WorldWideScience

Sample records for bovine somatotropin rbst

  1. Multiple protein biomarker assessment for recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST abuse in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann K J Ludwig

    Full Text Available Biomarker profiling, as a rapid screening approach for detection of hormone abuse, requires well selected candidate biomarkers and a thorough in vivo biomarker evaluation as previously done for detection of growth hormone doping in athletes. The bovine equivalent of growth hormone, called recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST is (illegally administered to enhance milk production in dairy cows. In this study, first a generic sample pre-treatment and 4-plex flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA were developed for simultaneous measurement of four candidate biomarkers selected from literature: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, its binding protein 2 (IGFBP2, osteocalcin and endogenously produced antibodies against rbST. Next, bovine serum samples from two extensive controlled rbST animal treatment studies were used for in vivo validation and biomarker evaluation. Finally, advanced statistic tools were tested for the assessment of biomarker combination quality aiming to correctly identify rbST-treated animals. The statistical prediction tool k-nearest neighbours using a combination of the biomarkers osteocalcin and endogenously produced antibodies against rbST proved to be very reliable and correctly predicted 95% of the treated samples starting from the second rbST injection until the end of the treatment period and even thereafter. With the same biomarker combination, only 12% of untreated animals appeared false-positive. This reliability meets the requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for screening methods in veterinary control. From the results of this multidisciplinary study, it is concluded that the osteocalcin - anti-rbST-antibodies combination represent fit-for-purpose biomarkers for screening of rbST abuse in dairy cattle and can be reliably measured in both the developed 4-plex FCIA as well as in a cost-effective 2-plex microsphere-based binding assay. This screening method can be incorporated in routine veterinary monitoring

  2. Efeito da somatotropina recombinante bovina (rbst no desempenho de novilhos alimentados com diferentes volumosos Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbst on the performance of steers fed different forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da somatotropina recombinante bovina (rBST no desempenho de novilhos alimentados com rações com diferentes volumosos foi avaliado. Quarenta novilhos cruzados e castrados, com 360,2 kg PV médio e 30 meses de idade, foram usados. Os animais foram alimentados com rações contendo diferentes volumosos (silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar, silagem de milho + cana-de-açúcar e bagaço de cana hidrolisado e receberam aplicação de 320 mg rBST a cada 28 dias e foram pesados a cada 14 dias durante um periodo experimental de 84 dias. Ganho de peso, consumo de matéria seca e proteína bruta por kg de ganho de peso e conversão alimentar, foram avaliados. Não houve diferença no ganho de peso entre os animais que receberam (1,210 kg/cab•dia ou não (1,062 kg/cab•dia rBST, apesar de os animais que receberam rBST terem apresentado maior ganho de peso nos períodos após a segunda e terceira aplicação. Não houve, também, diferença entre as rações contendo silagem de milho (1,100 kg/cab•dia, cana-de-açúcar (1,240 kg/cab•dia, cana+silagem (1,064 kg/cab•dia e bagaço hidrolisado (1,138 kg/cab•dia. A conversão alimentar foi 9,43 e 9,69 kg MS/kg de ganho de peso para os animais que receberam ou não rBST, respectivamente. O consumo de proteína bruta reduziu com a aplicação de rBST e foi mais expressivo na ração contendo cana-de-açúcar. Não houve interação entre a aplicação do hormônio e o tipo de volumoso.Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST on the performance of steers fed diets with different forages was evaluated. Forty crossbred steers, with average 360.2 kg LW and 30 months of age, were used. The animals were fed diets containing different forages (corn silage, sugarcane, corn silage + sugarcane and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, and received an application of 320 mg rBST at every 28 days and were weighed at every 14 days during an experimental period of 84 days. The weight gain, dry matter and

  3. Caracterização das fibras musculares do músculo Semitendinosus de bezerros mestiços Angus-Nelore recebendo somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST até a desmama Characterization of Semitendinosus muscle fibers in pre-weaning Angus-Nellore crossbred calves receiving recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Costa Cervieri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se estudar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST sobre a freqüência de distribuição e o diâmetro das fibras musculares do músculo Semitendinosus, 36 bezerros mestiços ½Angus-Nelore, com idade inicial de 63 ± 17 dias e pesando 76,8 ± 14,7 kg, criados em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens e suplementados em creep feeding, foram submetidos a dois tratamentos até a desmama (217 dias: 18 bezerros receberam 1,4 mg/kg de rbST (Boostin® a cada 14 dias e 18 receberam solução salina (controle. As amostras de músculo foram coletadas aos 117 (biópsia e aos 217 dias de idade, quando foram abatidos cinco animais por tratamento. Os animais suplementados apresentaram maior diâmetro para as fibras do tipo glicolítica de contração rápida (FG aos 117 dias e tendência de aumento aos 217 dias e não diferiram em relação ao grupo controle quanto ao diâmetro das fibras oxidativas-glicolíticas de contração rápida (FOG e oxidativas de contração lenta (SO e à frequência de FG, FOG e SO aos 117 e 217 dias de idade. Independentemente da aplicação de rbST, houve significativo aumento do diâmetro das fibras SO e FOG, tendência de aumento de diâmetro das fibras FG, maior frequência de SO e redução da frequência de FG entre 117 e 217 dias de idade. A utilização de somatotropina exógena possibilitou maior hipertrofia das fibras musculares brancas de contração rápida em bezerros suplementados em creep feeding durante a fase de cria, sem interferir na frequência de distribuição dos tipos de fibras no músculo Semitendinosus.The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of the recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST on the percentage distribution and diameter of semitendinosus muscle fibers. Thirty-six ½ Angus-Nellore crossbred bull calves, 63 ± 17 days old and weighting 76.8 ± 14.7 kg, raised in Brachiaria decumbens pastures and creep fed, were assigned to one of two treatments until weaning

  4. Prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST on adaptation to subclinical ketosis of the ewes and performance of the lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Feijó

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum rbST injection on the metabolic profile of pregnant ewes induced to subclinical ketosis, as well as the metabolism until seven days of life and weight gain until seven weeks of life of the lambs. Twenty seven pregnant ewes of the pantaneiro genetic group were used, divided into two groups: rbST group (n = 14 and control group (n = 13. The rbST group received two applications of 1 mg/kg of rbST, at 97 and 111 days gestation, while the control group received placebo injections. There were significant differences between groups in levels of GGT in the ketosis post induction period and BHB concentrations in the postpartum period. Concentrations of glucose, urea, phosphorus, albumin, cholesterol, AST, NEFA and insulin were not different between dams from the two groups in different periods of the study (P>0.05. There was an effect of rbST on body weight observed already at fourteen days of life (P<0.0001, there was an increase in serum phosphorus levels at birth of lambs (P=0.0014, and albumin at seven days of life (P = 0.0014 of the lambs, with no difference between groups for the other metabolites. Therefore, the use of rbST was effective in increasing the weight of the lambs until the seventh week of life. In addition, rbST treatment had positive effects on the dam metabolism with reduction of liver overload, as indicated by decreased GGT after ketosis induction and decreased BHB at the postpartum period.

  5. Perfil metabólico de touros da raça Nelore (Bos taurus indicus confinados e tratados com somatotrofina bovina recombinante (r-bST Metabolic and hormonal profile of feedlot Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (r-bST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Amorim

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da administração da somatotrofina bovina recombinante (r-bST sobre os metabólitos sangüíneos de touros da raça Nelore de duas diferentes idades. Foram utilizados 16 touros, distribuídos em um delineamento fatorial 2 x 2 (idades: jovens e adultos; r-bST: 0 e 500mg com quatro animais por tratamento. A idade média dos animais foi de 13,37 e 20,62 meses para jovens e adultos, respectivamente. Quatro animais por tratamento receberam, a cada 14 dias, solução salina ou 500mg de r-bST, totalizando nove aplicações por animal, em um período experimental de 120 dias. Os touros foram alimentados com silagem de milho e ração concentrada à base de farelo de milho e soja, duas vezes por dia, fornecidas em baias individuais. As coletas de sangue foram realizadas a cada três dias, para determinação da concentração dos metabólicos sangüíneos. Para análise estatística, foram compilados dados a intervalo de três aplicações, o que constituiu um período (período 1, 2 e 3. As concentrações de ácidos graxos não-esterificados (NEFA foram analisadas semanalmente. As concentrações séricas de colesterol, proteína total e plasmáticas de glicose diferiram para os períodos e nos grupos de tratamentos (P0,05.This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (r-bST administration on profiles of blood metabolites of two different ages Nellore bulls. Sixteen bulls were randomly allotted in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (ages: youngs and adults; and r-bST dose: 0 and 500 mg with four animals per treatment. The mean ages of the young and adult animals were 13.37 and 20.62 months, respectively. Four animals per treatment received saline solution or r-bST 500mg, every 14 days, totaling nine applications per animal during 120 days. The Bulls were fed corn silage and concentrated diet based on corn crumb and soybean meal, twice a day, in individual stalls. Blood was collected every three

  6. A LC-MS-MS method to detect recombinant bovine somatotropin misuse in buffalos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castigliego, Lorenzo; Armani, Andrea; Grifoni, Goffredo; Mazzi, Marco; Boselli, Carlo; Guidi, Alessandra; Donzelli, Riccardo; Saba, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a peptide hormone used to increase milk yield in cows and buffalos. In Europe, its use has been banned. However, rbST is sometimes illegally included in zootechnical practices for profit purposes, undermining the fair trade and the law prescriptions. For this reason, efficient and reliable analytical techniques are required to contrast rbST misuse. A few LC-MS-MS methods have been developed to detect, in cow serum, methyonil-rbST, one of the two main rbST forms available on the market. The other form, which is widespread, is identical to the most abundant variant of bovine somatotropin (bST) and differs from the buffalo somatotropin for one amino acid in the N-terminus. For this reason, it is technically possible to distinguish both rbST forms in serum of buffalos. In this work, we describe a novel LC-MS-MS-based method, capable to quantify, with a high sensitivity and selectivity, the methyonil-rbST and the other bST-identical recombinant form in buffalo serum, previously purified using a solid-phase extraction procedure. The method was internally validated and used to analyse 152 serum samples, collected from eight buffalos administered with rbST for a period of 3 months, according to conventional protocols. The obtained results confirmed the suitability of the method in the detection of illegal hormonal treatments. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:27146507

  7. Protein biomarker-based screening for detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin abuse in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, S.K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a 22 kDa proteohormone, which can be used to increase milk production in dairy cows. It has been marketed since 1994 and while its use in food production is approved in several countries, such as the US, it is banned in the EU since 2000. To enforce the ban

  8. Sincronização de estro com CIDR reutilizado em cabras lactantes da raça Toggenburg tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante (r-bST Estrous synchronization with recycled CIDR in lactating Toggenburg does treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (r-bST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.M. Amorim

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de cabras tratadas com r-bST no protocolo de sincronização de estro. Foram utilizadas 26 cabras Toggenburg, divididas em dois tratamentos: T1 (n=13, tratadas com quatro injeções de 250mg de r-bST, a intervalos de 14 dias, e T2 (n=13, tratadas com solução salina (controle. Na semana seguinte à última injeção da r-bST, colocou-se o dispositivo intravaginal com progesterona (dia 0, previamente utilizado por cinco dias, e injetou-se PGF2alfa (22,5µg nos animais dos dois tratamentos, e o dispositivo foi retirado no dia 6. Todas as fêmeas em estro foram submetidas à monta natural. A porcentagem de animais em estro e a taxa de gestação foram 76,9 e 70,0 e 84,6 e 72,7%, no T1 e T2, respectivamente. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 na duração do estro, no intervalo tratamento-início do estro, no número de ovulações, nos intervalos: início e final do estro à ovulação e retirada do dispositivo à ovulação entre os animais dos dois tratamentos. O diâmetro médio dos folículos ovulatórios das fêmeas não diferiu (P>0,05. Durante a permanência do dispositivo, as concentrações séricas de progesterona apresentaram valores semelhantes (P>0,05 entre as cabras de T1 e T2. A r-bST não afetou a sincronização de estro.The response of goats treated with r-bST in the estrous synchronization protocol was evaluated. Twenty-six Toggenburg females were divided in two treatments: T1 (n=13 treated with four injections of 250mg r-bST, at 14 days intervals, and T2 (n=13 treated with saline solution (control. The intravaginal device previously used by five days was inserted (day 0 one week after the last injection of r-bST and PGF2alpha (22.5µg was injected in the animals of both treatments. The device was removed on day 6. All the females in estrus were bred by fertile bucks. The percentage of animals in estrus and the pregnancy rate were: 76.9 and 70, and 84.6 and 72.7% for goats in T1 and T2, respectively. The estrous

  9. Association of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on antral follicle count and oocyte production in Holstein and Tabapuã heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hévea de Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of rbST and eCG prior to ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (OPU improves oocyte yield and quality in Tabapuã and Holstein heifers. The study was conducted in two phases, 20 days apart, in a change-over design. The dominant follicle was ablated two days (D-2 before two treatments: stimulation (6 Holstein and 8 Tabapuã, 500 mg of rbST (Boostin® on D0 and 500 IU of eCG (Folligon on D2; and control (6 Holstein and 8 Tabapuã, in which heifers received injections of the excipient. Heifers were aspirated on D4. Oocytes were subjected to a well established commercial in vitro embryo production protocol (Vitrogen® and embryos were evaluated seven days after fertilization. There was an effect from the interaction of treatment and breed, so that hormonal stimulation increased antral follicle count (2-8 mm in Tabapuã (29.9±2.6 to 41.4±2.6, but not in Holstein heifers (14.4±2.6 to 15.5±2.6. Tabapuã heifers had higher mean antral follicle count than Holsteins (35.6±1.8 vs. 15.0±2.1. The number of viable oocytes was not increased by stimulation in Tabapuã (from 4.7±1.0 to 5.2±1.1 in control and simulation, respectively or in Holstein heifers (1.3±1.9 to 2.0±1.6 in control and simulation, respectively. There was no difference in the percentage of heifers with more than five viable oocytes in the group treated (33 vs 27%. The number of blastocysts was not affected by treatment (1.75 vs. 1.00 in hormonal stimulation and control, respectively. The increase in antral follicle count in the stimulated Tabapuã heifers did not reflect upon oocyte yield. The differential breed response to the hormonal treatment underscores the need for additional tests, especially for the Holstein breed, in order to enhance OPU efficiency.

  10. A meta-analysis review of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin. 2. Effects on animal health, reproductive performance, and culling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R; DesCôteaux, L; Leslie, K; Fredeen, A; Shewfelt, W; Preston, A; Dowling, P

    2003-10-01

    This manuscript presents the results of a review of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) on dairy cattle health, reproductive performance, and culling, that was carried out by an expert panel established by the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA). The panel was established by the CVMA in response to a request from Health Canada in 1998 and their report was made public in 1999. A series of meta-analyses was used to combine data on health-related parameters that were extracted from all randomized clinical trials that had been published in peer-reviewed journals or which were provided by Health Canada from the submission by Monsanto for registration of rBST in Canada. A companion paper (1) presents the estimates of the effect of the drug on production parameters. Recombinant bovine somatotropin was found to increase the risk of clinical mastitis by approximately 25% during the treatment period but there was insufficient data to draw firm conclusions about the effects of the drug on the prevalence of subclinical intra-mammary infections. Use of rBST increased the risk of a cow failing to conceive by approximately 40%. For cows which did conceive, there was no effect on services per conception and only a small increase in average days open (5 days). Use of the drug had no effect on gestation length, but the information about a possible effect on the risk of twinning was equivocal. Cows treated with rBST had an estimated 55% increase in the risk of developing clinical signs of lameness. Few studies reported data on culling, but based on those that did, there appeared to be an increase risk of culling evident in multiparous cows. Use of the drug in 1 lactation period appeared to reduce the risk of metabolic diseases (particularly ketosis) in the early period of the subsequent lactation.

  11. Effects of Cooling and Supplemental Bovine Somatotropin on Milk Production relating to Body Glucose Metabolism and Utilization of Glucose by the Mammary Gland in Crossbred Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siravit Sitprija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The low milk yield and shorter persistency of lactation of dairy cattle is the major problem for the dairy practices in the tropics. High environmental temperatures and rapid decline of plasma growth hormone level can influence milk production. Regulation of the milk yield of animals is mainly based on the mechanisms governing the quantity of glucose extracted by the mammary gland for lactose biosynthetic pathways. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of cooling and supplemental bovine somatotropin on milk production relating to body glucose metabolism and intracellular metabolism of glucose in the mammary gland of crossbred Holstein cattle in the tropics have not been investigated to date. Approach: Ten crossbred 87.5% Holstein cows were divided into two groups of five animals each. Animals were housed in Normal Shade barn (NS as non-cooled cows and cows in the second group were housed in barn which was equipped with a two Misty-Fan cooling system (MF as cooled cows. Supplementation of recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST (POSILAC, 500 mg per cow were performed in both groups to study body glucose metabolism and the utilization of glucose in the mammary gland using a continuous infusion of [3-3H] glucose and [U- 14C] glucose as markers in early, mid and late stages of lactation. Results: Milk yield significantly increased in both groups during supplemental rbST with a high level of mammary blood flow. Body glucose turnover rates were not significant different between cooled and non-cooled cows whether supplemental rbST or not. The glucose taken up by the mammary gland of both non-cooled and cooled cows increased flux through the lactose synthesis and the pentose cycle pathway with significant increases in NADPH formation for fatty acid synthesis during rbST supplementation. The utilization of glucose carbon incorporation into milk appeared to increase in milk lactose and milk triacylglycerol but not for

  12. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin and membrane integrity of bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, M B; Bianchi, I; Madeira, E M; Roll, V F B; Oliveira, C A; Viau, P; Pivato, I; Severo, N C; Del Pino, F A B; Schneider, A; Corrêa, M N

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the exogenous recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin and semen quality of bulls. Twenty bulls (Aberdeen Angus and Brangus) were divided by breed into two groups. Placebo group was injected with NaCl 0.9% (s.c.) and treatment group with rbST (s.c., 500 mg) at days 0 and 14 of the experiment. Immediately after semen collection, blood samples were taken on days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 of the experiment. Semen was also collected on day 70 of the experiment. Evaluation of sperm motility was performed at pre-freezing and post-thawing stage, whereas assessment of sperm membrane integrity was performed after freezing and thawing. Analysis of data revealed that the effect of treatment and treatment-by-collection day on plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin was not significant. However, mean plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin were affected (p  0.05) at pre-freezing and post-thawing stage. Intactness of plasmalemma and tail membrane of spermatozoa at post-thawing stage was higher (p < 0.05) in rbST-treated group than in control. In conclusion, rbST did not affect plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin, however, it did improve post-thaw sperm membrane integrity. PMID:19663813

  13. Kajian Fisiologis Penggunaan Bovine Somatotropin (bST Pada Sapi Pra Afkir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzarnisa Araby

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of physiological bovine somatotropin (bST on post lactating dairy ABSTRACT. To increase of milk production nationally with used in dairy cattle business can assist to increase milk production, eighteen post lactating dairy cows in the highland Cipelang Bogor, were used to study the effect used of bovine somatotropin and lactating time. The experimental cows were assigned into a Randomized Block Design with a 3x2 factorial arrangement. The first factor was using of somatotropin (bSTwith three levels (non bST injection, biweekly injection and three weekly injection. The second factor was lactating time with two levels (4th lactating time and 6 th lactating time Parameters measured were heart rate, respiration frequency, rectal temperature, milk production efficiency, milk production, 4% FCM (fat corrected milk., Milk composition, weigh gain, milk quality consist of protein, fat, pH. Bovine somatotropin significantly increased heart rate and respiration rate. Also bovine somatotropin injection at 4th lactating time significantly increased milk production. There were an interaction between bST dan lactating time on milk production and weight gain. Bovine somatotropin injection biweekly in cows on 4th lactating time ration increased milk production by 16-26 %, but injection in cows 6th lactating time increased milk production by 8-18 % combination with somatotropin doze 250/ml/14 days. Somatothropine supplementation was injection biweekly and three weekly did significantly affect to milk production, body temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate however in normal physiology . Bovine somatotropine can increase post lactating dairy production interval 14 days better than 21 days.

  14. ALTERATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN LEUKOCYTES FROM RECOMBINANT SOMATOTROPIN TREATED ANIMALS: SEARCHING FOR INSPECTION INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NR Brizioli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides immunochemical approaches, biomolecular studies can be carried out in order to discover a greater number of biological indicators to be exploited for the identification of bovines treated with recombinant somatotropin (rbST. With this aim, we analysed the expression of a number of genes related to the somatotropic axis in leucocytes from rbST treated cows and non-treated animals. Significant differences were observed in the genes IGF-1,IGFBP-1, IGFBP-4 and the I- 5’UTR variant of the GHR gene.

  15. Use of Bovine Somatotropin in the Management of Transition Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLAY, Mehmet Şükrü; HATİPOĞLU, Fatma Şefika

    2005-01-01

    The major objectives of an efficient dairy farm operation include a successful lactation period, high milk yield relative to the feed costs, reproductive competence, and finally the returning of the cow to the body condition score (BCS) that existed before lactation so she will be prepared for another lactation. In cows a milk yield response to bovine somatotropin (bST) treatments at 60 d after parturition has been well studied and fully documented. Milk production response to bST occurs bec...

  16. De effecten van behandelingen met bovine somatotropine bij melkvee op de weide en vervolgens op stal = The effects of treatment with recombinantly derived bovine somatotropin in dairy cows at pasture and consecutively indoors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    In 2 proeven werd het effect van behandeling bij melkkoeien met recombinant bovine somatotropine bestudeerd met geheel of gedeeltelijke weidegang. In beide proeven werden 4 perioden van 28 dagen onderscheiden: een voorperiode van 28 dagen om de proefdiergroepen samen te kunnen stellen en een hoofdpe

  17. Superovulatory response and embryonic progressive in Iranian Qezel ewes treated with two different concentrations of bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Asgari Safdar

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The treatment 50 mg bovine somatotropins enhance the ratio and growth of the transferable embryos. Embryos of bST-50 treatment indicated an improved embryonic development but bST did not affect the pregnancy rates of transferred embryos.

  18. Produção e composição do leite, metabólitos sangüíneos e concentração hormonal de cabras lactantes da raça Toggenburg tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante Milk yield and composition, blood metabolites and hormonal profile of lactating Toggenburg goats treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Andrade Moraes e Amorim

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da aplicação de somatotropina bovina recombinante sobre a produção e composição do leite, os metabólicos sangüíneos e a concentração hormonal em cabras no terço médio da lactação. Foram utilizadas 24 cabras da raça Toggenburg, divididas em dois tratamentos: T1 (n=12: aplicação de 250 mg de r-bST a cada 14 dias, em um total de quatro aplicações; e T2 (n=12: aplicação de solução salina (controle. O tratamento com r-bST não aumentou a produção de leite e não influenciou os teores de gordura, proteína e extrato seco. A porcentagem de lactose no leite foi maior (4,47 ± 0,2 para T1 versus 4,34 ± 0,2% para T2 e a contagem de células somáticas menor nos animais tratados em relação aos controle (681,1 ± 689,9 para T1 versus 1.001,84 ± 610,9 [x10³ células/mL] para T2. A administração de r-bST aumentou as concentrações séricas de ácidos graxos não-esterificados de T2 (309,67 ± 169,62 x 247,34 ± 126,38 mEq/L, para T1 e T2, respectivamente e reduziu as concentrações de uréia (86,84 ± 33,81 x 121,16 ± 42,57 mg/dL, para T1 e T2 respectivamente. A r-bST reduziu as concentrações de colesterol total e HDL (82,46 ± 19,25 x 89,29 ± 23,66 mg/dL e 155,95 ± 19,67 x 177,67 ± 32,79 mg/dL, para T1 e T2 respectivamente, enquanto as concentrações de albumina, glicose, proteínas totais, beta-hidroxibutirato e tiroxina não foram influenciadas pela r-bST, que também não influenciou o peso e o escore corporal dos animais. A r-bST aumentou os teores de lactose, reduziu a contagem de células somáticas e promoveu alterações nos metabólicos sangüíneos e no leite de cabras lactantes.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin on milk yield and composition, blood metabolites and hormonal profile in lactating goats. Twenty-four Toggenburg goats were assigned to one of two treatments as follows: T1 (n=12 received injection of 250 mg of r-bST

  19. Neither bovine somatotropin nor growth hormone-releasing factor alters expression of thyroid hormone receptors in liver and mammary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuco, A V; Binelli, M; Tucker, H A

    2011-10-01

    Physiological effects of thyroid hormones are mediated primarily by binding of triiodothyronine to specific nuclear receptors. Organ-specific changes in production of triiodothyronine from its prohormone, thyroxine, have been hypothesized to target the action of thyroid hormones on the mammary gland and play a role in mediating or augmenting a galactopoietic response to bovine somatotropin (bST). Additionally, tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones may be altered by changes in the number or affinity of nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones. In the present study, effects of bST and bovine growth hormone-releasing factor (bGRF) on thyroid hormone receptors in liver and mammary gland were studied. Lactating Holstein cows received continuous infusions of bST or bGRF for 63 d or served as uninfused controls. Nuclei were isolated from harvested mammary and liver tissues and incubated with [(125)I]-triiodothyronine. Treatments did not alter the capacity or affinity of specific binding sites for triiodothyronine in liver or mammary nuclei. Evaluation of transcript abundance for thyroid hormone receptors showed that isoforms of thyroid hormone receptor or retinoid receptor (which may influence thyroid receptor action) expressed in the mammary gland were not altered by bST or bGRF treatment. Data do not support the hypothesis that administration of bST or bGRF alters sensitivity of mammary tissue by changing expression of thyroid hormone receptors.

  20. Supplementing Holstein cows with low doses of bovine somatotropin prepartum and postpartum reduces calving-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, M S; Liboni, M; Hayen, M J; Head, H H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether supplementing Holstein cows with bovine somatotropin (bST; 142.8 mg/14 d), beginning at 21 d (+/-3 d) before expected calving and continuing through 42 d in milk (+/-3 d), affected the incidence rates of retained fetal membranes (RFM), metritis (MET), clinical mastitis (MAS), digestive problems (DIG), ketosis (KET), milk fever (MF), displaced abomasum (DA, left or right), lameness (LAM), or number of sick cows during the first 60 d in milk. Data for multiparous Holstein cows from 3 separate trials were merged for analyses (n = 437). Cows in the bST-supplemented group (n = 162) received biweekly subcutaneous injections of Posilac, whereas control cows (n = 166) and a group of cohorts (n = 109) were not supplemented. Incidences of disease were collected from the herd health records. Across all treatment groups, the incidence rates (number of diseased cows divided by the total number of cows) for RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM were 8.47, 18.31, 16.02, 4.35, 4.35, 3.66, 3.20, and 3.66%, respectively. The incidence rates of RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM for cows in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 6.79, 7.83, and 11.93%; 16.05, 7.47, and 22.94%; 10.49, 18.07, and 21.10%; 1.23, 5.42, and 7.34%; 1.23, 6.02, and 6.42%; 2.47, 4.22, and 4.59%; 2.47, 3.61, and 3.67%; and 3.70, 3.61, and 3.67%, respectively. The percentages of sick cows (number of cows having one or more cases of disease divided by the total number of cows) in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 33.95, 43.37, and 49.54%, respectively. Significant chi-squared values were detected between the bST-supplemented and control groups for MAS, DIG, and KET, with a greater number of healthy cows in the bST-supplemented group. No differences in incidences of diseases or sick cows were detected between the control and cohort groups. Results indicated that a low dose of bST supplemented to Holstein cows for 3 wk

  1. Serum hormone profiles, pregnancy rates, and offspring performance of Rambouillet ewes treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin before breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L E; Benavidez, J M; Hallford, D M

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine effects of bovine ST (bST) on serum hormone concentrations, pregnancy rates, and offspring performance. Before initiation of a fall breeding period, 75 Rambouillet ewes (68.8 ± 1.5 kg) received an intravaginal insert containing 0.3 g of progesterone (P4) to synchronize onset of estrus. After 12 d, inserts were removed (d 0), and ewes (stratified by BW and age) received either 0 (control, n = 37) or 250 (n = 38) mg of recombinant bST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO, subcutaneously). Ewes were joined with fertile rams 24 h after insert removal. Blood samples were collected from 12 ewes in each treatment group daily from d 0 to 20 after insert removal. Serum IGF-I concentrations were 315 and 437 (± 58) ng/mL in control and bST-treated ewes 2 d after receiving bST (P = 0.02) and remained increased (P 0.10) and estradiol (P = 0.65) were similar between treatments. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were similar (P > 0.20) between treatments from d 0 through 8. Controls had greater (P 0.10) in control and bST-treated ewes from d 0 through 3 but was increased (P 0.10) between treatments from d 9 to 20. Serum insulin concentrations were 0.44 and 1.74 (± 0.19) ng/mL in control and bST-treated ewes, respectively, 1 d after receiving bST (P breeding.

  2. USO DA rbST NO DIA DO ESTRO EM RECEPTORAS DE EMBRIÃO BOVINO CRIOPRESERVADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Paulino da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the administration of 250 and 500 mg of rbST to bovine recipients of frozen embryos on estrus day on pregnancy rate and on serum progesterone concentration. In experiment I, 44 recipients were allotted into two treatments: T1(n = 22, control and T2(n = 22, in which animals received 250 mg rbST subcutaneously. In experiment II, 71 recipients were allotted in: T1(n = 31, control and T2(n = 40, in which animals received 500 mg rbST. Pregnancy diagnosis occurred 30 days after estrus. Pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments in both experiments: 40.9%(T1 vs 50.0%(T2 and 48.4%(T1 vs 52.5%(T2 in experiments I and II, respectively. Likewise, the average progesterone concentration (ng/mL plasma obtained from blood collection samples on the embryo transfer day did not show differences between the treatments: 5.29 ± 0.62(T1 vs. 5.77 ± 0.48(T2 and 4.94 ± 0.54(T1 vs. 4.77 ± 0.51(T2 in experiments I and II, respectively. These results demonstrate that the administration of 250 or 500 mg rbST on estrus day does not increase pregnancy rate nor the serum progesterone concentration of frozen bovine embryo recipients.

  3. Dinâmica folicular em cabras da raça Toggenburg em lactação tratadas ou não com somatotropina bovina recombinante Follicular dynamics of lactating Toggenburg does treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.M. Amorim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da injeção de somatotropina bovina recombinante (r-bST sobre o ciclo estral de cabras. Foram utilizadas 24 fêmeas da raça Toggenburg, distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 (n=12, cabras tratadas com r-bST; e T2 (n=12, cabras tratadas com solução salina (controle. A partir da primeira injeção do tratamento, acompanhou-se o ciclo dos animais em estro até o estro subseqüente. O comprimento médio do ciclo estral e o período interovulatório não diferiram (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos. Foram verificados ciclos estrais de duas, três e quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos quanto ao número de ondas do ciclo estral. O número de folículos detectados com diâmetro >3mm nas cabras do T1 foi maior (P0,05. A r-bST não alterou a dinâmica folicular de cabras lactantes da raça Toggenburg, mas promoveu o aumento do número de folículos recrutados ³3mm durante o ciclo estral.The effect of the r-bST injection was evaluated on the goats estrous cycles. Twenty-four Toggenburg does were used in two treatments: T1 (n=12 treated with r-bST; and T2 (n=12 treated with saline solution (control. After the first r-bST injection, the estrous cycles were checked between two estrus. The estrous cycle length and interovulatory period of the goats did not differ between treatments (P>0.05. Estrous cycles with two, three and four waves of follicular growth were observed. The number of waves during the estrous cycle were not affected by the r-bST treatment (P>0.05. The number of 3mm follicles was different between T1 and T2 (P0.05 between treatments. The r-bST did not affect the ovarian response during the estrous cycle. The r-bST not affected the follicular dynamic of Toggenburg lactating does, but increased the number of emerging follicles >3mm during the estrous cycle.

  4. Efeito da somatotropina na população folicular, recuperação de oócitos e produção in vitro de embriões em vacas Gir Effect of somatotropin on follicular population, oocyte retrieval and in vitro embryo production in Gir cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Almeida Ramos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da pré-estimulação ovariana com somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST, associada ou não ao FSH, sobre a população folicular, a recuperação de oócitos e a produção in vitro de embriões em vacas Gir. Utilizaram-se vacas não-lactantes, em boas condições reprodutiva e corporal, cujo ciclo estral foi sincronizado pela administração de 0,5 mg de cloprostenol. Durante o experimento, as vacas receberam continuamente implantes auriculares de norgestomet, renovados a cada 14 dias, e, posteriormente, foram submetidas aos tratamentos: T1 ou controle - punção sem tratamento pré-estimulatório; T2 - aplicação única de 160 mg de rbST antes de cada punção; e T3 - punção após o tratamento com 160 mg de rbST em aplicação única, seguida de administração de 250 UI de FSH em doses decrescentes. Os oócitos foram maturados e fertilizados in vitro e os presumíveis zigotos foram cultivados por 192 horas pós-fertilização. Os tratamentos não foram diferentes quanto à população folicular presente no ovário. Entretanto, com a administração de 250 UI de FSH (T3, verificou-se aumento no diâmetro do maior folículo e no número de folículos grandes e médios e diminuição no número de folículos pequenos. A taxa de recuperação não diferiu entre o tratamento controle e T3 (com administração de FSH, mas foi menor no T2 (aplicação, em dose única, de 150 mg de rbST antes de cada punção. O número de oócitos de grau 1 foi maior e o de degenerados, menor no T3 em relação ao T1 e ao T2. O rbST (T2 aumentou a taxa de clivagem e a produção de blastocistos e, quando associado ao FSH, melhorou a qualidade dos oócitos nos animais Gir.The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian pre-stimulation using recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST or rbST associated to FSH on follicular population, oocyte retrieval and in vitro embryo production in Gir cows (Bos indicus. Estrous cycle of non-lactating cycling

  5. Concentração plasmática de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade em novilhas mestiças doadoras de embriões tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante Total plasma cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels in crossbred heifer embryo donors treated with bovine recombinant somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á.M. Borges

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi o de estudar as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL em novilhas mestiças tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST. Coletas de sangue foram feitas durante dois ciclos estrais, normal e superovulado, em 26 fêmeas distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 = aplicação de 500mg de rbST no terceiro dia do ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação e T2 = controle. Análises dos metabólitos sangüíneos foram feitas utilizando-se o método enzimático, cujas concentrações médias plasmáticas de colesterol total e de HDL durante o ciclo estral normal não foram diferentes (P>0,05 entre os dois tratamentos: 87,9 e 25,8mg/dl e 85,9 e 26,7mg/dl para T1 e T2, respectivamente. O ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação foi dividido em três períodos: P1 = do estro à inseminação artificial (0 ao15º dia, P2 = da inseminação artificial até a coleta de embriões (15º ao 21º dia e P3 = da coleta até o final do período experimental (21º ao 27º dia. As concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e HDL no P1 não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em P2 e P3 houve diferença nas concentrações de HDL e colesterol total entre os dois tratamentos: 29,0 e 88,5mg/dl (T1 e 27,1 e 81,8mg/dl (T2 no P2; e 30,4 e 88,0mg/dl (T1 e 26,6 e 80,5mg/dl (T2 no P3, respectivamente (PThe objective of the experiment was to study the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels in crossbred heifers treated with bovine recombinant somatotropina (rbST. Blood samples were collected for two estrous cycles, normal and superovulated, from 26 animals randomly distributed into two treatments: T1 - injected with 500mg rbST on day 3 of estrous cycle and T2 - control. The lipidic metabolite levels were determined by an enzymatic method, and plasma levels of total cholesterol and HDL in normal estrous cycle did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments: 87

  6. Multiplex ready flow cytometric immunoassay for total insulin like growth factor 1 in serum of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has banned the use of recombinant bovine somatotropins (rbST, growth hormones) to increase milk yield in dairy cattle. As direct detection of rbST in serum is problematic, methods based on the detection of changes in multiple rbST-dependent biomarkers have high potential for monit

  7. Efeito da utilização da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST sobre a produção de leite em búfalas Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST utilization on milk production from buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Jorge

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o resultado da utilização da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST atuando na produção de leite em búfalas da raça Murrah. Empregaram-se 28 búfalas multíparas da raça Murrah, divididas em dois grupos homogêneos de 14 animais, recebendo os seguintes tratamentos: Grupo 1 ¾ Controle (solução salina e Grupo 2 ¾ 500 mg de bST/cabeça a cada 14 dias, durante 7 meses. Búfalas tratadas com bST exibiram incrementos de 48,52%, 32,80% e 32,80% nas produções total de leite, corrigida, depois, para 4% de gordura e média diária, respectivamente. A somatotropina elevou a produção total de gordura sem alterar a porcentagem dela no leite. A administração de bST não afetou a porcentagem de proteína do leite todavia, a produção total de proteína foi aumentada. Quanto à duração da lactação, o tratamento com bST diferiu do controle, o que demonstra a maior persistência da lactação de búfalas tratadas com bST.The objective of this work was to study the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST utilization on milk production from Murrah buffaloes. Twenty eight multiparous Murrah buffaloes were used and divided into two homogeneous groups of 14 animals, receiving the following treatments: Group 1 ¾ Control (salt solution and Group 2 ¾ 500 mg of bST/head every 14 days during 7 months. Buffaloes treated with bST presented increase of 48.52%, 32.80% and 32.80% on total milk yield, adjusted to 4% of fat and average daily milk yield, respectively. Somatotropin increased total fat milk yield without alter fat percentage of milk. Administration of bST did not affect protein percentage of milk while total protein milk yield increased. As for the lactating period, the treatment with bST differed of the control, what might have denoted in larger persistence of the lactation from buffaloes treated with bST.

