, Ersin; Smith, Hilary; Colomb, Virginie; Andre, Nicolas; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Goulet, Olivier; Lacoste, Caroline; Sarles, Jacques; Royet, Julien; Levy, Nicolas; Badens, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Syndromic diarrhea (or trichohepatoenteric syndrome) is a rare congenital bowel disorder characterized by intractable diarrhea and woolly hair, and it has recently been associated with mutations in TTC37. Although databases report TTC37 as being the human ortholog of Ski3p, one of the yeast Ski-complex cofactors, this lead was not investigated in initial studies. The Ski complex is a multiprotein complex required for exosome-mediated RNA surveillance, including the regulation of normal mRNA and the decay of nonfunctional mRNA. Considering the fact that TTC37 is homologous to Ski3p, we explored a gene encoding another Ski-complex cofactor, SKIV2L, in six individuals presenting with typical syndromic diarrhea without variation in TTC37. We identified mutations in all six individuals. Our results show that mutations in genes encoding cofactors of the human Ski complex cause syndromic diarrhea, establishing a link between defects of the human exosome complex and a Mendelian disease. PMID:22444670

  17. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus among Farmed Pigs, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastjerdi, Akbar; Carr, John; Ellis, Richard J; Steinbach, Falko; Williamson, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea occurred in the summer of 2014 in Ukraine, severely affecting piglets <10 days of age; the mortality rate approached 100%. Full genome sequencing showed the virus to be closely related to strains reported from North America, showing a sequence identity of up to 99.8%.

  18. Diarréia por parasitas Parasites induced diarrheas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida Motta

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A diarréia é uma causa importante de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. Os agentes etiológicos mais comuns são os vírus e as bactérias. Este artigo tem o objetivo de analisar a ocorrência de diarréia como manifestação clínica de parasitose. Discute-se quais os protozoários e os helmintos que podem causar diarréia, as bases científicas atuais que explicam os mecanismos fisiopatológicos que desencadeiam a diarréia, bem como os exames complementares e o tratamento adequado para cada parasita implicado.Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The most common etiological agents are viruses and bacteria. This article has the objective of analyzing diarrhea as a clinical symptom of parasitosis. Protozoa and helminthes that may cause diarrhea are discussed, current scientific basis clarifying the pathological and physiological mechanisms causing diarrhea as well as supplementary tests and adequate treatment for each parasite involved are focused.

  19. Chronic Diarrhea and Pancolitis Caused by Paracoccidioidomycosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduar A. Bravo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South American blastomycosis is a systemic micosis caused by infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The most frequently affected sites are the lower lip buccal mucous membrane, palate, tongue, sublingual region, lymph glands, and lungs. However, colonic involvement is not a common expression of Paracoccidioidomycosis. We report a case of chronic diarrhea and pancolitis caused by Paracoccidioidomycosis with fatal outcome.

  20. Effect of diet and tylosin on chronic diarrhea in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermarck, Elias; Frias, Rafael; Skrzypczak, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Seven beagles in a colony of dogs had chronic diarrhea for at least 30 days. The dogs were subsequently treated with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. During the treatment period, the feces became firmer but remained loose. When the treatment was discontinued, the diarrhea reappeared in 3 weeks. The feces remained abnormally loose in all dogs treated with metronidazole, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, or doxycycline and prednisone. The diet was then changed for 10 days from a highly digestible moist pet food to a dry food developed for normal adult dogs. The feces again became firmer, although still loose in some dogs. The period was then extended to 3 month, but the fecal consistency continued to fluctuate from ideal to diarrhea. The dogs were treated a 2nd time with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. The feces then became significantly firmer and remained so throughout a 3-month follow-up. We conclude that the combination of diet and tylosin was more effective than either agent alone in control of chronic diarrhea.

  1. Assessment of the anti-diarrhea function of compound Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organ bath was used to investigate the effect of COL on peristaltic reflexes and peristaltic waves in vitro. And anti-diarrhea activity of COL was evaluated in clinical. Results: Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC analyses showed that the contents of Berberine hydrochloride, Magnolol and Honokiol in COL were ...

  2. Clinical Treatment of Nondysentery Travelers’ Diarrhea During Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    sample the local cuisine . He denied known infectious contacts, use of any self-treatment, or any comorbid illnesses. On exam he was afebrile, his blood...chemoprophylaxis of traveler’s diarrhea using nifuroxazide] [Article in French ] Pathol Biol (Paris) 1986; 34: 669-71. 18. Sanders JW, Isenbarger DW

  3. Myasthenia gravis exacerbation and diarrhea associated with erythromycin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in management of the case with myasthenia gravis (MG is the control of exacerbation. There are several possible causes of exacerbation of MG including the use of drug. Here, the authors report a case of MG exacerbation and diarrhea associated with erythromycin treatment.

  4. Mothers' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Diarrhea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess diarrhea-related knowledge, attitude and practice through successive educational interventions. Methods: This was an interventional study conducted at nine different locations of Morang district, Nepal from March 2010 to January 2011. Multistage random sampling approach was adopted to sample 630 ...

  5. [Effects of secretory and osmotic diarrhea on rats intestinal function and morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima de Mon, Margarita; Cioccia, Anna M; González, Eduardo; Hevia, Patricio

    2002-03-01

    In order to compare intestinal morphology and function, diarrhea was produced in rats using laxatives in the diet. The 14 day study included two groups of rats with diarrhea (osmotic or secretory), two groups without diarrhea but with a degree of malnutrition which was similar to that seen in the rats with diarrhea (malnourished without diarrhea) and a well-nourished group (control). The inclusion of laxatives(lactose or bisoxatin acetate) cause a reduction in food intake, diarrhea an malnutrition. It also caused a reduction in dietary protein and fat digestibility which was proportional to the severity of diarrhea and more pronounced in secretory diarrhea. In the malnourished rats without diarrhea, malnutrition did not affect their absorptive function. Both in the rats with secretory and osmotic diarrhea an intestinal hypertrophy was observed. This hypertrophy was proportional to the severity of diarrhea and independent of its aetiology. In the intestines of the rats with both types of diarrhea there was inflammation, a greater number of mitotic figures but the flattening of the villi seen in the malnourished rats without diarrhea was not seen. In osmotic diarrhea there was, in addition, a patchy damage of the surface of the jejunal mucosa and an increment in the number of goblet cells, indicating a more severe intestinal deterioration. Since despite this greater deterioration, these rats absorbed more protein and fat we concluded that the alterations in intestinal morphology seen in this study was not predictive of intestinal function. The study also showed that diarrhea had a trophic effect on the intestine which did not occur in malnourished rats without diarrhea.