  8. Automated approach to radioimmunoassays of somatotropin (human growth hormone) and insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptation of human somatotropin and insulin assays to the automated Centria radioimmunoassay system [Clin. Chem. 21, 1305 (1975)] is reported. For the somatotropin assay, reaction conditions include a borate/bovine serum albumin buffer (pH 8.4) and a 20-h incubation at 40C. Assay results for clinical samples compared favorably (correlation coefficient = 0.930) with values obtained from a reference laboratory. The means determined for 92 patients' samples were 4.3 μg/liter (reference laboratory) and 5.1 μg/liter (Centria). Intra- and inter-run precision ranged from 3.2 to 15.9%. For the insulin assay, a phosphate/bovine serum albumin buffer (pH 7.4) is used, with a 20-h incubation at 40C. Previously analyzed insulin samples from a reference laboratory were determined by the Centria analyzer with excellent correlation (r = 0.965). Means for patients' samples were 43.0 milli (USP) units of insulin per liter (reference laboratory) and 47.5 milliunits of insulin per liter (Centria). In both assays an anionicexchange gel is used in the separation step. The criterion of parallelism, an indication of the validity of a radioimmunoassay, was satisfied in both assays. The Centria radioimmunoassay system offers the advantage of automating all the critical steps of these radioimmunoassays

  9. Administração de somatotropina bovina no período pré-parto sobre parâmetros produtivos, sanitários e reprodutivos da primeira lactação de vacas holandesas Bovine somatotropin administration during pre-delivery period to productive, sanitary and reproductive parameters of holstein cows' first lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a administração de somatotropina bovina (bST no período pré-parto, sobre o desempenho na primeira lactação, foram utilizadas 18 novilhas gestantes, de modo que 9 receberam injeções subcutâneas de 500mg de bST nos dias 21 e 9 antes da data prevista para o parto. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta total, 2 vezes ao dia, e os dados coletados foram relativos a parâmetros sanitários, produtivos e reprodutivos na primeira lactação. A administração de bST não afetou os parâmetros sanitários (retenção de placenta, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, febre do leite e cetose e reprodutivo (cisto folicular. Entretanto, o uso de bST no pré-parto levou à variação de escore de condição corporal (ECC 65% maior, adiantou o pico de produção de leite em 9,7 dias e diminuiu os dias em lactação em 21,8 dias em relação ao controle (P The effects of pre-delivery administration of bovine somatotropin (bST on first lactation performance were evaluated in this study, which involved eighteen Holstein pregnant heifers. Nine animals were supplemented with subcutaneous injections of 500 mg of bST, on days 21 and 9 prior expected delivery, and 9 were not supplemented (control group. Animals were fed total mixed ration, twice daily. Data evaluated in this experiment were related to sanitary, reproductive and productive parameters during first lactation. Administration of bST did not affect parameters related to sanity (retained placenta, metritis, displacement abomasum, milk fever, ketosis, reproduction (follicular cysts. However, heifers supplemented with bST showed changes of body condition score 65% greater, anticipated milk production peak in 9.7 days and decreased number of days in lactation in 21,8 days, compared to the non-supplemented ones (p < 0.05. Milk production peak and milk production corrected for 305 days were not affected by bST administration.

  10. Extension model of lactation curves to evaluate the effect of the recombinant bovine somatotropin on milk yield in Holstein cows Modelo de extensão de curvas de lactação para avaliar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante sobre a produção de leite em vacas Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palacios-Espinosa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An extension model of lactation curves was used to determine the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST-r on milk yield in Holstein dairy cattle. This model use the fitted values obtained by the Wood model, and was tested on the records of 66 cows. The milk yield predicted with the extension model and the observed yield were compared and no significant differences were observed (P>0.05. Once the extension model was validated, the milk yield tests of 199 cows were used. The cows received bST-r 500mg by subcutaneous injections. The injections were applied after 100 days in milk at 14-day intervals (seven injections. The observed milk yield was compared with the yield expected by the extension model. An increase of 5.3% was observed in milk yield in response to the bST-r. This increase is lower than that reported in the literature in response to the growth hormone in dairy cattle. It is concluded that extension model used in the present work is reliable for extending the lactation curve in Holstein cows, and the increase in milk yield in response to the application of bST-r, determined in the same animal using the extension model, was lower than that reported by other authors.Um modelo de extensão de curvas de lactância foi utilizado para determinar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST-r sobre a produção de leite em vacas Holstein. Este modelo, que utiliza os valores ajustados obtidos pelo modelo de Wood, foi testato nos registros de 66 vacas. A produção de leite predita com o modelo de extensão e a produção observada foram comparadas e não se observaram diferenças significativas (P>0,05. Uma vez validado o modelo de extensão, utilizaram-se os controles de produção de leite (de cada 15 dias de 199 vacas. As vacas receberam injeções de 500mg de bST-r via subcutânea. As injeções fora aplicadas a partir dos 100 dias de lactação a intervalos de 14 dias (sete injeções. A produção de leite observada foi

  11. Economische effecten van het gebruik van bovine somatotropine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, de D.W.; Rooker, G.J.; Schneider, J.

    1988-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is nagegaan hoe het melkproduktiestimulerend hormoon BST het meest rendabel kan worden toegepast: aan laag- of hoogproduktieve koeien, aan alle koeien of aan slechts dat deel dat een sterkere reactie geeft op BST, het hele jaar door of alleen in bepaalde perioden. Tevens is onderzoc

  12. THE BST CASE

    OpenAIRE

    William DOBSON

    1996-01-01

    Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (rBST) is a milk production enhancer, a product of industrial microbiology. First approved for commercial sale in the United States (U.S.) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1994, rBST has been immersed in controversy since the early 1980s. Conflicts among major players with interests in rBST have shaped the product's image and influenced its use. Players with interests in the product include government agencies, Monsanto Corporation (the first firm a...

  13. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM.

  14. Desenvolvimento intestinal de bezerros recém-nascidos aleitados com colostro de vacas tratadas com rbST Intestinal development of new-born calves fed colostrum of cows treated with rbST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Bagaldo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de IGF-I sobre os indicadores de atividade celular hepática e intestinal em bezerros recém-nascidos, 42 vacas holandesas gestantes foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em dois grupos. O grupo rbST recebeu hormônio de crescimento (500 mg rbST e o grupo controle recebeu injeção de vitamina E. As aplicações se iniciaram aos 35 dias pré-parto e foram repetidas a cada 14 dias até o parto. Os recém-nascidos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente nas seguintes idades de abate: após o nascimento e sem a ingestão de colostro; e 2 e 7 dias de vida com ingestão de colostro das respectivas mães. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em estrutura fatorial 2 x 3, correspondendo aos grupos das mães e às idades dos bezerros. Amostras do fígado, do jejuno e do íleo foram coletadas. Os bezerros do grupo rbST apresentaram, no jejuno, menores níveis de DNA e proteína aos 7 dias de vida, enquanto a concentração de proteína nesse grupo aumentou aos 2 dias de vida. Esse efeito também foi observado na relação proteína/RNA. No grupo controle, o aumento de proteína foi verificado no 7º dia. Os indicadores de atividade celular analisados sugerem que o IGF-I adicional no colostro de vacas tratadas com rbST teve participação na maturação celular intestinal dos bezerros, sendo determinante no comportamento da primeira geração de enterócitos.With the objective of evaluating different levels of IGF-I on the hepatical and intestinal indicators of cellular activity in newborn calves, 42 pregnant Holstein cows were randomly assigned to two groups: a control: injection of vitamin E or b rbST: injection of growth hormone (rbST. Injections started 35 days pre-partum and were repeated every 14 days until parturition. Newborn calves were randomly assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (two mother groups and three different ages. After slaughter

  15. Somatotropin enhanced muscle protein synthesis in growing pigs is not modulated by insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic, 7-day treatment of growing pigs with porcine somatotropin (ST) promotes protein synthesis and doubles postprandial levels of insulin, a hormone that enhances translation initiation. This study aimed to determine whether the ST-induced increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis was media...

  16. Treatment of short stature and growth hormone deficiency in children with somatotropin (rDNA origin)

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    Dana S HardinOhio State University and Columbus Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: Somatotropin (growth hormone, GH) of recombinant DNA origin has provided a readily available and safe drug that has greatly improved management of children and adolescents with GH deficiency (GHD) and other disorders of growth. In the US and Europe, regulatory agencies have given approval for the use of GH in children and adults who meet specific criteria. However, clinical and ethical ...

  17. Qualidade do corpo lúteo e do embrião de ovelhas Santa Inês superovuladas com FSH associado à rbST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Rocha do Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST sobre a qualidade do corpo lúteo e do embrião e sobre a concentração de progesterona (P4, em ovelhas da raça Santa Inês doadoras de embriões. Foram utilizadas 13 doadoras, distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos, G1 (n=7 e G2 (n=6. Em ambos os grupos, as doadoras foram sincronizadas com implante vaginal por 14 dias, receberam 100µg de PGF2α (Ciosin® no sétimo dia e foram superovuladas, a partir do 12º dia, com 250UI de FSH (Folltopin-V® em seis doses decrescentes. No dia da retirada do implante, as doadoras do G2 receberam 125mg de rbST (Boostin® e foram cobertas por macho Santa Inês a cada 12 horas até o final do estro. No sexto dia após a primeira cobrição, foram avaliadas, por laparoscopia, a resposta superovulatória e a quantidade e a qualidade dos corpos lúteos. Após as avaliações, as colheitas embrionárias foram realizadas por laparotomia. A administração da rbST no protocolo de superovulação promoveu aumento significativo (P<0,05 no número de corpos lúteos do tipo I (9,00 x 5,28 e na qualidade embrionária (4,33 x 2,00.

  18. Treatment of short stature and growth hormone deficiency in children with somatotropin (rDNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana S Hardin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana S HardinOhio State University and Columbus Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: Somatotropin (growth hormone, GH of recombinant DNA origin has provided a readily available and safe drug that has greatly improved management of children and adolescents with GH deficiency (GHD and other disorders of growth. In the US and Europe, regulatory agencies have given approval for the use of GH in children and adults who meet specific criteria. However, clinical and ethical controversies remain regarding the diagnosis of GHD, dosing of GH, duration of therapy and expected outcomes. Areas which also require consensus include management of pubertal patients, transitioning pediatric patients to adulthood, management of children with idiopathic short stature and the role of recombinant IGF-1 in treatment. Additionally, studies have demonstrated anabolic benefits of GH in children who have inflammatory-based underlying disease and efficacy of GH in overcoming growth delays in people treated chronically with corticosteroids. These areas are open for possible new uses of this drug. This review summarizes current indications for GH use in children and discusses areas of clinical debate and potential anabolic uses in chronic illness.Keywords: somatotropin, growth hormone deficiency, children, short stature

  19. Synergy between a collagen IV mimetic peptide and a somatotropin-domain derived peptide as angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Koskimaki, Jacob E.; Lee, Esak; Chen, William; Rivera, Corban G.; Rosca, Elena V.; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is central to many physiological and pathological processes. Here we show two potent bioinformatically-identified peptides, one derived from collagen IV and translationally optimized, and one from a somatotropin domain-containing protein, synergize in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis assays including cell adhesion, migration and in vivo Matrigel plugs. Peptide-peptide combination therapies have recently been applied to diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but re...

  20. Biochemical Effects of Recombinant Porcine Somatotropin on Pig Fetal Growth and Metabolism: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Villanueva-Garci­a

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal development is mainly dependent on a close interrelation between nutritional supply use and regulation by hormones and growth factors. Mechanisms during early embryonic development are sensitive to manipulation through selected management strategies of the sow and modifications of this strategy may serve as a model for the examination of molecular and cellular events controlling early embryonic growth. The administration of growth hormone (GH to pregnant sows affects the development of fetuses in a manner dependent on the gestational period of treatment, therefore suggesting that maternal GH plays a significant role in prenatal development. In addition, in well-fed and feed-restricted gilts, treatment with porcine somatotropin (pST during early to mid-pregnancy promotes the growth of their placenta and/or fetuses. Due to an exponential increase in research exploring the role of ST in growth biology, collectively, these studies resulted in an unprecedented increase in our understanding of how ST affects growth of domestic animals. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the remarkable biological effects that pST has on pig fetal growth.

  1. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression studies of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) somatotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, S; Khan, M A; Wilson, D B; Akhtar, M W

    2007-02-01

    Cloning, high-level expression, and characterization of the somatotropin (ST) gene of an indigenous Nili-Ravi breed of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (BbST) are described. Coding, non-coding, and promoter regions of BbST were amplified and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed several silent and two interesting point mutations on comparison with STs of other vertebrate species. One interesting variation in the BbST sequence was the replacement of a conserved glutamine residue by arginine. A plasmid was also constructed for the production of BbST in Escherichia coli BL21 (RIPL) CodonPlus, under the control of IPTG-inducible T7-lac promoter. High-level expression could be obtained by synthesizing a codon-optimized ST gene and expressing it in the form of inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies represented over 20% of the E. coli cellular proteins. The biologically active conformation of purified BbST was confirmed by its efficient growth promoting activity in Nb2 cell proliferation assay. The expression system and purification strategy employed promise to be a useful approach to produce BbST for further use in structure-function studies and livestock industry. PMID:17367293

  2. Concentração plasmática de progesterona em novilhas receptoras submetidas à administração de rbST, GnRH ou hCG no quinto dia do ciclo estral Plasma progesterone concentration in recipient heifers submitted to administration of rbST, GnRH or hCG on day five of the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Fonseca

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a habilidade de diferentes hormônios administrados no quinto dia do ciclo estral em induzir a ovulação do folículo dominante da primeira onda folicular (FDPO e formar um corpo lúteo acessório (CLa e seus efeitos sobre a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 em novilhas receptoras. Cinqüenta e duas novilhas mestiças Holandês-Zebu foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: T1-controle, T2-administração subcutânea de 500mg de rbST, T3-administração intramuscular (IM de 100mig de GnRH e T4-administração IM de 2000UI e endovenosa de 1000UI de hCG. Realizou-se palpação transretal nos dias 5, 13 e 60 para detecção de corpo lúteo original (CLo, de CLa e de gestação, respectivamente. A formação de CLa foi de: T1-0/12 (0,0%, T2-0/13 (0,0%, T3-5/12 (41,7% e T4-10/15 (66,7%(P0,05. As taxas de gestação, T1=37,5% (3/8, T2=62,5% (5/8, T3=28,6% (2/7 e T4=33,3% (3/9, não diferiram entre tratamentos (P>0,05. Estes resultados mostraram que o FDPO no quinto dia do ciclo estral foi capaz de responder ao GnRH e à hCG, ovular e formar um CLa, o que elevou a concentração plasmática de P4 de novilhas no 13º dia do ciclo estral, período crítico para o estabelecimento da gestação em bovinos.The ability of different hormones administered on day five of the estrous cycle to induce the ovulation of the first wave dominant follicle (FWDF and to form an accessory corpus luteum (CLa, and the respective effects on plasma progesterone concentrations were studied in recipient heifers. Fifty-two crossbred Holstein-Zebu heifers were randomly assigned to four treatments: T1-control, T2-subcutaneous administration of 500mg of rbST, T3-intramuscular administration of 100mug of GnRH and T4-administration of 3000IU of hCG (1000IU endovenous and 2000IU intramuscular. Transrectal palpation was performed on days 5, 13 and 60 to check original corpus luteum, CLa and pregnancy, respectively. CLa formation was as follow

  3. Prostaglandinsvis-à-vis bovine embryonic mortality:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerome A; Srivastava N

    2012-01-01

    Decline in fertility in bovines is attributed to various reproductive problems viz. anoestrus, repeat breeding, abortions and post parturient disorders.Among these, repeat breeding has been an important cause for reducing the animals’ fertility and life-time productivity.Many researchers have reported embryonic mortality as a major cause of repeat breeding arising due to premature corpus luteumlysis.ProstaglandinF2α released from the uterus causes alterations in luteal blood flow, induces luteal lysis, and hence reduces progesterone secretion from the bovine corpus luteum.Therefore various strategies have been tried to modulate prostaglandinF2α synthesis and secretion in order to prolong the lifespan ofCL.Administration of cyclooxygenase inhibitors which include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs acting by competitive inhibition of key enzymes of prostaglandin synthesis is one such method.Feeding of diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids during critical period significantly reduces prostaglandin synthesis.Other drugs, which are potential candidates for reducing prostaglandin synthesis, include oxytocin receptor antagonist, recombinant bovine somatotropin, lysophosphatidic acid and prostaglandinF synthase inhibitors. To conclude, there is much scope of using various compounds to reduce prostaglandins synthesis during the critical period of pregnancy for improving the embryo survival rate.

  4. Canada continues use prohibition of gene recombination cattle somatotropin; Kanada wa idenshikumikaegyu seicho horumon no shiyo kinshi wo keizoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-05

    Canada continued use prohibition of gene recombination cattle somatotropin (BST) which stimulated milk increased production of this company in spite of request of Monsanto Co.. The cow that BST was administered is based on the report of veterinary surgeon that causes reproductive function and lowering in the life, dysbasia and increase in the mastitis on this. From the research report that BST causes thyroid gland cyst of the male rat in U.S.A., consumer organization and environment group petition FDA for the elimination of BST from the U.S.A. market. In the meantime, Monsanto Co. in the report which Canada adopted, chemical structure is different, and it reports that it uses BST of other company in which dosing method and dosing frequency differ and disregards the report of Cornell university in which the life of the cow administered more and more does not lower BST. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical effects of recombinant canine somatotropin in an unstable ostectomy gap model of bone healing in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the effect of recombinant canine somatotropin (STH) on radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical aspects of bone healing using an unstable ostectomy gap model. Study Design: After an ostectomy of the midshaft radius, bone healing was evaluated over an 8-week period in control dogs (n = 4) and dogs receiving recombinant canine STH (n = 4). Animals Or Sample Population: Eight sexually intact female Beagle dogs, 4 to 5 years old. Methods: Bone healing was evaluated by qualitative and quantitative evaluation of serial radiographs every 2 weeks. Terminal dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and three-point bending biomechanical testing were also performed. Results: Dogs receiving STH had more advanced radiographic healing of ostectomy sites. Bone area, bone mineral content, and bone density were two to five times greater at the ostectomy sites of treated dogs. Ultimate load at failure and stiffness were three and five times greater in dogs receiving STH. Conclusions: Using the ostectomy gap model, recombinant canine STH enhanced the radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical aspects of bone healing in dogs. Clinical Relevance: Dogs at risk for delayed healing of fractures may benefit from treatment with recombinant canine STH

  6. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  7. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379... 92, 93, 94, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine...

  8. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin...

  9. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  10. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  11. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  12. Physico-chemical aspects of the bovine growth hormone iodination by the electrolytic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to studying the mechanism by which iodine is incorporated into the bovine somatotropin molecule, labelling was carried out by the electrolytic method (pH7.4, current 20 μA) as a function of time for various total iodine/protein ratios. In all cases the labelling yields were determined by paper electrophoresis. The corresponding degree of iodination was calculated on the basis of the values obtained and knowledge of the amount of reacting protein, values greater than 12 being obtained in many cases. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on all the samples obtained and in the hydrolysates an increase in free iodide was observed which became more manifest as the iodide/protein molar ratio increased. The percentage of radioactivity from monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine was determined for the various degrees of iodination from chromatograms of the hydrolysates. For an iodination value of 12, diiodotyrosine radioactivity of 70% was found. When the degree of relative iodination for each iodide/protein molar ratio is calculated from the hydrolysis data, it can be seen that only 75% of the total number of available places in the tyrosine residues accept the incorporation of iodine. This fact suggests that not all tyrosine residues are equally accessible. (author)

  13. Physiologic and skeletal response to exogenous equine somatotropin (eST) in two-year-old quarter horses in race training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine the physiologic and skeletal response to exogenous equine somatotropin (eST) in two-year-old horses in race training. Sixteen Quarter Horse geldings were paired by age (ave. age=26 months), and one horse from each pair was assigned at random to either the eST treatment group or the control. The experiment was conducted over 112 days during which the horses were broke to ride and trained on a dirt track in a regimen typical for racehorses in training. Radiographs were taken of the left third metacarpal on day 0,28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 112. Jugular blood samples were collected every 14 days and analyzed for calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), osteocalcin, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (Vit D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and growth hormone (GH). Daily injections of eST were well tolerated and resulted in no observed side effects. There was a trend (P= .14) for increased plasma GH concentrations in the treated horses as the trial progressed. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were increased (P.05). In this study, administration of eST was effective in elevating plasma IGF-I, which is stimulatory to osteoblasts, and serum osteocalcin, which is a product of osteoblastic activity

  14. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  15. Effect of exogenous estradiol on plasma concentrations of somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein activity, and metabolites in ovariectomized Angus and Brahman cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R B; Chase, C C; Spicer, L J; Carroll, J A; Hammond, A C; Welsh, T H

    1997-11-01

    To determine the effect of breed and estradiol-17 beta on selected hormones and metabolites, ovariectomized (> or = 3 mo) Angus (n = 14) and Brahman (n = 12) cows were paired by age and body weight and randomly assigned as either nonimplanted controls (CON) or implanted with estradiol (E2) for 45 d. After Day 7 and through Day 42, plasma concentration of somatotropin was greater for E2 than CON cows (treatment x day, P 0.10) by E2 treatment. The effect of breed was apparent on Day 36 as Brahman cows had greater (P Angus cows. Overall, plasma concentration of IGF-I was greater (P Brahman than Angus cows (164.1 vs. 98.4 ng/ml). However, there was a trend (P x breed x day interaction for IGF-I (i.e., the magnitude of increase in IGF-I concentration was greater in E2-Angus than E2-Brahman cows). After Day 7 and through Day 42, total plasma IGF binding protein (IGFBP) activity was greater (P Brahman cows had greater (P Angus cows. After Day 14 and through Day 42, concentration of urea nitrogen (PUN) was greater (P x day, P Brahman had greater (P Angus cows (16.6 vs. 14.2 mg/dl). Plasma concentration of glucose was greater (P 0.10) by breed. In summary, these data suggest that some, but not all, of the positive effects of estradiol on peripheral concentration of IGF-I and IGFBP activity can be attributed to increased somatotropin. Moreover, breed influenced basal and E2-induced secretion of somatotropin and IGF-I such that differences between Brahman and Angus cows in plasma IGF-I concentrations were abated within 3 wk of estradiol implantation. Thus, breed influences the metabolite and hormonal response of cattle to estrogenic implants. PMID:9437573

  16. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  17. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., ``Analysis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk to the U.S. Cattle Population from Importation of... final rule did not limit the importation of bovine-derived meat from Canada to that derived from cattle... meat from bovines 30 months of age or older while continuing to prohibit the importation of live...

  18. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  19. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  20. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  1. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  2. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  3. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  4. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...

  5. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  7. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  8. Public and farmer perceptions of dairy cattle welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A; Tonsor, G T; McKendree, M G S; Thomson, D U; Swanson, J C

    2016-07-01

    This research used surveys of the public and dairy farmers in the United States to assess perceptions and attitudes related to dairy cattle welfare. Sixty-three percent of public respondents indicated that they were concerned about dairy cattle welfare. Most public respondents agreed that animal welfare was more important than low milk prices but that the average American did not necessarily agree. Most public respondents had not viewed media stories related to dairy cattle welfare. Respondents who had viewed these stories did so on television or Internet. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was viewed as the most accurate source of information related to dairy cattle welfare, followed by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA). Both public and dairy farmer respondents viewed farmers as having the most influence on dairy cattle welfare. However, there was a general pattern of public respondents indicating that groups including USDA, HSUS, and AVMA had a relatively larger influence on dairy cattle welfare than did farmer respondents. In contrast, dairy farmers indicated that individual actors-farmers, veterinarians, consumers-had more influence than the public indicated. When asked about production practices, most public respondents indicated that they would vote for a ban on antibiotic use outside of disease treatment or for the mandated use of pain control in castration. However, a minority indicated they would vote to ban the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) or to pay a premium for milk produced without rbST. With respect to explaining public support for the production practice bans and limits, respondents were more likely to vote for the restrictions if they were older, female, had higher income, or had viewed animal welfare stories in the media.

  9. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann K J Ludwig

    Full Text Available Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1. Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this 'protein microarray on a smartphone'-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring.

  10. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Susann K J; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N; van Ginkel, Leendert A; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD) depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this 'protein microarray on a smartphone'-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring. PMID:26308444

  11. Public and farmer perceptions of dairy cattle welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A; Tonsor, G T; McKendree, M G S; Thomson, D U; Swanson, J C

    2016-07-01

    This research used surveys of the public and dairy farmers in the United States to assess perceptions and attitudes related to dairy cattle welfare. Sixty-three percent of public respondents indicated that they were concerned about dairy cattle welfare. Most public respondents agreed that animal welfare was more important than low milk prices but that the average American did not necessarily agree. Most public respondents had not viewed media stories related to dairy cattle welfare. Respondents who had viewed these stories did so on television or Internet. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was viewed as the most accurate source of information related to dairy cattle welfare, followed by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA). Both public and dairy farmer respondents viewed farmers as having the most influence on dairy cattle welfare. However, there was a general pattern of public respondents indicating that groups including USDA, HSUS, and AVMA had a relatively larger influence on dairy cattle welfare than did farmer respondents. In contrast, dairy farmers indicated that individual actors-farmers, veterinarians, consumers-had more influence than the public indicated. When asked about production practices, most public respondents indicated that they would vote for a ban on antibiotic use outside of disease treatment or for the mandated use of pain control in castration. However, a minority indicated they would vote to ban the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) or to pay a premium for milk produced without rbST. With respect to explaining public support for the production practice bans and limits, respondents were more likely to vote for the restrictions if they were older, female, had higher income, or had viewed animal welfare stories in the media. PMID:27179876

  12. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  13. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  14. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  15. Milk Yield of Holstein Cows Induced into Lactation Twice Consecutively and Lactation Curve Models Fitted to Artiifcial Lactations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesus Mellado; Edgar Sepulveda; Jose E Garcia; Alvaro Rodriguez; Maria A De Santiago; Francisco G Veliz; Miguel Mellado

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen multiparous barren Holstein cows were subjected to an induction of lactation protocol for 21 d administering estradiol cypionate (2 mg kg-1 of body weight (BW) d-1, on day 1 to 14), progesterone (0.10 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 1 to 7), lfumethasone (0.03 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 18 to 20) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST;500 mg per cow, on day 1, 6, 16 and 21). At the end of lactation and with a minimum of a 2-mon dry period, the same cows were again hormonally induced into lactation. Cows in both lactations were not artiifcially inseminated, they were milked 3 times daily and received rbST throughout lactation. Mean accumulated milk yield at 305 d in milk (DIM) did not differ between the ifrst and second induced lactations ((9 710 ±1 728) vs. (9 309±2 150) kg;mean±SD). Total milk yield ((12 707±3 406) vs. (12 306±4 218) kg;mean±SD) and lactation length ((405±100) vs. (410±91) d;mean±SD) were not different between the ifrst and second induced lactations. In a second study, 15 empirical models including exponential, power law, yield-density, sigmoidal and miscellaneous models were compared for their suitability by modeling 12-mon (n=334), 18-mon (n=164) and 29-mon (n=22) lactation cycles of Holsteins cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout the lactation. Hoerl (Y=ab1/xxc), Wood (Y=axb exp(cx)) and Dhanoa (Y=ax(bc)exp(cx)) models were equally suitable to describe 12-mon lactations. An exponential model with ifve parameters (Y=exp(a+bx+cd2+e/x)) showed the best ift for milk yield for 18-mon lactations. The rational model (Y=a+bx/1+cx+dx2) was found to produce the closest ift for 29-mon lactations. It was concluded that, with the protocol used in the present study, multiparous cows respond favorably to a second cycle of induced lactation, with milk yield similar to that experienced during the ifrst cycle. Thus, dairy producers might be able to lengthen the productive life of infertile high producing cows with a renewal of

  16. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  17. Detection of a Novel Bovine Lymphotropic Herpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Reyes, Richard A.; Baines, Joel D.; Parrish, Colin R.; Casey, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Degenerate PCR primers which amplify a conserved region of the DNA polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family were used to provide sequence evidence for a new bovine herpesvirus in bovine B-lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The sequence of the resultant amplicon was found to be distinct from those of known herpesvirus isolates. Alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated 70% identity with ovine herpesvirus 2, 69% with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, 65% with bovine h...

  18. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformation...

  19. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  20. Bovine Necrotic Vulvovaginitis Associated with Porphyromonas levii

    OpenAIRE

    Elad, Daniel; Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis.

  1. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  2. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whe...

  3. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  4. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp;

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  5. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  6. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-γ and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro

  7. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  8. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. Morán; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; M.L. Chiapparrone; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; S.E. Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of b...

  9. Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Belem-Gonçalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were suggested by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. Whatever the way to obtain interfacial films (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after...

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  11. 有生长追赶SGA大鼠促生长素轴的改变%Changes of somatotropin axis in catch-up growth rats born small for gestational age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红珠; 邓洪; 马华梅; 沈振宇; 杜敏联

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究青春前期有生长追赶的小于胎龄(SGA)大鼠促生长素轴的改变,探讨SGA个体生长追赶可能的发生机制.方法:应用孕鼠全程饮食限制法制备SGA大鼠模型,测定4周龄子鼠尿生长激素(GH)排泄率、血胰岛素样生长因子-1(IGF-1)浓度、肝脏组织IGF-1 mRNA表达和胫骨生长板IGF-1、胰岛素样生长因子-1受体(IGF-1R)表达.结果:有生长追赶SGA(CUG-SGA)大鼠尿GH水平显著高于无生长追赶SGA(NCUG-SGA)和适于胎龄(AGA)大鼠(P0.05).结论:SGA大鼠无论生后追赶与否均存在GH/IGF-1轴抵抗,其生后不同的线性生长追赶方式可部分归咎于其抵抗程度.%AIM: To evaluate the changes of somatotropin axis in pre - pubertal rats with catch - up growth born small for gestational age ( CUG - SGA ).METHODS: The SGA rat model was prepared by diet restriction in pregnant rats.Growth hormone ( GH ) excretion in 24 - h urine, serum level of insulin - like growth factor - 1 ( IGF - 1 ), the expression of IGF - 1 and insulin - like growth factor - 1 receptor ( IGF - 1R ) in the tibial growth plate and the mRNA expression of IGF - 1 in liver were measured in infant rats at the end of week 4.RESULTS: The level of 24 - h urinary GH excretion in CUG - SGA group were significantly higher than that in the rats of non - catch - up growth born small for gestational age ( NCUG - SGA ) group and appropriate for gestational age ( AGA ) group ( both P < 0.01 ).The serum level of IGF - 1 and the mRNA expression of IGF - 1 in liver in CUG - SGA group were similar to those in AGA group, but significantly higher than those in NCUG - SGA group.The thickness of the tibial growth plate in NCUG - SGA group was significantly lower than that in CUG - SGA group and AGA group.No difference of the growth plate thickness between CUG -SGA group and AGA group was observed, but the thickness of hypertrophy zone of the growth plate in CUG - SGA group were significantly higher than that in NCUG - SGA

  12. Bovine endometrial stromal cells display osteogenic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endometrium is central to mammalian fertility. The endometrial stromal cells are very dynamic, growing and differentiating throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In humans, stromal cells appear to have progenitor or stem cell capabilities and the cells can even differentiate into bone. It is not clear whether bovine endometrial stromal cells exhibit a similar phenotypic plasticity. So, the present study tested the hypothesis that bovine endometrial stromal cells could be differentiated along an osteogenic lineage. Pure populations of bovine stromal cells were isolated from the endometrium. The endometrial stromal cell phenotype was confirmed by morphology, prostaglandin secretion, and susceptibility to viral infection. However, cultivation of the cells in standard endometrial cell culture medium lead to a mesenchymal phenotype similar to that of bovine bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the endometrial stromal cells developed signs of osteogenesis, such as alizarin positive nodules. When the stromal cells were cultured in a specific osteogenic medium the cells rapidly developed the characteristics of mineralized bone. In conclusion, the present study has identified that stromal cells from the bovine endometrium show a capability for phenotype plasticity similar to mesenchymal progenitor cells. These observations pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms of stroma cell differentiation in the bovine reproductive tract.

  13. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  14. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BSE / FAQ on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Programs Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Farm Storage ... Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Q. What is Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy? A. Bovine ...

  15. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  16. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response.

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 from Commercial Fetal Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2.

  19. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  20. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  1. Is bovine dentine an appropriate substitute in abrasion studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wegehaupt, F J; Widmer, R.; Attin, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the wear behaviour of human and bovine dentine due to toothbrushing with different relative dentin abrasivity (RDA) toothpastes. Forty human and 40 bovine dentine samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors or human premolars roots, and baseline surface profiles were recorded. The samples were distributed to four groups (each group n = 10 human and 10 bovine samples) and brushed with fluoridated experimental toothpastes with different RDAs (group A: RDA 10, B: ...

  2. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  3. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  4. Understanding and evaluating bovine testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelic, John P

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to briefly review bovine testes and how they are assessed, with an emphasis on articles from Theriogenology. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most common method to assess testicular size; it varies among individual bulls and breeds and is highly heritable. In general, a large SC is associated with early puberty, more sperm, a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and better reproductive performance in closely related females. Consequently, there are minimum requirements for SC for breeding soundness. In prepubertal bull calves, there is an early rise (10-20 weeks of age) in LH, which is critically related to onset of puberty and testicular development. Feeding bulls approximately 130% of maintenance requirements of energy and protein from approximately 8 to 30 weeks of age increased LH release during the early rise, hastened puberty (approximately 1 month), and increased mature testis size and sperm production (approximately 20%-30%). However, high-energy diets after weaning (>200 days) often reduced sperm production and semen quality. A bull's testes and scrotum have opposing (complementary) temperature gradients, which keep the testicular temperature 2 °C to 6 °C cooler than core body temperature for production of fertile sperm (increased testicular temperature reduces semen quality). Infrared thermography, a quick and noninvasive method of assessing scrotal surface temperature, may be beneficial for evaluations of breeding soundness. The primary clinical use of ultrasonography in assessment of reproductive function in the bull is characterization of grossly detectable lesions in the testes and scrotum. In conclusion, testis size and function are critical for bull fertility, affected by nutrition, and readily assessed clinically. PMID:24274406

  5. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  6. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  7. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  8. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  9. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  10. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  11. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  12. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-Min; Tan, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which all...

  13. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Taranto; Francesca Conte; Rosario Fruci

    2013-01-01

    Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT), total nitrogen (TN), lactose (...

  14. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  15. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  16. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  17. Aplicación de somatotropina recombinante porcina en lechones durante la primera semana de vida: efecto sobre variables metabólicas y somatométricas Porcine recombinant somatotropin administered to piglets during the first week of life: effects on metabolic and somatometric variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Olmos-Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de la administración de la somatotropina recombinante porcina (rpST en lechones, sobre las variables metabólicas y somatométricas durante la primera semana de vida, se evaluaron un total de 220 lechones al nacimiento de 40 cerdas híbridas Landrace x Large White. Los lechones fueron clasificados aleatoriamente en dos grupos. El Grupo 1 conformado por 106 lechones (Grupo testigo y el grupo 2 por un total de 114 lechones (Grupo tratado con pST. La administración de la rpST se realizó a una dosis de 1 mg/kg cada 24 h durante siete días. En el pH al nacimiento se apreciaron diferencias significativas (P The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of porcine recombinant somatotropin (rpST administered to piglets during their first week of life, on metabolic and somatometric variables. A total of 220 piglets born from 40 hybrid Landrace x Large White sows were used. Piglets were randomly assigned to either Group 1 (G1, Control, n = 106 or Group 2 (G2, rpST treatment, n = 114. The rpST dose was 1mg/kg every 24h during 7 consecutive days. Serum pH at birth showed significant differences between groups (7.42 ± 0.47 and 7.31 ± 0.59, although this difference dissapeared on day 8. There was a significant increase (P < 0,001 in plasma glucose levels for the treated group on day 8 (68.78 ± 10.44 and 103.71 ± 18.44. Average daily weight gain was also higher for the somatotropin treated group compared to the control (137.25 ± 31.31 and 209.21 ± 45.97. Comparisons for interaction between treatment and sex showed dramatic differences (P < 0,001 for glucose, lactate and weight gain for the males from G2 when compared to the females from the same experimental group on day 7 post-treatment. Piglets treated with rpST showed significant differences in abdominal perimeter (28.67 ± 4.41 and 31.79 ± 3.74, dorsal length (28.42 ± 2.66 and 30.21 ± 4.70, and ham roundness (18.79 ± 2.62 and 22.38 ± 2.98. There is an

  18. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    OpenAIRE

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FB...

  19. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  20. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research ther

  1. Characterization of the bovine ampkgamma1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, Bernhard; Kollers, Sonja; Fries, Ruedi; Sazanov, Alexei; Yoshida, Erin; Valle, Edith; Davoren, Jon; Hickey, Donal

    2005-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents the mammalian form of the core component of a kinase cascade that is conserved between fungi, plants, and animals. AMPK plays a major role in protecting mammalian cells from metabolic stress by switching off biosynthetic pathways that require ATP and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene for the noncatalytic bovine gamma1 subunit of AMPK. The bovine ampkgamma1 (PRKAG1) gene spans in excess of 14 kb and is located at BTA 5q21-q22. It consists of 12 exons ranging in size from 38 b to 166 b, interspersed with 11 introns that range between 97 b and 6753 b in length. The coding region of the bovine gene shares 93% and 90% nucleotide sequence similarity with its human and rat counterparts, and the bovine AMPKgamma1 protein is 98% and 95% identical to its human and rat homologs, respectively, in amino acid sequence. SNP discovery using a cattle DNA panel revealed a number of polymorphisms that may be useful for the evaluation of ampkgamma1 as a candidate gene for energy metabolism-related production traits.

  2. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  3. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  4. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  5. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  6. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  7. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Gary L

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST and bacterial artificial chromosome (BACsequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum of 216 (366 informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum of 55 (191 informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other

  8. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  9. Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, L.; Lehmkuhl, H D; Kaeberle, M L

    1999-01-01

    The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 2- to 6-month-old calves seronegative for BRSV and BVDV and inoculated with approximately 1 median cell culture infective dose of virus per AM. Control, BRSV infected, ncpBVDV-infected and BRSV-ncpBVDV coinfected AM cultures were evaluated for Fc receptor expre...

  10. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E.; Menzies, P; Harland, R

    2001-01-01

    Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modifie...

  11. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  12. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  13. Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Júlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude

    2008-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates ...

  14. Bovine Enteroviruses as Indicators of Fecal Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Ley, Victoria; Higgins, James; Fayer, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Surface waters frequently have been contaminated with human enteric viruses, and it is likely that animal enteric viruses have contaminated surface waters also. Bovine enteroviruses (BEV), found in cattle worldwide, usually cause asymptomatic infections and are excreted in the feces of infected animals in large numbers. In this study, the prevalence and genotype of BEV in a closed herd of cattle were evaluated and compared with BEV found in animals in the immediate environment and in environm...

  15. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  16. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  17. Bovine colostrum and immune function after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Glen

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous and/or prolonged exercise causes transient perturbations in immune function. It is well accepted that this is one mechanism contributing to the higher occurrence of infection (e.g. upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)) in athletes, especially endurance athletes. URTI or upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms can negatively affect training and competition performance but athletes must train intensively to be successful. Therefore, interventions that can legitimately enhance immune function and reduce URTI risk can be of benefit to athletes. Bovine colostrum supplementation has been investigated as a possible nutritional countermeasure to enhance (or maintain) immune function, and reduce URTI risk, following strenuous or prolonged exercise and during intensive training periods. There is convincing evidence that daily supplementation with bovine colostrum, for a number of weeks (and preliminary evidence for acute effects after a single dose), can maintain intestinal barrier integrity, immune function and reduce the chances of suffering URTI or URT symptoms in athletes or those undertaking heavy training. The mechanisms are not fully understood at present but there is preliminary evidence suggesting that the effects on immune function are attributable, at least in part, to small bioactive components that survive digestion and are biologically available after consumption, but further work is required. In summary, the balance of existing evidence does support the notion that bovine colostrum is beneficial for certain groups of athletes, such as those involved in strenuous training (e.g. endurance athletes), in terms of immunity and resistance to infection. PMID:23075556

  18. A clinical comparison of purified bovine and purified porcine insulins.

    OpenAIRE

    Olczak, S A; Greenwood, R H

    1985-01-01

    Twenty four patients with established insulin dependent diabetes treated with twice daily soluble and isophane bovine insulins were changed to equivalent doses of either purified bovine Neusulin and Neuphane (Wellcome) or purified porcine Actrapid and Monotard (Novo) insulins. After 6 months treatment the porcine group showed a 35% fall in insulin binding antibodies and a 14% reduction in insulin dosage. The group changed to purified bovine insulins showed no significant change in insulin bin...

  19. 76 FR 35185 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bovine Spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Collection; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products AGENCY: Animal and... byproducts to protect against the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the United States... animal products and byproducts to prevent the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into...

  20. Kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite neutralization by monoclonal antibodies, immune bovine serum, and immune bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, L E; Riggs, M W; Mason, P H; Fayer, R

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies, immune bovine serum, and immune bovine colostral whey neutralized infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites for mice in a time-dependent manner. Immune colostral whey neutralized sporozoites more rapidly and completely than immune serum, monoclonal antibody (MAb) 18.44, or a combination of MAb 18.44 and MAb 17.41. Mice were partially protected against oral challenge with C. parvum oocytes when treated with immune colostral whey, MAb 17.41, or a combination of MAb 17.41 and MAb 18.44. PMID:2294054

  1. Detection of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses in the Nasal Epithelial Cells by the Direct Immunofluorescence Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Silim, A.; Elazhary, M. A. S. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells were collected by cotton swabs for the diagnosis in experimental and field cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and field cases of bovine viral diarrhea in calves. A portion of the cells was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline and a 25 µL drop was placed on microscope slides. The cells were dried, fixed and stained according to the direct fluorescent antibody technique. Another portion of the same specimen was inoculated onto primary bovine skin cell culture...

  2. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  3. In vitro protective effect of bacteria-derived bovine alpha interferon I1 against selected bovine viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, J H; Robson, D. S.; Scott, F. W.; Schiff, E I

    1985-01-01

    We used bacteria-derived bovine alpha-interferon I1 (Bo IFN-alpha I1) to study its antiviral effect in a bovine turbinate cell line on bovine diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and pseudorabies virus. We based our study upon replicate tests for each strain by using a block titration system with various concentrations of Bo IFN-alpha I1 against various concentrations of virus. The data were compiled in two-axis tables (replicate X concentration) and...

  4. Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.

  5. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other importan

  6. Establishment of bovine prion peptide-based monoclonal antibodies for identifying bovine prion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To obtain high titer monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) which can react with mammalian prion protein(PrP),Balb/C mice were immunized with bovine(Bo) PrP peptide(BoPrP 209-228 aa) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin(KLH).The hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against the peptide were established by cell fusion and cloning.The obtained McAbs were applied to detect recombinant human,bovine and hamster PrP,cellular prion protein(PrPc) in normal bovine brain and pathogenic scrapie prion protein(PrPSc) accumulated in the medulla oblongata of bovine spongiform encephalopathy(BSE)specimen with Western blot and immunohistochemical detection,respectively.The current procedure might offer a simple,feasible method to raise high titer antibodies for studying biological features of PrP in mammals,as well as detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy(TSE) and diagnosis of BSE,in particular.

  7. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk;

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65...

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties)

  9. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  10. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.69 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  12. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  13. Characterisation of bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Gjørret, Jakob; Schauser, Kirsten Hallundbæk;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies (OCs) with respect to the embryonic origin of their cellular components. Epiblasts were isolated mechanically from bovine Day 12 embryos. Epiblasts were cultured on feeder layers of SNL cells (neomycin...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase...

  15. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...-5256. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 6, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 26239... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and...

  16. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  17. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of inf

  18. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)...

  19. Transcriptional organization of bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, L W; Heilman, C A; Howley, P M

    1983-09-01

    Multiple bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1)-specific polyadenylated RNA species in a BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma were identified and mapped. All of the RNA species were transcribed from the same DNA strand of the BPV-1 genome. Five RNA species previously identified in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were also present in the bovine fibropapilloma. These five species measured 1,050, 1,150, 1,700, 3,800, and 4,050 bases, mapped within the 69% transforming segment of the BPV-1 genome, and shared a 3' coterminus at 0.53 map units (m.u.). The 5' ends of the bodies of these distinct transcripts were located at ca. 0.03, 0.09, 0.34, 0.39, and 0.41 m.u. Additional polyadenylated RNA species not present in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were specific for the BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma and measured 1,700, 3,700, 3,800, 6,700, and 8,000 bases. These wart-specific species shared a 3' coterminus at 0.90 m.u. The 5' termini of the bodies of the 1,700- and 3,800-base species mapped at 0.71 and 0.42 m.u., respectively. Exonuclease VII analysis failed to reveal any internal splicing in these two species; however, the presence of small remote 5' leader sequences could not be ruled out. The 3,700-base species hybridized to DNA fragments from the 69% transforming segment as well as from the 31% nontransforming segment of the BPV-1 genome; however, this species was not precisely mapped. The 5' termini of the two largest RNA species (6,700 and 8,000 bases in size) were located at ca. 0.01 and 0.90 m.u., respectively. Since the 5' ends of these mapped adjacent to a TATAAA sequence which could possibly serve as an element of a transcriptional promoter, it is possible that one or both of these species represent nonspliced precursor RNA molecules. PMID:6137574

  20. Interaction of Nicotine and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The binding of nicotine to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV absorption, fluorescence, and 1H NMR methods. With the addition of nicotine, the absorption band of BSA at about 210 nm decreased gradually, moved to longer wavelengths, and narrowed. BSA fluorescence of tryptophan residue was quenched by nicotine. The 1H NMR peaks of nicotine moved to downfield by the addition of BSA. The experimental results showed that nicotine was capable of binding with BSA to form a 1:1 complex. BSA's high selectivity for nicotine binding suggests a unique role for this protein in the detoxification and/or transport of nicotine.

  1. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...

  2. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  3. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  4. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Virus-specific proteins were examined in cultured cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. By using antisera obtained from virus-infected animals, three major virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights of 115,000 (115K), 80K, and 55K were observed. Minor proteins of 45,000 and 38,000 daltons were also noted. Tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the 115K and the 80K polypeptides were structurally related. The 55K protein was glycosylated and appeared not to be related to the ...

  5. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  6. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun

    2015-05-01

    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  7. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  8. Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zaini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

  9. [Serological study of bovine leptospirosis in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac

    2002-01-01

    The results of 4 043 bovine sera samples from various Mexican regions, which were sent to a diagnosis lab, were analyzed. The method was the agglutination technique, taking the dilution rate 1:1000 or higher as positive. The analysis revealed 31,1% of seroprevalence and the most frequent serovarietes were hardjo (strain H 89 isolated in Mexico), wolffi and tarassovi. There is coincidence with early data obtained in Mexico on a 34% of prevalence found in a similar study performed in 1994, and with the scientific literature from other countries. The former study also indicated that tarassovi and wolffi were the most common leptospira, so there is coincidence with the figures in the reviewed literature. It was concluded that there was no significant variation in the prevalence rate between the 1994 study and the present one; therefore, it is recommended that this study be promoted so as to increase the bovine vaccination and achieve a reduction in leptospirosis in Mexico. PMID:15846936

  10. Tensile strength of bovine trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S J; Hayes, W C; Stone, J L; Beaupré, G S

    1985-01-01

    Data on the tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone are needed to define input parameters and failure criteria for modeling total joint replacements. To help resolve differences in reports comparing tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone, we have developed new methods, based on porous foam technology, for tensile testing of fresh/frozen trabecular bone specimens. Using bovine trabecular bone from an isotropic region from the proximal humerus as a model material, we measured ultimate strengths in tension and compression for two groups of 24 specimens each. The average ultimate strength in tension was 7.6 +/- 2.2 (95% C.I.) MPa and in compression was 12.4 +/- 3.2 MPa. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.013) and was not related to density differences between the test groups (p = 0.28). Strength was related by a power-law function of the local apparent density, but, even accounting for density influences, isotropic bovine trabecular bone exhibits significantly lower strengths in tension than in compression. PMID:4077868

  11. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendixen Christian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs, which represent a significant source of genetic diversity in mammals, have been shown to be associated with phenotypes of clinical relevance and to be causative of disease. Notwithstanding, little is known about the extent to which CNV contributes to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb. About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental duplications, while 30% encompass genes, of which the majority is involved in environmental response. About 10% of the human orthologous of these genes are associated with human disease susceptibility and, hence, may have important phenotypic consequences. Conclusions Together, this analysis provides a useful resource for assessment of the impact of CNVs regarding variation in bovine health and production traits.

  12. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles......NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring, where the two or more genetic marker alleles are single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from Hapmap60827-rs29019866, ARS-BFGL-NGS-40979, Hapmap47854-BTA-119090, ARS-BFGL-NGS-114679, Hapmap43841-BTA-34601, Hapmap43407...

  13. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  14. Serological evidences of bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in bovines of organized farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, M; Yadav, V; Chander, V

    2011-04-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle causing a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, a highly infectious disease of cattle and buffaloes, occurs throughout the world including India. The present study based on micro-serum neutralization test reports the sero-epidemiology of BHV-1 infection in cattle and buffaloes from different parts of India. Serum samples from cattle, bulls, buffalo bulls and yaks were screened for BHV-1 antibodies. A total of 1115 serum samples were screened, and a total of 437 (39.2%) serum samples were found positive and 678 (60.8%) serum samples were found negative. Overall 168 (38.0%) cattle, 17 (85.0%) buffalo, 212 (38.6%) bulls, 8 (13.5%) buffalo bulls and 32 (71.1%) yaks were found positive for BHV-1 antibodies. State wise, Assam had highest seropositivity of 71.1% for yaks, Madhya Pradesh had 68.9% for cattle and Meghalaya was negative for the presence of antibodies to BHV-1 in cattle. PMID:21156033

  15. Field Surgical Intervention of Bovine Actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq*, A. Qayyum, H. A. Samad, H. R. Chaudhry and N. Ahmad1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis, or lumpy jaw, is an important cause of economic losses in livestock because of its widespread occurrence and poor response to the routine clinical treatment. The present study describes a typical case of bovine actinomycosis in a seven-month pregnant Sahiwal heifer with a hard swelling on the middle of the maxilla bone at the level of the central molar teeth. Tentative diagnosis was made through clinical signs. After maturation of the swelling, the area was incised under local anesthesia and debridement of the wound was achieved by sharp surgical debridement and mechanical debridement. Pus, having the appearance of sulphur granules, was completely removed from the excised cavity, which was closed by applying mattress sutures. Adjunct therapy of broad-spectrum antibiotic was administered intramuscularly for five days as a post-operative measure. Catamnesis revealed that the healing was complete in 15 days with no recurrence and untoward consequences.

  16. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...... and changes in morphology suggest the existence of different aggregate species. Although beta-sheet content increases from 0 to ca. 40% upon aggregation, the aggregates retain significant amounts of alpha-helix structure, and lack a protease-resistant core. Thus BSA is able to form well-ordered beta...... significant amounts of alpha-helix, highlights the universality of the fibrillation mechanism. However, the presence of non-beta-sheet structure may influence the final fibrillar structure and could be a key component in aggregated BSA's lack of cytotoxicity....

  17. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  18. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva;

    1999-01-01

    in nuclear morphology as a transformation of the nucleolus precursor body into a functional rRNA synthesising nucleolus with a characteristic ultrastructure. We examined nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine in vitro produced (control) embryos and in nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed from a MII phase...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  19. Presence of osteoinductive factors in bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussano, Federico; Bartorelli Cusani, Alberto; Brossa, Alessia; Carossa, Stefano; Bussolati, Gianni; Bussolati, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    New approaches in the treatment of skeletal defects may benefit from the use of soluble biological factors. We previously standardized a derivative of bovine colostrum (SBCD), deprived of casein and fat and rich in cytokines. In the present study, we tested its possible use as an adjuvant in bone healing. SBCD contained factors involved in stromal cell stimulation and differentiation and induced cytokine production from stimulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In vitro, SBCD promoted proliferation, migration and, in association with osteogenic factors, osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic and MSCs. In in vivo experiments of subcutaneous Matrigel injection in mice, SBCD plus hydroxyapatite, but not hydroxyapatite nor SBCD alone, induced recruitment of macrophages and stromal cells. After 60 days, plugs containing SBCD and hydroxyapatite were densely calcified and diffusely positive for osteocalcin, supporting the occurrence of an early osteogenic process. These results indicate that SBCD is a rich source of factors with osteoinductive properties. PMID:25036965

  20. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik;

    2010-01-01

    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...

  1. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  2. Prevalence and economics and bovine leukosis in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, D.K.; Beal, V.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of bovine leukosis in the US and discusses the economic significance of the disease. The term leukosis is used except when reporting the Meat Inspection Department data which used the term malignant lymphoma instead. (PCS)

  3. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... damages the central nervous system of cattle. More Mad Cow Disease is a neurological disorder of cattle. About BSE ...

  4. Guidelines for taking and interpreting radiographs of the bovine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This step-by-step guide to radiographing the bovine foot tells you how to 1) obtain the radiograph you need, 2) allow for normal variations when assessing the findings, and 3) interpret abnormalities accurately by following a systematic approach

  5. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  6. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Shakespeare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  7. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  8. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    The central step in cheese making is the separation of milk into curd and whey. This can be done enzymatically by hydrolysis of the Phe105-Met106 bond or nearby bonds in bovine κ-casein, which releases its hydrophilic C-terminal leading to coagulation of the milk. The preferred enzyme...... and characterised, and turned out to have an even higher activity and specificity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond than bovine chymosin. The sequences of bovine and camel chymosin are 85% identical, and yet they have significantly different cheese making properties. The aim of the project was to explain...... this difference through the study of the structures of bovine and camel chymosin, and preparation of catalytically inactive enzymes in complex with substrate. Their milk-clotting activities was determined using the traditional assay on skimmed milk, and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay...

  9. Bovine Papillomavirus Clastogenic Effect Analyzed in Comet Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Araldi, R. P.; Melo, T. C.; N. Diniz; J. Mazzuchelli-de-Souza; R.F. Carvalho; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus related to serious livestock diseases. Oncoproteins encoded by BPV are involved in several steps of cellular transformation and have been reported as presenting clastogenic effects in peripheral lymphocytes and primary culture cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clastogenic potential of BPV types 1, 2, and 4 by comet assay. Peripheral blood was collected from 37 bovines, 32 infected with different levels of papillomatosis (12 anim...

  10. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    OpenAIRE

    Mahantesh M. Kurjogi; Kaliwal, Basappa B

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the o...

  11. Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Cattle in Indonesia and its Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2011-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) is a disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), an ubiquitous, easily transmitted virus with worldwide distribution. The majority of postnatal infections with BVDV are nonclinical, with biphasic temperature elevation and leucopenia followed by a spesific immune response measurable by serum neutralisation test. The infection can be diagnosed serologically or virologically and the disease is recognized by clinical signs and pathological lesions. Diseas...

  12. Cell-free translation of bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Torborg, L L; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA was translated in a reticulocyte cell-free protein synthesizing system. The purified, 8.2-kilobase, virus-specific RNA species was unable to serve an an efficient message unless it was denatured immediately before translation. In this case, several polypeptides, ranging in molecular weight from 50,000 to 150,000 and most of which were immunoprecipitated by bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antiserum, were synthesized in vitro. When polyribosomes were used to...

  13. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  14. Local IL2 and IL12 treatment of Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BOSCC) and Bovine Vulval Papilloma and Carcinoma Complex (BVPCC) in Cattle in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, R.J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of local IL-2 application on bovine cancer In tropical countries there is an increased prevalence of two important cancers in cattle: Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BOSCC) and Bovine Vulval Papilloma Carcinoma Complex (BVPCC). Both cancers are associated with increased annual hours of

  15. Remodeling of bovine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Miki; Yoshioka, Shin; Tasaki, Yukari; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian endometrium changes morphologically and functionally throughout the estrous cycle. In some species, endometrial cells also undergo periodic proliferation and degeneration. However, the remodeling of bovine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle remains unclear. In the present study, we examined how the remodeling of bovine endometrium varied through the estrous cycle by measuring the relative rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cells positive for both KI-67 (a proliferation marker) and cleaved caspase-3 (CCP3: an apoptotic cell marker) were immunohistochemically evaluated throughout the estrous cycle in the luminal and glandular epithelia, and the stroma of bovine endometrium. Percentages of KI-67-positive cells tended to be higher at the early luteal and follicular stages than at the mid and late luteal stages in all cell types. Similarly, percentages of CCP3-positive cells were higher at the early luteal stage than at the mid and late luteal stages in the luminal epithelium and stroma. Furthermore, CCP3 expression levels by Western blot analysis agreed with these immunohistological observations. On the other hand, DNA fragmentation was detected in the bovine endometrium without significant differences during the estrous cycle by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Together, these results show that cell proliferation and apoptosis undergo cyclic patterns in the bovine endometrium, and suggest that the bovine endometrium is remodeled in each estrous cycle. PMID:24051170

  16. Expression of a 50 kDa putative receptor for bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine fetal tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, L; Zhang, S.; W. Xue; Kapil, S; Minocha, H C

    1998-01-01

    The expression of a 50 kDa bovine viral diarrhea virus putative receptor in different bovine fetal tissues from 3-month old fetuses was studied. The receptor expression was examined by immunocytochemical staining and by immunoblotting using antiidiotypic probe (anti-D89). Intense specific staining in enterocytes of the small and large intestines, cortical tubular epithelial cells of kidneys, respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea and esophageal mucosal epithelial cells was observed, demo...

  17. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  18. Treponema denticola in microflora of bovine periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borsanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis in cattle is an infectious purulent progressive disease associated with strict anaerobic subgingival biofilm and is epidemiologically related to soil management at several locations of Brazil. This study aimed to detect Treponema species in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm in the gingival sulcus of 6 to 24-month-old animals considered periodontally healthy. We used paper cones to collect the materials, after removal of supragingival plaques, and kept frozen (at -80°C up to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR using T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium and T. vincentii primers. In periodontal pocket, it was possible to identify by PCR directly, the presence of Treponema amylovorum in 73% of animals (19/26, T. denticola in 42.3% (11/26 and T. maltophilum in 54% (14/26. Among the 25 healthy sites, it was possible to identify T. amylovorum in 18 (72%, T. denticola in two (8% and T. maltophilum in eight (32%. Treponema medium and T. vincentii were not detected over all 51 evaluated samples. The presence of Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum and, in particular, the widely recognized T. denticola in subgingival microflora brings an original and potencially important contribution in studies of the bovine periodontitis.

  19. Macro mineral requirements by grazing zebu bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine requirements of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and sodium (Na for grazing zebu bovines. The experiment area was composed of Brachiaria decumbens paddocks. Twenty-seven non-castrated animals, with initial live weight of 311.0 kg and at an average age of 14 months were used. Three animals were slaughtered, after adaptation period, so they were used as control for estimates of empty body weight and initial body composition of animals in the experiment. Out of the 24 remaining animals, four were sent to the maintenance group with restrict grazing time to limit energy intake close to the maintenance level. The other 20 animals were distributed in four treatments: mineral mixture, self-control intake and three-times-a-week-offer frequency (offered on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and daily. Concentrations of all studied macro elements in empty body and empty body gain decreased as live weight increased. The ratios obtained for g Ca/100 g of retained protein and g P/100 g of retained protein were 9.18 and 4.72, respectively. Total dietary requirement of calcium was lower than the one recommended by NRC (2000, but P requirement was very close to that.

  20. Bovine Model of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo R. Bartoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs constitute a recent advance in heart failure (HF therapeutics. As the rigorous experimental assessment of LVADs in HF requires large animal models, our objective was to develop a bovine model of cardiomyopathy. Male calves (n=8 were used. Four animals received 1.2 mg/kg intravenous doxorubicin weekly for seven weeks and four separate animals were studied as controls. Doxorubicin-treated animals were followed with weekly echocardiography. Target LV dysfunction was defined as an ejection fraction ≤35%. Sixty days after initiating doxorubicin, a terminal study was performed to determine hemodynamic, histological, biochemical, and molecular parameters. All four doxorubicin-treated animals exhibited significant (P<0.05 contractile dysfunction, with target LV dysfunction achieved in three animals. Doxorubicin-treated hearts exhibited significantly reduced coronary blood flow and interstitial fibrosis and significantly increased apoptosis and myocyte size. Gene expression of atrial natriuretic factor increased more than 3-fold. Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels were significantly increased early and late during the development of cardiomyopathy, respectively. We conclude that sequential administration of intravenous doxorubicin in calves induces a cardiomyopathy with many phenotypic hallmarks of the failing human heart. This clinically-relevant model may be useful for testing pathophysiologic responses to LVADs in the context of HF.

  1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  2. Morphological classification of bovine ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    2010-02-01

    Follicle classification is an important aid to the understanding of follicular development and atresia. Some bovine primordial follicles have the classical primordial shape, but ellipsoidal shaped follicles with some cuboidal granulosa cells at the poles are far more common. Preantral follicles have one of two basal lamina phenotypes, either a single aligned layer or one with additional layers. In antral follicles basal granulosa cells and additional layers of basal lamina, which appear as loops in cross section ('loopy'). The remainder have aligned single-layered follicular basal laminas with rounded basal cells, and contain better quality oocytes than the loopy/columnar follicles. In sizes >5 mm, only aligned/rounded phenotypes are present. Dominant and subordinate follicles can be identified by ultrasound and/or histological examination of pairs of ovaries. Atretic follicles basal atretic or antral atretic, named on the basis of the location in the membrana granulosa where cells die first. Basal atretic follicles have considerable biological differences to antral atretic follicles. In follicles >5 mm, only antral atresia is observed. The concentrations of follicular fluid steroid hormones can be used to classify atresia and distinguish some of the different types of atresia; however, this method is unlikely to identify follicles early in atresia, and hence misclassify them as healthy. Other biochemical and histological methods can be used, but since cell death is a part of normal homoeostatis, deciding when a follicle has entered atresia remains somewhat subjective. PMID:19786400

  3. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available.

  4. Enzymic characteristics of fat globule membranes from bovine colostrum and bovine milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Fat globule membranes have been isolated from bovine colostrum and bovine milk by the dispersion of the fat in sucrose solutions at 4 degrees C and fractionation by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. The morphology and enzymic characteristics of the separated fractions were examined. Fractions comprising a large proportion of the total extracted membrane were thus obtained having high levels of the Golgi marker enzymes UDP-galactose N- acetylglucosamine beta-4-galactosyltransferase and thiamine pyrophosphatase. A membrane-derived form of the galactosyltransferase has been solubilized from fat and purified to homogeneity. This enzyme is larger in molecular weight than previously studied soluble galactosyltransferases, but resembles in size the galactosyltransferase of lactating mammary Golgi membranes. In contrast, when fat globule membranes were prepared by traditional procedures, which involved washing the fat at higher temperatures, before extraction, galactosyltransferase was not present in the membranes, having been released into supernatant fractions, When the enzyme released by this procedure was partially purified and examined by gel filtration, it was found to be of a degraded form resembling in size the soluble galactosyltransferase of milk. The release is therefore attributed to the action of proteolytic enzymes. Our observations contrast with previous biochemical studies which suggested that Golgi membranes do not contribute to the milk fat globule membrane. They are, however, consistent with electron microscope studies of the fat secretion process, which indicate that secretory vesicle membranes, derived from the Golgi apparatus, may provide a large proportion of the fat globule membrane. PMID:402369

  5. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen

    2014-04-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans. PMID:24571383

  6. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions.

  7. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  8. A monoclonal antibody to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to defeat antibodies to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera. Single sera from 211 cattle and 22 sheep from 7 different farms were tested using ELISA and Serum Neutralisation Test (SNT). 17 Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed against P80, gp48 and gp53 were tested for ability to coat ELISA plates and capture the bovine viral diarrhea antigen. 5 mabs(WB 103, WB, 105, WB 112 against P80 kDa protein, WB 210 and WB 214 directed against gp48 and gp 53 kDa protein. Specific antibody to BVDV was detected by rabbit anti-bovine and anti-ovine IgG antisera. The quantitative correlation between two tests was good

  9. Processed bovine cartilage: an improved biosynthetic implant for contour defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersek, R.A.; Hart, W.G. Jr.; Greer, D.; Beisang, A.A.; Flynn, P.J.; Denton, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    Irradiated human cartilage has been found to be a superior implant material for correction of contour defects; however, availability problems have prevented this material from gaining wide acceptance. Implantation of processed irradiated bovine cartilage in primates and rabbits, as described here, provides strong evidence that this material performs like irradiated allograft cartilage antigenically and has certain cosmetic advantages over allograft cartilage. Our studies in primates have shown that there is no systemically measurable antibody-antigen reaction, either cellular or noncellular, to irradiated processed bovine cartilage. Neither primary nor second-set provocative implantations produced any measurable rejection. In rabbits, composite grafts of two pieces of irradiated bovine cartilage adjacent to each other were also well tolerated, with no measurable absorption and with capsule formation typical of a foreign body reaction to an inert object.

  10. Dynamic compressive properties of bovine knee layered tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Hino, Yuki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, the most common articular disease is knee osteoarthritis. Among many treatment methodologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently received a lot of attention. In this field, cells and scaffolds are important, both ex vivo and in vivo. From the viewpoint of effective treatment, in addition to histological features, the compatibility of mechanical properties is also important. In this study, the dynamic and static compressive properties of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were measured using a universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar method. The compressive behaviors of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were examined. The effects of strain rate on the maximum stress and the slope of stress-strain curves of the bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were discussed.

  11. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L

    2001-12-01

    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  12. A novel glutamate dehydrogenase from bovine brain: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S W; Cho, S W

    1995-08-01

    A soluble form of novel glutamate dehydrogenase has been purified from bovine brain. The preparation was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and composed of six identical subunits having a subunit size of 57,500 Da. The biochemical properties of glutamate dehydrogenase such as N-terminal amino acids sequences, kinetic parameters, amino acids analysis, and optimum pH were examined in both reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate and oxidative deamination of glutamate. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the bovine brain enzyme showed the significant differences in the first 5 amino acids compared to other glutamate dehydrogenases from various sources. These results indicate that glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from bovine brain is a novel polypeptide.

  13. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  14. The host defense proteome of human and bovine milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Hettinga

    Full Text Available Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk. We analyzed human and bovine milk using a shot-gun proteomics approach focusing on host defense-related proteins. In total, 268 proteins in human milk and 269 proteins in bovine milk were identified. Of these, 44 from human milk and 51 from bovine milk are related to the host defense system. Of these proteins, 33 were found in both species but with significantly different quantities. High concentrations of proteins involved in the mucosal immune system, immunoglobulin A, CD14, lactoferrin, and lysozyme, were present in human milk. The human newborn is known to be deficient for at least two of these proteins (immunoglobulin A and CD14. On the other hand, antimicrobial proteins (5 cathelicidins and lactoperoxidase were abundant in bovine milk. The high concentration of lactoperoxidase is probably linked to the high amount of thiocyanate in the plant-based diet of cows. This first detailed analysis of host defense proteins in human and bovine milk is an important step in understanding the function of milk in the development of the immune system of these two mammals.

  15. Preparation and characterization of 125 I labeled bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Ashwitha Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer ( 125 I-BSA with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125 I-BSA with high integrity.

  16. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang;

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including....... An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  17. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  18. Stabilization of Tyrosinase-Bovine Serum Albumin Crystals by Glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Norouzian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase and bovine serum albumin were co-crystallized by saturated ammonium sulfate solution(65% and 20% polyethylene glycol ( PEG 6000 and n-propanol as co-solvents .The obtained crystals were cross linked by glutaraldehyde solution(1% v/v.Polyethylene glycol 6000 was found to be better co-solvent than n-propanol. The developed biocatalyst could be recycled 6 times without further loss of tyrosinase activity. No loss of activity of cross linked tyrosinase -bovine serum albumin crystals was observed upon storage of the developed CLECs at refrigerator for six months.

  19. Generation of bovine transgenics using somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stice Steven L

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to produce transgenic animals through the introduction of exogenous DNA has existed for many years. However, past methods available to generate transgenic animals, such as pronuclear microinjection or the use of embryonic stem cells, have either been inefficient or not available in all animals, bovine included. More recently somatic cell nuclear transfer has provided a method to create transgenic animals that overcomes many deficiencies present in other methods. This review summarizes the benefits of using somatic cell nuclear transfer to create bovine transgenics as well as the possible opportunities this method creates for the future.

  20. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  1. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Methods: In the present study, several prediction programs were used to predict B and T-cells epitopes, secondary and tertiary structures, antigenicity ability and enzymatic degradation sites. Finally, a chimeric antigen was designed using computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 antigen was constructed. It was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+) expression vector. The recombinant pET32a(+)-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E.oli BL21CodonPlus (DE3) as expression host. The recombinant VP8-S2 protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Results: The results of colony PCR, enzyme digestion and sequencing showed that the VP8-S2 chimeric antigen has been successfully cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+).The results showed that E.coli was able to express VP8-S2 protein appropriately. This protein was expressed by induction of IPTG at concentration of 1mM and it was confirmed by Ni–NTA column, dot-blotting analysis and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that E.coli can be used as an appropriate host to produce the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. This recombinant protein may be suitable to investigate to produce immunoglobulin, recombinant vaccine and diagnostic kit in future studies after it passes biological activity tests in vivo in animal model and or other suitable procedure. PMID:27123423

  2. Morphoquantitative description of bovine digital cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Borges

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The digital cushion is characterized as a modified subcutaneous tissue that absorbs the shock during gait, assists venous return of the hoof and supports a considerable part of body weight. Digital cushions have particular importance in the pathogenesis of the hoof, since they need to properly work in order to prevent compression and traumas in soft tissues. This study aimed to measure and determine how is the arrangement of these structures, and for this it was established the proportions of connective, adipose, vascular tissues and collagen fibers and collagen types found in palmar and plantar digital cushion of bovine using fore and hindlimbs of twelve adult zebu cattle of both sexes, 11 male and one female, with 269kg average carcass weight and without limb disorders. Fragments of cushions were subjected to conventional histology, cut to a thickness of 4µm and stained with Red Picrosirius. With digital optical microscope, the quantification of the connective tissue and differentiation of types of collagen used the Image Pro Plus® software, and of adipose and vascular tissue, the test point system. The mean and standard error were estimated with the GraphPad Prism 5.0 software, and then data were subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and Student's t-test with significance level set at 5% for determining the amount of different tissues between fore and hindlimbs of studied animals. In forelimbs the mean and standard error of the connective tissue proportion was 50.10%+1.54, of the adipose tissue was 21.34%+1.44, and of vascular tissue was 3.43%+0.28. Hindlimbs presented a proportion of connective tissue of 61.61%+1.47, 20.66%+1.53 of adipose tissue, and 3.06%+0.20 of vascular tissue. A significant difference (p<0.001 was detected in the connective tissue proportion between fore and hindlimbs. Types I and II collagen fibers have presented, respectively, a proportion of 31.89% and 3.9% in forelimbs and 34.05% and 1.78% in

  3. Microarray chip based identification of a mixed infection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea 2 from Indian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings.

  4. The diagnosis of bovine basesiosis (babesia bovis) by means of the test of ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1994 and 1996 a kit ELISA, developed by the FAO - IAEA for the diagnose of bovine babesiosis produced by Babesia bovis, was validated. There were processed a total of 547 blood serums from bovine between 9 and 18 months old, coming from high and low risk to illness areas. The point obtained for the test was 0.178 (DO) and the resulting percentages inside the population studied was 48% animal positive and 52% bovine negative. These results confirm that bovine population in Venezuela is in enzootic uncertainty areas for bovine babesiosis

  5. Fine Mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella, Ricardo; Casas, Eduardo; Snowder, Gary; Neibergs, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. BVDV infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI) and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26). The obje...

  6. Fluorometric determination of free and total isocitrate in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Isocitrate is an intermediate metabolite in the citric acid cycle found both inside the mitochondria as well as outside in the cytosolic shunt. Oxidation of isocitrate is believed to deliver large fractions of energy [i.e., reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the bovine udder] used for fatty acid...