  6. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, H F; Santa Ana, C A; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to gain insight into the pathophysiology of pure osmotic diarrhea and the osmotic diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption. Diarrhea was induced in normal volunteers by ingestion of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is nonabsorbable, not metabolized by colonic bacteria, and carries no electrical charge. In PEG-induced diarrhea, (a) stool weight was directly correlated with the total mass of PEG ingested; (b) PEG contributed 40-60% of the osmolality of the ...

  7. Root cause investigation of a viral contamination incident occurred during master cell bank (MCB) testing and characterization--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayue; Nims, Raymond; Dusing, Sandra; Miller, Pamela; Luo, Wen; Quertinmont, Michelle; Parekh, Bhavin; Poorbaugh, Josh; Boose, Jeri Ann; Atkinson, E Morrey

    2008-11-01

    An adventitious agent contamination occurred during a routine 9 CFR bovine viral screening test at BioReliance for an Eli Lilly Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell-derived Master Cell Bank (MCB) intended for biological production. Scientists from the sponsor (Eli Lilly and Company) and the testing service company (BioReliance) jointly conducted a systematic investigation in an attempt to determine the root cause of the contamination. Our investigation resulted in the identification of the viral nature of the contaminant. Subsequent experiments indicated that the viral contaminant was a non-enveloped and non-hemadsorbing virus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the viral contaminant was 25-30 nm in size and morphologically resembled viruses of the family Picornaviridae. The contaminant virus was readily inactivated when exposed to acidic pH, suggesting that the viral contaminant was a member of rhinoviruses. Although incapable of infecting CHO cells, the viral contaminant replicated efficiently in Vero cell with a life cycle of approximately 16 h. Our investigation provided compelling data demonstrating that the viral contaminant did not originate from the MCB. Instead, it was introduced into the process during cell passaging and a possible entry point was proposed. We identified the viral contaminant as an equine rhinitis A virus using molecular cloning and DNA sequencing. Finally, our investigation led us to conclude that the source of the viral contaminant was the equine serum added to the cell growth medium in the 9 CFR bovine virus test.

  8. Impact of respiratory disease, diarrhea, otitis and arthritis on mortality and carcass traits in white veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Bart; Hostens, Miel; Duchateau, Luc; Dewulf, Jeroen; De Bleecker, Koen; Deprez, Piet

    2013-04-15

    Little is known on the effects of common calf diseases on mortality and carcass traits in the white veal industry (special-fed veal), a highly integrated production system, currently criticized for the intensive pro- and metaphylactic use of antimicrobials. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), diarrhea, arthritis and otitis on the economically important parameters of mortality, hot carcass weight (HCW), carcass quality, fat cover and meat color. For this purpose, a prospective study on 3519 white veal calves, housed in 10 commercial herds, was conducted. Case definitions were based on clinical observation by the producers and written treatment records were used. Calves received oral antimicrobial group treatments in the milk during 25.2% of the production time on average. With an increasing percentage of the production cycle spent on oral antimicrobials, HCW reduced, whereas the odds for insufficient fat cover or an undesirable red meat color both decreased. Of the calves, 14.8%, 5.3%, 1.5% and 1.6% were individually diagnosed and treated for BRD, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis, respectively. Overall, 5.7% of the calves died and the mortality risk was higher in the first weeks after arrival. Calves that experienced one BRD episode showed a 8.2 kg reduction in HCW, a lower fat cover and an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.5), compared to calves which were not individually diagnosed and treated for BRD. With an increasing number of BRD episodes, these losses increased dramatically. Additionally, calves, which experienced multiple BRD episodes, were more likely to have poor carcass quality and an undesirable red meat color at slaughter. Arthritis increased the mortality risk (HR = 3.9), and reduced HCW only when associated with BRD. Otitis did only increase the mortality risk (HR = 7.0). Diarrhea severely increased the mortality risk (HR = 11.0), reduced HCW by 9.2 kg on

  9. Equine viral arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  10. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  11. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  12. Characterization of the human gut microbiome during travelers' diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Bonnie P; Ajami, Nadim J; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Campbell, Frederick; Wadsworth, W Duncan; Petrosino, Joseph F; DuPont, Herbert L; Highlander, Sarah K

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the gut microbiota are correlated with ailments such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and diarrhea. Up to 60% of individuals traveling from industrialized to developing countries acquire a form of secretory diarrhea known as travelers' diarrhea (TD), and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and norovirus (NoV) are the leading causative pathogens. Presumably, TD alters the gut microbiome, however the effect of TD on gut communities has not been studied. We report the first analysis of bacterial gut populations associated with TD. We examined and compared the gut microbiomes of individuals who developed TD associated with ETEC, NoV, or mixed pathogens, and TD with no pathogen identified, to healthy travelers. We observed a signature dysbiotic gut microbiome profile of high Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratios in the travelers who developed diarrhea, regardless of etiologic agent or presence of a pathogen. There was no significant difference in α-diversity among travelers. The bacterial composition of the microbiota of the healthy travelers was similar to the diarrheal groups, however the β-diversity of the healthy travelers was significantly different than any pathogen-associated TD group. Further comparison of the healthy traveler microbiota to those from healthy subjects who were part of the Human Microbiome Project also revealed a significantly higher Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio in the healthy travelers and significantly different β-diversity. Thus, the composition of the gut microbiome in healthy, diarrhea-free travelers has characteristics of a dysbiotic gut, suggesting that these alterations could be associated with factors such as travel.

  13. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  14. Characterizing the rapid spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV through an animal food manufacturing facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni L Schumacher

    Full Text Available New regulatory and consumer demands highlight the importance of animal feed as a part of our national food safety system. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV is the first viral pathogen confirmed to be widely transmissible in animal food. Because the potential for viral contamination in animal food is not well characterized, the objectives of this study were to 1 observe the magnitude of virus contamination in an animal food manufacturing facility, and 2 investigate a proposed method, feed sequencing, to decrease virus decontamination on animal food-contact surfaces. A U.S. virulent PEDV isolate was used to inoculate 50 kg swine feed, which was mixed, conveyed, and discharged into bags using pilot-scale feed manufacturing equipment. Surfaces were swabbed and analyzed for the presence of PEDV RNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Environmental swabs indicated complete contamination of animal food-contact surfaces (0/40 vs. 48/48, positive baseline samples/total baseline samples, positive subsequent samples/total subsequent samples, respectively; P < 0.05 and near complete contamination of non-animal food-contact surfaces (0/24 vs. 16/18, positive baseline samples/total baseline samples, positive subsequent samples/total subsequent samples, respectively; P < 0.05. Flushing animal food-contact surfaces with low-risk feed is commonly used to reduce cross-contamination in animal feed manufacturing. Thus, four subsequent 50 kg batches of virus-free swine feed were manufactured using the same system to test its impact on decontaminating animal food-contact surfaces. Even after 4 subsequent sequences, animal food-contact surfaces retained viral RNA (28/33 positive samples/total samples, with conveying system being more contaminated than the mixer. A bioassay to test infectivity of dust from animal food-contact surfaces failed to produce infectivity. This study demonstrates the potential widespread viral contamination of

  15. Immunobiotics for the Bovine Host: Their Interaction with Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Their Effect on Antiviral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Villena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community has reported several cases of microbes that exhibit elevated rates of antibiotic resistance in different regions of the planet. Due to this emergence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms, the use of antibiotics as promoters of livestock animals’ growth is being banned in most countries around the world. One of the challenges of agricultural immunology therefore is to find alternatives by modulating the immune system of animals in drug-independent safe food production systems. In this regard, in an effort to supplant antibiotics from bovine feeds, several alternatives were proposed including the use of immunomodulatory probiotics (immunobiotics. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the status of the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity of the bovine host by immunobiotics, and the beneficial impact of immunobiotics on viral infections, focused on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs. The results of our group, which demonstrate the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulate Toll-like receptor 3-triggered immune responses in bovine IECs and improve the resistance to viral infections, are highlighted. This review provides comprehensive information on the innate immune response of bovine IECs against virus, which can be further investigated for the development of strategies aimed to improve defenses in the bovine host.

  16. Chronic unexplained diarrhea: what to do when the initial workup is negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Nicholas J

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing the patient with chronic diarrhea can still be a major challenge despite modern testing. It is useful initially to consider what may be the likely underlying pathophysiologic explanation for diarrhea from the history (osmotic, secretory, inflammatory, or motility related) and let this information drive the management algorithm. However, gastroenterologists frequently ask how far the workup should go and when a confident diagnosis of functional diarrhea can be made. In contrast to diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, the evidence that functional diarrhea exists as a real diagnostic entity is actually remarkably unconvincing.

  17. Malaria parasitemia and childhood diarrhea in a peri-urban area of Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between diarrhea in early childhood and malaria parasitemia, we conducted a nested case-control study in Guinea-Bissau of 297 children with diarrhea and a similar number of children without diarrhea matched for age, season, and residential area. There were no associations...... between diarrhea and parasite rate, parasite density, or clinical malaria. However, anti-malarials were easily available and frequently used, which was reflected by a 0.7% prevalence of children with a parasite density > 100/200 leukocytes. Thus, the findings do not preclude that diarrhea may be a sign...

  18. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Toscana Virus Infection by Binding to Heparan Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina Pietrantoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus is an emerging sandfly-borne bunyavirus in Mediterranean Europe responsible for neurological diseases in humans. It accounts for about 80% of paediatric meningitis cases during the summer. Despite the important impact of Toscana virus infection-associated disease on human health, currently approved vaccines or effective antiviral treatments are not available. In this research, we have analyzed the effect of bovine lactoferrin, a bi-globular iron-binding glycoprotein with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, on Toscana virus infection in vitro. Our results showed that lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting Toscana virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. Results obtained when lactoferrin was added to the cells during different phases of viral infection showed that lactoferrin was able to prevent viral replication when added during the viral adsorption step or during the entire cycle of virus infection, demonstrating that its action takes place in an early phase of viral infection. In particular, our results demonstrated that the anti-Toscana virus action of lactoferrin took place on virus attachment to the cell membrane, mainly through a competition for common glycosaminoglycan receptors. These findings provide further insights on the antiviral activity of bovine lactoferrin.

  19. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  20. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    OpenAIRE

    I.T. Rotta; M.B.A.M. Torres; R.G. Motta

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  1. Viral myositis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Haley; Goldman, Ran D

    2017-05-01

    Question I recently evaluated a child in my clinic after an emergency department visit where she presented having woken up that morning refusing to walk and was crawling around the house. The parents reported she was getting over a cold, and I recall similar cases of myositis during the H1N1 influenza epidemic a few years ago. What are the key features of myositis that I should recognize? Which investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis and how should affected patients be managed? Answer Benign acute childhood myositis is a mild and self-limited sudden onset of lower extremity pain during or following recovery from a viral illness. Presentation can include tiptoe gait or refusal to walk, secondary to symmetric bilateral lower extremity pain that resolves quickly, usually within 3 days. In general, no investigation is needed except in severe cases for which screening bloodwork and a urine myoglobin test can confirm the diagnosis and rule out complications. Myoglobinuria and highly elevated creatine phosphokinase levels are rare but should be a consideration for admission to hospital. Prognosis is excellent and management might include rest and analgesia. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  2. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  3. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  4. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  5. Assessment of chronic diarrhea in early infancy in Tehran Tertiary Care Center; Tehran-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Motamed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chronic diarrhea of infancy is a heterogeneous syndrome that includes several diseases with different etiologies. The aim of this study was investigating chronic diarrhea, its etiologies, clinical features and outcomes in infancy.Materials and Methods Retrospective study investigating infants hospitalized in the gastroenterology department of Tehran tertiary care center.The main demographic data, etiology, characteristics of diarrhea, and outcome were evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software,version 16.Results In this study, 63/9% of cases were female and 36/1% were male. 24 cases (66/7% had osmotic diarrhea and 11 (30/6% had secretory diarrhea. In this study there was no significant statistical correlation between type of diarrhea and sex, gestational Age, severity of dehydration, birth weight and nutrition. The majority of patients with osmotic (58/3% and secretory diarrhea (63/6%, had weight percentile below 3%, which showed a significant statistical difference (p value

  6. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea in Europe: In-Detail Analyses of Disease Dynamics and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Dennis; Pohlmann, Anne; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Höper, Dirk; Stadler, Julia; Ritzmann, Mathias; Steinrigl, Adi; Schwarz, Bernd-Andreas; Akimkin, Valerij; Fux, Robert; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2017-07-06

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease of swine caused by the eponymous virus (PEDV) which belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus within the Coronaviridae virus family. Following the disastrous outbreaks in Asia and the United States, PEDV has been detected also in Europe. In order to better understand the overall situation, the molecular epidemiology, and factors that might influence the most variable disease impact; 40 samples from swine feces were collected from different PED outbreaks in Germany and other European countries and sequenced by shot-gun next-generation sequencing. A total of 38 new PEDV complete coding sequences were generated. When compared on a global scale, all investigated sequences from Central and South-Eastern Europe formed a rather homogeneous PEDV S INDEL cluster, suggesting a recent re-introduction. However, in-detail analyses revealed two new clusters and putative ancestor strains. Based on the available background data, correlations between clusters and location, farm type or clinical presentation could not be established. Additionally, the impact of secondary infections was explored using the metagenomic data sets. While several coinfections were observed, no correlation was found with disease courses. However, in addition to the PEDV genomes, ten complete viral coding sequences from nine different data sets were reconstructed each representing new virus strains. In detail, three pasivirus A strains, two astroviruses, a porcine sapelovirus, a kobuvirus, a porcine torovirus, a posavirus, and an enterobacteria phage were almost fully sequenced.