  7. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed chromat

  8. A quantitative risk assessment for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadohira, M.; Stevenson, M.A.; Hogasen, H.R.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2012-01-01

    A predictive case-cohort model was applied to Japanese data to analyze the interaction between challenge and stability factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) for the period 1985–2020. BSE risk in cattle was estimated as the expected number of detectable cases per year. The model was comp

  9. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  10. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography. Quantita

  11. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus : immunopathology and vaccine evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Human and bovine RSVs cause severe disease in humans and in cattle respectively. They have been recognised as important respiratory pathogens in the last five decades, and this has resulted in significant research activities on the pathogenesis and intervention strategies around the world. Physician

  12. Identifying and Prioritizing Genes involved in Bovine Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Li

    and integrate different layers of biological data, attempting to make a systematic inference of underlying genes to bovine mastitis. Robust and flexible methods have been implemented in data summarization and integration for gene prioritization, which can be applied to study various complex traits in different...

  13. Propagation of bovine spermatogonial stem cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aponte, P.M.; Soda, T.; Teerds, K.J.; Mizrak, S.C.; Kant, van de H.J.; Rooij, de D.G.

    2008-01-01

    The access to sufficient numbers of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) is a prerequisite for the study of their regulation and further biomanipulation. A specialized medium and several growth factors were tested to study the in vitro behaviour of bovine type A spermatogonia, a cell population that incl

  14. Crystallization of Bovine Cervical Mucus at Oestrus: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Cortés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cervical mucus changes its biochemical composition and biophysical properties due to the variations in sex steroid levels during the oestrous cycle. As a consequence of oestrogen rise, cervical mucus is produced in larger amounts at oestrus—a stage also characterized by an increase in mucus crystallization when observed under light microscopy. The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the main aspects regarding crystallization of bovine cervical mucus. First, it makes reference to the composition of cervical mucus and the critical functions that this secretion exerts on bovine reproductive physiology, as well as in other species. Then, the article deals with the phenomenon of crystallization observed in cervical mucus, describing the main models used to classify the crystalline patterns observable in mucus at oestrus stage (some of them resembling ferns, palm leaves and stellar patterns, among others. Finally, it addresses the importance of the phenomenon of cervical mucus crystallization for the understanding of bovine reproductive physiology.

  15. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rhinotracheitis virus and observed for 14 days. The rectal temperature of each animal shall be taken and the... of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and a marked temperature rise to 104.5 °F. or higher post... tubes of the 1:2 final serum dilution, or if more than one of the vaccinates show a temperature of...

  16. Hedgehog signaling pathway in small bovine ovarian follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hedgehog signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and turnover in a variety of mammalian embryonic and adult tissues including bovine ovarian granulosa and theca cells. Binding of hedgehog to the patch receptor derepresses smoothened resulting in t...

  17. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  18. Bovine colostrum in oral treatment of enterogenic endotoxaemia in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhler, J Rüdiger; Nebermann, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Under conditions of shock, bacteria and endotoxins in the intestines can traverse the mucosal barrier by translocation and enter the blood and lymphatic system. Immunoglobulins and lactoferrin have been reported to neutralize endotoxins and bacteria. We studied the essential therapeutic factors of colostrum products in an animal experiment. Method We simulated endotoxaemia by per-oral administration of a suspension of Escherichia coli and antibiotics into the duodenum of anaesthetized rats after giving intraperitoneal carrageenan. At the same time, pure bovine colostrum or lactoferrin-enriched bovine colostrum was given. Therapeutic effects were studied by examining plasma endotoxin activity and bacterial contamination of mesenterial lymph nodes and peritoneal lavages. Albumin was used in a control group. Results The most effective bovine colostrum was able to reduce the maximum plasma endotoxin value by 67% as compared with the albumin group. The combination of this colostrum with lactoferrin brought about a reduction by 80%. The reduction in bacterial contamination of lymph nodes and peritoneal lavages was also evident. Conclusion Both gammaglobulin and lactoferrin may help to eliminate endotoxins when bovine colostrum is administered into the gut in conditions of septic shock. PMID:12493077

  19. Peptidomic analysis of healthy and subclinically mastitic bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero, A.; Dallas, D.C.; Contreras, S.; Bhandari, A.; Canovas, A.; Islas-Trejo, A.; Medrano, J.F.; Parker, E.A.; Wang, M.; Hettinga, K.A.; Chee, S.; German, J.B.; Barile, D.; Lebrilla, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of proteases release hundreds of endogenous peptide fragments from intact bovine milk proteins. Mass spectrometry-based peptidomics allows for high throughput sequence assignment of a large number of these peptides. Mastitis is known to result in increased protease activity in the mammary

  20. Photoaffinity labeling of the lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); U. Rose (Ursula); R. Brossmer (Reinhard); F.W. Verheijen (Frans)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract ASA-NeuAc2en, a photoreactive arylazide derivative of sialic acid, is shown to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis (Ki ≈ 21 μM). Photoaffinity labeling and partial purification of preparations containing this lysosomal neuramin

  1. Conjugation of Chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Min WANG; Jing Feng SONG; Yu Feng HE; Juan Juan MAO; Yan LI

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil (COS-5FU) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that an energy transfer between COS-5FU and BSA had been occurred. The binding constants were calculated,between the donor and acceptor, the distance between BSA and COS-5FU was determined.

  2. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dong-Il, Kim; Kye-Ryong, Sin

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  3. New York Milk Supply with Bovine Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Magrath, William B.; Tauer, Loren W.

    1986-01-01

    New York milk supply functions with ans without Bovine Growth Hormone were estimated by a sector linear programming model. High Government price supports make bGH profitable and induces significant increases in output. Reduction or elimination of Price supports greatly diminishes bGH as a variable technology except at low bGH prices

  4. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Sarit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc degeneration in an explant bovine model via enzymatic digestion. Methods Bovine coccygeal discs were incubated with different concentrations of the proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and papain, and maintained in culture for up to 3 weeks. A radio-opaque solution was injected to visualise cavities generated. Degenerative features were monitored histologically and biochemically (water and glycosaminoglycan content, via dimethylmethylene blue. Results and Conclusion The central region of both papain and trypsin treated discs was macro- and microscopically fragmented, with severe loss of metachromasia. The integrity of the surrounding tissue was mostly in tact with cells in the outer annulus appearing viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated greatly reduced glycosaminoglycan content in these compared to untreated discs. We have shown that bovine coccygeal discs, treated with proteolytic enzymes can provide a useful in vitro model system for developing and testing potential new treatments of disc degeneration, such as injectable implants or biological therapies.

  5. Analysis of copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    We initiated a systematic study of the copy number variation (CNV) within the Bovine HapMap cattle population using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Oligonucleotide CGH arrays were designed and fabricated to provide a genome-wide coverage with an average interval of 6 kb using t...

  6. Prevalence of bovine Cysticercosis of Slaughtered Cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Garedaghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir showed that 15(3% were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 460 male cattle, examined, 14 (3% had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 1 (2.5% of the 40 female animals investigated were infected. Conclusion: The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local sarabi cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle.

  7. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine zygomycosis by murine monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.E.; Aalbaek, B.; Lind, Peter;

    1996-01-01

    with homologous antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were subsequently screened for reactivity with homologous fungi in immunohistochemical techniques. All four Mabs raised against the WF of A. arrhizus failed to react on tissues. However, four of the Mabs raised against the WSSA of R. arrhizus (Mab...... for the in situ diagnosis of systemic bovine zygomycosis....

  8. Investigation of bovine serum albumin glycation by THz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, Olga P.; Nazarov, Maxim M.; Shkurinov, Alexander P.

    2016-04-01

    Protein glycation is accelerated under hyperglycemic conditions resulting to loss in the structure and biological functions of proteins. The transmission THz spectroscopy has been used for measuring of bovine serum albumin glycation dynamics. It was found that amplitude of albumin THz absorption depends on type of sugars and incubation time.

  9. Bacterial expression and purification of recombinant bovine Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Philippa M; Maxwell, Gavin; Campo, M Saveria

    2002-02-01

    We have previously described a recombinant phagemid expression vector, pComBov, designed for the production of native sequence bovine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) generated by antibody phage display. Bovine mAb Fab fragments isolated from libraries constructed using pComBov in Escherichia coli strain XL1-Blue, which is routinely used for antibodies expressed on the surface of phage, were expressed at very low yields. Therefore, a study was undertaken to determine optimal growth conditions for maximal expression of bovine Fab fragments in E. coli. By varying the E. coli strain, and the temperature and length of the culture growth, we were able to substantially increase the yield of soluble Fab fragments. A high yield of Fab fragments was found in the culture growth medium, which enabled us to devise a rapid and simple single-step method for the purification of native (nondenatured) Fabs based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography against a six-histidine amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension of the heavy-chain constant region. Using these methods we were able to express and purify antigen-specific bovine Fab fragments from E. coli. PMID:11812221

  10. Bovine colostrum to children with short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker; Lund, Pernille;

    2014-01-01

    intestinal development and hence adaptive processes. Aim: The efficacy of bovine colostrum to improve intestinal function in children with SBS was evaluated by metabolic balance studies. Materials and Methods: Nine children with SBS were included in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twenty percent...

  11. Effect of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids induce vasoconstriction of bovine foregut vasculature. Ergovaline induced the greatest response in ruminal artery while ergovaline and ergotamine induced the greatest response in ruminal vein. Lysergic acid did not stimulate a contractile response in either the ruminal artery or vein...

  12. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Sperm Motility In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids are synthesized by endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire). Our objective was to determine direct effects of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and ergonovine) on the motility of bovine spermatozoa in vit...

  13. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  14. Interferon Gamma Assay for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact Irene Schiller Prionics AG Wagistrasse 27A CH-8952 Schlieren Switzerland irene.schiller@prionics.com Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a zoonotic disease with a major economic impact, continues to be a significant problem with a global perspective and increasing prevalence in vario...

  15. Short communication. Microculture syncytia assay for bovine leukemia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.S.; Castro, A.E.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Muscoplat, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A microculture syncytia assay for the detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been described and compared with the conventional macroculture assay. The microculture assay required fewer indicator cells, was as sensitive as the macroculture assay and provided a reproducible test for the detection and titration of BLV.

  16. Propionate induces the bovine cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Koser, Stephanie L; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-08-01

    Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) is a critical enzyme within the metabolic networks for gluconeogenesis, hepatic energy metabolism, and tricarboxylic acid cycle function, and is controlled by several transcription factors including hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether propionate regulates bovine PCK1 transcription. The second objective was to determine the action of cyclic AMP (cAMP), glucocorticoids, and insulin, hormonal cues known to modulate glucose metabolism, on bovine PCK1 transcriptional activity. The proximal promoter of the bovine PCK1 gene was ligated to a Firefly luciferase reporter and transfected into H4IIE hepatoma cells. Cells were exposed to treatments for 23 h and luciferase activity was determined in cell lysates. Activity of the PCK1 promoter was linearly induced by propionate, and maximally increased 7-fold with 2.5 mM propionate, which was not muted by 100 nM insulin. Activity of the PCK1 promoter was increased 1-fold by either 1.0 mM cAMP or 5.0µM dexamethasone, and 2.2-fold by their combination. Induction by cAMP and dexamethasone was repressed 50% by 100 nM insulin. Propionate, cAMP, and dexamethasone acted synergistically to induce the PCK1 promoter activity. Propionate-responsive regions, identified by 5' deletion analysis, were located between -1,238 and -409 bp and between -85 and +221 bp. Deletions of the core sequences of the 2 putative HNF4α sites decreased the responsiveness to propionate by approximately 40%. These data indicate that propionate regulates its own metabolism through transcriptional stimulation of the bovine PCK1 gene. This induction is mediated, in part, by the 2 putative HNF4α binding sites in the bovine PCK1 promoter. PMID:27289145

  17. Eight-year results of site retention of anorganic bovine bone and anorganic bovine matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degidi, Marco; Perrotti, Vittoria; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2013-12-01

    The long-term fate of some biomaterials is still unknown, and the reports present in the literature are not conclusive as to whether these biomaterials are resorbed over time or not. Different reports can be found with regard to the resorption behavior of anorganic bovine bone (ABB). The aim of the present study was to provide a comparative histological and histomorphometrical evaluation, in the same patient, of 2 specimens retrieved from a sinus augmented with ABB and with anorganic bovine matrix added to a cell-binding peptide (PepGen P-15), respectively, after a healing period of 6 months and after 8 years of implant loading, to evaluate the resorption of both biomaterials. A unilateral sinus augmentation procedure with ABB (50%) and with PepGen P-15 (50%) was performed in a 54-year-old male patient. Two titanium dental implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface were inserted after 6 months. During this procedure, 2 tissue cores were retrieved from the sinus with a trephine, before implant insertion. After an additional 6 months, a fixed prosthetic restoration was fabricated. One of these implants, after a loading period of 8 years, fractured in the coronal portion and was removed. Both specimens, one retrieved after a 6-month healing period and the other after an 8-year loading period, were treated to obtain thin ground sections. In the 6-month specimen, the histomorphometry showed that the percentage of newly formed bone was 27.2% ± 3.6%, marrow spaces 35.6% ± 2.3%, residual ABB particles 25.1% ± 1.2%, and residual PepGen P-15 particles 12.1% ± 2.2%. In the 8-year specimen, the histomorphometry showed that the percentage of newly formed bone was 51.4% ± 4.8%, marrow spaces 40% ± 7.1%, residual ABB particles 6.2% ± 0.7%, and residual PepGen P-15 particles 2.4% ± 0.5%. Both biomaterials underwent significant resorption over the course of this study. PMID:22103882

  18. Consumers' reactions to rBST milk with and without labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.

    2002-01-01

    Verslag van een consumentonderzoek naar de reacties van Nederlandse melkdrinkers, waarbij de melk van de aanduiding was voorzien dat deze geproduceerd was door met BST-behandelde koeien, en anderszijds bij een groep melkdrinkers, waarbij geen onderscheid was gemaakt tussen melk afkomstig van wel of

  19. Subcellular Localization and Polymorphism of Bovine FABP4 in Bovine Intramuscular Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Shinichi; Hirota, Shohei; Miyazaki, Honami; Tokutake, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) I74 V, a gene polymorphism associated with unsaturated fatty acid contents, was discovered in Japanese Black cattle. Individuals with FABP4 I/I genotype contain a significantly high level of palmitoleic acid compared to those with FABP4 V/V genotype. It remains unknown how the FABP4 polymorphism leads to different palmitoleic acid contents. We overexpressed FABP4 of different genotypes in bovine intramuscular preadipocytes and examined whether the intracellular localization of FABP4 and the expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes were different among cells expressing different genotypes. Nuclear localization was observed for the FABP4 V/V, while the FABP4 I/I almost did not. The cells expressing FABP4 of different genotypes were comparable in terms of the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism. FABP4 I/I was localized in most of the lipid droplets 4 days after differentiation induction, whereas approximately 25% lipid droplet co-localized with FABP4 in cells expressing FABP4 V/V. The lipid droplet size increased when palmitoleic acid was added compared to the size observed when palmitic acid was added. These results suggest that lipid droplet enlargement caused by palmitoleic acid and genotype-dependent differences in the fatty acid transporting capacity underlie variations in palmitoleic acid content among FABP4 polymorphisms. PMID:26913550

  20. Seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    VanLeeuwen, John A.; Forsythe, LeeAnn; Tiwari, Ashwani; Chartier, Renee

    2005-01-01

    Blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. For antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5.6% of cows were test positive, respectively, while 29.2% of herds had unvaccinated animals with ≥ 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  1. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag® temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves.

  2. The characterization of DNA methylation-mediated regulation of bovine placental lactogen and bovine prolactin-related protein-1 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Osman V

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine trophoblast binucleate cells (BNC express a plethora of molecules including bovine placental lactogen (bPL, gene name is bCSH1 and bovine prolactin-related protein-1 (bPRP1. BCSH1 and bPRP1 are members of the growth hormone (GH/prolactin (PRL gene family, which are expressed simultaneously in BNC and are central to placentation and the progression of pregnancy in cattle. However, there is a paucity of information on the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of both the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that the expression of a number of genes is controlled by the methylation status of their promoter region. In the present study, we examined the cell-type-specific epigenetic alterations of the 5'-flanking region of the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes to gain an insight into their regulatory mechanisms. Results Analysis of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment demonstrated that bCSH1 expression is moderately induced in fibroblast cultures but enhanced in BT-1 cells. Sodium bisulfite based sequencing revealed that bCSH1 is hypomethylated in the cotyledonary tissue but not in the fetal skin, and this pattern was not altered with the progression of pregnancy. On the other hand, the methylation status of bPRP1 was similar between the cotyledon and fetal skin. The bPRP1 gene was exclusively hypermethylated in a bovine trophoblast cell-derived BT-1 cell-line. While the activity of bCSH1 was similar in both BT-1 and bovine fibroblast cells, that of bPRP1 was specific to BT-1. Treatment with a demethylating agent and luciferase assays provided in vitro evidence of the positive regulation of bCSH1 but not bPRP1. Conclusion This is the first report to identify the differential regulatory mechanisms of the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes and indicates that bCSH1 might potentially be the only transcript that is subject to DNA methyltransferase regulation. The data indicates the possibility of novel kinetics of induction of

  3. Development of Eimeria bovis in vitro: suitability of several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, C; Barbisch, B; Heise, A; Kowalik, S; Zahner, H

    2002-04-01

    Several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells were exposed in vitro to sporozoites of Eimeria bovis. Parasites invaded all cells used and changed their shape to more stumpy forms within 12 h. Sporozoites left their host cells and invaded new ones frequently within the first 12 h post-infection. Further development took place only in bovine cells, although parasites survived in the other cells for at least 3 weeks. Within the non-bovine cells, conspicuously enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles developed in VERO cells and reached a diameter of 15-20 microm. The best development to first generation schizonts with regard both to time required to mature, to schizont size and to merozoite yields was observed in BFGC, followed by bovine umbilical vein and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells. MDBK cells were less suitable. The life cycle was completed (development of oocysts) only occasionally in BFGC. Results are considered under several aspects. Thus, infected VERO cells may represent a suitable tool for studying the parasitophorous vacuole, while infected endothelial cells represent a system quite narrow to the in vivo situation and should allow basic studies on parasite/host cell interactions and BFGC can be used for the mass production of E. bovis first generation merozoites.

  4. An overview of bovine α-lactalbumin structure and functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta STĂNCIUC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available α-Lactalbumin is the second major protein in bovine milk (2-5% of the total protein in bovine milk. The human variant has several physiologic functions in the neonatal period. In the mammary gland, itparticipates in lactose synthesis and facilitates milk production and secretion. α-Lactalbumin binds divalent cations (Ca2+, Zn2+ and may facilitate the absorption of essential minerals. Also, it provides awell-balanced supply of essential amino acids for the growing infant. During its digestion, peptides with antibacterial and imunostimulatory properties are formed, thereby possibly helping in the protection against infection. The protein fractions enriched with α-lactalbumin may be added to infant formula to provide some of the benefits of this protein. This article reviews a number of studies which may contribute to a more coherent understanding of the structure and some functional properties of α-lactalbumin.

  5. Vaccination against δ-Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerónimo Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia. Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy.

  6. Experimental infection of reindeer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Morton

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Two 8-month reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and a 1-month-old Hereford-Holstein calf (Bos taurus were inoculated intranasally with the Singer (cytopathogenic strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus. Clinical signs in reindeer included loose stools containing blood and mucus, and transient laminitis or coronitis. Signs in the calf were limited to bloody mucus in the stool and lesions in the nasal mucosa. Antibody titers to BVD virus in the reindeer were intermittent, and titers in the calf persisted from days 14 to 63 post-inoculation (PI. Viremia was detected on PI day 4 in one reindeer, days 3-7 in the other, and days 2-7 in the calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from the lung of the calf at necropsy (PI day 63.

  7. Genotypification of bovine group A rotavirus in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz; de la Mora, Germán; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2009-10-30

    Bovine scours, frequently provoked by rotavirus infection, causes significant economic losses. Nevertheless, no information exists about the bovine rotavirus genotypes present in Mexico. This information is necessary for designing efficient vaccines. In this work, 128 samples from diarrheic calves were collected between 2005 and 2006 in 26 dairy and/or beef cattle herds located in 10 regions of Mexico, and analyzed for the presence of group A rotavirus. G and P genotypes were determined by PCR in rotavirus-positive samples (12/128). Three different genotype combinations were found, G10, P[11]; G6, P[5]; and G10, P[5]; in 67, 25 and 8% of the positive samples, respectively. Some rotavirus-positive animals had been vaccinated with an inactivated rotavirus strain of a different genotype.

  8. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The understanding of the early mammalian development is a prerequisite for the advancement of in vitro fertilization and improvement of derivation and culturing of embryonic stem cells. While, whole genome transcriptomic analysis on bovine blastocysts has identified genes active in early...... development, little information is available about the protein complement of early embryos. Modern, sensitive proteomic technology (nano HPLC tandem mass spectrometry) allowed us to describe the proteome of the scarce blastocoel fluid and cell material of expanded bovine blastocysts isolated...... by micromanipulation. From two independent replicates, 23 proteins were identified in the blastocoel fluid while 803 proteins were identified in the remaining cell material. The proteins were grouped into categories according to their gene ontology (GO) terms by which proteins involved in cell differentiation, cell...

  9. Improvement of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of camel and bovine whey proteins by limited proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Henrich, Robert; Balalaie, Saeed; Ebadi, Seyed Ahmad; Pourtakdoost, Samineh; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir

    2010-03-24

    The compositions and structures of bovine and camel milk proteins are different, which define their functional and biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of camel and bovine whey proteins (WPs) on their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. After enzymatic treatment, both the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of bovine and camel WPs were improved. The significantly higher antioxidant activity of camel WPs and their hydrolysates as compared with that of bovine WPs and their hydrolysates may result from the differences in amounts and/or in accessibilities of antioxidant amino acid residues present in their primary structures and from the prevalence of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin as proteolytic substrates in camel and bovine whey, respectively. The results of this study reveal differences in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities between WP hydrolysates of bovine and camel milk and the effects of limited proteolysis on these activities.

  10. Effect of dietary bovine colostrum on the responses of immune cells to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that ingestion of bovine colostrum is effective in preventing pathogens from invading through the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and modulating the mucosal immunity of the GI tract, indicating that its effect is principally local. Thus it is unclear if ingestion of bovine colostrum can affect the systemic immune system. In this study, we investigated the effect of taking bovine colostrum (vs phosphate-buffered saline) for 14 days on the behavior of the immune cells of mice. Isolated splenocytes, which are pivotal cells of systemic immunity, were then stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Bovine colostrum significantly reduced NK cell and monocyte activities and lymphoproliferaltive responses to LPS stimulation. Thus dietary bovine colostrum renders immune cells less responsive to LPS stimulation. Dietary bovine colostrum thus affects the systemic immune system and may have anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24234910

  11. Screen of Bovine Mammary Gland Epithelial Cell Specifcity Promotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-fei; Li Qing-zhang; Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun

    2012-01-01

    Three lactoproteins (α-Sl-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein) promotors were cloned, sequenced and compared relative luciferase expression. The results showed that the promotor activity of bovine α-S1-casein gene was the best, and would be used to produce pharmaceutically and medically important proteins in the mammary gland of transgenic animals and also for the construction of an inducible eukaryotic expression vector.

  12. Three-Dimensional Biomechanical Analysis of the Bovine Humerus

    OpenAIRE

    Bouza-Rodríguez, José Benito; Miramontes-Sequeiros, Luz Calia

    2014-01-01

    There are few reports on the biomechanical analysis of the animal humerus. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the bovine humerus was created, and loaded with the physiological forces acting when the cow is falling or jumping (weight and impact forces). Subsequently the corresponding stress and strain distribution in the humerus for different inclined positions of bone was determined.The highest stress concentration occurred in the distal humeral diaphysis, both when on...

  13. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  14. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  15. Chromium propionate enhances adipogenic differentiation of bovine intramuscular adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca eTokach; Flavio eRibeiro; Ki Yong eChung; Whitney eRounds; Johnson, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium propionate on mRNA and protein abundance of different enzymes and receptors. Intramuscular and subcutaneous preadipocytes and bovine satellite cells were isolated from the longissimus muscle to determine the effect of treatment on glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and GLUT4 protein abundance. Preadipocyte cultures were treated with diffe...

  16. Chromium Propionate Enhances Adipogenic Differentiation of Bovine Intramuscular Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Tokach, Rebecca J.; Ribeiro, Flavio R. B.; Chung, Ki Yong; Rounds, Whitney; Johnson, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium propionate (CrPro) on mRNA and protein abundance of different enzymes and receptors. Intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) preadipocytes and bovine satellite cells were isolated from the longissimus muscle to determine the effect of treatment on glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and GLUT4 protein abundance. Preadipocyte cultures were t...

  17. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuaki Sugiura; Takashi Onodera

    2008-01-01

    To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and ...

  18. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    OpenAIRE

    Sivan Sarit; Menage Janis; Roberts Sally; Urban Jill PG

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc de...

  19. Kinins produced from bovine colostrum by kallikrein and saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Paul S.

    1959-01-01

    Substances capable of stimulating smooth muscle are produced on the incubation of bovine colostrum with urinary kallikrein or calf saliva. These substances, called urine- and saliva-colostrokinin, have been differentiated from kallidin, substance A and similar smooth muscle activating agents. Saliva-colostrokinin is likely to be formed in the suckling calf. Further, as colostrum became milk, the ability to form colostrokinin diminished. A function for saliva-colostrokinin in the newborn is suggested. PMID:13830444

  20. Bovine Colostrum Supplementation During Running Training Increases Intestinal Permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkworth, Grant D.; Emma Southcott; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Butler, Ross N.

    2009-01-01

    Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for...

  1. Prevalence of bovine Cysticercosis of Slaughtered Cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir

    OpenAIRE

    Garedaghi, Y.; A. P.R. Saber; M. S. Khosroshahi

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata) in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir sh...

  2. Immunochemical, biomolecular and biochemical characterization of bovine epithelial intestinal primocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainil Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultures of enterocytes and colonocytes represent valuable tools to study growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. In vitro models may be used to evaluate passage or toxicity of drugs, interactions of enteropathogenes bacteria strains with intestinal epithelium and other physiologic or pathologic phenomenon involving the digestive tract. Results Cultures of bovine colonocytes and jejunocytes were obtained from organoid-enriched preparations, using a combination of enzymatic and mechanical disruption of the intestine epithelium, followed by an isopicnic centrifugation discarding most single cells. Confluent cell monolayers arising from plated organoids exhibited epithelium typical features, such as the pavement-like structure, the presence of apical microvilli and tight junctions. Accordingly, cells expressed several markers of enterocyte brush border (i.e. maltase, alkaline phosphatase and fatty acid binding protein as well as an epithelial cytoskeleton component (cytokeratin 18. However, enterocyte primocultures were also positive for the vimentin immunostaining (mesenchyme marker. Vimentin expression studies showed that this gene is constitutively expressed in bovine enterocytes. Comparison of the vimentin expression profile with the pattern of brush border enzymes activities, suggested that the decrease of cell differentiation level observed during the enterocyte isolation procedure and early passages of the primoculture could result from a post-transcriptional de-repression of vimentin synthesis. The low differentiation level of bovine enterocytes in vitro could partly be counteracted adding butyrate (1–2 mM or using a glucose-deprived culture medium. Conclusion The present study describes several complementary approaches to characterize bovine primary cultures of intestinal cells. Cultured cells kept their morphologic and functional characteristics during several generations.

  3. Structure and gene organization of bovine neuromedin K precursor.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotani, H.; Hoshimaru, M; Nawa, H; Nakanishi, S.

    1986-01-01

    cDNA and genomic DNA clones for the precursor of a mammalian neuropeptide tachykinin, neuromedin K, have been isolated and characterized by molecular cloning and sequence analysis. The deduced amino acid sequence indicates that the bovine neuromedin K precursor (preprotachykinin B) consists of 126 amino acid residues including a putative signal peptide. There are two preprotachykinin B mRNAs that differ only at the 5' extremity of the untranslated regions. The major mRNA species is encoded by...

  4. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there i...

  5. Prokaryotic expression of Chinese bovine enterokinase catalytic subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹤; 赵阳; 甘一如

    2004-01-01

    Background To express in vitro the bovine enterokinase catalytic subunit (EKL ) protein, which could be used in the future for the cleavage and purification of fusion proteins. Methods Bovine enterokinase catalytic subunit cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR from the duodenal mucosa of a bovine obtained at a wholesale market, and then cloned into a pUCmT cloning vector and sequenced. The desired gene fragment was inserted into a pET39b expression plasmid and the recombinant vector pET39b-EKL was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced using IPTG. The recombinant DsbA-EK, was purified with His · Tag affinity chromatography, and its bioactivity was analyzed. Results Compared with the sequence deposited in GenBank, the sequence of the EKL gene cloned in the present study is correct. It was also confirmed that the nucleotide sequence of expression plasmid pET39b-EKL was correct at the conjunction site between the recombinant DNA 5'terminal multi-cloning site and the recombinant fragment. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the target product was about 65 kDa and represented 28% of total cell protein. Purified recombinant protein was obtained by metal chelating chromatography using a NJ-IDA resin, After desalting and changing the buffer, the crude kinase was incubated at 21℃ overnight and shown to have a high autocatalytic cleavage activity. Conclusion The EKE gene from a Chinese bovine has been cloned successfully and expressed. This investigation has layed the foundation for future enterokinase activity research and for further large-scale application of expression products.

  6. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  7. Experimental bovine genital ureaplasmosis. I. Granular vulvitis following vulvar inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, P A; Ruhnke, H L; Palmer, N C

    1980-07-01

    Granular vulvitis was reproduced in ten virgin heifers following vulvar inoculation with strains of ureaplasma previously isolated from natural cases. The disease appeared one to three days postinoculation and was characterized by vulvar swabs but not from the upper mucopurulent discharge. At necropsy 13 to 41 days later, ureaplasmas were recovered consistently from vulvar swabs but not from the upper reproductive tract. It was concluded that some strains of ureaplasma are pathogenic and should be viewed as a cause of bovine granular vulvitis.

  8. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes, Marina R. S.; Rogério A. Curi; Chardulo, Luis Artur L.; Antonio C. Silveira; Assumpção, Mayra E. O. D.; José Antonio Visintin; Oliveira, Henrique N.

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belo...

  9. Theileria parva infection induces autocrine growth of bovine lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, D A; Coquerelle, T M; Roditi, I J; Eichhorn, M; Williams, R O

    1988-01-01

    Bovine lymphocytes infected with the parasite Theileria parva continuously secrete a growth factor that is essential for their proliferation in vitro and also constitutively express interleukin 2 receptors on their surface. Dilution of the secreted growth factor, caused by culturing cells at low density, results in retardation of culture growth. Human recombinant interleukin 2, however, effectively substitutes for the diluted growth factor by restoring normal growth rates and also allows Thei...

  10. Differentiation of Bovine Spermatogonial Stem Cells into Osteoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Qasemi-Panahi, Babak; Tajik, Parviz; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Moghaddam, Gholamali; Barzgar, Younes; Heidari-Vala, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Spermatogonial Stem Cell (SSC) technologies provide multiple opportunities for research in the field of biotechnology and regenerative medicine. The therapeutic use of Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) is restricted due to severe ethical and immunological concerns. Therefore, we need a new pluripotent cell type. Despite well-known role of germ cells in the gametogenesis, some facts apparently show their multipotentiality. In the present study, bovine SSCs were co-cultured with Sertoli cell for 7 da...

  11. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaraj, Govindasamy; Chinchkar, Shankar R.; Rajendra, Lingala; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards ...

  12. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Meha Mayuri; Vivek Garg; Chandan Mukherji; Divya Aggarwal; Sanjeev Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk) are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs). Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year o...

  13. Relationship of bovine NOS2 gene polymorphisms to the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yafen; Huang, ChenShen; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

    2016-02-01

    Many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS which is encoded by the NOS2 gene) plays a key role in the immunological control of a broad spectrum of infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the influence of genetic variations in the promoter of the NOS2 gene on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) susceptibility. In this study, the NOS2 genes of 74 bTB-infected Holstein cows and 90 healthy controls were genotyped using PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Polymorphisms at rs207692718, rs109279434, rs209895548, rs385993919, rs433717754, rs383366213, rs466730386, rs715225976, rs525673647, rs720757654 and g.19958101T>G in the promoter region of the NOS2 gene were detected. The g.19958101T>G SNP produced two different conformation patterns (TT and TG) and the TG genotype was over-represented in the bTB group (20.27%) compared with the control group (2.22%). The TG genotype frequency of the g.19958101T>G variant was significantly higher in bTB cattle than in healthy controls (OR, 11.19; 95% CI, 2.47-50.73; P=0.0002). The G allele of the g.19958101T>G polymorphism was more frequent in bTB group when compared to control group (10.14% versus 1.11%). Furthermore, the G allele was a risk factor for bTB susceptibility (OR, 10.04; 95% CI, 2.26-44.65; P=0.0002). In conclusion, the g.19958101T>G polymorphism of the NOS2 gene may contribute to the susceptibility of Holstein cattle to bTB. PMID:26468216

  14. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  15. Development and evaluation of immunoassay for zeranol in bovine urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A high affinity polyclonal antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of zeranol in bovine urine. On the basis of urine matrix studies, the optimized dilution factors producing insignificant matrix interference were selected as 1:5 in pretreatment. In the improved ELISA, the linear response range was between 0.02 and 1 μg/ml, and the detection limit was 0.02 μg/ml for the assay. The overall recoveries and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the range of 82% ~127% and 3.5%~8.8%, respectively. Thirty-six bovine urine samples spiked with zeranol (ranging from 0.2 to 10 μg/ml) were detected by the ELISA and liquid chromatography (LC) method, and good correlations were obtained between the two methods (R2=0.9643). We conclude that this improved ELISA is suitable tool for a mass zeranol screening and can be an alternative for the conventional LC method for zeranol in bovine urine.

  16. Structural and functional analysis of the bovine Mx1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kohji; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Onogi, Akio; Takasuga, Akiko; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Ueda, Junji; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2009-04-01

    The bovine Mx1 promoter region was found to contain 4 IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs), 7 GC boxes, 2 IL-6 responsive elements, 2 NFκB-binding sites and 2 AP-1-binding sites. Among Holstein, Charolai, and Brahman breeds, 5 nucleotide substitutions were detected in the promoter region. After the Mx1 promoter region from Holstein had been constructed with pGL-basic expression vector, the transfected cells showed promoter activity after IFN induction. Several artificial deletion mutants were prepared to determine the important regulatory elements responsible for the promoter activity, and it was found that ISRE has a key function in IFN response. The proximal ISRE1 showed potential induction by IFN. Furthermore, the proximal GC boxes were found to be essential for IFN response in the bovine Mx1 promoter with the deletion mutants. In this case, the 2 GC boxes exhibited a synergistic activation in the IFN response. Mithramycin A, an agent that inhibits gene expression selectively by coating GC boxes, was used, and Mx mRNA expression in MDBK cells was suppressed by this chemical. Therefore, GC boxes were also shown to be essential for IFN response in the bovine Mx1 gene. PMID:19203250

  17. Identification and Characterization of TEX101 in Bovine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir K. Nagdas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies exhibit the presence of Ricinus Communis Agglutinin I (RCA binding glycocalyx in mammalian spermatozoa. However, the molecular characterization of RCA binding glycocalyx in sperm membranes and its mechanism of action are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to identify and to characterize RCA binding glycoprotein of the bovine sperm plasma membranes (PM. Lectin blots of caput and cauda sperm PM revealed a 38 kDa polypeptide exhibiting the highest affinity to RCA among the several major RCA binding polypeptides. The 38 kDa RCA binding polypeptide of cauda sperm PM was purified and exhibited a charge train of three distinct spots with isoelectric points (pH 5.3 and 5.8. Proteomic identification yielded ten peptides that matched the sequence of Testis Expressed 101 protein (TEX101. Western blots data revealed that bovine sperm TEX101 is present in both testicular and epididymal sperm PM fractions. The native TEX101 polypeptide contains ~17 kDa N-linked oligosaccharides and the polypeptide is anchored to sperm membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid linkage. Immunofluorescence staining of sperm with anti-TEX101 demonstrated that the polypeptide is localized at the head of cauda sperm. Our biochemical results provide evidence on the presence of TEX101 in bovine epididymal sperm plasma membranes and may have a potential role in sperm-egg interaction.