  7. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea in Europe: In-Detail Analyses of Disease Dynamics and Molecular Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hanke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease of swine caused by the eponymous virus (PEDV which belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus within the Coronaviridae virus family. Following the disastrous outbreaks in Asia and the United States, PEDV has been detected also in Europe. In order to better understand the overall situation, the molecular epidemiology, and factors that might influence the most variable disease impact; 40 samples from swine feces were collected from different PED outbreaks in Germany and other European countries and sequenced by shot-gun next-generation sequencing. A total of 38 new PEDV complete coding sequences were generated. When compared on a global scale, all investigated sequences from Central and South-Eastern Europe formed a rather homogeneous PEDV S INDEL cluster, suggesting a recent re-introduction. However, in-detail analyses revealed two new clusters and putative ancestor strains. Based on the available background data, correlations between clusters and location, farm type or clinical presentation could not be established. Additionally, the impact of secondary infections was explored using the metagenomic data sets. While several coinfections were observed, no correlation was found with disease courses. However, in addition to the PEDV genomes, ten complete viral coding sequences from nine different data sets were reconstructed each representing new virus strains. In detail, three pasivirus A strains, two astroviruses, a porcine sapelovirus, a kobuvirus, a porcine torovirus, a posavirus, and an enterobacteria phage were almost fully sequenced.

  8. 76 FR 2328 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology should be addressed to: Desk...., Tuberculosis, Bovine Viral diarrhea, etc.). Without this type of data, the ability to detect trends in...

  9. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... bovine viral diarrhea virus, dengue fever, encephalitis, feline immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus I, influenza, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, measles, papilloma, rabies, respiratory syncitial virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, ...

  10. Replication and Transmission of the Novel Bovine Influenza D Virus in a Guinea Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Chithra; Thomas, Milton; Sheng, Zizhang; Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Knudsen, David E B; Pillatzki, Angela; Nelson, Eric; Wang, Dan; Kaushik, Radhey S; Li, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Influenza D virus (FLUDV) is a novel influenza virus that infects cattle and swine. The goal of this study was to investigate the replication and transmission of bovine FLUDV in guinea pigs. Following direct intranasal inoculation of animals, the virus was detected in nasal washes of infected animals during the first 7 days postinfection. High viral titers were obtained from nasal turbinates and lung tissues of directly inoculated animals. Further, bovine FLUDV was able to transmit from the infected guinea pigs to sentinel animals by means of contact and not by aerosol dissemination under the experimental conditions tested in this study. Despite exhibiting no clinical signs, infected guinea pigs developed seroconversion and the viral antigen was detected in lungs of animals by immunohistochemistry. The observation that bovine FLUDV replicated in the respiratory tract of guinea pigs was similar to observations described previously in studies of gnotobiotic calves and pigs experimentally infected with bovine FLUDV but different from those described previously in experimental infections in ferrets and swine with a swine FLUDV, which supported virus replication only in the upper respiratory tract and not in the lower respiratory tract, including lung. Our study established that guinea pigs could be used as an animal model for studying this newly emerging influenza virus. Influenza D virus (FLUDV) is a novel emerging pathogen with bovine as its primary host. The epidemiology and pathogenicity of the virus are not yet known. FLUDV also spreads to swine, and the presence of FLUDV-specific antibodies in humans could indicate that there is a potential for zoonosis. Our results showed that bovine FLUDV replicated in the nasal turbinate and lungs of guinea pigs at high titers and was also able to transmit from an infected animal to sentinel animals by contact. The fact that bovine FLUDV replicated productively in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts of guinea pigs

  11. Intestinal lymphangiectasia: a forgotten cause of chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Leal, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare autosomal dominant disorder or acquired condition that leads to lymph obstruction, poor chyle transport and concomitant problems. We describe the cases of two women with chronic diarrhea in whom the common signs of lymphagiectasia-hypoalbuminemia, lymphopenia and distal edema- were found. One of them also had pleural effusion and chylous ascites. The diagnosis was performed by intestinal biopsy. We herein review the histopathologic, radiographic and endoscopic features of this disorder and case reports in Mexican population.

  12. Epidemiology of bacterial pathogens associated with infectious diarrhea in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, I A; Fox, E; Haberberger, R L; Ahmed, M H; Abbatte, E A

    1990-01-01

    During a survey examining the causes of diarrhea in the East African country of Djibouti, 140 bacterial pathogens were recovered from 209 diarrheal and 100 control stools. The following pathogens were isolated at comparable frequencies from both diarrheal and control stools: enteroadherent Escherichia coli (EAEC) (10.6 versus 13%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (11 versus 10%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (7.7 versus 12%), Salmonella spp. (2.9 versus 3%), and Campylobacter jejuni-C. coli (3.3 versus 5%). Surprisingly, the EAEC strains isolated did not correspond to well-recognized EPEC serogroups. No Yersinia spp., enteroinvasive E. coli, or enterohemorrhagic E. coli were isolated during the course of this study. Only the following two genera were recovered from diarrheal stools exclusively: Shigella spp. (7.7%) and Aeromonas hydrophila group organisms (3.3%). Shigella flexneri was the most common Shigella species isolated. Patients with Shigella species were of a higher average age than were controls (27 versus 13 years), while subjects with Campylobacter or Salmonella species belonged to younger age groups (2.6 and 1.6 years, respectively). Salmonella cases were more often in females. Shigella diarrhea was associated with fecal blood or mucus and leukocytes. ETEC was not associated with nausea or vomiting. Anorexia, weight loss, and fever were associated with the isolation of Salmonella and Aeromonas species. EAEC, ETEC, EPEC, and Shigella species were resistant to most drugs used for treating diarrhea in Africa, while the antibiotic most active against all bacteria tested was norfloxacin. We conclude that in Djibouti in 1989, Shigella and Aeromonas species must be considered as potential pathogens whenever they are isolated from diarrheal stools and that norfloxacin should be considered the drug of choice in adults for treating severe shigellosis and for diarrhea prophylaxis in travelers. PMID:2351738