  18. Determination of bovine immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum powders, bovine milk powders, and dietary supplements containing bovine colostrum products by an automated direct immunoassay with optical biosensor: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapper, Leyton

    2013-01-01

    Nine laboratories participated in an AOAC collaborative study to determine bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in selected dairy powders and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology. Each sample matrix was dissolved in buffer and suitably diluted to fit within the standard curve. The sample extract was injected over a surface functionalized with affinity-purified, polyclonal goat anti-bovine IgG (H+L) antibody; IgG was then detected. SPR detection was used for the direct immunoassay and quantification was made against a calibration curve prepared from bovine serum IgG. Between each standard and sample, the surface was regenerated using 10 mM glycine at pH 1.5. The samples analyzed included the likely matrixes for which the assay would find commercial use, namely, high- and low-protein-content colostrum powders, tablets containing colostrum powder, infant formula containing colostrum powder, and some IgG-containing dairy powders, i.e., milk protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder. Each laboratory provided data for the study and assayed blind duplicates of seven materials. Due to gross outliers in the majority of results from one laboratory, the data from eight laboratories were used for the statistical analysis. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranged from 3.2 to 7.3%, and the reproducibility RSDR values from 13.0 to 22.6%. PMID:24282942

  19. Evaluation of immunoglobulins in bovine colostrum using laser induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Abdel Ghany, Sh; Harith, M A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to exploit laser induced fluorescence (LIF) as a spectrochemical analytical technique for evaluation of immunoglobulin (IgG) in bovine colostrum. Colostrum samples were collected from different American Holstein cows at different times after calving. Four samples were gathered from each cow; the first three samples were obtained from the first three milkings (colostrum) and the fourth sample (milk) was obtained a week after calving. It has been demonstrated that LIF can be used as a simple, fast, sensitive and less costly spectrochemical analytical technique for qualitative estimation of IgG in colostrum. LIF results have been confirmed via the quantitative evaluation of IgG in the same samples adopting the single radial immunodiffusion conventional technique and a very good agreement has been obtained. Through LIF it was possible to evaluate bovine colostrum after different milking times and to differentiate qualitatively between colostrum from different animals which may reflect their general health status. A fluorescence linear calibration curve for IgG concentrations from 0 up to 120 g L(-1) has been obtained. In addition, it is feasible to adopt this technique for in situ measurements, i.e. in dairy cattle farms as a simple and fast method for evaluation of IgG in bovine colostrum instead of using lengthy and complicated conventional techniques in laboratories. PMID:25127559

  20. Biological components in a standardized derivative of bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdote, P; Mussano, F; Franchi, S; Panerai, A E; Bussolati, G; Carossa, S; Bartorelli, A; Bussolati, B

    2013-03-01

    Products of different origin, time of collection, and activities fall under the general term of colostrum and, therefore, great variability in composition as well as in the concentration of its components has been reported in the literature. In the present study, we describe the standardization of a bovine colostrum derivative and the characterization of its bioactive components. Evaluation of the most representative agents (lactoferrin, transferrin, IL-2, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor, IgG, and IgA) showed that a marked decrease in active components occurs after the first few hours. Bovine colostrum was, therefore, collected up to the fifth hour after delivery from Holstein cows, in the presence of preservatives, and immediately frozen. A protocol of centrifugation, filtration, and lyophilization was then applied to pools of colostrum from at least 30 cows to obtain a stable, sterile, standardized product. Preservatives were removed by dialysis. Evaluation of the active biological components of colostrum showed that the final product of colostrums contained significant and reproducible amounts of bioactive factors, including cytokines, immunomodulating factors, growth factors, and immunoglobulins. The final product appeared, therefore, as a sterile, pyrogen-free, standardized derivative of bovine colostrum with a high concentration of bioactive components. PMID:23332842

  1. Multilineage Potential Research of Bovine Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Gao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC. The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  2. SCAFFOLD DARI BOVINE HYDROXYAPATITE DENGAN POLY VYNIALCHOHOL COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, Punto Dewo, Endang Tri Wahyuni, dan Joko Triyono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, it is about 40% patients with hard tissue defect due to ostheoporosis, cancer or accidents and therest are defect since they have born.For many years, efforts for recovering have been done by transplantation orimplantation methods.Transplantation is more appropriate butit is not sustain because of limited donor, whileimplantation using synthetic materials such as bioceramics scaffoldis expensive due to import and the scaffold iseasier to break which does not match to the medical requirements.The research therefore has been addressed to thisissue. Local bovine hydroxyapatite (bHAscaffold has been used as thebase material and poly vynilalchohol (PVAas a coating material.The bHA scaffold was prepared by cutting a fresh bovine bone in the size of 5mmx5mmx5mmand boil it in a distilled water to remove its organic material. It was then heated up at 900 oC for 2 hours infurnace to obtain bovine hydroxyapatite scaffold (bHA. Coating process has been carried out by dip coating of thebHAscaffold in PVA solution.

  3. Guest Editorial: Managing Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Risk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Rick

    2002-01-01

    The United States has built a triple firewall system to prevent the introduction or emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The firewalls are preventing bovine spongiform encephalopathy's introduction through bans on imports of animals and animal products, actively looking for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the US cattle herd, and banning ruminant animal feed supplements found to carry the infectious agent and spread the disease in England. PMID:11984425

  4. Identification of major cell types in paraffin sections of bovine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Pessa-Morikawa Tiina; Ekman Anna; Niku Mikael; Iivanainen Antti

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Identification of cell types in bovine tissue sections is complicated by the limited availability of anti-bovine antibodies, and by antigen retrieval treatments required for formalin-fixed tissue samples. We have evaluated an antibody and lectin panel for identifying major cell types in paraffin-embedded bovine tissue sections, and report optimized pretreatments for these markers. Results We selected 31 useful antibodies and lectins which can be used to identify cell types...

  5. Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. II. Morphological reactions and distribution of viral antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, H B

    1982-01-01

    The effect of an infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus on fetal bovine tissues as well as the tissue-localization of viral antigen are described. Four bovine fetuses, 120-165 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with a second passage virus strain. Lymphoid tissues were studied by light and electron microscopy. The infection induced precocious development of the secondary lymphoid organs. Characteristic changes were seen in postcapillary venules, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte ...

  6. Adjuvant enhancement of humoral immune response to chemically inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, K S; Johnson, D. W.; Muscoplat, C C

    1985-01-01

    Potentiation of the antibody response to inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus by immunological adjuvants was studied in guinea pigs and cattle. The inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus alone was demonstrated to be a weak immunogen. Addition of either 2 mg per mL diethylaminoethyl-dextran or 5% alhydrogel to inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus did not or only slightly stimulated the antibody response; the combined adjuvants induced a significantly higher titer. A higher concentration...

  7. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valnickova, Zuzana; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Højrup, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa) in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fib......BACKGROUND: TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa) in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin...

  8. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies.

  9. Cell Infectivity in Relation to Bovine Leukemia Virus gp51 and p24 in Bovine Milk Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Shigemura, Hiroaki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40–100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exo...

  10. Cell Infectivity in Relation to Bovine Leukemia Virus gp51 and p24 in Bovine Milk Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya Yamada; Hiroaki Shigemura; Naotaka Ishiguro; Yasuo Inoshima

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40-100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exo...

  11. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are

  12. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and retinoic acid trigger bovine VASA homolog expression in differentiating bovine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Sumer, Huseyin; Jain, Kanika; Verma, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest identifiable and completely committed progenitors of female and male gametes. They are obvious targets for genome editing because they assure the transmission of desirable or introduced traits to future generations. PGCs are established at the earliest stages of embryo development and are difficult to propagate in vitro--two characteristics that pose a problem for their practical application. One alternative method to enrich for PGCs in vitro is to differentiate them from pluripotent stem cells derived from adult tissues. Here, we establish a reporter system for germ cell identification in bovine pluripotent stem cells based on green fluorescent protein expression driven by the minimal essential promoter of the bovine Vasa homolog (BVH) gene, whose regulatory elements were identified by orthologous modelling of regulatory units. We then evaluated the potential of bovine induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSC) lines carrying the reporter construct to differentiate toward the germ cell lineage. Our results showed that biPSCs undergo differentiation as embryoid bodies, and a fraction of the differentiating cells expressed BVH. The rate of differentiation towards BVH-positive cells increased up to tenfold in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein 4 or retinoic acid. Finally, we determined that the expression of key PGC genes, such as BVH or SOX2, can be modified by pre-differentiation cell culture conditions, although this increase is not necessarily mirrored by an increase in the rate of differentiation. PMID:26660942

  13. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  14. Bovine coronavirus detection in a collection of diarrheic stool samples positive for group a bovine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Barry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea is an important cause of economic losses for cattle farmers. The main viral etiologies of enteric diseases are group A rotaviruses (GARV and the bovine coronavirus (BCoV. Although both viruses infect calves of the same age, the occurrence of mixed infections is still under studied. The present study describes the co-infection of BCoV and GARV in stool samples. Forty-four diarrheic fecal samples from calves up to 60 days old that had previously tested positive for GARV by SS-PAGE were analyzed using semi-nested PCR for BCoV. A product with 251 bp of the BCoV nucleoprotein gene was amplified in 15.9% (7/44 of the samples, demonstrating that co-infection is not an unusual event. These results reinforce the need for testing for both GARV and BCoV, even in fecal samples that previously tested positive for one virus.A diarreia neonatal é uma importante causa de perdas econômicas para a criação de bovinos. Os principais agentes etiológicos virais das doenças entéricas são o rotavírus bovino grupo A (GARV e o coronavírus bovino (BCoV. Embora ambos os vírus infectem bezerros na mesma faixa etária, infecções mistas ainda são pouco estudadas. O presente trabalho descreve a identificação do BCoV em amostras de fezes positivas para o GARV, caracterizando a ocorrência de infecções mistas. Quarenta e quatro amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros com até 60 dias de idade, previamente identificadas como positivas para o GARV bovino por meio da técnica de SS-PAGE, foram avaliadas quanto a presença do BCoV pela técnica de semi-nested PCR. Um produto com 251 pb do gene da nucleoproteína do BCoV foi amplificado em 15,9% (7/44 das amostras de fezes demonstrando que a co-infecção não é um evento raro. Esse resultado enfatizada a importância da realização simultânea do diagnóstico para esses dois importantes vírus entéricos de bezerros em surtos de diarreia neonatal tanto em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros quanto de

  15. Enhanced spontaneous locomotor activity in bovine GH transgenic mice involves peripheral mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlooly-Y, M; Olsson, B; Gritli-Linde, A; Brusehed, O; Isaksson, O G; Ohlsson, C; Söderpalm, B; Törnell, J; Ola, B

    2001-10-01

    Clinical and experimental studies indicate a role for GH in mechanisms related to anhedonia/hedonia, psychic energy, and reward. Recently we showed that transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH display increased spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study, we investigated whether this behavioral change is owing to a direct action of GH in the central nervous system or to peripheral GH actions. A transgenic construct, containing the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter directing specific expression of bovine GH to the central nervous system, was designed. The central nervous system-specific expression of bovine GH in the glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH transgenic mice was confirmed, but no effect on spontaneous locomotor activity was observed. Serum bovine GH levels were increased in glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH transgenic mice but clearly lower than in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH. In contrast to the transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH, glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH mice did not display any difference in serum IGF-I levels. The levels of free T(3) and the conversion of the free T(4) to free T(3) were only increased in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH, but serum corticosterone levels were similarly increased in both transgenic models. These results suggest that free T(3) and/or IGF-I, affecting dopamine and serotonin systems in the central nervous system, may mediate the enhanced locomotor activity observed in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH. PMID:11564723

  16. Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dickerson, F.B.; Halling, M.; Krivogorsky, B.; Haile, L.; Yang, S.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Bossis, I.; Xiao, J.; Dupont, D.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and immunoblotting

  17. Expression of Bovine Leukemia Virus Genome is Blocked by a Nonimmunoglobulin Protein in Plasma from Infected Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Ferrer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma of cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus contains a soluble factor that blocks the expression of the viral genome in cultured lymphocytes. The blocking factor is not present in plasma of bovine leukemia virus-free cattle or of cattle infected with common bovine viruses. Blocking of bovine leukemia virus expression by the plasma factor is reversible, and seems to be mediated by a nonimmunoglobulin protein molecule.

  18. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, J.; Hawkins, S.A.C.; Austin, A.R.; Konold, T.; Green, R.B.; Blamire, I.W.; Dexter, I.; Stack, M.J.; Chaplin, M.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Simmons, M.; Spencer, Y.I.; Webb, P.R.I.; Dawson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of

  19. Transcriptomic microarray analysis of BoMac cells after infection with bovine foamy virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rola-Luszczak, M.; Materniak, M.; Pluta, A.; Hulst, M.M.; Kuz'mak, J.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine foamy virus (BFV) infections are highly prevalent among cattle worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the impact of this virus on the host immune system. In our study, we focused on a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) and examined changes in the BoMac transcriptome after in vi

  20. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN IN PRESENCE OF SOME BISCHALCONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Garg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized a series of bischalcones by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation and their effect was observed on bovine serum albumin. We have found that the synthesized bischalcones interacted with bovine serum albumin irrespective of the nature and position of the substituent with a little difference.

  1. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Torsten

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, and recombinant human TAFI have recently been solved. In light of these recent advances, we have characterized authentic bovine TAFI biochemically and compared it to human TAFI. Results The four N-linked glycosylation sequons within the activation peptide were all occupied in bovine TAFI, similar to human TAFI, while the sequon located within the enzyme moiety of the bovine protein was non-glycosylated. The enzymatic stability and the kinetic constants of TAFIa differed somewhat between the two proteins, as did the isoelectric point of TAFI, but not TAFIa. Equivalent to human TAFI, bovine TAFI was a substrate for transglutaminases and could be proteolytically cleaved by trypsin or thrombin/solulin complex, although small differences in the fragmentation patterns were observed. Furthermore, bovine TAFI exhibited intrinsic activity and TAFIa attenuated tPA-mediated fibrinolysis similar to the human protein. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that the properties of these two orthologous proteins are similar and that conclusions reached using the bovine TAFI may be extrapolated to the human protein.

  2. A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: Follicle development and endocrine interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.; Stötzel, C.; Röblitz, S.; Deuflhard, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine fertility is the subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially because fertility of dairy cows has declined during the last decades. The regulation of estrus is controlled by the complex interplay of various organs and hormones. Mathematical modeling of the bovine estrous cycle

  3. Purification and characterization of an isoform of protein kinase C from bovine neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein kinase C (PKC) from bovine neutrophils was purified 1,420-fold. Subcellular fractionation analysis of bovine neutrophil homogenate in the presence of EGTA indicated that more than 95% of the PKC activity was present in the soluble fraction. Whereas bovine brain PKC could be resolved into four isoenzymatic forms by chromatography on a hydroxylapatite column, bovine neutrophil PKC was eluted in a single peak, suggesting that it corresponded to a single isoform. The apparent molecular weight of bovine neutrophil PKC was 82,000, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Bovine neutrophil PKC was autophosphorylated in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP, provided that the medium was supplemented with Mg2+, Ca2+, phosphatidylserine, and diacylglycerol; phorbol myristate acetate could substitute for diacylglycerol. Autophosphorylated PKC could be cleaved by trypsin to generate two radiolabeled peptides of Mr 48,000 and 39,000. The labeled amino acids were serine and threonine. During the course of the purification procedure of bovine neutrophil PKC, a protein of Mr 23,000 was found to exhibit a strong propensity to PKC-dependent phosphorylation in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP, Mg2+, Ca2+, phosphatidylserine, and diacylglycerol. This protein was recovered together with PKC in one of the two active peaks eluted from the Mono Q column at the second step of PKC purification. It is suggested that the Mr 23,000 protein might be a natural substrate for bovine neutrophil PKC

  4. Evaluation of commercial ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against bovine atypical pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    A group of emerging bovine pestiviruses becomes a possible threat to Bovine Viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) control and eradication programs in the countries of their origin and in the new continents due to the lack of validated detection methods. The use of ELISA kits may be acheaper, time saving...

  5. A collaborative Canadian-United Kingdom evaluation of an immunohistochemistry protocol to diagnose bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of domestic cattle. The disorder was reported in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s and was associated with recycling of ruminant byproducts in cattle feed. In 1996, the bovine disease was reported to be the cause of a...

  6. TACC3 Is Important for Correct Progression of Meiosis in Bovine Oocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdipour, Mahdi; Leitoguinho, Ana Rita Canhoto; Zacarias Silva, Ricardo A; van Tol, Helena T A; Stout, Tom A E; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2015-01-01

    Transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) proteins are key players during mitosis via stabilization of the spindle. The roles of TACCs during meiosis are however less clear. We used bovine oocytes to study the expression and function of TACC3 during meiosis. TACC3 mRNA was detected in bovine oocytes du

  7. Genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus newbould 305, a strain associated with mild bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Damien; Peton, Vincent; Almeida, Sintia; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Berkova, Nadia; Rault, Lucie; Francois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Even, Sergine; Hernandez, David; Le Loir, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiological agent of mastitis in ruminants. We report here the genome sequence of bovine strain Newbould 305, isolated in the 1950s in a case of bovine mastitis and now used as a model strain able to reproducibly induce chronic mastitis in cows.

  8. A Method of Purification of Bovine Colostrum sIgA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaofei; GAO Xuejun; YAO Yonghao; ZHOU Shenghua

    2008-01-01

    sIgA in bovine colostrum was purified by ultrafiltration and enzymolysis methods in this experiment, and the prepared substance was detected by Western Blot. The purity and yield were up to 73.6% and 65.2%, respectively. This convenient technique offers helpful exploration for production of bovine colostrum sIgA.

  9. Effects of putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine and beta-phenylethylamine on cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusi, Eleonora; Baldi, Antonella; Cheli, Federica;

    2008-01-01

    A bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1) and three-dimensional collagen primary bovine organoids were used to evaluate the effects of cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, spermicline and beta-phenylethylamine on mammary epithelial cells. Each biogenic amine was diluted in several concentratio...

  10. Quantitative milk genomics: estimation of variance components and prediction of fatty acids in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian

    The composition of bovine milk fat, used for human consumption, is far from the recommendations for human fat nutrition. The aim of this PhD was to describe the variance components and prediction probabilities of individual fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk, and to evaluate the possibilities...

  11. Studies on the transverse localization of lysophospholipase II in bovine liver microsomes by immunological techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, H.; Bosch, H. van den

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. Lysophospholipase activity solubilized from bovine liver microsomes could be precipitated for more than 80% by antibodies evoked in rabbits against the purified bovine liver lysophospholipase II. 2. 2. After solubilization of the microsomes in 1.5% sodium deoxycholate, an immunoprecipitate co

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACE-HYPERBRANCHED MAGNETITE NANOPARTICLE FOR BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN IMMOBILIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bifeng Pan; Feng Gao; Hongchen Gu

    2004-01-01

    A hyperbranched polyamidoamine polymer was synthesized on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles to enhance bovine serum albumin (BSA) immobilization efficiency. The amount of immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA)on the surface-hyperbranched magnetite nanoparticle was up to 2.5 times as much as that of magnetite nanoparticle modified with only amino silane.

  13. Simulation modelling to support national policy making in the control of bovine herpesvirus 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) is the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), a respiratory disease in cattle. Increased international legislation, together with a high prevalence of BHV1 infected cattle in The Netherlands, put pressure on Dutch livestock industry to

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Papillomavirus Genotype 13 from Local Yellow Cattle in Hainan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Feng; Shi, Qiaoyun; Du, Li; Zhao, Tianjing; Cheng, Ying; Jiao, Hanwei; Zhao, Jianguo; Wang, Manchuriga; Rong, Hui; Zhou, Hailong; Wang, Fengyang

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus genotype 13 isolated from local yellow cattle in Hainan, China. The genome is 7,961 bp and contains six early genes and two late genes. This analysis provides important information for the research of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) in China.

  15. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  16. Evidence for lipoxin formation by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes via triple dioxygenation of arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Walstra, P.; Verhagen, J.; Vermeer, M.A.; Klerks, J.P.M.; Veldink, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Incubation of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with arachidonic acid leads to the formation of four lipoxins. The same lipoxins are also formed upon incubation of bovine PMNs with 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, 5-hydroxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic aci

  17. Mitral valve repair with a malleable bovine pericardium ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Volpe

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical procedure utilizing a malleable bovine pericardium ring in mitral valve repair and clinical and echodopplercadiographic results. METHODS: Thirty-two (25 female and 7 male patients, aged between 9 and 66 (M=36.4±17.2 years, were studied over a 16-month period, with 100% follow-up. In 23 (72% of the patients, the mitral approach was the only one applied; 9 patients underwent associated operations. The technique applied consisted of measuring the perimeter of the anterior leaflet and implanting, according to this measurement, a flexible bovine pericardium prosthesis for reinforcement and conformation of the posterior mitral annulus, reducing it to the perimeter of the anterior leaflet with adjustment of the valve apparatus. RESULTS: The patient survival ratio was 93.8%, with 2 (6.2% fatal outcomes, one from unknown causes, the other due to left ventricular failure. Only one reoperation was performed. On echodopplercardiography, 88% of the patients had functional recovery of the mitral valve (50% without and 38% with mild insufficiency and no hemodynamic repercussions. Of four (12% of the remaining patients, 6% had moderate and 6% had seigre insufficiency. Twenty-eight percent of class II patients and 72% of class III patients passed into classes I (65%, II (32%, and III (3%, according to NYHA classification criteria. CONCLUSION: Being flexible, the bovine pericardium ring fit perfectly into the valve annulus, taking into account its geometry and contractility. Valve repair was shown to be reproducible, demonstrating significant advantages during patient evolution, which did not require anticoagulation measures.

  18. Evaluation of urine dipstick and cystoscopy in bovine enzootic haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pavelski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine haematuria is mainly caused by the chronic ingestion of bracken fern and is still considered an important cause of economic losses in beef herds, particularly in large metropolitan areas of Brazil that are not suitable for agriculture (weak soil, steep hills.The aim of this paper was evaluate if there is a correlation between the degree of haematuria and the presence of lesions in the urinary bladder of cows with bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH.We evaluated the bladder of twenty Nelore cows with bracken fern intoxication using a flexible endoscope to describe the lesions present and we performed a rapid urine test with a chemical multiple-reagent commercial strips (Combur test Roche® – Swiss to check the degree of haematuria; then we correlated both results with the Spearman statistical test. All cows presented lesions in their bladder walls and the urine was visually reddish and positive for haematuria in the strips. Urine dipstick has shown to correlate with bladder lesion number. In the bladders of the euthanised animals, multiple sub-mucosal reddish nodules and multiple ecchymotic haemorrhages were seen macroscopically, and one bladder had a larger tumour with a 3cm diameter, which was determined to be a haemangioma by analysing the histopathology. We concluded that urine dipstick is a valuable device for bovine enzootic haematuria prognostic purposes and to evaluate the severity of lesions from the urinary bladder. Moreover, cystoscopy is an important diagnostic tool to assess bladder lesions in cattle. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the involvement of papillomaviruses and bladder tumour occurrence in these cows.

  19. Development of a Radioimmunoassay for Bovine Chymosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borceux, JP.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to develop and validate a specific radioimmunoassay system for measurement of bovine chymosin B (bChyB concentrations in plasma samples. Bovine ChyB was used for immunization of rabbits and as standard and tracer. Chymosin B concentrations were measured in plasma samples from two groups of calves (Group 1: calves sampled from birth to 24 hours; Group 2: calves sampled from Day 1 to 21 after birth and from one cow during the peri-partum period. Detection limit of the assay was 9.0 ng/ml. Recovery was higher than 89.3%. Repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 1.52% to 5.23% and from 1.52% to 12.57% respectively. No cross-reaction was found with pepsinogen A from bovine, porcine or human origins. In Group 1, bChyB concentrations increased from 47.3 ± 45.1 ng/ml (5 min after birth to 325.5 ± 161.2 ng/ml (12 hours after birth, then no significant change was observed till 24 hours after birth (293.0 ± 161.5 ng/ml. In Group 2, concentrations decreased from Day 1 (455.3 ± 191.1 ng/ml to Day 21 (117.9 ± 85.1 ng/ml. In adult cow, mean concentration was 136.0 ± 32.3 ng/ml. In conclusion, bChyB is able to cross the stomach basal membrane and to reach the blood circulation at detectable levels in both young calves and adult cows.

  20. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. PMID:23046031

  1. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a)(1) Bovine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 94.18 Section...

  2. The phosphorylation pattern of bovine heart complex I subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Signorile, Anna;

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoproteome of bovine heart complex I of the respiratory chain has been analysed with a procedure based on nondenaturing gel electrophoretic separation of complex I from small quantities of mitochondria samples, in-gel digestion, in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium...... dioxide and MS. The results, complemented by analyses of purified samples of complex I, showed phosphorylation of five subunits of the complex, 42 kDa (human gene NDUFA10), ESSS, B14.5a (human gene NDUFA7), B14.5b (human gene NDUFC2) and B16.6 (GRIM-19). MS also revealed the presence of phosphorylated...

  3. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Caroli; Salvatore Savino; Omar Bulgari; Eugenio Monti

    2016-01-01

    In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN) is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A2 (the original one) and A1, differing from A2 for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67). Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7) ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A1 type) instead of Pro67 (A2 type). Nowadays, “A2 milk...

  4. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three...... esterases were shown to be present in the enamel matrix. The enzymes showed highest activity at pH 6.5-7.5. In sections a strong reaction was observed in the secretory ameloblasts. The esterases may be proteolytic enzymes that participate in the degradation of the matrix proteins....

  5. Pathways for improving the nitrogen efficiency of grazing bovines

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production has been identified as a major source of nitrogen (N) losses in agro-ecosystems. N excreted in dung and urine contributes to environmental N pollution either as ammonia and N oxides in air, or as nitrate in soil and ground water. Therefore, it is important to reduce N output through animal excretions by improving N utilisation by the animal. Bovine N utilisation can be increased substantially through changing the composition of the diet. In many parts of Europe, a large p...

  6. Phospholipase C associated with particulate fractions of bovine brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K Y; Ryu, S H; Suh, P G; Choi, W C; Rhee, S G

    1987-01-01

    We previously reported that cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain two immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C (PLCs), PLC-I and PLC-II. In this report the subcellular distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in brain homogenates was measured using RIA. Significant differences were found in the distribution of the two forms of PLC in 100,000 X g supernatants (cytosolic fraction) of brain homogenized in hypotonic buffer and 2 M KCl extracts of washed pellets (particula...

  7. Proteomic analysis of whey from bovine colostrum and mature milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pacheco Golinelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to standardize a methodology to obtain two-dimensional (2D maps of whey proteins from bovine colostrum and mature milk, using two-dimensional electrophoresis, in order to identify the minor proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS. A total of 38 proteins were identified, 20 spots in the colostrum whey and 18 in the mature milk whey; 5 of them were identified for the first time.

  8. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA VIRUS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD is one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. The present study was undertaken to diagnose the persistently infected (PI animals by AntigenELISA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR using serum samples from organized farms as well as rural areas of West Bengal. The results showed that out of 964 serum samples tested 07 (0.73% was positive for BVDV by Antigen-ELISA. For further confirmation, RNA was extracted from the positive samples and RT-PCR was performed with 5' UTR specific primers which showed 294 bp amplicons. This finding showed circulation of BVDV in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  9. Ingestive and metabolic behavior of bovines fed rations containing probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Luiz Massaro Junior; Leandro das Dores Ferreira da Silva; Ana Paula de Sousa Fortaleza; Fernando Henrique Brussi Beran; Valdecir de Souza Castro; Edson Luiz de Azambuja Ribeiro; Marco Aurélio Alves de Freitas Barbosa; Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior; Ivone Yurika Mizubuti; Odimári Priscila Pires do Prado

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomices cerevisiae and Lactobacillus casei in bovine diets, on dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intake and digestibility, ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3) and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Rations were isoproteic (13,04% CP) and isoenergetic (66,39% TDN) with sorghum silage used as roughage (50% of DM). Six ruminal-cannulated males, castrat...

  10. INSULIN INDUCES NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN BOVINE AORTIC ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧丽; 黄定九

    2000-01-01

    ffeStun6. ObjeCtif Dens cette dtude nons avons ewilue l' effet de l' insuline sur ba Proliferation cellulaire, liberationd' oxide nitrique et l' expression gdrktique de synthase d' oxide nitrique dens la cellule endotheliale aortique bovine. methIn mitogdthe est evalude per la ndthae M7T. In Production de NO dans ie alga en culture est determine per la reactionGness. In technique quantitative RT/PCR est utility pour quantifier ie niveau de sWthase d' oxide nitrique mRNA dens la cellule endotheliale aortique...

  11. Effects of Visible Light on Cultured Bovine Trabecular Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜发纲; 郝风芹; 魏厚仁; 许德胜

    2004-01-01

    To explore the biological effects of light on trabecular cells, cultured bovine trabecular cells were exposed to visible light of different wavelength with different energy. Cellular morphology, structure, proliferation, and phagocytosis were observed. The cells showed no remarkable changes when the energy was low. When the exposure energy reached 1. 12 mW/cm2 , the cytoplasm showed a rough appearance, and cell proliferation and phagocytosis decreased. This phototoxicity was strong with white light (compound chromatic light), moderate with violet light or yellow light, and mild with red light.

  12. In vitro palmitoylation of native bovine brain Goα

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The native Goα was purified from bovine brain cortex and palmitoylated in vitro. The in vitro palmitoylation site was the same as that in vivo. The internal palmitoylation of purified native Goα was found to be largely maintained. The apparant palmitoylation ratio was significantly increased after the Goa was treated with DTT. The GTPg S binding characteristic of Goα was not influenced by palmitoylation, however, the affinity for LUVs was increased dramatically. The in vitro palmitoylation model of Goα provides a better basis for studying the functional role of G protein palmitoylation in signal transduction.

  13. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  14. Genetic and physical mapping of the bovine X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C C; Taylor, J F; Gallagher, D S; Sanders, J O; Turner, J W; Davis, S K

    1996-03-01

    Three hundred eighty reciprocal backcross and F(2) full sib progeny from 33 families produced by embryo transfer from 77 Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), and F1 parents and grandparents were used to construct genetic maps of the bovine X and Y chromosomes. Ml individuals were scored for 15 microsatellite loci, with an average of 608 informative meioses per locus. The length of the bovine X chromosome genetic map was 118.7 cM (female only) and of the pseudoautosomal region was 13.0 cM (male only). The 15-marker framework map in Kosambi centimorgans is [BM6017-6.1 -TGLA89-35.8-TEXAN13-3.4-TGLA128-1.3 -BM2713 -21.1 -BM4604-2.4-BR215 - 12.9-TGLA68-10.0-BM4321 - 1.0-HEL14-4.9-TGLA15-2.3-INRA12O- 12.5-TGLA325- 1.6-MAF45-3.2-INRA3O], with an average interval of 7.91 cM. Clones containing pseudoautosomal or sex-linked microsatellites were isolated from a bovine bacterial artificial chromosome library and were physically mapped to bovine metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization to orient the X and Y chromosome maps. BAC57, containing the pseudoautosomal microsatellite INRA3O, mapped to the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome at q42-ter and to the short arm of the Y chromosome at p13-ter. This confirms the published assignment of this region to Ypl2-ter, but challenges the published assignment of Xpl4-ter and thus reorients the X chromosome physical map. BAC2O4, containing the X-linked microsatellite BM4604, mapped to the middle of the long arm of the X chromosome at q26-q31. The position of the physically mapped markers indicates either a lack of microsatellite markers for a large (30 to 50 cM) region of the short arm of the X chromosome or heterogeneity of recombination along the X chromosome. PMID:8833151

  15. Genetic and physical mapping of the bovine X chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Chen Chen; Taylor, J.F.; Sanders, J. O. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Three hundred eighty reciprocal backcross and F{sub 2} full sib progeny from 33 families produced by embryo transfer from 77 Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), and F{sub 1} parents and grandparents were used to construct genetic maps of the bovine X and Y chromosomes. All individuals were scored for 15 microsatellite loci, with an average of 608 informative meioses per locus. The length of the bovine X chromosome genetic map was 118.7 cM (female only) and of the pseudoautosomal region was 13.0 cM (male only). The 15-marker framework map in Kosambi centimorgans is (BM6017-6.1-TGLA89-35.8-TEXAN13-3.4-TGLA128-1.3-BM2713-21.1-BM4604-2.4-BR215-12.9-TGLA68-10.0-BM4321-1.0-HEL14-4.9-TGLA15-2.3-INRA120-12.5-TGLA325-1.6-MAF45-3.2-INRA30), with an average interval of 7.91 cM. Clones containing pseudoautosomal or sex-linked microsatellites were isolated from a bovine bacterial artificial chromosome library and were physically mapped to bovine metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization to orient the X and Y chromosome maps. BAC57, containing the pseudoautosomal microsatellite INRA30, mapped to the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome at q42-ter and to the short arm of the Y chromosome at p13-ter. This confirms the published assignment of this region to Yp12-ter, but challenges the published assignment of Xp14-ter and thus reorients the X chromosome physical map. BAC204, containing the X-linked microsatellite BM4604, mapped to the middle of the long arm of the X chromosome at q26-q31. The position of the physically mapped to the middle of the long arm of the X chromosome at q26-q31. The position of the physically mapped markers indicates either a lack of microsatellite markers for a large (30 to 50 cM) region of the short arm of the X chromosome or heterogeneity of recombination along the X chromosome. 46 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The Role of MicroRNAs in Bovine Infection and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eLawless

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are recognised as critical regulators of immune gene expression during infection. Many immunologically significant human miRNAs have been found to be conserved in agriculturally important species, including cattle. Discovering how bovine miRNAs mediate the immune defence during infection is critical to understanding the aetiology of the most prevalent bovine diseases. Here, we review current knowledge of miRNAs in the bovine genome, and discuss the advances in understanding of miRNAs as regulators of immune cell function, and bovine immune response activation, regulation, and resolution. Finally, we consider the future perspectives on miRNAs in bovine viral disease, their role as potential biomarkers and in therapy.

  17. Characterization and regulation of the bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) gene plays an important role in the bovine mammary gland where substrates such as stearic and vaccenic acids are converted to oleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Up to 90% of the CLA in bovine milk is formed due to the action of this enzyme in the mammary gland. The areas of the bovine promoter of importance in regulating this key enzyme were examined and an area of 36 bp in length was identified as having a critical role in transcriptional activation and is designated the Scd transcriptional enhancer element (STE). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay detected three binding complexes on this area in Mac-T cell nuclear extracts. Treatment of cells with CLA caused a significant reduction in transcriptional activity, with this effect being mediated through the STE region. The bovine Scd gene promoter was up-regulated by insulin and down-regulated by oleic acid

  18. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  19. Preparation of bovine muscle, bovine liver and pig kidney reference materials and the certification of the contents of nine elements of toxicological and nutritional interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of 3 meat reference materials (bovine muscle, bovine liver and pig kidney) and the steps taken to confirm their homogeneity and stability are described. Details are presented of a preliminary intercomparison and of the final collaborative exercise which led to the certification of the contents of 9 elements of toxicological and nutritional importance. Indicative values are given for the contents of a further 9 elements in these materials. (orig.)

  20. Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    VanLeeuwen, John A.; Tiwari, Ashwani; Plaizier, Jan C; Whiting, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    Of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for Bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for Neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres ≥ 1:64 for Bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  1. Diagnosis of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea in a vaccinated herd by measuring extended antibody titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Two abortions occurred in a 150-head commercial cow-calf herd. Bovine viral diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by measuring extended titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a sample of 15 breeding females. Fifteen were sero-positive and 11 had significantly high titers (1:972–1:8748), likely due to natural exposure to cattle persistently infected with BVDV.