  13. Inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  14. Dosimetric predictors of diarrhea during radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Endres, Eugene J.; Parker, Brent C.; Sormani, Maria Pia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate dosimetric predictors of diarrhea during radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Patients and methods: all patients who underwent external-beam radiotherapy as part of treatment for localized prostate cancer at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA, from May 2002 to November 2006 were extracted from the own database. From the cumulative dose-volume histogram (DVH), the absolute volumes (V-value) of intestinal cavity (IC) receiving 15, 30, and 45 Gy were extracted for each patient. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was prospectively scored at each weekly treatment visit according to CTC (common toxicity criteria) v2.0. The endpoint was the development of peak grade ≥ 2 diarrhea during RT. Various patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: 149 patients were included in the analysis, 112 (75.2%) treated with whole-pelvis intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) and 37 (24.8%) with prostate-only RT, including or not including, the seminal vesicles (PORT ± SV). 45 patients (30.2%) developed peak grade ≥ 2 diarrhea during treatment. At univariate analysis, IC-V 15 and IC-V 30 , but not IC-V 45 , were correlated to the endpoint; at multivariate analysis, only IC-V 15 (p = 0.047) along with peak acute proctitis (p = 0.041) was independently correlated with the endpoint. Conclusion: these data provide a novel and prostate treatment-specific ''upper limit'' DVH for IC. (orig.)

  15. Solanum paniculatum root extract reduces diarrhea in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh A.B. Tenório

    Full Text Available Abstract Solanum paniculatum L., Solanaceae, locally known as "jurubeba", is widely used in Brazil for culinary purposes, and in folk medicine to treat of diverse disorder including gastric dysfunctions. In this study we investigated the antidiarrheal activity of S. paniculatum roots extract in rats at different concentrations (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o using different experimental models such as castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling and gastrointestinal motility, determined by in vivo experimental models. The major compound of root extract was characterized as chlorogenic acid based in the IR, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. All the extract doses achieved antidiarrheal potency, as indicated by reduced weight of feces in castor oil-induced diarrhea, decreased intestinal motility and significantly inhibited castor oil-induced enteropooling compared to the vehicle group. The highest dose (500 mg/kg produced greater anti-motility effect and better reduction of enteropooling, similar to the reference drug Loperamide (5 mg/kg. Extract from S. paniculatum L. roots had antidiarrheal activity, as shown by the lower weight of the feces as well as decrease in the accumulation of intestinal fluid and slower transit, justifying the traditional use of plant for diarrhea.

  16. Isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of Aeromonas from children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyanti Meiyanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, oxidase positive bacteria of the recently assigned family Aeromonadaceae. The significance of Aeromonas species as causative agent of human diarrhoea has recently been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution, and antibiotic sensitivity of Aeromonas in nonhospitalized children with diarrhea.One hundred and seventeen rectal swabs from children with diarhhea were cultured for isolation of Aeromonas organisms as the etiological agents. In addition to Aeromonas, other enteric pathogens were also isolated. Overall, the isolates of enteric pathogens amounted to 36.8%, consisting of Salmonella, Shigella, Aeromonas, and Vibrio. Aeromonas was only found in 5.1% of cultures, with a ratio of A. caviae and A. hydrophila of 2:1, while Salmonella made up the majority of causative organisms with an isolation frequency of 18.8%, followed by Shigella with 11.1%. In this study no isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 were found as etiological agents of diarrhea; however, V. cholerae non-O1 and V. parahaemolyticus were found in small numbers (<1%. All isolates of Aeromonas were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone, as were the other enteric pathogens. Although the frequency of isolation of these enteric pathogens was higher than for Vibrio spp., their role in infective diarrhea was less clearcut in comparison with Salmonella and Shigella.

  17. Congenital chloride diarrhea misdiagnosed as pseudo-Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneian, Hossein; Bahraminia, Emad

    2013-09-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by intractable diarrhea of infancy, failure to thrive, high fecal chloride, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic alkalosis. In this case report, we present the first female and the second official case of CCD in Iran. A 15-month-old girl referred to our hospital due to failure to thrive and poor feeding. She had normal kidneys, liver and spleen. Treating her with Shohl's solution, thiazide and zinc sulfate did not result in weight gain. Consequently, pseudo-Bartter syndrome was suspected, she was treated with intravenous (IV) therapy to which she responded dramatically. In addition, hypokalemia resolved quickly. Since this does not usually happen in patients with the pseudo-Bartter syndrome, stool tests were performed. Abnormal level of chloride in stool suggested CCD and she was thus treated with IV fluid replacement, Total parentral nutrition and high dose of oral omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day). She gained 1 kg of weight and is doing fine until present. CCD is a rare hereditary cause of intractable diarrhea of infancy. It should be considered in infants with unknown severe electrolyte disturbances.

  18. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  19. IgY antibodies protect against human Rotavirus induced diarrhea in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina G Vega

    Full Text Available Group A Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. The aim of the present work was to evaluate protection against rotavirus (RV diarrhea conferred by the prophylactic administration of specific IgY antibodies (Ab to gnotobiotic piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV. Chicken egg yolk IgY Ab generated from Wa HRV hyperimmunized hens specifically recognized (ELISA and neutralized Wa HRV in vitro. Supplementation of the RV Ab free cow milk diet with Wa HRV-specific egg yolk IgY Ab at a final ELISA Ab titer of 4096 (virus neutralization -VN- titer = 256 for 9 days conferred full protection against Wa HRV associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. This protection was dose-dependent. The oral administration of semi-purified passive IgY Abs from chickens did not affect the isotype profile of the pig Ab secreting cell (ASC responses to Wa HRV infection, but it was associated with significantly fewer numbers of HRV-specific IgA ASC in the duodenum. We further analyzed the pigś immune responses to the passive IgY treatment. The oral administration of IgY Abs induced IgG Ab responses to chicken IgY in serum and local IgA and IgG Ab responses to IgY in the intestinal contents of neonatal piglets in a dose dependent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IgY Abs administered orally as a milk supplement passively protect neonatal pigs against an enteric viral pathogen (HRV. Piglets are an animal model with a gastrointestinal physiology and an immune system that closely mimic human infants. This strategy can be scaled-up to inexpensively produce large amounts of polyclonal IgY Abs from egg yolks to be applied as a preventive and therapeutic passive Ab treatment to control RV diarrhea.