  2. Characterization of bovine A20 gene: Expression mediated by NF-κB pathway in MDBK cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2016-05-01

    Cytokine production for immunological process is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The NF-κB signaling pathway maintains immune homeostasis in the cell through the participation of molecules such as A20 (TNFAIP3), which is a key regulatory factor in the immune response, hematopoietic differentiation, and immunomodulation. Although A20 has been identified in mammals, and despite recent efforts to identify A20 members in other higher vertebrates, relatively little is known about the composition of this regulator in other classes of vertebrates, particularly for bovines. In this study, the genetic context of bovine A20 was explored and compared against homologous genes in the human, mouse, chicken, dog, and zebrafish chromosomes. Through in silico analysis, several regions of interest were found conserved between even phylogenetically distant species. Additionally, a protein-deduced sequence of bovine A20 evidenced many conserved domains in humans and mice. Furthermore, all potential amino acid residues implicated in the active site of A20 were conserved. Finally, bovine A20 mRNA expression as mediated by the bovine viral diarrhea virus and poly (I:C) was evaluated. These analyses evidenced a strong fold increase in A20 expression following virus exposure, a phenomenon blocked by a pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 117085). Interestingly, A20 mRNA had a half-life of only 32min, likely due to adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region. Collectively, these data identify bovine A20 as a regulator of immune marker expression. Finally, this is the first report to find the bovine viral diarrhea virus modulating bovine A20 activation through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:26809100

  3. Whole genomic analysis of human and bovine G8P[1] rotavirus strains isolated in Nigeria provides evidence for direct bovine-to-human interspecies transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Satoshi; Adah, Mohammed Ignatius; Ide, Tomihiko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Taniguchi, Koki

    2016-09-01

    Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) G8P[1] strains have been rarely detected in humans. Two Nigerian G8P[1] strains, HMG035 (RVA/Human-tc/NGA/HMG035/1999/G8P[1]) and NGRBg8 (RVA/Cow-tc/NGA/NGRBg8/1998/G8P[1]), were previously suggested to have the VP7, VP4, and NSP1 genes of bovine origin. In order to obtain precise information on the origin and evolution of these G8P[1] strains, the complete nucleotide sequences of the whole genomes of strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 were determined and analyzed in the present study. On whole genomic analysis, strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 were found to be very closely related to each other in all the 11 segments, and were found to have a bovine RVA-like genotype constellation (G8-P[1]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3). Furthermore, on phylogenetic analysis, each of the 11 genes of strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 appeared to be of bovine origin. Thus, strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 were suggested to be derived from a common origin, and strain NGRBg8 was assumed to represent an example of bovine RVA strains that were transmitted to humans. Our findings provide clear evidence for direct bovine-to-human interspecies transmission of RVA strains. PMID:27302094

  4. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  5. Virus-Mediated Metalloproteinase 1 Induction Revealed by Transcriptome Profiling of Bovine Herpesvirus 4-Infected Bovine Endometrial Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Giulia; Jacca, Sarah; Montanini, Barbara; Capra, Emanuele; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Sala, Arianna; Stella, Alessandra; Castiglioni, Bianca; Ottonello, Simone; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    Viral infections can cause genital tract disorders (including abortion) in cows, and bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is often present in endometritis-affected animals. A major problem with cattle uterine viral infections in general, and BoHV-4 in particular, is our limited understanding of the pathogenic role(s) that these infections play in the endometrium. A similar lack of knowledge holds for the molecular mechanisms utilized, and the host cell pathways affected, by BoHV-4. To begin to fill these gaps, we set up optimized conditions for BoHV-4 infection of a pure population of bovine endometrial stromal cells (BESCs) to be used as source material for RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling. Many genes were found to be upregulated (417) or downregulated (181) after BoHV-4 infection. As revealed by enrichment functional analysis on differentially expressed genes, BoHV-4 infection affects various pathways related to cell proliferation and cell surface integrity, at least three of which were centered on upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8). This was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR, Western-immunoblot analysis, and a luciferase assay with a bovine MMP1-specific promoter reporter construct. Further, it was found that MMP1 transcription was upregulated by the BoHV-4 transactivator IE2/RTA, leading to abnormally high metalloproteinase tissue levels, potentially leading to defective endometrium healing and unresolved inflammation. Based on these findings, we propose a new model for BoHV-4 action centered on IE2-mediated MMP1 upregulation and novel therapeutic interventions based on IFN gamma-mediated MMP1 downregulation. PMID:27281703

  6. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2) from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudt, Cíntia; da Silva, Flavio RC; Cibulski, Samuel P; Weber, Matheus N; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Varela, Ana Paula M; Roehe, Paulo M; Canal, Cláudio W

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2) from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8) and two late (L1 and L2) genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available. PMID:27074259

  7. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2 from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Daudt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2 from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8 and two late (L1 and L2 genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available.

  8. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in four bovine species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Deng

    Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  9. Bovine mammary stem cells: new perspective for dairy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignani, E; Cravero, D; Miretti, S; Accornero, P; Baratta, M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary stem cells provide opportunities for the cyclic remodelling of the bovine mammary gland. Therefore, understanding the character and regulation of mammary stem cells is important for increasing animal health and productivity. The exciting possibility that stem cell expansion can influence milk production is currently being investigated by several researchers. In fact, appropriate regulation of mammary stem cells could hopefully benefit milk yield, persistency of lactation, dry period management and tissue repair. Accordingly, we and others have attempted to characterize and regulate the function of bovine mammary stem cells. However, research on mammary stem cells requires tissue biopsies, which represents a limitation for the management of animal welfare. Interestingly, different studies recently reported the identification of putative mammary stem cells in human breast milk. The possible identification of primitive cell types within cow's milk may provide a non-invasive source of relevant mammary cells for a wide range of applications. In this review, we have summarized the main achievements in this field for dairy cow science and described the interesting perspectives open to manipulate milk persistency during lactation and to cope with oxidative stress during the transition period by regulating mammary stem cells.

  10. Properties and Mechanobiological Behavior of Bovine Nasal Septum Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correro-Shahgaldian, Maria Rita; Introvigne, Jasmin; Ghayor, Chafik; Weber, Franz E; Gallo, Luigi M; Colombo, Vera

    2016-05-01

    Bovine nasal septum (BNS) is a source of non-load bearing hyaline cartilage. Little information is available on its mechanical and biological properties. The aim of this work was to assess the characteristics of BNS cartilage and investigate its behavior in in vitro mechanobiological experiments. Mechanical tests, biochemical assays, and microscopic assessment were performed for tissue characterization. Compressions tests showed that the tissue is viscoelastic, although values of elastic moduli differ from the ones of other cartilaginous tissues. Water content was 78 ± 1.4%; glycosaminoglycans and collagen contents-measured by spectrophotometric assay and hydroxyproline assay-were 39 ± 5% and 25 ± 2.5% of dry weight, respectively. Goldner's Trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy proved isotropic cells distribution and results of earlier cell division. Furthermore, gene expression was measured after uniaxial compression, showing variations depending on compression time as well as trends depending on equilibration time. In conclusion, BNS has been characterized at several levels, revealing that bovine nasal tissue is regionally homogeneous. Results suggest that, under certain conditions, BNS could be used to perform in vitro cartilage loading experiments.

  11. Characterizing bovine host responses to mastitis pathogens by targeted proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    mælkeproteiner såsom kasein er dog med til at komplicere analyserne af følsomme biomarkører i mælk. De seneste år er målrettet kvantitativ proteomics ved hjælp af metoden ’selected reaction monitoring’ (SRM) blevet udbredt. Ved SRM metoden bliver peptider fra et udvalgt protein detekteret og kvantificeret i en...... beskriver dette Bovine PeptideAtlas og dets indbyggede værktøjer til at understøtte SRM metoder. Ved hjælp af Bovine PeptideAtlas blev der udvalgt kvantificerbare og observerbare peptider, der er velegnede til udvikling af SRM metoden. To peptider per protein blev herefter genetisk udtrykt i et QconCAT...... protein som tungt isotop mærkede peptider. I manuskript II præsenteres udviklingen og valideringen af SRM metoden i yvervæv ved brug af QconCAT peptider rettet mod 20 proteiner. Resultaterne af dette forsøg var en solid bestemmelse af 17 kandidatproteiner og en pålidelig kvantificering af 12 af disse. I...

  12. Protein composition in the fluid of individual bovine follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M M; Kroll, J; Byskov, A G; Faber, M

    1976-09-01

    The proteins in follicular fluid from individual and pooled bovine follicles were studied by gel chromatography and quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. The mean protein concentration was 86-4% of serum; very large proteins were present in only low concentrations. A minimum of 40 individual proteins was distinguished in follicular fluid, and 15 of these proteins were quantitated. A correlation between molecular weight and follicular fluid: serum concentration ratio was found. Fluid from individual follicles differed only in the relative concentrations of small and large proteins. An exception to this was IgG which was occasionally, but never in healthy growing follicles, present in concetrations above 150% of serum. Healthy growing, preovulatory and atretic follicles had higher, and cystic follicles mostly lower, concentrations of small proteins than serum. The concentration of alpha2-macroglobulin in healthy growing follicles never exceeded 16% of serum. The concentration of large proteins in follicular fluid increased with increasing follicle size. Attempts to detect proteins specific to follicular fluid by immunizing rabbits with pooled follicular samples and the follicular fluid proteins not bound by anti-bovine antiserum resulted in production of antibodies against fibrinogen and its split products D+E only.

  13. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  14. Effect of Microstructure on Fatigue Strength of Bovine Compact Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Heon; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Akahori, Toshikazu; Takeda, Junji; Toda, Hiroyuki

    Despite its clinical importance in developing artificial bone, limited information is available regarding the microstructure with respect to the fatigue characteristics of bones. In this study, the fatigue characteristics of the bovine humerus and femur were investigated with respect to microstructures. Fatigue tests were conducted on the bovine humerus and femur at a stress ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 10Hz. The fatigue strength of the plexiform bone is slightly greater than that of the haversian bone. This is because the volume fraction of voids in the haversian bone, which is the site of stress concentration, is higher than that of voids in the plexiform bone. Several microcracks are observed on the fatigue fracture surface of the haversian bone. The microcracks are short and their propagation directions are random. However, the number of the microcracks in the plexiform bone is very small. The microcracks are relatively long and their propagation directions are parallel to the longitudinal direction of the lamellar bone. Therefore, the crack requires relatively more energy to propagate across the lamella in the plexiform bone.

  15. Short communication: Imputation of markers on the bovine X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaowei; Johansson, Anna Maria; Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; De Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2016-09-01

    Imputation is a cost-effective approach to augment marker data for genomic selection and genome-wide association studies. However, most imputation studies have focused on autosomes. Here, we assessed the imputation of markers on the X chromosome in Holstein cattle for nongenotyped animals and animals genotyped with low-density (Illumina BovineLD, Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) chips, using animals genotyped with medium-density (Illumina BovineSNP50) chips. A total of 26,884 genotyped Holstein individuals genotyped with medium-density chips were used in this study. Imputation was carried out using FImpute V2.2. The following parameters were examined: treating the pseudoautosomal region as autosomal or as X specific, different sizes of reference groups, different male/female proportions in the reference group, and cumulated degree of relationship between the reference group and target group. The imputation accuracy of markers on the X chromosome was improved if the pseudoautosomal region was treated as autosomal. Increasing the proportion of females in the reference group improved the imputation accuracy for the X chromosome. Imputation for nongenotyped animals in general had lower accuracy compared with animals genotyped with the low-density single nucleotide polymorphism array. In addition, higher cumulative pedigree relationships between the reference group and the target animal led to higher imputation accuracy. In the future, better marker coverage of the X chromosome should be developed to facilitate genomic studies involving the X chromosome.

  16. Bovine and human insulin adsorption at lipid monolayers: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Sergio; Pandey, Ravindra; Rzeznicka, Izabela; Lu, Hao; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Insulin is a widely used peptide in protein research and it is utilised as a model peptide to understand the mechanics of fibril formation, which is believed to be the cause of diseases such as Alzheimer and Creutzfeld-Jakob syndrome. Insulin has been used as a model system due to its biomedical relevance, small size and relatively simple tertiary structure. The adsorption of insu lin on a variety of surfaces has become the focus of numerous studies lately. These works have helped in elucidating the consequence of surface/protein hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction in terms of protein refolding and aggregation. Unfortunately, such model surfaces differ significantly from physiological surfaces. Here we spectroscopically investigate the adsorption of insulin at lipid monolayers, to further our understanding of the interaction of insulin with biological surfaces. In particular we study the effect of minor mutations of insulin’s primary amino acid sequence on its interaction with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG) model lipid layers. We probe the structure of bovine and human insulin at the lipid/water interface using sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG). The SFG experiments are complemented with XPS analysis of Langmuir-Schaefer deposited lipid/insulin films. We find that bovine and human insulin, even though very similar in sequence, show a substantially different behavior when interacting with lipid films.

  17. Model of nutritional balance for bovine in pasturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shepherding is nevertheless the most economic alimentary system for the bovine, the pastures of the warm tropic, it has high fiber and low nitrogen (protein) and they restrict the production of the animal. The investigations suggest that small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. The bovines (Brachiaria spp) presented deficit of ammonia ruminal (4-10 mgs/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mgs the animal answer, was favorable since in young bulls was supplemented with 60 gr. of urea and 300 of molasses during 350 days won 210 kgs of weight, against 145 kgs of molasses and 130 kgs in single Brachiaria. Other investigations indicate that the supplement of urea, molasses is more effective in dry time than rainy, but if there is not enough biomass it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and not, quantity and it also stimulates the consumption. They also suggest that the supplement urea-molasses should be strategic according to nutritional quality of the pasture, in periods of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentrations of ruminal ammonia indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  18. Effect of Prototheca zopfii on neutrophil function from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Luciane T; Pugine, Silvana P; Valle, Claudia R; Ribeiro, Andrea R; Costa, Ernane J X; De Melo, Mariza P

    2006-12-01

    This study was carried to investigate neutrophil function in the presence of Prototheca zopfii. For this purpose, bovine milk neutrophils were incubated in the absence (control) of and presence of P. zopfii, and then they were examined hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production, antioxidant enzyme activities, and phagocytic capacity. Milk was collected from negative "California Mastitis Test" (CMT) quarter from three lactating Holstein cows after induction of leukocytosis with an intramammary infusion of oyster glycogen. H(2)O(2) production was measured using the phenol red method. Catalase activity was measured following H(2)O(2) reduction at 240 nm and the activity of glutathione reductase was determined by measuring the rate of NADPH oxidation at 340 nm. P. zopfii death was assessed by fluorescent microscopy using acridine orange assay and by colony forming units (CFUs). Comparisons between the groups were initially performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were then compared using Tukey's test with a significance coefficient of 0.05. Hydrogen peroxide production, catalase and glutathione reductase activities by neutrophils incubated in presence of P. zopfii were stimulated five times, 21% and 27% respectively, compared to the unstimulated-neutrophils. Neutrophils did not affect P. zopfii death as shown by microscopy and CFUs. These observations led to the conclusion that the P. zopfii promote a high increase of H(2)O(2) production by neutrophils from bovine milk during algae exposition accompanied by increase of antioxidant enzyme activities; however, this process did not affect P. zopfii death. PMID:17146586

  19. Acellular matrix of bovine pericardium bound with L-arginine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Joo [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jin Woo [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chun Ho [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul 139-240 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Woo [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jung Woog [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ki Dong [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Surface immobilization of bioactive molecules onto natural tissues has been interestingly studied for the development of new functional matrices for the replacement of lost or malfunctioning tissues. In this study, an acellular matrix of bovine pericardium (ABP) was chemically modified by the direct coupling of L-arginine after glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking. The effects of L-arginine coupling on durability and calcification were investigated and the biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A four-step detergent and enzymatic extraction process has been utilized to remove cellular components from fresh bovine pericardium (BP). Microscopic observation confirmed that nearly all cellular constituents are removed. Thermal and mechanical properties showed that the durability of L-arginine-treated matrices increased as compared with control ABP and GA-treated ABP. Resistance to collagenase digestion revealed that modified matrices have greater resistance to enzyme digestion than control ABP and GA-treated ABP. The in vivo calcification study demonstrated much less calcium deposition on L-arginine-treated ABP than GA-treated one. In vitro cell viability results showed that ABP modified with L-arginine leads to a significant increase in attachment of human dermal fibroblasts. The obtained results attest to the usefulness of L-arginine-treated ABP matrices for cardiovascular bioprostheses.

  20. Effects of bovine milk lactoperoxidase system on some bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, M; Sişecioğlu, M; Bariş, O; Güllüce, M; Ozdemir, H

    2010-01-01

    Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) was purified from skimmed milk using amberlite CG-50-H+ resin, CM sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Lactoperoxidase was purified 20.45-fold with a yield of 28.8%. Purity of enzyme checked by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method and a single band was observed. Km was 0.25 mM at 20 degrees C, Vmax value was 7.95 micromol/ml min at 20 degrees C (pH 6.0). Antibacterial study was done by disk diffusion method of Kir-by-Bauer using Mueller-Hinton agar medium with slight modification. Bovine LPO showed high antibacterial activity in 100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 medium for some bacteria (Brevibacillus centrosaurus, B. choshinensis, B. lyticum, Cedecea davisae, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum, Clavibacter michiganense pv. insidiosum, Kocuria erythromyxa, K. kristinae, K. rosea, K. varians, Paenibacillus validus, Pseudomonas syringae pv. populans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhodococcus wratislaviensis, Serratia fonticola, Streptomyces violaceusniger, Vibrio cholerae-nonO1) respectively, and compared with well known antibacterial substances (levofloxacin, netilmicin). LPO system has inhibition effects on all type bacteria and concentration is really important such as LPO-100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 system was proposed as an effective agent against many factors causing several diseases.

  1. Chromium propionate enhances adipogenic differentiation of bovine intramuscular adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eTokach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiments were performed to determine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium propionate on mRNA and protein abundance of different enzymes and receptors. Intramuscular and subcutaneous preadipocytes and bovine satellite cells were isolated from the longissimus muscle to determine the effect of treatment on glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and GLUT4 protein abundance. Preadipocyte cultures were treated with differentiation media plus either sodium propionate or different concentrations of chromium propionate (CrPro for 96, 120, and 144 h before harvest. This study indicated adipogenesis of the bovine intramuscular adipocytes were more sensitive to the treatment of chromium propionate as compared to subcutaneous adipocytes. Enhancement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and GLUT4 mRNA by CrPro treatment may enhance glucose uptake in intramuscular adipocytes. Chromium propionate decreased GLUT4 protein levels in muscle cell cultures suggesting those cells have increased efficiency of glucose uptake due to exposure to increased levels of CrPro. In contrast, each of the two adipogenic lines had opposing responses to the CrPro. It appeared that CrPro had the most stimulative effect of GLUT4 response in the intramuscular adipocytes as compared to subcutaneous adipocytes. These findings indicated opportunities to potentially augment marbling in beef cattle fed chromium propionate during the finishing phase.

  2. Bovine and human insulin adsorption at lipid monolayers: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eMauri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is a widely used peptide in protein research and it is utilised as a model peptide to understand the mechanics of fibril formation, which is believed to be the cause of diseases such as Alzheimer and Creutzfeld-Jakob syndrome. Insulin has been used as a model system due to its biomedical relevance, small size and relatively simple tertiary structure. The adsorption of insu lin on a variety of surfaces has become the focus of numerous studies lately. These works have helped in elucidating the consequence of surface/protein hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction in terms of protein refolding and aggregation. Unfortunately, such model surfaces differ significantly from physiological surfaces. Here we spectroscopically investigate the adsorption of insulin at lipid monolayers, to further our understanding of the interaction of insulin with biological surfaces.In particular we study the effect of minor mutations of insulin’s primary amino acid sequence on its interaction with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG model lipid layers. We probe the structure of bovine and human insulin at the lipid/water interface using sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG. The SFG experiments are complemented with XPS analysis of Langmuir-Schaefer deposited lipid/insulin films. We find that bovine and human insulin, even though very similar in sequence, show a substantially different behavior when interacting with lipid films.

  3. Theca interna: the other side of bovine follicular atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Leigh J; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2004-10-01

    Currently, histological classifications of ovarian follicular atresia are almost exclusively based on the morphology of the membrana granulosa without reference to the theca interna. Atresia in the bovine small antral ovarian follicle has been redefined into antral or basal atresia where cell death commences initially within antral or basal regions of the membrana granulosa, respectively. To examine cell death in the theca interna in the two types of atretic follicles, bovine ovaries were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Follicles were classified as healthy, antral atretic, or basal atretic. Follicle diameter was recorded and sections stained with lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia to identify endothelial cells or with an antibody to cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage to identify steroidogenic cells and combined with TUNEL labeling to identify dead cells. The numerical density of steroidogenic cells within the theca interna was significantly reduced (P basal atretic follicles in comparison with other follicles. Cell death was greater in both endothelial cells (P basal atretic follicles compared with healthy and antral atretic follicles. Thus, we conclude that the theca interna is susceptible to cell death early in atresia, particularly in basal atretic follicles. PMID:15175236

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J C; Zapata-Campos, C C; Jasso-Obregón, J O; Martinez-Burnes, J; López-Zavala, R

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  5. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

  6. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico.

  8. Discovery and genomic characterization of a novel ovine partetravirus and a new genotype of bovine partetravirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available Partetravirus is a recently described group of animal parvoviruses which include the human partetravirus, bovine partetravirus and porcine partetravirus (previously known as human parvovirus 4, bovine hokovirus and porcine hokovirus respectively. In this report, we describe the discovery and genomic characterization of partetraviruses in bovine and ovine samples from China. These partetraviruses were detected by PCR in 1.8% of bovine liver samples, 66.7% of ovine liver samples and 71.4% of ovine spleen samples. One of the bovine partetraviruses detected in the present samples is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported bovine partetraviruses and likely represents a novel genotype. The ovine partetravirus is a novel partetravirus and phylogenetically most related to the bovine partetraviruses. The genome organization is conserved amongst these viruses, including the presence of a putative transmembrane protein encoded by an overlapping reading frame in ORF2. Results from the present study provide further support to the classification of partetraviruses as a separate genus in Parvovirinae.

  9. Molecular analysis of non structural rotavirus group A enterotoxin gene of bovine origin from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Yashpal Singh; Kumar, Naveen; Sharma, Kuldeep; Ghosh, Souvik; Bányai, Krisztián; Balasubramanian, Ganesh; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2014-07-01

    The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 (nonstructural protein 4), plays a pivotal role in viral morphogenesis as well as pathogenesis. In this study, the NSP4 gene of rotavirus group A (RVA) isolates of bovine origin isolated in several states of India from 2008 to 2011 were characterized. The complete open reading frame of 23 RVA strains were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Genotype E1 was detected for the first time in bovines from India, in addition to the more common bovine genotype E2. Sequence similarity analysis of the E1 sequences showed a close genetic relatedness to human strains. Six of the bovine E2 genotypes strains clustered near bovine and unusual human strains (possible human animal reassortant) from Thailand, while the remaining E2 sequences clustered with Indian bovine strains. Analysis pointed out one positively selected site (154aa), believe to be part of an antigenic region and 123 negatively selected sites. Unexpectedly, a pentameric NSP4 structure of the coiled coil domain in the E1 carrying strains and a monomeric NSP4 in RVA strain P14 (E2) was predicted based on homology modeling, potentially affecting the biological properties of NSP4. The close relationship between bovine and human rotavirus strains further highlights the complex interaction among rotaviruses of different species. PMID:24747605

  10. A new bovine conjunctiva model shows that Listeria monocytogenes invasion is associated with lysozyme resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jessica; Owen, A Rhys; Glanvill, Amy; Francis, Asher; Maboni, Grazieli; Nova, Rodrigo J; Wapenaar, Wendela; Rees, Catherine; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2015-08-31

    Listerial keratoconjunctivitis ('silage eye') is a wide spread problem in ruminants causing economic losses to farmers and impacts negatively on animal welfare. It results from direct entry of Listeria monocytogenes into the eye, often following consumption of contaminated silage. An isolation protocol for bovine conjunctival swabbing was developed and used to sample both infected and healthy eyes bovine eyes (n=46). L. monocytogenes was only isolated from one healthy eye sample, and suggests that this organism can be present without causing disease. To initiate a study of this disease, an infection model was developed using isolated conjunctiva explants obtained from cattle eyes post slaughter. Conjunctiva were cultured and infected for 20 h with a range of L. monocytogenes isolates (n=11), including the healthy bovine eye isolate and also strains isolated from other bovine sources, such as milk or clinical infections. Two L. monocytogenes isolates (one from a healthy eye and one from a cattle abortion) were markedly less able to invade conjunctiva explants, but one of those was able to efficiently infect Caco2 cells indicating that it was fully virulent. These two isolates were also significantly more sensitive to lysozyme compared to most other isolates tested, suggesting that lysozyme resistance is an important factor when infecting bovine conjunctiva. In conclusion, we present the first bovine conjunctiva explant model for infection studies and demonstrate that clinical L. monocytogenes isolates from cases of bovine keratoconjunctivitis are able to infect these tissues. PMID:25778543

  11. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  12. Enrichment for Repopulating Cells and Identification of Differentiation Markers in the Bovine Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Gat; Barash, Itamar

    2016-06-01

    Elucidating cell hierarchy in the mammary gland is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms governing its normal development and malignant transformation. There is relatively little information on cell hierarchy in the bovine mammary gland, despite its agricultural potential and relevance to breast cancer research. Challenges in bovine-to-mouse xenotransplantation and difficulties obtaining bovine-compatible antibodies hinder the study of mammary stem-cell dynamics in this species. In-vitro indications of distinct bovine mammary epithelial cell populations, sorted according to CD24 and CD49f expression, have been provided. Here, we successfully transplanted these bovine populations into the cleared fat pads of immunocompromised mice, providing in-vivo evidence for the multipotency and self-renewal capabilities of cells that are at the top of the cell hierarchy (termed mammary repopulating units). Additional outgrowths from transplantation, composed exclusively of myoepithelial cells, were indicative of unipotent basal stem cells or committed progenitors. Sorting luminal cells according to E-cadherin revealed three distinct populations: luminal progenitors, and early- and late-differentiating cells. Finally, miR-200c expression was negatively correlated with differentiation levels in both the luminal and basal branches of the bovine mammary cell hierarchy. Together, these experiments provide further evidence for the presence of a regenerative entity in the bovine mammary gland and for the multistage differentiation process within the luminal lineage. PMID:26615610

  13. Studies on prekallikrein of bovine plasma. II. Activation of prekallikrein with proteinases and properties of kallikrein activated by bovine Hageman factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Nagasawa, S; Suzuki, T

    1980-01-01

    Activation of bovine plasma prekallikrein was investigated with several proteinases. Highly purified bovine plasma prekallikrein was rapidly activated to kallikrein [EC 3.4.21.8] by bovine activated Hageman factor, trypsin [EC 3.4.21.4] and Pronase P (proteinases from Streptomyces griseus) and more gradually by papain [EC 3.4.22.2] and ficin [EC 3.4.22.3]. Activation of prekallikrein was also observed with bovine plasmin [EC 3.4.21.7], but not with bovine clotting factors Xa (Stuart factor) [EC 3.4.21.6] and IXa (Christmas factor) or thrombin [EC 3.4.21.5]. Urokinase [EC 3.4.99.26], Reptilase, collagenase [EC 3.4.24.3], elastase [EC 3.4.21.11], alpha-chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.21.1], Nagarse [EC 3.4.21.14], and stem bromelain [EC 3.4.22 4] did not convert prekallikrein to kallikrein. Plasma kallikrein activated to Hageman factor released kinin rapidly from bovine high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen. However, from bovine low molecular weight (LMW) kininogen, liberation of kinin was extremely slow. The kallikrein activity was inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), Trasylol, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), and N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK), but not by egg-white trypsin inhibitor (EWTI), lima bean trypsin inhibitor (LBTI), heparin or hexadimethrine bromide (Polybrene). The kallikrein formed an enzyme-inhibitor complex with SBTI and Trasylol, but not with LBTI. Prekallikrein did not react with SBTI. Prekallikrein consists of a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight about 90,000, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Activation of prekallikrein by Hageman factor was found to involve cleavage of the single peptide bond on the disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain, and no change of molecular weight was observed during the activation. The peptide bond cleaved in prekallikrein by the activation was an Arg-X peptide bond on a disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain.

  14. Characterisation and application of a bovine U6 promoter for expression of short hairpin RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalrymple Brian P

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of small interfering RNA (siRNA molecules in animals to achieve double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi has recently emerged as a powerful method of sequence-specific gene knockdown. As DNA-based expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA for RNAi may offer some advantages over chemical and in vitro synthesised siRNA, a number of vectors for expression of shRNA have been developed. These often feature polymerase III (pol. III promoters of either mouse or human origin. Results To develop a shRNA expression vector specifically for bovine RNAi applications, we identified and characterised a novel bovine U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA promoter from bovine sequence data. This promoter is the putative bovine homologue of the human U6-8 snRNA promoter, and features a number of functional sequence elements that are characteristic of these types of pol. III promoters. A PCR based cloning strategy was used to incorporate this promoter sequence into plasmid vectors along with shRNA sequences for RNAi. The promoter was then used to express shRNAs, which resulted in the efficient knockdown of an exogenous reporter gene and an endogenous bovine gene. Conclusion We have mined data from the bovine genome sequencing project to identify a functional bovine U6 promoter and used the promoter sequence to construct a shRNA expression vector. The use of this native bovine promoter in shRNA expression is an important component of our future development of RNAi therapeutic and transgenic applications in bovine species.

  15. A dynamic model to calculate cadmium concentrations in bovine tissues from basic soil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waegeneers, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.waegeneers@var.fgov.be; Ruttens, Ann; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2011-06-15

    A chain model was developed to calculate the flow of cadmium from soil, drinking water and feed towards bovine tissues. The data used for model development were tissue Cd concentrations of 57 bovines and Cd concentrations in soil, feed and drinking water, sampled at the farms were the bovines were reared. Validation of the model occurred with a second set of measured tissue Cd concentrations of 93 bovines of which age and farm location were known. The exposure part of the chain model consists of two parts: (1) a soil-plant transfer model, deriving cadmium concentrations in feed from basic soil characteristics (pH and organic matter content) and soil Cd concentrations, and (2) bovine intake calculations, based on typical feed and water consumption patterns for cattle and Cd concentrations in feed and drinking water. The output of the exposure model is an animal-specific average daily Cd intake, which is then taken forward to a kinetic uptake model in which time-dependent Cd concentrations in bovine tissues are calculated. The chain model was able to account for 65%, 42% and 32% of the variation in observed kidney, liver and meat Cd concentrations in the validation study. - Research highlights: {yields} Cadmium transfer from soil, drinking water and feed to bovine tissues was modeled. {yields} The model was based on 57 bovines and corresponding feed and soil Cd concentrations. {yields} The model was validated with an independent data set of 93 bovines. {yields} The model explained 65% of variation in kidney Cd in the validation study.

  16. The molecular structure and lubricating activity of lubricin isolated from bovine and human synovial fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, D A; Silver, F H; Slayter, H S; Stafford, W; Shore, E

    1985-01-01

    Lubricin was isolated from bovine ankle, metacarpophalangeal and knee and human knee synovial fluids. The lubricins isolated from the bovine joint fluids had the same amino acid and carbohydrate compositions, but differences were observed in the relative molecular masses. The Mr values of bovine metacarpophalangeal and ankle lubricin determined by light-scattering measurements were about 200 000, whereas values of 132 000 and 143 000 were obtained for the bovine knee lubricin. The human knee lubricin had a similar carbohydrate composition to bovine knee lubricin except for the higher glucosamine content, and the amino acid composition differed slightly. The human sample had a lower glutamic acid content and a leucine/isoleucine ratio of 2:1 compared with 1:1 in the bovine. The Mr value of the human knee lubricin (166 000) was also lower than that of the bovine metacarpophalangeal and ankle samples. The Mr value of the bovine knee lubricin determined by sedimentation-equilibrium measurements was 171 000. The length measurements determined by electron microscopy and also the sedimentation measurements showed considerable polydispersity and indicate that the degree of extension of lubricin molecules can vary. Friction measurements showed that the human knee synovial-fluid lubricin had equivalent lubricating ability in a test system in vitro to that observed for lubricin isolated from normal bovine synovial fluids. The lubricating ability of lubricin was concentration-dependent, and each lubricin sample was able to act as a lubricant in vitro in an equivalent manner to whole synovial fluid at concentrations that are thought to occur in vivo. PMID:3977823

  17. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  18. Research on Isolation and Clone of Embryonic Stem Cell-Like in Bovine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li-long; YANG Qi; XIAO Mei; FENG Xiu-Liang; YANG Chun-rong; LEI An-min; GAO Zhi-min; DOU Zhong-ying; QIU Huai

    2002-01-01

    Bovine embryonic stem cell would be invaluable for researching the aspect of animal cloning, production transgenic animal and discussion of gene function in vitro. With the object of establishing an effective culture system for isolation and clone of bovine pluripotent stem cell, we cultured bovine embryos and mouse embryos including morula blastula and hatached blastula and obtained animal ICM on Primary marine embryonic fibroblast (Primary murine embryonic fibroblast, PMEF) feeder layer with tissue medium(DMEM supplemented with 15ml/100ml NBS ,0.1μmol/L Na2SeO3, 0. 1mmol/L β-mercaptoethanol, 1 000ng/ml LIF,10 ng/ml IGF, 1mmol/L necessary amino acid and 1mmol/L L-glutamine), then, we obtained mouse ICM and bovine ICM. Moreover, we isolated and cloned the 6 passage bovine ES like cells(12 cell lines) and 9 passage marine ES like cells (52 cell lines) deriving from bovine ICM and murine ICM respectively on the feeder layer of PMEF by disaggregating ICM and ES cell clones of bovine and murine into smaller clumps through digesting with 0. 125g/100ml trypsin and 0.02g/100ml EDTA and scattering with a glass needle. The pluripotency of both murine and bovine ES like cells was identified with morphological character, histochemistry identification, karyotype analysis and differentiation of ES cells in vitro or in vivo. This result showed that bovine embryonic stem cell and murine embryonic stem cell had developmental pluripotency.

  19. Study on the interaction of bovine serum albumin and fleroxacin by fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluorescence method is used to study the fluorescence quenching of bovine serum albumin by its interaction with fleroxacin. The interaction association constants of bovine serum albumin and fleroxacin are determined from a double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. According to the Foester dipole-dipole energy transfer, the distance to be measured between the fleroxacin and tryptophane is 4.37 nm. From thermodynamical coordination it can be judged that the binding power between fleroxacin and bovine serum albumin is static electric power

  20. Peroxidase-linked assay for detection of antibodies against bovine leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Clarissa C; Nunes, Cristina F; Finger, Paula F; Siedler, Bianca S; Dummer, Luana; de Lima, Marcelo; Leite, Fábio P L; Fischer, Geferson; Vargas, Gilberto D'A; Hübner, Silvia de O

    2013-01-01

    A peroxidase linked assay (PLA) was designed to screen bovine sera for the presence of specific antibodies against bovine leukosis virus (BLV). Out of 201 samples of bovine sera analyzed, 52.2% were considered positive by PLA, 26.4% by AGID, and 38.9% by ELISA. Western blotting analyses excluded 27 samples found to be positive by PLA. PLA showed 100% of sensitivity when compared with AGID and ELISA. Specificity was 64.8% and 78%, respectively (kappa coefficients were 0.70 and 0.83). These findings indicate that PLA can be used as an alternative method for the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle.

  1. SERO-PREVALENCE OF BOVINE LEPTOSPIROSIS IN SOUTH ANANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 108 blood serum samples of bovine were collected from different regions of South Andaman to Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (RDDL, ER, Kolkata for sero-prevalence study of bovine leptospirosis. All the sera samples were tested by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT against eight serovars of Leptospira spp. Out of 108 serum samples tested, 75(69.44% were serologically positive. The most prevalent serovars were Automnalis (53.70% followed by Sejroe (28.70% and Hardjo (22.22%. This study suggests that bovine may have a role in maintaining Autumnalis serovar of Leptospira as reservoir in Anandaman and Nicobar Islands.

  2. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization of calcium carbonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheng-Li Yao; Wang-Hua Xu; Ai-Min Ding; Jin-Mao Zhu

    2009-01-01

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrograph (FT-IR) and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The possible formation mechanism of CaCO3 in the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system was discussed.

  3. Binding interactions of pefloxacin mesylate with bovine lactoferrin and human serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ji-cai; CHEN Xiang; WANG Yun; FAN Cheng-ping; SHANG Zhi-cai

    2006-01-01

    The binding of pefloxacin mesylate (PFLX) to bovine lactoferrin (BLf) and human serum albumin (HSA) in dilute aqueous solution was studied using fluorescence spectra and absorbance spectra. The binding constant K and the binding sites n were obtained by fluorescence quenching method. The binding distance r and energy-transfer efficiency E between pefloxacin mesylate and bovine lactoferrin as well as human serum albumin were also obtained according to the mechanism of Forster-type dipole-dipole nonradiative energy-transfer. The effects of pefloxacin mesylate on the conformations of bovine lactoferrin and human serum albumin were also analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

  4. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Harboe, Marianne Kirsten [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Simonsen, Jens Bæk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin [University of Southern Denmark, (Denmark); Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Larsen, Sine, E-mail: sine@chem.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  5. Infection of human keratinocytes by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolated from milk of the bovine udder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Raposo, Luís R; Costa, Mafalda N; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) are considered exclusive animal pathogens; however, a putative zoonotic upper limb cellulitis, a prosthetic joint infection and an infective endocarditis were described in humans. To unravel if bovine SDSD isolates are able to infect human cells, the adherence and internalization to human primary keratinocytes of two bovine SDSD strains isolated from milk collected from udder were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion assays and confocal microscopy indicate a high adherence and internalization of SDSD isolates to human cells, suggesting for the first time the ability of bovine isolates to infect human cells. PMID:26655883

  6. Bovine brain cytosol contains three immunologically distinct forms of inositolphospholipid-specific phospholipase C.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, S H; Suh, P G; Cho, K. S.; Lee, K Y; Rhee, S G

    1987-01-01

    We previously reported that cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain two immunologically distinct forms of phospholipase C (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II. We now report the purification of another form of inositolphospholipid-specific phospholipase C from bovine brain cytosol, designated PLC-III, and the comparison of the catalytic properties of the three isozymes. Approximately 450 micrograms of pure PLC-III was obtained from 36 bovine brains, and it had a final specific activity of 30-40 mumol ...

  7. Characterization of a lectin in human plasma analogous to bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Baatrup, G; Friis-Christiansen, P;

    1987-01-01

    The structural characteristics of a human plasma protein analogous to bovine conglutinin were studied. The protein was previously found to bind to complement-reacted IgG in a calcium-dependent and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-inhibitable manner and it further shows cross-reactivity with anti-bovine con......The structural characteristics of a human plasma protein analogous to bovine conglutinin were studied. The protein was previously found to bind to complement-reacted IgG in a calcium-dependent and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-inhibitable manner and it further shows cross-reactivity with anti...

  8. Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. I. Virological and serological studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, H B; Jensen, M. H.; Sørensen, K J; Dalsgaard, K

    1982-01-01

    The serological and virological results of an experimental infection of bovine fetuses with bovine viral diarrhea virus are presented. Four fetuses, 120-165 days gestational age, were inoculated in utero with a second passage virus strain. Two fetuses received a sham-inoculum. A humoral immune response in the virus-inoculated fetuses, was demonstrated three weeks later. In three fetuses only IgM and IgG1 were detectable. The serum from the fourth fetus also contained IgG2 and IgA. Bovine vira...

  9. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST BOVINE HERPES VIRUS 1, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS AND BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IN EARLY AND ULTRA-EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Daniel Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in weaned calves. In Argentina, two weaning practices have been implemented. In the early weaning, the calf is removed from the cow at 60-70 days of age while in ultra-early weaning the calf is weaned at 30-45 days of age. The purposes of both systems is to improve cow body condition, calf performance, conception rates and forage availability for the cow. In this study we evaluated the antibody response against BVDV and BoHV1 in early and ultra-early weaned calves that had received a conventional vaccination schedule (first dose at weaning and a booster 21 days post-weaning. Passively acquired immunity may provide protection against disease caused by these viruses. The presence of antibodies against BRSV, a virus that was not present in the vaccines used, was also evaluated as an indirect indicator of viral circulation in the herd. At the time of vaccination, calves presented a wide range of maternally-derived antibody titers. Vaccination against BoHV-1 did not evoke seroconvertion and antibody titers continued to decay throughout the experience. After vaccination, seroconversion to BVDV could be detected in calves with low antibody titers, while higher antibody titers exerted an inhibitory effect of the active humoral response.

  10. Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeurt H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of δ-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk, could explain these differences. Very few studies have been focussing on the estimation of genetic parameters of fatty acids composition. However, the moderate heritability estimates observed by these studies for the major fatty acids could suggest a potential genetic effect.

  11. 3-hydroxyflavone-bovine serum albumin interaction in Dextran medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicescu Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of a bioactive flavonol, 3-Hydroxyflavone (3-HF, in systems based on Dextran 70 (Dx70 (an important bio-relevant polysacharide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA (a carrier protein, have been studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Changes produced by different concentrations of Dx70 on the fluorescent characteristics of 3-HF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT process were studied. The influence of 3-HF binding and of Dx70 on the secondary structure of BSA were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The influence of temperature (30-80°C range on the intrinsic Tryptophan fluorescence in 3-HF/BSA/Dx70 systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3-HF as a sensitive fluorescence probe for exploring flavone-protein interaction in plasma expander media and also for its biological evaluation.

  12. Technological advances in bovine mastitis diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carla M; Freitas, Paulo P; Bexiga, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economic burden for dairy farmers and preventive control measures are crucial for the sustainability of any dairy business. The identification of etiological agents is necessary in controlling the disease, reducing risk of chronic infections and targeting antimicrobial therapy. The suitability of a detection method for routine diagnosis depends on several factors, including specificity, sensitivity, cost, time in producing results, and suitability for large-scale sampling of milk. This article focuses on current methodologies for identification of mastitis pathogens and for detection of inflammation, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Emerging technologies, such as transcriptome and proteome analyses and nano- and microfabrication of portable devices, offer promising, sensitive methods for advanced detection of mastitis pathogens and biomarkers of inflammation. The demand for alternative, fast, and reliable diagnostic procedures is rising as farms become bigger. Several examples of technological and scientific advances are summarized which have given rise to more sensitive, reliable and faster diagnostic results.

  13. Origin of Fluorescence in 11-cis Locked Bovine Rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laricheva, Elena N; Gozem, Samer; Rinaldi, Silvia; Melaccio, Federico; Valentini, Alessio; Olivucci, Massimo

    2012-08-14

    The excited state lifetime of bovine rhodopsin (Rh) increases from ca. 100 fs to 85 ps when the C11═C12 bond of its chromophore is locked by a cyclopentene moiety (Rh5). To explain such an increase, we employed ab initio multiconfigurational quantum chemistry to construct computer models of Rh and Rh5 and to investigate the shape of their excited state potential energy surfaces in a comparative way. Our results show that the observed Rh5 fluorescence (λmax(f) = 620 nm) is due to a previously unreported locally excited intermediate whose lifetime is controlled by a small energy barrier. The analysis of the properties and decay path of such an intermediate provides useful information for engineering rhodopsin variants with augmented fluorescence efficiencies.

  14. Similarity of Bovine Rotavirus Receptor and Human Rotavirus Receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琦华; 訾自强; 潘菊芬; 徐燕

    2004-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody against bovine rotavirus (BRV) receptor (BRV-R-mAb) was used to explore the similarity between the receptors of BRV and human rotavirus (HRV). ELISA, dot immunobinding assay, cell protection assay, solid-phase assay and immunohistochemistry method were applied. BRV-R-mAb bound both anti-BRV IgG and anti-HRV IgG respectively and could protect MA 104 cells against BRV and HRV challenges. Immunohistochemistry test showed that there were rotavirus receptors on the surfaces of foetal intestinal, tracheal mucosa and MA 104 cells membrane. We purified the rotavirus receptors on MA 104 ceils, which could bind both BRV and HRV in vitro. It is concluded that BRV receptor and HRV receptor are homogenous proteins and can be recognized by both BRV and HRV.

  15. Study of cultured bovine capsular bag in pure ocular tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; LI Qiu-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ The proliferation, differentiation and fibrosis of lens epithelia cells (LECs) is mainly responsible for posterior capsular opacification (PCO). From the primary culture of LECs to the culture of lens capsular bag, the models of posterior capsular opacification have been developed. At present, the most commonly used model is cell culture in medium with serum. But the culture in pure ocular tissue has not been reported. Therefore, we established a new model of posterior capsular opacification-culturing bovine lens capsular bag in pure ocular tissue to exclude the role of serum. Our study established a new culture method to investigate the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of lens epithelia cells in the aqueous humor with or without lens cortex and vitreous humor. The purpose of the study is to model posterior capsular opacification in vivo as closely as possible and to discuss the influence of ocular tissue on posterior capsular opacification.

  16. Effects of Cryoprotective Agents on the Bovine Articular Chondrocyte Viability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the process of choice for long term preservation of cells and tissues. In this study, the effects of cryoprotective agents, dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), glycerol and 1,2-propanediol on the bovine articular chondrocyte viability were examined experimentally. The CPA was added at the concentrations of 0. 6. 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 mol/I and at 4℃ and 37℃ and removed at 37℃ in one-step. CPA stepwise addition and removal at 0. 6 and 1. 2 mol/L and at 37℃ was also tested as an alternative protocol. Cell volume excursion during DMSO addition and removal was estimated and correlated well with cell survival rates. Solution makeup affects cell survival rate and a stepwise protocol can improve the cell survival rates significantly.

  17. Bovine milk osteopontin - Targeting bacterial adhesion for biofilm control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mathilde Frost; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Schlafer, Sebastian

    Self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning does usually not result in complete biofilm removal, due to the complex oral anatomy and the strong adhesion of the biofilm to the tooth. Therefore, different supportive measures are employed, most of which aim at the chemical eradication of bacteria...... in dental biofilms. As their bactericidal action impacts the entire oral microflora, agents that inhibit biofilm formation without killing bacteria, such as the bovine milk protein osteopontin, have gained increasing attention. Here, we investigate the adhesion of 8 bacterial species associated with dental.......05). ), as determined by two-sample t-tests. The broad range anti-adhesive effect of osteopontin on dental bacterial strains might explain the reduced biofilm formation observed and be exploited in vivo for increased caries control....

  18. Inactivation of bovine immunodeficiency virus by photodynamic therapy with HMME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Yin; Yingxin Li; Zhaohui Zou; Wentao Qiao; Xue Yao; Yang Su; Hongyan Guo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) can provide the basis theory for photoinactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To assess the protection of HMME-PDT on the cell line Cf2Th infected with BIVR29 by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazol-2-yl-3,5-di-phenytetrazolium bromide (MTT) with power density of 5 and 25 mW/cm2 and energy density from 0.6 to 3 J/cm. To observe the inhibition of membrane fusion using a new reporter cell line BIVE by fluorescence microscope. HMME-PDT has significant protectant effects on Cf2Th-BIVR29 with both power densities, especially in the group of high power density. Fluorescent microscope shows that there is no significant difference between the group of PDT and control, which means PDT could not inhibit the BIV-mediated membrane fusion.

  19. STAPHYLOCOCCAL MASTITIS IN BOVINES AND SOME PROPERTIES OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ARSHAD, G. MUHAMMAD1, M. SIDDIQUE, M. ASHRAF AND H.A. KHAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples of 100 clinically mastitic bovines (50 each from buffaloes and cows were processed for bacterial isolation. A total of 90 bacterial isolates, including 33 of staphylococci and 57 of other bacterial species were recovered. Of the 33 staphylococcal isolates, 23 were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and 10 as Staphylococcus epidermidis. All Staphylococcus aureus isolates were positive for deoxyribonuclease and mannitol fermentation test and produced ß-haemolysis on blood agar. All Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were negative to these tests and failed to produce ß-haemolysis on blood agar containing 5% sheep erythrocytes. Penicillin resistance was detected in 13(56.5% isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 8(80% isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Penicillinase was produced by 4 of the 13 penicillin resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 2 of the 8 penicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates.

  20. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, M.St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1984-06-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed.

  1. Life-Threatening Lactation or "Bovine" Ketoacidosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, David J; Benson, Pat

    2016-08-15

    Lactation or "bovine" ketoacidosis is a rare cause of raised anion gap metabolic acidosis whereby a perfect storm of negative calorie balance (starvation/glucose preferentially used for milk production) and insulin resistance (counter regulatory stress hormone release/infection) leads to a dysregulated ketogenic state. We present a case of life-threatening lactation-related ketoacidosis in a patient 9 weeks postpartum, who presented to the emergency department with an arterial pH of 6.88, HCO3 of 5.8 mmol/L and blood ketone level of 5.8 mmol/L. Treatment consists of aggressive glucose loading, triggering supraphysiologic endogenous insulin release, and subsequent inhibition of ketone body formation. PMID:27310899

  2. Vitrification of Bovine Oocytes by Open Pulled Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-en; ZENG Shen-ming; WU Tong-yi; MENG Qing-gang; ZHANG Zhong-cheng; CHEN Yong-fu

    2002-01-01

    Bovine oocytes cultured in vitro for 6 hours or 22 hours were cryopreserved in different vitrification solutions (EFS40, EFS50, EDFS30 or EDFS40) by the two-step method with OPS (open pulled straw).The best results were achieved by using EDFS30 to cryopreserve the oocytes either for in vitro fertilization or for chemical activation. The blastocyst rates were 12% and 17% in 6 hour and 22 hour cultures respectively following in vitro fertilization. If frozen-thawed oocytes were continued in culture up to 24 hours, and were activated by chemicals, the blastocyst rates were 22% and 24% in 6-hour and 22-hour groups respectively.There were no statistical differences between frozen and fresh oocytes (P > 0.05).

  3. Comparison of dosimetry gels prepared by agar and bovine gelatine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağsöz, M. E.; Korkut, Ö.; Alemdar, N.; Aktaş, S.; Çalı, E. B.; Kantarcı, M.

    2016-04-01

    Gel dosimeters are unique materials capable of showing three dimensional (3D) dose distributions of therapeutic or diagnostic exposures. Fricke gel dosimeters can be considered as chemical dosimeters that rely on a radiation-induced chemical reaction. Dose distribution of Fricke solutions containing Fe+2 ions determines the transformation of acidic, oxygen saturated Fe+2 ions to Fe+3 ions by the ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions. In this study we produced two different types of gel dosimeters using agar and bovine gelatin with similar fabrication methods. We compared the magnetic resonance (MR) T1 imaging responses of these two gel dosimeters to acquire a dose dependency of MR intensities. In conclusion agar gel dosimeters found to be produced easily and more consistent.

  4. The HIST1 Locus Escapes Reprogramming in Cloned Bovine Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungkuk Min

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic reprogramming is necessary in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos in order to erase the differentiation-associated epigenetic marks of donor cells. However, such epigenetic memories often persist throughout the course of clonal development, thus decreasing cloning efficiency. Here, we explored reprogramming-refractory regions in bovine SCNT blastocyst transcriptomes. We observed that histone genes residing in the 1.5 Mb spanning the cow HIST1 cluster were coordinately downregulated in SCNT blastocysts. In contrast, both the nonhistone genes of this cluster, and histone genes elsewhere remained unaffected. This indicated that the downregulation was specific to HIST1 histone genes. We found that, after trichostatin A treatment, HIST1 histone genes were derepressed, and DNA methylation at their promoters was decreased to the level of in vitro fertilization embryos. Therefore, our results indicate that the reduced expression of HIST1 histone genes is a consequence of poor epigenetic reprogramming in SCNT blastocysts.

  5. Honey shows potent inhibitory activity against the bovine testes hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Sahin, Huseyin; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Kübra

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-hyaluronidase activities of honeys from different botanical origins honeys in order to determine their anti-inflammatory properties. The total phenolic contents, total flavonoids and total tannin levels of six types of honey, chestnut, oak, heather, pine, buckwheat and mixed blossom, were determined. Concentration-related inhibition values were tested turbidimetrically on bovine testis hyaluronidase (BTHase) as IC50 (mg/mL). All honeys exhibited various concentration-dependent degrees of inhibition against BTHase. Inhibition values varied significantly depending on honeys' levels of phenolic contents, flavonoid and tannin. The honeys with the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity were oak, chestnut and heather. In conclusion, polyphenol-rich honeys have high anti-hyaluronidase activity, and these honeys have high protective and complementary potential against hyaluronidase-induced anti-inflammatory failures. PMID:26076195

  6. Ultrasound Backscattering Is Anisotropic in Bovine Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, Satu I; Liukkonen, Jukka; Tiitu, Virpi; Virén, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2015-07-01

    Collagen, proteoglycans and chondrocytes can contribute to ultrasound scattering in articular cartilage. However, anisotropy of ultrasound scattering in cartilage is not fully characterized. We investigate this using a clinical intravascular ultrasound device with ultrasound frequencies of 9 and 40 MHz. Osteochondral samples were obtained from intact bovine patellas, and cartilage was imaged in two perpendicular directions: through articular and lateral surfaces. At both frequencies, ultrasound backscattering was higher (p < 0.05) when measured through the lateral surface of cartilage. In addition, the composition and structure of articular cartilage were investigated with multiple reference methods involving light microscopy, digital densitometry, polarized light microscopy and Fourier infrared imaging. Reference methods indicated that acoustic anisotropy of ultrasound scattering arises mainly from non-uniform distribution of chondrocytes and anisotropic orientation of collagen fibers. To conclude, ultrasound backscattering in articular cartilage was found to be anisotropic and dependent on the frequency in use. PMID:25933711

  7. Assembly and structure of neurofilaments isolated from bovine spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟向军; 陈建国; 刘洁; 庞世瑾; 翟中和

    1999-01-01

    Neurofilaments (NFs) are neuron-specific intermediate filaments. The NFs were isolated from bovine spinal cord by differential centrifugation. The NFs were detected with electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Under STM, two kinds of sidearm of NFs were revealed: one was short, the other was long. They were arrayed along the 10-nm width core filaments one by one. The intervals between two adjacent long sidearms or two short sidearms were 20—22 nm, while those between two adjacent long and short sidearms were 10—11 nm. It was proposed that the rod domain of NF triplet prnteins was 3/4-staggered. The assembly properties of NF triplet proteins were also studied. Immuno-colloidal-gold labeling assay showed that NF-M and NF-H are able to co-assemble into long filaments with NF-L. NF-M and NF-H can also co-constitute into winding filaments.

  8. Enriching the bovine microsatellite Radiation Hybrid map with AFLP® markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Williams

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic maps of ordered markers and expressed sequences are basic tools for the identification and positional cloning of QTLs and genes involved in economic traits in farm animals. The analysis of donor/hamster Radiation Hybrid (RH panels represent a powerful method to map genes ESTs and markers. RH maps are generally characterised and anchored to linkage maps using SSR markers employing a quite large experimental effort. In addition, the number of available SSRs may in some case be insufficient to assemble complete RH maps, particularly in high-resolution panels. We have adapted the high-throughput AFLP® technology (Vos et al., 1995 to the typing of RH cell lines, and have used it to increase the number of anchor points in the bovine RH map.

  9. Morphology of preovulatory bovine follicles as related to oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loos, F A; Bevers, M M; Dieleman, S J; Kruip, T A

    1991-03-01

    Thirty-three preovulatory bovine oocytes and their follicles were collected during the period of final maturation in normally cyclic cows. Cell density of the membrana granulosa, mitotic index of the membrana granulosa, and the occurrence of eosinophilic granulocytes around the basal membrane as well as the maturational stage of the oocyte were determined. Cell density decreased during the period of final maturation. Mitotic indices also decreased after an initial high level in the first hours of the final maturation. Eosinophilic granulocytes were only seen during the last hours of final maturation. The maturational stages of the oocytes were related to distinct maturational stages of the follicular wall as determined by morphological characteristics. We propose a scoring system for the maturity of the follicular wall based on cell density, presence of mitotic figures and the presence of eosinophilic granulocytes outside the vascular compartment. PMID:16726922

  10. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  11. High prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus 'bovine genotype' in faecal samples from domestic pigs at a farm where bovine trichomonosis has not been reported for over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kai; Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Gilchrist, Katrina; Brown, Graeme; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-09-15

    Bovine venereal trichomonosis caused by the flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is a notifiable disease in Australia. While, T. foetus is pathogenic in both cattle and cats, it has long been established that the same T. foetus colonises the stomach, caecum and nasal cavity of pigs without apparent clinical significance. Multi-locus genotyping grouped the non-pathogenic porcine T. foetus with the pathogenic 'bovine genotype', rather than with the 'feline genotype' T. foetus. Bovine trichomonosis is now uncommon due to wide-spread use of artificial insemination, however, whether T. foetus remains prevalent in pigs where bovine trichomonosis has been eradicated remains unknown. We surveyed faecal samples from pigs farmed in close proximity with T. foetus-negative cattle. The Modified Diamond's Medium assay used were 77.4% (24/31) positive for trichomonads and 64.50% (20/31) were T. foetus-positive based on real-time PCR and conventional PCR. An axenic reference strain of T. foetus, designated PIG30/1 was established. In addition, a novel trichomonad ITS rDNA, PIG12, closely related to sequences from Trichomitus spp is reported. Multi-locus genotyping at nine loci matched PIG30/1 to the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus. In conclusion, cross-species transmission of T. foetus between pigs and cows from environmental exposure of T. foetus-contaminated pig faeces is unlikely. Domestic T. foetus-positive pigs possess a negligible risk of a successful T. foetus transmission event to cattle. PMID:26315128

  12. Molecular and biochemical studies on bovine ephemeral fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed S. Thabet; Emad W. Ghazy; Mohamed A. Nayel; Mohamed Abo-Elkhair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF in cattle has been reported to be associated with a range of biochemical changes which are similar to those seen in milk fever. This study aimed to clarify the biochemical alterations that associate infection of cattle with BEF with special references to the mechanisms involved in the development of hypocalcemia. The study was conducted on 30 cases of cattle infected with BEF based on the characteristic clinical signs which were confirmed by isolation of virus and RT-PCR. Another 6 healthy cows were used in the study as control. The evaluated parameters included biochemical variables such as serum values of total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, glucose (Glu, total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa, inorganic phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Hormonal profile included parathyroid hormone (PTH, insulin (Ins, and cortisol (Cor. The results showed that BEF-infected animals demonstrated a significant decrease (P<0.05 in serum concentrations of TP, Glo, iCa, P, Na, K, BUN and ALP while the mean values of serum levels of Glu and Cl were significantly increased (P<0.05. The mean values of serum levels of PTH were significantly decreased (P<0.05 while serum concentrations of Ins and Cor showed a significant increase. It was concluded that the clinical signs of bovine ephemeral fever are related to the hypocalcemia resulting from suppression of parathyroid hormone which seems to be mediated by respiratory alkalosis caused by the disease. This explanation needs future studies to provide a direct link between measurement of blood indicators of acid-base status, blood biochemical parameters and urine analysis. However, this work can provide a good knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease that can lead to better management and proper treatment.

  13. Transcriptional analysis implicates endoplasmic reticulum stress in bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Tang

    Full Text Available Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disease of cattle. To date, the disease process is still poorly understood. In this study, brain tissue samples from animals naturally infected with BSE were analysed to identify differentially regulated genes using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays. A total of 230 genes were shown to be differentially regulated and many of these genes encode proteins involved in immune response, apoptosis, cell adhesion, stress response and transcription. Seventeen genes are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and 10 of these 17 genes are involved in stress related responses including ER chaperones, Grp94 and Grp170. Western blotting analysis showed that another ER chaperone, Grp78, was up-regulated in BSE. Up-regulation of these three chaperones strongly suggests the presence of ER stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR in BSE. The occurrence of ER stress was also supported by changes in gene expression for cytosolic proteins, such as the chaperone pair of Hsp70 and DnaJ. Many genes associated with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the autophagy-lysosome system were differentially regulated, indicating that both pathways might be activated in response to ER stress. A model is presented to explain the mechanisms of prion neurotoxicity using these ER stress related responses. Clustering analysis showed that the differently regulated genes found from the naturally infected BSE cases could be used to predict the infectious status of the samples experimentally infected with BSE from the previous study and vice versa. Proof-of-principle gene expression biomarkers were found to represent BSE using 10 genes with 94% sensitivity and 87% specificity.

  14. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs. PMID:26597189

  15. Molecular characterization of encephalitic bovine listeriosis from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn A; Fritzen, Juliana T T; Queiroz, Gustavo R; Oliveira, Rodrigo A M; Alfieri, Alice F; Di Santis, Giovana W; Lisbôa, Júlio A N; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2014-01-01

    Reports of bovine listeriosis in Brazil are uncommon, being restricted to citations within retrospective studies, resulting in scarce documented information of this important disease of cattle. This manuscript describes the molecular findings associated with spontaneous encephalitic listeriosis in two steers from distinct herds within the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Both animals demonstrated altered consciousness suggestive of brain stem dysfunctions and died a few days after the initial onset of disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were designed to target specific genes of infectious neurological agents of cattle. These included bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5), ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), Listeria monocytogenes, and Histophilus somni. Rabies virus was discarded in evaluations done at the official state diagnostic laboratory. Gross alterations were insignificant; histopathology demonstrated rhombencephalitis associated with macrophage-predominant, multifocal to coalescing microabscesses and extensive perivascular cuffings in both steers. The L. monocytogenes PCR assay amplified the 172-bp amplicon of the listeriolysin gene from the brain stem of both animals and from the telencephalon, thalamus, and cerebellum of one of them. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the strains derived from this study clustered with known strains of L. monocytogenes lineage I. The BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, OvHV-2, and H. somni PCR assays were negative. These results confirm the participation of L. monocytogenes lineage I in the etiopathogenesis of the neurological disease herein described and represent the first complete description of encephalitic listeriosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23832703

  16. Prevention and treatment of influenza with hyperimmune bovine colostrum antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wy Ching Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of specific vaccines and antiviral drugs, influenza continues to impose a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Passive transfer of specific antibody (Ab may provide a useful means of preventing or treating disease in unvaccinated individuals or those failing to adequately seroconvert, especially now that resistance to antiviral drugs is on the rise. However, preparation of appropriate Ab in large scale, quickly and on a yearly basis is viewed as a significant logistical hurdle for this approach to control seasonal influenza. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bovine colostrum, which contains approximately 500 g of IgG per milking per animal, has been investigated as a source of polyclonal antibody for delivery to the respiratory tract. IgG and F(ab'2 were purified from the hyperimmune colostrum of cows vaccinated with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 vaccine and were shown to have high hemagglutination-inhibitory and virus-neutralizing titers. In BALB/c mice, a single administration of either IgG or F(ab'2 could prevent the establishment of infection with a sublethal dose of PR8 virus when given as early as 7 days prior to exposure to virus. Pre-treated mice also survived an otherwise lethal dose of virus, the IgG- but not the F(ab'2-treated mice showing no weight loss. Successful reduction of established infection with this highly virulent virus was also observed with a single treatment 24 hr after virus exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that a novel and commercially-scalable technique for preparing Ab from hyperimmune bovine colostrum could allow production of a valuable substitute for antiviral drugs to control influenza with the advantage of eliminating the need for daily administration.

  17. Prevention and Treatment of Influenza with Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wy Ching; Wong, Victor; Muller, Brian; Rawlin, Grant; Brown, Lorena E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of specific vaccines and antiviral drugs, influenza continues to impose a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Passive transfer of specific antibody (Ab) may provide a useful means of preventing or treating disease in unvaccinated individuals or those failing to adequately seroconvert, especially now that resistance to antiviral drugs is on the rise. However, preparation of appropriate Ab in large scale, quickly and on a yearly basis is viewed as a significant logistical hurdle for this approach to control seasonal influenza. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, bovine colostrum, which contains approximately 500 g of IgG per milking per animal, has been investigated as a source of polyclonal antibody for delivery to the respiratory tract. IgG and F(ab')2 were purified from the hyperimmune colostrum of cows vaccinated with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) vaccine and were shown to have high hemagglutination-inhibitory and virus-neutralizing titers. In BALB/c mice, a single administration of either IgG or F(ab')2 could prevent the establishment of infection with a sublethal dose of PR8 virus when given as early as 7 days prior to exposure to virus. Pre-treated mice also survived an otherwise lethal dose of virus, the IgG- but not the F(ab')2-treated mice showing no weight loss. Successful reduction of established infection with this highly virulent virus was also observed with a single treatment 24 hr after virus exposure. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that a novel and commercially-scalable technique for preparing Ab from hyperimmune bovine colostrum could allow production of a valuable substitute for antiviral drugs to control influenza with the advantage of eliminating the need for daily administration. PMID:21049034

  18. Steroid hormones in bovine oviductal fluid during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Julie; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Aprahamian, Fanny; Mermillod, Pascal; Saint-Dizier, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ovarian steroid hormones are major regulators of the physiology of the oviduct and reproductive events occurring within the oviduct. To establish a whole steroid profiling of the bovine oviductal fluid (OF) during the estrous cycle, contralateral and ipsilateral (to the corpus luteum or preovulatory follicle) oviducts were classified into four stages of the estrous cycle (n = 18-27 cows per stage): postovulatory (Post-ov), mid-luteal (Mid-lut), late luteal (Late-lut), and preovulatory on the basis of the ovarian morphology and intrafollicular steroid concentrations. Steroids were extracted from pools of 150 to 200 μL OF (three to 10 cows per pool; three to four pools per "stage × side" group), purified, fractioned by high-performance liquid chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of progesterone (P4) in ipsilateral OF increased from Post-ov (56.9 ± 13.4 ng/mL) to Mid-lut (120.3 ± 34.3 ng/mL), then decreased from Late-lut (76.7 ± 1.8 ng/mL) to Pre-ov (6.3 ± 1.7 ng/mL), and were four to 16 times higher than in contralateral OF. Most P4 metabolites followed similar patterns of variation. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2) were significantly higher at Pre-ov (290.5 ± 63.2 pg/mL) compared with all other stages (environment was evidenced in the bovine OF. These results could be useful to improve media for IVF, embryo development, and culture of oviductal cells. PMID:27262884

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  20. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.

  1. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  2. Research on Growth Behavior of Embryos for Bovine and Murine on Primary Murine Embryos Fibroblast Cell Feeder Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li-long; XIAO Mei; FENG Xiu-Liang; DOU Zhong-ying; QIU Huai; YANG Qi; LEI An-min; YANG Chun-rong; GAO Zhi-min

    2002-01-01

    The difference in growth behavior between bovine embryos and murine embryos was studied on PMEF(primary murine embryos fibroblast)feeder layer. The results showed as follows: With embryos having attached, bovine embryonic trophoblast formed a transparent membranous structure covering on inner cell mass (ICM), however, murine embryonic trophoblast formed disc structure. Bovine embryos formed four kinds of ICM colonies with different morphology including the mass-like, the net-like, the stream-like and the mixture-like colonies. Compared with Murine ICM, the bovine ICM grew more fast. So, the bovine ICM was passaged at first after a culture of approximately 5 - 6 days in vitro, but murine ICM was passaged at first after an attachment of 3 - 4 days on PMEF feeder layer. The mixture colonies of bovine ICM differentiated very early, while the others differentiated very late. Most ICM-like mass of Bovine grew in a defined spot, but bovine ICMs like stream and ICMs like net proliferated fast and dispersed quickly. We found that the single blastomeres derived from late bovine morula and late murine morula formed sub-blastophere; moreover, the bovine ICM cell would differentiate rapidly if the trophoblast was removed.

  3. Detection of streptomycin residues in local meat of bovine and ovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From meat retails in Mosul province, forty-five meat samples of local ovine and bovine (23 bovine samples and 22 ovine samples were collected. The period of collection was during November 2010 to May 2011, by means of multistage random sampling for detection of streptomycin residues. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for detection of streptomycin residues. The results revealed that eleven ovine meat samples (50% were positive to streptomycin residue, with a mean value 35.06 µg kg-1, while 14 bovine meat samples (60.86% were positive to residual streptomycin with a mean value 59.56 µg kg-1. From the results, it is clear that all tested meat samples (ovine and bovine were safe enough for human consumption.

  4. Digital image analysis and identification of eggs from bovine parasitic nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.

    1996-01-01

    Computer-assisted microscopy and multivariate statistics were used to establish and evaluate a procedure for identification of bovine strongylid eggs. Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora, Haemonchus placei, Trichostrongylus axei, and Oesophagostomum radiatum eggs were obtained from faeces vo...

  5. Validation of a housekeeping gene for use in bovine vascular gene expression studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of ungulate vasculature to ergot alkaloids while grazing endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) affects vasoactivity and causes vasoconstriction. Bovine vascular gene expression as affected by exposure to ergot alkaloids in tall fescue is largely un...

  6. HETEROGENEOUS RECEPTOR-BINDING OF CLASSICAL QUATERNARY MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS .1. BOVINE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; ENSING, K; INTHOUT, WG; DEZEEUW, RA; ZAAGSMA, J

    1991-01-01

    In competition experiments with the teritiary radioligand [H-3]dexetimide, classical quaternary muscarinic antagonists like ipratropium bromide and N-methylscopolamine bromide distinguished two muscarinic binding sites in bovine brain (total brain minus cerebellum) membranes, in contrast to their te

  7. Reflections on the 24 years durability of an isolate tricuspid bovine pericardium IMC/Braile bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Solange; Menardi, Antonio Carlos; Alves Junior, Lafaiete; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Évora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    We were challenged by the experience of one patient reoperation for a bioprosthetic bovine pericardium degenerative stenosis, 24 years after implantation. This bioprosthesis was implanted due to tricuspid valve bacterial staphylococcal endocarditis after septic abortion.

  8. Binding of a new bisphenol analogue, bisphenol S to bovine serum albumin and calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Interactions of bisphenol S, a new bisphenol analogue with bovine serum albumin and calf thymus DNA were investigated using different spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling calculation. According to the analysis of experimental and theoretical data, we concluded that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding primarily mediated the binding processes of bisphenol S with bovine serum albumin and DNA. In addition, the electrostatic force should not be excluded. Molecular modeling studies indicated that the binding site of bisphenol S to bovine serum albumin located in the subdomain IB, while bisphenol S was a groove binder of DNA. In addition, BPS did not obviously induce second structural changes of bovine serum albumin, but it induced a conformational change of calf thymus DNA.

  9. Duration of active and colostrum-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, M F; McClurkin, A W

    1978-01-01

    Duration of active and colostrum-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus was studied in 14 calves. Five calves born with actively induced antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus retained high titers during the year of observation. Colostrum-derived antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus in nine calves declined at an expected rate for the first four to six months of age. However, titers of six of these calves increased at five to eight months of age and either remained constant or increased through one year of age. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody titers of the other three calves declined at a constant rate to less than 1:4 by nine to 12 months of age. PMID:208738

  10. Feasibility of bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) films as biomimetic coating for polymeric biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Seunghwan; Madsen, Jan Busk; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.

    2013-01-01

    Feasibility of bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) films generated via spontaneous adsorption from aqueous solutions onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polystyrene (PS) surfaces have been investigated as biomimetic coatings for polymeric biomaterials. Two attributes as biomedical coatings, namely a...

  11. PCR assay with host specific internal control forStaphylococcus aureus from bovine milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Cantekin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of the most important and common pathogens of bovine mastitis. Polymerase Chain Reaction is frequently proposed in the diagnosis of S. aureus directly from milk samples instead of classical culture. However, false-negative results may occur in the polymerase chain reaction analysis performed directly from clinical material. For the purpose of disclosing the false negative results, the use of internal amplification controls can be beneficial. Therefore, in this study a new polymerase chain reaction technique with host specific internal amplification control was developed by optimizing S. aureus-specific primers in combination with bovine specific primers. The effectiveness of the developed technique in this study was attempted in milk samples from bovine subclinical mastitis. This technique has the potential to detect S. aureus from bovine milk samples or dairy products.

  12. Electric Field-induced Conformational Transition of Bovine Serum Albumin from α -helix to β -sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The irreversible conformational transition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from α -helix to β -sheet, induced by electric field near the electrode surface, was monitored by circular dichroism (CD) with a long optical path thin layer cell (LOPTLC).

  13. Bovine Calcined Bone for the Repair of Radial Defect in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing segmental bone defect and seek a new artificial bone substitute material, the bovine calcined bone (450℃,32 h) was implanted into the 10-mm middle radial defect of rabbits with tricalcium phosphate ceramics as the control. By using the methods of histology, radiology and biomechanics their osteogenic ability were measured. It was found that the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing bone defect was better than that of tricalcium phosphate ceramics. The histological Nilsson′s scores at 3rd, 5th, 9th week after operation were significantly increased (P<0.01). At 12th week after operation the bending strength of radius in experimental group was much higher than that of control group and turned normal. It was suggested that bovine calcined bone is an ideal artificial bone substitute material with good ability of repairing segmental bone defect and some degree of mechanical strength.

  14. A hereditary disposition for bovine peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette B.; Agerholm, Jorgen S.; Christensen, Knud;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate...