  20. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  1. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  2. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  3. Proposed revision to the taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Donald B.; Meyers, Gregor; Bukh, Jens; Gould, Ernest A.; Monath, Thomas; Muerhoff, A. Scott; Pletnev, Alexander; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca; Stapleton, Jack T.; Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We propose the creation of seven new species in the genus Pestivirus (family Flaviviridae) in addition to the four existing species, and naming species in a host-independent manner using the format Pestivirus X. Only the virus species names would change; virus isolates would still be referred to by their original names. The original species would be re-designated as Pestivirus A (original designation Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1), Pestivirus B (Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2), Pestivirus C (C...

  4. Viral infections in transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razonable, R R; Eid, A J

    2009-12-01

    Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are uniquely predisposed to develop clinical illness, often with increased severity, due to a variety of common and opportunistic viruses. Patients may acquire viral infections from the donor (donor-derived infections), from reactivation of endogenous latent virus, or from the community. Herpes viruses, most notably cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus, are the most common among opportunistic viral pathogens that cause infection after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The polyoma BK virus causes opportunistic clinical syndromes predominantly in kidney and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The agents of viral hepatitis B and C present unique challenges particularly among liver transplant recipients. Respiratory viral illnesses due to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus may affect all types of transplant recipients, although severe clinical disease is observed more commonly among lung and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Less common viral infections affecting transplant recipients include those caused by adenoviruses, parvovirus B19, and West Nile virus. Treatment for viruses with proven effective antiviral drug therapies should be complemented by reduction in the degree of immunosuppression. For others with no proven antiviral drugs for therapy, reduction in the degree of immunosuppression remains as the sole effective strategy for management. Prevention of viral infections is therefore of utmost importance, and this may be accomplished through vaccination, antiviral strategies, and aggressive infection control measures.

  5. Bovine aortic endothelial cells are susceptible to Hantaan virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, U.; Muranyi, W.; Mueller, S.; Kehm, R.; Handermann, M.; Darai, G.; Zeier, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hantavirus serotype Hantaan (HTN) is one of the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, lethality up to 10%). The natural host of HTN is Apodemus agrarius. Recent studies have shown that domestic animals like cattle are sporadically seropositive for hantaviruses. In the present study, the susceptibility of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) expressing α V β 3 -integrin to a HTN infection was investigated. Viral nucleocapsid protein and genomic RNA segments were detected in infected BAEC by indirect immunofluorescence assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The results of this study strongly support our previous observation on Puumala virus (PUU) that has been propagated efficiently in BAEC. These findings open a new window to contemplate the ecology of hantavirus infection and transmission route from animal to man

  6. Diarrea funcional como causa de diarrea crónica Functional diarrhea as cause of chronic diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trini Fragoso Arbelo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea funcional se presenta con frecuencia en la práctica pediátrica, y generalmente no se asocia a alteraciones nutricionales, pero sí a esquemas dietéticos incorrectos. Se actualiza su importancia clínica, se hace énfasis en la patogenia, diagnóstico y en los métodos de tratamiento. Consideramos que es la causa más frecuente de diarrea crónica inespecífica, y que el interrogatorio dirigido según los criterios de Roma es útil para su diagnóstico. La mayoría de los pacientes con esta enfermedad en la infancia deben ser tratados en la atención primaria.The functional diarrhea is frequent in the pediatric practice and in general it is not associated with nutritional alterations, but to incorrect dietary schemes. Its clinical significance is updated and its pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment methods are emphasized. Authors considered that the functional diarrhea is the more frequent cause of unspecific chronic diarrhea and the questioning directed according the Rome criteria is very useful for its diagnosis. Most of patients presenting with this disease during childhood must to be treated in primary care services.

  7. Antibiotic treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R

    2007-07-18

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is recognized as a frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. The aim of this review is to establish the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), to identify the most effective antibiotic treatment for CDAD in adults and to determine the need for stopping the causative antibiotic during therapy. MEDLINE (1966 to 2006), EMBASE (1980 to 2006), Cochrane Central Database of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane IBD Review Group Specialized Trials Register were searched using the following search terms: "pseudomembranous colitis and randomized trial"; "Clostridium difficile and randomized trial"; "antibiotic associated diarrhea and randomized trial". Only randomized, controlled trials assessing antibiotic treatment for CDAD were included in the review. Probiotic trials are excluded. The following outcomes were sought: initial resolution of diarrhea; initial conversion of stool to C. difficile cytotoxin and/or stool culture negative; recurrence of diarrhea; recurrence of fecal C. difficile cytotoxin and/or positive stool culture; patient response to cessation of prior antibiotic therapy; sepsis; emergent surgery: fecal diversion or colectomy; and death. Data were analyzed using the MetaView statistical package in Review Manager. For dichotomous outcomes, relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from each study. When appropriate, the results of included studies were combined for each outcome. For dichotomous outcomes, pooled RR and 95% CI were calculated using a fixed effect model, except where significant heterogeneity was detected, at which time the random effects model was used. Data heterogeneity was calculated using MetaView. Twelve studies (total of 1157 participants) involving patients with diarrhea who recently received antibiotics for an infection other than C. difficile were included. The definition of diarrhea ranged from at least two loose stools

  8. Effect of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY against diarrhea in domesticated animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalai Diraviyam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals including Piglets, Mice, Poultry and Calves. METHODS AND RESULTS: Previous research reports focused on treatment effect of Chicken IgY against diarrhea were retrieved from different electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Publish, Chinese articles from Core periodicals in 2012. A total of 61 studies in 4 different animal classes met the inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics and outcome measures were extracted. The pooled relative risk (RR of 49 studies of different animals [Piglets--22; Mice--14; Poultry--7 and Calves--6] in meta-analyses revealed that, IgY significantly reduced the risk of diarrhea in treatment group when compare to the placebo. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the majority of studies in animal class piglets and calves embrace RR of one. The same results were obtained in sub group analyses (treatment regiment--prophylactic or therapeutic; pathogen type--bacterial or viral. Perhaps, this inconsistency in the effect of IgY at the individual study level and overall effect measures could be influenced by the methodological heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: The present systematic review (SR and meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of IgY. This supports the opinion that IgY is useful for prophylaxis and treatment. However, more intensive studies using the gold standard animal experiments with the focus to use IgY alone or in combination with other alternative