  15. Transcriptomic and genomic evidence for Streptococcus agalactiae adaptation to the bovine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bovine mastitis, which is the dominant health disorder affecting milk production within the dairy industry and is responsible for substantial financial losses to the industry worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence for host adaptation (ecotypes) within S. agalactiae, with both bovine and human sourced isolates showing a high degree of distinctiveness, suggesting differing ability to cause mastitis. Here, we (i) generate RNAseq data from three S. agalactiae isolates (two putative bovine adapted and one human) and (ii) compare publicly available whole genome shotgun sequence data from an additional 202 isolates, obtained from six host species, to elucidate possible genetic factors/adaptations likely important for S. agalactiae growth and survival in the bovine mammary gland. Results Tests for differential expression showed distinct expression profiles for the three isolates when grown in bovine milk. A key finding for the two putatively bovine adapted isolates was the up regulation of a lactose metabolism operon (Lac.2) that was strongly correlated with the bovine environment (all 36 bovine sourced isolates on GenBank possessed the operon, in contrast to only 8/151 human sourced isolates). Multi locus sequence typing of all genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis using conserved operon genes from 44 S. agalactiae isolates and 16 additional Streptococcus species provided strong evidence for acquisition of the operon via multiple lateral gene transfer events, with all Streptococcus species known to be major causes of mastitis, identified as possible donors. Furthermore, lactose fermentation tests were only positive for isolates possessing Lac.2. Combined, these findings suggest that lactose metabolism is likely an important adaptation to the bovine environment. Additional up regulation in the bovine adapted isolates included genes involved in copper homeostasis, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine

  16. Targeting exogenous GDNF gene to the bovine somatic cell beta-casein locus for the production of transgenic bovine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X M; Luo, F H; Ding, H M; Li, B; Zhang, J J; Wu, Y J

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is currently being directed toward methods for producing recombinant human proteins in the mammary glands of genetically modified transgenic livestock. However, the expression of inserted genes in transgenic animals is variable and often very low because of the randomness of the site of transgene integration. One possible strategy to avoid the expression problem associated with random integration is to use site-specific integration by targeting integration to a high expression locus and, thereby, to improve expression of the transferred gene. In the present study, we focused on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a novel type of neurotrophic factor first cloned in 1993. Research has shown that GDNF may have potential applications in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other diseases of the central nervous system since it acts as a protective factor for central dopaminergic neurons. Here, we constructed a gene targeting vector to knock-in the human GDNF gene at the bovine beta-casein gene locus as a first step to producing transgenic animals with a high level of expression of human GDNF protein in their mammary glands. Bovine fetal fibroblast cells were transfected with linearized pNRTCNbG by electroporation. Three cell clones were identified with successful targeting to the beta-casein locus; and were confirmed using both polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing. Gene-targeted cells were used as nuclear donors; a total of 161 embryos were reconstructed, 23 of which developed to the blastocyst stage. These blastocysts were transferred to 8 recipient cows, but no offspring were obtained. PMID:26634460

  17. Comparison of albumin receptors expressed on bovine and human group G streptococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Raeder, R; Otten, R. A.; Boyle, M D

    1991-01-01

    The albumin receptor expressed by bovine group G streptococci was extracted and affinity purified. The protein was characterized for species reactivity, and monospecific antibodies were prepared to the purified receptor. The bovine group G albumin receptor was compared functionally, antigenically, and for DNA homology with the albumin-binding protein expressed by human group G streptococci. In agreement with previous reports, the albumin-binding activity of human strains was mediated by a uni...

  18. Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Castro Abreu Pinto; Natália Silva Costa; Ana Beatriz de Almeida Corrêa; Ivi Cristina Menezes Oliveira; Marcos Correa de Mattos; Alexandre Soares Rosado; Leslie Claude Benchetrit

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance genes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated ...

  19. A study of the trends in the Maltese bovine husbandry sector following European Union accession

    OpenAIRE

    Buttigieg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The creation of one centralised National Livestock Database (NLD) for the islands of Malta and Gozo was of crucial importance in the identification and traceability of bovines from 2002 to date. It was also important in covering legal obligations following Malta’s accession to the European Union (EU) in May 2004. This thesis describes how the processes of identification, registration and traceability of bovines have changed following Malta’s accession to the EU. The validation and integration...

  20. Effect of oocyte quality and activation protocols on bovine embryo development following intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Ömer; KÜPLÜLÜ, Şükrü; AĞCA, Yüksel; POLAT, İbrahim Mert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oocyte quality and activation protocols on the in vitro developmental competence of bovine embryos after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Bovine oocytes were grouped as being of excellent, good, and poor quality. All of the oocytes were activated using a calcium ionophore only, ethanol only, and 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) following calcium ionophore. For the excellent quality oocytes, cleavage rates after ICSI were 70% in...

  1. Investigation of the Thermostability of Bovine Submaxillary Mucin (BSM) and its Impact on Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Busk; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.; Lee, Seunghwan;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine Submaxillary Mucin (BSM) generates thin film layers via spontaneous adsorption onto hydrophobic surfaces such as Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). A characteristic feature of mucin is its tribological- or lubricating properties. Circular dichroismspectrosc......Bovine Submaxillary Mucin (BSM) generates thin film layers via spontaneous adsorption onto hydrophobic surfaces such as Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). A characteristic feature of mucin is its tribological- or lubricating properties. Circular...

  2. Is bovine dentine an appropriate substitute for human dentine in erosion/abrasion tests?

    OpenAIRE

    Wegehaupt, F; Gries, D.; A. Wiegand; Attin, T.

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the dentine wear of primary and permanent human and bovine teeth because of erosion/abrasion and evaluate if bovine dentine is an appropriate substitute for human dentine in further erosion/abrasions tests. Dentine samples from deciduous molars and human third molars as well as from calves' and cattle's lower incisors were prepared and baseline surface profiles were recorded. Each day all samples were demineralized in 1% citric acid, tooth brushed with 100 brushing ...

  3. Shear bond strength and fracture analysis of human vs. bovine teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rüttermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate if bovine enamel and dentin are appropriate substitutes for the respective human hard tooth tissues to test shear bond strength (SBS and fracture analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 sound and caries-free human erupted third molars and 80 freshly extracted bovine permanent central incisors (10 specimens for each group were used to investigate enamel and dentine adhesion of one 2-step self-etch (SE and one 3-step etch and rinse (E&R product. To test SBS the buccal or labial areas were ground plane to obtain appropriate enamel or dentine areas. SE and E&R were applied and SBS was measured prior to and after 500 thermocycles between +5 and +55°C. Fracture analysis was performed for all debonded areas. RESULTS: ANOVA revealed significant differences of enamel and dentin SBS prior to and after thermocycling for both of the adhesives. SBS- of E&R-bonded human enamel increased after thermocycling but SE-bonded did not. Bovine enamel SE-bonded showed higher SBS after TC but E&R-bonded had lower SBS. No differences were found for human dentin SE- or E&R-bonded prior to or after thermocycling but bovine dentin SE-bonded increased whereas bovine dentine E&R-bonded decreased. Considering the totalized and adhesive failures, fracture analysis did not show significances between the adhesives or the respective tooth tissues prior to or after thermocycling. CONCLUSION: Although SBS was different on human and bovine teeth, no differences were found for fracture analysis. This indicates that solely conducted SBS on bovine substrate are not sufficient to judge the perfomance of adhesives, thus bovine teeth are questionnable as a substrate for shear bond testing.

  4. The effect of glyphosate on the frequency of micronuclei in bovine lymphocytes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Piešova Elena

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used broad-spectrum herbicide that has expanded its applications on plant varieties that are genetically modified to tolerate glyphosate treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of micronuclei (MNi) in bovine peripheral lymphocytes after exposure to glyphosate in vitro. The cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN) for estimation of genotoxic activity was used. The obtained results indicate that glyphosate weakly induced micronuclei in bovine pe...

  5. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: The Past Present and Future of Mad Cow Disease in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Schlotthauer, Brent G.

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to provide an introductory, yet thorough, discussion of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and its ramifications in the United States, this paper shall: discuss the history of and explain the disease known as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; explain Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease; outline the history, responsibility and structure of the Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine; provide a comparative analysis of the steps that the United States and other countries ha...

  6. N, N-Dimethylglycine decreases oxidative stress and improves in vitro development of bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshikiyo; Sasaki, Kouya; Somfai, Tamas; Nagai, Takashi; Manabe, Noboru; Edashige, Keisuke

    2016-04-22

    The antioxidant effect of N, N-dimethylglycine (DMG) on in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos was examined. After in vitro fertilization, presumptive zygotes were cultured with or without 0.1 μM DMG under different oxygen tensions. The percentage of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was lowest under a 20% oxygen concentration without DMG, and it was significantly increased (P culture medium significantly (P invitro development of IVP bovine embryos by acting as an antioxidant. PMID:26875568

  7. Synergistic Effect of Insulin on in vitro Development of Immature Bovine Oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Dashtizad; Abd W. Haron; Rosnina Yusoff; Morteza Daliri; Hadi Hajarian; Mehdi Najari; Yap K. Chee; Abas M. Othman

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Development of efficient culture system to support embryonic development would be valuable when quality of produced embryos was important. However, the rate of bovine embryo production in vitro was still lower than expected. Present study, including of three experiments, was carried out to investigate the effect of insulin on nuclear maturation and subsequent development of immature bovine oocytes and in vitro fertilized embryos. Approach: Grade one cumulus-oocyte-complexes...

  8. Species distribution and resistance profiles of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, A.; Stephan, R.; DE ZIEGLER, D.; Johler, S.

    2013-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of bovine intra-mammary infections. They can lead to chronic infections and were reported to significantly increase milk somatic cell counts. The goal of our study was to determine the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of CNS in bovine mastitis milk samples in Switzerland. Between March 2011 and February 2012, a total of 120 CNS were isolated from mastitis milk samples from 117 different animals at 7...

  9. An evaluation on the level of retinoids in the bovine pineal body

    OpenAIRE

    TSIN, ANDREW T.C.; Phillips, Theresa S.; Reiter, Russel J.

    1989-01-01

    Using high performance liquid chromatography, the level of retinoids was determined in the bovine pineal gland, retina, retinal pigment epithelium, cortical and subcortical brain tissues, skeletal muscle and the liver. Similar to the retina, the bovine pineal gland possesses levels of retinol and retinyl esters significantly higher than other brain tissues and muscle. These results are in agreement with the suggestion that the mammalian pineal gland and the retina may be of similar phylogenet...

  10. Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Shanks, Orin C.; Atikovic, Emina; Blackwood, A. Denene; Lu, Jingrang; Noble, Rachel T.; Domingo, Jorge Santo; Seifring, Shawn; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described bovine feces-specific genetic markers and a method for the enumeration of these markers using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Both assays exhibited a range of quantification from 25 to 2 × 106 copies of target DNA, with a coeff...

  11. Effects of different surface treatments on bond strength of an indirect composite to bovine dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Laiza Tatiana Poskus; Rosana Sampaio Meirelles; Victor Blunck Schuina; Liana Matos Ferreira; Eduardo Moreira da Silva; Jose Guilherme Antunes Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several surface treatments could be used to improve the bond strength (BS) between indirect composites and cement. Aim: To evaluate the BS of an indirect composite submitted to different surface treatments, cemented to bovine dentin. Settings and Design: One hundred and fifty conical cavities were prepared in slices of bovine dentin and bulk filled with the composite. Materials and Methods: After curing and removal from the cavity, the restorations were treated according ...

  12. An evaluation of Irish cattle herds with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes M; Ashe S; Collins DM; Power S; Kenny K; Sheahan M; O'Hagan G; More SJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory ...

  13. Bone Forming Potential of An-Organic Bovine Bone Graft: A Cone Beam CT study

    OpenAIRE

    Uzbek, Usman Haider; Rahman, Shaifulizan Ab; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; gillani, syed wasif

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: An-organic bovine bone graft is a xenograft with the potential of bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone density using cone beam computed tomography scans around functional endosseous implant in the region of both augmented maxillary sinus with the an-organic bovine bone graft and the alveolar bone over which the graft was placed to provide space for the implants.

  14. Detection of streptomycin residues in local meat of bovine and ovine

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Abdullah; A. M. Shareef; O. H. Sheet

    2012-01-01

    From meat retails in Mosul province, forty-five meat samples of local ovine and bovine (23 bovine samples and 22 ovine samples) were collected. The period of collection was during November 2010 to May 2011, by means of multistage random sampling for detection of streptomycin residues. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for detection of streptomycin residues. The results revealed that eleven ovine meat samples (50%) were positive to streptomycin residue, with a mean value 35.06...

  15. Bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis and an immunoglobulin G2 protease produced by Porphyromonas levii.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobb, D A; Loeman, H J; Sparrow, D G; Morck, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    Acute interdigital phlegmon (AIP) is a commonly occurring anaerobic bacterial infection in cattle. This study examined in vitro the interaction of bovine polymorphonuclear granulocytic neutrophils (PMN) from blood with bacterial species involved in AIP. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils were purified from whole bovine blood, exposed to one of the three putative etiologic agents of AIP and comparatively assessed for phagocytosis using light microscopy. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella inte...

  16. Cryptosporidium parvum (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) oocyst and sporozoite antigens recognized by bovine colostral antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Tilley, M; Fayer, R; Guidry, A; Upton, S J; Blagburn, B L

    1990-01-01

    Colostral whey from seven hyperimmunized and two control cows (hyperimmune bovine colostrum) was examined by Western immunoblotting for the presence of antibody against oocysts and sporozoites of Cryptosporidium parvum, using rabbit anti-bovine immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG1, IgG2, and IgM antibodies, followed by a horseradish peroxidase goat anti-rabbit polyvalent antibody. Although considerable variation was found in binding activity between cows on different immunization protocols, IgA and I...

  17. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject involves detecting presence or absence of genetic marker associated with trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off-spring from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    subject. The bovine subject is a member of Finnish Ayrshire, Swedish Red and White, or Danish Red cattle breed (claimed). ADVANTAGE - The method efficiently selects bovine subjects with increased resistance to mastitis and thereby avoiding economic losses in connection with animals suffering from mastitis......NOVELTY - Determining (m1) resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject, involves detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of at least one genetic marker that is associated with at least one trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off......-spring from it, where the genetic marker is located on the bovine chromosome BTA11 in the region flanked by and including the zeta-chain associated protein 70kD (ZAP70) and CD8B genes, where the presence or absence of the genetic marker is indicative of mastitis resistance. USE - For determining resistance...

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of lyophilized bovine bone biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of bone grafts in orthopedic, maxillofacial and dental surgery has been growing. Nevertheless, both fresh autografts and frozen allografts have limitations, and therefore, alternative synthetic or natural biomaterials, such as processed and lyophilized bovine bone graft have been developed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of lyophilized bovine bone manufactured in a semi-industrial scale, according to a modifical protocol developed by the authors. METHODS: Samples of bovine cancellous bone were processed according to a protocol developed by Kakiuchi et al., and modified to process samples of bovine cancellous bone. The following trials were performed: in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo acute systemic toxicity, in vivo oral irritation potential, in vitro pyrogenic reaction, and bioburden. RESULTS: The in vitro evaluation of lyophilized bovine cancellous bone revealed an absence of cytotoxicity in 100% of the samples. Regarding in vivo evaluation of acute systemic toxicity, neither macroscopic abnormalities nor deaths were noted in the animals. Pyrogenicity was not greater than 0.125 UE/ml in any of the samples. The bioburden revealed negative results for microbial growth before sterilization. Regarding the oral irritation potential, in vivo evaluation at 24 and 72 hours showed that the animals had no edema or erythema on the oral mucosa. CONCLUSION: The protocol changes established by the authors to prepare lyophilized bovine cancellous bone at a semi-industrial scale is reproducible and yielded a product with excellent biocompatibility.

  19. Identification of bovine doppel protein in testis, ovary and ejaculated spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondena, Marco; Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Comazzi, Stefano; Pocacqua, Vanessa; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Luvoni, Cecilia; Chigioni, Sara; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2005-03-01

    Doppel (Dpl) protein is a recently identified prion-like protein. Although Dpl might be expressed in the brain after prion gene deletion, in both human and mice Dpl is normally expressed only in testis and spermatozoa, where it appears to be involved in male fertility. Little information is available so far about the expression pattern of Dpl in bovines, thus, hampering possible research on the role of this protein in bovine infertility. We have thus, designed, produced and validated through Western blotting a polyclonal antibody against bovine Dpl. With this antibody we then screened bovine tissues for Dpl expression by immunohistochemistry. Ejaculated spermatozoa were screened by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Bovine Dpl was expressed in all the developing stages of germinal cells, from spermatogones to ejaculated spermatozoa, in Sertoli cells and in ovarian follicles (granulosa cells and follicular fluid). Dpl immunoreactivity was also found on other tissues, where endothelial cells, peripheral nerves and scattered lymphocytes stained positive. This distribution pattern suggests that Dpl might be involved in sperm maturation/capacitation in bovines, like it might be in mice. This hypothesis needs to be verified by widespread application of the flow cytometric protocol established in this paper on spermatozoa from animals with reduced fertility. PMID:15710203

  20. Rapid detection of bovine adipose tissue using lateral flow strip assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Gajewski, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    Currently no rapid immunoassays are developed to identify the species content of fat tissue in mixtures. We report a simple protocol enabling the effective detection of bovine fat in highly processed materials using a lateral flow (LF) immunoassay which targets a ruminant-specific muscle protein. A portion (50 gm) of muscle-free fat samples was rendered to separate the molten fat from the proteinaceous residue, then soluble proteins were extracted from the solid residue with 0.5 mol/L NaCl for the LF analysis. The assay could detect 2% bovine fat-in-pork fat, 1% bovine fat-in-porcine meat-and-bone meal, and 0.5% bovine fat-in-soy meal mixtures. Rendered bovine fat could be detected up to 213°C. These results demonstrate that low levels of bovine fat tissue can be detected in processed materials using an immunoassay based on the presence of the muscle protein which serves as a species marker in the fat tissue. PMID:27386108

  1. [Spectroscopic studies on the binding of phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Chen, Chang-Yun; Xie, An-Jian

    2007-09-01

    The binding of phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin under physiological conditions was studied by spectroscopic method. The quenching mechanism of the fluorescence of bovine serum albumin by phenazopyridine hydrochloride was studied with fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The binding constant Kb and the number of binding sites n were determined at different temperatures according to Scatchard equation, and the main binding force was discussed by thermodynamic equations. The effect of the drug on bovine serum albumin conformation was also studied by using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The quenching mechanism of phenazopyridine hydrochloride to bovine serum albumin is static quenching and non-radiation energy transfer. The binding constants Kb at 15, 25 and 37 degrees C are 2.47 x 10(7), 9.15 x 10(6) and 4.36 x 10(6) mol(-1) with one binding site, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of the reaction are DeltaH = -71.2 kJ x mol(-1), and DeltaS = 124.8 J x mol(-1) x K(-1). Binding phenazopyridine hydrochloride to bovine serum albumin is a spontaneous inter-molecular interaction in which entropy increases and Gibbs free energy decreases. The binding distance r between phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin is 1.61 nm according to Forster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The binding force is electrostatic interaction. Phenazopyridine hydrochloride can be deposited and transported by serum protein in vivo. Phenazopyridine hydrochloride does affect the serum protein conformation. PMID:18051539

  2. Human and Bovine Dentin Composition and Its Hybridization Mechanism Assessed by FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. S. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the human and bovine dentin and their interactions with adhesive systems. Ten human (H molars and ten bovine (B teeth were prepared exposing the dentin and then each specimen was divided into two parts. The resulted forty dentin segments were treated either with the total-etch one bottle adhesive (Prime & Bond 2.1, PB or with the single-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno III, X and divided into four groups: HPB (control, HX, BPB, and BX. Each group was analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy before and after the adhesive treatment. Six regions of the Raman spectrum were analyzed and the integrated areas of organic and inorganic peaks were calculated. Bovine untreated specimens showed higher peak area of PO4 3−ν2  content than in human specimens. Human untreated specimens had higher peak areas of PO4 3−ν4 and CO3 2−ν1  contents than in bovine specimens. The peak areas of amide III, CH2, and amide I contents were higher in human than in bovine specimens (before treatments. Treated dentin showed no significant statistical differences between the adhesives for both inorganic and organic contents considering the same substrate. However, the differences found between human and bovine specimens after adhesives application show a reduced accuracy of these substrates as a substitute to the human specimens.

  3. Putative quantitative trait loci associated with the probability of contracting infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Stone, R T

    2006-12-01

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to detect QTL associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in offspring from a Brahman x Hereford sire. The sire was mated to Hereford, Angus, and F1 cows to produce 288 offspring in 1994 and mated to MARC III ((1/4) Hereford, (1/4) Angus, (1/4) Red Poll, and (1/4) Pinzgauer) cows in 1996 to produce 259 offspring (547 animals total). Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis was diagnosed by physical examination in 36 animals of the family. Records included unilateral and bilateral frequency, but not severity. Records were binary: 0 for unaffected and 1 for affected cattle. A putative QTL for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis was identified on chromosome 1, with a maximum F-statistic (F = 10.15; P = 0.0015) at centimorgan 79 of the linkage group. The support interval spanned centimorgans 66 to 110. There was also evidence suggesting the presence of a QTL for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis on chromosome 20, with a maximum F-statistic (F = 10.35; P = 0.0014) at centimorgan 16 of the linkage group. The support interval ranged from centimorgan 2 to 35. This report provides the initial evidence of QTL for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Although a candidate gene was identified for one of the regions of interest, further studies are needed to identify the genetic basis of resistance to the disease. PMID:17093209

  4. Comparison of the copy numbers of bovine leukemia virus in the lymph nodes of cattle with enzootic bovine leukosis and cattle with latent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, Yoshiko; Sugiyama, Emi; Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    To establish a diagnostic index for predicting enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), proviral bovine leukemia virus (BLV) copies in whole blood, lymph nodes and spleen were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Cattle were divided into two groups, EBL and BLV-infected, based on meat inspection data. The number of BLV copies in all specimens of EBL cattle was significantly higher than those of BLV-infected cattle (p cattle had more than 1,000 copies/10 ng DNA, whereas lymph nodes from BLV-infected cattle did not. These findings suggest that the cattle harboring more than 1,000 BLV copies may be diagnosed with EBL.

  5. Single-Tube Single-Enzyme Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Pooled Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstock, Daniel; Bhudevi, Bodreddigari; Castro, Anthony E.

    2001-01-01

    A reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was developed for use as a diagnostic screening test for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in pooled bovine serum samples. Individual serum samples from 60 dairy cattle herds located in Pennsylvania were evaluated by the microplate virus isolation method, and pooled sera were analyzed by RT-PCR. RT-PCR was sensitive and specific and detected a single viremic serum sample in up to 100 pooled serum samples. RT-PCR analysis of pooled sera pr...

  6. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bedeković Tomislav; Lemo Nina; Lojkić Ivana; Beck Ana; Lojkić Mirko; Madić Josip

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One...

  7. Quality and safety of bovine clones and their products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Y; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Fromentin, G; Berthelot, V; Jurie, C; Bas, P; Dubarry, M; Mialot, J P; Remy, D; Richard, C; Martignat, L; Vignon, X; Renard, J P

    2007-08-01

    A multidisciplinary research programme was developed to get a scientific expertise for the quality assessment of products obtained from cloned livestock. Thirty-seven bovine Holstein female clones of five different genotypes and their products were analysed in comparison with 38 control animals obtained by conventional artificial insemination and raised under the same conditions at the same experimental farm. Animal evaluation included over 150 criteria and more than 10 000 measurements to check the physiological status and health over a 3-year period. All the parameters studied were in the normal range for age and breed, but some significant differences were detected between clone and control groups in terms of delayed onset of puberty in clones, higher neutrophil counts in haematology or lower biochemical plasma concentrations of gamma glutamyl transferase. Milk and meat analyses were conformable to expected values. We, however, found some differences in fatty acid (FA) composition of milk and muscle suggesting a possible deviation in lipid metabolism as assessed by higher delta-9 desaturase activity indexes in both milk and muscles from clones compared with controls. Repeated muscle biopsies in the semitendinosus muscle of the same animals demonstrated a higher oxidative activity in muscle of young clones (8 months of age) compared with controls, suggesting a delayed muscle maturation in clones. Nutritional evaluation of milk and meat using the rat feeding trials did not show any difference between clone and control products for food intake, growth rate, body composition of the rats, nor for possible allergenicity. Possible reactivation of bovine endogenous retroviruses (BERVs) was analysed and compared between normal and cloned cattle. As expected, these BERV sequences are not transcribed and no RNA was detected in the blood of clones, donor animals or controls; therefore, it may be assumed that the sanitary risk associated with BERV sequences is not higher in

  8. Differential neutrophil gene expression in early bovine pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizaki Keiichiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In food production animals, especially cattle, the diagnosis of gestation is important because the timing of gestation directly affects the running of farms. Various methods have been used to detect gestation, but none of them are ideal because of problems with the timing of detection or the accuracy, simplicity, or cost of the method. A new method for detecting gestation, which involves assessing interferon-tau (IFNT-stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL, was recently proposed. PBL fractionation methods were used to examine whether the expression profiles of various PBL populations could be used as reliable diagnostic markers of bovine gestation. Methods PBL were collected on days 0 (just before artificial insemination, 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28 of gestation. The gene expression levels of the PBL were assessed with microarray analysis and/or quantitative real-time reverse transcription (q PCR. PBL fractions were collected by flow cytometry or density gradient cell separation using Histopaque 1083 or Ficoll-Conray solutions. The expression levels of four IFNT-stimulated genes, interferon-stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG15, myxovirus-resistance (MX 1 and 2, and 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1, were then analyzed in each fraction through day 28 of gestation using qPCR. Results Microarray analysis detected 72 and 28 genes in whole PBL that were significantly higher on days 14 and 21 of gestation, respectively, than on day 0. The upregulated genes included IFNT-stimulated genes. The expression levels of these genes increased with the progression of gestation until day 21. In flow cytometry experiments, on day 14 the expression levels of all of the genes were significantly higher in the granulocyte fraction than in the other fractions. Their expression gradually decreased through day 28 of gestation. Strong correlations were observed between the expression levels of the four genes in the granulocyte

  9. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and

  10. Anisotropy of bovine cortical bone tissue damage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, M E; Thurner, P J

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a heterogeneous, anisotropic natural composite material. Several studies have measured human cortical bone elastic properties in different anatomical directions and found that the Young's modulus was highest in the longitudinal, followed by the tangential and then by the radial direction. This study compared the Young's modulus, the accumulated microdamage and local strains related to the failure process in these three anatomical directions. Cortical bone samples (≈360 μm×360 μm) were mechanically tested in three-point bending and concomitantly imaged to assess local strains using digital image correlation technique. The bone whitening effect was used to detect microdamage formation and propagation. No statistically significant difference was found between the Young's modulus of longitudinal (9.4±2.0 GPa) and tangential (9.9±1.8 GPa) bovine bone samples, as opposed to previous findings on human bone samples. The same similarity was found for the whitening values (5000±1900 pix/mm(2) for longitudinal, 5800±2600 pix/mm(2) for tangential) and failure strains (16.8±7.0% for longitudinal, 19.1±3.2% for tangential) as well. However, significantly lower values were observed in the radial samples for Young's modulus (5.92±0.77 GPa), whitening (none or minimal) and failure strain (10.8±3.8%). For strains at whitening onset, no statistically significant difference was seen for the longitudinal (5.1±1.6%) and radial groups (4.2±2.0%), however, the tangential values were significantly greater (7.0±2.4%). The data implies that bovine cortical bone tissue in long bones is designed to withstand higher loads in the longitudinal and tangential directions than in the radial one. A possible explanation of the anisotropy in the mechanical parameters derived here might be the structure of the tissues in the three directions tested. PMID:23063771

  11. Replication of somatic micronuclei in bovine enucleated oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canel Natalia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT was developed to introduce a low number of chromosomes into a host cell. We have designed a novel technique combining part of MMCT with somatic cell nuclear transfer, which consists of injecting a somatic micronucleus into an enucleated oocyte, and inducing its cellular machinery to replicate such micronucleus. It would allow the isolation and manipulation of a single or a low number of somatic chromosomes. Methods Micronuclei from adult bovine fibroblasts were produced by incubation in 0.05 μg/ml demecolcine for 46 h followed by 2 mg/ml mitomycin for 2 h. Cells were finally treated with 10 μg/ml cytochalasin B for 1 h. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were mechanically enucleated and intracytoplasmatically injected with one somatic micronucleus, which had been previously exposed [Micronucleus- injected (+] or not [Micronucleus- injected (−] to a transgene (50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP during 5 min. Enucleated oocytes [Enucleated (+] and parthenogenetic [Parthenogenetic (+] controls were injected into the cytoplasm with less than 10 pl of PVP containing 50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP. A non-injected parthenogenetic control [Parthenogenetic (−] was also included. Two hours after injection, oocytes and reconstituted embryos were activated by incubation in 5 μM ionomycin for 4 min + 1.9 mM 6-DMAP for 3 h. Cleavage stage and egfp expression were evaluated. DNA replication was confirmed by DAPI staining. On day 2, Micronucleus- injected (−, Parthenogenetic (− and in vitro fertilized (IVF embryos were karyotyped. Differences among treatments were determined by Fisher′s exact test (p≤0.05. Results All the experimental groups underwent the first cell divisions. Interestingly, a low number of Micronucleus-injected embryos showed egfp expression. DAPI staining confirmed replication of micronuclei in most of the evaluated embryos. Karyotype analysis revealed that all Micronucleus-injected embryos had

  12. Inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  13. The inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, H D; Shannon, E E; Derbyshire, J B

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70 degrees C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  14. Involvement of GATA transcription factors in the regulation of endogenous bovine interferon-tau gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hanako; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Kim, Min-Su; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Nakajima, Hiromi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

    2009-12-01

    Expression of interferon-tau (IFNT), necessary for pregnancy establishment in ruminant ungulates, is regulated in a temporal and spatial manner. However, molecular mechanisms by which IFNT gene transcription is regulated in this manner have not been firmly established. In this study, DNA microarray/RT-PCR analysis between bovine trophoblast CT-1 and Mardin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells was initially performed, finding that transcription factors GATA2, GATA3, and GATA6 mRNAs were specific to CT-1 cells. These mRNAs were also found in Days 17, 20, and 22 (Day 0 = day of estrus) bovine conceptuses. In examining other bovine cell lines, ovary cumulus granulosa (oCG) and ear fibroblast (EF) cells, GATA2 and GATA3, but not GATA6, were found specific to the bovine trophoblast cells. In transient transfection analyses using the upstream region (-631 to +59 bp) of bovine IFNT gene (bIFNT, IFN-tau-c1), over-expression of GATA2/GATA3 did not affect the transcription of bIFNT-reporter construct in human choriocarcinoma JEG3 cells. Transfection of GATA2, GATA3, ETS2, and/or CDX2, however, was effective in the up-regulation of the bIFNT construct transfected into bovine oCG and EF cells. One Point mutation studies revealed that among six potential GATA binding sites located on the upstream region of the bIFNT gene, the one next to ETS2 site exhibited reduced luciferase activity. In CT-1 cells, endogenous bIFNT gene transcription was up-regulated by over-expression of GATA2 or GATA3, but down-regulated by siRNA specific to GATA2 mRNA. These data suggest that GATA2/3 is involved in trophoblast-specific regulation of bIFNT gene transcription. PMID:19598245

  15. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  16. Molecular Characterization and Transcriptional Regulation Analysis of the Bovine PDHB Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anning; Zhang, Yaran; Zhao, Zhidong; Wang, Mingming; Zan, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase beta subunit (PDHB) is a subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), which catalyzes pyruvate into acetyl-CoA and provides a linkage between the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and the glycolysis pathway. Previous studies demonstrated PDHB to be positively related to the intramuscular fat (IMF) content. However, the transcriptional regulation of PDHB remains unclear. In our present study, the cDNA of bovine PDHB was cloned and the genomic structure was analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed bovine PDHB to be closely related to goat and sheep, and least related to chicken. Spatial expression pattern analysis revealed the products of bovine PDHB to be widely expressed with the highest level in the fat of testis. To understand the transcriptional regulation of bovine PDHB, 1899 base pairs (bp) of the 5’-regulatory region was cloned. Sequence analysis neither found consensus TATA-box nor CCAAT-box in the 5’-flanking region of bovine PDHB. However, a CpG island was predicted from nucleotides -284 to +117. Serial deletion constructs of the 5’-flanking region, evaluated in dual-luciferase reporter assay, revealed the core promoter to be located 490bp upstream from the transcription initiation site (+1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) in combination with asite-directed mutation experiment indicated both myogenin (MYOG) and the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPß) to be important transcription factors for bovine PDHB in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes. Our results provide an important basis for further investigation of the bovine PDHB function and regulation in cattle. PMID:27379520

  17. Lineage associated expression of virulence traits in bovine-adapted Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Kathleen E; Mitchell, Jennifer; Keane, Orla M

    2016-06-30

    Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease to the dairy industry worldwide with Staphylococcus aureus commonly associated with intramammary infections that are persistent and refractory to treatment. The strains of S. aureus that cause mastitis predominantly belong to a number of well-described bovine-adapted lineages. The objective of this study was to determine if a variety of potential virulence traits were associated with lineage. Bovine-adapted S. aureus isolates (n=120), belonging to lineages CC97, CC151 and ST136, were tested for their ability to adhere to and internalise within cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC), to bind bovine fibronectin, to form a biofilm in TSB, TSB+1% glucose and TSB+4% NaCl, and to induce an immune response from bMEC. There were no significant differences between the lineages in ability to adhere to or internalise within bMEC although there were significant differences between individual isolates. For lineages CC97 and ST136, mammalian cell adherence was correlated with the ability to bind bovine fibronectin, however isolates from CC151 could not bind bovine fibronectin in vitro, but adhered to bMEC in a fibronectin-independent manner. There were significant differences between the lineages in ability to form a biofilm in all three growth media with ST136 forming the strongest biofilm while CC151 formed the weakest biofilm. Lineages also differed in their ability to elicit an immune response from bMEC with CC97 eliciting a stronger immune response than CC151 and ST136. These data indicate the potential for both lineage and strain-specific virulence and a strain-specific response to infection in vivo and caution against extrapolating an effect from a single strain of S. aureus to draw conclusions regarding virulence or the host response to infection in unrelated lineages. PMID:27259823

  18. Interactions between imazethapyr and bovine serum albumin: Spectrofluorimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between imazethapyr (IMA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The Stern–Volmer quenching constant (KSV) at three temperatures was evaluated in order to determine the quenching mechanism. The dependence of fluorescence quenching on viscosity was also evaluated for this purpose. The results showed that IMA quenches the fluorescence intensity of BSA through a static quenching process. The values of the binding constant for the formed BSA–IMA complex and the number of binding sites were found to be 1.51×105 M−1 and 0.77, respectively, at room temperature. Based on the calculated thermodynamic parameters, the forces that dominate the binding process are hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces, and the binding process is spontaneous and exothermic. The quenching of protein fluorescence by iodide ion was used to probe the accessibility of tryptophan residues in BSA and the change in accessibility induced by the presence of IMA. According to the obtained results, the BSA–IMA complex is formed in the site where the Trp-134 is located, causing it to become less exposed to the solvent. - Highlights: ► Fluorescence spectroscopy helps to understand protein binding mechanisms. ► Quenching measurements reveal the nature of the binding process involved. ► Iodine ion can be used to study the change in accessibility of tryptophan residues. ► Thermodynamic parameters for the binding reaction confirm binding modes.

  19. Genome-wide epigenetic alterations in cloned bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar, Gabriela Gebrin; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Forsberg, Erik J; First, Neal L; Bishop, Michael D; Eilertsen, Kenneth J

    2003-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of global methylation differences associated with development of nuclear transfer (NT)-generated cattle, we analyzed the genome-wide methylation status of spontaneously aborted cloned fetuses, cloned fetuses, and adult clones that were derived from transgenic and nontransgenic cumulus, genital ridge, and body cell lines. Cloned fetuses were recovered from ongoing normal pregnancies and were morphologically normal. Fetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI) were used as controls. In vitro fertilization (IVF) fetuses were compared with AI controls to assess effects of in vitro culture on the 5-methylcytosine content of fetal genomes. All of the fetuses were female. Skin biopsies were obtained from cloned and AI-generated adult cows. All of the adult clones were phenotypically normal and lactating and had no history of health or reproductive disorders. Genome-wide cytosine methylation levels were monitored by reverse-phase HPLC, and results indicated reduced levels of methylated cytosine in NT-generated fetuses. In contrast, no differences were observed between adult, lactating clones and similarly aged lactating cows produced by AI. These data imply that survivability of cloned cattle may be closely related to the global DNA methylation status. This is the first report to indicate that global methylation losses may contribute to the developmental failure of cloned bovine fetuses. PMID:12604655

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of methanogens from the bovine rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Robert J

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in methanogens from ruminants has resulted from the role of methane in global warming and from the fact that cattle typically lose 6 % of ingested energy as methane. Several species of methanogens have been isolated from ruminants. However they are difficult to culture, few have been consistently found in high numbers, and it is likely that major species of rumen methanogens are yet to be identified. Results Total DNA from clarified bovine rumen fluid was amplified using primers specific for Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of 41 rDNA sequences identified three clusters of methanogens. The largest cluster contained two distinct subclusters with rDNA sequences similar to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium 16S rDNA. A second cluster contained sequences related to 16S rDNA from Methanosphaera stadtmanae, an organism not previously described in the rumen. The third cluster contained rDNA sequences that may form a novel group of rumen methanogens. Conclusions The current set of 16S rRNA hybridization probes targeting methanogenic Archaea does not cover the phylogenetic diversity present in the rumen and possibly other gastro-intestinal tract environments. New probes and quantitative PCR assays are needed to determine the distribution of the newly identified methanogen clusters in rumen microbial communities.