  9. Effect of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) against Diarrhea in Domesticated Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Schade, Ruediger; Michael, Antonysamy; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals including Piglets, Mice, Poultry and Calves. Methods and Results Previous research reports focused on treatment effect of Chicken IgY against diarrhea were retrieved from different electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Publish, Chinese articles from Core periodicals in 2012). A total of 61 studies in 4 different animal classes met the inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics and outcome measures were extracted. The pooled relative risk (RR) of 49 studies of different animals [Piglets – 22; Mice – 14; Poultry – 7 and Calves – 6] in meta-analyses revealed that, IgY significantly reduced the risk of diarrhea in treatment group when compare to the placebo. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the majority of studies in animal class piglets and calves embrace RR of one. The same results were obtained in sub group analyses (treatment regiment – prophylactic or therapeutic; pathogen type – bacterial or viral). Perhaps, this inconsistency in the effect of IgY at the individual study level and overall effect measures could be influenced by the methodological heterogeneity. Conclusion The present systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of IgY. This supports the opinion that IgY is useful for prophylaxis and treatment. However, more intensive studies using the gold standard animal experiments with the focus to use IgY alone or in combination with other alternative

  10. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  11. The viral envelope is not sufficient to transfer the unique broad cell tropism of Bungowannah virus to a related pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Maria; Reimann, Ilona; Schirrmeier, Horst; Kirkland, Peter D; Beer, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Bungowannah virus is the most divergent pestivirus, and both origin and reservoir host have not been identified so far. We therefore performed in vitro tropism studies, which showed that Bungowannah virus differs remarkably from other pestiviruses. Interestingly, cell lines of vervet monkey, mouse, human and even of bat origin were susceptible. This broad in vitro tropism was not observed for a chimeric bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) expressing all structural proteins of Bungowannah virus. The viral envelope was not sufficient to completely transfer the cell tropism of Bungowannah virus to another pestivirus, and viral RNA replication was either markedly reduced or not detectable in a number of different cell lines for the tested BVDV strain and the chimera. We therefore suggest that the replication machinery together with the viral envelope is responsible for the unique broad cell tropism of Bungowannah virus. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. Evaluation and Comparison of the Pathogenicity and Host Immune Responses Induced by a G2b Taiwan Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Strain Pintung 52) and Its Highly Cell-Culture Passaged Strain in Conventional 5-Week-Old Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chen; Kao, Chi-Fei; Chang, Chia-Yu; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Tsai, Pei-Shiue; Pang, Victor Fei; Chiou, Hue-Ying; Peng, Ju-Yi; Cheng, Ivan-Chen; Chang, Hui-Wen

    2017-05-19

    A genogroup 2b (G2b) porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain was isolated in 2014. The pathogenicity and host antibody responses elicited by low-passage (passage 5; PEDVPT-P5) and high-passage (passage 96; PEDVPT-P96) PEDVPT strains were compared in post-weaning PEDV-seronegative pigs by oral inoculation. PEDVPT-P5-inoculation induced typical diarrhea during 1-9 days post inoculation with fecal viral shedding persisting for 26 days. Compared to PEDVPT-P5, PEDVPT-P96 inoculation induced none-to-mild diarrhea and lower, delayed fecal viral shedding. Although PEDVPT-P96 elicited slightly lower neutralizing antibodies and PEDV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers, a reduction in pathogenicity and viral shedding of the subsequent challenge with PEDVPT-P5 were noted in both PEDVPT-P5- and PEDVPT-P96-inoculated pigs. Alignment and comparison of full-length sequences of PEDVPT-P5 and PEDVPT-P96 revealed 23 nucleotide changes and resultant 19 amino acid substitutions in non-structure proteins 2, 3, 4, 9, 14, 15, spike, open reading frame 3 (ORF3), and membrane proteins with no detectable deletion or insertion. The present study confirmed the pathogenicity of the PEDVPT isolate in conventional post-weaning pigs. Moreover, data regarding viral attenuation and potency of induced antibodies against PEDVPT-P5 identified PEDVPT-P96 as a potential live-attenuated vaccine candidate.

  13. Etiology of Childhood Infectious Diarrhea in a Developed Region of China: Compared to Childhood Diarrhea in a Developing Region and Adult Diarrhea in a Developed Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hao; Xia, Shengli; Duan, Ran; Liang, Junrong; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Shan, Guangliang; Jing, Huaiqi

    2015-01-01

    In China, great differences in economy, social characteristics and hygiene exist between developing and developed regions. A comparative study of infectious diarrhea between two regions was needed. Three groups of diarrheal patients were collected: children ≤5 year-olds from Beijing (developed region) and Henan Province (developing region), and adults over 18 year-olds from Beijing. A questionnaire was used to survey and feces samples were examined for 16 enteropathogens. We enrolled 1422 children and 1047 adults from developed region and 755 children from developing region. Virus positive rates were 32.98% for children and 23.67% for adults in developed region. The most prevalent pathogen for children was rotavirus whereas for adults was norovirus. Bacterial isolation rates were 13.92% for children from developed region, while 29.14% for children from the developing regions. For the greatest difference, Shigella accounted for 50.79% and was the dominant pathogen in the developing region, whereas in the developed region it was only 1.45%. There was no significant relationship between the local levels of development with diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC) categories. But it was seen the notable differences between the population with different age: enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAggEC) were the primary classes of DEC in children from both regions, whereas it was enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) in adults. The symptoms of Shigella and Salmonella infection, such as bloody stools, white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC) positivity and fever were similar in children, which may lead to the misidentification. Yersinia enterocolitica and shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) infections were firstly reported in Beijing. There was a large difference in etiology of bacterial diarrhea between children in developing and developed regions of China.

  14. Fecal osmotic gap and pH in experimental diarrhea of various causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eherer, A J; Fordtran, J S

    1992-08-01

    Although the osmotic gap of fecal fluid is often used to distinguish osmotic diarrhea from secretory diarrhea, there has never been a scientific evaluation of the validity of this concept. Similarly, although a low fecal fluid pH value is used to indicate that diarrhea is mediated by carbohydrate malabsorption, the validity of this method is unproven. Therefore, in the present study, diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by different mechanisms and fecal fluid osmotic gap (using an assumed fecal fluid osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg) and pH were measured. In secretory diarrhea caused by phenolphthalein, the osmotic gap was always less than 50 mOsm/kg, whereas in osmotic diarrhea caused by polyethylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, lactulose, and sorbitol, the osmotic gap always exceeded 50 mOsm/kg. In osmotic diarrhea caused by sodium sulfate, the fecal fluid osmotic gap was less than 50 mOsm/kg, but phenolphthalein-induced secretory diarrhea could be distinguished from sodium sulfate-induced osmotic diarrhea by the fecal chloride concentration. When diarrhea was caused by carbohydrate malabsorption (lactulose or sorbitol), the fecal fluid pH was always less than 5.6 and usually less than 5.3; by contrast, other causes of diarrhea rarely caused a fecal pH as low as 5.6 and never caused a pH less than 5.3. It is concluded that measurement of fecal fluid osmotic gap and pH can distinguish various mechanisms of experimental diarrhea in normal subjects. The concepts on which these tests are based are therefore verified experimentally.

  15. Assessment of chronic diarrhea in early infancy in Tehran Tertiary Care Center; Tehran-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Motamed; Naheid Kazemi; Raheleh Nabavizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic diarrhea of infancy is a heterogeneous syndrome that includes several diseases with different etiologies. The aim of this study was investigating chronic diarrhea, its etiologies, clinical features and outcomes in infancy.Materials and Methods Retrospective study investigating infants hospitalized in the gastroenterology department of Tehran tertiary care center.The main demographic data, etiology, characteristics of diarrhea, and outcome were evaluated. Data were analyze...

  16. Acute Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea in Children: Clinical Picture, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Niankovskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical picture and treatment of acute rotavirus-induced diarrhea in children. There are presented the basic thesis of ESPGHAN consensus (2014 about acute diarrheas. There was analyzed the effectiveness of probiotic Subalin producing interferon for the treatment of acute rotavirus-induced diarrhea. It was demonstrated its effectiveness according to the literature review and own data.

  17. Rotavirus vaccine and diarrhea mortality: quantifying regional variation in effect size

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer Walker, Christa L; Black, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Diarrhea mortality remains a leading cause of child death and rotavirus vaccine an effective tool for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea. New data suggest vaccine efficacy may vary by region. Methods We reviewed published vaccine efficacy trials to estimate a regional-specific effect of vaccine efficacy on severe rotavirus diarrhea and hospitalizations. We assessed the quality of evidence using a standard protocol and conducted meta-analyses where more than 1 data point ...

  18. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwonil; Saif, Linda J

    2015-05-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genera Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea/vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. For the last three decades, PEDV infection has resulted in significant economic losses in the European and Asian pig industries, but in 2013-2014 the disease was also reported in the US, Canada and Mexico. The PED epidemic in the US, from April 2013 to the present, has led to the loss of more than 10% of the US pig population. The disappearance and re-emergence of epidemic PED indicates that the virus is able to escape from current vaccination protocols, biosecurity and control systems. Endemic PED is a significant problem, which is exacerbated by the emergence (or potential importation) of multiple PEDV variants. Epidemic PEDV strains spread rapidly and cause a high number of pig deaths. These strains are highly enteropathogenic and acutely infect villous epithelial cells of the entire small and large intestines although the jejunum and ileum are the primary sites. PEDV infections cause acute, severe atrophic enteritis accompanied by viremia that leads to profound diarrhea and vomiting, followed by extensive dehydration, which is the major cause of death in nursing piglets. A comprehensive understanding of the pathogenic characteristics of epidemic or endemic PEDV strains is needed to prevent and control the disease in affected regions and to develop an effective vaccine. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, disease mechanisms and pathogenesis as well as immunoprophylaxis against PEDV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Type IV neonatal Bartter syndrome complicated with congenital chloride diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallı, Hale; Bucak, Hakan İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Pseudo-Bartter syndrome encompasses a heterogenous group of disorders similar to Bartter syndrome. Sometimes a few status may be nested, as in our case presented here. An 8-month-old boy was referred to our hospital with of intractable diarrhea, polyuria, persistent hypokalemia, abdominal distension and failure to thrive. He was born in the 34 6/7 gestational week (GW) to consanguineous parents. In the 30(th) GW polyhydramnios was verified by ultrasonography. The laboratory results showed hypokalemic-hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, and increased urinary loss of chloride, potassium and calcium. An audiogram test revealed complete sensorineural deafness. Ultrasonography revealed medullary nephrocalcinosis in both kidneys. Elevated plasma renin activity and aldosterone were found and a provisional diagnosis of type-IV neonatal Bartter syndrome was made. Treatment with indomethacin, spironolactone and additional intake of NaCl/KCl was initiated. Despite these therapies, the child's diarrhea persisted but serum potassium concentration normalized, and hypercalciuria and urine output reduced. After determining the high fecal chloride concentration, there was an immediate decompensation of the disease on indomethacin withdrawal, thus a diagnosis of type IV neonatal Bartter syndrome complicated with congenital chloride diarrhea was considered. Indomethacin, spironolactone and supplementary therapies with NaCl/KCl were continued, which resulted in the normalization of serum electrolytes as well as his physical development, but high contents of chloride in urine and faeces and nephrocalcinosis remains unchanged during 1-year follow-up. Because of the clinical and laboratory simulations between the various diseases that lead to hypokalemic-hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, patients must be evaluated carefully.

  20. Novel Polymerase Spiral Reaction (PSR) for rapid visual detection of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 genomic DNA from aborted bovine fetus and semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Javed Ahmed; Chakravarti, Soumendu; Gupta, Vikas; Chander, Vishal; Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Qureshi, Salauddin; Mishra, Adhiraj; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb

    2018-02-20

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) is a major viral pathogen affecting bovines leading to various clinical manifestations and causes significant economic impediment in modern livestock production system. Rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of BHV-1 infection at frozen semen stations or at dairy herds remains a priority for control of BHV-1 spread to susceptible population. Polymerase Spiral Reaction (PSR), a novel addition in the gamut of isothermal techniques, has been successfully implemented in initial optimization for detection of BHV-1 genomic DNA and further validated in clinical samples. The developed PSR assay has been validated for detection of BHV-1 from bovine semen (n=99), a major source of transmission of BHV-1 from breeding bulls to susceptible dams in artificial insemination programs. The technique has also been used for screening of BHV-1 DNA from suspected aborted fetal tissues (n=25). The developed PSR technique is 100 fold more sensitive than conventional PCR and comparable to real-time PCR. The PSR technique has been successful in detecting 13 samples positive for BHV-1 DNA in bovine semen, 4 samples more than conventional PCR. The aborted fetal tissues were negative for presence of BHV-1 DNA. The presence of BHV-1 in bovine semen samples raises a pertinent concern for extensively screening of semen from breeding bulls before been used for artificial insemination process. PSR has all the attributes for becoming a method of choice for rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of BHV-1 DNA at frozen semen stations or at dairy herds in resource constrained settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.